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Sample records for cooling tower water

  1. Dry cooling tower with water augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ireland, R.G.; Tramontini, V.N.

    1981-06-23

    An air cooling tower system is disclosed for condensing exhaust steam in power plants, that has water cooling augmentation to maintain the plant cooling capacity during high atmospheric temperature periods. The cooling tower includes a plurality of banks of brazed aluminum plate and fin type heat exchangers arranged in inverted ''v'' shaped sets. These heat exchangers cool ammonia used as the cooling fluid in the primary condenser for the power plant turbine exhaust steam. Each of these heat exchangers has a core consisting of a plurality of parallel aluminum plates spaced apart by fin assemblies that define a plurality of fluid passes. Approximately every other one of these passes has closed sides that open at the ends of the core to headers and define ammonia passes. The passes adjacent the ammonia passes are open at the sides and define air passes that permit the free flow of air transversely through the heat exchanger cores. An additional pass is provided adjacent every fourth one of the ammonia passes and these have closed sides and ends and define the passes for the cooling water. The water passes communicate at the bottom of the core with a water inlet manifold and at the top of the core with a water outlet manifold. The cooling tower system is designed so that at 55 degrees fahrenheit air temperatures or below, the cooling air alone will provide the necessary cooling for the ammonia to satisfy plant requirements. Above 55 degrees fahrenheit air temperature, cooling water from a separate water tank is pumped through the water passes to provide an additional cooling effect to maintain the design cooling capacity.

  2. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  3. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

    2010-10-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  4. Free Cooling in the Water Cooling Towers: a Case Study for Istanbul, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇ, İbrahim; PARMAKSIZOGLU, Cem

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving in cooling towers which is used for cooling to the hot water can be significantly improved by using free cooling application. This application is commonly known economizer cycle and when outside conditions are suitable for cooling, it is used for. In this study, the free cooling is applied for the cold water necessity which is supplied by the chiller of the cooling tower in the factory which is available in Istanbul. The results show that the ...

  5. Cooling tower waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

    1998-05-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

  6. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  7. Ecological impact of chloro-organics produced by chlorination of cooling tower waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R L; Cumming, R B; Pitt, W W; Taylor, F G; Thompson, J E; Hartmann, S J

    1977-01-01

    Experimental results of the initial assessment of chlorine-containing compounds in the blowdown from cooling towers and the possible mutagenic activity of these compounds are reported. High-resolution liquid chromatographic separations were made on concentrates of the blowdown from the cooling tower at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and from the recirculating water system for the cooling towers at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The chromatograms of chlorinated cooling waters contained numerous uv-absorbing and cerate-oxidizable constituents that are now being processed through a multicomponent identification procedure. Concentrates of the chlorinated waters are also being examined for mutagenic activity.

  8. Mathematical model and calculation of water-cooling efficiency in a film-filled cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, A. G.; Lapteva, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    Different approaches to simulation of momentum, mass, and energy transfer in packed beds are considered. The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer in a wetted packed bed for turbulent gas flow and laminar wave counter flow of the fluid film in sprinkler units of a water-cooling tower is presented. The packed bed is represented as the set of equivalent channels with correction to twisting. The idea put forward by P. Kapitsa on representation of waves on the interphase film surface as elements of the surface roughness in interaction with the gas flow is used. The temperature and moisture content profiles are found from the solution of differential equations of heat and mass transfer written for the equivalent channel with the volume heat and mass source. The equations for calculation of the average coefficients of heat emission and mass exchange in regular and irregular beds with different contact elements, as well as the expression for calculation of the average turbulent exchange coefficient are presented. The given formulas determine these coefficients for the known hydraulic resistance of the packed bed element. The results of solution of the system of equations are presented, and the water temperature profiles are shown for different sprinkler units in industrial water-cooling towers. The comparison with experimental data on thermal efficiency of the cooling tower is made; this allows one to determine the temperature of the cooled water at the output. The technical solutions on increasing the cooling tower performance by equalization of the air velocity profile at the input and creation of an additional phase contact region using irregular elements "Inzhekhim" are considered.

  9. Heat transfer enhancement in a natural draft dry cooling tower under crosswind operation with heterogeneous water distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Mohsen; Amooie, Hossein [Bu-Ali Sina Univ., Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-04-15

    Crosswind significantly decreases cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower. The possibility of improving cooling efficiency with heterogeneous water distribution within the cooling tower radiators under crosswind condition is analysed. A CFD approach was used to model the flow field and heat transfer phenomena within the cooling tower and airflow surrounding the cooling tower. A mathematical model was developed from various CFD results. Having used a trained Genetic Algorithm with the result of mathematical model, the best water distribution was found among the others. Remodeling the best water distribution with the CFD approach showed that the highest enhancement of the heat transfer compared to the usual uniform water distribution.

  10. Simultaneous effects of water spray and crosswind on performance of natural draft dry cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadikia Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of water spray and crosswind on the effectiveness of the natural draft dry cooling tower (NDDCT, a three-dimensional model has been developed. Efficiency of NDDCT is improved by water spray system at the cooling tower entrance for high ambient temperature condition with and without crosswind. The natural and forced heat convection flow inside and around the NDDCT is simulated numerically by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations in both air and water droplet phases. Comparison of the numerical results with one-dimensional analytical model and the experimental data illustrates a well-predicted heat transfer rate in the cooling tower. Applying water spray system on the cooling tower radiators enhances the cooling tower efficiency at both no wind and windy conditions. For all values of water spraying rate, NDDCTs operate most effectively at the crosswind velocity of 3m/s and as the wind speed continues to rise to more than 3 m/s up to 12 m/s, the tower efficiency will decrease by approximately 18%, based on no-wind condition. The heat transfer rate of radiator at wind velocity 10 m/s is 11.5% lower than that of the no wind condition. This value is 7.5% for water spray rate of 50kg/s.

  11. Water vapour rises from the cooling towers for the ATLAS detector at Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    Electronics on the ATLAS detector produce heat when the experiment is running. An elaborate cooling system keeps the detector from overheating. On the surface, the warm water vapour that rises from the detector 100metres underground is clearly visible from the ATLAS cooling towers on the CERN Meyrin site in Switzerland.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Three Water Treatment Programs for Cooling Tower Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Gallic Acid Powder (item 2063) METHOD: It is necessary to follow the instructions furnished with the conductivity meter that is being used . The...the location and costs of AFLC towers. 2 Definition of Terms Terms commonly used in cooling tower water treatment. Acid : A substance that dissolves...the sulfuric acid program. This program is still indorsed by Air Force Regulation 91-40. System operators use sulfuric acid to lower the pH and

  13. INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ATMOSPHERIC COOLING TOWER USING FRESH AND SALTED WATER

    OpenAIRE

    A. Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Cooling towers are extensively used to evacuate large quantities of heat at modest temperatures through a change of phase of the flowing cooling fluid. Based on this classical principle, the present study investigates the influence of salty water on the heat exchange produced. For that purpose, experiments are carried out using fresh and salty water. Furthermore, a comparison with the results produced through an approach involving the solution of energy equation involving the flow...

  14. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  15. Water tower

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ATMOSPHERIC COOLING TOWER USING FRESH AND SALTED WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooling towers are extensively used to evacuate large quantities of heat at modest temperatures through a change of phase of the flowing cooling fluid. Based on this classical principle, the present study investigates the influence of salty water on the heat exchange produced. For that purpose, experiments are carried out using fresh and salty water. Furthermore, a comparison with the results produced through an approach involving the solution of energy equation involving the flow of air on an evaporating film of fluid. The detailed results show a preponderance of fresh water over the salty.

  17. 2004 Savannah River Cooling Tower Collection (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Alfred [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Parker, Matthew J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Villa-Aleman, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2005-05-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected ground truth in and around the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area cooling tower during the spring and summer of 2004. The ground truth data consisted of air temperatures and humidity inside and around the cooling tower, wind speed and direction, cooling water temperatures entering; inside adn leaving the cooling tower, cooling tower fan exhaust velocities and thermal images taken from helicopters. The F-Area cooling tower had six cells, some of which were operated with fans off during long periods of the collection. The operating status (fan on or off) for each of the six cells was derived from operations logbooks and added to the collection database. SRNL collected the F-Area cooling tower data to produce a database suitable for validation of a cooling tower model used by one of SRNL's customer agencies. SRNL considers the data to be accurate enough for use in a model validation effort. Also, the thermal images of the cooling tower decks and throats combined with the temperature measurements inside the tower provide valuable information about the appearance of cooling towers as a function of fan operating status and time of day.

  18. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant

  19. Ozone Treatment For Cooling Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwelder, Rick; Baldwin, Leroy V.; Feeney, Ellen S.

    1990-01-01

    Report presents results of study of cooling tower in which water treated with ozone instead of usual chemical agents. Bacteria and scale reduced without pollution and at low cost. Operating and maintenance costs with treatment about 30 percent of those of treatment by other chemicals. Corrosion rates no greater than with other chemicals. Advantage of ozone, even though poisonous, quickly detected by smell in very low concentrations.

  20. Effects of FLONLIZER, ultraviolet sterilizer, on Legionella species inhabiting cooling tower water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Urakami, I; Nakano, K; Ikedo, M; Yabuuchi, E

    1987-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila in sterile distilled water was not detected after ultraviolet irradiation by FLONLIZER, a new-type sterilizer, at a flow rate of 82.5 to 364.8 liters/hr. When irradiated by FLONLIZER at a flow rate of under 324.0 liters/hr, no viable cells of legionellae, other heterotrophic bacteria and bacterivorous protozoa were detected in the cooling tower water, which was found to contain L. pneumophila. No viable cells of L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii suspended in sterile distilled water were detected after the irradiation with UV-doses of over 6.16 X 10(3) micro W.sec/cm2. At the irradiation of low UV-doses under 1.06 X 10(4) micro W.sec/cm2, the viable count of legionellae recuperated by photoreactivation from UV-damage increased with the exposure time under a white fluorescent lamp. However, in the samples irradiated with UV-doses of over 3.52 X 10(4) micro W.sec/cm2, equal to the FLONLIZER, legionellae did not recuperate even after 18 hr illumination with a white fluorescent lamp. FLONLIZER is thus expected to act as a sterilizer which can control the legionellae inhabiting cooling tower systems placed in outdoor space.

  1. Molecular characterization of viable Legionella spp. in cooling tower water samples by combined use of ethidium monoazide and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Reiko; Agata, Kunio; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Viable Legionella spp. in environmental water samples were characterized phylogenetically by a clone library analysis combining the use of ethidium monoazide and quantitative PCR. To examine the diversity of Legionella spp., six cooling tower water samples and three bath water samples were collected and analyzed. A total of 617 clones were analyzed for their 16S rRNA gene sequences and classified into 99 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The majority of OTUs were not clustered with currently described Legionella spp., suggesting the wide diversity of not-yet-cultured Legionella groups harbored in cooling tower water environments.

  2. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  3. Application of a semi-spectral cloud water parameterization to cooling tower plumes simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzereau, Emmanuel; Musson Genon, Luc; Carissimo, Bertrand

    2008-10-01

    In order to simulate the plume produced by large natural draft cooling towers, a semi-spectral warm cloud parameterization has been implemented in an anelastic and non-hydrostatic 3D micro-scale meteorological code. The model results are compared to observations from a detailed field experiment carried out in 1980 at Bugey (location of an electrical nuclear power plant in the Rhône valley in East Central France) including airborne dynamical and microphysical measurements. Although we observe a slight overestimation of the liquid-water content, the results are satisfactory for all the 15 different cases simulated, which include different meteorological conditions ranging from low wind speed and convective conditions in clear sky to high wind and very cloudy. Such parameterization, which includes semi-spectral determination for droplet spectra, seems to be promising to describe plume interaction with atmosphere especially for aerosols and cloud droplets.

  4. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-01

    Cooling towers are an integral component of many refrigeration systems, providing comfort or process cooling across a broad range of applications. Cooling towers represent the point in a cooling system where heat is dissipated to the atmosphere through evaporation. Cooling towers are commonly used in industrial applications and in large commercial buildings to release waste heat extracted from a process or building system through evaporation of water.

  5. Technology to Facilitate the Use of Impaired Waters in Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colborn, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The project goal was to develop an effective silica removal technology and couple that with existing electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) technology to achieve a cost effective treatment for impaired waters to allow for their use in the cooling towers of coal fired power plants. A quantitative target of the program was a 50% reduction in the fresh water withdrawal at a levelized cost of water of $3.90/Kgal. Over the course of the program, a new molybdenum-modified alumina was developed that significantly outperforms existing alumina materials in silica removal both kinetically and thermodynamically. The Langmuir capacity is 0.11g silica/g adsorbent. Moreover, a low cost recycle/regeneration process was discovered to allow for multiple recycles with minimal loss in activity. On the lab scale, five runs were carried out with no drop in performance between the second and fifth run in ability to absorb the silica from water. The Mo-modified alumina was successfully prepared on a multiple kilogram scale and a bench scale model column was used to remove 100 ppm of silica from 400 liters of simulated impaired water. Significant water savings would result from such a process and the regeneration process could be further optimized to reduce water requirements. Current barriers to implementation are the base cost of the adsorbent material and the fine powder form that would lead to back pressure on a large column. If mesoporous materials become more commonly used in other areas and the price drops from volume and process improvements, then our material would also lower in price because the amount of molybdenum needed is low and no additional processing is required. There may well be engineering solutions to the fine powder issue; in a simple concept experiment, we were able to pelletize our material with Boehmite, but lost performance due to a dramatic decrease in surface area.

  6. IMPROVEMENT OF SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL WATER SUPPLY WITH COOLING TOWERS FOR HEAT POWER PLANTS TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS PERFECTION. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Olpinskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of calculation of economic efficiency that can be universal and is suitable for feasibility study of modernization of irrigation and water distribution system of cooling towers has been developed. The method takes into account the effect of lower pressure exhaust steam in the condenser by lowering the temperature of the cooling water outlet of a cooling tower that aims at improvement of technical and economic indicators of heat power plants. The practical results of the modernization of irrigation and water distribution system of a cooling tower are presented. As a result, the application of new irrigation and water distribution systems of cooling towers will make it possible to increase the cooling efficiency by more than 4 оС and, therefore, to obtain the fuel savings by improving the vacuum in the turbine condensers. In addition, the available capacity of CHP in the summer period is increased. The results of the work, the experience of modernization of irrigation and water distribution systems of the Gomel CHP-2 cooling towers system, as well as the and methods of calculating of its efficiency can be disseminated for upgrading similar facilities at the power plants of the Belarusian energy system. Some measures are prosed to improve recycling systems, cooling towers and their structures; such measures might significantly improve the reliability and efficiency of technical water supply systems of heat power plants.

  7. AUTOMATED DEAD-END ULTRAFILTRATION FOR ENHANCED SURVEILLANCE OF LEGIONELLA 2 PNEUMOPHILA AND LEGIONELLA SPP. IN COOLING TOWER WATERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.; Leskinen, S.; Kearns, E.; Jones, W.; Miller, R.; Betivas, C.; Kingsley, M.; Lim, D.

    2011-10-10

    Detection of Legionella pneumophila in cooling towers and domestic hot water systems involves concentration by centrifugation or membrane filtration prior to inoculation onto growth media or analysis using techniques such as PCR or immunoassays. The Portable Multi-use Automated Concentration System (PMACS) was designed for concentrating microorganisms from large volumes of water in the field and was assessed for enhancing surveillance of L. pneumophila at the Savannah River Site, SC. PMACS samples (100 L; n = 28) were collected from six towers between August 2010 and April 2011 with grab samples (500 ml; n = 56) being collected before and after each PMACS sample. All samples were analyzed for the presence of L. pneumophila by direct fluorescence immunoassay (DFA) using FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies targeting serogroups 1, 2, 4 and 6. QPCR was utilized for detection of Legionella spp. in the same samples. Counts of L. pneumophila from DFA and of Legionella spp. from qPCR were normalized to cells/L tower water. Concentrations were similar between grab and PMACS samples collected throughout the study by DFA analysis (P = 0.4461; repeated measures ANOVA). The same trend was observed with qPCR. However, PMACS concentration proved advantageous over membrane filtration by providing larger volume, more representative samples of the cooling tower environment, which led to reduced variability among sampling events and increasing the probability of detection of low level targets. These data highlight the utility of the PMACS for enhanced surveillance of L. pneumophila by providing improved sampling of the cooling tower environment.

  8. Legionella detection and subgrouping in water air-conditioning cooling tower systems in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Matawah, Qadreyah; Al-Zenki, Sameer; Al-Azmi, Ahmad; Al-Waalan, Tahani; Al-Salameen, Fadila; Hejji, Ahmad Ben

    2015-07-01

    The main aim of the study was to test for the presence of Legionnaires' disease-causing microorganisms in air-conditioned buildings in Kuwait using molecular technologies. For this purpose, 547 samples were collected from 38 cooling towers for the analysis of Legionella pneumophila. These samples included those from water (n = 178), air (n = 231), and swabs (n = 138). Out of the 547 samples, 226 (41%) samples were presumptive positive for L. pneumophila, with L. pneumophila viable counts in the positive water samples ranging from 1 to 88 CFU/ml. Of the Legionella culture-positive samples, 204 isolates were examined by latex agglutination. These isolates were predominately identified as L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 2-14. Using the Dresden panel of monoclonal antibodies, 74 representatives isolates were further serogrouped. Results showed that 51% of the isolates belonged to serogroup 7 followed by 1 (18%) and 3 (18%). Serogroups 4 (4%) and 10 (7%) were isolated at a lower frequency, and two isolates could not be assigned to a serogroup. These results indicate the wide prevalence of L. pneumophila serogroup 7 as the predominant serogroup at the selected sampling sites. Furthermore, the 74 L. pneumophila (sg1 = 13; sg3 = 13; sg4 = 3; sg7 = 38; sg10 = 5; sgX = 2) isolates were genotyped using the seven gene protocol sequence-based typing (SBT) scheme developed by the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI). The results show that Legionella isolates were discriminated into nine distinct sequence typing (ST) profiles, five of which were new to the SBT database of EWGLI. Additionally, all of the ST1 serogroup 1 isolates were of the OLDA/Oxford subgroup. These baseline data will form the basis for the development of a Legionella environmental surveillance program and used for future epidemiological investigations.

  9. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Alfred Garrett, A; James02 Bollinger, J; Larry Koffman, L

    2009-02-10

    Industrial processes use mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT's) to dissipate waste heat by transferring heat from water to air via evaporative cooling, which causes air humidification. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has cross-flow and counter-current MDCT's consisting of four independent compartments called cells. Each cell has its own fan to help maximize heat transfer between ambient air and circulated water. The primary objective of the work is to simulate the cooling tower performance for the counter-current cooling tower and to conduct a parametric study under different fan speeds and ambient air conditions. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and performed the benchmarking analysis against the integral measurement results to accomplish the objective. The model uses three-dimensional steady-state momentum, continuity equations, air-vapor species balance equation, and two-equation turbulence as the basic governing equations. It was assumed that vapor phase is always transported by the continuous air phase with no slip velocity. In this case, water droplet component was considered as discrete phase for the interfacial heat and mass transfer via Lagrangian approach. Thus, the air-vapor mixture model with discrete water droplet phase is used for the analysis. A series of parametric calculations was performed to investigate the impact of wind speeds and ambient conditions on the thermal performance of the cooling tower when fans were operating and when they were turned off. The model was also benchmarked against the literature data and the SRS integral test results for key parameters such as air temperature and humidity at the tower exit and water temperature for given ambient conditions. Detailed results will be published here.

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL WATER SUPPLY WITH COOLING TOWERS FOR STEAM POWER PLANTS TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS PERFECTION. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Olpinskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the temperature of cooling water and increase the efficiency of use of power resources the main directions of modernization of systems of technical water supply with cooling towers at steam power plants are presented. The problems of operation of irrigation systems and water distribution systems of cooling towers are reviewed. The design of heat and mass transfer devices, their shortcomings and the impact on the cooling ability of the cooling tower are also under analysis. The use of droplet heat and mass transfer device based on the lattice polypropylene virtually eliminates the shortcomings of the film and droplet-film heat and mass transfer devices of the cooling tower, increasing lifetime, and improving the reliability and efficiency of the operation of the main equipment of thermal power plants. The design of the water distribution devices of cooling towers is also considered. It is noted that the most effective are water-spattering low-pressure nozzles made of polypropylene that provides uniform dispersion of water and are of a high reliability and durability.

  11. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  12. Comparison of plate counts, Petrifilm, dipslides, and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence for monitoring bacteria in cooling-tower waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A; Anderson, James E; Kim, Byung R; Ball, James C

    2009-04-01

    Effective bacterial control in cooling-tower systems requires accurate and timely methods to count bacteria. Plate-count methods are difficult to implement on-site, because they are time- and labor-intensive and require sterile techniques. Several field-applicable methods (dipslides, Petrifilm, and adenosine triphosphate [ATP] bioluminescence) were compared with the plate count for two sample matrices--phosphate-buffered saline solution containing a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens and cooling-tower water containing an undefined mixed bacterial culture. For the pure culture, (1) counts determined on nutrient agar and plate-count agar (PCA) media and expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter were equivalent to those on R2A medium (p = 1.0 and p = 1.0, respectively); (2) Petrifilm counts were not significantly different from R2A plate counts (p = 0.99); (3) the dipslide counts were up to 2 log units higher than R2A plate counts, but this discrepancy was not statistically significant (p = 0.06); and (4) a discernable correlation (r2 = 0.67) existed between ATP readings and plate counts. For cooling-tower water samples (n = 62), (1) bacterial counts using R2A medium were higher (but not significant; p = 0.63) than nutrient agar and significantly higher than tryptone-glucose yeast extract (TGE; p = 0.03) and PCA (p ATP readings and plate counts varied from system to system, was poor (r2 values ranged from ATP method was not sufficiently sensitive to measure counts below approximately 10(4) CFU/mL.

  13. Legionella species isolated from cooling towers in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeow, Y F; Tan, C H; Lim, S Y

    1992-03-01

    Three building complexes in Kuala Lumpur were surveyed for the presence of legionellae in cooling towers. The organisms were grown from 12 out of 46 samples of water collected from 30 towers. L. pneumophila serogroups 1 and 7 were the commonest serogroups isolated. None belonged to the Pontiac subgroup of L. pneumophila serogroup 1.

  14. A descaling treatment for aerated water, especially in cooling towers; Procede de traitement antitartre d`eau aeree, notamment dans les refrigerants atmospheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delemont, F.; Mureau, P.

    1996-04-26

    Carbon dioxide is injected into the water aerating air, for example in the water flowing in a cooling tower; the dissolved carbon dioxide prevents scaling to take place on the heat exchange surfaces or leads to the dissolution of the deposited scale. This system has the advantage to avoid any acid use and thus polluting effluents. 2 refs.

  15. Distribution of sequence-based types of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains isolated from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tian; Zhou, Haijian; Ren, Hongyu; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Zhu, Bingqing; Shao, Zhujun

    2014-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD], 0.711), 19 STs (IOD, 0.934), and 3 STs (IOD, 0.151), respectively. The genetic variation among the potable water isolates was lower than that among cooling tower and hot spring isolates. ST1 was the predominant type, accounting for 49.4% of analyzed strains (n = 81), followed by ST154. With the exception of two strains, all potable water isolates (92.3%) belonged to ST1. In contrast, 53.1% (51/96) and only 14.3% (6/42) of cooling tower and hot spring, respectively, isolates belonged to ST1. There were differences in the distributions of clone groups among the water sources. The comparisons among L. pneumophila strains isolated in China, Japan, and South Korea revealed that similar clones (ST1 complex and ST154 complex) exist in these countries. In conclusion, in China, STs had several unique allelic profiles, and ST1 was the most prevalent sequence type of environmental L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates, similar to its prevalence in Japan and South Korea.

  16. Statistics Analysis Measures Painting of Cooling Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zacharopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the cooling tower of Megalopolis (construction 1975 and protection from corrosive environment. The maintenance of the cooling tower took place in 2008. The cooling tower was badly damaged from corrosion of reinforcement. The parabolic cooling towers (factory of electrical power are a typical example of construction, which has a special aggressive environment. The protection of cooling towers is usually achieved through organic coatings. Because of the different environmental impacts on the internal and external side of the cooling tower, a different system of paint application is required. The present study refers to the damages caused by corrosion process. The corrosive environments, the application of this painting, the quality control process, the measures and statistics analysis, and the results were discussed in this study. In the process of quality control the following measurements were taken into consideration: (1 examination of the adhesion with the cross-cut test, (2 examination of the film thickness, and (3 controlling of the pull-off resistance for concrete substrates and paintings. Finally, this study refers to the correlations of measurements, analysis of failures in relation to the quality of repair, and rehabilitation of the cooling tower. Also this study made a first attempt to apply the specific corrosion inhibitors in such a large structure.

  17. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former.

  18. Energy and exergy analysis of counter flow wet cooling towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Mani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooling tower is an open system direct contact heat exchanger, where it cools water by both convection and evaporation. In this paper, a mathematical model based on heat and mass transfer principle is developed to find the outlet condition of water and air. The model is solved using iterative method. Energy and exergy analysis infers that inlet air wet bulb temperature is found to be the most important parameter than inlet water temperature and also variation in dead state properties does not affect the performance of wet cooling tower. .

  19. The necessity of Energy-Saving Reconstruct of Circulating Water Cooling Tower%循环水冷却塔节能改造必要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the traditional cooling tower motor reducer drive and newly developed energy-saving water power during the 12th Five Year Plan Period. Taking the circulating water cooling tower transformation technology of Guixi smelter for exam-ple, the cooling tower fan rotating was driven by water power machine instead of the motor, coupling and reducer in traditional cooling tower. Thus, the equipment investment and electricity load were reduced to realize the energy-saving effect.%介绍传统冷却塔电机减速机传动和十二五期间新研发的节能水能机,并以贵溪冶炼厂循环水冷却塔改造技术为例,即将冷却塔由水能机驱动风机旋转,代替传统冷却塔中的电机、联轴器、减速机,以减少设备投入,降低用电负荷,达到预期节能效果。

  20. Simple model of a cooling tower plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Cizek; Jiri, Nozicka

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses the possibilities in the area of modeling of the so called cooling tower plume emergent at operating evaporating cooling systems. As opposed to recent publication, this text focuses on the possibilities of a simplified analytic description of the whole problem where this description shall - in the future - form the base of a calculation algorithms enabling to simulate the efficiency of systems reducing this cooling tower plume. The procedure is based on the application of basic formula for the calculation of the velocity and concentration fields in the area above the cooling tower. These calculation is then used to determine the form and the total volume of the plume. Although this approach does not offer more exact results, it can provide a basic understanding of the impact of individual quantities relating to this problem.

  1. Effects of biocidal treatments to inhibit the growth of legionellae and other microorganisms in cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Ezaki, T; Ikedo, M; Yabuuchi, E

    1991-01-01

    The effects of biocidal treatments for cooling towers were examined through the use of chemicals and ultraviolet irradiation to inhibit the growth of legionellae and other microorganisms. In the water of cooling towers without continuous biocidal treatments, heterotrophic bacteria and bacterivorous protozoan first appeared, and then legionellae increased up to 10(4) CFU/100 ml. When a UV sterilizer was connected to the cooling tower, the legionellae count was 1/10 or 1/100 of that in the nontreated tower water. In the water of towers supplemented continuously with the biocidal chemicals, legionellae were not found during a 4-month period. The biocidal treatments tested were proved to suppress the increase of legionellae in cooling-tower water, and thus are useful in preventing the outbreak of legionellosis due to inhalation of contaminated aerosol from the cooling tower system.

  2. Reducing the risk of Legionnaires' disease associated with cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freije, M.R. [HC Information Resources Inc., Carlsbad, CA (United States)

    2008-08-15

    To reduce the health and legal risks associated with Legionnaires' disease, facility managers should take steps to minimize Legionella bacteria in plumbing systems, open industrial equipment, water features, cooling towers, and other aerosolizing water systems. The risk of Legionnaires' disease associated with cooling towers can be reduced by controlling Legionella bacteria in cooling water and preventing transmission of the bacteria from towers to people. This paper presents nine reasonable ways to accomplish these goals. (orig.)

  3. 冷却塔风机水轮机拖动改造%Transformation of Water Turbine to Drive Cooling Tower Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾祥松

    2016-01-01

    The throttling loss in circulative water system was studied and analyzed. Us-ing water turbine to replace motor by utilizing surplus water head in circulating water system to drive water turbine and in turn the cooling tower fan, achieving energy saving goal.%对循环水系统的节流损失进行了研究分析.利用循环水系统中的富余水头,推动水轮机转动,驱动冷却塔风机转动.从而由水轮机取代电机,达到节能目的.

  4. Energy saving modification for cooling tower by using water turbine%利用水轮机对冷却塔进行节能改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文祥

    2015-01-01

    This paper explains the energy saving principles and advantages of electric fan of large scale cooling tower,and introduces the design procedure,modification project,data calculation and analysis,and energy saving calculation as well as static payback time of mixed flow water turbine special for cooling tower instead of motor. After modification,energy-saving purpose is achieved.%阐述了大型冷却塔电动风机节能改造的原理和优点,介绍了以冷却塔专用混流式水轮机取代电机的设计过程、改造工程、数据计算及分析、节能计算、静态投资回收期等,改造后达到了节能目的。

  5. Water and chemical savings in cooling towers by using membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, van B.; Wal, van der A.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a water desalination technology based on applying a voltage difference between two oppositely placed porous carbon electrodes. In front of each electrode, an ion exchange membrane is positioned, and between them, a spacer is situated, which transports the w

  6. Indiana State University Graduates to Advanced Plastic Cooling Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Perhaps more than many other industries, today's universities and colleges are beset by dramatically rising costs on every front. One of the areas where overhead can be contained or reduced is in the operation of the chilled water systems that support air conditioning throughout college campuses, specifically the cooling towers. Like many…

  7. Analytical Assessment of Environmental Impact for APR1400DC UHS Cooling Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaiho [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Hot process water is pumped from the plant process to the cooling towers. Heat is rejected through evaporation of the process water, interacting with ambient air blown upward by fans.. Plumes generated from exit ports of the cooling tower may have adverse effects on the environment, such as deposition of cooling tower drift release, fogging, icing, shadowing, and ground-level temperature and humidity increase. These kinds of environmental impact of the cooling tower are linked closely with the dispersion of the cooling tower plumes. In this respect, predicting the behavior of the plumes has become one of the most important issues in the environmental assessments of the cooling towers. The SACTI (seasonal/annual cooling tower impact) model is an analytical tool to predict the environmental effect of cooling tower, which was developed by Argonne National Laboratory and University of Illinois with support from EPRI (electric power research institute). The initial version of SACTI has been widely used to assess the environmental effect of cooling towers in many industrial fields such as steam power plants and NPPs. Guo et. al. investigated impact of heat rejection and cooling tower height on plume dispersion using the SACTI model, for the purpose of the future construction of inland NPPs. They found that increasing cooling tower height decreases the plume length and height frequencies. Their simulation results showed that the increase in heat rejection increases the plum radius frequency. The APR1400DC is an advanced light water reactor developed for the purpose of NRC-DC (design certification). The cooling towers for APR1400DC UHS consist of two linear mechanical draft cooling towers (LMDCTs). The LMDCT for APR1400DC UHS is conceptually designed because the plant site has not been decided yet. In the present study, the dependency of plume dispersion on the number of cooling towers is investigated using SACTI-2-beta, for predicting annual environmental effect of APR

  8. European dry cooling tower operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, J.G.; Simhan, K.

    1976-03-01

    Interviews were held with representatives of major plants and equipment manufacturers to obtain current information on operating experience with dry cooling towers in Europe. The report documents the objectives, background, and organizational details of the study, and presents an itemized account of contacts made to obtain information. Plant selection was based on a merit index involving thermal capacity and length of service. A questionnaire was used to organize operational data, when available, into nine major categories of experience. Information was also solicited concerning the use of codes and standards to ensure the achievement of cooling tower performance. Several plant operators provided finned-tube samples for metallographic analysis. Additionally, information on both operating experience and developing technology was supplied by European technical societies and research establishments. Information obtained from these contacts provides an updated and representative sample of European experience with dry cooling towers, which supplements some of the detailed reviews already available in the literature. In addition, the study presents categorized operating experience with installations which have not been reviewed so extensively, but nevertheless, have significant operational histories when ranked by the merit index. The contacts and interviews reported in the survey occurred between late March and October 1975. The study was motivated by the expressed interest of U.S. utility industry representatives who expect European experience to provide a basis of confidence that dry cooling is a reliable technology, applicable when necessary, to U.S. operating requirements.

  9. Disaster Management for Cooling Tower- Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Deshmukh Azhar A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooling towers are prone to numerous disasters that can arise naturally or through human intervention. The safety of cooling towers becomes utmost importance for the plants to function properly. The study focused on identification of various disasters and the risks associated with them. The disasters can be earthquake, volcanoes, storm, extreme temperature, fire incident, terror attack, hazardous material leakage etc. The impact and vulnerability analysis of these disasters is conducted to find the associated risks properly. Mitigating risks is as important as identifying them. The two most important risks identified are Design Risk and Bacterial Risk. The preparedness to these risks helps in mitigating them. A probabilistic catastrophic risk model has been identified which performs a cost benefit analysis for mitigating the risks

  10. Counter flow induced draft cooling tower option for supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pidaparti, Sandeep R., E-mail: sandeep.pidaparti@gmail.com [Georgia Institute of Technology, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Moisseytsev, Anton; Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ranjan, Devesh, E-mail: devesh.ranjan@me.gatech.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A code was developed to investigate the various aspects of using cooling tower for S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles. • Cooling tower option to reject heat is quantitatively compared to the direct water cooling and dry air cooling options. • Optimum water conditions resulting in minimal plant capital cost per unit power consumption are calculated. - Abstract: A simplified qualitative analysis was performed to investigate the possibility of using counter flow induced draft cooling tower option to reject heat from the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for advanced fast reactor (AFR)-100 and advanced burner reactor (ABR)-1000 plants. A code was developed to estimate the tower dimensions, power and water consumption, and to perform economic analysis. The code developed was verified against a vendor provided quotation and is used to understand the effect of ambient air and water conditions on the design of cooling tower. The calculations indicated that there exists optimum water conditions for given ambient air conditions which will result in minimum power consumption, thereby increasing the cycle efficiency. A cost-based optimization technique is used to estimate the optimum water conditions which will improve the overall plant economics. A comparison of different cooling options for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle indicated that the cooling tower option is a much more practical and economical option compared to the dry air cooling or direct water cooling options.

  11. Analysis of the evaporative towers cooling system of a coal-fired power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laković Mirjana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling system of a 110 MW coal-fired power plant located in central Serbia, where eight evaporative towers cool down the plant. An updated research on the evaporative tower cooling system has been carried out to show the theoretical analysis of the tower heat and mass balance, taking into account the sensible and latent heat exchanged during the processes which occur inside these towers. Power plants which are using wet cooling towers for cooling condenser cooling water have higher design temperature of cooling water, thus the designed condensing pressure is higher compared to plants with a once-through cooling system. Daily and seasonal changes further deteriorate energy efficiency of these plants, so it can be concluded that these plants have up to 5% less efficiency compared to systems with once-through cooling. The whole analysis permitted to evaluate the optimal conditions, as far as the operation of the towers is concerned, and to suggest an improvement of the plant. Since plant energy efficiency improvement has become a quite common issue today, the evaluation of the cooling system operation was conducted under the hypothesis of an increase in the plant overall energy efficiency due to low cost improvement in cooling tower system.

  12. An Analysis Method of Cooling Tower Supplemental Water Cost%冷却塔补水成本的一种分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐毅

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposes the idea of converting the cooling tower supplement water of central air conditioning system to the corresponding electricity energy cost , as well as the concept of electrical equivalent price in water sup-plement cost.According to research , it is found that the water prices among different cities in China are quite dis-tinct, which suggests that the operation cost of cooling tower needs to be fully considered in air conditioning system selection.%本文提出了将集中空调系统冷却塔补水量换算成同等电费的电量来参与空调系统运行能耗成本计算的思路,提出了水的电当量概念。通过对比全国部分城市的水价,发现各城市之间水价差异大,认为在选择空调方案时,应充分重视冷却塔补水的运行成本。

  13. The use of an electrical-fluid dynamic parameter in cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirena, J.A. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas

    1999-11-01

    An Electrical-Fluid Dynamic quality parameter is defined for a mechanical draft type cooling tower. It allows to evaluate the efficiency of the transformation of the electrical power input into kinetic energy of the air flow. It could also be used to calculate the active electrical power of the tower at different working conditions. Results obtained through tests in a small counterflow water cooling tower are shown.

  14. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW FIELDS IN A NATURAL DRAFT WET-COOLING TOWER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The flow field in the hyperbolic natural draft wet-cooling tower, which has great effects on the economy and security of power plant, was studied through numerical simulation. The mathematical model was established and analyzed in order to optimize the cooling-tower and to evaluate its efficiency. Various working conditions were considered and compared with each other, such as the circulating water flux, air temperature and tower resistance. It is concluded that when the cooling-tower runs without wind, there is a vacuum region inside the tower and the pressure rises with the increase of the tower height. Meanwhile, the inner flow field is axisymmetrical. The air velocity achieves its climax at the axis. It is also found that the effect of circulating water temperature is equivalent to that of the water flux.

  15. CFD MODELING ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Alfred Garrett, A; James02 Bollinger, J; Larry Koffman, L

    2008-03-03

    Industrial processes use mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT's) to dissipate waste heat by transferring heat from water to air via evaporative cooling, which causes air humidification. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has a MDCT consisting of four independent compartments called cells. Each cell has its own fan to help maximize heat transfer between ambient air and circulated water. The primary objective of the work is to conduct a parametric study for cooling tower performance under different fan speeds and ambient air conditions. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to achieve the objective. The model uses three-dimensional steady-state momentum, continuity equations, air-vapor species balance equation, and two-equation turbulence as the basic governing equations. It was assumed that vapor phase is always transported by the continuous air phase with no slip velocity. In this case, water droplet component was considered as discrete phase for the interfacial heat and mass transfer via Lagrangian approach. Thus, the air-vapor mixture model with discrete water droplet phase is used for the analysis. A series of the modeling calculations was performed to investigate the impact of ambient and operating conditions on the thermal performance of the cooling tower when fans were operating and when they were turned off. The model was benchmarked against the literature data and the SRS test results for key parameters such as air temperature and humidity at the tower exit and water temperature for given ambient conditions. Detailed results will be presented here.

  16. Effect of chlorine and temperature on free-living protozoa in operational man-made water systems (cooling towers and hot sanitary water systems) in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Oriol; Serrano-Suárez, Alejandra; Salvadó, Humbert; Méndez, Javier; Cervero-Aragó, Sílvia; Ruiz de Porras, Vicenç; Dellundé, Jordi; Araujo, Rosa

    2015-05-01

    In recent decades, free-living protozoa (FLP) have gained prominence as the focus of research studies due to their pathogenicity to humans and their close relationship with the survival and growth of pathogenic amoeba-resisting bacteria. In the present work, we studied the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems, i.e. cooling towers (CT) and hot sanitary water systems (HSWS), related to a high risk of Legionella spp. outbreaks, as well as the effect of the biocides used, i.e. chlorine in CT and high temperature in HSWS, on FLP. In CT samples, high-chlorine concentrations (7.5 ± 1.5 mg chlorine L(-1)) reduced the presence of FLP by 63.8 % compared to samples with low-chlorine concentrations (0.04 ± 0.08 mg chlorine L(-1)). Flagellates and amoebae were observed in samples collected with a level of 8 mg chlorine L(-1), which would indicate that some FLP, including the free-living amoeba (FLA) Acanthamoeba spp., are resistant to the discontinuous chlorine disinfection method used in the CT studied. Regarding HSWS samples, the amount of FLP detected in high-temperatures samples (53.1 ± 5.7 °C) was 38 % lower than in low-temperature samples (27.8 ± 5.8 °C). The effect of high temperature on FLP was chiefly observed in the results obtained by the culture method, in which there was a clear reduction in the presence of FLP at temperatures higher than 50 °C, but not in those obtained by PCR. The findings presented here show that the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems should be taken into account in future regulations.

  17. Operational cooling tower model (CTTOOL V1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); LocalDomainServers, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garrett, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT’s) are widely used to remove waste heat from industrial processes, including suspected proliferators of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The temperature of the air being exhausted from the MDCT is proportional to the amount of thermal energy being removed from the process cooling water, although ambient weather conditions and cooling water flow rate must be known or estimated to calculate the rate of thermal energy dissipation (Q). It is theoretically possible to derive MDCT air exhaust temperatures from thermal images taken from a remote sensor. A numerical model of a MDCT is required to translate the air exhaust temperature to a Q. This report describes the MDCT model developed by the Problem Centered Integrated Analysis (PCIA) program that was designed to perform those computational tasks. The PCIA program is a collaborative effort between the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the Northrop-Grumman Corporation (NG) and the Aerospace Corporation (AERO).

  18. Effect of solar radiation on the performance of cross flow wet cooling tower in hot climate of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banooni, Salem; Chitsazan, Ali

    2016-11-01

    In some cities such as Ahvaz-Iran, the solar radiation is very high and the annual-mean-daily of the global solar radiation is about 17.33 MJ m2 d-1. Solar radiation as an external heat source seems to affect the thermal performance of the cooling towers. Usually, in modeling cooling tower, the effects of solar radiation are ignored. To investigate the effect of sunshade on the performance and modeling of the cooling tower, the experiments were conducted in two different states, cooling towers with and without sunshade. In this study, the Merkel's approach and finite difference technique are used to predict the thermal behavior of cross flow wet cooling tower without sunshade and the results are compared with the data obtained from the cooling towers with and without sunshade. Results showed that the sunshade is very efficient and it reduced the outlet water temperature, the approach and the water exergy of the cooling tower up to 1.2 °C, 15 and 1.1 %, respectively and increased the range and the efficiency of the cooling tower up to 29 and 37 %, respectively. Also, the sunshade decreased the error between the experimental data of the cooling tower with sunshade and the modeling results of the cooling tower without sunshade 1.85 % in average.

  19. 采用风机盘管的办公建筑冷却塔供冷温度计算与分析%Analysis and Calculation of the cold Water Supply Temperature of Free Cooling by Cooling Tower in the Office Building with Fan Coil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺江波

    2014-01-01

    选取办公建筑内的一个计算单元为分析对象,建立了办公建筑的冷却塔供冷温度计算模型,分析了室内冷却塔供冷工况下冷源侧供冷温度的影响因素,提出了办公建筑冷却塔供冷系统运行的适宜运行工况。%Selected an calculation unit in the office building for analysis, Setup an calculation model for the cold water supply temperature of free cooling by cooling tower , analysis the influence factor of the cooling tower side to the old water supply temperature, proposed an suitable working condition for the free cooling by cooling tower.

  20. Fire behaviour of cooling tower packing; Brandverhalten von Kuehlturmeinbauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattausch, Tim [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Dortmund (Germany). Fachstelle fuer Brandschutz

    2013-10-01

    The rapid burning down of the cooling tower of the shutdown power plant in Schwandorf revealed the potential of a total loss of a cooling tower in case of fire. VGB ordered a research project in order to obtain more knowledge about the fire risk of cooling tower packing currently applied. Depending on kind and age of the plastics used, the results of these tests manifest a big variation of the fire behaviour. For the applications of plastics, it is essential to determine and to adhere to organisational fire protection measures. (orig.)

  1. Coupling model and solving approach for performance evaluation of natural draft counter-flow wet cooling towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When searching for the optimum condenser cooling water flow in a thermal power plant with natural draft cooling towers, it is essential to evaluate the outlet water temperature of cooling towers when the cooling water flow and inlet water temperature change. However, the air outlet temperature and tower draft or inlet air velocity are strongly coupled for natural draft cooling towers. Traditional methods, such as trial and error method, graphic method and iterative methods are not simple and efficient enough to be used for plant practice. In this paper, we combine Merkel equation with draft equation, and develop the coupled description for performance evaluation of natural draft cooling towers. This model contains two inputs: the cooling water flow, the inlet cooling water temperature and two outputs: the outlet water temperature, the inlet air velocity, equivalent to tower draft. In this model, we furthermore put forward a soft-sensing algorithm to calculate the total drag coefficient instead of empirical correlations. Finally, we design an iterative approach to solve this coupling model, and illustrate three cases to prove that the coupling model and solving approach proposed in our paper are effective for cooling tower performance evaluation.

  2. Structural engineering developments in power plant cooling tower construction. 100 years of natural draught cooling towers - from tower cooler to cooling tower. Bautechnische Entwicklungen im Kraftwerkskuehlturmbau. 100 Jahre Naturzugkuehltuerme - vom Kaminkuehler zum Kuehlkamin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damjakob, H.; Depe, T.; Vrangos, V. (Balcke-Duerr AG, Ratingen (Germany))

    1992-06-01

    Almost exactly 100 years ago, tower-type structures were first used for the production of artificial ventilation for cooling purposes. The shell of these so-called tower coolers, today known as 'natural draught cooling towers', was, from the outset, the subject of multiple structural engineering develepments in respect of design, material, construction and statistical calculation. These developments have been stimulated especially by the spasmodic increase in dimensions in the application of power plant cooling towers and, more recently, in connection with ecological requirements. (orig.).

  3. Influence of thermal flow field of cooling tower on recirculation ratio of a direct air-cooled system for a power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wanli; Liu Peiqing

    2008-01-01

    In order to get thermal flow field of direct air-cooled system,the hot water was supplied to the model of direct air-cooled condenser(ACC).The particle image velocimetery(PIV)experiments were carried out to get thermal flow field of a ACC under different conditions in low velocity wind tunnel,at the same time,the recirculation ratio at cooling tower was measured,so the relationship between flow field characteristics and recirculation ratio of cooling tower can be discussed.From the results we can see that the flow field configuration around cooling tower has great effects on average recirculation ratio under cooling tower.The eddy formed around cooling tower is a key reason that recireulation pro-duces.The eddy intensity relates to velocity magnitude and direction angle,and the configuration of eddy lies on the ge-ometry size of cooling tower.So changing the flow field configuration around cooling tower reasonably can decrease recir-culation ratio under cooling tower,and heat dispel effect of ACC can also be improved.

  4. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2011-06-01

    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  5. Short-term pilot cooling tower tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suciu, D.F.; Miller, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two major problems are associated with the use of cooled geothermal water as coolant for the 5 MW(e) pilot plant at Raft River. They are: (1) a scaling potential owing to the chemical species present in solution, and (2) the corrosive nature of the geothermal water. Tests were conducted to obtain data so that methods can be devised to either reduce or eliminate effects from these problems. Data show that scaling can be prevented, but only by using a high concentration of dispersant. Pitting data, however, are not as conclusive and seem to indicate that pitting control cannot be realized, but this result cannot be substantiated without additional experimentation. Results also demonstrate that chromate can be removed by using either chemical destruction or ion exchange. Whichever method is used, EPA discharge limits for both chromate and zinc can be achieved. A preliminary economic analysis is presented.

  6. Legionella safety in cooling towers; Legionellaveiligheid in koeltorens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordes, B. [Kordes Advies, (Netherlands); De Bok, F. [KBBL Wijhe, (Netherlands); De Zeeuw, L. [Holland Environment Group, (Netherlands); Settels, P. [Safety, Health Services and Ergonomics, ING, (Netherlands); Oesterholt, F.; Wullings, B. [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, (Netherlands); Guiot, P. [Tevan, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Brands, R. [Cumulus Nederland, Cuijk (Netherlands); Nuijten, O. [Kennisinstituut ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wijne, R. [Beer advocaten, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    In 9 articles attention is paid to several aspects with regard to Legionella in cooling towers: representative sampling, the use of copper and silver ionization or hydrogen peroxide to prevent Legionella growth and biofilms, the use of a zero-tolerance model to control a cooling tower installation, detection of DNA of Legionella Pneumophila, legionella safety in air conditioners, the model Legionella risk analysis and control of cooling tower installations, legislation and regulations for the control of cooling tower installations with regard to the Dutch Occupational Health and Safety Act ('Arbo-wet'), and an article about a lawsuit for victims of a Legionella outbreak, caused by careless owners of a cooling tower in Amsterdam, Netherlands. [Dutch] In 9 artikelen wordt in deze aflevering aandacht besteed aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. Legionella in koeltorens: representatieve monstername, de toepassing van koper en zilver-ionisatie of waterstofperoxide om de groei van Legionella en biofilms te voorkomen, het gebruik van een zero-tolerance model om een koeltoren installatie te controleren, detectie van DNA van Legionella Pneumophila, Legionella veiligheid in luchtbehandelingsinstallaties, het model Legionella risicoanalyse en beheersplan voor koeltoreninstallaties, de rol van de Arbo-wet, en een artikel over een rechtszaak voor slachtoffers van Legionella door onzorgvuldig beheer van een koeltoren in Amsterdam.

  7. CFD MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR A-AREA AND H-AREA COOLING TOWERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Garrett, A.; Bollinger, J.

    2009-09-02

    Mechanical draft cooling towers are designed to cool process water via sensible and latent heat transfer to air. Heat and mass transfer take place simultaneously. Heat is transferred as sensible heat due to the temperature difference between liquid and gas phases, and as the latent heat of the water as it evaporates. Mass of water vapor is transferred due to the difference between the vapor pressure at the air-liquid interface and the partial pressure of water vapor in the bulk of the air. Equations to govern these phenomena are discussed here. The governing equations are solved by taking a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The purpose of the work is to develop a three-dimensional CFD model to evaluate the flow patterns inside the cooling tower cell driven by cooling fan and wind, considering the cooling fans to be on or off. Two types of the cooling towers are considered here. One is cross-flow type cooling tower located in A-Area, and the other is counterflow type cooling tower located in H-Area. The cooling tower located in A-Area is mechanical draft cooling tower (MDCT) consisting of four compartment cells as shown in Fig. 1. It is 13.7m wide, 36.8m long, and 9.4m high. Each cell has its own cooling fan and shroud without any flow communications between two adjacent cells. There are water distribution decks on both sides of the fan shroud. The deck floor has an array of about 25mm size holes through which water droplet falls into the cell region cooled by the ambient air driven by fan and wind, and it is eventually collected in basin area. As shown in Fig. 1, about 0.15-m thick drift eliminator allows ambient air to be humidified through the evaporative cooling process without entrainment of water droplets into the shroud exit. The H-Area cooling tower is about 7.3 m wide, 29.3 m long, and 9.0 m high. Each cell has its own cooling fan and shroud, but each of two corner cells has two panels to shield wind at the bottom of the cells. There is some

  8. Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron I

    2011-04-01

    The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day(-1). Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state.

  9. 清远市空调冷却塔水军团菌污染状况调查%The investigation of Legionella pollution with cooling tower water of air conditioning in Qingyuan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠兴; 李桂霞; 王平原; 禤汝流; 徐国洪; 陈丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To understand the detection of Legionella in public place in Qingyuan city and the relation between the result with the consecutively using time and environment including the water temperature of cooling tower, relative humidity inside cooling tower, pH value, chlorine residual, identification and typing of Leginoella.Methods: Water samples were collected from 32 public places in Qingyuan following the health specification of central air conditioning ventilating system in public places.Then the samples for Legionella detection.Results: The isolating rate of Legionella is 51.42% in public places in Qingyuan.There was relation between isolating rate and environment including the water temperature of cooling tower, relative humidity, pH value.There were six serotypes of Legionella isolated in Qingyuan, including serotypes 1,2, 3, 6, 7 and 10, of which the most frequent is serotype 1.Conclution: The Legionella pollution with cooling tower water of air conditioning in Qingyuan city is in a serious situtation.Measures should be taken to strengthen the monitoring of the water of cooling tower.%目的:了解清远市区空调冷却塔水军团菌的检出情况、军团菌检出与环境(冷却塔水温度、冷却塔内相对湿度、pH值、余氯含量)和连续使用时间的关系以及军团菌的分型、鉴定.方法:根据随机抽取清远市区公共场所32家,对其冷却塔水进行军团菌检测.结果:清远市空调冷却塔水军团菌检出率为51.42%,军团菌的检出与环境(冷却塔水温度、冷却塔内相对湿度、pH值)有关,军团菌菌型为嗜肺军团菌1型、2型、3型、6型、7型和10型,其中1型为优势菌株.结论:清远市区空调冷却塔水军团菌污染严重,应加强冷却塔水监测.

  10. Study of the comparative costs of five wet/dry cooling tower concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Allemann, R.T.; Faletti, D.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Parry, H.L.; Smith, G.C.; Tokarz, R.D.; Walter, R.A.

    1976-09-01

    The projected cost of five alternative dry/wet power plant heat rejection concepts was studied under conditions imposed by hypothetical use in association with the San Juan Plant Unit 3, a 550-MWe facility currently under construction near the ''Four Corners'' area of New Mexico. The five alternative concepts were: integrated dry/wet tower; separate dry and wet towers; metal fin-tube induced draft tower with deluge water augmentation; plastic heat exchanger tower with deluge water augmentation, and metal fin-tube/deluge augmentation tower with an intermediate ammonia evaporation-condensation condenser and the cooling tower. The integrated dry/wet tower concept, already chosen for service at San Juan Unit 3, was included for reference purposes. All concepts were conceptually designed and estimated using the same bases and employing uniform practices. Each concept was assumed to use all water allocated for consumptive use in Unit 3. The cost estimates obtained showed the following descending order of ''comparable capital cost'': separate dry/wet; metal fin-tube/deluge; integrated dry/wet; plastic tube/deluge; and metal fin-tube/deluge/ammonia. The results indicate that two of the advanced concepts considered, i.e., the plastic tube/deluge concept and the metal fin tube/deluge/ammonia concept, can possibly reduce the overall costs of dry/wet cooling under conditions imposed by the site considered. It was recommended that these two concepts receive additional attention by the ERDA Dry Cooling Tower Program and industry to further quantify their potential benefits and demonstrate their performance and reliability.

  11. State of the art cooling tower technology in geothermal power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, K.P. [Marley Cooling Tower Company, Overland Park, KS (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Several cooling tower design configurations, including crossflow and counterflow, splash and film filled, have been used in geothermal applications over the years with varying degrees of longterm success. This paper examines the special water quality conditions expected in geothermal power generation, describes the current theory on materials and fill types most suitable for this application, and relates field experience to the theory. The goal is to arrive at current, but evolving {open_quotes}best practice{close_quotes} application rules for cooling tower designs in geothermal application. This means providing the most economically and thermally efficient cooling towers to end users, and having those selections provide good long-term system viability with reasonable maintenance practices.

  12. Study the factors on which efficiency of cooling tower can be critically acclaimed (A case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna S. Vishwakarma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water cooling is widely used in many industrial processes to control heat removal from a hot material surface. In order to control the temperature distributions, a deeper understanding more accurate estimation of spray heat transfer rates is needed. In a new technique combining experiment and computational modeling developed for water cooling. It is better to understand the heat transfer mechanisms from the combustion gases to the cooling water and then from the cooling water to the environment. To meet this need a logic tree is developed to provide guidance on how to balance and identify problems within cooling system and schedule appropriate maintenance. Fluid dynamics, Thermodynamics and Heat transfer are involved in developing a cooling system model and the operation is familiar to the general operating companies. There will be the comparison and parametric investigation of the cooling system model in the logic tree and the results are summarized as tables and charts. The objective is to identify the several ways of improving efficiency of cooling tower. In this study we are doing the comparison ofsome calculations regarding the cooling tower.

  13. 无锡市2009年部分冷却塔水军团菌污染状况调查%Survey on Contamination of Legionella Bacteria in Water of Cooling Towers in Wuxi in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟杰; 吴湧兴; 肖勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解无锡市不同类型场所冷却塔水中军团菌污染状况和血清型别.方法 2009年按照无锡市地理分布抽取32家公共场所和8家工厂作为监测点,共抽取冷却塔水89份,按照卫生部附录B"空调系统军团菌的检验分析方法"进行检测.结果 89份冷却塔水军团菌检出率达26.97%(24/89),阳性率以宾馆和医院为高,分别为33.33%(8/24)和33.36%(4/11).军团菌血清型以LP1和LP6为主,分别占54.2%(13/24)和29.2%(7/24).冷却塔水消毒与不消毒、有无藻类生长军团菌检出差异有统计学意义.结论 无锡市不同场所冷却塔水中存在军团菌的污染,军团菌生长可能与冷却塔水不消毒、有藻类生长有关,可作为控制冷却水军团菌的依据.%Objective To explore the contamination status and serological typing in water of various cooling towers in Wuxi. Methods Legionella was detected in cooling water from 32 public places and 8 factories in Wuxi in 2009. There were 89 samples total. Legionella was tested according to “Central Air Conditioning Ventilation System Hygiene Norms of Public Health Appendix B”. Results The detection rate of legionella in water of cooling towers was 26.97% (24/89). The positive rate was the highest in cooling water of hotels and hospitals, which was 33.33% (8/24) and 33.36(4/11 ), respectively. The Lp1 and Lp6 were the main serotypes, accounted for 54.2% ( 13/24)and 29.2% (7/24), respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the positive rate of legionella between disinfected and non - disinfected water of cooling towers and between water with or without colonized algae. Conclusions The water of cooling towers in Wuxi was contaminated severely. The proliferation of legionella is presumed due to unsatisfactory disinfection and colonized algae. The results provide the evidence for control of legionella in water of cooling tower.

  14. Comparative study on thermal performance of natural draft cooling towers with finned shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Mohsen [Bu-Ali Sina Univ., Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-10-15

    The cooling efficiency of natural draft cooling towers under crosswind condition should be improved. In the present research work three different externally finned shells were considered for a typical natural draft cooling tower to investigate the cooling improvement. They were numerically simulated under normal and crosswind conditions. Numerical results show that twisting four fin plates over the tower shell along the 45 peripheral angle, could improve the cooling efficiency up to 6.5 %. Because of the periodic shape of the fin plates, the cooling efficiency of the cooling tower with finned shell is less sensitive to the change of wind.

  15. Prevalence of Legionella strains in cooling towers and legionellosis cases in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Robert; Maqsood, Saadia; Harte, David; Caughley, Brian; Deacon, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Over 3,900 water samples from 688 cooling towers were tested for Legionella in 2008 in New Zealand. Of 80 (2.05% isolation rate) Legionella isolates, 10 (12.5%) were L. pneumophila serogroup 1; 10 (12.5%) were L. anisa; nine (11.2%) were L. pneumophila serogroup 8; and one (1.2%) was L. longbeachae serogroup 2. Forty-one (51.2%) Legionella isolates were L. pneumophila serogroups. Over 3,990 water samples from 606 cooling towers were tested for Legionella in 2009 in New Zealand. Of 51 (1.28% isolation rate) Legionella isolates, 18 (35.3%) were L. pneumophila serogroup 1, and 39 (76.4%) were other L. pneumophila serogroups. L. pneumophila serogroups were significantly associated with legionellosis cases in 2008 and 2009. L. longbeachae serogroups were equally significantly associated with legionellosis cases. This significant association of L. longbeachae with legionellosis particularly of L. longbeachae serogroup 1 is unique in that part of the world. The authors' study also showed that the aqueous environment of the cooling tower is not a natural habitat for pathogenic L. longbeachae. Regular monitoring and maintenance of cooling towers have prevented outbreaks of legionellosis.

  16. 公共场所中央空调冷却塔水军团菌生态学研究%Study on ecology of legionella in cooling tower water of air-conditioning systems in public place

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林朝; 宋晓荷

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the ecological distributional characteristics of legionella in cooling tower water of air - conditioning systems. Methods: The distribution of legionella in cooling tower water of air - conditioning systems in public place in Xiangshan was investigated through separation culture. Results: The detection rate of legionella was increased in summer and autumn, and decreased to zero in winter and spring. The positive rates from different public places were not concordant, with 78.95% and 50.70% in hospital and guesthouse separately. The bacterium type was varied, Lp 1 with a percentage of 68.7% was the predominant type. Detection rate was also related to base type of cooling tower, because it was only found to be positive in platform type. Conclusion: The growth and decline of legionella in cooling tower water of air - conditioning systems was related to season, and the bacterium type was varied. The air - conditioning systems with platform base in hospital and guesthouse should be the key site for monitoring.%目的:了解中央空调冷却塔水军团菌生态学分布特征.方法:采用分离培养方法,对象山县公共场所中央空调冷却塔水中的军团菌分布进行研究.结果:夏秋季军团菌检出率高,冬春季节未能检出.不同场所军团菌检出率不同,医院、宾馆酒店阳性率分别达78.95%、50.70%.菌型分布为多样性,主要为嗜肺军团菌Lp1型,占68.7%.检出率还与中央空调冷却塔基座类型相关,漏斗型未检出军团菌,只有平台型检出军团菌.结论:中央空调冷却塔水中军团菌消长有季节性,菌型分布多样性,以医院、宾馆等公共场所,冷却塔基座为平台型的中央空调为重点.

  17. Legionella control in power station cooling towers using oxidising biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Christian; Rawlinson, Julia; Killeen, Paul [Ecolab PTY LTD, Ascot, WA (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    Power stations have used oxidising biocides such as chlorine or bromine for many years to control microbial growth in their cooling towers. In this paper Ecolab trademark looks at the direct effect halogen concentration has on Legionella populations in order to determine the most effective halogenation rate required to ensure that the site key performance indicator (KPI) of < 100 colony-forming units (cfu) per mL can be maintained. (orig.)

  18. Numerical research of a super-large cooling tower subjected to accidental loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Lin, Feng [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Gu, Xianglin, E-mail: gxl@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Lu, Xiaoqin [Guangdong Electric Power Design Institute, Guangzhou 510660 (China)

    2014-04-01

    With the continued development of nuclear power plants, more and more super-large cooling towers are to be built in China and around the world. For the safe operation of nuclear power plants, research work has been done on the causes of collapse of cooling towers, collapse modes and the secondary disasters caused by the collapse of cooling towers. However, the collapse modes and the ground vibration induced by the collapse of cooling towers subjected to the accidental loads have not been fully understood. This paper has been focused on the modes and mechanisms behavior of the collapse of cooling towers subjected to accidental loads. Meanwhile, prediction of the ground vibration due to the collapse of the cooling towers has also been completed in a parallel project. Using dynamic finite element program LS-DYNA, a 3D finite element model for a super-large cooling tower was developed and the nonlinear material models were incorporated. In this paper, four types of accidental loads were considered to trigger the collapse or local failure of the tower, including vehicle collision, airplane impact, local explosion and missile attack. It was found that vehicle collision, missile attack and small TNT equivalent explosives (2 kg, 20 kg, 200 kg) might result in local failure of the cooling tower, however, the tower can still keep stable. On the other hand, large TNT equivalent explosives (2000 kg, 4500 kg) could cause severe damages in the inclined columns of the cooling tower, and lead to progressive collapse of the entire cooling tower. The two kinds of TNT equivalent explosives caused the same collapse mode while the collapsing duration was different. The airplane impacted at the throat of the cooling tower caused the local failure of shell structure of the tower, and then the progressive collapse of the cooling tower happened due to the gravitational action. The resulting collapse mode was different from that triggered by the local explosion.

  19. Operational cost minimization in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimization model that considers thermal and hydraulic interactions is developed for a cooling water system. It is a closed loop consisting of a cooling tower unit, circulation pump, blower and heat exchanger-pipe network. Aside from process disturbances, climatic fluctuations are considered. Model constraints include relations concerning tower performance, air flowrate requirement, make-up flowrate, circulating pump performance, heat load in each cooler, pressure drop constraints and climatic conditions. The objective function is operating cost minimization. Optimization variables are air flowrate, forced water withdrawal upstream the tower, and valve adjustment in each branch. It is found that the most significant operating cost is related to electricity. However, for cooled water temperatures lower than a specific target, there must be a forced withdrawal of circulating water and further makeup to enhance the cooling tower capacity. Additionally, the system is optimized along the months. The results corroborate the fact that the most important variable on cooling tower performance is not the air temperature itself, but its humidity.

  20. Comparison of the efficacy of free residual chlorine and monochloramine against biofilms in model and full scale cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türetgen, Irfan

    2004-04-01

    The presence of microbial cells on surfaces results in the formation of biofilms, which may also give rise to microbiologically influenced corrosion. Biofilms accumulate on all submerged industrial and environmental surfaces. The efficacy of disinfectants is usually evaluated using planktonic cultures, which often leads to an underestimate of the concentration required to control a biofilm. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of monochloramine on biofilms developed in a cooling tower. The disinfectants selected for the study were commercial formulations recommended for controlling microbial growth in cooling towers. A cooling tower and a laboratory model recirculating water system were used as biofilm reactors. Although previous studies have evaluated the efficacy of free chlorine and monochloramine for controlling biofilm growth, there is a lack of published data concerning the use monochloramine in cooling towers. Stainless steel coupons were inserted in each tower basin for a period of 30 d before removal. Monochloramine and free chlorine were tested under identical conditions on mixed biofilms which had been allowed to grow on coupons. Monochloramine was found to be significantly more effective than free chlorine against cooling tower biofilms.

  1. Numerical simulation on internal and external flow field of a SCAL indirect air cooling tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Songfeng; CHAI Yanqin; XIANG Tongqiong; ZHOU Guangsha

    2014-01-01

    According to the actual size of cooling tube bundle and the arrangement of cooling triangle of a surface condenser aluminum exchangers (SCAL)natural draft cooling tower,the geometric model of heat transfer elements at the tower bottom was established.On the basis of the RNG k-εturbulence model and porous medium model,three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out for the inner and external flow field of the air cooling tower,to investigate the influence of environmental conditions on the tower's operation performance.The results show that,with an increase in ambient wind speed,the inlet air speed at windward side of the tower increases gradually,while that at crosswind side and lee side decreases and tends to be obvious;the tower ventilation rate and outlet air speed increases at first and then decreases,and their maximum values appear when the wind speed is 2 m/s.

  2. Prevalence and Molecular Characteristics of Waterborne Pathogen Legionella in Industrial Cooling Tower Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooling towers are a source of Legionnaires’ disease. It is important from a public health perspective to survey industrial cooling towers for the presence of Legionella. Prospective surveillance of the extent of Legionella pollution was conducted at factories in Shijiazhuang, China between March 2011 and September 2012. Overall, 35.7% of 255 industrial cooling tower water samples showed Legionella-positive, and their concentrations ranged from 100 Colony-Forming Units (CFU/liter to 88,000 CFU/liter, with an average concentration of 9100 CFU/liter. A total of 121 isolates were obtained. All isolates were L. pneumophila, and the isolated serogroups included serogroups 1 (68 isolates, 56.2%, 6 (25, 20.7%, 5 (12, 9.9%, 8 (8, 6.6%, 3 (6, 5.0% and 9 (2, 1.6%. All 121 isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and 64 different patterns were obtained. All 121 isolates were analyzed sequence-based typing (SBT, a full 7-allele profile was obtained from 117 isolates. One hundred and seventeen isolates were divided into 49 sequence types. Two virulence genes, lvh and rtxA, are analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. 92.6% (112/121 and 98.3% (119/121 isolates carried lvh and rtxA respectively and 90.9% (110/121 of tested isolates carried both genes. Our results demonstrated high prevalence and genetic polymorphism of L. pneumophila in industrial cooling tower environments in Shijiazhang, China, and the SBT and virulence gene PCR results suggested that the isolates were pathogenic. Improved control and prevention strategies are urgently needed.

  3. Fire analog: a comparison between fire plumes and energy center cooling tower plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgill, M.M.

    1977-10-01

    Thermal plumes or convection columns associated with large fires are compared to thermal plumes from cooling towers and proposed energy centers to evaluate the fire analog concept. Energy release rates of mass fires are generally larger than for single or small groups of cooling towers but are comparable to proposed large energy centers. However, significant physical differences exist between cooling tower plumes and fire plumes. Cooling tower plumes are generally dominated by ambient wind, stability and turbulence conditions. Fire plumes, depending on burning rates and other factors, can transform into convective columns which may cause the fire behavior to become more violent. This transformation can cause strong inflow winds and updrafts, turbulence and concentrated vortices. Intense convective columns may interact with ambient winds to create significant downwind effects such as wakes and Karman vortex streets. These characteristics have not been observed with cooling tower plumes to date. The differences in physical characteristics between cooling tower and fire plumes makes the fire analog concept very questionable even though the approximate energy requirements appear to be satisfied in case of large energy centers. Additional research is suggested in studying the upper-level plume characteristics of small experimental fires so this information can be correlated with similar data from cooling towers. Numerical simulation of fires and proposed multiple cooling tower systems could also provide comparative data.

  4. Costs and cost algorithms for dry cooling tower systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ard, P.A.; Henager, C.H.; Pratt, D.R.; Wiles, L.E.

    1976-09-01

    Costs were obtained and cast models prepared for the major components beyond the turbine exhaust flange of a dry cooling system using either water or ammonia as the intermediate heat exchange fluid. (LCL)

  5. Experimental analysis of heat and mass transfer phenomena in a direct contact evaporative cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemouari, M. [Department of Processes Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Engineering, University of Bejaia (Algeria); Boumaza, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering - King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Kaabi, A. [Department of Genie Climatique, Faculty of Engineering, University of Constantine, Constantine (Algeria)

    2009-06-15

    This paper deals with an experimental analysis of simultaneous heat and mass transfer phenomena between water and air by direct contact in a packed cooling tower. The tower is filled with a ''VGA.'' (Vertical Grid Apparatus) type packing. The packing is 0.42 m high and consists of four (04) galvanised sheets having a zigzag form, between which are disposed three (03) metallic vertical grids in parallel with a cross-sectional test area of 0.15 m x 0.148 m. This study investigates the effect of the air and water flow rates on the global heat and mass transfer coefficient as well as the evaporation rate of water into the air stream, for different inlet water temperatures. Two operating regimes were observed during the air/water contact inside the tower, a Pellicular Regime (PR) and a Bubble and Dispersion Regime (BDR). These two regimes can determine the best way to promote the heat and mass transfer phenomena in such device. The BDR regime seems to be more efficient than the Pellicular Regime, as it enables to achieve relatively higher values of the global heat and mass transfer coefficient and larger water evaporation rates. The comparison between the obtained results and some of those available in the literature for other types of packing indicates that this type possesses good heat and mass transfer characteristics. (author)

  6. Mathematical and experimental investigations on dispersion and recirculation of plumes from dry cooling towers at Wyodak Power Plant in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1976-02-01

    The study presented was conducted (1) to develop a two-dimensional mathematical simulation model for determination of plume dispersion and recirculation from an existing code; (2) to investigate experimentally and mathematically the recirculation and temperature distributions of plumes from two dry cooling towers at the Wyodak Plant in Wyoming; and (3) to elucidate the effects of wind velocity, temperature of heated effluent, adjacent cooling towers and local topography on plume dispersion and recirculation. The mathematical model is based on solution of the steady flow momentum and energy equations using the stream function-vorticity technique. Experiments were conducted in a 10-foot-wide hydraulic flume, using water as a model flow. The study shows that plume recirculation and dispersion are strongly influenced by local topography and nearby structures such as adjacent cooling towers and buildings, as well as by the ambient wind velocity and effluent exit temperature.

  7. The inhibition effect of isothiazolone on Legionella in the cooling tower water%异噻唑啉酮对冷却塔水军团菌的抑菌效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟杰; 吴滂兴; 肖勇; 陈茸; 刘斌

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察异噻唑啉酮消毒剂对冷却塔水中嗜肺军团菌杀灭效果.方法 选择某公司2个全年连续运行的冷却塔循环水,加入1mg/L异噻唑啉酮活性物质,间隔不同时间采集冷却塔水进行军团茵计数和嗜肺军团茵检测.结果 冷却水消毒间隔时间1、2、3、4和5周以上的嗜肺军团茵阳性率分别为0.00、28.57、40.00、50.00和100.00%.采取的a级行动水平率是28.57%,b级行动水平率4.76%,c和d级行动水平率均为0.00%.结论用1mg/L异噻唑啉酮活性成分消毒冷却水,消毒间隔1周可起到抑军团菌作用,消毒间隔2-5周以上抑军团菌效果下降,需要采取增加杀菌剂添加量.%Objective To observe the effect of isothiazolone disinfectant in killing Legionella pneumophila in cooling tower water. Methods The isothiazolone at concentration of lmg/L was put in the wate of two cooling towers which worked yearly chosen as the for observation the effect on legionella and the samples were sampled at various intervals and detected. Results The positive rates of Legionella pneumophila were 0.00%, 28.57%, 40.00%, 50.00% and 100.00% one, two .three, four and over five weeks after experiment,respectively. The action levels of grade A and B were 28.57% ,and 4.76% , respectively,and the action levels of grade C and D were all 0. Conclusion The active ingredient of isothiazolone at concentration of lmg/L and after acted for a week is eeffective for killing legionella in cooling water. The inhibition effect is not ideal over a period of two to five weeks unless the concentration of isothiazolone is increased and repeated count the quantity of Legionella is indicated until reaching the level of less than 10cfu/L.

  8. Reuso de efluentes em torres de resfriamento - estudo conceitual: Aeroporto Internacional do Rio de Janeiro = Water reuse for cooling towers – conceptual study: Rio de Janeiro International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Dias de Carvalho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O reuso de água é ferramenta valiosa na gestão da água, que promove a otimização da utilização do recurso desta, que reduz e, muitas vezes, até elimina os impactos no meio ambiente. Neste trabalho foi investigada a composição do efluente secundário da estação de tratamento de efluentes (ETE APOIO do Aeroporto Internacional do Rio de Janeiro, com o objetivo de propor o processo adequado à reutilização deste efluente como água de reposição nas torres de resfriamento desse Aeroporto. Com base nas análises de cátions, ânions, DBO e DQO, verificou-se o parâmetro SDT - Cl- como crítico para processamento do efluente. Foi proposta uma sequência para reutilização do efluente que continha o tratamento de osmose inversa, o custo do m3 produzido por essa sequência foi estimado em R$ 2,90 m-3. Water reuse is an important tool in water management; it is a conceptthat promotes optimization of the water resource, reducing and often even eliminating environmental impacts. In this work, the composition of a secondary effluent (from the effluent treatment station (ETE APOIO at Rio de Janeiro International Airport was analyzed, with theaim of determining an adequate process for the reutilization of this effluent as replacement cooling water. Chemical analyses such as cation and anion analysis, BOD and COD were performed. Based on these analyses, it was found that TDS - Cl- was the critical parameter foreffluent processing. A treatment system was proposed for effluent reuse including reverse osmosis; the cost estimate per m3 produced by this system was R$ 2.90 m-3.

  9. 无锡市冷却塔水军团菌污染状况及菌型分析%Contamination and serum type of Legionella in cooling tower water in Wuxi city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟杰; 吴湧兴; 肖勇; 陈茸

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the contamination status and serum type of Legionella in cooling tower water from various places in Wuxi city. Methods Legionella was detected in cooling water from 32 public places and 8 factories in Wuxi from 2004 to 2009. There were total 529 samples. Legionella was tested according to "Central Air Conditioning Ventilation System Hygiene Norms of Public Health Appendix A". Results 75 samples were found Legionella among 529 samples. The total positive rate was 14.18% (75/529). The positive rates were the highest in hospital and market place cooling water, of 27.45% (14/51)and 24.00%(18/75), respectively. In public place the positive rates were highest in July and August, of 18.75% (9/48)and 25.25%(25/99) , respectively. Meanwhile, Legionella was detected in all months in process cooling water in factory. The LP1 was the main type among all the LP, which accounted for 78.67% (59/75). Conclusion Legionella contamination of cooling tower water is serious in various places in Wuxi city. Some measures should be taken to improve the contamination status and prevent the outbreak of Legionnaires' disease.%目的 了解无锡市不同场所冷却塔水中军团菌污染状况和血清型别.方法 按照无锡市地理分布抽取32家公共场所和8家工厂作为监测点,共抽取冷却塔水529份,按照卫生部《集中空调通风系统卫生规范》附录A“空调系统军团菌的检验分析方法”进行检测.结果 529份冷却塔水军团菌的检出率达14.18%(75/529),阳性率以商场和医院为高,分别为27.45%(14/51)和24.00%(18/75).公共场所以7、8月份的阳性率为高,分别为18.75%(9/48)和25.25%(25/99);工厂工艺性冷却塔水军团菌在全年各月份均有检出.军团菌血清型以LP1为主,占78.67%(59/75).结论 无锡市不同场所冷却塔水中存在军团菌污染,对人群健康构成潜在威胁,需引起重视.

  10. 我国冷却塔应用现状及面临的挑战%Applications and Challenges of Cooling Tower in Chin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费全昌

    2014-01-01

    Cooling tower has been widely used in China. Cooling tower technology started late in China, but experienced rapid development. Several large-scale cooling towers, including natural draft counter-flow cooling tower, seawater cooling tower, tower with flue gas dispersion and indirect dry cooling tower, with nominated water spraying area up to 10,000m2 have been built around China. The large-scale natural draft counter-flow cooling tower for inland nuclear power has also been designing in China. In addition, natural cooling tower with water collecting system and cross flow cooling tower have also been used in small scale and scope. With the dramatic increasing of diameter and height of the cooling tower, how to design large-scale cooling towers with structural safety and high efficiency is the great technical challenge faced by domestic engineers, also creates opportunities for broad international cooperation.%冷却塔在我国火电厂的应用广泛。冷却塔技术在我国的应用起步较晚,但发展极为迅速,尤其是在逆流式通风冷却塔方面,先后建成投产的多座淋水面积超10000m2的超大型自然通风逆流塔(包括海水冷却塔、排烟冷却塔)和超大型间接空冷塔;在内陆核电站冷却塔应用方面,也开展了一系列研究和方案设计;此外,高位收水塔和横流塔方面也有小规模小范围的应用案例。随着冷却塔直径、高度的不断增加,冷却塔已变成火力发电厂内单体体量最大的构筑物,如何设计结构安全、运行安全、冷却效率高的大型冷却塔是我国工程师面临的技术挑战,也给广泛的国际合作创造了条件。

  11. Bevel gear drives in cooling tower fans; Kegelstirnradgetriebe in Luefterantrieben fuer Kuehltuerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenbach, M.

    2000-07-01

    Cooling towers of petrochemical systems require high-quality drives which are also energy-saving and require low maintenance. The contribution goes into detail about customized bevel gear drives for cooling tower fans. [German] Um optimale Produkte zu erhalten, sind hochwertige Antriebe unabdingbar. Bei Kuehltuermen in petrochemischen Anlagen kommt es ausserdem auf eine energiesparende und wartungsarme Ausfuehrung von Zahnradgetrieben an. Im Folgenden soll auf das besondere Einsatzgebiet von massgeschneiderten Kegelstirnradgetrieben in Luefterantrieben naeher eingegangen werden. (orig.)

  12. Research on the Flow-Head Characteristics of the Turbine Driving Fan in Cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yanpin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The flow-head characteristics of the special turbine in cooling tower are very different from the general power turbines’. This study has analyzed the former theoretically and proposed the theoretical formula of the head-flow. At the same time, the paper has studied the characteristics of the flow-head using the CFD method. The tests results have proved the principle of the flow-head of the turbine in cooling tower.

  13. Geodetic works on the construction of cooling tower of TEŠ 6

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarič, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The thesis discusses with geodetic works on the construction of cooling tower of sixth block in Šoštanj thermal power plant. It presents briefly the thermal power plant and describes the process of construction of the cooling tower. The establishment of basic surveying network stakeout is explained. It is also contains a full description of the stakeout procedures. Paper states the requirements and accuracy of stakeout and describes practical examples. It shows the concrete implementation ...

  14. Optimization Design of Tower Type for Large Natural Draft Exhaust Smoke Cooling Tower%大型自然通风排烟冷却塔塔型优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万大伟; 王明韧

    2014-01-01

    在现有的规范规定条件下,本文以某1000MW火电机组为研究目标,开展湿式排烟冷却塔塔型优化工作。以塔高与塔底直径之比RAUZ、喉部直径与塔底直径之比RAUC、进风口高度塔底直径之比RAUL和填料高度RAUE作为塔型的主要变化参数,采用供水系统优化程序对湿式冷却塔进行选型分析。结果表明采用供水系统优化计算结合冷却塔塔型本体优化的选型方式,得到的冷却塔选型方案比较合理,满足工程实际需要,节约工程投资。%This article focuses on the optimization design of tower type for natural draft wet exhaust smoke cooling tower using optimization calculation methods based on a detailed research of typical 1000MW coal fired power units and existing design code. According to the main changes parameters of cooling tower including tower height and bottom diameter ratio、throat diameter and bottom diameter ratio、inlet height and bottom diameter ratio and fill height, the optimization calculation program of water supply system was used to decide the selection and economical allocation of cooling tower.The result shows that the dimension of the natural draft wet cooling tower is relatively more appropriate and practical when the cooling towers are selected using optimization calculation of water supply system and in combination with optimization design of cooling tower body.

  15. Water-cooled electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont, G; Righini, B

    2000-01-01

    LHC experiments demand on cooling of electronic instrumentation will be extremely high. A large number of racks will be located in underground caverns and counting rooms, where cooling by conventional climatisation would be prohibitively expensive. A series of tests on the direct water cooling of VMEbus units and of their standard power supplies is reported. A maximum dissipation of 60 W for each module and more than 1000 W delivered by the power supply to the crate have been reached. These values comply with the VMEbus specifications. (3 refs).

  16. A New Cooling Tower of Spraying Ventilation%一种新型喷雾通风冷却塔

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国林; 李丽萍

    2001-01-01

    The distinctive working principle of a new cooling tower with spraying ventilation is elaborated and comparison to the mechanical ventilation based tower is made. Some personal opinions on the pressure regulation in operation of this equipment are alsoproposed.

  17. 4. Meeting on cooling towers. From practice - for practice; 4. Kuehlturm-Tagung. Aus der Praxis - Fuer die Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The 4th Cooling Tower meeting brought into focus aspects of economic efficiency of the water cooling system, i.e. the papers analyse investment cost and operating cost taking into account environmental policy and interests. Numerous examples from practice are discussed in the papers showing how wet cooling tower design and application-specific selection of design features can influence the performance of the entire system. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Im Mittelpunkt der 4. Kuehlturm-Tagung steht die Wirtschaftlichkeit der Wasserrueckkuehlanlage, d.h. die Betrachtung der Investitions- und Betriebskosten unter Beruecksichtigung der Belange des Umweltschutzes. Mit Beispielen aus der Praxis zeigen die Referenten, wie sich die Auslegung und Auswahl eines Nasskuehlturms auf das Betriebsergebnis der Anlage auswirken. (orig./GL)

  18. Analysis of Free Cooling Technology by Using Cooling Tower%应用冷却塔免费供冷技术的特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐欣; 杨木和

    2012-01-01

      对于单层面积大、内区房间多、冷负荷比较大的建筑,采用冷却塔免费供冷,既环保,又节能。本文以上海某集办公、酒店与商业为一体的玻璃幕墙建筑为研究对象,简要介绍了冷却塔免费供冷的原理与形式,通过对冷却塔免费供冷的分析与计算,确定了冷却塔过渡季节的供冷温度,并从空调机组送风温度、过渡季节冷负荷与夏季设计冷负荷之比、冷却塔供回水温差三个方面出发,研究其对冷却塔供水温度的影响,得出了一些有益的结论%  For the building with large single-floor area, many inner-rooms and high cooling-load, free cooling technology by using cooling tower is environment-protective and energy-saving. Based on a glass curtain wall building with offices, hotels and commercial rooms, the theory and form of free cooling system are introduced, and the supply cooling water temperature during transition season is determined by analysis and calculation. Three factors, including supply air temperature of air handling unit, ratio of cooling load of transition season to that of summer, and temperature difference of cooling tower supply and return water, which influence the cooling tower supply water temperature are studied. Some useful conclusions are obtained in this paper.

  19. Demolition technique of high thin-wall hyperbolic reinforced concrete cool tower by directional controlled blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yong; Cui Xiaorong; Lu Hua

    2008-01-01

    Based on blasting demolition of high thin-wall hyperbolic reinforced concrete cool tower,by virtue of engi-neering practice of blasting the tube concrete structures,the analysis and research were made on the mechanism of cool tower collapse through selecting blasting parameters and selecting gap form,gap size and gap angle.The cool tower was twisted,collapsed directionally and broken weU according to the design requirements.The expected results and purpo-ses of blasting were obtained with no back blow,total blasted pile approximates to 4 ~ 5 m,no occurrence of flying stones and no damage to fixed buildings and equipment,the large-sized hyperbolic thin-wall reinforced concrete cool towers are twisted during blasting and it collapses well with good breaking.The test and measurement of blasting vibra-ting velocity was carried out during blasting and the measuring results are much less than critical values specified by Safety Regulations for Blasting.The study shows that gap form,gap size and gap angle are the key factors to cool tower collapse and will give beneficial references to related theoretical study and field application.

  20. Concept of CFD model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of CFD model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow. The physical phenomena taking place within a natural draft wet cooling tower are described by the system of conservation law equations along with additional equations. The heat and mass transfer in the counterflow wet-cooling tower fill are described by model [1] which is based on the system of ordinary differential equations. Utilization of model [1] of the fill allows us to apply commonly measured fill characteristics as shown by [2].The boundary value problem resulting from the fill model is solved separately. The system of conservation law equations is interlinked with the system of ordinary differential equations describing the phenomena occurring in the counterflow wet-cooling tower fill via heat and mass sources and via boundary conditions. The concept of numerical solution is presented for the quasi one dimensional model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow. The simulation results are shown.

  1. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and fountains in Seoul, Korea, from 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changkyu; Jeon, Sujin; Jung, Jihun; Oh, Younghee; Kim, Yeonsun; Lee, Jaein; Choi, Sungmin; Chae, Youngzoo; Lee, Young-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Legionnaire's disease is associated with a high mortality rate. The authors collected 3,495 water samples in Seoul, Korea, between 2010 and 2012 from public facilities (cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and decorative fountains), which are considered the major habitats of Legionella pneumophila. In all, 527 (15.1%) isolates of L. pneumophila were obtained by microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction. Serological diagnosis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis were performed for the samples. The authors categorized the samples into four groups (A-D) on the basis of PFGE results. The analysis revealed that cooling towers containing the most samples with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 constituted the highest proportion of isolate. Samples from public facilities and serogroups could be distinctively classified by PFGE patterns. Thus, it is expected that source-specific features revealed through PFGE and serological analyses could serve as the basis for effectively coping with future outbreaks of L. pneumophila.

  2. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pulliam, Elias Noel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  3. Overview of the Chalk Point Cooling Tower Project, 1972-1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, M.L. (ed.)

    1979-03-01

    The objectives, methodologies, data, and analytical results of the Chalk Point Cooling Tower Program are reviewed. The overview intergrates the concepts and activities of the various program elements to provide a coherent view of the program in its entirety. Samples of the various data acquired are included together with very brief summaries of the conclusions. The report is extensively referenced to provide specific directions to the more extensive treatments of the program, data tabulations, and tape libraries available in the complete library of Chalk Point reports. The Chalk Point data is a resource for the study of cooling tower salt deposition processes and impacts in general. The methods used, while developed to facilitate the assessment of salt drift impact at Chalk Point, also have applicability to cooling tower impact analysis at other sites.

  4. Amorphous silica scale in cooling waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, W.S.; Foyt, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    In 1968, most of the evaporation cooled recirculating water systems at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory were nearly inoperable due to scale. These systems, consisting of cooling towers, evaporative water coolers, evaporative condensers, and air washers had been operated on continuous blowdown without chemical treatment. The feedwater contained 80 mg/l silica. A successful program of routine chemical addition in the make-up water was begun. Blends of chelants, dispersants and corrosion inhibitors were found to gradually remove old scale, prevent new scale, and keep corrosion to less than an indicated rate of one mil per year. An explanation has been proposed that amorphous silica by itself does not form a troublesome scale. When combined with a crystal matrix such as calcite, the resultant silica containing scale can be quite troublesome. Rapid buildup of silica containing scale can be controlled and prevented by preventing formation of crystals from other constituents in the water such as hardness or iron. (auth)

  5. Thermal Performance for Wet Cooling Tower with Different Layout Patterns of Fillings under Typical Crosswind Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermal-state model experimental study was performed in lab to investigate the thermal performance of a wet cooling tower with different kinds of filling layout patterns under windless and 0.4 m/s crosswind conditions. In this paper, the contrast analysis was focused on comparing a uniform layout pattern and one kind of optimal non-uniform layout pattern when the environmental crosswind speed is 0 m/s and 0.4 m/s. The experimental results proved that under windless conditions, the heat transfer coefficient and total heat rejection of circulating water for the optimal non-uniform layout pattern can enhance by approximately 40% and 28%, respectively, compared with the uniform layout pattern. It was also discovered that the optimal non-uniform pattern can dramatically relieve the influence of crosswind on the thermal performance of the tower when the crosswind speed is equal to 0.4 m/s. For the uniform layout pattern, the heat transfer coefficient under 0.4 m/s crosswind conditions decreased by 9.5% compared with the windless conditions, while that value lowered only by 2.0% for the optimal non-uniform layout pattern. It has been demonstrated that the optimal non-uniform layout pattern has the better thermal performance under 0.4 m/s crosswind condition.

  6. Startup of air-cooled condensers and dry cooling towers at low temperatures of the cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, O. O.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Kondratev, A. V.; Shifrin, B. A.; Yankov, G. G.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of startup and performance of air-cooled condensers (ACC) and dry cooling towers (DCT) at low cooling air temperatures are considered. Effects of the startup of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures are described. Different options of the ACC heating up are analyzed, and examples of existing technologies are presented (electric heating, heating up with hot air or steam, and internal and external heating). The use of additional heat exchanging sections, steam tracers, in the DCT design is described. The need for high power in cases of electric heating and heating up with hot air is noted. An experimental stand for research and testing of the ACC startup at low temperatures is described. The design of the three-pass ACC unit is given, and its advantages over classical single-pass design at low temperatures are listed. The formation of ice plugs inside the heat exchanging tubes during the start-up of ACC and DCT at low cooling air temperatures is analyzed. Experimental data on the effect of the steam flow rate, steam nozzle distance from the heat-exchange surface, and their orientation in space on the metal temperature were collected, and test results are analyzed. It is noted that the surface temperature at the end of the heat up is almost independent from its initial temperature. Recommendations for the safe start-up of ACCs and DCTs are given. The heating flow necessary to sufficiently heat up heat-exchange surfaces of ACCs and DCTs for the safe startup is estimated. The technology and the process of the heat up of the ACC with the heating steam external supply are described by the example of the startup of the full-scale section of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures of the cooling air, and the advantages of the proposed start-up technology are confirmed.

  7. 蓄能式中央空调冷却水系统横流湿式冷却塔环保降噪的治理方法%The Administrative Methods for the Noise treatment FSR of the many sets of Mechanical Draft crossfolw Cooling Towers in Water Storage Central Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯荣贞; 刘晓东; 周玉琼

    2014-01-01

    This article takes noise treatment for the many sets of mechanical draft crossflow cooling towers noise for example ,which was layed on the housetop of water storage central air conditioning system. The plans of the noise treatment were given, and the analysis was also brought forward-which including single and united plan.The best plan was selected, the plan was to build the half obturated set of sound insulation and noise elimination, on which there were sound barriers, and to set noise suppressors in cistern of cooling tower. This set was used of light quality structure. Its load was transited by the steel column transmission to the original building column, so that the reinforcement processing measure to the housetop was omitted. Noise treatment measure was few effect of resistance losing for cooling towers, and kept cooling towers thermal performance and normal operation. This paper affords theorical basis for engineering, and a new way was found in decreasing noise of cooling tower.%本文针对蓄冷中央空调系统机力横流湿式冷却塔夜间低谷电满负荷蓄冷运行,白天电力峰值时部分释冷运行的特点及冷却塔自身的噪声污染进行了分析,提出了噪声治理方案,就单个方案及多方案联合进行了综合分析,最终选定了最优实施方案,即“半封闭式声屏导风板降噪+风机消音装置+落水消能降噪器”。半封闭式隔声屏导风板采用轻质结构,屋面增加的荷载通过钢立柱传递至原有建筑物砼立柱上,省去了对原有结构的加固处理措施。并且所采取的降噪措施对冷却塔进排风的阻力损失影响控制在允许范围之内,保证了冷却塔的热工性能及正常运行。本文对工程实际中的冷却塔的降噪提供了新思路。

  8. Cooling Tower Engineering in Thermal Power Generation%火力发电冷却塔工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳

    2014-01-01

    This paper expounds the working principle of thermal power cooling tower and introduces the construction scheme and safety facilities of the cooling tower.%阐述火力发电冷却塔的工作原理。同时,说明冷却塔施工作业方案及安全设施。

  9. Application of Heat Pump in Cooling Water System of HIRFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator generates a lot of heat when it is working.It must be cooled by the circulating cooling water.Generally the heat was released to atimosphere by the cooling water tower.Because the heat energy is very huge(about 2M watts for HIRFL),it is big waste and the machine can’t be cooled to appropriate temperature when ambient temperature is high in summer.In order to solve the problems,the heat pump has been used

  10. Desinfection of cooling towers and cooling water by UV-treatment on the example of a chemical company; Desinfektion von Kuehltuermen und Kuehlkreislaeufen durch UV-Behandlung am Beispiel eines Chemiebetriebs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuters, J.; Carbone, J. [Sadepan Chimica NV (Belgium); Daele, D. van (DVD Technology); Dams, S.; Weckenmann, J.; Soerensen, M. [a.c.k. aqua concept GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Using a Belgian adhesives manufacturer as example, it is shown how formation and growth of micro-organisms can adversely affect a modern manufacturing process. The problem lies not with the actual process solution, but in the cooling section. Installation of a suitably-configured UV reactor allowed long-term operation without any problems from micro-organisms. The outcome was a much more stable process at acceptable cost and with significantly lower volumes of solid waste. (orig.)

  11. SIMULATION OF COOLING TOWER AND INFLUENCE OF AERODYNAMIC ELEMENTS ON ITS WORK UNDER CONDITIONS OF WIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dobrego

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern Cooling Towers (CT may utilize different aerodynamic elements (deflectors, windbreak walls etc. aimed to improvement of its heat performance especially at the windy conditions. In this paper the effect of flow rotation in overshower zone of CT and windbreak walls on a capacity of tower evaporating unit in the windy condition is studied numerically. Geometry of the model corresponds to real Woo-Jin Power station, China. Analogy of heat and mass transfer was used that allowed to consider aerodynamic of one-dimension flow and carried out detailed 3D calculations applying modern PC. Heat transfer coefficient of irrigator and its hydrodynamic resistance were established according to experimental data on total air rate in cooling tower. Numerical model is tested and verified with experimental data.Nonlinear dependence of CT thermal performance on wind velocity is demonstrated with the minimum (critical wind velocity at ucr ~ 8 m/s for simulated system. Application of windbreak walls does not change the value of the critical wind velocity, but may improves performance of cooling unit at moderate and strong wind conditions. Simultaneous usage of windbreak walls and overshower deflectors may increase efficiency up to 20–30 % for the deflectors angle a = 60o. Simulation let one analyze aerodynamic patterns, induced inside cooling tower and homogeneity of velocities’ field in irrigator’s area.Presented results may be helpful for the CT aerodynamic design optimization, particularly, for perspective hybrid type CTs.

  12. 公共场所冷却塔水嗜肺军团菌的基因序列分型研究%Sequence-based typing of Legionella pneumophila isolates from the water of public cooling tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章乐怡; 李毅; 郑文力; 马雪莲

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the genetic characteristics of Legionellapneumophila (LP) isolated from cooling tower water of the central air conditioning systems in public place of Wenzhou City by the sequence -based typing (SBT) . Seven housekeeping genes including flak , asd, mip, pilE, mompS, proA , and neuA were amplified by PCR from 31 strains of LP, and then the amplified products were sequenced and the results were compared with the database of EWGLI . Furthermore, genotyping results were analyzed by DNAsp 5 .0 , BioNumerics 5 .1, and SplitsTree . Results showed that among 31 LP strains , 11 strains of LP1 were divided into 2 sequence types (STs), and 17 strains of non-LPl were divided into 8 STs , including 7 new STs and one new allele gene. The neuA gene was not amplified from 3 strains , and hence they were not assigned to a specific genotype . The range of 7 housekeeping genes' nucleotide polymorphism (Pi) was 0 .00995 (mip) to 0 .02311 {flaA ) with that flaA has the highest nucleotide polymorphism . The genetic evolutionary relationship of the local isolates was obtained by using cluster analysis . In brief, L . pneumophila strains from the cooling tower water in public place in Wenzhou City are relat -ed to other domestic and foreign strains , and also have region-specific and genetic diversity .%目的 为了解温州市中央空调冷却塔水中嗜肺军团菌(Legionella pneumophila,LP)基因特征,采用序列分型方法(sequenced-based typing,SBT)对公共场所中央空调冷却塔水中的嗜肺军团菌进行分子分型研究.方法选择嗜肺军团菌的7 个管家基因 flaA、asd、mip、pilE、mompS、proA 和 neuA 作为目的 基因,对温州市公共场所中央空调冷却塔水中分离的31株嗜肺军团菌进行PCR扩增并测序.测序结果上传欧盟军团菌感染工作组(EWGLI)数据库进行比对、分型.运用DNAsp 5.0 、Bionumerics5.1及SplitsTree 等软件对分型结果进行分析.结果 31株嗜肺军团菌中,11

  13. Wastewater reuse in a cascade based system of a petrochemical industry for the replacement of losses in cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Everton; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Aquim, Patrice Monteiro de

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the mapping of opportunities for the water reuse in a cascade based system in a petrochemical industry in southern Brazil. This industrial sector has a large demand for water for its operation. In the studied industry, for example, approximately 24 million cubic meters of water were collected directly from the source in 2014. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the reuse of water in cascade in a petrochemical industry, focusing on the reuse of aqueous streams to replenish losses in the cooling towers. This is an industrial scale case study with real data collected during the years 2014 and 2015. Water reuse was performed using heuristic approach based on the exploitation of knowledge acquired during the search process. The methodology of work consisted of the construction of a process map identifying the stages of production and water consumption, as well as the characterization of the aqueous streams involved in the process. For the application of the industrial water reuse as cooling water, mass balances were carried out considering the maximum concentration levels of turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters. The adopted guideline was the fulfillment of the water quality criteria for each application in the industrial process. The study showed the feasibility for the reuse of internal streams as makeup water in cooling towers, and the implementation of the reuse presented in this paper totaled savings of 385,440 m(3)/year of water, which means a sufficient volume to supply 6350 inhabitants for a period of one year, considering the average water consumption per capita in Brazil; in addition to 201,480 m(3)/year of wastewater that would no longer be generated.

  14. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  15. Solving the heat transfer in the cold rain of a cross flow cooling tower. N3S code - cooling tower release; Traitement thermique de la zone de pluie des aerorefrigerants a contre-courant. Code N3S - version aerorefrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grange, J.L.

    1996-09-01

    A simplified model for heat and mass transfer in the lower rainfall of a counter-flow cooling toward had to be implemented in the N3S code-cooling tower release It is built from an old code: ZOPLU. The air velocity field is calculated by N3S. The air and water temperature fields are solved by a Runge-Kutta method on a mesh in an adequate number of vertical plans. Heat exchange and drags correlations are given. And all the necessary parameters are specified. All the subroutines are described. They are taken from ZOPLU and modified in order to adapt their abilities to the N3S requirements. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs., 3 appends.

  16. THREE-DIMENSIONAL REGULARITIES OF DISTRIBUTION OF AIR-INLET CHARACTERISTIC VELOCITY IN NATURAL-DRAFT WET COOLING TOWER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kai; SUN Feng-zhong; ZHAO Yuan-bin; GAO Ming; SHI Yue-tao

    2008-01-01

    A model for heat and mass transfer in a natural-draft wet cooling tower was established. Numerical simulation with the k-ε turbulent model was conducted. Distribution rules of air inlet aerodynamic field were studied. Field experiments were done in a cooling tower in power plant, and the test data was compared with the related results. The definition of characteristic air velocity was proposed and its influencing factors, such as the cross-wind velocity and circumferential angle, were quantitatively studied. It can be used to evaluate the performance of cooling tower and to calculate the ventilation quantity and resistance of air inlet. It is also a theoretical basis for cooling tower design and performance optimization.

  17. Prediction of ground vibration due to the collapse of a 235 m high cooling tower under accidental loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Feng; Li, Yi [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Gu, Xianglin, E-mail: gxl@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao, Xinyuan [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Tang, Dongsheng [Guangdong Electric Power Design Institute, No. 1 Tianfeng Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510663 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Ground vibration due to the collapse of a huge cooling tower was predicted. ► Accidental loads with different characteristics caused different collapse modes. ► Effect of ground vibration on the nuclear-related facilities cannot be ignored. -- Abstract: A comprehensive approach is presented in this study for the prediction of the ground vibration due to the collapse of a 235 m high cooling tower, which can be caused by various accidental loads, e.g., explosion or strong wind. The predicted ground motion is to be used in the safety evaluation of nuclear-related facilities adjacent to the cooling tower, as well as the plant planning of a nuclear power station to be constructed in China. Firstly, falling weight tests were conducted at a construction site using the dynamic compaction method. The ground vibrations were measured in the form of acceleration time history. A finite element method based “falling weight-soil” model was then developed and verified by field test results. Meanwhile, the simulated collapse processes of the cooling tower under two accidental loads were completed in a parallel study, the results of which are briefly introduced in this paper. Furthermore, based on the “falling weight-soil” model, “cooling tower-soil” models were developed for the prediction of the ground vibrations induced by two collapse modes of the cooling tower. Finally, for a deep understanding of the vibration characteristics, a parametric study was also conducted with consideration of different collapse profiles, soil geologies as well as the arrangements of an isolation trench. It was found that severe ground vibration occurred in the vicinity of the cooling tower when the collapse happened. However, the vibration attenuated rapidly with the increase in distance from the cooling tower. Moreover, the “collapse in integrity” mode and the rock foundation contributed to exciting intense ground vibration. By appropriately arranging an isolation

  18. An Energy-Saving Optimisation of the Large-Scale Cross-Flow Cooling Tower%大型横流塔的节能优化方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗洁

    2012-01-01

    大型横流冷却塔一般采用钢筋混凝土结构,近年来在我国发展迅速。本研究旨在通过消除气场涡流降低风阻及改进填料等手段提高冷却塔冷却效率。原塔设计填料为75mm×35mm×30°P.V.C薄膜式填料,实际运行冷却效率0.623,与设计要求的0.75相比差距较大。通过优化改造设计,单塔风量提高50%以上,单位千瓦电耗产风量提高40%,单塔出水温度降低2℃,冷却效率达0.788。%The large-scale cross-flow cooling tower generally using reinforced concrete structure has recently been developed rapidly in China. A study was carried out to improve its cooling efficiency through eliminating eddy in the air-flow field to reduce drag, improving packing, and etc. The filler of the original tower design was 75 mm ×35 mm×30° PVC film packing. The cooling efficiency of practical operation was only 0.623, far lower than 0.75 of the design specification. By an optimal renovation in design of the cross-flow cooling tower, air volume of a single tower increased by 50%, air output per kilowatt power consumption raised 40% and outlet water temperature of the single tower decreased 2 ℃ whilst the cooling efficiency reached 0.788.

  19. Acidity of vapor plume from cooling tower mixed with flue gases emitted from coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Korszun, Katarzyna; Fudala, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Acidity of products resulting from the reaction of flue gas components emitted from a coal-fired power plant with water contained in a vapor plume from a wet cooling tower was analyzed in a close vicinity of a power plant (710 m from the stack and 315 m from the cooling tower). Samples of this mixture were collected using a precipitation funnel where components of the mixed plumes were discharged from the atmosphere with the rainfall. To identify situations when the precipitation occurred at the same time as the wind directed the mixed vapor and flue gas plumes above the precipitation funnel, an ultrasound anemometer designed for 3D measurements of the wind field located near the funnel was used. Precipitation samples of extremely high acidity were identified - about 5% of samples collected during 12 months showed the acidity below pH=3 and the lowest recorded pH was 1.4. During the measurement period the value of pH characterizing the background acidity of the precipitation was about 6. The main outcome of this study was to demonstrate a very high, and so far completely underestimated, potential of occurrence of episodes of extremely acid depositions in the immediate vicinity of a coal-fired power plant.

  20. Testing and numerical simulation of natural draft cooling tower%自然通风冷却塔运行实测与模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡天乐; 谢晓云; 江亿

    2016-01-01

    Through practical measurement on a natural draft cooling tower in a 150 MW unit,the efficiency and coefficient of heat and mass transfer in the tower were obtained,and several problems during the tower operation and its performance optimization direction were found.On this basis,the temperature and pres-sure distribution in rain area and filling area of the cooling tower were numerically simulated.The results show that,with the filling material thickness of 3.0 m inside the cooling tower,42.1% temperature drop needs 55.8% pressure loss,and the optimum thickness of the padding is around 2.5 m.The optimum oper-ation strategy of this circulating cooling water pump is one pump with two towers,and the wet bulb effi-ciency of the cooling tower can reach 75.0%,the net power generation can increase by 3.007 MW com-pared with the unit using two pumps with one tower strategy.%通过对某150 MW机组的自然通风冷却塔进行实际测试,得到该冷却塔的热质交换效率与系数,并发现其运行过程中的一些问题及性能优化方向;基于此,采用微元差分法对该冷却塔的雨区和填料区进行温度及压力分布的数值模拟.结果表明:在该冷却塔的填料厚度为3.0 m时,其仅贡献42.1%的温降却需要损耗55.8%的空气压降,冷却塔最优填料厚度约为2.5 m;该机组的最优循环冷却水泵运行策略为1泵拖2塔,此时冷却塔的湿球效率可达75.0%,机组净发电量比其他循环冷却水泵运行策略多3.007 MW.

  1. Ammonia as an intermediate heat exchange fluid for dry cooled towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemann, R T; Johnson, B M; Smith, G C

    1976-09-01

    The feasibility of using ammonia as an intermediate heat exchange fluid, i.e. between the power plant and the dry cooling tower was studied. Information is included on the advantages and disadvantages of using ammonia, design criteria for such a dry cooling system, and a comparative cost projection for the components and overall system. The results showed that the ammonia heat exchange system could save half the cost of transporting the coolant as compared with a conventional indirect cooled dry system, that the heat exchanger cost would be 20 percent less, and the tower would be smaller and cheaper. The condenser/reboiler would be more expensive. Overall a 25 percent saving in total system capital cost and $500 K/yr. in operating costs are projected as compared with wet/dry deluge system of identical capability. Also there are no freezing problems with the ammonia system. It is recommended that: a demonstration unit be designed; performance testing on components be undertaken; a design optimization code for dry/wet systems be developed; and that a test loop be constructed and operated. (LCL)

  2. NPP planning based on analysis of ground vibration caused by collapse of large-scale cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Feng; Ji, Hongkui [Department of Structural Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Gu, Xianglin, E-mail: gxl@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Structural Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Yi [Department of Structural Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Mingreng; Lin, Tao [East China Electric Power Design Institute Co., Ltd, No. 409 Wuning Road, Shanghai 200063 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • New recommendations for NPP planning were addressed taking into account collapse-induced ground vibration. • Critical factors influencing the collapse-induced ground vibration were investigated. • Comprehensive approach was presented to describe the initiation and propagation of collapse-induced disaster. - Abstract: Ground vibration induced by collapse of large-scale cooling towers can detrimentally influence the safe operation of adjacent nuclear-related facilities. To prevent and mitigate these hazards, new planning methods for nuclear power plants (NPPs) were studied considering the influence of these hazards. First, a “cooling tower-soil” model was developed, verified, and used as a numerical means to investigate ground vibration. Afterwards, five critical factors influencing collapse-induced ground vibration were analyzed in-depth. These influencing factors included the height and weight of the towers, accidental loads, soil properties, overlying soil, and isolation trench. Finally, recommendations relating to the control and mitigation of collapse-induced ground vibration in NPP planning were proposed, which addressed five issues, i.e., appropriate spacing between a cooling tower and the nuclear island, control of collapse modes, sitting of a cooling tower and the nuclear island, application of vibration reduction techniques, and the influence of tower collapse on surroundings.

  3. Measures for noise pollution abatement in existing cooling tower systems; Massnahmen zur Geraeuschminderung an bestehenden Kuehlturmanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niessen, R. [Sulzer-Escher Wyss GmbH, Lindau (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The operator`s order discussed by the paper was for planning and performance of backfitting measures for noise pollution abatement in an existing cooling tower system equipped with sound attenuation devices. Although the existing plant was operating in compliance with the legal noise emission limits, residents of neighbouring dwellings had been complaining about noise pollution. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Aufgabe, eine nachtraegliche Massnahme zur Laermminderung an einer bestehenden, mit Schalldaempfern ausgeruesteten Anlage zu planen und durchzufuehren, wurde vom Betreiber einer Rueckkuehlanlage gestellt. Der vom Gesetzgeber definierte Grenzwert fuer den Nachtbetrieb wurde mit der bestehenden Anlage zwar erreicht, doch die Anwohner fuehlten eine Belaestigung durch den Anlagenbetrieb. (orig./GL)

  4. Reinforced concrete corrosion: Application of Bayesian networks to the risk management of a cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, B.; Le Drogo, J.; Wolff, V.

    2006-11-01

    Degradation modelling of concrete structures uses uncertain variables and leads, using reliability assessment, to time dependant evolution of failure probabilities. However, only few data are generally available to feed models leading to two types of uncertainties: an intrinsic one depending on the modelled phenomena and one related to the precision of the measurement. Each new data available is a piece of information which allows to update the initial prediction. In this article, an example of updating process, based on a Bayesian network, is presented and applied on the corrosion risk of a cooling tower.

  5. Reinforced concrete corrosion: Application of Bayesian networks to the risk management of a cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capra, B.; Le Drogo, J.; Wolff, V. [OXAND S.A., 36 bis avenue F. Roosevelt, 77210 Avon (France)

    2006-07-01

    Degradation modelling of concrete structures uses uncertain variables and leads, using reliability assessment, to time dependant evolution of failure probabilities. However, only few data are generally available to feed models leading to two types of uncertainties: an intrinsic one depending on the modelled phenomena and one related to the precision of the measurement. Each new data available is a piece of information which allows to update the initial prediction. In this article, an example of updating process, based on a Bayesian network, is presented and applied on the corrosion risk of a cooling tower. (authors)

  6. Synthesis of some novel sulfonamide derivatives and investigating their biocidal activity in cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawi, Abdelfattah M.; Mohamed, Dalia Emam; Hafiz, Amal A.; Amed, Sahar M. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt). Applied Surfactants Lab.; Gohar, Yousry M. [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Microbiology Div.; Soliman, El-Sayed Ahmed [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.; Sanan, Mohamed S. [Alexandria National Refining and Petrochemical Co. (ANRPC), Alexandria (Egypt)

    2011-03-15

    A novel series of dibenzothiophenedioxide sulphonamide derivatives were synthesized and tested as antimicrobial agents. The chemical structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed by micro elemental analysis, fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-NMR). The surface parameters of two of the prepared compounds were determined at 35 C including, surface tension, effectiveness, maximum surface excess and minimum surface area. Also the standard free energy of micellization and adsorption were recorded. The results showed that the prepared sulphonamides have good surface properties and effective antimicrobial activity against thirty three test organisms isolated from cooling towers. (orig.)

  7. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  8. Water Towers, Water Towers - includes City water tanks, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Water...

  9. An experimental investigation on air-side performances of finned tube heat exchangers for indirect air-cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A tremendous quantity of water can be saved if the air cooling system is used, comparing with the ordinary water-cooling technology. In this study, two kinds of finned tube heat exchangers in an indirect air-cooling tower are experimentally studied, which are a plain finned oval-tube heat exchanger and a wavy-finned flat-tube heat exchanger in a cross flow of air. Four different air inlet angles (90°, 60 °, 45°, and 30° are tested separately to obtain the heat transfer and resistance performance. Then the air-side experimental correlations of the Nusselt number and friction factor are acquired. The comprehensive heat transfer performances for two finned tube heat exchangers under four air inlet angles are compared. For the plain finned oval-tube heat exchanger, the vertical angle (90° has the worst performance while 45° and 30° has the best performance at small ReDc and at large ReDc, respectively. For the wavy-finned flat-tube heat exchanger, the worst performance occurred at 60°, while the best performance occurred at 45° and 90° at small ReDc and at large ReDc, respectively. From the comparative results, it can be found that the air inlet angle has completely different effects on the comprehensive heat transfer performance for the heat exchangers with different structures.

  10. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  11. Cleaning device for cooling elements of a dry cooling tower consisting of finned tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelp, F.

    1980-02-07

    A nozzle housing is set on to the cooling elements which is equipped with intermediate walls as air guides. A compressed air connection and a suction air connection can be moved vertically in the nozzle housing by a transport spindle. There is a measuring device for dust loading between the two connections.

  12. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    . To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air...

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily III, W D

    2010-02-24

    This document was created to comply with the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (CVRWQCB) Waste Discharge Requirement (Order No. 98-148). This order established new requirements to assess the effect of and effort required to reduce salts in process water discharged to the subsurface. This includes the review of technical, operational, and management options available to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in cooling tower and mechanical equipment water discharges at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) facility. It was observed that for the six cooling towers currently in operation, the total volume of groundwater used as make up water is about 27 gallons per minute and the discharge to the subsurface via percolation pits is 13 gallons per minute. The extracted groundwater has a TDS concentration of 700 mg/L. The cooling tower discharge concentrations range from 700 to 1,400 mg/L. There is also a small volume of mechanical equipment effluent being discharged to percolation pits, with a TDS range from 400 to 3,300 mg/L. The cooling towers and mechanical equipment are maintained and operated in a satisfactory manner. No major leaks were identified. Currently, there are no re-use options being employed. Several approaches known to reduce the blow down flow rate and/or TDS concentration being discharged to the percolation pits and septic systems were reviewed for technical feasibility and cost efficiency. These options range from efforts as simple as eliminating leaks to implementing advanced and innovative treatment methods. The various options considered, and their anticipated effect on water consumption, discharge volumes, and reduced concentrations are listed and compared in this report. Based on the assessment, it was recommended that there is enough variability in equipment usage, chemistry, flow rate, and discharge configurations that each discharge location at Site 300

  14. Application of Energy-saving Technology of No Filler Spray Cooling Tower with Free Electricity%无填料免电喷雾冷却塔节能技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖素霞; 刘立友; 王歌飞

    2013-01-01

    No filler spray cooling tower with free electricity is a new kind of industrial circulating water cooling equipment, and its cooling effect is more ideal than ordinary packing cooling tower. Its cooling capacity increases 8-10% than the conventional mechanical ventilation filler cooling tower, and it has lower requirements for the over affluent injecting distance of system, and saves more than 95%of the filler, and reduces the maintenance costs of the equipment. So it saves more energy tan the ordinary no filler spray cooling tower, saving above 70KW, so its energy-saving effect is obvious.%  无填料免电喷雾冷却塔是一种新型的工业循环水降温设备,它比普通的填料冷却塔降温效果理想,冷量比普通机械通风填料降温塔提高8-10%,免电喷雾冷却塔对系统的富裕扬程要求偏低,节省95%以上的填料,降低了设备的维修费用。比普通无填料喷雾冷却塔更节能,单塔节约70KW以上,节电效果明显。

  15. 节能降噪冷却塔的应用综述%Summary on Energy-saving and Noise Reduction Cooling Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨护洲; 杨若松

    2015-01-01

    节能型自然通风冷却塔带有高位收水器和高位集水池,具有降噪的特点。超大高位收水冷却塔是从大型核电工程开始应用的,也适用大型火电工程;掌握其适用条件十分重要。%Energy-saving nature draft cooling tower with high-level cold water collectors and high-level basin, there are noise reduction characteristic. The super large tower with high-level cold water collectors are used begin from a large-scale nuclear power engineering applications, is also applicable to fossil fuel power plant;Master the applicable conditions is very important.

  16. Research on Cooling Tower Prevent Ice Technology%冷却塔的防冰技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪

    2012-01-01

    Cooling tower cooling tower blinds icing is north universal existence question,shutter freeze effects of tower cooling effect,increase the structural load,reduces the life of the structure,destruction of cooling tower packing,the inevitable result of the cooling efficiency to reduce,increase the transformation frequency caused by ice,high energy consumption,fan fault frequently.Based on the cause analysis of cooling tower icing and deicing solutions feasibility study,and study out the specific solutions,and applied to practical,achieved good results and economic benefits,use of chemical ice technology to solve the northern winter blinds icing problems.%冷却塔的百叶窗结冰是北方冷却塔普遍存在的问题。百叶窗结冰会影响塔的冷却效果,增加结构负荷,降低结构的使用寿命,破坏冷却塔的填料,不可避免地造成冷却效率降低,增加反转化冰的频率,造成能耗高、风机故障频繁。通过对冷却塔结冰原因的分析和防冰解决方案的可行性研究,给出了具体解决方案,并应用于实际,取得良好的效果和经济效益。利用该防冰技术可以有效解决冬季北方百叶窗结冰的难题。

  17. Successful implementation of ageing management exemplified at the cooling tower of Emsland nuclear power plant; Erfolgreiche Umsetzung von Alterungsmanagement am Beispiel Kuehlturm des Kernkraftwerkes Emsland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Alexander [Hochtief Solutions AG, Consult IKS Energy, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Design Kraftwerke; Dueweling, Carsten [Kernkraftwerke Lippe-Ems GmbH, Lingen (Germany). Abschnitt Bautechnik

    2013-07-15

    The present paper describes the successful implementation of the restoration of water-distribution channels at the cooling tower of the Emsland nuclear power plant under the aspect of ageing management. The main challenge of aging management is the determination of potential aging mechanism and to avoid systematically and effectively their damaging influences. In the course of the annual site inspections abnormalities at the lower side of the water-distribution channels of the cooling tower were detected, analysed, and repaired. The extraordinary high chlorine equivalent of the cooling water was identified as main reason of the damages located. Due to extensive infiltration into the concrete structure, chloride-induced corrosion generates a volume expansion of the reinforcement and thereby to a blast off of the concrete covering. According to the restoration concept, the damaged concrete was removed by maximum pressure water jet blasting; where necessary the reinforcement was retrofitted and a layered concrete substitution was applied by synthetic cement mortar. The realised procedures conserve the load bearing reinforcement only for a certain period, because the permanent chloride infiltration could not be stopped. Therefore, the structure has to be monitored permanently. (orig.)

  18. Cooling Tower Optimization A Simple Way to Generate Green Megawatts and to Increase the Efficiency of a Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.

    2014-07-01

    The profitability of nuclear power plants is worldwide challenged by low electricity prices. One hand low cost shale gas is offering a low price electricity production , other hand additional taxes on fuel are reducing the operating income of nuclear power stations. The optimization of cooling towers can help to increase the efficiency and profit of a nuclear power plant. (Author)

  19. Free-living amoebae and their associated bacteria in Austrian cooling towers: a 1-year routine screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheikl, Ute; Tsao, Han-Fei; Horn, Matthias; Indra, Alexander; Walochnik, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely spread in the environment and known to cause rare but often serious infections. Besides this, FLA may serve as vehicles for bacterial pathogens. In particular, Legionella pneumophila is known to replicate within FLA thereby also gaining enhanced infectivity. Cooling towers have been the source of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in the past and are thus usually screened for legionellae on a routine basis, not considering, however, FLA and their vehicle function. The aim of this study was to incorporate a screening system for host amoebae into a Legionella routine screening. A new real-time PCR-based screening system for various groups of FLA was established. Three cooling towers were screened every 2 weeks over the period of 1 year for FLA and Legionella spp., by culture and molecular methods in parallel. Altogether, 83.3 % of the cooling tower samples were positive for FLA, Acanthamoeba being the dominating genus. Interestingly, 69.7 % of the cooling tower samples were not suitable for the standard Legionella screening due to their high organic burden. In the remaining samples, positivity for Legionella spp. was 25 % by culture, but overall positivity was 50 % by molecular methods. Several amoebal isolates revealed intracellular bacteria.

  20. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water...

  1. Water Towers, Water Towers in 9 county region in South Georgia, Published in 1999, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1999. It is described as 'Water...

  2. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and

  3. Driving gear for cooling towers - design, noise abatement, maintenance; Antriebssysteme fuer Kuehltuerme - Auslegung, Schallschutz, Instandhaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niestegge, J.; Plesser, J. [Flender (A.F.) und Co., Bocholt (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Any optimal design of a cooling tower driving gear requires as precise as possible information on the operating conditions in practice. In addition, design engineers use verified data warranting reliable operation of the driving gears. From those data together with information on the specific operating environment and position in the cooling system, engineers derive the application-specific design data for the driving mechanisms, such as for instance special protective coatings, or specific bearing geometries. Other requirements considered include aspects of maintenance and noise abatement. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Eine optimale Auslegung von Kuehlturmantrieben bedingt eine moeglichst exakte Angabe der Betriebsbedingungen. Darueber hinaus fliessen in die Auslegung Erfahrungswerte ein, die einen stoerungsfreien Betrieb der Getriebe gewaehrleisten. Mit diesen Daten und unter Beruecksichtigung des speziellen Aufstellortes ergibt sich ein kuehlturmspezifisches Getriebe, das z.B. durch den vergroesserten Lagerabstand oder durch die Sonderlackierung den Anforderungen im Kuehlturmbau in groesstmoeglicher Weise gerecht wird. Massgaben hinsichtlich der Wartungsfreundlichkeit und des Geraeuschverhaltens werden bei der Auslegung ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. (orig.)

  4. Hydraulic design of a low-specific speed Francis runner for a hydraulic cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, H.; Luo, X. Q.; Liao, W. L.; Zhao, Y. P.

    2012-11-01

    The air blower in a cooling tower is normally driven by an electromotor, and the electric energy consumed by the electromotor is tremendous. The remaining energy at the outlet of the cooling cycle is considerable. This energy can be utilized to drive a hydraulic turbine and consequently to rotate the air blower. The purpose of this project is to recycle energy, lower energy consumption and reduce pollutant discharge. Firstly, a two-order polynomial is proposed to describe the blade setting angle distribution law along the meridional streamline in the streamline equation. The runner is designed by the point-to-point integration method with a specific blade setting angle distribution. Three different ultra-low-specificspeed Francis runners with different wrap angles are obtained in this method. Secondly, based on CFD numerical simulations, the effects of blade setting angle distribution on pressure coefficient distribution and relative efficiency have been analyzed. Finally, blade angles of inlet and outlet and control coefficients of blade setting angle distribution law are optimal variables, efficiency and minimum pressure are objective functions, adopting NSGA-II algorithm, a multi-objective optimization for ultra-low-specific speed Francis runner is carried out. The obtained results show that the optimal runner has higher efficiency and better cavitation performance.

  5. Biofouling Control in Cooling Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Reg Bott

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of environmental engineering is the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Fossil fuel-fired power stations, for instance, represent a substantial contribution to this problem. Unless suitable steps are taken the accumulation of microbial deposits (biofouling on the cooling water side of the steam condensers can reduce their efficiency and in consequence, the overall efficiency of power production, with an attendant increase in fuel consumption and hence CO2 production. Biofouling control, therefore, is extremely important and can be exercised by chemical or physical techniques or a combination of both. The paper gives some examples of the effectiveness of different approaches to biofouling control.

  6. Demonstration of Noncorrosive, Capacitance- Based Water-Treatment Technology for Chilled-Water Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    different operating conditions. In this project, the water-management system used at each cooling tower consisted of the following components for web ...wireless remote control. Real-time monitoring was accomplished via web connection to the data controller and software, which allowed system...was scraped off to determine whether new scale would form on the tubes, or to determine if the scale present during the first inspection was old

  7. Implications of Transitioning from De Facto to Engineered Water Reuse for Power Plant Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Zachary A; Stillwell, Ashlynn S

    2016-05-17

    Thermoelectric power plants demand large quantities of cooling water, and can use alternative sources like treated wastewater (reclaimed water); however, such alternatives generate many uncertainties. De facto water reuse, or the incidental presence of wastewater effluent in a water source, is common at power plants, representing baseline conditions. In many cases, power plants would retrofit open-loop systems to cooling towers to use reclaimed water. To evaluate the feasibility of reclaimed water use, we compared hydrologic and economic conditions at power plants under three scenarios: quantified de facto reuse, de facto reuse with cooling tower retrofits, and modeled engineered reuse conditions. We created a genetic algorithm to estimate costs and model optimal conditions. To assess power plant performance, we evaluated reliability metrics for thermal variances and generation capacity loss as a function of water temperature. Applying our analysis to the greater Chicago area, we observed high de facto reuse for some power plants and substantial costs for retrofitting to use reclaimed water. Conversely, the gains in reliability and performance through engineered reuse with cooling towers outweighed the energy investment in reclaimed water pumping. Our analysis yields quantitative results of reclaimed water feasibility and can inform sustainable management of water and energy.

  8. Biocide efficiency against Legionellae and amoebae in cooling towers - the necessity to control the risk of Legionnaires' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guhl, W.; Hater, W.; Stumpe, S. [Henkel KGaA, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Legionella, known to be the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is a wide-spread bacteria occurring naturally in water. Favorable growing conditions in man-made systems can lead to massive growth and thus to a considerable risk for human beings. Evaporative cooling towers provide good living conditions due to their operational conditions. As a consequence, the growth of Legionella in these systems has to be controlled. Amongst other measures biocides are dosed to control the growth of the microbiological population and thus the possible risk of an infection by Legionellae. However, Legionella preferably lives in biofilms and/or amoebae, which strongly shelter this microbe. Furthermore, amoebae by themselves can be harmful to humans as well. Therefore, a biocide treatment should control Legionella (planktonic in water and in biofilms/amoebae) as well as the amoebae. This paper shows that an adapted biocide treatment can increase the efficiency of a biocide against Legionellae and amoebae und therefore minimize the risk of an infection by Legionella. (orig.)

  9. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ADVERSE EFFECT OF WIND ON THE HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMANCE OF TWO NATURAL DRAFT COOLING TOWERS IN TANDEM ARRANGEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符松; 翟志强

    2001-01-01

    This article reports the findings on the adverse effect of the crosswind on the performance of natural draft cooling towers through numerical computation with the k-ε eddy-viscosity turbulence model. It is observed here that the cause of the adverse effect of the crosswind on the cooling towers can be attributed to the around flow effect which destroys the radial inflow into the cooling towers when the wind is absent. Hence, a significant deterioration in the heat transfer from the heat exchangers at lateral sides occurs.

  10. Water Towers, City of Darlington Water Towers, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Towers dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is described as...

  11. Analysis on Application of Dry Cooling Tower for Freeze Protection in Winter%干式冷却塔冬季防冻的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜春

    2016-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented to predict the condensing and frost formation characteristics on the heat transfer surfaces by simultaneously considering the condensing and frost layer. The model employs one-dimensional transient formulation based upon the local averaging technique, taking into account the variation of the frost density and thickness. The presented model is validated by comparing with the experimental data provided by the dry cooling tower manufacturer. It is found that, the model can predict the heat transfer performance of the dry cooling tower with accuracy within 2.19%. Dry cooling tower heat transfer performance at different air and water flow rates are predicted when it operates with water as heat transfer fluid during the winter period. The mathematical model and research results are helpful to the operation of such kind of dry cooling tower with water as the coolant during the winter period.%本文通过同时考虑冷凝和结霜层提出了一个能预测换热表面冷凝和结霜特性的数值模型。该模型采用基于局部平均的一维瞬态的数值方法,同时考虑了霜层密度和厚度的变化。该模型通过干式冷却塔制造商提供的实验数据来进行验证。模拟结果表明,该模型能有效预测干式冷却塔的传热性能,其精度在2.19%的范围内。同时计算了在冬季以水为传热工质情况下,不同空气和水流速的干式冷却塔的传热性能。本文的数值模型和研究结果将有助于以水为传热工质的干式冷却塔在冬季的运营和操作。

  12. Forward osmosis applied to evaporative cooling make-up water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoll, Peter; Thompson, Neil; Gray, Victoria [Modern Water plc, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-15

    Modern Water is in the process of developing a number of forward osmosis based technologies, ranging from desalination to power generation. This paper outlines the progress made to date on the development and commercial deployment of a forward osmosis based process for the production of evaporative cooling tower make-up water from impaired water sources, including seawater. Evaporative cooling requires significant amounts of good quality water to replace the water lost by evaporation, drift and blowdown. This water can be provided by conventional desalination processes or by the use of tertiary treated sewage effluent. The conventional processes are well documented and understood in terms of operation and power consumption. A new process has been successfully developed and demonstrated that provides make-up water directly, using a core platform 'forward osmosis' technology. This new technology shows significant promise in allowing various raw water sources, such as seawater, to be used directly in the forward osmosis step, thus releasing the use of scarce and valuable high grade water for other more important uses. The paper presents theoretical and operational results for the process, where it is shown that the process can produce make-up water at a fraction of the operational expenditure when compared to conventional processes, in particular regarding power consumption, which in some cases may be as low as 15 % compared to competing processes. Chemical additives to the cooling water (osmotic agent) are retained within the process, thus reducing their overall consumption. Furthermore the chemistry of the cooling water does not support the growth of Legionella pneumophila. Corrosion results are also reported. (orig.)

  13. Survey of Legionella pneumophila in cooling tower water of central air conditioning system in guangxi in 2009-2012%广西2009~2012年集中式中央空调冷却塔水嗜肺军团菌调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖和壮; 林玫; 权怡; 周凌云

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解广西公共场所集中式中央空调冷却塔水嗜肺军团菌污染状况,为科学防制提供依据.方法 采集2009~2012年广西14个地级市公共场所301份集中式中央空调冷却塔水进行嗜肺军团菌培养及鉴定.结果 共检出嗜肺军团菌95株,阳性率31.56%(95/301),LP1型占54.74% (52/95),LP2-15型占45.26%(43/95).中央空调系统使用单位(酒店、宾馆、超市和医院)该菌阳性率40.29% (83/206).45株嗜肺军团菌1型经脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分型,获得了41种基因型别,带型比较分散,未发现绝对优势带型.结论 广西公共场所水体嗜肺军团菌污染普遍存在且较严重,对人群健康构成潜在威胁,需要引起重视,以防军团菌病的暴发流行.%Objective To understand the prevalence of Legionella pneumophila in cooling tower water in public places of Guangxi,.Methods A total of 301 samples of cooling tower water were collected from the central air-conditioning system in 14 prefectures of Guangxi during 2009 and 2012.Bacterial culture and identification for Legionella pneumophila was carried out on the samples collected.Results A total of 95 strains of Legionella pneumophlla (LP) were isolated with a positive rate of 31.56%(95 / 301).LP1 accounted for 54.74% (52/95)and LP2-15 for 45.26%(43/95).The prevalence of this organism was 40.29% (83/206)in facilities using central air-conditioning system,including restaurants,hotels,supermarkets and hospitals.A total of 41 genotypes were identified in the 45 strains of LP1 assayed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE),suggesting that diverse genotypes has been found and no predominant genotype has been detected.Conclusions The high prevalence of legionella bacteria in water in public places is a potential threat to the health of the population.Attention should be drawn on the contamination of legionella to avoid outbreak caused by this organism.

  14. Experimental Research on Wet-cooling Tower Performance Under Cross-wind Conditions%侧风作用下火电厂冷却塔性能的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑涛; 曾宪平; 任建兴; 李芳芹; 杨涌文

    2013-01-01

    Cooling tower is one of the most important equipment of thermal power plant,the cooling performance of cooling towers will affect the efficiency and. safety of units. An experimental platform of cooling water system in power plant had been established to study the wet-cooling tower performance under cross-wind conditions. Researches show that with cross-wind velocity increasing,cooling temperature difference and cooling efficiency decrease first then increase at the knee point when the velocity value is 0.8m/s; the inlet wind at the windward side velocity increases, the leeward side of ventilation decreases. It also analysis the effect from the cross-wind to the performance of cooling towers with Froude number.%冷却塔是火电厂重要设备之一,冷却塔冷却性能的优劣直接影响机组效率与安全.通过建立火电厂冷却水系统实验平台,研究了侧风作用下冷却塔的冷却性能.研究发现:随着环境侧风的增加,冷却温差和效率呈先减小后增大的趋势,拐点风速值为0.8m/s;迎风面的进塔风速随之变大,背风面的通风量减小;并采用弗劳德准则数分析了环境侧风对冷却塔性能的影响.

  15. Study of modes of operation water system movement with bypass system towers cooling by Ecosimpro; Estudio de modos de operacion del sistema de agua de circulacion con sistema de bypass de las torres de refrigeracion mediante Ecosimpro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, J.; Molina, M. C.; Gavilan, C.; Molina, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    The present paper is based on the thermodynamic study of the system of water circulation of the Central Nuclear de Cofrentes. The objective of the study is the operation of the system through different modes of operation, with the aim of analyze the impact of these modes over the operation of the same. For a complete analysis, it has created a computer model of the system through the EcosimPro software, which is the simulation of the operation modes system and through the results, is the analysis of their feasibility.

  16. Conversion of water towers – an instrument for conserving heritage assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Loreta Cercleux

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water towers are symbolical landmarks that refer to the industrialization. The oldest water towers are technical and industrial assets whose current and future evolution is a sensitive matter as a result of the economic context that brought about the closing of numerous industrial enterprises and abandoning infrastructure assets, including water towers. Some water towers were included on the national cultural-heritage lists across the world, thanks to the manifold values they incorporate (technological, historical, architectural, esthetical, among others. In this context, it has become necessary to convert them, with the twofold purpose of conserving them and assigning them a new function, for the local community members. Although there are numerous models for good practice in the conversion of water towers in several European countries, in Romania their reuse is a difficult process, most of the time burdened by shortcomings of legislation or lack of financial support. The study’s main purpose is to present reasons for the conversion of water towers and to highlight several good practice models, as well as to present several water towers with a high potential for conversion.

  17. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  18. Noise control of counterflow cooling towers%逆流式冷却塔的噪声治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费朝阳; 陈长征; 周勃

    2011-01-01

    根据逆流式冷却塔辐射噪声的实测频谱图,分析了冷却塔的主要噪声来源和频谱特征.分别从吸声、消声和隔声等方面制定了降噪方案,取得了良好的降噪效果.%Based on the measured radiation noise frequency spectrogram, analyses the main noise source and noise spectrum characteristics of cooling tower.Makes a noise control scheme from the aspects of sound absorption, attenuation and insulation.The effect of the noise control is satisfactory.

  19. Water Towers, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Farmer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. Data by this publisher...

  20. Biofouling reduction in recirculating cooling systems through biofiltration of process water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, K P H; Van Groenestijn, J W; Gerritse, J

    2003-02-01

    Biofouling is a serious problem in industrial recirculating cooling systems. It damages equipment, through biocorrosion, and causes clogging and increased energy consumption, through decreased heat transfer. In this research a fixed-bed biofilter was developed which removed assimilable organic carbon (AOC) from process water, thus limiting the major substrate for the growth of biofouling. The biofilter was tested in a laboratory model recirculating cooling water system, including a heat exchanger and a cooling tower. A second identical model system without a biofilter served as a reference. Both installations were challenged with organic carbon (sucrose and yeast extract) to provoke biofouling. The biofilter improved the quality of the recirculating cooling water by reducing the AOC content, the ATP concentration, bacterial numbers (30-40 fold) and the turbidity (OD660). The process of biofouling in the heat exchangers, the process water pipelines and the cooling towers, was monitored by protein increase, heat transfer resistance, and chlorine demanded for maintenance. This revealed that biofouling was lower in the system with the biofilter compared to the reference installation. It was concluded that AOC removal through biofiltration provides an attractive, environmental-friendly means to reduce biofouling in industrial cooling systems.

  1. Discussion on Calculation of Structure Stability of Super Large Cooling Tower%超大型冷却塔结构稳定性计算的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董胜宪; 戴永志

    2014-01-01

    Hyperbolic natural draft cooling tower is an important project in construction of electricity, with power construction in China's booming, stand-alone power plants installed capacity increased, cooling tower of power plant have gone from cooling tower of large and medium to very large cooling towers. Very large cooling tower structure stability already mentioned work on our agenda, should be a matter of attention.%双曲线自然通风冷却塔是电力建设中的一项重要工程,随着我国电力建设事业的蓬勃发展,发电厂单机装机容量的增大,电厂内的冷却塔已从过去的大中型冷却塔转为超大型冷却塔。超大型冷却塔结构稳定性工作已提到我们的议事日程上,应该引起各方面的重视。

  2. Research on Group Tower Effectiveness of Super Large Cooling Towe%超大型冷却塔的群塔效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗树青

    2013-01-01

     In the structural design of cooling towers, the group tower effect relates to the plane location of the cooling tower layout and structural design of the cooling tower itself. Different position of the plane causes different group tower effect. In the actual engineer, the unfavorable layout should be avoided, and the effect of the group tower should be taken fully into account.%  在冷却塔结构设计中,群塔效应的影响关系到整个冷却塔平面位置的布置以及冷却塔本身的结构设计。不同的平面位置,群塔效应影响不同。在实际工程中,应尽量避免不利的平面布置,同时应充分考虑群塔效应影响。

  3. Design and application-specific design features of wet cooling towers and their impact on economic efficiency of the cooling system; Einfluss der Auslegung und Auswahl eines Nasskuehlturms auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit der Wasserrueckkuehlanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopf, M. [GEA Management Gesellschaft fuer Waerme- und Energietechnik mbH, Nonnenhorn (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Cooling towers and their required and appropriate design features continue to be an issue of debate among owners/operators, planning engineers and manufacturers. Often, the requirements and interests of the parties involved cannot be reconciled. Such incompatible requirements for instance are all as-low-as-possible requirements, relating to cold water temperatures - investment cost - performance requirements - noise emissions. Any requirement on its own can be met without problems, but their combination is the crucial aspect, and of course the compromise to be found has to be as near to an optimal solution as possible. Meeting the requirement of low cold water temperature for instance, with a close approach (a), implies that the cooling tower must be a large structure, needing high investment, which in turn can be justified if the design ensures a higher performance efficiency of the system or equipment to be cooled while reducing operating costs. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Kuehltuerme und ihre Auslegung geben immer wieder Anlass zu Diskussionen zwischen Betreibern, Planern und Herstellern. Oft stehen sich Forderungen gegenueber, die miteinander nicht in Einklang zu bringen sind, wie z.B. - Kaltwassertemperatur so tief wie moeglich - Investitionskosten so niedrig wie moeglich - Leistungsbedarf so gering wie moeglich - Schallemission so wenig wie moeglich. Jede Forderung fuer sich betrachtet, kann erfuellt werden. Gefragt ist jedoch ein Kompromiss, der - bezogen auf die Gesamtanlage - ein Optimum darstellt. So bedeutet beispielsweise eine geringe Kaltwassertemperatur mit einem kleinen Kuehlgrenzabstand (a) die Wahl eines grossen Kuehlturms mit einer hohen Investitionssumme. Diese ist gerechtfertigt, wenn dadurch der Wirkungsgrad der zu kuehlenden Anlage oder Maschine vergroessert und die Betriebskosten damit verringert werden. (orig.)

  4. Progress of the Water Cooling System for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zhen-guo; WU; Long-cheng; LIU; Geng-guo

    2013-01-01

    The water cooling system for CYCIAE-100 has achieved a significant progress in 2013,its progress can be summarized as follows:1)The deionized water production equipment and the main circulating water cooling unit are installed and tested.2)The circulating water cooling unit for high power target and circulating water cooling unit for vacuum helium compressor are installed and tested.

  5. Study of using microfiltration and reverse osmosis membrane technologies for reclaiming cooling water in the power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Xu, Z Y; An, H G; Liu, L Q

    2007-07-01

    A study of using dual membrane technologies, microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO), for reclaiming blowdown of the cooling tower was conducted at ZJK power plant, Hebei province, China. The study shows that the combined MF-RO system can effectively reduce water consumption in the power industry. The results indicate that MF process is capable of producing a filtrate suitable for RO treatment and achieving a silt density index (SDI) less than 2, turbidity of 0.2 NTU. The water quality of RO effluent is very good with an average conductivity of about 40 micros/cm and rejection of 98%. The product water is suitable for injection into the cooling tower to counteract with cooling water intrusion. After adopting this system, water-saving effectiveness as expressed in terms of cycles of concentration could be increased from 2.5-2.8 times to 5 times.

  6. Proposal for an alternative operative method for determination of polarisation resistance for the quantitative evaluation of corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitzithra, M.E., E-mail: me.mitzithra@gmail.com [EDF R& D, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou Cedex (France); Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC, 135, Avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Deby, F.; Balayssac, J.P. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC, 135, Avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Salin, J. [EDF R& D, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou Cedex (France)

    2015-07-15

    This paper summarises the results obtained from numerical simulations of an operational measurement mode of polarisation resistance adapted for evaluating corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete on cooling towers. A simple operational measurement mode of R{sub p} is proposed, adapted for cooling towers prone to corrosion due to carbonation. By means of numerical experimentations, calculation diagrams and semi-empirical equations are built involving the different influencing parameters: concrete cover to steel reinforcement, concrete resistivity and current intensity injected from the counter electrode. Finally, a first application of the proposed procedure for calculating the real value of R{sub p} in laboratory conditions is presented.

  7. 300 MW机组利旧冷却塔的研究和运用%Utilization of Old Small Cooling Tower in a New 300 MW Generation Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桥亮

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing old smaller cooling tower in the construction pro-cess of large thermal power unit was studied. Utilization of old small cooling tower not only shortened the construction period but also reduced the project cost.%对大机组建设过程中利用小机组冷却塔的可行性进行了研究。利用旧的小机组冷却塔后缩短了施工工期,降低了工程造价。

  8. Application of Noise Reduction Technology in Cooling Tower to Power Plant%冷却塔声源降噪技术在电厂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金康华; 居国腾

    2016-01-01

    Based on the noise analysis of characteristics and frequency spectrums in a 5500 m2 Reverse Flow Natural-Ventilation Cooling Tower of Power Plants. By an application example of noise control equipment and technology,A new method for noise control of the cooling tower is proposed.%通过对某电厂5500 m2逆流式自然通风冷却塔的噪声特点和频谱分析,以声源降噪设备和技术应用实例,提出了一种冷却塔噪声治理的新办法。

  9. Evaporative cooling: water for thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rui Camargo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaporative cooling is an environmentally friendly air conditioning system that operates using induced processes of heat and mass transfer, where water and air are the working fluids. It consists, specifically, in water evaporation, induced by the passage of an air flow, thus decreasing the air temperature. This paper presents three methods that can be used as reference for efficient use of evaporative cooling systems, applying it to several Brazilian cities, characterized by different climates. Initially it presents the basic operation principles of direct and indirect evaporative cooling and defines the effectiveness of the systems. Afterwards, it presents three methods that allows to determinate where the systems are more efficient. It concludes that evaporative cooling systems have a very large potential to propitiate thermal comfort and can still be used as an alternative to conventional systems in regions where the design wet bulb temperature is under 24ºC.

  10. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease from a cooling water system in a power station (Heysham)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, S.; Dyer, J.V.; Bartlett, C.L.R.; Bibby, L.F.; Hutchinson, D.N.; Dennis, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    In September and October 1981 six cases of pneumonia occurred among men working in a power station under construction. Three were identified as cases of legionella pneumonia and two others had serology suggestive of legionella infection. In a sample of 92 men from the site 10 had low levels of antibodies to legionella; a similar sample of men working on an adjacent site showed none with positive serology. In a case control study it was found that cases of pneumonia were more likely than controls to have worked on a part of the site where four small capacity cooling towers were located. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the water systems of these four towers but was not found in samples from any other cooling towers or hot or cold water outlets on the site. It would appear that there was airborne spread of the organism from these cooling water systems which had not received conventional treatment to inhibit corrosion and organic growth. This is the first outbreak of legionnaires' disease to be recorded in an industrial setting in the United Kingdom. No cases of legionella infection have occurred on the site since the introduction of control measures.

  11. Low energy cooling of the White Tower, functioning as a contemporary museum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A.M.; Avgelis, A.; Anastaselos, D. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    Historical buildings are of significance not only because they preserve the cultural heritage of nations but also because of their representative character. However, as buildings they not necessarily provide satisfactory comfort and health conditions, despite the fact that they can be high-energy consumers. The Museum of Byzantine Culture in Thessaloniki has decided to convert the White Tower, a six-floor fortress dating back to the 15th century, into a contemporary city museum with means of audiovisual, virtual and information technologies. A study has been carried out in 2005-2006 to determine the possibilities, given the restrictions applying, to implement measures in order to establish and maintain satisfactory thermal comfort and indoor air quality conditions in the White Tower, whilst ensuring its unobstructed function as a contemporary city museum. The measurements and simulations carried out, together with the resulting suggested interventions are discussed in this paper. (author)

  12. Can payments for ecosystem services secure the water tower of Tibet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, W.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Antle, J.

    2008-01-01

    Tibet can be considered as the water tower of Asia and the protection of its water resources crucial. We show that a minimum data approach to model the supply of ecosystem services can potentially be applied to water conservation in Tibet. The approach integrates the spatial heterogeneity of the bio

  13. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  14. 一种提高喷雾通风冷却塔换热效果的方法%A Method for Improving Heat Transfer in Spray Cooling Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛海标; 柴才明; 祝易松

    2014-01-01

    Cooling tower is the core equipment in the circulative water system of CDQ and its performance directly influences the power output and water consumption rate in the coke dry quenching system. Problems such as poor heat transfer, serious wall flow and tower body vibration occurred during operation of the spray cooling tower at the coke dry quench-ing system of Masteel. In the paper the basic principle of spray cooling tower was analyzed, a mathematical model was established and numerical simulations were carried out with fluid dynamics calculation software to found out the direct relationship between poor transfer and wall flow. A solution to increase the injecting angle and reduce wall flow by injector hole shrinkage was finally put forward, which effectively improved heat transfer.%冷却塔是干熄焦循环水系统的核心设备,其换热效果直接影响干熄焦发电量和耗水率。马钢干熄焦系统中应用的喷雾通风冷却塔在使用中出现换热效果不佳、壁流严重以及塔体振动等问题。分析了喷雾通风冷却塔的基本原理,建立其物理模型,并使用计算流体力学软件进行数值计算,找出了其换热效果差与壁流有直接的关系。最后提出了一种解决方案,通过对喷嘴缩径提高射流角度,减少了壁流,从而有效地提高了换热效果。

  15. Operations improvement of the recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbakov Vladimir Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Water management in sugar factories doesn’t have analogues in its complexity among food industry enterprises. Water intensity of sugar production is very high. Circulation water, condensed water, pulp press water and others are used in technological processes. Water plays the main role in physical, chemical, thermotechnical processes of beet processing and sugar production. As a consequence of accession of Russia to the WTO the technical requirements for production processes are changing. The enforcements of ecological services to balance scheme of water consumption and water disposal increased. The reduction of fresh water expenditure is one of the main tasks in economy of sugar industry. The substantial role in fresh water expenditure is played by efficiency of cooling and aeration processes of conditionally clean waters of the 1st category. The article contains an observation of the technologies of the available solutions and recommendations for improving and upgrading the existing recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills. The authors present the block diagram of the water sector of a sugar mill and a method of calculating the optimal constructive and technological parameters of cooling devices. Water cooling towers enhanced design and upgrades are offered.

  16. Mathematical Model of Two Phase Flow in Natural Draft Wet-Cooling Tower Including Flue Gas Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The previously developed model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer is extended to be able to take into account the flow of supersaturated moist air. The two phase flow model is based on void fraction of gas phase which is included in the governing equations. Homogeneous equilibrium model, where the two phases are well mixed and have the same velocity, is used. The effect of flue gas injection is included into the developed mathematical model by using source terms in governing equations and by using momentum flux coefficient and kinetic energy flux coefficient. Heat and mass transfer in the fill zone is described by the system of ordinary differential equations, where the mass transfer is represented by measured fill Merkel number and heat transfer is calculated using prescribed Lewis factor.

  17. Combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system for solar-thermal steam-electric power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyer, E.C.; Bourne, J.G.; Brownell, D.L.; Rose, R.M.

    1979-02-28

    The thermal performance and economics of the combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system concept for solar-thermal steam-electric plants have been evaluated. Based on the computer simulation of the operation of southwest-sited solar-thermal plants, it has been determined that the combined pond-tower concept has significant cost and performance advantages over conventional dry cooling systems. Use of a thermal storage pond as a component of the dry cooling system allows a significant reduction in the required dry cooling heat exchange capacity and the associated parasitic power consumption. Importantly, it has been concluded that the combined pond-tower dry cooling system concept can be employed to economically maintain steam condensing temperatures at levels normally achieved with conventional evaporative cooling systems. An evaluation of alternative thermal storage pond design concepts has revealed that a stratified vertical-flow cut-and-fill reservoir with conventional membrane lining and covering would yield the best overall system performance at the least cost.

  18. Controlled Blasting Demolition of Two Cooling Towers under Complicated Environment%复杂环境下2座冷却塔控制爆破拆除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁亚静; 杨小林; 褚怀保; 张英才

    2012-01-01

    Two cooling towers with 75 meters in height and 62. 84 meters in diameter in the complicated circumstances were dem- olished by directional blasting. According to the structural features,the surrounding environment and safety requirements of the cooling tower, nine shock absorption windows were opened on the front tower in the dumped direction of cooling tower,only the pillar of the cooling tower was blasted so that the wall of the cooling tower landing lightly, and the blasting take the Security measures such as duplex burst gap that pre-open a dormer and offload tank. Combined with the collapsed reasons of bursting of the cooling tower, take the method of two cooling lowers collapsed oppositely. In addition, the measured data are analyzed for the vibration, which verifies that the vibration damping effects are significantly,the measured vibration value is less than the theoretical calculated value.%采用定向倾倒控制爆破技术成功地拆除了复杂环境下2座高度分别为75 m、底部直径为62.63 m的冷却塔.针对冷却塔结构的特点,周围环境及安全要求,在冷却塔倾倒方向的正面塔体上开了9个减震窗口,仅对冷却塔人字支柱进行爆破,实现冷却塔壁体轻着落,并采取了封闭式防护和开挖减振沟及铺设缓冲垫层等安全防护措施.结合冷却塔爆破自身垮落原因,采取两冷却塔相向倒塌.此外,利用实测数据对触地振动进行了分析,验证了控振措施减振效果明显,实测振速值小于理论计算振速.

  19. Supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest reactor concepts, single pass core and experimental findings in thermal hydraulics, materials, corrosion, and water chemistry. It highlights research on supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWRs), one of the Generation IV reactors that are studied around the world. This book includes cladding material development and experimental findings on heat transfer, corrosion and water chemistry. The work presented here will help readers to understand the fundamental elements of reactor design and analysis methods, thermal hydraulics, materials and water

  20. 填料加盘管型闭式冷却塔的性能试验研究%Experimental research on performance of closed cooling tower with packing material and coil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢卫; 周亚素; 张恒钦

    2013-01-01

    Through designing and constructing closed cooling tower with packing material and coil, its performance was tested. The results showed that, for the closed cooling tower with packing material and coil which had fixed structure and design parameters, air wet bulb temperature and air flow rate had the most significant influence on its cooling performance, cooling water flow rate and inlet temperature had a great influence, the influence of spray density was essentially unchanged after it had achieved the best value, and air dry bulb temperature had only a minor influence. Due to the addition of packing material, the best spray density of closed cooling tower with packing material and coil was relatively small, which could be set to any value between 0.025 and 0.035 kg/(m·s).%通过设计和搭建填料加盘管型闭式冷却塔对其进行了性能测试.试验结果表明,对于结构和设计参数确定的填料加盘管型闭式冷却塔,空气湿球温度和空气流量对其冷却性能的影响最为显著,冷却水流量和进口温度则有较大影响,而喷淋密度在达到最佳值后对其冷却性能的影响基本保持不变,空气干球温度只有较小影响.由于填料的加入,填料加盘管型闭式冷却塔的最佳喷淋密度相对偏小,可以在0.025 ~ 0.035 kg/(m·s)之间取值.

  1. Organohalogen products from chlorination of cooling water at nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    Eight nuclear power units at seven locations in the US were studied to determine the effects of chlorine, added as a biocide, on the composition of cooling water discharge. Water, sediment and biota samples from the sites were analyzed for total organic halogen and for a variety of organohalogen compounds. Haloforms were discharged from all plants studied, at concentrations of a few ..mu..g/L (parts-per-billion). Evidence was obtained that power plants with cooling towers discharge a significant portion of the haloforms formed during chlorination to the atmosphere. A complex mixture of halogenated phenols was found in the cooling water discharges of the power units. Cooling towers can act to concentrate halogenated phenols to levels approaching those of the haloforms. Examination of samples by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry did not result in identification of any significant concentrations of lipophilic base-neutral compounds that could be shown to be formed by the chlorination process. Total concentrations of lipophilic (Bioabsorbable) and volatile organohalogen material discharged ranged from about 2 to 4 ..mu..g/L. Analysis of sediment samples for organohalogen material suggests that certain chlorination products may accumulate in sediments, although no tissue bioaccumulation could be demonstrated from analysis of a limited number of samples. 58 references, 25 figures, 31 tables.

  2. Quantifying the Water Tower of the Third Pole: State of the Art and Research Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, W.W.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are the water towers of the world, particularly in Asia, where rivers all are fed from the Tibetan plateau and adjacent mountain ranges. In this area, referred to as the Third Pole, snow and glacial melt are important hydrologic processes, such that climate change is expected to seriously

  3. Anomalous Effects in Air While Cooling Water

    CERN Document Server

    Sardo, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Water is a unique compound with many anomalies and properties not fully understood. Designing an experiment in the laboratory to study such anomalies, we set up a series of experiments where a tube was placed inside a sealed container with thermocouples attached to the outer surface of the tube and in the air adjacent to the tube. Alternately, deionized water and other compounds were added to the tube and cooled to freezing. Several of the thermocouples suspended in the air and adjacent to the tube showed thermal oscillations as the overall temperature of the container was decreasing. The temperature of the thermocouples increased and decreased in a sinusoidal way during part of the cool down to freezing. Thermal oscillations as large as 3 degrees Celsius were recorded with typical frequencies of about 5 oscillations per minute.

  4. Analysis and Application of Noise Reduction in Metro Cooling Tower%地铁冷却塔消声降噪分析及应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗定鑫

    2016-01-01

    由于部分敏感区域的声环境质量标准与冷却塔产品的国家标准存在差异性,容易引起二类声环境区噪声超标,本文以广佛地铁某站点冷却塔降噪方案及广州地铁六号线某站点冷却塔降噪方案为实例,从冷却塔设计及设置、冷却塔增设消声围蔽、冷却塔噪声源消声治理等方面进行研究,并结合治理效果对城市冷却塔消声治理提出建议。%Because of the diversity between environmental quality standard for noise and cooling tower′s national standard in some susceptible area , the second category of acoustic environment noise will be over standard easi-ly.This paper , taking cooling tower noise reduction scheme in a metro station of GuangZhou Metro Line 6 and Guangfo Line as an example , studies the design and placement of cooling tower , the addition of noise reduction en-closure , noise silencing governance , etc.Furthermore , combined with the treatment effect , it put forward sugges-tions for the control of the cooling tower noise elimination .

  5. Evaluation of the suitabil[i]ty of Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid (GTL) Primary Column Bottoms as process cooling water : analysis of microbial community dynamics, fouling, scaling and corrosion / Savia Susanna Slabbert

    OpenAIRE

    Slabbert, Savia Susanna

    2007-01-01

    Water in South Africa is becoming limiting due to economic growth, social development and the country's water demand that exceed its water availability. Water conservation in the industry can be accomplished by the reuse of process water instead of direct treatment and discharge. By reusing a process effluent as cooling water in cooling towers, the water requirements of an industry, such as Sasol, will be lower and a zero effluent discharge scenario could be achieved. At Sas...

  6. 快速喷雾结冰技术在循环冷却水塔中的应用%Application of Rapid Spray-Freezing Technology in the Anti-icing of Circulating Cooling Towers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭民臣; 马英; 梅勇; 陈文飞; 王卜平

    2012-01-01

    针对我国北方地区发电厂中冷却水塔冬季防冻问题,提出了循环冷却水塔快速喷雾结冰技术.通过与悬挂挡风板冷却塔的对比,论证了快速啧雾结冰技术在优化调节循环水温度及循环冷却水塔防寒防冻方面的明显优势.结果表明:采用快速喷雾结冰技术能够使冷却水塔在严寒季节或天气情况突变时安全运行,可以使机组循环水温度随着环境温度高低和机组负荷大小而自动调整,以达到最佳值,从而提高了机组的经济性.%To realize the anti-icing purpose for power plant cooling towers in northern China, a rapid spray- freezing technology is proposed. By comparing the cooling tower adopting the rapid spray-freezing technol- ogy with that protected by suspension windshields, the former one is found to be more superior to the lat- ter one in the adjustment of circulating water temperature and in the anti-icing protection of cooling tower. Results show that with the rapid spray-freezing technology, the circulating water temperature may be ad- justed automatically to optimal data according to the variation of both the environmental temperature and the unit load, which therefore makes it possible for the unit to safely and economically operate during days of bitter cold or with sudden change in weather.

  7. Fish-eye view from the water tower towards Jura

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    In the very front, the cooling plant for the ISR magnets followed by Storage (housing ISR electric generators)and CAO (Control Accelerator Operation) Buildings (Bld 378-377), and the main Building of the ISR Division (Bld 30). Behind stands the West Hall, followed along the neutrino beam line, by the BEBC building, the building housing the neutrino experiments WA1 and WA18, and the Gargamelle Building.

  8. Energy Conservation Applications of Cooling Towers of Telecom Air-Conditions%电信空调冷却塔供冷系统节能应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴捷; 杨志昆; 曹业玲

    2011-01-01

    Based on the features of air conditioning load of telecommunications engine room, a indirect free cooling air conditioning system, which contains cooling tower and plate heat exchange, is chosen to provide cold for telecommunications engine room in winter and part of the transition seasons. Firstly the affirmance of room air-conditioning supply air temperature in winter and cooling temperature of the cooling tower are introduced. Then the influence of cooling temperature to the operating power of the cooling tower is analyzed. After that the running time and energy saving effects of cooling tower for free cooling are roughly estimated. And the concept of cooling load demand and supply index is introduced. The three factors affecting the index in the second pivot project of Jiangsu Telecom are measured. At last the free refrigeration technology and the potential energy savings of Jiangsu Telecom are summarized.%根据电信机楼的空调负荷特点,在冬季和部分过渡季节,选择使用冷却塔加板式换热器的间接式免费供冷空调系统为电信机楼提供冷量。介绍了冬季机房空调送风温度和冷却塔供冷温度的确定,分析了冷却塔供冷温度对冷却塔运行消耗的影响。通过预测计算确定冷却塔免费制冷的的运行时间及节能效果。并引入了冷负荷供需指数的概念,经过现场测试计算得出江苏电信第二枢纽工程中影响该指数的三个因素,最后总结了江苏电信免费制冷技术的节能情况和应用潜力。

  9. Characteristics of a pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from biofilm in a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Goto, Keiichi; Kato, Yuko; Saitou, Keiko; Sugiyama, Jun-ichi; Hara, Motonobu; Yoshida, Shin-ichi; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2007-01-01

    Strain K-20, a Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and strictly aerobic rod, which produces a pale pink pigment, was isolated from biofilm in a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. The taxonomic feature of the strain was studied using phenotypic tests and phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was related to Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea, Roseomonas gilardii subsp. gilardii, Roseomonas cervicalis and Roseomonas mucosa at 94.3-94.6 sequence similarities. Growth occurred at 25-40 C and pH 5.0-10.0, optimal at 35 C and pH 7.0. Growth did not occur in the presence of >or=2% NaCl. The API 20NE identification system gave a positive result for urease, L-arabinose, potassium gluconate, adipic acid, malic acid and trisodium citrate (API code number 0201465). The predominant fatty acids of strain K-20 were C18:1Delta11 (50.8%) and C16:1 (17.2%). Cells contained ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) as the major quinone and the G+C content was 72.0 mol%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was assumed that strain K-20 (=JCM 14634) is a novel species of the genus Roseomonas.

  10. Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov. isolated from a biofilm sample obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Edagawa, Akiko; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Strain K-20(T), a Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonspore-forming and strictly aerobic coccobacillus, which produces a pale pink pigment (R2A agar medium, 30℃, seven days) was isolated from a sample of biofilm obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA partial gene sequences (1,439 bp) showed that the strain (accession number: AB297501) was related to Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) and Roseomonas stagni HS-69(T) with 97.4% and 96.9% sequence similarity, respectively. Strain K-20(T) formed a distinct cluster with Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) in the phylogenetic tree at a high bootstrap value (93%); however, distance was recognized between the strains. In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridization level between strain K-20(T) and Roseomonas frigidaquae JCM 15073(T) was 33%. The taxonomic data indicate that K-20(T) (=JCM 14634(T) =KCTC 32152(T)) should be classified in the genus Roseomonas as the type strain of a novel species, Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov.

  11. Cooling tower restoration in the joint nuclear power station Neckar 1; Kuehlturmsanierung im Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, G. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Braeuning, G. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Dekker, G. [Marley Kuehlturm GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany). Bereich Vertrieb neuer Kuhlturm-Anlagen

    1996-11-01

    Since the starting operation of the Power Station GKN I (Joint Nuclear Power Station Neckar I) in the year 1976, the cell cooler of the plant was, except for those cases in which continuous-flow cooling was possible, continually in operation. Aim of the restoration, after an operational time of 17 years, is a further constructional and thermal service life of about 15 to 20 years. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit der Inbetriebnahme des Kraftwerkes GKN I im Jahr 1976 war der Zellenkuehler der Anlage bis auf die Faelle, in denen Durchlaufkuehlung moeglich war, ununterbrochen in Betrieb. Ziel der Sanierung nach ueber 17jaehriger Betriebszeit ist eine weitere bauliche und thermische Nutzungsdauer von etwa 15 bis 20 Jahren. (orig.)

  12. The effect of cooling water on magnet vibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Coosemans, Williame; Schnell, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    The quadrupole magnets in the CLIC Test Facility II (CTF2) incorporate a water cooling circuit. In the frame-work of the CLIC stability study, the mechanical vibrations of the magnets were measured for different flows of cool-ing water. We present the results and compare them with simple theoretical estimates. It is shown that the vibra-tion requirements of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) quadrupoles with cooling water can basically be met.

  13. Presence of pathogenic microorganisms in power-plant cooling waters. Final report, October 1, 1981-June 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    Air was sampled at the point of discharge and at short distances downwind and upwind from industrial and power-plant cooling towers. Both high-volume electrostatic and impinger type samplers were used. Concentrates of the air samples were analyzed for Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (LDB). In some cases, the samples were also tested for the presence of free-living amoebae. The concentrations of LDB in the air samples were well below the minimal infectious dose for guinea pigs and precluded testing of the samples for infectious LDB. Results of LDB analysis were related to the meteorological conditions at the time of sampling. Generally, the concentrations of LDB in the air at the discharge of the cooling towers were 1 x 10/sup -6/ to 1 x 10/sup -7/ of that found in comparable volumes of tower basin water. During periods of high humidity and wind speed, LDB was detected in a few downwind samples and one upwind sample. One site with extensive construction and excavation activity had higher LDB concentrations in air samples relative to other sites. Nonpathogenic Naegleria were present in one of two air samples taken in the mist at the base of a natural-draft cooling tower.

  14. Kinetic model for predicting the concentrations of active halogens species in chlorinated saline cooling waters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, W.R.; Lietzke, M.H.

    1981-08-01

    A kinetic model has been developed for describing the speciation of chlorine-produced oxidants in seawater as a function of time. The model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions, including all pH range, salinities, temperatures, ammonia concentrations, organic amine concentrations, and chlorine doses likely to be encountered during power plant cooling water chlorination. However, the effects of sunlight are not considered. The model can also be applied to freshwater and recirculating water systems with cooling towers. The results of the model agree with expectation, however, complete verification is not feasible at the present because analytical methods for some of the predicted species are lacking.

  15. Application of Cooling Water in Controlled Runout Table Cooling on Hot Strip Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng-dong; I V Samarasekera

    2004-01-01

    The controlled runout table cooling is essential in determining the final mechanical properties and flatness of steel strip. The heat of a hot steel strip is mainly extracted by cooling water during runout. In order to study the heat transfer by water jet impingement boiling during runout, a pilot facility was constructed at the University of British Columbia. On this pilot facility, the water jet impingement tests were carried out under various cooling conditions to investigate the effect of processing parameters, such as cooling water temperature, water jet impingement velocity, initial strip temperature, water flow rate, water nozzle diameter and array of water nozzles, on the heat transfer of heated strip. The results obtained contribute to the optimization of cooling water during runout.

  16. 北京市顺义区涉奥场所淋浴热水及中央空调冷却塔水嗜肺军团菌污染调查%Investigation of Water Contamination of Cooling Towers of Centralized Air Conditioning and Shower Caused by Legionella Pneumophila in Olympics-related Places in Shunyi District of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞霞; 刘晓涛; 荆洪波; 梁和平; 甄国新; 黄晓凤; 谈敦芳

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]To ensure the Beijing Olympic Games holding harmoniously and successfully, to provide healthy and safe public places for the world's athletes and guests, and provide technical guidance for health security in Shunyi District during the Olympic Games.[Methods]Shunyi Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) investigated shower hot water and central air conditioning cooling water samples from 8 Olympic related public places in July 11 to August 8, 2008. According to appendix A.1, methods for detecting of Legionella pneumophila, of Beijing local standards, BDI 1/485-2007 "Health Management Norms of Central Air Conditioning Ventilation System in Public Places," legionella pneumophila was detected whether existed in water samples.[Results]In all 6 hot water samples, 2 samples were detected legionella, the detection rate was 33.3%; and 2 of l 8 cooling water samples was positive, the detection rate was 11.1%.[Conclusion]Legionella contamination exists in central air-conditioning cooling water and shower hot water in Shunyi district, it is proposed to strengthen the monitoring of legionella in the environmental water.%目的 为了保障北京奥运会和谐、顺利举办,向中外运动员及宾客提供安全卫生的公共场所,为顺义区奥运卫生保障提供技术指导.方法 顺义区疾病预防控制中心于2008年7月11日-8月12日对顺义区8家涉奥公共场所的淋浴热水及中央空调冷却水水样进行调查.依据北京市地方标准BD 11/485-2007附录A.1空调系统冷却(凝)水中嗜肺军团菌检验方法,对水样中的军团菌进行检测.结果 共采集淋浴热水6件,2件检出嗜肺军团菌,检出率为33.3%;采集冷却水18件,2件检出嗜肺军团菌,检出率为11.1%.结论 顺义区中央空调冷却塔水及生活热水中存在军团菌污染,建议加强对环境水中军团菌的监测.

  17. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water

  18. Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Dgiby; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Pitt, Jonathan

    2006-08-08

    This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or "radiation fields" around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry.

  19. Mixed Oxidant Process for Control of Biological Growth in Cooling Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Generation Process • Electrolysis of salt to generate chlorine biocides • Small-scale electrolytic cell generates biocide on site, on demand from a... copper , and copper coupons partially coated with 50%/50% tin lead solder Sodium hypo formed 5.7 times more lead and 1.4 times more copper than MOS...Corrosion rates of copper and mild steel corrosion coupons • Water Conditions – Total and free chlorine – Total hardness, calcium hardness – pH – Bioactivity

  20. Simulación de una Torre de Enfriamiento Mecánica Comparada con Curvas Experimentales Simulation of a Mechanical Cooling Tower Compared with Experimental Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader D Alean

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es modelar y simular una torre de enfriamiento mecánica forzada a escala piloto. Las variables físicas se correlacionaron a partir de la transferencia de calor y materia y los resultados de la simulación son analizados mediante graficas que muestran la variación de la humedad, flujo de agua, calor latente, calor sensible, calor total, temperatura del agua y del aire. El coeficiente de transferencia de materia se obtuvo a partir de los datos experimentales y la solución numérica del modelo se obtuvo con el método Runge-Kutta en Matlab. La verificación de los resultados fue realizada, comparando las curvas simuladas con las curvas experimentales. Se concluye que la cercanía entre las curvas depende del coeficiente de transferencia de materia.The objective of this work was the modeling and simulation of a pilot-scale mechanical enforced cooling tower. The physical variables were correlated from the heat and mass transfer and the simulation results were analyzed using graphs showing the change in humidity, water flow, latent heat, heat sensitive, total heat, water temperature and air. The mass transfer coefficient was obtained from experimental data and the numerical solution of the model was obtained using Runge-Kutta method in Matlab. Comparison between stimulation results and experimental data was done. It is concluded that the shape of the curves and the deviations of the simulated results depend on the mass transfer coefficient.

  1. Progress of the Water Cooling System for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zhen-guo; WU; Long-cheng; LIU; Geng-guo

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to the general construction schedule of the BRIF project, the water cooling system for CYCIAE-100 has achieved a significant progress in 2012, its progress can be summarized as follows. 1) Inside wiring of 7 water distribution cabinets were completed. 2) Manufacturer selection of circulating water cooling unit and deionized water production equipment was decided after market survey and bidding process. The contracts were formally signed in February. The deionized water production equipment was ready in May and the circulating water cooling

  2. Basic regulations and standards for and performance of measurements in wet cooling towers; Norm-Grundlagen und praktische Durchfuehrung von Leistungsmessungen an Nasskuehltuermen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesche, W. [Balcke-Duerr GmbH, Ratingen (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Nasskuehlung

    1998-09-01

    Performance measurement in wet cooling towers is a process well covered and specified by national standards, which meanwhile have been harmonized. The European standard recently eleaborated by the cooling tower manufacturing firms that are members of the VDMA association reflects the state of the art and presents a regulatory framework for applications that has been well tuned to conditions met in practice. Evaluation of measurements relies on a comparative analysis of measured data with the cooling characteristics supplied by the manufacturer, either in the form of a diagram, a computer program, or as tabulated information. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Leistungsmessungen am Nasskuehlturm sind in laenderspezifischen Normen genau spezifiziert. Die Normen haben sich mittlerweile angeglichen. Die von dem im VDMA zusammengeschlossenen Kuehlturmfirmen erarbeitete Euronorm zu diesem Thema spiegelt den aktuellen Stand in einer praxisnahen Durchfuehrungsverordnung wieder. Die Bewertung der Messung erfolgt im Vergleich mit der vor Messbeginn bekannten Kuehlcharakteristik, die entweder als Diagramm, Rechenprogramm oder zumindest als Tabelle vom Lieferanten erstellt wurde. (orig./GL)

  3. A heat dissipating model for water cooling garments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A water cooling garment is a functional clothing used to dissipate human body’s redundant energy in extravehicular environment or other hot environment. Its heat dissipating property greatly affects body’s heat balance. In this paper, a heat dissipating model for the water cooling garment is established and verified experimentally using the experimental thermal-manikin.

  4. Ozonation of cooling water prevents biofilms and legionella. Hygiene; Kuehlwasserbehandlung mit Ozon haelt Biofilme und Legionellen in Schach. Hygiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackl, W.; Hoffmann, M. [BWT Wassertechnik GmbH, Schriesheim (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung

    2006-11-15

    Legionella in plumes of evaporation cooling towers have often caused serious illnesses and even deaths. To prevent the growth of microorganisms in cooling towers, operators often use hazardous and toxic biocides or chlorine. There is an ecologically and also technically efficient alternative: In the Briey plant of the international Norma group, biofilm and legionella prophylaxis is achieved by ozonation. (orig.)

  5. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1786, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Clayton, Mary E; Webber, Michael E, E-mail: ashlynn.stillwell@mail.utexas.edu, E-mail: mclayton34@mail.utexas.edu, E-mail: webber@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights-a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions-a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m{sup 3}-enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  6. Water Towers, Included in water system layer above, Published in Not Provided, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Town of Franklin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Towers dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. It is described as...

  7. Application of 5454 Aluminum water-tank in ammonia-cleaned tower%5454铝合金水箱在洗氨塔内的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛福连

    2013-01-01

    The paper briefly introduces 5454 aluminum water-tank replace carbon steel one in ammonia-cleaned tower, which enhances heat transfer, improves working status in the tower, increases processing capacity, saves cooling water consumption, extends the life of water-tank greatly, reduces washing and changing times of water-tank, decreases overhaul work vastly, at the same time, considerable economic benefits is achieved.%简要介绍在洗氨塔内采用5454铝合金水箱替代碳钢水箱,增强了冷却水箱的传热效果,改善塔内作业状况,提高了处理气量,节约冷却水用量,大大延长了水箱的使用寿命,减少冷却水箱清洗、更换次数,极大地降低了检修负荷,同时取得了可观的经济效益。

  8. Enhancing the performance of photovoltaic panels by water cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Moharram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to minimize the amount of water and electrical energy needed for cooling of the solar panels, especially in hot arid regions, e.g., desert areas in Egypt. A cooling system has been developed based on water spraying of PV panels. A mathematical model has been used to determine when to start cooling of the PV panels as the temperature of the panels reaches the maximum allowable temperature (MAT. A cooling model has been developed to determine how long it takes to cool down the PV panels to its normal operating temperature, i.e., 35 °C, based on the proposed cooling system. Both models, the heating rate model and the cooling rate model, are validated experimentally. Based on the heating and cooling rate models, it is found that the PV panels yield the highest output energy if cooling of the panels starts when the temperature of the PV panels reaches a maximum allowable temperature (MAT of 45 °C. The MAT is a compromise temperature between the output energy from the PV panels and the energy needed for cooling.

  9. Experimental study of swirl flow patterns in Gas Conditioning Tower at various entry conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinov, Andrei A.; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    1999-01-01

    In a gas conditioning tower hot flue gas with relatively high dust loads is cooled by injecting water spray near the top. For satisfactory operation wet particles should be kept off walls and all water should have evaporated to yield a uniformly cooled flow before it reaches the bottom of the tower....... For practical reasons and space limitations the gas often enters through an inlet pipe making a 150-180° bend shortly before a short diffuser expanding to full tower diameter (Fig. 1). A swirl generator is placed immediately before the inlet to the diffuser to prevent recirculation near walls of the diffuser...

  10. Analysis of Cooling System for UHVDC Transmission Thyristor Valve Tower%向家坝—上海特高压直流输电换流阀塔水路的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦秀英; 刘宁

    2012-01-01

    Of all the faults about system breakdown in 18 UHVDC transmission projects in China, about one third is attributed to the cooling system of HVDC transmission thyristor valve. Therefore, the modification of the water-way structure in the Fulong substation's thyristor valve tower in 800 kV Xiangjiaba-to-Shanghai UHVDC project is described, and the difference between the valve towers in 800 kV Xiangjiaba-to-Shanghai UHVDC project and 500 kV Guizhou-to-Guangdong UHVDC project is analyzed, in order to provide some information for the design of similar valve towers.%纵观目前国内已投运和在建的18个直流输电工程,关于直流停运的事故原因中,由于直流输电换流阀水冷系统故障而停运几乎占到所有事故原因的1/3.笔者主要通过对800 kV向家坝—上海直流输电工程复龙站换流阀塔内水路结构改进的描述,以及分析向家坝—上海直流输电换流阀中与贵州—广东500 kV直流输电换流阀的区别,希望能够对今后直流输电换流阀的设计提供一些经验和方法.

  11. Naegleria fowleri in cooling waters of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerva, L.; Kasprzak, W.; Mazur, T.

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of nonvirulent and three strains of virulent variants of Naegleria fowleri amoebae were isolated from the examined cooling water samples from 9 power plants. The virulent variants were obtained solely from effluents discharged from power plants with a closed-circuit cooling N. fowleri was not detected outside the reach of the thermal pollution. A disinfection of out-flowing cooling water seems to be an unnecessary investment in our climate. Warm discharge water should under no conditions be used directly for sports and recreational purposes.

  12. Development of methods for the decrease in instability of recycling water of conjugated closed-circuit cooling system of HPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirov, A. A.; Chichirova, N. D.; Vlasov, S. M.; Lyapin, A. I.; Misbakhov, R. Sh.; Silov, I. Yu.; Murtazin, A. I.

    2016-10-01

    On Russian HPPs, conjugated closed-circuit cooling systems, where purge water is used as initial for water-treatment facilities, are widespread. For this reason, it is impossible to use general methods for the stabilization treatment of recycling water in order to prevent scale formation in the units of a system, namely, turbine condensers and cooling towers. In this paper, the methods for the decrease in the instability of recycling water using the methods of chemical engineering, such as stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, are suggested. The results of an industrial experiment on the implementation of stabilization treatment of recycling water by the organization of recycle are given. The experiment was carried out on Kazan CHPP-3. The flow scheme involved the recycle of chemically purified water (CPW) for the heat network make-up to the closed-circuit cooling system. The experiment was carried out at three stages with the gradual change of the consumption of the recycle, namely, 0, 50, and 100 t/h. According to the results of experiments, the reliable decrease in the rate of the sedimentation was recorded on the units of the system, namely, turbine condenser and chimney-type cooling tower. This is caused by two reasons. Firstly, this is periodic excessive concentration of recycling water due to the nonstationary character of inlet and outlet flows. Secondly, this is seasonal (particularly, in the summer period) exceeding of the evaporation coefficient. As a result of stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, the quality of clarified and chemically purified water for the heat network make-up increases and the corrosion of iron- and copper-containing structural materials decreases. A natural decrease in temperature drop on the operating turbine condensers is mentioned.

  13. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    determine if WSAC technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

  14. Cooling of gas turbines IX : cooling effects from use of ceramic coatings on water-cooled turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W Byron; Livingood, John N B

    1948-01-01

    The hottest part of a turbine blade is likely to be the trailing portion. When the blades are cooled and when water is used as the coolant, the cooling passages are placed as close as possible to the trailing edge in order to cool this portion. In some cases, however, the trailing portion of the blade is so narrow, for aerodynamic reasons, that water passages cannot be located very near the trailing edge. Because ceramic coatings offer the possibility of protection for the trailing part of such narrow blades, a theoretical study has been made of the cooling effect of a ceramic coating on: (1) the blade-metal temperature when the gas temperature is unchanged, and (2) the gas temperature when the metal temperature is unchanged. Comparison is also made between the changes in the blade or gas temperatures produced by ceramic coatings and the changes produced by moving the cooling passages nearer the trailing edge. This comparison was made to provide a standard for evaluating the gains obtainable with ceramic coatings as compared to those obtainable by constructing the turbine blade in such a manner that water passages could be located very near the trailing edge.

  15. An evaluation of fish behavior upstream of the water temperature control tower at Cougar Dam, Oregon, using acoustic cameras, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Smith, Collin; Plumb, John M.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Beeman, John W.

    2015-07-06

    This report describes the initial year of a 2-year study to determine the feasibility of using acoustic cameras to monitor fish movements to help inform decisions about fish passage at Cougar Dam near Springfield, Oregon. Specifically, we used acoustic cameras to measure fish presence, travel speed, and direction adjacent to the water temperature control tower in the forebay of Cougar Dam during the spring (May, June, and July) and fall (September, October, and November) of 2013. Cougar Dam is a high-head flood-control dam, and the water temperature control tower enables depth-specific water withdrawals to facilitate adjustment of water temperatures released downstream of the dam. The acoustic cameras were positioned at the upstream entrance of the tower to monitor free-ranging subyearling and yearling-size juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Because of the large size discrepancy, we could distinguish juvenile Chinook salmon from their predators, which enabled us to measure predators and prey in areas adjacent to the entrance of the tower. We used linear models to quantify and assess operational and environmental factors—such as time of day, discharge, and water temperature—that may influence juvenile Chinook salmon movements within the beam of the acoustic cameras. Although extensive milling behavior of fish near the structure may have masked directed movement of fish and added unpredictability to fish movement models, the acoustic-camera technology enabled us to ascertain the general behavior of discrete size classes of fish. Fish travel speed, direction of travel, and counts of fish moving toward the water temperature control tower primarily were influenced by the amount of water being discharged through the dam.

  16. DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W D

    2011-04-05

    Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the

  17. The influence of Savannah River discharge and changing SRS cooling water requirements on the potential entrainment of ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H.

    1992-08-01

    Entrainment (i.e., withdrawal of fish larvae and eggs in cooling water) at the SRS Savannah River intakes is greatest when periods of high river water usage coincide with low river dischargeduring the spawning season. American shad and striped bass are the two species of greatest concern because of their recreational and/or commercial importance and because they produce drifting eggs and larvae vulnerable to entrainment. In the mid-reaches of the Savannah River, American shad and striped bass spawn primarily during April and May. An analysis of Savannah River discharge during April and May 1973--1989 indicated the potential for entrainment of 4--18% of the American shad and striped bass larvae and eggs that drifted past the SRS. This analysis assumed the concurrent operation of L-, K-, and P-Reactors. Additional scenarios investigated were: (1) shutting down L- and P-Reactors, and operating K-Reactor with a recycle cooling tower; and (2) shutting down L- and P-Reactors, eliminating minimum flows to Steel Creek, and operating K-Reactor with a recycle cooling tower. The former scenario reduced potential entrainment to 0.7--3.3%, and the latter scenario reduced potential entrainment to 0.20.8%. Thus, the currently favored scenario of operating K-Reactor with a cooling tower and not operating L- and P-Reactors represents a significant lessening of the impact of SRS operations.

  18. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from the ...... to the desiccant dew-point system without water recovery, the required regeneration temperature increases and the system thermal efficiency decreases.......This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from...... the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...

  19. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  20. Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-16

    Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of water to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort

  1. [Immediate cooling with water: emergency treatment of burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J

    1990-01-01

    Experimental data have demonstrated that prolonged immediate cooling with cold water is the best first-aid treatment for burn injuries. However in France, this treatment is rarely applied; instead old, inefficient and aggravating methods are still very popular. Pediatricians must help to change this practice by recommending immediate cold water treatment for burns in children.

  2. A data acquisition system for water heating and cooling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Martins, J. E. M.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a simple analogue waterproof temperature probe design and its electronic interfacing with a computer to compose a data acquisition system for water temperature measurement. It also demonstrates the system usage through an experiment to verify the water heating period with an electric heater and another to verify the Newton’s law of cooling

  3. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling embedded water based surface heating and cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    Babiak, Jan; Petras, Dusan

    2009-01-01

    This Guidebook describes the systems that use water as heat-carrier and when the heat exchange within the conditioned space is more than 50% radiant. Embedded systems insulated from the main building structure (floor, wall and ceiling) are used in all types of buildings and work with heat carriers at low temperatures for heating and relatively high temperature for cooling.

  4. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water

  5. Microecoenvironment of Legionella pneumophila with its Vitality Overwintering in Air-conditioning Cooling Tower%空调循环水系统军团菌微生态与其存活力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮素云; 郭常义; 许慧慧; 吴立明

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To explore microecoenvironment of Legionella pneutnophila with its vitality overwintering and to provide reference for preventing proliferation and propagation of Legionella pneumophila in air-conditioning cooling tower. [Methods] Two air-conditioning cooling towers with numerous Legionella pneumophila in August were selected to perform spot investigation, meanwhile the environment of cooling tower was imitated to constitute two different ecopatterns of Legionella pneumophila, in which the water and lichen-alga mixture on container surface were periodically and respectively sampled for Legionella pneumophila detection and scanning electron microscope observation. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), No3--N and alga in water sample were also tested. [ Results ] In late October, after the air-conditioner was turned off, no Legionella pneumophila was detected in the water sample but as much as 104 CFU/4 cm2 in the lichen-alga mixture, on the biomembrane of which numerous Legionella pneumophila was observed under scanning electron microscope. In the end of December, Legionella pneumophila was not detected in the alga reduction ecopattern but was detected in the cooling tower and the alga addition ecopattern. -In the end of February next year, Legionella pneumophila was not detected in the cooling tower and the alga reduction ecopattern but was detected in alga addition ecopattern. Under scanning electron microscope it was observed that a couple of Legionella pneumophila adhered to the wall of filiform alga in the end of December, but at the end of February next year there was only fungi and its mycelium. [ Conclusion ] It is suggested that the lichen-alga mixture on container surface is the overwintering refuge for Legionella pneumophila which probably gain nutrition from the biomembrane of filiform alga. The fewer algae exist when air-conditioner is turned off and the longer circulating water keeps still, the less the possibility of Legionella

  6. Water Tanks, Water Towers - includes City water towers, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Water...

  7. The Applicability Analysis about Free Cooling by Using Cooling Tower for Interior Zones of Large Commercial Building in Chengdu%冷却塔免费供冷在成都地区大型商业内区的适用性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯源

    2016-01-01

    The theory and form of free cooling system are introduced. Through the analysis about cooling load of interior zones in winter, fan coil unit condition modification,the temperature of cooling tower supply and return water and outdoor climatic parameter of Chengdu, discussion the applicability of the technique in the area of large commercial area in Chengdu. Taking an example project of economic and suggestions for the design and operation are given.%简要介绍了冷却塔免费供冷的原理及形式,通过对冬季商业内区冷负荷,风机盘管的工况修正,冷却塔供回水温度及成都地区室外气象参数等因素的分析,探讨了该技术在成都地区大型商业内区的适用性。并结合实际工程案例进行了经济性分析并给出设计及运行建议。

  8. Assessing MODIS GPP in Non-Forested Biomes in Water Limited Areas Using EC Tower Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Álvarez-Taboada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although shrublands, savannas and grasslands account for 37% of the world’s terrestrial area, not many studies have analysed the role of these ecosystems in the global carbon cycle at a regional scale. The MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP product is used here to help bridge this gap. In this study, the agreement between the MODIS GPP product (GPPm and the GPP Eddy Covariance tower data (GPPec was tested for six different sites in temperate and dry climatic regions (three grasslands, two shrublands and one evergreen forest. Results of this study show that for the non-forest sites in water-limited areas, GPPm is well correlated with GPPec at annual scales (r2 = 0.77, n = 12; SEE = 149.26 g C∙m−2∙year−1, although it tends to overestimate GPP and it is less accurate in the sites with permanent water restrictions. The use of biome-specific models based on precipitation measurements at a finer spatial resolution than the Data Assimilation Office (DAO values can increase the accuracy of these estimations. The seasonal dynamics and the beginning and end of the growing season were well captured by GPPm for the sites where (i the productivity was low throughout the year or (ii the changes in the flux trend were abrupt, usually due to the restrictions in water availability. The agreement between GPPec and GPPm in non-forested sites was lower on a weekly basis than at an annual scale (0.44 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.49, but these results were improved by including meteorological data at a finer spatial scale, and soil water content and temperature measurements in the model developed to predict GPPec (0.52 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.65.

  9. Tower Camera

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The tower camera in Barrow provides hourly images of ground surrounding the tower. These images may be used to determine fractional snow cover as winter arrives, for...

  10. Analysis on anti-erosion problems of exhaust cooling tower steel reinforced concrete structure of coal-fired power plants%燃煤火电厂排烟冷却塔钢筋混凝土结构防腐蚀问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乐

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the erosion mechanism of exhaust cooling tower,puts forward major steel reinforced concrete structure anti-erosion methods of exhaust cooling tower,and achieves the effect of improving concrete durability and anti-erosion performance of exhaust cooling tower.%对排烟冷却塔混凝土腐蚀机理进行了研究,介绍了排烟冷却塔钢筋混凝土结构防腐蚀的方法,达到了提高排烟冷却塔混凝土耐腐蚀性和耐久性的效果。

  11. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E. [LABORELEC, Chemistry of Water (Belgium); Brognez, J. [ELECTRABEL, TIHANGE Nuclear Power Station (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    In the late 1970's and early 1980's, with the development of the nuclear programme in many European countries, the recirculation of cooling water in power stations became an issue which required urgent attention. The concentration of several plants of 1000 MW or more on sites along inland waterways actually made simple once-through cooling impossible, owing to the risk of an unacceptable rise in the river's water temperature. The chemical composition of natural freshwater in western European waterways is such that when it becomes slightly concentrated, scale is rapidly formed. The relatively low solubility of calcium carbonate and the degassing of the carbon dioxide during close contact between the water and air in the heat exchangers of the cooling tower explain this precipitation tendency. Fairly soon, experts in the electricity power generation companies highlighted the need for on-site, pilot loop simulations, in order to foresee the physico-chemical phenomena that could arise in industrial installations. The number of financially justifiable processing possibilities could be briefly summarised by the following three solutions: to adapt the concentration factor in order to be under the calcium carbonate solubility limit and thereby avoid the need for any water conditioning; to accept concentration factors of between 1.4 and 1.9 and control the calcium carbonate precipitation through controlled acid injection in the circulation water; to raise the concentration factor over 5 and soften the makeup water through the addition of lime and flocculant. The last of these solutions was rarely ever used in Belgium and France. It was however widely used in Germany. Its application requires a greater investment and leads to higher operating costs than acid injection. Furthermore, it leads to the problem of daily drying and disposal of several dozen tonnes of sludge, which have to be recycled or dumped. In an increasingly stringent environmental context, this

  12. Application of CAD Secondary Development in Cooling Tower Software Development%CAD二次开发在冷却塔软件开发中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑鸿飞; 王小松; 毛国辉

    2013-01-01

    介绍了利用ObjectARX. NET对AutoCAD二次开发的基本技术的概述。针对ObjectARX. NET开发工具的特点,介绍了CAD二次开发对图形数据库的访问技术,着重探讨了动态块技术在CAD二次开发中的应用。程序通过识别块体参数名修改相应的参数值实现了对动态块参照的修改,在参数化数据文件的组织和读取中,根据信息参数化的思想组织数据文件。程序采用基于关键字的方式读取相关数据便于数据文件进行扩充,并把这些技术应用到冷却塔软件开发出图程序中,实现冷却塔程序参数化和快速化设计,提高设计人员的工作效率。%Introduce the basic technique of CAD secondary development on the basis of ObjectARX. NET. For the features of Object-ARX. NET development tool,introduce the technique of using CAD secondary development to access to graphical database,especially ex-plore the application of dynamic blocks in CAD secondary development. The program can recognize the name of dynamic block and mod-ify the corresponding parameter value,thus modifying the reference of dynamic block. The program organizes data files according to the thinking of transferring information to parameters,and reads corresponding data through keywords,making it convenient to extend the da-ta files. All these methods and techniques can be applied in cooling tower software to develop the diagram program. Thus designers can work efficiently as the realization of cooling tower software program parametric and rapid design.

  13. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. King

    2000-06-19

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  14. Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozarth, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  15. Water Towers, MFRDC has WT for some of the counties and cities., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Middle Flint RDC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2008. It is described as 'MFRDC...

  16. Laboratory study on the cooling effect of flash water evaporative cooling technology for ventilation and air-conditioning of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Yuan, Shu; Yang, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a simple cooling technology using flash water evaporation. The technology combines a water atomizer with a plate heat exchanger used for heat recovery of a ventilation system. It is mainly used to cool the ventilation airflow from outdoors and is particularly suitable to be used...... in warm/hot and dry environment where dehumidification of outdoor air is not needed. A laboratory experiment was designed and conducted to evaluate the cooling effectiveness of this technology. The experiment was conducted in a twin-climate chamber. One chamber simulated warm/hot and dry outdoor...... environments and the other simulated an air-conditioned indoor environment. The flash water evaporation cooling device was installed in the chamber that simulated indoor environment. The air from the chamber simulating outdoor environment was introduced into the cooling device and cooled by the flash water...

  17. Prevention of Legionella in cooling towers and evaporation condensers. Avoiding risks by good practices; Preventie Legionella bij koeltorens en verdampingscondensors. Risico's vermijden door Good Practices te gebruiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, H. (ed.)

    2007-03-15

    Risks of evaporation coolers and more in particular cooling towers with a closed circuit and energy efficient evaporation condensors, are very low. Well-maintained installations are practically risk-free. Cooling towers and evaporation coolers need to be cleaned on a regular basis and require anti-bacteria treatment. In this article recommendations are formulated. [Dutch] Risico's die kleven aan verdampingskoelers en in het bijzonder aan de koeltorens met een gesloten circuit en de verdampingscondensors, welke een aanzienlijke energiebesparing opleveren, zijn zeer laag en goed onderhouden installaties vormen praktisch geen enkel risico. Koeltorens en verdampingscondensors moeten regelmatig gereinigd worden en behoeven een antibacteriele behandeling. In dit artikel worden hiervoor enkele aanbevelingen gegeven.

  18. Modeling and energy simulation of the variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system with water-cooled condenser under cooling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yueming; Wu, Jingyi [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics (China); Shiochi, Sumio [Daikin Industries Ltd. (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    As a new system, variable refrigerant flow system with water-cooled condenser (water-cooled VRF) can offer several interesting characteristics for potential users. However, at present, its dynamic simulation simultaneously in association with building and other equipments is not yet included in the energy simulation programs. Based on the EnergyPlus's codes, and using manufacturer's performance parameters and data, the special simulation module for water-cooled VRF is developed and embedded in the software of EnergyPlus. After modeling and testing the new module, on the basis of a typical office building in Shanghai with water-cooled VRF system, the monthly and seasonal cooling energy consumption and the breakdown of the total power consumption are analyzed. The simulation results show that, during the whole cooling period, the fan-coil plus fresh air (FPFA) system consumes about 20% more power than the water-cooled VRF system does. The power comparison between the water-cooled VRF system and the air-cooled VRF system is performed too. All of these can provide designers some ideas to analyze the energy features of this new system and then to determine a better scheme of the air conditioning system. (author)

  19. Corrosion induced clogging and plugging in water-cooled generator cooling circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B.G.; Hwang, I.S. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, I.H. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Soonchunhyang Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.T.; Chung, H.S. [Korea Electric Power Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Water-cooled electrical generators have been experienced corrosion-related problems that are restriction of flow through water strainers caused by collection of excessive amounts of copper corrosion products (''clogging''), and restriction of flow through the copper strands in the stator bars caused by growth or deposition of corrosion products on the walls of the hollow strands (''plugging''). These phenomena result in unscheduled shutdowns that would be a major concern because of the associated loss in generating capacity. Water-cooled generators are operated in one of two modes. They are cooled either with aerated water (dissolved oxygen >2 ppm) or with deaerated water (dissolved oxygen <50 ppb). Both modes maintain corrosion rates at satisfactorily low levels as long as the correct oxygen concentrations are maintained. However, it is generally believed that very much higher copper corrosion rates result at the intermediate oxygen concentrations of 100-1000 ppb. Clogging and plugging are thought to be associated with these intermediate concentrations, and many operators have suggested that the period of change from high-to-low or from low-to-high oxygen concentration is particularly damaging. In order to understand the detailed mechanism(s) of the copper oxide formation, release and deposition and to identify susceptible conditions in the domain of operating variables, a large-scale experiments are conducted using six hollow strands of full length connected with physico-chemically scaled generator cooling water circuit. To ensure a close simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions in a generator stator, strands of the loop will be ohmically heated using AC power supply. Experiments is conducted to cover oxygen excursions in both high dissolved oxygen and low dissolved oxygen conditions that correspond to two representative operating condition at fields. A thermal upset condition is also simulated to examine the impact of

  20. 冷却塔风机电机绕组烧毁及控制系统优化%Cooling tower fan motor winding burn and optimization of control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋辉; 陈梅; 姜楠

    2012-01-01

      Motor winding burn is common fault. Signs before winding burned is not easy to find, and after burned, some direct cause which lead to burn was hidden, analysis difficulty was increased. The motor sealing, winding insulation damage and other aspects were analyzed,At the same time, temperature change of the heat exchanger which did this closed cooling tower system optimization brought for motor timely maintenance and avoiding circulating water temperature.%  绕组烧毁是电机常见故障。绕组烧毁前的迹象不容易发现,而烧毁后一些导致烧毁的直接原因又被掩盖,给事后分析增加了难度。文章就电机密封、绕组绝缘破坏等几方面进行了分析,同时阐述闭式冷却塔系统优化对于电机及时维修和避免循环水温度带来换热器温度变化。

  1. Conceptual design of a water cooled breeder blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Songlin, E-mail: slliu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pu, Yong; Cheng, Xiaoman [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Jia; Peng, ChangHong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Ma, Xuebing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Chen, Lei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We proposed a water cooled ceramic breeder blanket with superheated steam. • Superheated steam is generated at the first wall and the front part of breeder zone. • Superheated steam has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW and improves TBR. • The superheated steam at higher temperature can improve thermal efficiency. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is an ITER-like superconducting tokamak reactor. Its major radius is 5.7 m, minor radius is 1.6 m and elongation ratio is 1.8. Its mission is to achieve 50–200 MW of fusion power, 30–50% of duty time factor, and tritium breeding ratio not less than 1.2 to ensure the self-sufficiency. As one of the breeding blanket candidates for CFETR, a water cooled breeder blanket with superheated steam is proposed and its conceptual design is being carried out. In this design, sub-cooling water at 265 °C under the pressure of 7 MPa is fed into cooling plates in breeding zone and is heated up to 285 °C with saturated steam generated, and then this steam is pre-superheated up to 310 °C in first wall (FW), final, the pre-superheated steam coming from several blankets is fed into the other one blanket to superheat again up to 517 °C. Due to low density of superheated steam, it has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW so that the high energy neutrons entering into breeder zone moderated by water in cooling plate help enhance tritium breeding by {sup 6}Li(n,α)T reaction. Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles and Be{sub 12}Ti pebbles are chosen as tritium breeder and neutron multiplier respectively, because Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Be{sub 12}Ti are expected to have better chemical stability and compatibility with water in high temperature. However, Be{sub 12}Ti may lead to a reduction in tritium breeding ratio (TBR). Furthermore, a spot of sintered Be plate is used to improve neutron multiplying capacity in a multi-layer structure. As one alternative option

  2. Advances in alkaline cooling water treatment technology: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaffer, A.E. Jr.; Klatskin, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    A series of chromate and non-chromate treatment programs, specifically designed for alkaline pH cooling waters, have been developed. The treatments provide excellent corrosion and scale control over a broad range of water chemistries and are applicable to high conductivity and iron contaminated waters. Low levels of zinc are used to reduce the dependency on alkalinity, chromate and calcium carbonate supersaturation for corrosion control. The precipitation and fouling problems previously encountered with zinc containing treatments have been eliminated by the use of polymeric dispersants.

  3. Combined Application of Silencer and Sound Barrier in Cooling Tower Noise Control%消声装置和声屏障在冷却塔降噪治理中的组合应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞敏捷

    2014-01-01

    针对火电厂自然通风冷却塔的噪声污染,通过分析研究冷却塔噪声特性,以辽宁某电厂冷却塔噪声控制为例,根据厂界及敏感点噪声控制目标,利用CADNA_ A软件进行分析和预测,采取消声装置和声屏障相结合的噪声控制技术,使厂界及敏感点噪声达到相关标准,取得了理想效果,为同类工程噪声治理提供参考。%This paper focused on the noise pollution of natural ventilation cooling tower in power plant. Taking cooling towers in a power plant in Liaoning as an example,the noise characteristics and noise control of cooling towers were analyzed and studied. According to the noise control target of factory circle and sensitive points,the noise distribution was analyzed and forecasted by CADNA_ A software. The result showed that the noise in factory circle and sensitive points reached the relevant standards and achieved the desired results by the combined applica-tion of silencer and sound barrier. This approach provides a reference for similar project.

  4. 国电库车发电厂空冷塔X柱及筒壁施工工艺%Construction Craft of the Air-cooling Tower X Column and Cylinder Wall in Guodian Kuche Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The Guodian Kuche power plant air-cooling tower is the largest air-cooling tower in Xinjiang, the height of air-cooling tower X pil ar is 26m, section is big and inclined 70 DEG, supporting rack erection is complex; the height of cylin-der wal is 157 m, vertical transportation difficulty is big, quan-tities is large, radius is large, horizontal transportation has gr-eat dif iculty. We use the advanced construction technology, improve the efficiency of work.%  国电库车发电厂空冷塔为全疆最大的空冷塔,空冷塔 X 支柱高度26 m、截面大并倾斜70°,支撑排架搭设复杂;筒壁高度157m、垂直运输难度大、工程量大、半径大、水平运输难度大。我们采用了先进的施工工艺,提高了工作效益。

  5. Assessment of requirements for dry towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D E; Sonnichsen, J C

    1976-09-01

    The regional limitations of surface water supplies in the U.S. were assessed with respect to the consumptive use requirements of wet cooling towers. The study simulated unit consumptive use factors by region, assessed regional water supplies, and examined electric load projections through 2000 A.D. to ascertain where and when water limitations may occur and, therefore, where dry cooling may be required. It was concluded that the cooling water supply situation in the United States through the year 2000 is adequate in most areas, but is uncertain over much of the Southwest. The uncertainty is related to increasing competition for the available supplies and to potential Federal and/or State policy decisions that may have a significant effect on power plant cooling. Limitations on coastal siting, seismic zone constraints, and state constraints on the purchase and transfer of water rights from other uses to cooling supply have the potential of bringing wet/dry or dry cooling into relatively common use in the 1990's. (LCL)

  6. Numerical simulation on internal and external flow field of a SCAL indirect air cooling tower%SCAL型间接空冷塔内外流场数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田松峰; 柴艳琴; 向同琼; 周广沙

    2014-01-01

    根据某SCAL型自然通风空气冷却塔(空冷塔)散热管束的实际尺寸和冷却三角的布置方式,对塔底换热单元建立了几何模型,并基于 RNG k-ε紊流模型和多孔介质模型,对塔内外流场进行了三维数值模拟,探究了环境条件对其运行特性的影响。研究结果表明:随着环境风速的增加,空冷塔迎风面进口风速逐渐增加,而侧风面和背风面的进口风速则呈下降趋势,且该趋势随温度的上升愈加明显;空冷塔的通风量和塔出口速度随环境风速的增加先增大后减小,且在风速为2m/s 时,其通风量和出口速度最大。%According to the actual size of cooling tube bundle and the arrangement of cooling trian-gle of a surface condenser aluminum exchangers (SCAL)natural draft cooling tower,the geomet-ric model of heat transfer elements at the tower bottom was established.On the basis of the RNG k-εturbulence model and porous medium model,three-dimensional numerical simulation was car-ried out for the inner and external flow field of the air cooling tower,to investigate the influence of environmental conditions on the tower's operation performance.The results show that,with an increase in ambient wind speed,the inlet air speed at windward side of the tower increases gradu-ally,while that at crosswind side and lee side decreases and tends to be obvious;the tower ventila-tion rate and outlet air speed increases at first and then decreases,and their maximum values ap-pear when the wind speed is 2 m/s.

  7. 横流式冷却塔溢水故障分析及处理措施%AnaIysis on water overfIow maIfunction of cross-fIow cooIing tower and treatment measures thereof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 杨兰

    2015-01-01

    In the design of circulating cooling water system, designers always pay more attention to cooling towerˊs type selection while ignore the design of its influent water pipeline. Defective influent water pipeline may not only impact the water distribution uniformity, but also can cause water overflow of the cooling tower and wa-ter deficient of the cooling pond when the situation is serious, which will result in effluent water temperature rise. Through the reason analysis on a case of water overflow malfunction of a cross-flow cooling tower and the com-parison between the operation situations before and after the problem solved, the treatment measures of the said kind of malfunction were discussed.%在循环冷却水设计中通常较多考虑冷却塔的选型,而会忽略冷却塔进水管路的设计。当冷却塔进水管路设计存在缺陷时,不仅会影响冷却塔布水的均匀性,严重时会造成冷却塔溢水和凉水池亏水,导致补充水浪费并引起出塔水温升高。通过对一起横流式冷却塔溢水故障的原因分析及处理前、后效果对比,讨论横流式冷却塔溢水故障的解决办法。

  8. USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

    2006-11-27

    Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

  9. Effect of cooling water on stability of NLC linac components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Le Pimpec et al.

    2003-02-11

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  10. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF SINGLE-PHASED WATER-COOLING RADIATOR FOR COMPUTER CHIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Ping; CHENG Guangming; LIU Jiulong; YANG Zhigang; SUN Xiaofeng; PENG Taijiang

    2007-01-01

    In order to cool computer chip efficiently with the least noise, a single phase water-cooling radiator for computer chip driven by piezoelectric pump with two parallel-connection chambers is developed. The structure and work principle of this radiator is described. Material, processing method and design principles of whole radiator are also explained. Finite element analysis (FEA) software,ANSYS, is used to simulate the heat distribution in the radiator. Testing equipments for water-cooling radiator are also listed. By experimental tests, influences of flowrate inside the cooling system and fan on chip cooling are explicated. This water-cooling radiator is proved more efficient than current air-cooling radiator with comparison experiments. During cooling the heater which simulates the working of computer chip with different power, the water-cooling radiator needs shorter time to reach lower steady temperatures than current air-cooling radiator.

  12. Investigation of the Use of Absorption Cooling Cycles to Reduce the Amount of Cooling Water Needed for Power Plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, Bobby D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report outlines a preliminary study on the feasibility of using absorption cooling technology to cool thermoelectric power plants. Water availability is becoming more important in the production of energy throughout the world, especially in thermoelectric power generation. Currently, thermoelectric power generation accounts for about 48% of all water withdrawals in the United States. Rising population, increasing e lectricity use per capita, and decreasing water reserves threaten the availability of water for use in cooling power plants. To this end, Sandia National Laboratories has begun an initiative to find ways to increase the water use efficiency of power plants . In 2016, the New Mexico Small Business Association funded a project whereby Sandia would complete a preliminary assessment of the viability of utilizing absorption cooling technologies to aid in cooling thermoelectric power plants, thereby decreasing the amount of water required to generate electricity. This project was proposed by Thales Energy, a small business located in Albuquerque, NM. Due to time and money constraints, only a preliminary analysis was performed. The results indicate that the use of a bsorption cooling technologies is scientifically feasible and that, with more engineering analysis, may be economically feasible for some power plants, dependent upon local environmental conditions and the price currently being paid for cooling water by th e plant.

  13. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young Cho; Alexander Fridman

    2009-04-02

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the

  14. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  15. Experimental validation of the simulation module of the water-cooled variable refrigerant flow system under cooling operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yue Ming; Wu, Jing Yi [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Shiochi, Sumio [Daikin Industries, Ltd., 1304 Kanaoka-cho, Kita-ku, Sakai, Osaka 591-8511 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    On the basis of EnergyPlus's codes, the catalogue and performance parameters from some related companies, a special simulation module for variable refrigerant flow system with a water-cooled condenser (water-cooled VRF) was developed and embedded in the software of EnergyPlus, the building energy simulation program. To evaluate the energy performance of the system and the accuracy of the simulation module, the measurement of the water-cooled VRF is built in Dalian, China. After simulation and comparison, some conclusions can be drawn. The mean of the absolute value of the daily error in the 9 days is 11.3% for cooling capacity while the one for compressor power is 15.7%. At the same time, the accuracy of the power simulation strongly depends on the accuracy of the cooling capacity simulation. (author)

  16. Characteristic Study on Cool Storage in Transition Period of Cooling Tower-Ground Coupled Heat Pump in Hot-summer and Cold-winter Zone%夏热冬冷地区冷却塔—土壤耦合热泵过渡季蓄冷特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢莉; 刘金祥; 刘凯

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a soil cool storage model for cooling tower-ground coupled heat pump in transition period based on cooling and heating load characteristics in hot-summer and cold-winter zone,establishes a simulation model for the soil cool storage system of cooling tower-ground coupled heat pump in transition period by means of software TRNSYS,conducts working condition simulation analysis of the two main influencing factors of the model regarding soil cool storage in transition period and proposes a control strategy regarding soil cool storage in transition period for cooling tower-ground coupled heat pump.Besides,this paper also strives to explore an effective method to relieve yearly thermal imbalance of ground-source heat pump in hot-summer and cold-winter zone and improve system operation efficiency based on the researches above.%本文针对夏热冬冷地区冷热负荷特性,提出了冷却塔—土壤耦合热泵过渡季土壤蓄冷模式,采用软件TRNSYS建立了冷却塔—土壤耦合热泵过渡季土壤蓄冷系统仿真模型,并利用该模型针对过渡季土壤蓄冷的两个主要影响因素进行了工况模拟分析,,在此基础上提出了冷却塔—土壤耦合热泵过渡季节土壤蓄冷的控制策略.本文力图通过上述研究探索出缓解夏热冬冷地区土壤源热泵系统全年热失衡问题、提高该系统运行效率的有效途径.

  17. Distributed power from solar tower systems : a MIUS approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M.J.; Tellez, F.M.; Blanco, M. [CIEMAT/DER-PSA, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, V. [AICIA, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Seville (Spain); Baonza, F. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Madrid (Spain). Dpto. Ingenieria Mecanica; Berger, S. [Ecole Nat. des Ponts et Chaussees, Marne-la-Vallee (France)

    1999-07-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration into communities and energy islands for local power supply (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, ecoparks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small solar tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leading to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begun. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The main questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and how to make them feasible. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36 MW plant and its integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostat configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with a solar tower producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. (Author)

  18. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Binay Kumar; Dey, Samarjit; Biswas, Saumya; Mohan, Varinder Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] - 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18(th)-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10) on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment.

  19. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binay Kumar Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacroiliac (SI joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] - 9/10 with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18th-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10 on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment.

  20. Performance characteristics in hydrodynamic water cooled thrust bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad Najar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the influence on performance characteristics of a thrust bearing with the introduction of cooling circuit and flow velocity of coolant within the designed thrust bearings is described. New method of cooling circuit configuration is taken into consideration and water has been chosen as a coolant here in the present work. Flow velocity of coolant, ranging from 0.5m/s to 2.0m/s is proposed. The Finite difference based numerical model has been developed in order to notice the effect on the heat transfer on a large hydrodynamic lubrication thrust bearing in-terms of its performance characteristics. In the present work, the solution of Reynolds equation, an energy equation with viscosity variation and Fourier heat conduction equations, applied with appropriate boundary conditions. From the present investigation, it is observed significant amount of heat content is removed from the bearing with the increase of flow velocity of coolant in an embedded cooling duct within the pad. An important parameter among performance characteristics has prevailed a significant increase in hydrodynamic pressure generation which in turn subsequently increases the load carrying capacity which has been never ever documented in the background literature.

  1. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Binay Kumar; Dey, Samarjit; Biswas, Saumya; Mohan, Varinder Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] – 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18th-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10) on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment. PMID:28096589

  2. Process water - waste water - cooling water. Papers; Prozesswasser/Abwasser/Kuehlwasser. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, F. (comp.)

    2002-07-01

    The 39th Metallurgical Seminar focused on water. Modern technologies for water purification and treatment were presented, legal boundary conditions were discussed, and aspects of process water, waste water and cooling water were gone into. Although the boundaries between these three types of water cannot be clearly defined, materials recovery is the prevalent aspect in process water treatment while waste water treatment primarily aims at reducing pollutant concentrations so that both environmental aspects and technical quality standards will be met. This proceedings volume attempts to give its readers a more precise picture of the issues at hand by presenting fundamental research, ecological and legal specifications, and selected examples of industrial applications. [German] Das 39. Metallurgische Seminar beschaeftigt sich mit Wasser. Neben der Praesentation grundsaetzlicher, moderner Techniken zur Reinhaltung und Aufbereitung von Wasser sowie der Darstellung der gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen umspannen die Fachvortraege Beitraege zu den Themen Prozesswasser, Abwasser, Kuehlwasser. Wenn auch die Grenzen innerhalb dieser Begriffe teilweise fliessend sind, so zeichnen sich die Prozesswaesser dadurch aus, dass man primaer - wie beispielsweise bei Waschsloesungen und Beizwaessern - an der Wiedergewinnung der Inhaltsstoffe interessiert ist, waehrend bei reinen Abwaessern und Kuehlturmwaessern bzw. deren Abschlaemmungen die massgebliche Aufgabe darin besteht, die Konzentration der Inhaltsstoffe so weit abzusenken, dass man einerseits den Umwelterfordernissen und andererseits den technischen Qualitaetsanforderungen gerecht wird. Ziel dieses Bandes ist es, an Hand von Grundlagen, der Darstellung der oekologischen und behoerdlichen Erfordernisse sowie ausgewaehlter Fallbeispiele aus der Industrie den Leserkreis naeher an diese Thematik heranzufuehren. (orig.)

  3. Environmental compatible cooling water treatment chemicals; Umweltvertraegliche Chemikalien in der Kuehlwasserkonditionierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartiser, S.; Urich, E.

    2002-02-01

    In Germany about 32 billion m{sup 3}/a cooling water are discharged from industrial plants and power industry. These are conditioned partly with biocides, scaling and corrosion inhibitors. Within the research project the significance of cooling water chemicals was evaluated, identifying the chemicals from product information, calculating their loads from consumption data of more than 180 cooling plants and investigating the basic data needed for an environmental hazard assessment. Additionally the effects of cooling water samples and products were determined in biological test systems. Batch tests were performed under defined conditions in order to measure the inactivation of cooling water biocides. (orig.)

  4. Virtueller Tower

    OpenAIRE

    Fürstenau, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Es wird ein Überblick über den Stand der Forschung und Entwicklung zum Remote Tower Experimentalsystem gegeben, des im Rahmen des DLR-Projekts RapTOr am Forschungsflughafen Braunschweig aufgebaut wird.

  5. Technology for Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    There are approximately 500,000 water cooling towers in the United States, all of which must be kept clear of "scale" and corrosion and free of pollutants and bacteria. Electron Pure, Ltd. manufactures a hydro cooling tower conditioner as well as an automatic pool sanitizer. The pool sanitizer consists of two copper/silver electrodes placed in a chamber mounted in the pool's recirculation system. The tower conditioner combines the ionization system with a water conditioner, pump, centrifugal solids separator and timer. The system saves water, eliminates algae and operates maintenance and chemical free. The company has over 100 distributors in the U.S. as well as others in 20 foreign countries. The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  6. SACTI 模式在核电厂冷却塔环境影响预测的应用研究%The Application of SACTI Model in Environmental Impact Forecast of Cooling Tower in Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国良; 游春华; 王一川; 谭承军; 张琨; 魏新渝

    2016-01-01

    介绍了SACTI模式的原理和计算程序,以某内陆核电厂为案例预测了冷却塔的环境影响。结果表明:冷却塔可见雾羽、荫屏、太阳能损失、水沉积、盐沉积等环境影响主要分布在厂址主导风向下风向的几百米之内,随距离增加影响逐渐减小,盐沉积量最大值出现在距离300 m处。在冷却塔环境影响评价准则和预测模型改进方面还需开展进一步的研究。%The principle and calculation procedures of SACTI model are described .And the environmental im-pacts from the cooling towers in a nuclear power plant inland are assessed .The results show that visible plume , plume shadowing , solar energy loss , water deposition and salt deposition mainly distribute within a few hundred meters downwind to the study plant site .The adverse environmental effects gradually decrease with the increas-ing of distance , but the maximum value of salt deposit appears at the distance of 300 m.More research is re-quired to determine evaluation criteria and to improve prediction models to better understand the adverse envi -ronmental effects .

  7. Dechlorination Technology Manual. Final report. [Utility cooling water discharge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschoff, A.F.; Chiesa, R.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Lee, Y.H.; Mehta, S.C.; Meko, A.C.; Musil, R.R.; Sopocy, D.M.; Wilson, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    On November 19, 1982, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated regulations severely restricting chlorination practices as they relate to utility cooling water discharge systems. EPRI authorized the preparation of a manual on dechlorination technology to assist utilities in evaluating the various alternatives available to them to meet these new requirements. The Dechlorination Technology Manual emphasizes the engineering aspects involved in the selection and design of dechlorination systems. However, background information is included concerning chemistry, regulatory requirements, environmental considerations and aquatic impacts. There is also a brief discussion of the various alternatives to dechlorination. Case studies are given to acquaint the user with the use of the manual for the design of chlorination facilities given various site-related characteristics, such as salt versus fresh waters. Numerous graphs and tables are presented to facilitate the selection and design process. 207 references, 66 figures, 60 tables.

  8. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Zacarias, A. [ESIME UPA, IPN, Av. de las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  9. Experimental study of the decrease in the temperature of an air/water-cooled turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, A. A.; Sereda, A. V.; Shaiakberov, V. F.; Iskakov, K. M.; Shatalov, Iu. S.

    Results of the full-scale testing of an air/water-cooled deflector-type turbine blade are reported. Data on the decrease in the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade are presented and compared with the calculated values. An analysis of the results indicates that the use of air/water cooling makes it possible to significantly reduce the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade with practically no increase in the engine weight and dimensions.

  10. Reinforced concrete corrosion: application of Bayesian networks to the risk management of cooling towers in nuclear plants; Corrosion du beton arme: application des reseaux bayesiens a la gestion du risque des aerorefrigerants des centrales nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capra, B.; Le Drogo, J.; Wolff, V. [OXAND S.A., 77 - Avon (France)

    2007-07-01

    Degradation modeling of concrete structures uses uncertain variables and leads, using reliability assessment, to time dependant evolution of failure probabilities. However, only few data are generally available to feed models leading to two types of uncertainties: an intrinsic one depending on the modeled phenomena and one related to the precision of the measurements. Each new data available is a piece of information which allows updating the initial prediction. In this article, an example of updating process, based on a Bayesian network, is presented and applied on the corrosion risk of a cooling tower in a nuclear plant. (authors)

  11. Development of a water-mist cooling system: A 12,500 Kcal/h air-cooled chiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Neng Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and energy exhaustion problems are becoming a severe problems, of which energy conservation and carbon reduction are the most critical. Between 40% and 48% of the total electricity used in a building is consumed by air conditioning systems. The development of a supersonic water-misting cooling system with a fuzzy control system is proposed to optimize existing condenser noise, space, and energy consumption, as well as to address problems with cooling capacity resulting from improper control between compressors and condensers. An experimental platform was established for conducting tests, observing cooling efficiencies, and calculating power saving statuses. Comparing the observed cooling efficiency, a temperature difference of 5.4 °C was determined before and after the application; this is significant regarding efficiency. The method produces no pollution or water accumulation. When compared with fixed frequency air-cooled water chillers, an exceptional energy saving of 25% was observed. The newly developed supersonic mist-cooled chiller is an excellent solution to increasing water and electricity fees.

  12. Superheated Water-Cooled Small Modular Underwater Reactor Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Shirvan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel fully passive small modular superheated water reactor (SWR for underwater deployment is designed to produce 160 MWe with steam at 500ºC to increase the thermodynamic efficiency compared with standard light water reactors. The SWR design is based on a conceptual 400-MWe integral SWR using the internally and externally cooled annular fuel (IXAF. The coolant boils in the external channels throughout the core to approximately the same quality as a conventional boiling water reactor and then the steam, instead of exiting the reactor pressure vessel, turns around and flows downward in the central channel of some IXAF fuel rods within each assembly and then flows upward through the rest of the IXAF pins in the assembly and exits the reactor pressure vessel as superheated steam. In this study, new cladding material to withstand high temperature steam in addition to the fuel mechanical and safety behavior is investigated. The steam temperature was found to depend on the thermal and mechanical characteristics of the fuel. The SWR showed a very different transient behavior compared with a boiling water reactor. The inter-play between the inner and outer channels of the IXAF was mainly beneficial except in the case of sudden reactivity insertion transients where additional control consideration is required.

  13. Statistical analysis of short-term water stress conditions at Riggs Creek OzFlux tower site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Mohammad; Rüdiger, Christoph; Walker, Jeffrey P.

    2016-08-01

    A large range of indices and proxies are available to describe the water stress conditions of an area subject to different applications, which have varying capabilities and limitations depending on the prevailing local climatic conditions and land cover. The present study uses a range of spatio-temporally high-resolution (daily and within daily) data sources to evaluate a number of drought indices (DIs) for the Riggs Creek OzFlux tower site in southeastern Australia. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to evaluate the statistical characteristics of individual DIs subject to short-term water stress conditions. In order to derive a more general and therefore representative DI, a new criterion is required to specify the statistical similarity between each pair of indices to allow determining the dominant drought types along with their representative DIs. The results show that the monitoring of water stress at this case study area can be achieved by evaluating the individual behaviour of three clusters of (i) vegetation conditions, (ii) water availability and (iii) water consumptions. This indicates that it is not necessary to assess all individual DIs one by one to derive a comprehensive and informative data set about the water stress of an area; instead, this can be achieved by analysing one of the DIs from each cluster or deriving a new combinatory index for each cluster, based on established combination methods.

  14. Modeling and simulation of evaporative condensation cooling water system for subway%地铁蒸发冷凝冷水系统建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超

    2016-01-01

    针对某地铁车站的空调水系统,描述系统中各主要组件的数学模型,在 EASY5平台上建立空调水系统仿真模型,将冷却塔系统与蒸发冷凝系统进行对比。结果表明:蒸发冷凝系统的COP 明显高于风冷系统,且系统动态响应更快,建立的仿真模型能够为蒸发冷凝冷水系统的模拟提供参考。%The mathematical model of the main components is described according to the air-conditioning water system for subway.The simulation model of air-conditioning water system is established based on EASY5 .The evaporative condensation system is compared with the cooling tower system.The results show that the COP of the evapora-tive condensation cooling water system is higher than that of the air cooling system and its dynamic response is faster.The simulation model can provide valuable reference for the simulation of evaporative condensation cooling water system.

  15. Effect of Mixed Corrosion Inhibitors in Cooling Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Raheem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixed corrosion inhibitors in cooling system was evaluated by using carbon steel specimens and weight loss analysis. The carbon steel specimens immersed in mixture of sodium phosphate (Na2 HPO4 used as corrosion inhibitor and sodium glocunate (C6 H11 NaO7 as a scale dispersant at different concentrations (20,40, 60, 80 ppm and at different temperature (25,50,75 and 100ºC for (1-5 days. The corrosion inhibitors efficiency was calculated by using uninhibited and inhibited water to give 98.1%. The result of these investigations indicate that the corrosion rate decreases with the increase the corrosion inhibitors concentration at 80 ppm and at 100ºC for 5 days, (i.e, corrosion rate= 0.014gmd.

  16. Risk Evaluation and Warning of Legionella Contamination in Aerosols and Cooling Towers in Centralized Air Conditioning System in Public Places%公共场所中央空调系统冷却塔水及气溶胶军团菌污染的风险评估和预警研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健; 赵志荣; 施明美; 彭志行; 董坤; 张大伟; 刘洋; 赵锴; 陈道利

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop risk evaluation index system and warning model of Legionella contamination in aerosols and cooling towers in centralized air conditioning systems in public places. Methods During May -Sep.2008 and 2009, 70 water samples and 110 aerosol samples were collected from cooling towers for isolated culture and PCR of Legionella. The relationships between Legionella detection from cooling waters and from aerosols were analyzed. Eighteen variables of affecting Legionella contamination of cooling waters and aerosols were screened, the cumulative odds models were constructed by ordinal logistic regression. Results Integrated risk evaluation index system of Legionella contamination was constructed based on the results of isolated culture and PCR of Legionella for water samples from cooling towers and PCR of Legionella for aerosol samples from cooling towers. According to the three indexes mentioned above, Legionella contamination risk levels were divided into four ranks,such as none, low, moderate and high risk level. The risk warning model had been constructed, which included 4 variables, such as water temperature of cooling tower, residual chlorine, pH value and relative humidity of aerosols sampling points. Conclusion The model has formed scientific evaluation of Legionella contamination risk in cooling waters and aerosols, completes quick field monitoring with sensitive and simple measure indexes, decides risk levels of Legionella contamination of cooling waters and aerosols. The sensitivity and specificity of the model prediction attains to the demand of risk precaution.%目的 构建中央空调系统冷却塔水及气溶胶军团菌污染的风险评估指标体系和风险预警模型.方法 于2008、2009年的5-9月采集马鞍山市16户宾馆、商场、公共浴室冷却塔水样70份,冷却塔气溶胶样品110份,分别进行军团菌分离培养和嗜肺军团菌mip基因的PCR检测.分析冷却塔水军团菌检出与气溶胶军团菌检

  17. Overview of Cooling Water System for the KSTAR 1{sup st} Plasma Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. T.; Im, D. S.; Joung, N. Y.; Kim, Y. S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The KSTAR cooling water system (CWS) consists of a primary cooling water system (PCWS), a secondary cooling water system (SCWS), and a de-mineralizing and de-ionized water system (DIWS). The PCWS cooling loops have been made for the poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) magnet power supplies (MPS), vacuum vessel (VV), electron cyclotron heating (ECH), ion cyclotron heating (ICRH), vacuum pumps, diagnostics, helium facility, etc. The CWS had been done individual commissioning of each system to confirm the design specifications by the end of 2006 and had gradually begun operation for the KSTAR ancillary devices by March 2008.

  18. 碳纤维风机极大地改善工业冷却塔风机的性能%CFRP FAN GREATLY IMPROVES THE INDUSTRIAL COOLING TOWER FAN PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进友

    2012-01-01

    Through analysis and research of the test data of CFRP fan and GFRP fan in 2 cooling towers in the same chemical factory, compared with the models of international advanced level of glass fiber reinforced plastic fan, air volume flow rate is 13% more. Carbon fiber reinforced fan applied in industrial cooling tower causes the fan performance of a leap, is a world leading level in output, energy saving.%通过对碳纤维风机和玻璃钢风机在某化工厂的实塔对比测试的数据进行整理和分析,碳纤维风机比同型号国际先进水平的玻璃钢风机的风量高13%.碳纤维风机在工业冷却塔中的应用使风机的性能有了飞跃,在出力、节能方面处于世界领先水平.

  19. Development of the water cooled lithium lead blanket for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, J., E-mail: julien.aubert@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Aiello, G.; Jonquères, N. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Li Puma, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LPEC, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Morin, A.; Rampal, G. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The WCLL blanket design has been modified to adapt it to the 2012 EFDA DEMO specifications. • Preliminary CAD design of the equatorial outboard module of the WCLL blanket has been developed for DEMO. • Finite elements analyses have been carried out in order to assess the module thermal behavior in the straight part of the module. - Abstract: The water cooled lithium lead (WCLL) blanket, based on near-future technology requiring small extrapolation from present-day knowledge both on physical and technological aspect, is one of the breeding blanket concepts considered as possible candidates for the EU DEMOnstration power plant. In 2012, the EFDA agency issued new specifications for DEMO: this paper describes the work performed to adapt the WCLL blanket design to those specifications. Relatively small modules with straight surfaces are attached to a common Back Supporting Structure housing feeding pipes. Each module features reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel as structural material, liquid Lithium-Lead as breeder, neutron multiplier and carrier. Water at typical Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) conditions is chosen as coolant. A preliminary design of the equatorial outboard module has been achieved. Finite elements analyses have been carried out in order to assess the module thermal behavior. Two First Wall (FW) concepts have been proposed, one favoring the thermal efficiency, the other favoring the manufacturability. The Breeding Zone has been designed with C-shaped Double-Walled Tubes in order to minimize the Water/Pb-15.7Li interaction likelihood. The priorities for further development of the WCLL blanket concept are identified in the paper.

  20. 广州市荔湾区集中空调系统冷却水塔铜绿假单胞菌污染状况%Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Contamination in Cooling Tower of Central Air Conditioning System in Liwan District of Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方强; 谭志熹

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To learn the contamination statues of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cooling tower of central air conditioning system, provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.[Methods]From April to September 2010, 28 water samples were collected from the cooling towers of central air conditioning system in public places of Liwan district, and the indexes of pH value, Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested.The Sanitation criterion of centralized air ventilation system in public places (2006) was adopted to test the Legionella pneumophila, the Methods for examination of drinking natural mineral water ( GB8538 - 2008 ) was applied to test the Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the Standard examination methods for chinking water ( GB/T5750 - 2006) was adopted to test the pH value.[Results]Among 28 samples, the total positive rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was57.14%, that of Legionella pneumophila was 60.71%, and the difference was not significant ( P > 0.05 ).There was negative correlation between the positive rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the PH value.[Conclusion]Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination is serious in cooling tower of central air conditioning system, and it is necessary to strengthen the cleaning and disinfection of cooling towers.%目的 了解集中空调冷却水塔铜绿假单胞菌污染状况,为铜绿假单胞菌的防控工作提供科学依据.方法 2010年4-9月,对荔湾区公共场所28个集中空调冷却水塔水样的pH值、嗜肺军团菌、铜绿假单胞菌等微生物指标进行检测,嗜肺军团菌按照卫生部(2006)检测,铜绿假单胞菌分析按照GB 8538-2008饮用天然矿泉水检验方法进行,pH值按照(GB/T 5750-2006)中检验方法进行.结果 检测的28份冷却水塔中的水样品,铜绿假单胞菌总阳性检出率为57.14%,嗜肺军团菌阳性检出率为60.71%,两者比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),铜绿假单胞菌的阳性检出率和p

  1. An experimental system for thermal performance test of large-scale air-cooling towers%大型间接空冷机组空冷塔热力性能实验系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席新铭; 郭永红; 杜小泽; 杨立军; 杨勇平

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of a 600 MW indirect air cooling unit,an experimental system for large-scale air-coo-ing tower was designed by means of the similarity principles,with a proportion of 1 to 30.This system con-sists of modeling air cooling tower,air cooling modeling radiator,heat load power control system and data collection system.During the experiment,the heat load can be regulated by the control system,according to the parameters'value and experimental purpose.The calculation shows the measurement error of heat transfer coefficient of this experimental system is less than 20%.Through this system,the flow and heat transfer characteristics at inside and outside of the dry-cooling tower under various environmental condi-tions can be measured.Moreover,the correlations of flow and heat transfer of air-cooled heat exchanger and the off-design performance of the indirect dry cooling system can be obtained.The hot plume recirculation flows,anti-freezing in winter and the thermo-hydraulic performances for stack and tower integration design can be investigated using this experimental system.The design principle,basic parameters and measuring errors were analyzed.%以某600 MW间接空冷机组的空冷塔为原型,按1∶30的比例,根据相似原理设计了1套自然环境条件下大型间接空冷塔的实验系统。该系统由模型空冷塔、空冷模型散热器、散热热负荷控制系统及数据采集系统等组成。实验期间可根据数值大小及实验目的利用控制系统调整热负荷。对实验数据计算及分析,表明:该空冷塔实验系统的换热系数测量误差小于20%;利用该实验系统,可获得不同环境气象条件下,空冷塔内部空气流场特性,以及散热负荷的空间分布规律;可进行间接空冷系统热空气回流、冬季防冻及烟塔合一条件下塔内气体流动传热机理的研究。

  2. A Synergistic Combination of Advanced Separation and Chemical Scale Inhibitor Technologies for Efficient Use of Imparied Water As Cooling Water in Coal-based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasbir Gill

    2010-08-30

    commercial product commonly used for silica/silicate control. Additional pilot cooling tower testing confirmed the bench study. We also developed a molecule to inhibit calcium carbonate precipitation and calcium sulfate precipitation at high supersaturations. During Phase 3, a long-term test of the EDI system and scale inhibitors was done at Nalco's cooling tower water testing facility, producing 850 gallons of high purity water (90+% salt removal) at a rate of 220 L/day. The EDI system's performance was stable when the salt concentration in the concentrate compartment (i.e. the EDI waste stream) was controlled and a CIP was done after every 48 hours of operation time. A combination of EDI and scale inhibitors completely eliminated blowdown discharge from the Pilot cooling Tower. The only water-consumption came from evaporation, CIP and EDI concentrate. Silica Inhibitor was evaluated in the field at a western coal fired power plant.

  3. Cooling of Water in a Flask: Convection Currents in a Fluid with a Density Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S.; White, J. A.; Roman, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of density inversion on the convective flow of water in a spherical glass flask cooled with the help of an ice-water bath is shown. The experiment was carried out by temperature measurements (cooling curves) taken at three different heights along the vertical diameter of the flask. Flows inside the flask are visualized by seeding the…

  4. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  5. Thermal behaviour analysis on ITER component cooling water system loop 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Bin, E-mail: guobin@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Fu, Peng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Dell’Orco, Giovanni; Liliana, Teodoros; Tao, Jun [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Yang, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Thermal hydraulic analysis model has been developed to perform thermal analysis on the component cooling water system loop 2B. • The cooling water temperature profile at client inlet and outlet during one cycle of the most demanding plasma operation scenario was obtained. • Operation behaviour of the main heat exchanger for CCWS-2B has been depicted. - Abstract: ITER cooling water system is composed by several cooling loops, the primary heat transfer loops that form the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS), the secondary heat transfer loops that form the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS) and the Chilled Water System (CHWS) and a tertiary heat transfer loop which is the Heat Rejection System (HRS). The CCWS is further divided into CCWS-1, CCWS-2A, CCWS-2B, CCWS-2C, CCWS-2D depending on the water chemistry needs of clients and wetted area material. The component cooling water system loop 2B (CCWS-2B) has the function to remove heat load from coil power supply component, Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) system component and diagnostic system which are located in different buildings. As the total number of the client connections for the loop is a few hundreds, simplified thermal hydraulic analysis model has been developed to perform thermal analysis on the component cooling water system loop 2B. The curve of the cooling water temperature at client inlet and outlet during one cycle of the most demanding plasma operation scenario was obtained and the cooling water flow rate can meet the thermal removal requirement of client was also confirmed from this analysis. In addition, operation behaviour of the main heat exchanger for CCWS-2B in this thermal analysis was depicted for main heat exchanger selection purposes. This study has been carried out with the AFT Fathom code.

  6. Genotypic variability and persistence of Legionella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns in 16 cooling towers in Shanghai, China%上海市16个冷却塔水中军团菌脉冲场凝胶电泳分型及基因型监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明亮; 王刚毅; 陈敏; 周海健; 邵祝军; 张曦; 吴凡

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究上海市公共场所16个空调冷却塔水中军团菌的脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分型,并连续监测该菌基因型变化.方法 2007年5-10月连续6个月以每月1次的频率采样,从16个公共场所空调冷却塔水中分离军团菌,经血清学凝集试验、胶乳凝集试验分型后,使用PFGE技术对酶切后的军团菌全染色体DNA进行电泳获得指纹图谱,利用BioNumerics软件进行聚类分析.结果 16个冷却塔水中共分离出131株军团菌,包括嗜肺军团菌、博杰曼军团菌、米克戴德军团菌和茴香军团菌,分为52个PFGE型别,其中37个PFGE型别(71.15%)仅分布于1个冷却塔中,即为该冷却塔所特有;15个PFGE型别(28.85%)分布于2个或以上冷却塔中.16个冷却塔具有2个或以上的PFGE型,13个冷却塔(81.25%)中多次出现相同的PFGE型别.2007年6-10月连续5个月从6个冷却塔中分离出18株PFGE型为LPAs.SH0078型的军团菌.结论 冷却塔水中的军团菌基因型具有多样性和复杂性,81.25%的冷却塔水中PFGE型具有持续性,且LPAs.SH0078型广泛分布,可能为优势PFGE型.%Objective To investigate the genotypic characteristics and persistence of Legionella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns in 16 air-conditioner cooling towers in six different public sites of Shanghai. Methods From May to October, continuous sampling was operated once per month in 2007. Legionella strains isolated from the 16 cooling towers were confirmed by serological and latex agglutination. PFGE was applied for the fingerprinting of the isolates, while the culster results of PFGE were analyzed by BioNumerics software. Results 131 strains of Legionella were isolated, including L. pneumophila, L. bozemanae, L. micdadei and L anisa.52 distinguishable PFGE patterns were differentiated among the 16 cooling towers, with 37 patterns were owned by just one cooling tower, which was not shared with other cooling towers, while 15 patterns were shared by more

  7. Virtual Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Engineering Dept.

    1997-08-01

    The primary responsibility of an intrusion detection system (IDS) operator is to monitor the system, assess alarms, and summon and coordinate the response team when a threat is acknowledged. The tools currently provided to the operator are somewhat limited: monitors must be switched, keystrokes must be entered to call up intrusion sensor data, and communication with the response force must be maintained. The Virtual tower is an operator interface assembled from low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software; it enables large amounts of data to be displayed in a virtual manner that provides instant recognition for the operator and increases assessment accuracy in alarm annunciator and control systems. This is accomplished by correlating and fusing the data into a 360-degree visual representation that employs color, auxiliary attributes, video, and directional audio to prompt the operator. The Virtual Tower would be a valuable low-cost enhancement to existing systems.

  8. 基于PLC控制的水塔供水系统设计%Water Supply System Design of Water Tower Based on PLC Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰

    2014-01-01

    This article compared the traditional control method of automatic water system, designed the electrical control system based on PLC control which has the advantages of high reliability, strong anti-interference ability, convenient programming, ease of use, etc., developed the scheme of using the programmable controller to control the water supply system of water tower, completed the hardware and software design of electrical control system, including PLC model selection, assignment of I/O ports, I/O hardware wiring diagram drawing, PLC ladder program design. This article also elaborated the water supply process of water tower based on PLC control, and gave the corresponding control schematic.%文章在对比了传统的自动供水系统的控制方法,设计了基于PLC控制的电气控制系统,具有可靠性高,抗干扰能力强,编程方便,易于使用等优点,制定了采用可编程控制器控制水塔供水系统的方案,完成了电气控制系统硬件和软件的设计,其中包括PLC机型的选择、I/O端口的分配、I/O硬件接线图的绘制、PLC梯形图程序的设计。文章对PLC控制水塔供水工作过程也作了详细阐述,并给出了相应的控制原理图。

  9. Steam-Reheat Option for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltanov, Eugene

    SuperCritical-Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are being developed as one of the Generation-IV nuclear-reactor concepts. Main objectives of the development are to increase thermal efficiency of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and to decrease capital and operational costs. The first objective can be achieved by introducing nuclear steam reheat inside a reactor and utilizing regenerative feedwater heaters. The second objective can be achieved by designing a steam cycle that closely matches that of the mature supercritical fossil-fuelled power plants. The feasibility of these objectives is discussed. As a part of this discussion, heat-transfer calculations have been performed and analyzed for SuperCritical-Water (SCW) and SuperHeated-Steam (SHS) channels of the proposed reactor concept. In the calculations a uniform and three non-uniform Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) were considered for six different fuels (UO2, ThO 2, MOX, UC2, UC, and UN) and at average and maximum channel power. Bulk-fluid, sheath, and fuel centerline temperatures as well as the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles were obtained along the fuel-channel length. The HTC values are within a range of 4.7--20 kW/m2·K and 9.7--10 kW/m2·K for the SCW and SHS channels respectively. The main conclusion is that while all the mentioned fuels may be used for the SHS channel, only UC2, UC, or UN are suitable for a SCW channel, because their fuel centerline temperatures are at least 1000°C below melting point, while that of UO2, ThO2 , and MOX may reach melting point.

  10. Detailed Design of Cooling Water System for Cold Neutron Source in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, S. I.; Lee, Y. S

    2007-04-15

    To make cold neutron, a cryogenic refrigerator is necessary to transform moderator into cryogenic state so, thermal neutron is changed into cold neutron through heat transfer with moderator. A cryogenic refrigerator mainly consists of two apparatus, a helium compressor and a cold box which needs supply of cooling water. Therefore, cooling water system is essential to operate of cryogenic refrigerator normally. This report is mainly focused on the detailed design of the cooling water system for the HANARO cold neutron source, and describes design requirement, calculation, specification of equipment and water treatment method.

  11. District cool water distribution; Reseau urbain et distribution d`eau glacee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabaillie, D. [Ste Climespace (France)

    1997-12-31

    The city of Paris has developed several district cool water distribution networks (Climespace) for air conditioning purposes, one in the Halles district (central Paris) linked with the Louvre museum, one in the Opera district (with large department stores) and one in the east of paris (Bercy). Each of these networks has a cool water production plant, the one at the Halles producing also hot water and safety electric power. The characteristics of the equipment (heat pumps, refrigerating machinery, storage...) are described. The pipes are laid in the city sewage network, and the cool carrier is water. The various networks are centrally supervised at the Halles center

  12. Corrosion of metals and alloys - Corrosion and fouling in industrial cooling water systems - Part 1: Guidelines for conducting pilot-scale evaluation of corrosion and fouling control additives for open recirculating cooling water systems

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Corrosion of metals and alloys - Corrosion and fouling in industrial cooling water systems - Part 1: Guidelines for conducting pilot-scale evaluation of corrosion and fouling control additives for open recirculating cooling water systems

  13. Three African antelope species with varying water dependencies exhibit similar selective brain cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, W Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The use of selective brain cooling, where warm arterial blood destined for the brain is cooled in the carotid rete via counter-current heat exchange when in close proximity to cooler venous blood, contributes to the conservation of body water. We simultaneously measured carotid blood and hypothalamic temperature in four gemsbok, five red hartebeest and six blue wildebeest to assess the extent to which these free-living animals, with varying water dependency, routinely rely on selective brain cooling. We investigated the hypothesis that innate differences in selective brain cooling exist in large, sympatric artiodactyls with varying water dependency. All three species used selective brain cooling, without any discernible differences in three selective brain cooling indices. GLMMs revealed no species differences in the threshold temperature for selective brain cooling (z = 0.79, P = 0.43), the magnitude (z = -0.51, P = 0.61), or the frequency of selective brain cooling use (z = -0.47, P = 0.64), after controlling for carotid blood temperature and black globe temperature. Comparison of anatomical attributes of the carotid retes of the three species revealed that the volume (F 2,9 = 5.54, P = 0.03) and height (F 2,9 = 5.43, P = 0.03) of the carotid rete, per kilogram body mass, were greater in the red hartebeest than in the blue wildebeest. Nevertheless, intraspecific variability in the magnitude, the frequency of use, and the threshold temperature for selective brain cooling exceeded any interspecific variability in the three indices of selective brain cooling. We conclude that the three species have similar underlying ability to make use of selective brain cooling in an environment with freely available water. It remains to be seen to what extent these three species would rely on selective brain cooling, as a water conservation mechanism, when challenged by aridity, a condition likely to become prevalent throughout much of southern Africa under future climate change

  14. Thermal design of lithium bromide-water solution vapor absorption cooling system for indirect evaporative cooling for IT pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Digvijay Ramkrishna

    Nowadays with increase use of internet, mobile there is increase in heat which ultimately increases the efficient cooling system of server room or IT POD. Use of traditional ways of cooling system has ultimately increased CO2 emission and depletion of CFC's are serious environmental issues which led scientific people to improve cooling techniques and eliminate use of CFC's. To reduce dependency on fossil fuels and 4environmental friendly system needed to be design. For being utilizing low grade energy source such as solar collector and reducing dependency on fossil fuel vapour absorption cooling system has shown a great driving force in today's refrigeration systems. This LiBr-water aabsorption cooling consists of five heat exchanger namely: Evaporator, Absorber, Solution Heat Exchanger, Generator, Condenser. The thermal design was done for a load of 23 kW and the procedure was described in the thesis. There are 120 servers in the IT POD emitting 196 W of heat each on full load and some of the heat was generated by the computer placed inside the IT POD. A detailed procedure has been discussed. A excel spreadsheet was to prepared with varying tube sizes to see the effect on flows and ultimately overall heat transfer coefficient.

  15. Water Tower of the Yellow River in a Changing Climate: Toward an integrated assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change due to increasing greenhouse gas emissions is likely to alter the hydrological cycle resulting in large impacts on water resources worldwide. Mountain regions are important sources of freshwater for the entire globe, but their role in global water resources could be significantly alte

  16. Conceptual design of a passive moderator cooling system for a pressure tube type natural circulation boiling water cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukesh [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pal, Eshita, E-mail: eshi.pal@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Nayak, Arun K.; Vijayan, Pallipattu K. [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Passive moderator cooling system is designed to cool moderator passively during SBO. • PMCS is a system of two natural circulation loops, coupled via a heat exchanger. • RELAP5 analyses show that PMCS maintains moderator within safe limits for 7 days. - Abstract: The recent Fukushima accident has raised strong concern and apprehensions about the safety of reactors in case of a prolonged Station Black Out (SBO) continuing for several days. In view of this, a detailed study was performed simulating this condition in Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. In this study, a novel concept of moderator cooling by passive means has been introduced in the reactor design. The Passive Moderator Cooling System (PMCS) consists of a shell and tube heat exchanger designed to remove 2 MW heat from the moderator inside Calandria. The heat exchanger is located at a suitable elevation from the Calandria of the reactor, such that the hot moderator rises due to buoyancy into the heat exchanger and upon cooling from shell side water returns to Calandria forming a natural circulation loop. The shell side of the heat exchanger is also a natural circulation loop connected to an overhead large water reservoir, namely the GDWP. The objective of the PMCS is to remove the heat from the moderator in case of an SBO and maintaining its temperature below the permissible safe limit (100 °C) for at least 7 days. The paper first describes the concept of the PMCS. The concept has been assessed considering a prolonged SBO for at least 7 days, through an integrated analysis performed using the code RELAP5/MOD3.2 considering all the major components of the reactor. The analysis shows that the PMCS is able to maintain the moderator temperature below boiling conditions for 7 days.

  17. Seismic analysis of cooling tower under near-fault ground motions%近断层地震动作用下冷却塔地震反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 张俊发

    2013-01-01

    According to characteristics of near-fault ground motions,A 3D finite element model is established for cooling tower in power plant.Multi-strip seismic motion record is selected for inputs.Seismic analysis has been made for cooling tower by time history analysis method.Results has been analyzed under input of velocity pulse records and no velocity pulse records,comparative analysis has been made for results under general seismic action,indicating that this kind of structures are sensitive under the near-fault earthquake motion effect.The influence degree under seismic damage was even larger in near fault area.%针对近断层地震动特征,以火电厂冷却塔为例,建立了三维有限元模型.选取多条近断层地震动记录作为地震动输入,采用时程分析方法对冷却塔进行地震反应分析,分析了含速度脉冲和无速度脉冲地震动输入下的结果,并与一般地震动作用下的结果进行了对比分析.结果表明,该类构筑物对近断层地震动作用较为敏感,近断层处冷却塔的地震破坏影响程度更大.

  18. Cooling water system thermal performance analysis using the COCO computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hom, J.; Jakub, R.M.; Durkosh, D.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Energy Systems Business Unit

    1996-10-01

    Westinghouse Energy Systems Business Unit (ESBU) has worked with electric utility personnel to analyze the thermal performance of essential cooling water systems at nuclear generating stations. The primary goal of these analyses has been to demonstrate the operability of the cooling water systems during postulated limiting post-accident operation. In previous cooling water system thermal analyses, peak containment operating conditions were generally used as input assuming steady-state conditions. This approach is conservative as it does not take into account the improvement in containment conditions and cooling water system temperatures over time. This approach can, also, lead to an inconsistent set of assumptions between the two distinct analyses which may result in overly conservative calculated system operating conditions. These conditions inevitably impose unnecessary restrictions on cooling water system operation. Over the last few years, Westinghouse ESBU has coupled both the containment integrity and the cooling water system thermal calculations into an integrated analysis. This allows the use of a consistent set of input parameters and assumptions in the calculation of limiting cooling water system operating conditions. This approach has been successfully used to increase system operating margins. This paper provides an overview of this coupled thermal analysis along with examples of where increased operating margins can be applied.

  19. Changes in Central Asia’s Water Tower: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Deng, Haijun; Fang, Gonghuan; Li, Zhi

    2016-10-01

    The Tienshan Mountains, with its status as “water tower”, is the main water source and ecological barrier in Central Asia. The rapid warming affected precipitation amounts and fraction as well as the original glacier/snowmelt water processes, thereby affecting the runoff and water storage. The ratio of snowfall to precipitation (S/P) experienced a downward trend, along with a shift from snow to rain. Spatially, the snow cover area in Middle Tienshan Mountains decreased significantly, while that in West Tienshan Mountains increased slightly. Approximately 97.52% of glaciers in the Tienshan Mountains showed a retreating trend, which was especially obvious in the North and East Tienshan Mountains. River runoff responds in a complex way to changes in climate and cryosphere. It appears that catchments with a higher fraction of glacierized area showed mainly increasing runoff trends, while river basins with less or no glacierization exhibited large variations in the observed runoff changes. The total water storage in the Tienshan Mountains also experienced a significant decreasing trend in Middle and East Tienshan Mountains, but a slight decreasing trend in West Tienshan Mountains, totally at an average rate of ‑3.72 mm/a. In future, water storage levels are expected to show deficits for the next half-century.

  20. Cooling Rates of Humans in Air and in Water: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2012-12-01

    In a previous article I analyzed in detail the physical factors resulting in greater cooling rates of objects in still water than in still air, emphasizing cooling of the human body. By cooling rate I mean the rate of decrease of core temperature uncompensated by metabolism. I concluded that the "correct ratio for humans is closer to 2 than to 10." To support this assertion I subsequently did experiments, which I report following a digression on hypothermia.

  1. Water source heat pumps for greenhouse soil cooling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spieser, H.

    1987-06-01

    In an attempt to diversify and grow flowers which are in high demand, growers are looking to produce certain exotic flowers which require unique growing conditions. One example is the Alstroemerias also knwon as the Peruvian Lily. If the plants are grown continuously at about 12-15/sup 0/C soil temperature, the plant will continue to flower regardless of air temperature and photoriod. These latter two factors are considered secondary to the importance of cool soil temperatures. Alstroemeria production is still relatively new to the greenhouse industry. Some controversy still exists as to the direct benefits of planned soil cooling. This project was set up to evaluate a mechanical soil cooling system for continuous year round Alstroemeria production. A heat pump soil cooling system was installed in two greenhouses each with dimensions of 16 m by 61 m. Combined these greenhouses have a growing area of 1952 m/sup 2/. These greenhouses are older wooden greenhouses, covered by double poly, air-inflated glazing. This system worked very well, maintaining the soil temperature at the proper levels throughout the spring and summer months. During the rest of the year the soil cooling system is used less intensely. During winter months when soil cooling is not required, the heat pumps provide base load heating to the greenhouse through fan forced unit heaters.

  2. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-01

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The power reactor has a peak value before reactor has new balance condition

  3. Failure mode effects and criticality analysis of a cooling cycling-water system of a oil refinery%某炼油厂冷却循环水系统故障与危害性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛况; 李洪海

    2012-01-01

    Based on the failure data of a cooling cycling-water system in a oil refinery which was collected for a year, analyzes the reliability of the system was analyzed using failure mode effects and criticality analysis. According to the characteristic of the system' s structure, the cooling cycling-water system had 19 failure modes and was divided into 7 sub-systems including the water cooling tower sub-system, the heat exchanger sub-system, the fan of water cooling tower sub-system, the water pump sub-system, the pipe sub-system, the valve sub-system, the pipe connecting sub-system. The failure rate of each sub-system was calculated, the failure modes and their failure causes were analysed, and the criticality of each subsystem was calculated. The results indicated that the water pump and the fan of water cooling tower have the highest criticality. The criticality of the heat exchanger was the third highest, whereas its failure rate was the fourth highest. It means that only calculating the failure rate was not e-nough when implement failure analysis, the criticality analysis should be considered as well. Finally, the corresponding measures were proposed to improve the reliability of the cooling cycling-water system, which had an obvious effect after a year's application.%根据采集的某炼油厂一年的冷却循环水系统的故障数据,采用故障模式影响及危害性分析方法对该系统的可靠性进行了分析.由该系统结构特点,划分了水冷塔、换热器、水冷塔风机、水泵、水管、阀门等7个子系统及19种故障模式,统计了各子系统的故障率,分析了系统的故障模式及其故障原因,计算了各子系统的危害度.结果表明水泵及水冷塔风机的危害度最高,换热器的危害度排第三,但其故障率排第四,说明在做故障分析时不能只统计故障率而不进行危害度分析.最后提出了相应的改进措施,经过一年的实际运行,效果明显.

  4. Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Construction, Maintenance and Demolition of Communications, Wind, Water, and Camera Towers at the 45th Space Wing, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Large expanses of grapevines, commonly draped across the canopy of scrub and xeric hammock on CCAFS, are evidence of fire suppression. Maritime...peeling paint. Therefore, the tower would need to be stripped. Stripping must be done in such a way that the chips and/or paint dust doesn’t escape...not maintained, heavy metal based paint could chip and contaminate soil and water. Also, potential groundwater contamination could occur from

  5. Use of Oriented Spray Nozzles to Set the Vapor-Air Flow in Rotary Motion in the Superspray Space of the Evaporative Chimney-Type Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrego, K. V.; Davydenko, V. F.; Koznacheev, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper considers the problem of upgrading the thermal efficiency of chimney-type evaporative cooling towers due to the rotary motion of the vapor-air flow in the superspray space. To set the vapor-air flow in rotary motion, we propose to use the momentum of the sprayed water. It has been shown that the existing parameters of spray nozzles permit setting up to 30% of the water flow momentum in translatory motion, which is enough for changing considerably the aerodynamics of the vapor-air flow in the superspray space and improving the operation of the cooling tower. The optimal angle of axial inclination of the spray cone has been estimated. Recommendations are given and problems have been posed for engineering realization of the proposed technologies in a chimney-type cooling tower.

  6. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, Y. M.; Leow, W. Z.; Irwanto, M.; M, Fareq; Hassan, S. I. S.; Safwati, I.; Amelia, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer.

  7. Optimization Tool for Direct Water Cooling System of High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    important issue for thermal design engineers. This paper aims to present a user friendly optimization tool for direct water cooling system of a high power module which enables the cooling system designer to identify the optimized solution depending on customer load profiles and available pump power. CFD...

  8. Water mist effect on cooling range and efficiency of casting die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This project is showing investigation results of cooling process of casting die in the temperature range 570÷100 °C with 0.40 MPa compressed air and water mist streamed under pressure 0.25÷0.45 MPa in air jet 0.25÷0.50 MPa using open cooling system.The character and the speed of changes of temperature, forming of the temperture’s gradient along parallel layer to cooled surface of die is shawing with thermal and derivative curves. The effect of kind of cooling factor on the temperature and time and distance from cooling nozzle is presented in the paper. A designed device for generating the water mist cooling the die and the view of sprying water stream is shown here. It’s proved that using of the water mist together with the change of heat transfer interface increases intensity of cooling in the zone and makes less the range cooling zone and reduces the porosity of cast microstructure.

  9. Integration of Small Solar tower Systems into Distributed Power Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Tellez, F. M.; Blanco, M.; Fernandez, V.; Baonza, F.; Berger, S. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration for local power supply into communities and energy islands (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, eco-paks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leadings to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begum. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The chief questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and the keys to their feasibility. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36-MW plant and integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostat configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with 85% power demand during day-time by using a hybrid solar tower and a gas turbine producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. The operation mode proposed is covering night demand with power from the grid and solar-gas power island mode during 14 hours daytime with a maximum power production of 1.36 MW. (Author) 26 refs.

  10. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  11. Smart energy option: Reusing wastewater for cooling energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapham, A. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States); Jackman, J. [Puget Sound Power and Light Co., Bellevue, WA (United States); Lundt, M.M. [King County Department of Metropolitan Services, Seattle, WA (United States). Water Pollution Control Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The King County Department of Metropolitan Services, an airplane manufacturer, and a Seattle utility are ready to begin operating the first commercial effluent-based cooling system for buildings in the Northwest. This paper details the studies undertaken to design the system and how the manufacturer addressed its employees` concerns about a new system. There are several environmental benefits to using effluent as a cooling medium. Considerable energy savings in chiller operations are achieved because the effluent temperature is 10 to 20 degrees cooler than water returned from cooling towers. Another major benefit is water conservation. Conventional cooling towers would consume several million gallons of water each year. By using effluent, the consumption of this water will be avoided. Water run through cooling towers is treated with chemicals to prevent corrosion and biological growth. With the effluent in a closed-loop system, there will be no need to treat the effluent. Consequently there will be a reduction in use of water treatment chemicals that are ultimately discharged into the sewer system. This reduces the treatment load to the county and helps to maintain a cleaner environment. The concept is simple: recover heat wasted from one activity for reuse in another. The delivery is easy: send effluent via a pipeline to customer`s chillers to pick up heat and return that heat to the plant. The selling of this idea is the focus of this paper.

  12. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive

  13. Control of modiolid mussels in cooling water systems by continuous chlorination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, S.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Velde, G. van der; Jenner, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Modiolid mussels such as Modiolus philippinarum and Modiolus metcalfei constitute a numerically significant group in fouling communities, especially in tropical and subtropical industrial cooling water systems. Nevertheless, there are hardly any published reports on the tolerance of these

  14. Molecular typing of Legionella pneumophila from air-conditioning cooling waters using mip gene, SBT, and FAFLP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiangli; Li, Juntao; Zhang, Ying; Hou, Shuiping; Qu, Pinghua; Yang, Zhicong; Chen, Shouyi

    2017-04-07

    Legionella spp. are important waterborne pathogens. Molecular typing has become an important method for outbreaks investigations and source tracking of Legionnaires. In a survey program conducted by the Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, multiple serotypes Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) were isolated from waters in air-conditioning cooling towers in urban Guangzhou region, China between 2008 and 2011. Three genotyping methods, mip (macrophage infectivity potentiator) genotyping, SBT (sequence-based typing), and FAFLP (fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis) were used to type these waterborne L. pneumophila isolates. The three methods were capable of typing all the 134 isolates and a reference strain of L. pneumophila (ATCC33153), with discriminatory indices of 0.7034, 0.9218, and 0.9376, for the mip, SBT, and FAFLP methods respectively. Among the 9 serotypes of the 134 isolates, 10, 50, and 34 molecular types were detected by the mip, SBT, and FAFLP methods respectively. The mip genotyping and SBT typing are more feasible for inter-laboratory results sharing and comparison of different types of L. pneumophila. The SBT and FAFLP typing methods were rapid with higher discriminatory abilities. Combinations of two or more of the typing methods enables more accurate typing of Legionella isolates for outbreak investigations and source tracking of Legionnaires.

  15. Heat transfer analysis during cooling of die with use of water mist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the heat transfer area during the cooling process of steel test die with water mist which consist the flow of air in the range 150÷350 l/min and 0.05 0.24 l/min of water. Temperature change in the thickness of die by means showing with the thermal curves and the temperature gradient and temperature distribution in the space between the nozzle and the cooled surface of the metal mold using a thermal imaging camera and thermocouples measurement. The course of changes in the temperature gradient and the received heat flux from the die while cooling its with the flow of air and water mist stream. It has been shown that the use of water mist with a variable flow of air and water controls the process of heat transfer process between the permanent molds, and a stream of water mist.

  16. Water cooled breeder program summary report (LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.

  17. 石家庄市集中空调冷却塔水中嗜肺军团菌的基因序列分型研究%Sequence-based typing research for Legionella pneumophila isolated from the air-conditioning cooling towers in Shijiazhuang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉梅; 周吉坤; 剧慧栋; 秦丽云; 王苋; 徐保红; 吕国平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the gene characteristics of Legionella pneumophila isolated from the water samples of air—conditioning cooling towers in public places of Shijiazhuang, Hebei by sequence—based typing (SBT). Methods Genomic DNA was extracted from 35 strains of Lpl from the water samples of cooling towers in Shijiazhuang. Seven kinds of housekeeping genes including flaA , pilE, asd, mip, mompS, proA , neuA of Legionella pneumophila were amplified by PCR. Amplified products were purified and sequenced and the results were compared with the database of EWGLI,and the genotype (sequence type, ST) was get, typing and analyzing of the phylogenetic were conducted. Results A total of 35 strains of serotype Lpl Legionella pneumophila were divided into four ST types,one was not typed due to absence of neuA gene, one was new ST type, and was newly assigned (ST1021) by EWGLI, the remaining was 32 strains of ST1 , one strain of ST345. MEGA4.0 software was used to establish the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion The dominant ST type is ST1, while ST345 and ST1021 are unique type of Legionella pneumophila isolated from the water samples of air-conditioning cooling tower in Shijiazhuang. SBT typing can be used as one of the important means to study Legionella pneumophila evolutionary relationships.%目的 采用基因序列分型方法(sequence-basedtyping,SBT)研究石家庄市集中空调冷却塔水中军团菌基因特征.方法 将石家庄市集中空调冷却塔水中分离出的35株Lp1血清型嗜肺军团菌提取基因组DNA,选取嗜肺军团菌7个管家基因flaA、pilE、asd、mip、mompS、p roA、neuA进行PCR扩增,将扩增产物纯化后测序.测序结果上传欧盟军团菌感染工作组( EWGLI)数据库进行比对,得到基因型别(sequence type,ST),对结果进行基因序列分型和系统进化分析.结果 35株Lp1血清型嗜肺军团菌共分为4个ST型,其中1株由于neuA基因不能被扩增而未分型;1株为

  18. Thermal and electrical energy yield analysis of a directly water cooled photovoltaic module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtunzi Busiso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy of photovoltaic modules drops by 0.5% for each degree increase in temperature. Direct water cooling of photovoltaic modules was found to give improved electrical and thermal yield. A prototype was put in place to analyse the field data for a period of a year. The results showed an initial high performance ratio and electrical power output. The monthly energy saving efficiency of the directly water cooled module was found to be approximately 61%. The solar utilisation of the naturally cooled photovoltaic module was found to be 8.79% and for the directly water cooled module its solar utilisation was 47.93%. Implementation of such systems on households may reduce the load from the utility company, bring about huge savings on electricity bills and help in reducing carbon emissions.

  19. Sea/lake water cooling for Naval facilities. Final report November 1975-November 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciani, J.

    1978-09-01

    Seawater cooling was found to be economically feasible for a trial Naval facility in San Diego, Calif. and an operational test was recommended for the Naval Security Group Activity (NSGA), Winter Harbor, Maine. A preliminary design and environmental impact assessment were performed for a seawater cooling system at NSGA. This work was supplemented with seawater temperature measurements in the adjoining bay, a study of biofouling and its prevention in this system, and land and offshore surveys at NSGA. A separate study found that the life cycle cost of this seawater cooling system was less than that of the existing conventional air conditioning system. It was concluded that a seawater cooling system for NSGA would cost about $150K, and annually save over 200 MWh of energy and $9,000. Also, a study of the Navywide potential of sea/lake water cooling found that if such cooling were installed at 25 Navy sites, 59 x 1,000 MWh and $3 million could be saved annually. This report recommends that: (1) a final design and installation of an operational test seawater cooling system for NSGA, Winter Harbor be made; (2) seawater temperatures be measured at Apra Harbor, Pearl Harbor, Chicago, and Point Mugu as potential sites; and (3) a parametric model be developed for estimating the capital and energy costs of sea/lake water cooling systems.

  20. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] - 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. ...

  1. Preparation of semi-solid aluminum alloy slurry poured through a water-cooled serpentine channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng-Zhou; Mao, Wei-Min; Wu, Zong-Chuang

    2012-01-01

    A water-cooled serpentine channel pouring process was invented to produce semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry for rheocasting, and the effects of pouring temperature and circulating cooling water flux on the microstructure of the slurry were investigated. The results show that at the pouring temperature of 640-680°C and the circulating cooling water flux of 0.9 m3/h, the semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry with spherical primary α(Al) grains can be obtained, whose shape factors are between 0.78 and 0.86 and the grain diameter can reach 48-68 μm. When the pouring temperatures are at 660-680°C, only a very thin solidified shell remains inside the serpentine channel and can be removed easily. When the serpentine channel is cooled with circulating water, the microstructure of the semi-solid slurry can be improved, and the serpentine channel is quickly cooled to room temperature after the completion of one pouring. In terms of the productivity of the special equipment, the water-cooled serpentine channel is economical and efficient.

  2. Summary of research and development effort on air and water cooling of gas turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, A.P.

    1980-03-01

    The review on air- and water-cooled gas turbines from the 1904 Lemale-Armengaud water-cooled gas turbine, the 1948 to 1952 NACA work, and the program at GE indicates that the potential of air cooling has been largely exploited in reaching temperatures of 1100/sup 0/C (approx. 2000/sup 0/F) in utility service and that further increases in turbine inlet temperature may be obtained with water cooling. The local heat flux in the first-stage turbine rotor with water cooling is very high, yielding high-temperature gradients and severe thermal stresses. Analyses and tests indicate that by employing a blade with an outer cladding of an approx. 1-mm-thick oxidation-resistant high-nickel alloy, a sublayer of a high-thermal-conductivity, high-strength, copper alloy containing closely spaced cooling passages approx. 2 mm in ID to minimize thermal gradients, and a central high-strength alloy structural spar, it appears possible to operate a water-cooled gas turbine with an inlet gas temperature of 1370/sup 0/C. The cooling-water passages must be lined with an iron-chrome-nickel alloy must be bent 90/sup 0/ to extend in a neatly spaced array through the platform at the base of the blade. The complex geometry of the blade design presents truly formidable fabrication problems. The water flow rate to each of many thousands of coolant passages must be metered and held to within rather close limits because the heat flux is so high that a local flow interruption of only a few seconds would lead to a serious failure.Heat losses to the cooling water will run approx. 10% of the heat from the fuel. By recoverying this waste heat for feedwater heating in a command cycle, these heat losses will give a degradation in the power plant output of approx. 5% relative to what might be obtained if no cooling were required. However, the associated power loss is less than half that to be expected with an elegant air cooling system.

  3. Exergy Analysis of a Heat Pump Heating System with a Reversibly Used Cooling Tower%基于冷却塔逆用的热泵制热系统分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅; 刘小湘

    2012-01-01

    A mechanical draft cooling tower may be reversibly used, as part of a heat pump system for service hot water, to extract free heat from ambient air. It is advantageous in minimizing the total installation and operating cost. The research focused on the analysis and the evaluation of the exergy performance of the heating system and its components. The second law of thermodynamics performance analysis, also called the exergy performance analysis, can point out the inefficient components of the system with great improvement potential more accurately. And experimental study of a heat pump system is presented, and the analytical formulas of exergy loss, exergy efficiency, exergy loss rate and exergy loss coefficient were derived, respectively. According to the comparison, the most exergy is consumed by the AHU and the compressor, whose exergy destruction ratios are about 14% and 12%, respectively. To achieve better whole system's exergy performance, the recommend improvements should focus on these two kind of components. Furthermore, the results can draw an engineer's attention towards the components where the most availability is being destroyed and quantify the extent to which modification of one component affects, favorably or unfavorably, the performance of other components of the system.%冷却塔逆用已经在热泵制热系统中得到实际应用并取得了一定的节能效果。本文从热力学第二定律的角度,对冷却塔逆用作为低温热源的热泵制热系统进行了火用分析。构建了系统各部件火用分析数学模型,并结合实验系统现场测试数据进行分析,分析过程中采用火用损失、火用效率、火用损失率、火用损失系数评价指标综合评价。结果表明在系统制热工况下,末端空气处理机组与压缩机火用损失、火肭员失率明显高于整个系统中其他设备及部件,火用损失率分别为14%和12%,是整个系统改进的主要对象。该研究有

  4. Improving of the photovoltaic / thermal system performance using water cooling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussien, Hashim A.; Numan, Ali H.; Abdulmunem, Abdulmunem R.

    2015-04-01

    This work is devoted to improving the electrical efficiency by reducing the rate of thermal energy of a photovoltaic/thermal system (PV/T).This is achieved by design cooling technique which consists of a heat exchanger and water circulating pipes placed at PV module rear surface to solve the problem of the high heat stored inside the PV cells during the operation. An experimental rig is designed to investigate and evaluate PV module performance with the proposed cooling technique. This cooling technique is the first work in Iraq to dissipate the heat from PV module. The experimental results indicated that due to the heat loss by convection between water and the PV panel's upper surface, an increase of output power is achieved. It was found that without active cooling, the temperature of the PV module was high and solar cells could only achieve a conversion efficiency of about 8%. However, when the PV module was operated under active water cooling condition, the temperature was dropped from 76.8°C without cooling to 70.1°C with active cooling. This temperature dropping led to increase in the electrical efficiency of solar panel to 9.8% at optimum mass flow rate (0.2L/s) and thermal efficiency to (12.3%).

  5. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  6. Operational Experience of Cooling Water Systems for Accelerator Components at PLS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyungryul; Kim, Young-Chan; Lee, Bongho; Sik Han, Hong; Soo Ko In; Wha Chung, Chin

    2005-01-01

    The cooling water system has been utilized for absorbing heat generated by a multitude of electromagnetic power delivering networks at PLS. The separate cooling water distribution systems for the storage ring, beam transport line and linear accelerator have been operated with a different operating temperature of supplying water. All water used for heat removal from the accelerator components are deionised and filtered to provide with over 2 MO-cm specific resistance. The operating pressures and flows of input water are also controlled with flow balancing scheme at a specified range. The operating temperature of components in the accelerator is sustained as tight as below ±0.1 deg C to minimize the influence of temperature fluctuation on the beam energy and stability. Although the PLS cooling systems were initially installed with a high degree of flexibility to allow for easy maintenance, a number of system improvements have been employed to enhance operational reliability and to incorporate the newly...

  7. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6; Computed Temperature Distribution Through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingood, John N. B.; Sams, Eldon W.

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the cross-sectional temperature distribution of a water-cooled turbine blade was made using the relaxation method to solve the differential equation derived from the analysis. The analysis was applied to specific turbine blade and the studies icluded investigations of the accuracy of simple methods to determine the temperature distribution along the mean line of the rear part of the blade, of the possible effect of varying the perimetric distribution of the hot gas-to -metal heat transfer coefficient, and of the effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the blade metal for a constant cross sectional area blade with two quarter inch diameter coolant passages.

  8. Comparative cost study of four wet/dry cooling concepts that use ammonia as the intermediate heat exchange fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokarz, R.D.; Braun, D.J.; Johnson, B.M.; Allemann, R.T.; Braun, D.J.; Parry, H.L.; Smith, G.C.; Zaloudek, F.R.

    1978-09-01

    The projected costs of five alternative wet/dry power plant heat rejection concepts were studied under conditions imposed by hypothetical use in association with the San Juan Unit 3 plant, a fossil-fuel 550-MWe facility currently under construction near the ''Four Corners'' area of New Mexico. Four of the cooling systems use ammonia as a heat transfer medium between the steam condenser and the heat rejection tower, while the fifth uses the condenser cooling water for heat transport. The four alternative concepts were: the HOTERV plate fin with deluge augmented cooling (vertical round towers); the HOTERV plate fin with deluge augmented cooling (horizontal configuration); the separate channel augmented tower (SCAT); a Curtiss-Wright extruded tube with integral fins, augmented with water flowing internally through separate channels, and the augmenting ammonia condenser (AAC); Curtiss-Wright tube augmented with a separate water-cooled condenser close-coupled to a conventional wet tower. The state-of-the-art method was the integrated wet/dry tower currently being constructed at the San Juan Unit 3 station. The comparable capital cost of each of the five concepts was calculated. Fuel savings resulting from using each of the advanced concepts vis-a-vis the reference integrated wet-dry cooling towers, expressed in barrels of oil per year, were calculated. The study indicates that the ammonia system with either the deluge scheme for wet/dry cooling, using the HOTERV plate fin heat exchange, or the Curtiss-Wright chipped-fin surface, (using either the SCAT arrangement or the separate water-cooled ammonia condenser for augmentation) are potentially more cost-effective than the state-of-the-art system for use in a power plant heat rejection system. This has been shown specifically only under conditions imposed by the site at the San Juan plant.

  9. The cool state of water: Infrared insights into ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Water is an extraordinary substance. It owes its characteristic anomalous properties to a network of strong hydrogen bonds present between water molecules. In ice, water molecules hold regular positions in the crystal. Nevertheless, the behaviour of ice can be dynamic and exciting, especially at the

  10. Calculation of Radioactivity and Dose Rate of Activated Corrosion Products in Water-Cooled Fusion Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In water-cooled reactor, the dominant radioactive source term under normal operation is activated corrosion products (ACPs, which have an important impact on reactor inspection and maintenance. A three-node transport model of ACPs was introduced into the new version of ACPs source term code CATE in this paper, which makes CATE capable of theoretically simulating the variation and the distribution of ACPs in a water-cooled reactor and suitable for more operating conditions. For code testing, MIT PWR coolant chemistry loop was simulated, and the calculation results from CATE are close to the experimental results from MIT, which means CATE is available and credible on ACPs analysis of water-cooled reactor. Then ACPs in the blanket cooling loop of water-cooled fusion reactor ITER under construction were analyzed using CATE and the results showed that the major contributors are the short-life nuclides, especially Mn-56. At last a point kernel integration code ARShield was coupled with CATE, and the dose rate around ITER blanket cooling loop was calculated. Results showed that after shutting down the reactor only for 8 days, the dose rate decreased nearly one order of magnitude, which was caused by the rapid decay of the short-life ACPs.

  11. Biofouling on Coated Carbon Steel in Cooling Water Cycles Using Brackish Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Rajala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Water cooling utilizing natural waters is typically used for cooling large industrial facilities such as power plants. The cooling water cycles are susceptible to biofouling and scaling, which may reduce heat transfer capacity and enhance corrosion. The performance of two fouling-release coatings combined with hypochlorite treatment were studied in a power plant utilizing brackish sea water from the Baltic Sea for cooling. The effect of hypochlorite as an antifouling biocide on material performance and species composition of microfouling formed on coated surfaces was studied during the summer and autumn. Microfouling on surfaces of the studied fouling-release coatings was intensive in the cooling water cycle during the warm summer months. As in most cases in a natural water environment the fouling consisted of both inorganic fouling and biofouling. Chlorination decreased the bacterial number on the surfaces by 10–1000 fold, but the efficacy depended on the coating. In addition to decreasing the bacterial number, the chlorination also changed the microbial species composition, forming the biofilm on the surfaces of two fouling-release coatings. TeknoTar coating was proven to be more efficient in combination with the hypochlorite treatment against microfouling under these experimental conditions.

  12. The Modification of Sodium Polyacrylate Water Solution Cooling Properties by AL2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Gęstwa

    2010-01-01

    Based on cooling curves, it can be concluded that for the water solution of sodium polyacrylate with AL2O3 nanoparticles in comparison to water and 10% polymer water solution lower cooling speed is obtained. The cooling medium containing nanoparticles provides lower cooling speed in the smallest surface austenite occurance (500–600 C in the charts of the CTP for most nonalloy structural steels and low-alloy steels. However lower cooling temperature at the beginning of martensitic transformation causes the formation of smaller internal stresses, leading to smaller dimensional changes and hardening deformation. For the quenching media the wetting angle was appointed by the drop-shape method. These studies showed the best wettability of polymer water solution (sodium polyacrylate with the addition of AL2O3 nanoparticles, whose wetting angle was about 65 degrees. Obtaining the smallest wetting angle for the medium containing nanoparticles suggests that the heat transfer to the cooling medium is larger. This allows slower cooling at the same time ensuring its homogeneity. The obtained values of wetting angle confirm the conclusions drawn on the basis of cooling curves and allowus to conclude that in the case of the heat transfer rate it will have a lower value than for water and 10% polymer water solution. In the research on hardened carburized steel samples C10 and 16MnCr5 surface hardness, impact strength and changes in the size of cracks in Navy C-ring sample are examined. On this basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that polymer water solution with nanoparticles allows to obtain a better impact strength at comparable hardness on the surface. Research on the dimensional changes on the basis of the sample of Navy C-ring also shows small dimensional changes for samples carburized and hardened in 10% polymer water solution with the addition of nanoparticles AL2O3. Smaller dimensional changes were obtained for samples of steel 16MnCr5 thanfar C10. The

  13. Soft-Sensing Method of Water Temperature Measurement for Controlled Cooling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiao-hui; ZHANG Dian-hua; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua; FAN Lei

    2003-01-01

    Aiming at the water temperature measuring problem for controlled cooling system of rolling plant, a new water temperature measuring method based on soft-sensing method with a water temperature model of on-line self correction parameter was built. A water temperature compensation factor model was also built to improve coiling temperature control precision. It was proved that the model meets production requirements. The soft-sensing technique has extensive applications in the field of metal forming.

  14. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  15. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-12-31

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  16. Study on Effects of Diesel Engine Cooling System Parameters on Water Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆清国; 冯建涛; 刘国夫; 桂勇

    2011-01-01

    A simulation model for a certain diesel engine cooling system is set up by using GT-COOL. The backwater tem- perature response in different operating conditions is simulated numerically. The effects of single or multiple system parameters on the water temperature are analyzed. The results show that, changing different single parameters, the time taken for the steady backwater temperature is different, but relatively short; and if multiple parameters are changed, the time will be longer. Referred to the thermal balance test, the simulation results are validated and provide a basis for the intelligent con- trol of the cooling system.

  17. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, M. T H; van Beek, L. P H; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F P

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding o

  18. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Beek, van L.P.H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understandin

  19. Measured performance of a 3 ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A three ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It was concluded that a three-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  20. Measured performance of a 3-ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 3-ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot-water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It is concluded that a 3-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  1. SACTI模型在核电厂大型自然通风冷却塔对局地环境影响预测评价中的应用%Application of SACTI Model in Environmental Impact Prediction and Assessment of NPP's Large Scale Natural Draft Cooling Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炫; 杜风雷

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impacts caused by the large scale natural draft cooling tower such as shadowing,solar energy loss,water deposition and salt deposition has become a popular subject of research in China.As there is no large scale natural draft cooling tower in nuclear power plant built in China yet,model prediction thusly becomes a common method to solve this problem.This paper presents basic principles and structure of SACTI model,from which the simulation results derived of China Pengze NPP and US Amos Power Plant is compared then demonstrating its practical application and main factors affecting the results.Conclusions show that simulation results of SACTI model have a great potential when lack input of monitoring data,this research work will provide reference to future research.%大型自然通风冷却塔造成的荫屏、太阳辐射损失、水沉积和盐沉积等环境影响已逐渐成为当前国内研究的热点.由于国内目前尚未有已建成的核电厂大型自然通风冷却塔,所以利用预测模型研究大型自然通风冷却塔的环境影响成为当前的一个关注点.首先介绍了美国Argonne国家实验室开发的冷却塔评价模型SACTI的基本原理和结构组成,以江西彭泽核电厂为例,与美国Amos电厂的预测结果进行比较分析,说明了SACTI模型在实际工作中的应用及影响其计算结果的主要因素.结果表明,在缺乏监测数据的情况下,SACTI模型的模拟结果具有重要的参考意义,同时本文的研究成果为深入开展该项研究工作提供了有意义的基础.

  2. Zirconium carbide coating for corium experiments related to water-cooled and sodium-cooled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevacova, K.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P.; Zhdanov, V.; Baklanov, V.; Poirier, J.

    2011-07-01

    Since the TMI and Chernobyl accidents the risk of nuclear severe accident is intensively studied for existing and future reactors. In case of a core melt-down accident in a nuclear reactor, a complex melt, called corium, forms. To be able to perform experiments with prototypic corium materials at high temperature, a coating which resists to different corium melts related to Generation I and II Water Reactors and Generation IV sodium fast reactor was researched in our experimental platforms both in IAE NNC in Kazakhstan and in CEA in France. Zirconium carbide was selected as protective coating for graphite crucibles used in our induction furnaces: VCG-135 and VITI. The method of coating application, called reactive wetting, was developed. Zirconium carbide revealed to resist well to the (U x, Zr y)O 2-z water reactor corium. It has also the advantage not to bring new elements to this chemical system. The coating was then tested with sodium fast reactor corium melts containing steel or absorbers. Undesirable interactions were observed between the coating and these materials, leading to the carburization of the corium ingots. Concerning the resistance of the coating to oxide melts without ZrO 2, the zirconium carbide coating keeps its role of protective barrier with UO 2-Al 2O 3 below 2000 °C but does not resist to a UO 2-Eu 2O 3 mixture.

  3. Geographic, technologic, and economic analysis of using reclaimed water for thermoelectric power plant cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Use of reclaimed water-municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent-in nonpotable applications can be a sustainable and efficient water management strategy. One such nonpotable application is at thermoelectric power plants since these facilities require cooling, often using large volumes of freshwater. To evaluate the geographic, technologic, and economic feasibility of using reclaimed water to cool thermoelectric power plants, we developed a spatially resolved model of existing power plants. Our model integrates data on power plant and municipal wastewater treatment plant operations into a combined geographic information systems and optimization approach to evaluate the feasibility of cooling system retrofits. We applied this broadly applicable methodology to 125 power plants in Texas as a test case. Results show that sufficient reclaimed water resources exist within 25 miles of 92 power plants (representing 61% of capacity and 50% of generation in our sample), with most of these facilities meeting both short-term and long-term water conservation cost goals. This retrofit analysis indicates that reclaimed water could be a suitable cooling water source for thermoelectric power plants, thereby mitigating some of the freshwater impacts of electricity generation.

  4. White Tower, London, England

    OpenAIRE

    William the Conqueror; William Rufus; Henry I

    2007-01-01

    White Tower (Tower of London), London, England. Photograph taken by Terry Barry. There is restoration work being carried out on one of the towers. The White Tower is a central tower at the Tower of London. The great central keep was built by William the Conqueror and finished by his sons and successors, William Rufus and Henry I, around 1087. It is 90 feet high and is of massive construction, the walls varying from 15 feet thickness at the base to almost 11 feet in the upper parts. Above ...

  5. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November

  6. Technical Study on Cooling Water Tower%凉水塔技术研究与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华

    2006-01-01

    通过对我厂引进的大型进口设备--Marley-600型冷却塔进行技术改造情况的介绍,具体分析了进口材料与国产材料的本质区别,并具体介绍了我厂的使用情况.此次技术改造在大化肥行业是首次进行,并取得了成功.论证了进口设备走国产化道路的必然性及可行性,从而为我国的其他大型Marley-600型冷却塔设备走国产化道路作了较好的铺垫.

  7. Grohnde. Documentation of the police operation during the demonstration against the NPP Grohnde on 19.03.1977 and the evacuation of the occupied cooling tower site on 23.08.1977; Grohnde. Dokumentation der Polizeieinsaetze anlaesslich der Demonstration gegen das Kernkraftwerk Grohnde am 19.03.1977 und der Raeumung des besetzten Kuehlturmgelaendes am 23.08.1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The documentation of the police operation during the demonstration against the NPP Grohnde on 16.03.1977 and the evacuation of the occupied cooling tower site on 23.08.1977 covers the following issues: involved action forces: police Niedersachsen, police Nordrhein-Westfalen, police Schleswig-Holstein, police Bremen and the Bundesgrenzschutz; concept of the police operation, provisions (lodging and board) for the police, operating resources, details of the operation sequence; post-processing of the operation; the Grohnde trials.

  8. Simulation of the solidification in a channel of a water-cooled glass flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Ovando Chacon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer simulation study of a laminar steady-state glass flow that exits from a channel cooled with water is reported. The simulations are carried out in a two-dimensional, Cartesian channel with a backward-facing step for three different angles of the step and different glass outflow velocities. We studied the interaction of the fluid dynamics, phase change and thermal behavior of the glass flow due to the heat that transfers to the cooling water through the wall of the channel. The temperature, streamline, phase change and pressure fields are obtained and analyzed for the glass flow. Moreover, the temperature increments of the cooling water are characterized. It is shown that, by reducing the glass outflow velocity, the solidification is enhanced; meanwhile, an increase of the step angle also improves the solidification of the glass flow.

  9. Thermal analysis and water-cooling design of the CSNS MEBT 324 MHz buncher cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hua-Chang; OUYANG Hua-Fu

    2008-01-01

    At least two bunchers are needed in the 3 MeV H- Medium Energy Beam Transport(MEBT)line located between RFQ and DTL for the CSNS(China Spallation Neutron Source).A nose-cone geometry has been adopted as the type of buncher cavity for its simplicity,higher impedance and lower risk of multipacting.By making use of the results got from the simulations on the buncher with two-dimension code SUPERFISH,the thermal and structural analyses have been carried out,the process and results to determine the resulting frequency shift due to thermal and structural distortion of the cavity are presented,the water-cooling channel position and the optimum cooling water temperature as well as the tuning method by adjusting the cooling water temperature when the cavity is out of resonance are also determined through the analyses.

  10. Thermal analysis and water-cooling design of the CSNS MEBT 324 MHz buncher cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Chang; Ouyang, Hua-Fu

    2008-04-01

    At least two bunchers are needed in the 3 MeV H- Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line located between RFQ and DTL for the CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source). A nose-cone geometry has been adopted as the type of buncher cavity for its simplicity, higher impedance and lower risk of multipacting. By making use of the results got from the simulations on the buncher with two-dimension code SUPERFISH, the thermal and structural analyses have been carried out, the process and results to determine the resulting frequency shift due to thermal and structural distortion of the cavity are presented, the water-cooling channel position and the optimum cooling water temperature as well as the tuning method by adjusting the cooling water temperature when the cavity is out of resonance are also determined through the analyses.

  11. Experimental and numerical analysis of the cooling performance of water spraying systems during a fire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaoHan Chen

    Full Text Available The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system.

  12. Experimental and numerical analysis of the cooling performance of water spraying systems during a fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YaoHan; Su, ChungHwei; Tseng, JoMing; Li, WunJie

    2015-01-01

    The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system.

  13. Ice water submersion for rapid cooling in severe drug-induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Larissa K.; Landry, Adaira; Vassallo, Susi U.; Hoffman, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Context The optimal method of cooling hyperthermic patients is controversial. Although controlled data support ice water submersion, many authorities recommend a mist and fan technique. We report two patients with drug-induced hyperthermia, to demonstrate the rapid cooing rates of ice water submersion. Case details Case 1. A 27-year-old man presented with a sympathomimetic toxic syndrome and a core temperature of 41.4°C after ingesting 4-fluoroamphetamine. He was submerged in ice water and his core temperature fell to 38°C within 18 minutes (a mean cooling rate of 0.18°C/min). His vital signs stabilized, his mental status improved and he left on hospital day 2. Case 2. A 32-year-old man with a sympathomimetic toxic syndrome after cocaine use was transported in a body bag and arrived with a core temperature of 44.4°C. He was intubated, sedated with IV benzodiazepines, and submerged in ice water. After 20 minutes his temperature fell to 38.8°C (a cooling rate of 0.28°C/min). He was extubated the following day, and discharged on day 10. Discussion In these two cases, cooling rates exceeded those reported for mist and fan technique. Since the priority in hyperthermia is rapid cooling, clinical data need to be collected to reaffirm the optimal approach. PMID:25695144

  14. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  15. Experiment Investigation on Electrical and Thermal Performances of a Semitransparent Photovoltaic/Thermal System with Water Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Guiqiang Li; Gang Pei; Ming Yang; Jie Ji

    2014-01-01

    Different from the semitransparent building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) system with air cooling, the semitransparent BIPV/T system with water cooling is rare, especially based on the silicon solar cells. In this paper, a semitransparent photovoltaic/thermal system (SPV/T) with water cooling was set up, which not only would provide the electrical power and hot water, but also could attain the natural illumination for the building. The PV efficiency, thermal efficiency, and exergy ...

  16. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC made editorial corrections and... analysis for liquid and gaseous radwaste system components for light water nuclear power...

  17. Water cooling thermal power measurement in a vacuum diffusion pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Cardozo Amorin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion vacuum pumps are used both in industry and in laboratory science for high vacuum production. For its operation they must be refrigerated, and it is done by circulating water in open circuit. Considering that, vacuum systems stays operating by hours, the water consumption may be avoided if the diffusion vacuum pumps refrigeration were done in closed circuit. However, it is necessary to know the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power (the heat transferred to circulate water by time units to implement one of these and get in the refrigeration system dimension. In this paper the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power was obtained by measuring water flow and temperature variation and was calculated through the heat quantity variation equation time function. The thermal power value was 935,6 W, that is 397 W smaller and 35 W bigger than, respectively, the maximum and minimum diffusion pump thermal power suggested by its operation manual. This procedure have been shown useful to precisely determine the diffusion pump thermal power or of any other system that needs to be refrigerated in water closed circuit.

  18. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  19. High Precision Temperature Control and Analysis of RF Deionized Cooling Water System

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Zong-Da; Chen June Rong; Liu, Chen-Yao

    2005-01-01

    Previously, the Taiwan Light Source (TLS) has proven the good beam quality mainly depends on the utility system stability. A serial of efforts were devoted to these studies. Further, a high precision temperature control of the RF deionized cooling water system will be achieved to meet the more critical stability requirement. The paper investigates the mixing mechanism through thermal and flow analysis and verifies the practical influences. A flow mixing mechanism and control philosophy is studied and processed to optimize temperature variation which has been reduced from ±0.1? to ±0.01?. Also, the improvement of correlation between RF performance and water cooling stability will be presented.

  20. The Simulation of the Influence of Water Remnants on a Hot Rolled Plate after Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zahradník

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In situations when a sheet metal plate of large dimensions is rolled, water remnants from cooling can be observed on the upper side of the plate. This paper focuses on deformations of a hot rolled sheet metal plate that are caused by water remnants after cooling. A transient finite element simulation was used to describe shape deformations of the cross profile of a metal sheet. The finite element model is fully parametric for easy simulation of multiple cases. The results from previous work were used for the boundary conditions.

  1. Development and construction of the novel solar thermal desiccant cooling system incorporating hot water production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie [Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Satake, Akira [Technical Research Institute, Maeda Corporation, Tokyo 179-8914 (Japan); Yoshie, Ryuichiro [Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Atsugi 243-0297 (Japan); Baba, Seizo [Earth Clean Tohoku Co. Ltd., Sendai 984-0038 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    This paper reports the development and construction of the novel solar cooling and heating system. The system consists of the thermal energy subsystem and the desiccant cooling subsystem. The system utilizes both the cheaper nighttime electric energy and the free daytime solar energy. The system is conceptualized to produce both cooling during summer daytime and hot water production during winter. Testing and evaluation of the system had been done to determine its operational procedure and performance. Based on the results, the thermal energy subsystem functioned to its expected performance in solar energy collection and thermal storage. The desiccant cooling subsystem reduced both the temperature and the humidity content of the air using solar energy with a minimal amount of back-up electric energy. The system however, needs further investigation under real conditions. (author)

  2. Cooling Effect of Water Injection on a High-Temperature Supersonic Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature and high pressure supersonic jet is one of the key problems in the design of solid rocket motors. To reduce the jet temperature and noise, cooling water is typically injected into the exhaust plume. Numerical simulations for the gas-liquid multiphase flow field with mixture multiphase model were developed and a series of experiments were carried out. By introducing the energy source terms caused by the vaporization of liquid water into the energy equation, a coupling solution was developed to calculate the multiphase flow field. The temperature data predictions agreed well with the experimental results. When water was injected into the plume, the high temperature core region area was reduced, and the temperature on the head face was much lower than that without water. The relationship between the reduction of temperature on the bottom plate and the momentum ratio is developed, which can be used to predict the cooling effect of water injection in many cases.

  3. PARAMETERS OF WATER CIRCULATION NETWORK FOR A DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In a district heating and cooling system, i.e. Beijing combined heating cooling and power (CHCP) system studied here, high temperature water generated by two cogeneration plants circulates through a network between the plants and heat substations. At heat substations, supply water of high temperature from the network drives absorption chillers for air-conditioning in summer and meets space heating demands in winter or domestic hot water demands by heat exchangers in the whole year. The parameters, i.e. supply/return water temperature in the network, has a great impact on primary energy consumption (PEC) of the absorption chillers, circulation pumps and domestic hot water (DHW), which is studied in this paper.

  4. State of Fukushima nuclear fuel debris tracked by Cs137 in cooling water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambow, B; Mostafavi, M

    2014-11-01

    It is still difficult to assess the risk originating from the radioactivity inventory remaining in the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactors. Here we show that cooling water analyses provide a means to assess source terms for potential future releases. Until now already about 34% of the inventories of (137)Cs of three reactors has been released into water. We found that the release rate of (137)Cs has been constant for 2 years at about 1.8% of the inventory per year indicating ongoing dissolution of the fuel debris. Compared to laboratory studies on spent nuclear fuel behavior in water, (137)Cs release rates are on the higher end, caused by the strong radiation field and oxidant production by water radiolysis and by impacts of accessible grain boundaries. It is concluded that radionuclide analyses in cooling water allow tracking of the conditions of the damaged fuel and the associated risks.

  5. Studies on advanced water-cooled reactors beyond generation Ⅲ for power generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xu

    2007-01-01

    China's ambitious nuclear power program motivates the country's nuclear community to develop advanced reactor concepts beyond generation Ⅲ to ensure a long-term, stable, and sustainable development of nuclear power. The paper discusses some main criteria for the selection of future water-cooled reactors by considering the specific Chinese situation. Based on the suggested selection criteria, two new types of water-cooled reactors are recommended for future Chinese nuclear power generation. The high conversion pressurized water reactor utilizes the present PWR technology to a large extent. With a conversion ratio of about 0.95, the fuel utilization is increased about 5 times. This significantly improves the sustainability of fuel resources. The supercritical water-cooled reactor has favorable features in economics,sustainability and technology availability. It is a logical extension of the generation Ⅲ PWR technology in China.The status of international R&D work is reviewed. A new supercritieal water-cooled reactor (SCWR) core structure (the mixed reactor core) and a new fuel assembly design (two-rows FA) are proposed. The preliminary analysis using a coupled neutron-physics/thermal-hydranlics method is carded out. It shows good feasibility for the new design proposal.

  6. Structure of Water Mist Stream and its Impact on Cooling Efficiency of Casting Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work is a continuation of research on the use water mist cooling in order to increase efficiency of die-casting aluminum alloys. The paper presents results of research and analysis process, spraying water and generated a stream of water mist, the effect of the type of nozzle, the nozzle size and shape of the emitting of the water mist on the wall surface of casting die on the microstructure and geometry of water mist stream and cooling efficiency. Tests were used to perform high-speed camera to record video in the visible and infrared camera. Results were used to develop a computerized image analysis and statistical analysis. The study showed that there are statistical relationships between water and air flow and geometry of the nozzle and nozzle emitting a stream of microstructure parameters of water mist and heat the incoming stream. These relationships are described mathematical models that allow you to control the generating of adequate stream of water mist and a further consequence, the cooling efficiency of casting die.

  7. Numerically Analysed Thermal Condition of Hearth Rollers with the Water-Cooled Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous furnaces with roller hearth have wide application in the steel industry. Typically, furnaces with roller hearth belong to the class of medium-temperature heat treatment furnaces, but can be used to heat the billets for rolling. In this case, the furnaces belong to the class of high temperature heating furnaces, and their efficiency depends significantly on the reliability of the roller hearth furnace. In the high temperature heating furnaces are used three types of watercooled shaft rollers, namely rollers without insulation, rollers with insulating screens placed between the barrel and the shaft, and rollers with bulk insulation. The definition of the operating conditions of rollers with water-cooled shaft greatly facilitates the choice of their design parameters when designing. In this regard, at the design stage of the furnace with roller hearth, it is important to have information about the temperature distribution in the body of the rollers at various operating conditions. The article presents the research results of the temperature field of the hearth rollers of metallurgical heating furnaces. Modeling of stationary heat exchange between the oven atmosphere and a surface of rollers, and between the cooling water and shaft was executed by finite elements method. Temperature fields in the water-cooled shaft rollers of various designs are explored. The water-cooled shaft rollers without isolation, rollers with screen and rollers with bulk insulation, placed between the barrel and the water-cooled shaft were investigated. Determined the change of the thermo-physic parameters of the coolant, the temperature change of water when flowing in a pipe and shaft, as well as the desired pressure to supply water with a specified flow rate. Heat transfer coefficients between the cooling water and the shaft were determined directly during the solution based on the specified boundary conditions. Found that the greatest heat losses occur in the

  8. Cooling water treatment - Processes and regulations; Kuehlwasserbehandlung - Verfahren und Vorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsten, J. [Aquatech GmbH, Nieder-Olm (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Determination of optimal water treatment methods is to be based on requirements set by technical specifications, economic efficiency aspects, and legal regulations. It is an important task and should be done by experts in cooperation with the responsible supervisory bodies. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Zusammenfassend kann gesagt werden, dass bei der Auswahl des optimalen Verfahrens einer Kuehlwasserbehandlung technische Anforderungen, wirtschaftliche Vorgaben und behoerdliche Auflagen gleichermassen beruecksichtigt werden muessen. Diese Aufgabe sollte von Fachleuten wahrgenommen und mit den zustaendigen Behoerden abgestimmt werden. (orig.)

  9. Automatic devices for electrochemical water treatment with cooling of electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trišović Tomislav Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common disinfectants for water treatment are based on chlorine and its compounds. Practically, water treatments with chlorine compounds have no alternative, since they provide, in comparison to other effective processes such as ozonization or ultraviolet irradiation, high residual disinfection capacity. Unfortunately, all of chlorine-based compounds for disinfection tend to degrade during storage, thus reducing the concentration of active chlorine. Apart from degradation, additional problems are transportation, storage and handling of such hazardous compounds. Nowadays, a lot of attention is paid to the development of electrochemical devices for in situ production of chlorine dioxide or sodium hypochlorite as efficient disinfectants for water treatment. The most important part of such a device is the electrochemical reactor. Electrochemical reactor uses external source of direct current in order to produce disinfectants in electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrodes. Construction of an electrochemical device for water treatment is based on evaluation of optimal conditions for electrochemical reactions during continues production of disinfectants. The aim of this study was to develop a low-cost electrochemical device for the production of disinfectant, active chlorine, at the place of its usage, based on newly developed technical solutions and newest commercial components. The projected electrochemical device was constructed and mounted, and its operation was investigated. Investigations involved both functionality of individual components and device in general. The major goal of these investigations was to achieve maximal efficiency in extreme condition of elevated room temperature and humidity with a novel device construction involving coaxial heat exchanger at the solution inlet. Room operation of the proposed device was investigated when relative humidity was set to 90% and the ambient temperature of 38°C. The obtained

  10. Influence of the Water-Cooled Heat Exchanger on the Performance of a Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The water-cooled heat exchanger is one of the key components in a pulse tube refrigerator. Its heat exchange effectiveness directly influences the cooling performance of the refrigerator. However, effective heat exchange does not always result in a good performance, because excessively reinforced heat exchange can lead to additional flow loss. In this paper, seven different water-cooled heat exchangers were designed to explore the best configuration for a large-capacity pulse tube refrigerator. Results indicated that the heat exchanger invented by Hu always offered a better performance than that of finned and traditional shell-tube types. For a refrigerator with a working frequency of 50 Hz, the best hydraulic diameter is less than 1 mm.

  11. Ultrafast cooling by covalently bonded graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid immersed in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2016-11-01

    The increasing power density and the decreasing dimensions of transistors present severe thermal challenges to the design of modern microprocessors. Furthermore, new technologies such as three-dimensional chip-stack architectures require novel cooling solutions for their thermal management. Here, we demonstrate, through transient heat-dissipation simulations, that a covalently bonded graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT) hybrid immersed in water is a promising solution for the ultrafast cooling of such high-temperature and high heat-flux surfaces. The G-CNT hybrid offers a unique platform to integrate the superior axial heat transfer capability of individual CNTs via their parallel arrangement. The immersion of the G-CNT in water enables an additional heat dissipation path via the solid-liquid interaction, allowing for the sustainable cooling of the hot surface under a constant power input of up to 10 000 W cm-2.

  12. Water chemistry in heat and cold supply (district heating/cooling)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deelen-Bremer, Marga van; Vos, Frank de; Heijboer, Rob [KEMA Nederland B.V. (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    District heating is seen as an important pillar in the CO{sub 2} reduction. Since the Kyoto protocol with the target for reduction of greenhouse gases, a renewed interest in district heating is visible. District heating and increasingly district cooling can be used for heating/cooling of houses, but also for large buildings and greenhouses. Combined heat and power (CHP), waste incinerator, but also rest heat of industry can provide the heat for district heating. On the other hand cold surface water, groundwater, but also rest heat can be used for district cooling. With the growing heat/cold supply market, also an even larger growth in cases of damages in district heating systems is wittnessed. Damages were chemistry can play an preventing role. A good conditioning of the district heating water, combined with proper monitoring, will safeguard the integrity of the system. (orig.)

  13. THE SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF USING GROUND WATER TO COOL LIVESTOCK BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thay Ngok Shon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperature in the central part of Vietnam in summer can reach 32–35°C; in some places it can be more than 42°C. Hot climate strongly affects the animal organism alongside with the animal weight reduction and reduction the quantity of egg-laying in poultry. Therefore, air conditioning in livestock buildings is necessary. There are several ways to cool the temperature in such buildings, and each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. We propose to use underground water at the temperature of 24–25°C for this purpose. One of the methods of cooling sheds for livestock is sprinkler irrigation of water on the roof. For calculating the amount of heat, removed from the indoor air in the shed to the cooling water, in the first approximation specialists believe in some cases that an appropriate amount of heat being removed is determined mainly by heat transfer from the air inside the shed to the cooling water through the surface of the roof, represented by the lower part of the wave that form the surface of a metal tile, neglecting the influence of heat conduction on top of the wave of the tile surface. Consequentially, such a simplification leads to possible errors. Therefore, the authors solved the problem of cooling shed by irrigation of water on the roof by an analytical method. Specifically, we solved the problem of heat conductivity of the fin of the finite length of constant cross section, wherein different sides of the fin are conjugate with different environments. Additionally, the calculation considered the effect of solar radiation. For this purpose, the authors have created a heat balance equation at steady state for any infinitesimal element of the fin, and solved the differential equation afterwards. The authors applied the results for calculating practical problem of ground water irrigation of a roof of a livestock shed made of metal areas tiles. 

  14. 40 CFR 63.1086 - How must I monitor for leaks to cooling water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electrode monitoring, pH, conductivity, or other representative indicators. (1) You shall prepare and... cooling water using any method listed in 40 CFR part 136. Use the same method for both entrance and exit samples. You may validate 40 CFR part 136 methods for the HAP listed in Table 1 to this subpart...

  15. The Leaning Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石夫

    2005-01-01

    W hy does the Leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy lean?It leans because of a m istake.It has leanedalm ostsince the day the tower was built.In1173,the people ofPisa,Italy,wanted to build a belltower.They wanted the tower to be them ost beautiful bell tower in all of Italy.The city also needed a bell tower because the church did nothave one.H owever,there was a problem.As soon as the firstfloor ofthe building was finished,the towerstarted to lean.Builders tried to m ake the building straight again as they added m...

  16. 广州市公共场所中央空调冷却塔水中军团菌mip基因分型%Mip genotyping of Legionella isolated from central air-conditioning cooling towers in Guangzhou public places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩向丽; 张颖; 屈平华; 陈守义

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the genetic characteristics and dominant types of Legionella isolated from central air-conditioning cooling towers in public places in Guangzhou from 2008 to 2010. [Methods] Genomic DNA was extracted from 140 strains of Legionella (119 strains of pneumophila and 21 strains of non-pneumophila). Subsequently, the mip (macrophage in-fectivity potentiator) gene was PCR amplified, purified and sequenced. Those nucleotide sequences were blasted in the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) Database for the mip typing. Phylogenetic trees were constructed with the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) method using MEGA 5.0. [Results] Approximately 700 bp fragments of the mip gene was obtained from 140 Legionella strains. The 119 L. Peumophila were found to be in 10 mip types, with L. Pneumophila-phil-l as the dominant accounting for 52.9% (63/119). The 21 non-L. Pe-numophila from the isolates were found to be in 6 mip types, with L. Feeleii-D3131 as the dominant accounting for 47.6% (10/21). [Conclusion] Great diversity was observed among Legionella strains in central air-conditioning cooling towers of Guangzhou public places, while the mip typing techniques used in this study could be used for fast genotyping of Legionella.%[目的]研究广州市公共场所中央空调冷却塔水中军团菌的基因特征和优势型别.[方法]采用军团菌巨噬细胞感染力增强因子(Macrophage infectivity potentiator,mip)基因分型方法.提取广州市2008-2010年分离的140株(119株嗜肺,21株非嗜肺)军团菌基因组DNA,针对mip基因进行PCR扩增并测序,将核苷酸序列上传至欧洲军团菌感染工作组(EWGLI)数据库进行比对,得到mip型别,并构建系统发育进化树.[结果]140株军团菌均可扩增出700 bp左右的目的条带.119株嗜肺军团菌分为10个mip型别,L.pneumophila-phil-1为优势型别,占52.9% (63/119); 21株非嗜肺军团菌分为6个mip型别,L.feeleii-D3131为优势型别,占47.6% (10

  17. In vitro drug sensitivity analysis of Legionella pneumophila isolated from cooling tower in Shijiazhuang%石家庄市冷却塔水中嗜肺军团菌体外药物敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉梅; 秦丽云; 张慧贤; 王苋; 周吉坤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the drug sensitivity and resistance of Legionella pneumophila isolated from six hospital cooling towers of Shijizhuang. Methods Eight major categories and 26 kinds of antibiotics drug test on 30 strains of Legionella pneumophila isolated from hospital cooling tower by using K-B disk diffusion method. The drug susceptibility testing results were reported refer to the national Health Industry Standard Paper film method (antimicrobial WS/T125 -1999). Results The sensitivity of 30 strains of Legionella pneumophila to Cefuroxime, doxycycline, tetracycline, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, rifampicin and ofloxacin was 100%, and they presented different levels of resistance to cefazolin, aztreonam, ampicillin, cephalothin, ceftazidime, tobramycin and cefoxitin. Experimental strains produced eight kinds of resistance spectrum, they were multi-drug resistant strains. Conclusion Resistance is more common to penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides among 30 starins of Legionella pneumophila. Macrolides, quinolones, rifampicin is superior to the other kinds of antibiotics in vitro susceptibility test, respectively, and these antibiotics can be used as the first choice in clinical therapy of Legionella infections.%目的 了解分离自石家庄市6家医院冷却塔水的嗜肺军团菌的药物敏感性.方法 采用K-B纸片扩散法对30株分离自冷却塔水的嗜肺军团菌进行8大类26种抗生素的药敏实验,参照WS/T125-1999《中华人民共和国卫生行业标准纸片法抗菌药物敏感试验标准》读取结果.结果 30株嗜肺军团菌均对头孢呋辛、强力霉素、四环素、链霉素、环丙沙星、左旋氧氟沙星、莫西沙星、红霉素、阿奇霉素、克拉霉素、利福平、氧氟沙星共12种抗生素敏感,对头孢唑林、氨曲南、氨苄西林、头孢噻吩、头孢他啶、妥布霉素、头孢西丁共7种抗生素均产生

  18. Patterns of fish assemblage structure and dynamics in waters of the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, J.M.; Anderson, C.S.; Floyd, K.B.; Negus, M.T.; Meador, M.R.

    1986-06-01

    Research conducted as part of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) has elucidated many factors that are important to fish population and community dynamics in a variety of habitats on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Information gained from these studies is useful in predicting fish responses to SRP operations. The overall objective of the CCWS was (1) to determine the environmental effects of SRP cooling water withdrawals and discharges and (2) to determine the significance of the cooling water impacts on the environment. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of thermal plumes on anadromous and resident fishes, including overwintering effects, in the SRP swamp and associated tributary streams; (2) assess fish spawning and locate nursery grounds on the SRP; (3) examine the level of use of the SRP by spawning fish from the Savannah River, this objective was shared with the Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; and (4) determine impacts of cooling-water discharges on fish population and community attributes. Five studies were designed to address the above topics. The specific objectives and a summary of the findings of each study are presented.

  19. Characterization of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Cooling Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriya Okutsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooling water systems are used to remove heat generated in the various industries. Biofouling of the cooling water systems causes blocking of condenser pipes and the heat exchanger tubes. In many Gram-negative bacteria, N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL are used as quorum-sensing signal molecule and associated with biofilm formation. To investigate the relationship between quorum sensing and biofouling in the cooling water system, we isolated a total of 192 bacterial strains from the five cooling water systems, and screened for AHL production. Seven isolates stimulated AHL-mediated purple pigment production in AHL reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 or VIR07. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, AHL-producing isolates were assigned to Aeromonas hydrophila, Lysobacter sp., Methylobacterium oryzae, and Bosea massiliensis. To the best of our knowledge, B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. have not been reported as AHL-producing species in the previous researches. AHLs extracted from the culture supernatants of B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. AHLs produced by B. massiliensis were assigned as N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL, N-(3-oxohexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL, and N-(3-oxooctanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL. AHLs produced by Lysobacter sp. were assigned as N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL and N-(3-oxodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL. This is the first report of identification of AHLs produced by B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. isolated from the cooling water system.

  20. Effect of makeup water properties on the condenser fouling in power planr cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of fresh water. As available freshwater for use in thermoelectric power production becomes increasingly limited, use of nontraditional water sources is of growing interest. Utilization of nontraditional water, in cooling systems increases the potential for mineral precipitation on heat exchanger surfaces. In that regard, predicting the accelerated rate of scaling and fouling in condenser is crucial to evaluate the condenser performance. To achieve this goal, water chemistry should be incorporated in cooling system modeling and simulation. This paper addresses the effects of various makeup water properties on the cooling system, namely pH and aqueous speciation, both of which are important factors affecting the fouling rate in the main condenser. Detailed modeling of the volatile species desorption (i.e. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}), the formation of scale in the recirculating system, and the relationship between water quality and the corresponding fouling rates is presented.

  1. S/P模式计算的冷却塔烟气抬升高度敏感性试验%Sensitivity test of uplifted height of flue gas from cooling tower based on S/P model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪斌; 刘玉彻; 汪宏宇; 邹旭东; 张云海

    2011-01-01

    德国VDI3784的S/P模式为三维流体动力学积分模式,其方程主要描述了无穷小体积元素的质量、动量、静态污染物质量浓度及能量的守恒。利用德国模式进行了冷却塔烟气排放不同参数、不同大气条件下烟气抬升高度的敏感性试验。结果表明:在影响烟气抬升高度的3个气象要素(风速、气温和湿度)中,风速和气温的变化对结果影响较大,而湿度影响较小。在D类稳定度,当环境风速从0.1 m/s增加到15.0 m/s时,抬升高度从711.7 m变为38.5 m。随着环境温度的升高,抬升高度明显单调变小;当稳定度为A类,环境温度从10升到40时,烟气抬升最大高度从688.9 m降低到45.1 m,降低了14倍多。而环境湿度的变化,对抬升高度的影响不是很明显。对于E类稳定度和F类稳定度,当环境湿度从20%增加到70%,最大抬升高度分别从115.3 m和84.6 m降到112.9 m和81.7 m,分别降低了3.43%和2.08%。在影响烟气抬升高度的其他3个因素(凉水塔直径、烟气出口速度和混合气体温度)中,混合气体温度的变化对结果影响较大,而凉水塔直径和烟气出口速度的影响较小。在各类稳定度条件下,当出口温度从20变到90时,烟气抬升高度增加1.2—13.3倍;在各类稳定度条件下,当凉水塔直径从30 m变到90 m,烟气抬升高度仅增加0.63—1.40倍;在各类稳定度条件下,当出口速度从2.5 m/s变到8.0 m/s,烟气抬升高度增加了0.24—0.74倍。%The S/P model from German VDI3784 is a three-dimensional liquid dynamic integral model.Mass and momentum of infinitesimal element,mass concentration of static pollutant and energy balance were described.The sensitivity of uplifted height of flue gas from cooling tower was tested by the S/P model under different parameters and atmospheric conditions.The results indicate that wind speed,air temperature and humidity could influence the uplifted height of flue gas,especially wind speed

  2. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir

  3. Experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics of a nuclear reactor containment wall cooled by gravitationally falling water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Ari D.; Umar, Efrison; Suwono, Aryadi; Manalu, Reinhard E. E.

    2012-06-01

    Gravitationally falling water cooling is one of mechanism utilized by a modern nuclear Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) for its Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). Since the cooling is closely related to the safety, water film cooling characteristics of the PCCS should be studied. This paper deals with the experimental study of laminar water film cooling on the containment model wall. The influences of water mass flow rate and wall heat rate on the heat transfer characteristic were studied. This research was started with design and assembly of a containment model equipped with the water cooling system, and calibration of all measurement devices. The containment model is a scaled down model of AP 1000 reactor. Below the containment steam is generated using electrical heaters. The steam heated the containment wall, and then the temperatures of the wall in several positions were measure transiently using thermocouples and data acquisition. The containment was then cooled by falling water sprayed from the top of the containment. The experiments were done for various wall heat rate and cooling water flow rate. The objective of the research is to find the temperature profile along the wall before and after the water cooling applied, prediction of the water film characteristic such as means velocity, thickness and their influence to the heat transfer coefficient. The result of the experiments shows that the wall temperatures significantly drop after being sprayed with water. The thickness of water film increases with increasing water flow rate and remained constant with increasing wall heat rate. The heat transfer coefficient decreases as film mass flow rate increase due to the increases of the film thickness which causes the increasing of the thermal resistance. The heat transfer coefficient increases slightly as the wall heat rate increases. The experimental results were then compared with previous theoretical studied.

  4. Volume and structural analysis of super-cooled water under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duki, Solomon F.; Tsige, Mesfin

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by recent experimental study of super-cooled water at high pressure [1], we performed atomistic molecular dynamic simulations study on bulk water molecules at isothermal-isobaric ensemble. These simulations are performed at temperatures that range from 40 K to 380 K using two different cooling rates, 10K/ns and 10K/5ns, and pressure that ranges from 1atm to 10000 atm. Our analysis for the variation of the volume of the bulk sample against temperature indicates a downward concave shape for pressures above certain values, as reported in [1]. The same downward concave behavior is observed at high pressure on the mean-squared-displacements (MSD) of the water molecules when the MSD is plotted against time. To get further insight on the effect of the pressure on the sample we have also performed a structural analysis of the sample.[4pt] [1] O. Mishima, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144503 (2010);

  5. Investigation of Water-spray Cooling of Turbine Blades in a Turbojet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, John C; Stelpflug, William J

    1953-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was made with a J33-A-9 engine to determine the effectiveness of spray cooling as a means of increasing thrust by permitting engine operation at inlet-gas temperatures and speeds above rated. With the assumption of adequate spray cooling at a coolant-to-gas flow ratio of 3 percent, calculations for the sea-level static condition indicated a thrust may be achieved by engine operation at an inlet-gas temperature of 2000 degrees F and an overspeed of 10 percent. Of the water-injection configurations investigated experimentally, those located in the inner ring of the stator diaphragm provided the best cooling at rated engine speed.

  6. Performance of water and diluted ethylene glycol as coolants for electronic cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gayatri,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As the number of transistors increases with new generation of microprocessor chips, the power draw and heat load to dissipate during operation increases. As a result of increasing the heat loads and heat fluxes the Conventional cooling technologies such as fan, heat sinks are unable to absorb and heat transfer excess heat dissipated by these new microprocessor. So, new technologies are needed to improve the heat removal capacity. In the present work single phase liquid cooling system with mini channel is analyzed and experimentally investigated. Mini channels are chosen as to provide higher heat transfer co-efficient than conventional channel. Copper pipes of 0.36 mm diameter are taken to fabricate heat sink and heat exchanger. A pump is used to circulate the fluid through heat sink and heat exchanger. A solid heated aluminium block to simulate heat generated electronic component is used and electrical input is supplied to the heated aluminium block and cooling system is placed over the heated block. The performance of the cooling system is analyzed from the experimental data obtained. It is experimentally observed that the mini channel liquid cooling system with water as a coolant has better performance than diluted ethylene glycol as coolant at different flow rates. The surface temperature of the heated aluminium block with convective heat transfer co-efficient is observed

  7. Comparison of laboratory and field observations: Ozone water treatment for cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, K.P. [Marley Cooling Tower Co., Mission, KS (United States)

    1996-11-01

    This evaluation, comparing laboratory- and field-generated data, explains the functional results of ozone water treatment use for operating heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) cooling water systems. These effects are classified in the areas of biological growth control, corrosion rate control, and scale control or retardation. Limitations on the application of ozone are discussed. Field results from multiple sites are examined and compared to laboratory-generated data. Theories as to mechanisms are discussed based on the accumulated information. Specific situations such as under-ozonation, and soft and hard water are discussed.

  8. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean.; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Petty, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator - Baseline heat rejection technology for the Portable Life Support System of the Advanced EMU center dot Replaces sublimator in the current EMU center dot Contamination insensitive center dot Can work with Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator in Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to reject heat and reuse evaporated water The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is being developed to replace the sublimator for future generation spacesuits. Water in LCVG absorbs body heat while circulating center dot Warm water pumped through SWME center dot SWME evaporates water vapor, while maintaining liquid water - Cools water center dot Cooled water is then recirculated through LCVG. center dot LCVG water lost due to evaporation (cooling) is replaced from feedwater The Independent TCV Manifold reduces design complexity and manufacturing difficulty of the SWME End Cap. center dot The offset motor for the new BPV reduces the volume profile of the SWME by laying the motor flat on the End Cap alongside the TCV.

  9. Economy of replacing a refrigerant in a cooling system for preparing chilled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulcar, B. [Nafta-Petrochem, d.o.o., Mlinska ulica 5, 9220 Lendava (Slovenia); Goricanec, D.; Krope, J. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2010-08-15

    Due to the negative impact of refrigerants containing Cl and Br on the ozone layer, these refrigerants are being replaced with refrigerants containing fluorine. The article describes the replacing of refrigerant R22 in a cooling system for preparing chilled water, used for cooling reactors producing phenol-formaldehyde resins. After analyzing the existing state and the capabilities of the cooling system, the refrigerant R22 was replaced with refrigerant R407C. For both refrigerants a calculation of the cooling system has been made, the results of which are given in the form of diagrams depending on the evaporation temperature of the refrigerant. Profitability evaluation of replacing a refrigerant was carried out using the method of the net present value (NPV), the coefficient of profitability and the period of time in which the investment is going to return itself. Also the calculations of the savings of electrical energy needed for the running of the compressors and the price of chilled water have been done, using the method of internal profitability level (IPL). (author)

  10. HIGH COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL SAFETY OF NPPS IN THE GULF REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BYUNG KOO KIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf region has one of the highest ocean temperatures, reaching above 35 degrees and ambient temperatures over 50 degrees in the summer. Two nuclear power plants (NPP are being introduced in the region for the first time, one at Bushehr (1,000 MWe PWR plant from Russia, and a much larger one at Barakah (4X1,400 MWe PWR from Korea. Both plants take seawater from the Gulf for condenser cooling, having to modify the secondary/tertiary side cooling systems design by increasing the heat transfer surface area from the country of origin. This paper analyses the secondary side of a typical PWR plant operating under the Rankine cycle with a simplified thermal-hydraulic model. Parametric study of ocean cooling temperatures is conducted to estimate thermal efficiency variations and its associated design changes for the secondary side. Operational safety is reviewed to deliver rated power output with acceptable safety margins in line with technical specifications, mainly in the auxiliary systems together with the cooling water temperature. Impact on the Gulf seawater as the ultimate heat sink is considered negligible, affecting only the adjacent water near the NPP site, when compared to the solar radiation on the sea surface.

  11. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-04-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Aqueous and Confined Systems Relevant to the Supercritical Water Cooled Nuclear Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallikragas, Dimitrios Theofanis

    Supercritical water (SCW) is the intended heat transfer fluid and potential neutron moderator in the proposed GEN-IV Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR). The oxidative environment poses challenges in choosing appropriate design materials, and the behaviour of SCW within crevices of the passivation layer is needed for developing a corrosion control strategy to minimize corrosion. Molecular Dynamics simulations have been employed to obtain diffusion coefficients, coordination number and surface density characteristics, of water and chloride in nanometer-spaced iron hydroxide surfaces. Diffusion models for hydrazine are evaluated along with hydration data. Results demonstrate that water is more likely to accumulate on the surface at low density conditions. The effect of confinement on the water structure diminishes as the gap size increases. The diffusion coefficient of chloride decreases with larger surface spacing. Clustering of water at the surface implies that the SCWR will be most susceptible to pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.

  13. Preliminary Analysis on Heat Removal Capacity of Passive Air-Water Combined Cooling Heat Exchanger Using MARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung-Sin; Jeon, Seong-Su; Hong, Soon-Joon [FNC Tech, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung-Won; Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Current design requirement for working time of PAFS heat exchanger is about 8 hours. Thus, it is not satisfied with the required cooling capability for the long term SBO(Station Black-Out) situation that is required to over 72 hours cooling. Therefore PAFS is needed to change of design for 72 hours cooling. In order to acquirement of long terms cooling using PAFS, heat exchanger tube has to be submerged in water tank for long time. However, water in the tank is evaporated by transferred heat from heat exchanger tubes, so water level is gradually lowered as time goes on. The heat removal capacity of air cooling heat exchanger is core parameter that is used for decision of applicability on passive air-water combined cooling system using PAFS in long term cooling. In this study, the development of MARS input model and plant accident analysis are performed for the prediction of the heat removal capacity of air cooling heat exchanger. From analysis result, it is known that inflow air velocity is the decisive factor of the heat removal capacity and predicted air velocity is lower than required air velocity. But present heat transfer model and predicted air velocity have uncertainty. So, if changed design of PAFS that has over 4.6 kW heat removal capacity in each tube, this type heat exchanger can be applied to long term cooling of the nuclear power plant.

  14. Multi-Model Assessment of Global Hydropower and Cooling Water Discharge Potential Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Eisener, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding of how climate change may impact the availability and temperature of water resources is therefore of major importance. Here we use a multi-model ensemble to show the potential impacts of climate change on global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential. For the first time, combined projections of streamflow and water temperature were produced with three global hydrological models (GHMs) to account for uncertainties in the structure and parametrization of these GHMs in both water availability and water temperature. The GHMs were forced with bias-corrected output of five general circulation models (GCMs) for both the lowest and highest representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). The ensemble projections of streamflow and water temperature were then used to quantify impacts on gross hydropower potential and cooling water discharge capacity of rivers worldwide. We show that global gross hydropower potential is expected to increase between +2.4% (GCM-GHM ensemble mean for RCP 2.6) and +6.3% (RCP 8.5) for the 2080s compared to 1971-2000. The strongest increases in hydropower potential are expected for Central Africa, India, central Asia and the northern high-latitudes, with 18-33% of the world population living in these areas by the 2080s. Global mean cooling water discharge capacity is projected to decrease by 4.5-15% (2080s). The largest reductions are found for the United States, Europe, eastern Asia, and southern parts of South America, Africa and Australia, where strong water temperature increases are projected combined with reductions in mean annual streamflow. These regions are expected to affect 11-14% (for RCP2.6 and the shared socioeconomic

  15. Water cooling of shocks in protostellar outflows: Herschel-PACS map of L1157

    CERN Document Server

    Nisini, B; Codella, C; Giannini, T; Liseau, R; Neufeld, D; Tafalla, M; van Dishoeck, E F; Bachiller, R; Baaudry, A; Benz, O A; Bergin, E; Bjerkeli, P; Blake, G; Bontemps, S; Braine, J; Bruderer, S; Caselli, P; Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; Encrenaz, P; di Giorgio, A M; Dominik, C; Doty, S; Fich, M; Fuente, A; Goicoechea, J R; de Graaw, Th; Helmich, F; Herczeg, G; Herpin, F; Hogerheijde, M; Jacq, T; Johnstone, D; Jorgensen, J; Kaufman, M; Kirstensen, L; Larsson, B; Lis, D; Marseille, M; McCoey, C; Melnick, G; Olberg, M; Parise, B; Pearson, J; Plime, R; Risacher, C; Santiago, J; Saraceno, P; Shipman, R; van Kempen, T A; Visser, R; Viti, S; Wampfler, S; Wyrowski, F; van der Tak, F; Yildiz, U A; Delforge, B; Desbat, J; Hatch, W A; Peron, I; Schieder, R; Stern, J A; Teyssier, D; Whyborn, N

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) key program, maps in water lines of several outflows from young stars are being obtained, to study the water production in shocks and its role in the outflow cooling. This paper reports the first results of this program, presenting a PACS map of the o-H2O 179 um transition obtained toward the young outflow L1157. The 179 um map is compared with those of other important shock tracers, and with previous single-pointing ISO, SWAS, and Odin water observations of the same source that allow us to constrain the water abundance and total cooling. Strong H2O peaks are localized on both shocked emission knots and the central source position. The H2O 179 um emission is spatially correlated with emission from H2 rotational lines, excited in shocks leading to a significant enhancement of the water abundance. Water emission peaks along the outflow also correlate with peaks of other shock-produced molecular species, such as SiO and NH3. A strong H2O ...

  16. Fishing for isotopes in the Brookhaven Lab Isotope Producer (BLIP) cooling water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider Accelerator Dept.

    2016-04-29

    Be-7 has been used in environmental studies; the isotope is produced during BLIP irradiations and accumulates in the 320 gallons of cooling water. Be-7 has a 53.24 day half-life, so the optimal production/purification time is at the end of the BLIP run season. To purify Be-7 fifteen to twenty gallons of BLIP cooling water are removed and pumped through ion exchange columns that retain Be-7. This labor intensive approach captures ~15 mCi of Be-7, but the solution requires further purification. The method can lead to increased radiation exposure to staff. The ideal way to capture isotopes from large volumes is to reach in to the solution and selectively pull out the desired isotope. It is a lot like fishing.

  17. Neutronics Analysis of Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingjun; Li, Jia; Liu, Songlin

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the nuclear response to the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket models for CFETR, a detailed 3D neutronics model with 22.5° torus sector was developed based on the integrated geometry of CFETR, including heterogeneous WCCB blanket models, shield, divertor, vacuum vessel, toroidal and poloidal magnets, and ports. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code MCNP5 and IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL2.1, the neutronics analyses were performed. The neutron wall loading, tritium breeding ratio, the nuclear heating, neutron-induced atomic displacement damage, and gas production were determined. The results indicate that the global TBR of no less than 1.2 will be a big challenge for the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket for CFETR. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  18. Tritium recovery in Pb17Li-water cooled blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Safety Technology Inst., Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering & Information Inst., Ispra (Italy); Viola, A. [Univ. of Cagliari (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    The question of tritium recovery in Pb17Li, water cooled blankets is under investigation since several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analyzed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging in a suited process apparatus. The design features of the process systems are related to: (1) the very low tritium solubility in Pb17Li which implies high permeation rates through the containment structures; (2) the need of keeping as low as possible the tritium concentration in the cooling water both for safety and economical reasons. A computerized model of the tritium behavior in the blanket units and in the extraction system has been developed.

  19. Prospects for development of an innovative water-cooled nuclear reactor for supercritical parameters of coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyakin, S. G.; Kirillov, P. L.; Baranaev, Yu. D.; Glebov, A. P.; Bogoslovskaya, G. P.; Nikitenko, M. P.; Makhin, V. M.; Churkin, A. N.

    2014-08-01

    The state of nuclear power engineering as of February 1, 2014 and the accomplished elaborations of a supercritical-pressure water-cooled reactor are briefly reviewed, and the prospects of this new project are discussed based on this review. The new project rests on the experience gained from the development and operation of stationary water-cooled reactor plants, including VVERs, PWRs, BWRs, and RBMKs (their combined service life totals more than 15 000 reactor-years), and long-term experience gained around the world with operation of thermal power plants the turbines of which are driven by steam with supercritical and ultrasupercritical parameters. The advantages of such reactor are pointed out together with the scientific-technical problems that need to be solved during further development of such installations. The knowledge gained for the last decade makes it possible to refine the concept and to commence the work on designing an experimental small-capacity reactor.

  20. Multi-gate Pitot tube for the measurement of water flow in cooling systems; Tubo de Pitot multi-puertos para la medicion de flujo de agua en sistemas de enfriamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Ibarra, Luis; Rodriguez Martinez, Jose Hugo; Santabarbara Botello, Marcelino [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this article the design of a novel measuring device of water flowing in large diameter pipes is described. A description is made of the instrument commonly used at present for this purpose (simple Pitot tube), whose design is based on the Standard CTI Code ATC-105 published by the Cooling Tower Institute (CTI ATC-105, 2000). The disadvantages of the simple Pitot tube in comparison with the new proposed device are emphasized (Multi-gate Pitot tube), of which its construction and design is described in detail. In the present article are also shown the results obtained of the circulation water flow measurements, performed in the cooling system of a fossil fuel power plant. These results are compared with the results of flow measurement obtained by means of the simulation of the thermodynamic cycle of the power station, using commercial software. [Spanish] En este articulo se describe el diseno de un novedoso medidor de flujo de agua que circula en tuberias de gran diametro. Se hace una descripcion del instrumento comunmente usado en la actualidad para dicho proposito (tubo de Pitot simple), cuyo diseno se basa en el estandar CTI Code ATC-105 publicado por el Cooling Tower Institute (CTI ATC-105, 2000). Se puntualizan las desventajas del tubo de Pitot simple en comparacion con el nuevo dispositivo propuesto (tubo de Pitot Multi-puertos), del cual se describe detalladamente su construccion y diseno. En el presente articulo tambien se muestran los resultados obtenidos de las mediciones de flujo de agua de circulacion, realizadas en el sistema de enfriamiento de una central termoelectrica. Dichos resultados son comparados con los resultados de flujo obtenidos mediante simulacion del ciclo termodinamico de la central, usando un software comercial.

  1. Seismic Analysis of Water Transport and Drain Tower Based on Damage Model%基于损伤模型的输泄水塔地震响应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁文妍; 胡少伟

    2015-01-01

    输泄水塔结构属于高耸水下建筑物,其地震安全性至关重要。以某水电站输泄水塔为例,采用ABAQUS有限元仿真技术进行了地震时程分析。针对输泄水塔部分嵌入地下、锁扣板设置的结构特点,建立了输泄水塔-库水-地基的三维动力有限元附加质量模型。考虑混凝土材料的非线性损伤特性,应用动力时程分析法分析了输泄水塔结构在静力荷载与地震叠加作用下的动力特性及应力变形分布情况,可为同类工程的设计与研究提供参考。%The water transport and drain tower belongs to high underwater structure and their seismic safety is very important. Taking a water transport and drain tower in a hydropower station as study case, the seismic analysis is performed with ABAQUS finite element simulation technology. In view of the structure characteristics of tower with a part embedded into ground and arranging locking plates, the three-dimensional dynamic model of tower-reservoir water-foundation with added water mass is established. By considering the nonlinear damage characteristic of concrete, the dynamic characteristics and stress and deformation distribution of water transport and drain tower under the joint action of static and seismic loads are analyzed with time-history analysis method. The results provide some directive advice for the design and research of other similar projects.

  2. Dubai Tower%迪拜高塔

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The design for RMJM 83-storey Dubai Tower is a dynamic and elegantly proportioned skyscraper, rising over 400 metres above the Arabian Gulf. Situated at the prominent water' s edge, this crystalline glass tower is intended to provide an iconic and symbolic reference for Dubai in the neighbouring city of Doha, Qatar. The development will contain world-class retail, offices,hotel, serviced apartments and residential units.

  3. The unexpected energy saving of cooling water conditioning; Koelwaterconditionering spaart meer energie dan u denkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, A. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    On the basis of the example of the dosage of chlorinated bleaching lye in cooling water it is calculated that much more energy can be saved than expected. The use of the lye improves the energy efficiency of heat exchangers. The calculation method is developed by L. Paping and is based on the idea to express the advantages (e.g. energy conservation) and the disadvantages (e.g. environmental burden) as a dimensionless indicator.

  4. Topical report : NSTF facilities plan for water-cooled VHTR RCCS : normal operational tests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C. P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the gas-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept.

  5. Radiant Cooling for Closed-Loop Water Containment: Exploration of Possible Application in Dry Docks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    TYPE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY...lengths from 300 to 3000 with diameters ranging from 10 to 24 all cooled a design load of 8 ° = 4. 44̅̅̅̅ above ambient ...water contains a higher concentration of copper and other metals and is at a higher temperature compared to ambient conditions; this is not a concern

  6. Thermal-hydraulic Optimization of Water-cooled Center Conductor Post for Spherical Tokamaks Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯严; 吴宜灿; 黄群英; 郑善良

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual structure of segmental water-cooled Center Con ductor Post (CCP) to be flexible in installment and replacement. Thermal-hydraulic optimization and sensitivity analysis of key parameters are performed based on a reference fusion transmutation system with 100 MW fusion power. Numerical simulation by using a commercial code PHOEN]CS has been carried out to be close to the thermal-hydraulic analytical results of the CCP mid-part.

  7. Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard and Ken Michaels, Staff Writers Behind each tall, black computer rack in the data center at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) is something both strangely familiar and oddly out of place: It looks like a radiator. The back door of each cabinet is gridded with the coils of the Liebert cooling system, which circulates chilled water to remove heat generated by the high-speed, high-capacity, fault-tolerant equipment.

  8. Analysis of tritium behaviour and recovery from a water-cooled Pb17Li blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Institute Regional des Materiaux Avances, Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering and Informatics Institute, JRC Ispra, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Viola, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    The question of the tritium recovery in water-cooled Pb17Li blankets has been under investigation for several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analysed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging or vacuum degassing in a suited process apparatus. A computerized model of the tritium behaviour in the blanket units and in the extraction system was developed. It includes four submodels: (1) tritium permeation process from the breeder to the cooling water as a function of the local operative conditions (tritium concentration in Pb17Li, breeder temperature and flow rate); (2) tritium mass balance in each breeding unit; (3) tritium desorption from the breeder material to the gas phase of the extraction system; (4) tritium extraction efficiency as a function of the design parameters of the recovery apparatus. In the present paper, on the basis of this model, a parametric study of the tritium permeation rate in the cooling water and of the tritium inventory in the blanket is carried out. Results are reported and discussed in terms of dimensionless groups which describe the relative effects of the overall resistance on tritium transfer to the cooling water (with and without permeation barriers), circulating Pb17Li flow rate and extraction efficiency of the tritium recovery unit. The parametric study is extended to the recovery unit in the case of tritium extraction by helium purge or vacuum degassing in a droplet spray unit. (orig.).

  9. Natural Convective Heat and Mass Transfer of Water with Corrosion Products at Super—Critical Pressures under Cooling COnditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-XueJiang; Ze-PeiRen; 等

    1993-01-01

    A numerical study is reported of laminar natural convective heat and mass transfer on a vertical cooled plate for water containing metal corrosion products at super-critical pressures.The influence of variable properties at super-critical pressures on natural convertion has been analyzed.The difference between heat and mass transfer under cooling or heating conditions is also discussed and some correlations for heat and mass transfer under cooling conditions are recommended.

  10. Effects of Solution Hydrodynamics on Corrosion Inhibition of Steel by Citric Acid in Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Asghari, E.; Mohammadi, M.

    2014-08-01

    Corrosion is a major problem in cooling water systems, which is often controlled using corrosion inhibitors. Solution hydrodynamics is one of the factors affecting corrosion inhibition of metals in these systems. The present work focuses on the study of the combined effects of citric acid concentration (as a green corrosion inhibitor) and fluid flow on corrosion of steel in simulated cooling water. Electrochemical techniques including Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for corrosion studies. Laminar flow was simulated using a rotating disk electrode. The effects of solution hydrodynamics on inhibition performance of citric acid were discussed. The citric acid showed low inhibition performance in quiescent solution; however, when the electrode rotated at 200 rpm, inhibition efficiency increased remarkably. It was attributed mainly to the acceleration of inhibitor mass transport toward metal surface. The efficiencies were then decreased at higher rotation speeds due to enhanced wall shear stresses on metal surface and separation of adsorbed inhibitor molecules. This article is first part of authors' attempts in designing green inhibitor formulations for industrial cooling water. Citric acid showed acceptable corrosion inhibition in low rotation rates; thus, it can be used as a green additive to the corrosion inhibitor formulations.

  11. Experimental adsorption equilibrium study and comparison of zeolite with water and ethanol for cooling systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAIGA Abdoulaye Siddeye; CHEN Guang-ming; WANG Qin

    2007-01-01

    Two adsorption refrigeration working pairs of zeolite with water and ethanol were studied and the parameters of Dubinin-Astakhov model were regressed using the experimental data of equilibrium. The coefficient of heterogeneity varied from 1.305 to 1.52 for the zeolite-water pair and from 1.73 to 2.128 for zeolite-ethanol pair. The maximum adsorption capacity varied from 0.315 to 0.34 for zeolite-water and 0.23 to 0.28 for zeolite-ethanol, respectively. The results showed that the zeolite-water pair is suitable for solar energy cooling not only because of the high latent heat of vaporization of water but also because of the better equilibrium performance. On the other hand, zeolite-ethanol gives a high adsorption capacity at high regeneration temperature, which means it can be used in heat engine systems like buses and cars.

  12. Thermal and structural finite element analysis of water cooled silicon monochromator for synchrotron radiation comparison of two different cooling schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, A I; Busetto, E; Hrdy, J; Mrazek, D; Plesek, I; Savoia, A

    2001-01-01

    The article describes the results of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the first Si monochromator crystal distortions due to Synchrotron Radiation (SR) heat load and consequent analysis of the influence of the distortions on a double crystal monochromator performance. Efficiencies of two different cooling schemes are compared. A thin plate of Si crystal is lying on copper cooling support in both cases. There are microchannels inside the cooling support. In the first model the direction of the microchannels is parallel to the diffraction plane. In the second model the direction of the microchannels is perpendicular to the diffraction plane or in other words, it is a conventional cooling scheme. It is shown that the temperature field along the crystal volume is more uniform and more symmetrical in the first model than in the second (conventional) one.

  13. Heat transfer coefficient distribution over the inconel plate cooled from high temperature by the array of water jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Z.; Telejko, T.; Cebo-Rudnicka, A.; Szajding, A.; Rywotycki, M.; Hadała, B.

    2016-09-01

    The industrial rolling mills are equipped with systems for controlled water cooling of hot steel products. A cooling rate affects the final mechanical properties of steel which are strongly dependent on microstructure evolution processes. In case of water jets cooling the heat transfer boundary condition can be defined by the heat transfer coefficient. In the present study one and three dimensional heat conduction models have been employed in the inverse solution to heat transfer coefficient. The inconel plate has been heated to about 900oC and then cooled by one, two and six water jets. The plate temperature has been measured by 30 thermocouples. The heat transfer coefficient distributions at plate surface have been determined in time of cooling.

  14. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  15. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  16. Presence of pathogenic amoebae in power plant cooling waters. Final report, October 15, 1977-September 30, 1979. [Naegleria fowleri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

    1981-03-01

    Cooling-water-associated algae and sediments from five northern and five southern or western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. In addition, water algae and sediments from five northern and five southern/western sites not associated with power plants were tested. There was a significant correlation at northern power plants between the presence of thermophilic, pathogenic amoebae in cooling waters and thermal additions. Presence of the pathogenic did not correlate with salinity, pH, conductivity, or a variety of various chemical components of the cooling waters. Selected pathogenic isolates were tested serologically and were classified as Naegleria fowleri. Although thermal additions were shown to be contributing factor in predisposing cooling waters to the growth of pathogenic amoebae, the data suggest the involvement of other currently undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic amoebae. 35 refs., 21 tabs.

  17. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Panels with Earth Water Heat Exchanger Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakhar Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The operating temperature is an important factor affecting the performance and life span of the Photovoltaic (PV panels. The rising temperature can be maintained within certain limit using proper cooling techniques. In the present research a novel system for cooling of PV panels named as Earth Water Heat Exchanger (EWHE is proposed and modelled in transient analysis simulation tool (TRNSYS v17.0 for the conditions of Pilani, Rajasthan (India.The various parameters which include cell temperature, PV power output and cell efficiency are observed with respect to variation in mass flow rate of fluid. Simulation results of the system without cooling show that the maximum PV panel temperature reached up to 79.31 °C with electrical efficiency dropped to 9% during peak sunshine hour. On the other hand, when PV panels are coupled with EWHE system, the panel temperature drops to 46.29 °C with an efficiency improving to 11% for a mass flow rate of 0.022 kg/s. In the end the cooling potential of EWHE is found to be in direct correlation with mass flow rate. The proposed system is very useful for the arid regions of western India which are blessed with high solar insolation throughout the year.

  18. 200 MW供热机组双机单塔运行的节能分析%Energy Saving Analysis of 200 MW Heating Unit Double Machine Double Tower Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建新; 李文林

    2016-01-01

    Ningxia Electric Power Investment Group in Xixia thermal power plant 200MW unit in winter heating condition, change the mode of operation of the cooling tower by the twin towers switched to single tower operation, reduce the auxiliary power consumption rate, reduce the difference of the condenser end, reducing the cooling tower of water supply, to avoid the cooling Tower of a large number of ice, water consumption decreased significantly, to achieve the purpose of energy saving unit.%宁夏电力投资集团西夏热电厂200MW供热机组在冬季采暖工况下,改变冷却塔的运行方式由双塔切换至单塔运行,降低了厂用电率,减小了凝汽器的端差,降低了冷却塔的补水量,避免了冷却塔的大量结冰,水耗明显降低,达到机组节能目的。

  19. Confusion at the Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Loretta F.

    2014-01-01

    This study will explore the omission of the Tower of Babel narrative from middle and secondary school world history, world studies, and world geography textbooks and will consider what might be learned from inclusion of the story in the curriculum. A total of 17 textbooks are analyzed. The Tower of Babel narrative is examined within the context of…

  20. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  1. Resistance of Alkali Activated Water-Cooled Slag Geopolymer to Sulphate Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Hasanein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground granulated blast furnace slag is a finely ground, rapidly chilled aluminosilicate melt material that is separated from molten iron in the blast furnace as a by-product. Rapid cooling results in an amorphous or a glassy phase known as GGBFS or water cooled slag (WCS. Alkaline activation of latent hydraulic WCS by sodium hydroxide and/or sodium silicate in different ratios was studied. Curing was performed under 100 % relative humidity and at a temperature of 38°C. The results showed that mixing of both sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate in ratio of 3:3 wt.,% is the optimum one giving better mechanical as well as microstructural characteristics as compared with cement mortar that has various cement content (cement : sand were 1:3 and 1:2. Durability of the water cooled slag in 5 % MgSO4 as revealed by better microstructure and high resistivity-clarifying that activation by 3:3 sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate, respectively is better than using 2 and 6 % of sodium hydroxide.

  2. Energy-saving Technical Reconstruction about Circulating Water of Cooling Air Machine in Refinery Plant%炼油厂循环水冷却风机节能技术改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周毅

    2011-01-01

    At present,the electric air machines are used in circulating water cooling tower in many refinery plants,where the backwater lift is generally high.Combining the energy-saving technical example about CNOOC Ningbo Daxie/Zhoushan Petrochemical LTD's second reconstruction of cooling air machine,the energy-saving effect of cooling water machine was evaluated,and the developing significance in refinery plants was also analyzed.%针对目前国内大多数炼油企业循环水冷却塔均按电动风机进行设计,普遍存在回水扬程偏大的现象。结合中海石油宁波大榭/舟山石化有限公司二套循环水冷却风机节能改造的应用实例,评价了水动冷却风机的节能效果,并分析了其在炼油企业推广的意义。

  3. Experiences with electrochemical analysis of copper at the PPB-level in saline cooling water and in the water/steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, K. [I/S Nordjyllandsvaerket, Vodskov (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Determination of trace amounts of copper in saline cooling water and in process water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry combined with an UV-photolysis pretreatment is described. Copper concentrations well below 1 {mu}g/L may be analysed with a precision in the order of 10% and a high degree of accuracy. The basic principles of the method are described together with three applications covering analysis of cooling and process water samples. The analysis method has been applied to document the adherence of environmental limits for the copper uptake of cooling water passing brass condensers, to monitor the formation of protective layers of iron oxides on the cooling water side of brass condensers, and to study the transport of copper in water/steam cycles with heat exchangers and condensers of brass materials. (au)

  4. Self-assembled granular towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Vazquez, Felipe; Moreau, Florian; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Dorbolo, Stephan; GroupResearch; Applications in Statistical Physics Team

    2013-03-01

    When some water is added to sand, cohesion among the grains is induced. In fact, only 1% of liquid volume respect to the total pore space of the sand is necessary to built impressive sandcastles. Inspired on this experience, the mechanical properties of wet piles and sand columns have been widely studied during the last years. However, most of these studies only consider wet materials with less than 35% of liquid volume. Here we report the spontaneous formation of granular towers produced when dry sand is poured on a highly wet sand bed: The impacting grains stick on the wet grains due to instantaneous liquid bridges created during the impact. The grains become wet by the capillary ascension of water and the process continues, giving rise to stable narrow sand towers. Actually, the towers can reach the maximum theoretical limit of stability predicted by previous models, only expected for low liquid volumes. The authors would like to thank FNRS and Conacyt Mexico for financial support. FPV is a beneficiary of a movility grant from BELSPO/Marie Curie and the University of Liege.

  5. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  6. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  7. Experimental Evidence for a Liquid-Liquid Crossover in Deeply Cooled Confined Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupane, Antonio; Fomina, Margarita; Piazza, Irina; Peters, Judith; Schirò, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    In this work we investigate, by means of elastic neutron scattering, the pressure dependence of mean square displacements (MSD) of hydrogen atoms of deeply cooled water confined in the pores of a three-dimensional disordered SiO2 xerogel; experiments have been performed at 250 and 210 K from atmospheric pressure to 1200 bar. The "pressure anomaly" of supercooled water (i.e., a mean square displacement increase with increasing pressure) is observed in our sample at both temperatures; however, contrary to previous simulation results and to the experimental trend observed in bulk water, the pressure effect is smaller at lower (210 K) than at higher (250 K) temperature. Elastic neutron scattering results are complemented by differential scanning calorimetry data that put in evidence, besides the glass transition at about 170 K, a first-order-like endothermic transition occurring at about 230 K that, in view of the neutron scattering results, can be attributed to a liquid-liquid crossover. Our results give experimental evidence for the presence, in deeply cooled confined water, of a crossover occurring at about 230 K (at ambient pressure) from a liquid phase predominant at 210 K to another liquid phase predominant at 250 K; therefore, they are fully consistent with the liquid-liquid transition hypothesis.

  8. Secondary Cooling Water Quality Management for Multi Purpose Reactor 30 MW GA Siwabessy Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaryo, Geni Rina, E-mail: genirina@batan.go.i [Center for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety (PTRKN-BATAN), Bldg. 80, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang 15310 (Indonesia)

    2011-07-01

    Indonesia Multi Purpose Research Reactor (MPR) G.A. Siwabessy 30 MW will be 25 years old in 2011. Series of Non Destructive Test (NDT) were done to understand the current condition such as Eddy Current test for Heat Exchangers, water immersed camera for understanding the tank liner condition, ultrasonic for secondary piping etc. Some deteorization was observed because of ageing and some changing was done. One of them is changing some part of secondary pipe lines because of leaking, with the local ones. For having another 25 years operation life, a proper water quality for secondary cooling water is needed towards corrosion prevention. The main objectives of this experiment is to understand the current water quality of secondary cooling water of RSG-GAS from the aspect of corrosion induced by chemicals and bacteria, and establish procedure for managing the secondary cooling water quality. Methodologies applied are surveillance corrosion by immersing coupon into water observed and followed by visual analyses, corrosion rate determination by electrochemical method with various chemical conditions and total bacteria determination by using test kit. The results show visually that the crevice, galvanic and homogeny corrosion with the current water quality easily be observed for carbon steel represented secondary pipelines at the condition of none oxy bio agent addition. This corrosion is being suppressed by adding the oxy bio agent. The orientation of coupon, vertically and horizontally, gives slightly different effect. The closely corrosion rate was obtained by separately experiment, electrochemical, at the concentration of inhibitor 100ppm is 0.13 {+-} 0.02, which is lower than in the raw water of 0.20 {+-} 0.01 mpy. The total bacteria detected is around 10{sup 7} cfu/ml at none reactor operation and without any anti bacteria added. The oxi bio agent chemical addition suppresses the numbers becomes 10{sup 3} cfu/ml. The SRB bacteria is detected as >10{sup 6} cfu/ml at

  9. Hydro-Potential Utilization of Cooling Water on the Hydro-Electric Power Plant Dalešice

    OpenAIRE

    Hudec, Martin; Haluza, Miloslav; Kubálek, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Engineering solution of a surplus pressure head in a system of reversible machine unit's cooling water. Current technologies supplemented with Francis turbine or more precisely a centrifugal volute-type pump in turbine mode. It contains the layout for the basic extent of several various high-speeds with regard to maximum coverage of working conditions. Minimization of construction works on the structure of the cooling water inlet. Furthermore it includes an assignment of the annual power prod...

  10. Analysis of a New Dissipation System for a Solar Cooling Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Monné Bailo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a solar absorption cooling installation located at the University of Zaragoza (Spain. The installation is based on the performance of an absorption chiller. The solar cooling system consists of 37,5 m2 of flat plate collector, a 4.5 kW, single-effect LiBr-H2O absorption chiller, and a dry cooling tower. The installation provides cooling to a gymnasium belonging to the sports center of the university. To carry out the installation analysis, the system was continuously monitored. In 2007, 2008 and 2009, several studies have been performed in order to analyze the full system operation. The measured data showed the strong influence of the cooling water temperature and the generator driving temperature on the COP. Due to the experimental evidence of the influence of the cooling water temperature, a new heat rejection system based on a geothermal heat sink has been installed and studied.

  11. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Dynamics and Evaporative Cooling of Water Droplets Impinging onto Heated Surfaces: An Effective Approach To Identify Spray Cooling Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Rui-Na; Ouyang, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Pei-Xue

    2016-09-13

    Numerical investigations of the dynamics and evaporative cooling of water droplets impinging onto heated surfaces can be used to identify spray cooling mechanisms. Droplet impingement dynamics and evaporation are simulated using the presented numerical model. Volume-of-fluid method is used in the model to track the free surface. The contact line dynamics was predicted from a dynamic contact angle model with the evaporation rate predicted by a kinetic theory model. A species transport equation was solved in the gas phase to describe the vapor convection and diffusion. The numerical model was validated by experimental data. The physical effects including the contact angle hysteresis and the thermocapillary effect are analyzed to offer guidance for future numerical models of droplet impingement cooling. The effects of various parameters including surface wettability, surface temperature, droplet velocity, droplet size, and droplet temperature were numerically studied from the standpoint of spray cooling. The numerical simulations offer profound analysis and deep insight into the spray cooling heat transfer mechanisms.

  12. Numerical Study of the Effect of a Power Plant Cooling Water Discharge in the Montevideo Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Fossati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical simulation of the water temperature in the Río de la Plata River and Montevideo's Bay was done using the numerical model of finite elements RMA-10 in its 2D vertical integrated mode. Parameters involved in the formulations of thermal exchange with the atmosphere were adjusted using measurements of water temperature in several locations of the water body. After calibrating the model, it was used to represent the operation of a power plant located in Montevideo's Bay. This central takes water from the bay in order to cool its generators and also discharges high-temperature water into the bay. The correct representation of temperatures at the water intake and discharge of the plant reflects that the model is able to represent the operation of the central. Several analysis were made to study the thermal plume, the effects of the water discharge on the water intake of the power plant, and the effect on environmental variables of the study area like currents.

  13. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  14. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  15. Drop Tower Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, William A. Toby

    2014-10-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in The Physics Teacher1 in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at the drop tower in Bremen, Germany. Using these drop towers, one can briefly investigate various physical systems operating in this near zero-g environment. The resulting "Drop Tower Physics" is a new and exciting way to challenge students with a physical example that requires solid knowledge of many basic physics principles, and it forces them to practice the scientific method. The question is, "How would a simple toy, like a pendulum, behave when it is suddenly exposed to a zero-g environment?" The student must then postulate a particular behavior, test the hypothesis against physical principles, and if the hypothesis conforms to these chosen physical laws, the student can formulate a final conclusion. At that point having access to a drop tower is very convenient, in that the student can then experimentally test his or her conclusion. The purpose of this discussion is to explain the response of these physical systems ("toys") when the transition is made to a zero-g environment and to provide video demonstrations of this behavior to support in-class discussions of Drop Tower Physics.

  16. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Approvals § 50.46 Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors. (a)(1)(i) Each boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power reactor fueled with uranium...

  17. Determining water sources in the boundary layer from tall tower profiles of water vapor and surface water isotope ratios after a snowstorm in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Noone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The D/H isotope ratio is used to attribute boundary layer humidity changes to the set of contributing fluxes for a case following a snowstorm in which a snow pack of about 10 cm vanished. Profiles of H2O and CO2 mixing ratio, D/H isotope ratio, and several thermodynamic properties were measured from the surface to 300 m every 15 min during four winter days near Boulder, Colorado. Coeval analysis of the D/H ratios and CO2 concentrations find these two variables to be complementary with the former being sensitive to daytime surface fluxes and the latter particularly indicative of nocturnal surface sources. Together they capture evidence for strong vertical mixing during the day, weaker mixing by turbulent bursts and low level jets within the nocturnal stable boundary layer during the night, and frost formation in the morning. The profiles are generally not well described with a gradient mixing line analysis because D/H ratios of the end members (i.e., surface fluxes and the free troposphere evolve throughout the day which leads to large uncertainties in the estimate of the D/H ratio of surface water flux. A mass balance model is constructed for the snow pack, and constrained with observations to provide an optimal estimate of the partitioning of the surface water flux into contributions from sublimation, evaporation of melt water in the snow and evaporation from ponds. Results show that while vapor measurements are important in constraining surface fluxes, measurements of the source reservoirs (soil water, snow pack and standing liquid offer stronger constraint on the surface water balance. Measurements of surface water are therefore essential in developing observational programs that seek to use isotopic data for flux attribution.

  18. Experimental simulation of the water cooling of corium spread over the floor of a BWR containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morage, F.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Podowski, M.Z. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper is concerned with an experimental investigation of the cooling effect of water collected on the surface of corium released onto the floor of a BWR drywell. In the present experiments, the actual reactor materials were replaced by simulant materials. Specifically, the results are shown for Freon-11 film boiling over liquid Wood`s metal spread above a solid porous surface through which argon gas was injected. An analysis of the obtained experimental data revealed that the actual film boiling heat transfer between a molten pool of corium and the water above the pool should be more efficient than predicted by using standard correlations for boiling over solid surfaces. This effect will be further augmented by the gas released due to the ablation of concrete floor beneath the corium and percolating towards its upper surface and into through the water layer above.

  19. Corrosion mechanisms of candidate structural materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lefu ZHANG; Fawen ZHU; Rui TANG

    2009-01-01

    Nickel-based alloys, austenitic stainless steel, ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant steels, and oxide dispersion strengthened steel are presently considered to be the candidate structural or fuel-cladding materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), one of the promising generation IV reactor for large-scale electric power production. However, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of these candidate alloys still remain to be a major problem in the selection of nuclear fuel cladding and other structural materials, such as water rod. Survey of literature and experimental results reveal that the general corrosion mechanism of those candidate materials exhibits quite complicated mechanism in high-temperature and high-pressure supercritical water. Formation of a stable protective oxide film is the key to the best corrosion-resistant alloys. This paper focuses on the mechanism of corrosion oxide film breakdown for SCWR candidate materials.

  20. Legionellosis prevention in building water and HVAC systems a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk

    CERN Document Server

    Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Pitera, Luca Alberto; Angermann, Jean Pierre; Izard, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This Guidebook is a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk of legionellosis in building water and HVAC systmes. It is devided into several themes such as: Air conditioning of the air (by water – humidification), Production of hot water for washing (fundamentally but not only hot water for washing) and Evaporative cooling tower.

  1. Hydroxyl carboxylate based non-phosphorus corrosion inhibition process for reclaimed water pipeline and downstream recirculating cooling water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Dong; Hou, Deyin

    2016-01-01

    A combined process was developed to inhibit the corrosion both in the pipeline of reclaimed water supplies (PRWS) and in downstream recirculating cooling water systems (RCWS) using the reclaimed water as makeup. Hydroxyl carboxylate-based corrosion inhibitors (e.g., gluconate, citrate, tartrate) and zinc sulfate heptahydrate, which provided Zn(2+) as a synergistic corrosion inhibition additive, were added prior to the PRWS when the phosphate (which could be utilized as a corrosion inhibitor) content in the reclaimed water was below 1.7 mg/L, and no additional corrosion inhibitors were required for the downstream RCWS. Satisfactory corrosion inhibition was achieved even if the RCWS was operated under the condition of high numbers of concentration cycles. The corrosion inhibition requirement was also met by the appropriate combination of PO4(3-) and Zn(2+) when the phosphate content in the reclaimed water was more than 1.7 mg/L. The process integrated not only water reclamation and reuse, and the operation of a highly concentrated RCWS, but also the comprehensive utilization of phosphate in reclaimed water and the application of non-phosphorus corrosion inhibitors. The proposed process reduced the operating cost of the PRWS and the RCWS, and lowered the environmental hazard caused by the excessive discharge of phosphate. Furthermore, larger amounts of water resources could be conserved as a result.

  2. Water-cooled hard-soldered kilowatt laser diode arrays operating at high duty cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumel, Genady; Karni, Yoram; Oppenhaim, Jacob; Berk, Yuri; Shamay, Moshe; Tessler, Renana; Cohen, Shalom; Risemberg, Shlomo

    2010-04-01

    High brightness laser diode arrays are increasingly found in defense applications either as efficient optical pumps or as direct energy sources. In many instances, duty cycles of 10- 20 % are required, together with precise optical collimation. System requirements are not always compatible with the use of microchannel based cooling, notwithstanding their remarkable efficiency. Simpler but effective solutions, which will not involve high fluid pressure drops as well as deionized water, are needed. The designer is faced with a number of challenges: effective heat removal, minimization of the built- in and operational stresses as well as precise and accurate fast axis collimation. In this article, we report on a novel laser diode array which includes an integral tap water cooling system. Robustness is achieved by all around hard solder bonding of passivated 940nm laser bars. Far field mapping of the beam, after accurate fast axis collimation will be presented. It will be shown that the design of water cooling channels , proper selection of package materials, careful design of fatigue sensitive parts and active collimation technique allow for long life time and reliability, while not compromising the laser diode array efficiency, optical power density ,brightness and compactness. Main performance characteristics are 150W/bar peak optical power, 10% duty cycle and more than 50% wall plug efficiency with less than 1° fast axis divergence. Lifetime of 0.5 Gshots with less than 10% power degradation has been proved. Additionally, the devices have successfully survived harsh environmental conditions such as thermal cycling of the coolant temperature and mechanical shocks.

  3. Temperature-time distribution and thermal stresses on the RTG fins and shell during water cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) packages designed for space missions generally do not require active cooling. However, the heat they generate cannot remain inside of the launch vehicle bay and requires active removal. Therefore, before the Shuttle bay door is closed, the RTG coolant tubes attached to the heat rejection fins must be filled with water, which will circulate and remove most of the heat from the cargo bay. There is concern that charging a system at initial temperature around 200 C with water at 24 C can cause unacceptable thermal stresses in the RTG shell and fins. A computer model is developed to estimate the transient temperature distribution resulting from such charging. The thermal stresses resulting from the temperature gradients do not exceed the elastic deformation limit for the material. Since the simplified mathematical model for thermal stresses tends to overestimate stresses, it is concluded that the RTG can be cooled by introducing water at 24 C to the initially hot fin coolant tubes while the RTG is in the Shuttle cargo bay.

  4. Cool-water carbonates in an Eocene palaeoestuary, Norseman Formation, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jonathan D. A.; Bone, Yvonne; James, Noel P.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous palaeovalleys formed extensive drowned estuaries during Eocene transgressions along the southwestern part of the southern margin of Australia. The Tertiary sediments of the Cowan palaeovalley have been extensively drilled, revealing deposition of the Norseman Formation during the Middle Eocene Tortachilla transgression. Initial deposition occurred during transgression of the valley to form a drowned estuary. Sediments consisted of coarse-grained muddy, lithic, iron and glauconite-rich sands and gravels of mixed carbonate and quartz. Pure carbonates accumulated during the highstand, produced by a typical shallow temperate water assemblage of bryozoans, coralline algae, echinoids and molluscs and were swept into shoals by strong tidal currents. Minor "tropical" components in the form of large benthic foraminifers and dasycladacean algae are present. Coarse bryozoan and trough cross-bedded carbonate sands accumulated in the margins of the estuary and fine bryozoan sands in the deeper parts. Rhodoliths accumulated to form shoals in sheltered localities. The Spencer Gulf and Gulf St. Vincent of South Australia provide close modern analogues to the Cowan palaeovalley and the Norseman Formation. Modern carbonate sediments off Esperance on the south coast of Western Australia contain "tropical" faunal elements within an otherwise temperate skeletal assemblage and also provide a modern analogue. The Norseman Formation thus provides an excellent example of cool-water carbonate deposition in near-shore, tide-dominated environments. This study complements and contrasts existing cool-water shelf facies models based on Tertiary carbonates deposited on deep shelves elsewhere in southern Australia.

  5. Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Water-Cooled Gun Barrel During Burst Firing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Li-xia; HU Zhi-gang; ZHAO Jian-bo

    2006-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical stress and deformation of water-cooled gun barrel during burst firing are studied by finite element analysis (FEA). The problem is modeled in two steps: 1) A transient heat transfer analysis is first carried out in order to determine temperature evolution and to predict the residual temperatures during the burst firing event; 2) The thermo-mecha-nical stresses and deformation caused by both the residual temperature field and the gas pressure are then calculated. The results show that the residual temperature field tends to a steady state with the increasing of rounds. The residual temperature field has much effect on the gun barrel stress and deformation, especially on the assembly area between barrel and water jacket. The gage between the barrel and water jacket is the critical factor to the thermo-mechanical stress and deformation. The results of this analysis will be very useful to develop the new strength design theory of the liquid-cooled gun barrel.

  6. Analysis of an air cooled ammonia-water vertical tubular absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, J.; Uhia, F.J.; Sieres, J. [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of an ammonia-water vertical tubular absorber cooled by air. The absorption process takes place co-currently upward inside the tubes. The tubes are externally finned with continuous plate fins and the tube rows are arranged staggered in the direction of the air flow. The air is forced over the tube bank and circulates between the plain fins in cross flow with the ammonia-water mixture. The analysis has been carried out by means of a mathematical model developed on the basis of mass and energy balances and heat and mass transfer equations. The model takes into account separately the churn, slug and bubbly flow patterns experimentally forecasted in this type of absorption processes inside vertical tubes and considers the simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes in both liquid and vapour phases, as well as heat transfer to the cooling air. The model has been implemented in a computer program. Results based on a representative design and nominal operating conditions of an absorber for a small capacity ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system are shown. A parametric analysis was realised to investigate the influence of the design parameters and operating conditions on the absorber performance. The noteworthy results that have effect on practical design of the absorber are presented and commented. (authors)

  7. Craft-joule project: air-cooled water LiBr absorption cooling machine of low capacity for air conditioning (ACABMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, A; Castro, J; Perez Segarra, C.D [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Lucena, M.A [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespecial (Spain)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    The ACABMA (Air-Cooled water-LiBr Absorption cooling Machine of low capacity for Air- conditioning) project is a Craft-Joule Project within the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme Joule III coordinated by the Centre Technologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC). The basic objective of this project is the development of a new air-cooled absorption cooling machine for air-conditioning, in the low power sector market. Making use of water-LiBr technology together with the air-cooling feature, it is possible to reach a better relationship between quality (in terms of performance, ecology, etc.) and price of such absorption machines, than the ones existing on the market. Air-cooling instead of water cooling saves installation costs specially in small systems and removes the demand for cooling water (an important aspect in Southern-European countries), thus increasing the possible application range. The main interest for the SME proposers is to take advantage of the increasing cooling demand in Europe, specially in southern countries. Another point of interest for the SME proposers is the development of a cheaper cooling and heating system in terms of energy and installation costs. In this moment the solar cooling systems are approx. 30% more expensive than the conventional ones. A cheaper absorption machine due to the air-cooling feature together with the possibility of energy savings due to low generator temperatures, that allow the absorption machine for solar applications or waste heat, will lead to solar cooling and heating systems more competitive to the conventional ones. In order to achieve the above mentioned goal, the following step are necessary and will be carried out in this project: i)solution of the air-cooling of the water-LiBr machine, the main problem that up to now has not allowed commercialization, ii)reduction of the size of the air-cooled elements of the machine in order to reduce the machine costs, iii)development of an efficient control

  8. Policy Brief: Enhancing water-use efficiency of thermal power plants in India: need for mandatory water audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, R.K. (ed.)

    2012-12-15

    This policy brief discusses the challenges of water availability and opportunity to improve the water use efficiency in industries specially the thermal power plants. It presents TERI’s experience from comprehensive water audits conducted for thermal power plants in India. The findings indicate that there is a significant scope for saving water in the waste water discharge, cooling towers, ash handling systems, and the township water supply. Interventions like recycling wastewater, curbing leakages, increasing CoC (Cycles of concentration) in cooling towers, using dry ash handling etc., can significantly reduce the specific water consumption in power plants. However, the first step towards this is undertaking regular water audits. The policy brief highlights the need of mandatory water audits necessary to understand the current water use and losses as well as identify opportunities for water conservation, reduction in specific water consumption, and an overall improvement in water use efficiency in industries.

  9. Simulation and control of water-gas shift packed bed reactor with inter-stage cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S. Z.; Nandong, J.

    2016-03-01

    Water-Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR) has become one of the well-known pathways for H2 production in industries. The issue with WGSR is that it is kinetically favored at high temperatures but thermodynamically favored at low temperatures, thus requiring careful consideration in the control design in order to ensure that the temperature used does not deactivate the catalyst. This paper studies the effect of a reactor arrangement with an inter-stage cooling implemented in the packed bed reactor to look at its effect on outlet temperature. A mathematical model is developed based on one-dimensional heat and mass transfers which incorporate the intra-particle effects. It is shown that the placement of the inter-stage cooling and the outlet temperature exiting the inter-stage cooling have strong influence on the reaction conversion. Several control strategies are explored for the process. It is shown that a feedback- feedforward control strategy using Multi-scale Control (MSC) is effective to regulate the reactor temperature profile which is critical to maintaining the catalysts activity.

  10. Heat Transfer Analysis to Optimize The Water Cooling Scheme For Combustion Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Usha Rani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal Propulsion system is one kind of propulsion system which is used to drive torpedo. The present study focuses mainly on design of combustion device known to be thrust chamber or thrust cylinder. The chamber and nozzle wall and the injector face plate must be made of metals selected for high strength at elevated temperature coupled with good thermal conductivity, resistance to high temperature oxidation. chemical inertness on the coolant on the coolant side, and suitability for the fabrication method to be employed. In the case of certain monopropellants, the metal must not catalyze the decomposition. Although aluminum and copper alloys have been used successfully for combustion chambers and nozzles, stainless steels and carbon steels are in widest use today.A cooling jacket permits the circulation of a coolant, which, in the case of flight engines is usually one of the propellants. Water is the only coolant recommended. The cooling jacket consists of an inner and outer wall. The combustion chamber forms the inner wall and another concentric but larger cylinder provides the outer wall. The space between the walls serves as the coolant passage. The nozzle throat region usually has the highest heat transfer intensity and is, therefore, the most difficult to cool.

  11. Cooling water shortage causes nuclear power plant standstill; Hitzefrei fuer Atomstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenker, O.

    2003-09-01

    The cooling water shortage during the high 'Michaela' induced operators of nuclear and coal power plants to run their plants at lower power. In future heat waves, decentralisation and shutdown of inefficient large-scale power plants may be the only solution. (orig.) [German] Niedrige Pegelstaende, erwaermte Fluesse: Weil das Kuehlwasser knapp wurde, zwang Hoch 'Michaela' die Betreiber von Atom- und Kohle-Kraftwerken zum Drosseln ihrer Anlagen. Gegen kuenftige Hitzewellen hilft nur die Dezentralisierung der Energiewirtschaft und die Abkehr von ineffizienten Grosskraftwerken. (orig.)

  12. Evaporative cooling of microscopic water droplets in vacuo: Molecular dynamics simulations and kinetic gas theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Daniel; Sellberg, Jonas A; Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G M

    2016-03-28

    In the present study, we investigate the process of evaporative cooling of nanometer-sized droplets in vacuum using molecular dynamics simulations with the TIP4P/2005 water model. The results are compared to the temperature evolution calculated from the Knudsen theory of evaporation which is derived from kinetic gas theory. The calculated and simulation results are found to be in very good agreement for an evaporation coefficient equal to unity. Our results are of interest to experiments utilizing droplet dispensers as well as to cloud micro-physics.

  13. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using a Water-Cooled Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of a steady heat flux to a given water-cooled surface by means of a system energy balance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Mountain Water Tower and Ecological Risk Estimation of the Mesta-Nestos Transboundary River Basin (Bulgaria-Greece)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Mesta-Nestos river basin in Bulgaria and Greece is a case study for transboundary decision-making support in south-eastern Europe and a show-case for the development of methodologies and information-gathering for the integrated regional planning of water resources. Land-use conflicts in this water-scarce region cover a wide spectrum of activities like agricultural irrigation, drinking water production, diversions for industrial water, and risk of pollution from mining, to name a few examples.Measurements of the water quality were carried out in the upper basin. Results will be illustrated by the example of the environmental situation in the alpine region of the Pirin National Park as well as in the Razlog Basin with a stronger anthropogenic impact and pollution around a former uranium mine near the village of Ele(s)nica. The social and economic development of this transboundary region is a recently established priority for the future. It will mean an increase in water usage and more stress for the water resources if regional impacts of global climate change are verified. Problem-focused management of the catchment area as a whole on the basis of proved geo-data sets is needed for the future.

  15. Microbial fouling community analysis of the cooling water system of a nuclear test reactor with emphasis on sulphate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, P; Joshi, M Hiren; Rao, T S

    2011-10-01

    Culture and molecular-based techniques were used to characterize bacterial diversity in the cooling water system of a fast breeder test reactor (FBTR). Techniques were selected for special emphasis on sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Water samples from different locations of the FBTR cooling water system, in addition to biofilm scrapings from carbon steel coupons and a control SRB sample were characterized. Whole genome extraction of the water samples and SRB diversity by group specific primers were analysed using nested PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results of the bacterial assay in the cooling water showed that the total culturable bacteria (TCB) ranged from 10(3) to 10(5) cfu ml(-1); iron-reducing bacteria, 10(3) to 10(5) cfu ml(-1); iron oxidizing bacteria, 10(2) to 10(3) cfu ml(-1) and SRB, 2-29 cfu ml(-1). However, the counts of the various bacterial types in the biofilm sample were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher. SRB diversity by the nested PCR-DGGE approach showed the presence of groups 1, 5 and 6 in the FBTR cooling water system; however, groups 2, 3 and 4 were not detected. The study demonstrated that the PCR protocol influenced the results of the diversity analysis. The paper further discusses the microbiota of the cooling water system and its relevance in biofouling.

  16. Ejection Tower Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ejection Tower Facility's mission is to test and evaluate new ejection seat technology being researched and developed for future defense forces. The captive and...

  17. Core Design and Deployment Strategy of Heavy Water Cooled Sustainable Thorium Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Takaki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies on water cooled thorium breeder reactor based on matured pressurized water reactor (PWR plant technology concluded that reduced moderated core by arranging fuel pins in a triangular tight lattice array and using heavy water as coolant is appropriate for achieving better breeding performance and higher burn-up simultaneously [1–6]. One optimum core that produces 3.5 GW thermal energy using Th-233U oxide fuel shows a breeding ratio of 1.07 and averaged burn-up of about 80 GWd/t with long cycle length of 1300 days. The moderator to fuel volume ratio is 0.6 and required enrichment of 233U for the fresh fuel is about 7%. The coolant reactivity coefficient is negative during all cycles despite it being a large scale breeder reactor. In order to introduce this sustainable thorium reactor, three-step deployment scenario, with intermediate transition phase between current light water reactor (LWR phase and future sustainer phase, is proposed. Both in transition phase and sustainer phase, almost the same core design can be applicable only by changing fissile materials mixed with thorium from plutonium to 233U with slight modification in the fuel assembly design. Assuming total capacity of 60 GWe in current LWR phase and reprocessing capacity of 800 ton/y with further extensions to 1600 ton/y, all LWRs will be replaced by heavy water cooled thorium reactors within about one century then thorium reactors will be kept operational owing to its potential to sustain fissile fuels while reprocessing all spent fuels until exhaustion of massive thorium resource.

  18. Fluid-Structure Coupling Dynamic Response Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Water Tower%钢筋混凝土水塔流固耦合动力响应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊; 周焕林; 牛忠荣

    2011-01-01

    针对某实际工程,研究了塔体结构与水体的流固耦合力学模型.建立了考虑流固耦合作用的水塔结构力学分析有限元模型,采用ANSYS软件对水塔自振频率特性和地震时程反应下的位移响应进行了计算分析.计算结果表明:水体的晃动会影响结构的自振频率;水塔自身刚度愈大,动水压力对频率影响愈小;水塔储水深度增大,自振频率下降较快.水体的晃动可以减小地震影响下的塔体的位移反应.%For an engineering practice, the fluid-stracture interaction mechanical model is studied. A finite elemean model of a reinforced concrete water tower considering fluid-structure interaction is established. The natural frequency of the coupling system and the displacement of the time-history seismic response analysis are studied by software ANSYS. The solutions demonstrate that the liquid sloshing could affect natural fiequency of the structure; the stiffness of water tower is stronger, the effect of hydrodynamic pressure is weaker; the depth of water is deeper, the natural fieqnency decreases more quickly. The sloshing of water in the tower can effectively reduce the seismic displacement response of tower structure.

  19. Simplified models for assessing heat and mass transfer in evaporative towers

    CERN Document Server

    Angelis, Alessandra De; Lorenzini, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this book is to supply valid and reasonable parameters in order to guide the choice of the right model of industrial evaporative tower according to operating conditions which vary depending on the particular industrial context: power plants, chemical plants, food processing plants and other industrial facilities are characterized by specific assets and requirements that have to be satisfied. Evaporative cooling is increasingly employed each time a significant water flow at a temperature which does not greatly differ from ambient temperature is needed for removing a remarkable heat l

  20. Effect of Water Vapor During Secondary Cooling on Hot Shortness in Fe-Cu-Ni-Sn-Si Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Erica; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2014-10-01

    Residual Cu in recycled steel scrap can cause hot shortness when the iron matrix is oxidized. Hot shortness can occur directly after the solid steel is formed from continuous casting as the steel undergoes a cooling process known as secondary cooling where water is first sprayed on the surface to promote cooling. This is followed by a radiant cooling stage where the steel is cooled in air to room temperature. This investigation examines the roles of water vapor, Si content, temperature, and the presence of Sn in a Fe-0.2 wt pct Cu-0.05 wt pct Ni alloy on oxidation, separated Cu and Cu induced-hot shortness during simulations of the secondary cooling process. The secondary cooling from 1473 K (1200 °C) resulted in a slight increase in liquid quantity and grain boundary penetration as compared to the isothermal heating cycles at 1423 K (1150 °C) due to the higher temperatures experienced in the non-isothermal cycle. The addition of water vapor increased the sample oxidation as compared to samples processed in dry atmospheres due to increased scale adherence, scale plasticity, and inward transport of oxygen. The increase in weight gain of the wet atmosphere increased the liquid formation at the interface in the non-Si containing alloys. The secondary cooling cycle with water vapor and the effect of Sn lead to the formation of many small pools of Cu-rich liquid embedded within the surface of the metal due to the Sn allowing for increased grain boundary decohesion and the water vapor allowing for oxidation within liquid-penetrated grain boundaries. The presence of Si increased the amount of occlusion of Cu and Fe, significantly decreasing the quantity of liquid at the interface and the amount of grain boundary penetration.

  1. The performance of a mobile air conditioning system with a water cooled condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Battista, Davide; Cipollone, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Vehicle technological evolution lived, in recent years, a strong acceleration due to the increased awareness of environmental issues related to pollutants and climate altering emissions. This resulted in a series of international regulations on automotive sector which put technical challenges that must consider the engine and the vehicle as a global system, in order to improve the overall efficiency of the system. The air conditioning system of the cabin, for instance, is the one of the most important auxiliaries in a vehicle and requires significant powers. Its performances can be significantly improved if it is integrated within the engine cooling circuit, eventually modified with more temperature levels. In this paper, the Authors present a mathematical model of the A/C system, starting from its single components: compressors, condenser, flush valve and evaporator and a comparison between different refrigerant fluid. In particular, it is introduced the opportunity to have an A/C condenser cooled by a water circuit instead of the external air linked to the vehicle speed, as in the actual traditional configuration. The A/C condenser, in fact, could be housed on a low temperature water circuit, reducing the condensing temperature of the refrigeration cycle with a considerable efficiency increase.

  2. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  3. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  4. A water cooled, lithium lead breeding blanket for a DEMO fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G.; Rieger, M.; Biggio, M.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Tominetti, S.; Wu, J.; Zucchetti, M. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre); Labbe, P.; Baraer, L.; Gervaise, G.; Giancarli, L.; Roze, M.; Severi, Y.; Quintric-Bossy, J. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1991-04-01

    The main features of a tritium breeding blanket for a Demonstration Power Reactor involving the eutectic Pb-17Li as liquid breeder and water as coolant are presented. The configuration of the blanket segments and breeder modules as well as their arrangement inside the reactor vacuum vessel are outlined. The main design aspects and the corresponding design limits are reviewed, namely those related to thermomechanics, neutronics, magneto-hydrodynamics, tritium permeation and recovery. First results of safety analysis, in particular those connected with the rupture of a coolant tube in the breeder module are presented and discussed. As a conclusion, the feasibility of the concept look attractive. A problem which requires further investigation is that of the tritium self-sufficiency. It is shown that a net tritium production near to one can be obtained if berylium tiles are placed in front of the plasma, provided that they are cooled by heavy water. (orig.).

  5. Techno-economic assessment of boiler feed water production by membrane distillation with reuse of thermal waste energy from cooling water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J.M.; Leerdam, R.C. van; Medevoort, J. van; Tongeren, W.G.J.M. van; Verhasselt, B.; Verelst, L.; Vermeersch, M.; Corbisier, D.

    2015-01-01

    The European KIC-Climate project Water and Energy for Climate Change (WE4CC) aims at the technical demonstration, business case evaluation and implementation of new value chains for the production of high-quality water using low-grade thermal waste energy from cooling water. A typical large-scale wa

  6. Coiling Temperature Control Using Temperature Measurement Method for the Hot Rolled Strip in the Water Cooling Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shigemasa; Tachibana, Hisayoshi; Honda, Tatsuro; Uematsu, Chihiro

    In the hot strip mill, the quality of the strip greatly depends on the cooling process between the last stand in the finishing mill and the coilers. Therefore, it is important to carefully control the coiling temperature to regulate the mechanical properties of the strip. To realize high accuracy of coiling temperature, a new coiling temperature control using temperature measurement method for the hot rolled strip in the water cooling banks has been developed. The features of the new coiling temperature control are as follows: (i) New feedforward control adjusts ON/OFF swiching of cooling headers according to the strip temperature measured in the water cooling banks. (ii) New feedforward control is achieved by dynamic control function. This coiling temperature control has been in operation successfully since 2008 at Kashima Steel Works and improved the accuracy of coiling temperature of high strength steel considerably.

  7. Multi-purpose rainwater harvesting for water resource recovery and the cooling effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kyoung Jin; Lam, Yun Fat; Hao, Song; Morakinyo, Tobi Eniolu; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2015-12-01

    The potential use of rainwater harvesting in conjunction with miscellaneous water supplies and a rooftop garden with rainwater harvesting facility for temperature reduction have been evaluated in this study for Hong Kong. Various water applications such as toilet flushing and areal climate controls have been systematically considered depending on the availability of seawater toilet flushing using the Geographic Information System (GIS). For water supplies, the district Area Precipitation per Demand Ratio (APDR) has been calculated to quantify the rainwater utilization potential of each administrative district in Hong Kong. Districts with freshwater toilet flushing prove to have higher potential for rainwater harvest and utilization compared to the areas with seawater toilet flushing. Furthermore, the effectiveness of using rainwater harvesting for miscellaneous water supplies in Hong Kong and Tokyo has been analyzed and compared; this revives serious consideration of diurnal and seasonal patterns of rainfall in applying such technology. In terms of the cooling effect, the implementation of a rooftop rainwater harvesting garden has been evaluated using the ENVI-met model. Our results show that a temperature drop of 1.3 °C has been observed due to the rainwater layer in the rain garden. This study provides valuable insight into the applicability of the rainwater harvesting for sustainable water management practice in a highly urbanized city.

  8. Assessment of stress-corrosion cracking in a water-cooled ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H.; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1989-04-01

    Water-cooled, near-term reactors will operate under conditions at which SCC is possible; however, control of material purity and processing and coolant chemistry can either eliminate or greatly reduce the probability of this type of structural failure. This evaluation has focused on an assessment of water impurity effects on SCC of austenitic stainless steel at temperatures below 100{degree}C and on the conditions controlling sensitization in the fusion heat of Type 316 SS and the fusion materials heat of modified Type 316 SS designated as PCA. This assessment identifies the dominant effect of small concentrations of impurities in high-purity water on SCC such that crack growth rates at 25--75{degree}C in water with as little as 5--15 ppM Cl{sup {minus}} are equal to the crack growth rates at 200--300{degree}C in high-purity water. These effects are primarily for sensitized Type 304 SS, so analysis of sensitization behavior of fusion austenitic alloys was also undertaken. An SSDOS model developed at PNL was used to make these assessments, and correlation to experimental results for Type 316 SS was very good. Both the fusion heat of Type 316 SS and PCA can be severely sensitized but with proper thermal treatment it should be possible to avoid sensitization. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Emergency reactor core cooling water injection device for light water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Junro.

    1994-05-13

    A reactor pressure vessel is immersed in pool water of a reactor container. A control valve is interposed to a water supplying pipelines connecting pool water and a pressure vessel. A valve actuation means for opening/closing the control valve comprises a lifting tank. The inner side of the lifting tank and the inner side of the pressure vessel are connected by a communication pipeline (a syphon pipe) at upper and lower two portions. The lifting tank and the control valve are connected by a link mechanism. When a water level in the pressure vessel is lowered, the water level in the lifting tank is lowered to the same level as that in the pressure vessel. This reduces the weight of the lifting tank, the lifting tank is raised, to open the control valve by way of a link mechanism. As a result, liquid phase in the pressure vessel is in communication with the pool water, and the pool water flows down into the pressure vessel to maintain the reactor core in a flooded state. (I.N.).

  10. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J., E-mail: euqrop@hotmail.com [General Electric Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, 28401 North Carolina (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  11. An effect of heat insulation parameters on thermal losses of water-cooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mihailov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is research in the insulation parameters effect on the thermal losses of watercooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces. An analytical method has been used for the investigation in heat transfer conditions in the working area. The results of the research can be used to choose optimal cooling parameters and select a suitable kind of insulation for water-cooled surfaces.

  12. Clean cooling; Saubere Kuehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-07-01

    The round hybrid cooling towers which Balcke-Duerr GmbH is currently building for the 550-MW-IGCC-power-station of a refinery project on Sardinia have to meet particularly stringent requirements as seawater is used for cooling. The advantages are: Avoidance of visible plume with minimal energy consumption, optimal plume exit velocity and discharge, greatest possible stability of the plume column, avoidance of interference and recirculation, high operating reliability of the cooling tower. (orig.) [Deutsch] Derzeit werden die Kuehltuerme fuer ein 550-MW-IGCC-Kraftwerk einer Raffinierie auf Sardinien errichtet. Die Anforderungen an die Technik sind hoch, denn gekuehlt wird mit Seewasser. Zum Einsatz kommen Hybridrundkuehltuerme der Balcke-Duerr GmbH, Ratingen. Damit setzt das Unternehmen diesen Typ erstmals ausserhalb von Deutschland ein. (orig.)

  13. Thermal Characteristics of Air-Water Spray Impingement Cooling of Hot Metallic Surface under Controlled Parametric Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh Kumar Nayak; Purna Chandra Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results on the thermal characteristics of air-water spray impingement cooling of hot metallic surface are presented and discussed in this paper.The controlling input parameters investigated were the combined air and water pressures,plate thickness,water flow rate,nozzle height from the target surface and initial temperature of the hot surface.The effects of these input parameters on the important thermal characteristics such as heat transfer rate,heat transfer coefficient and wetting front movement were measured and examined.Hot flat plate samples of mild steel with dimension 120 mm in length,120 mm breadth and thickness of 4 mm,6 mm,and 8 mm respectively were tested.The air assisted water spray was found to be an effective cooling media and method to achieve very high heat transfer rate from the surface.Higher heat transfer rate and heat transfer coefficients were obtained for the lesser i.e,4 mm thick plates.Increase in the nozzle height reduced the heat transfer efficiency of spray cooling.At an inlet water pressure of 4 bar and air pressure of 3 bar,maximum cooling rates 670℃/s and average cooling rate of 305.23℃/s were achieved for a temperature of 850℃ of the steel plate.

  14. Water, Air Emissions, and Cost Impacts of Air-Cooled Microturbines for Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power Systems: A Case Study in the Atlanta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Ann James

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pace of urbanization means that cities and global organizations are looking for ways to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP systems have the potential to improve the energy generation efficiency of a city or urban region by providing energy for heating, cooling, and electricity simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to estimate the water consumption for energy generation use, carbon dioxide (CO2 and NOx emissions, and economic impact of implementing CCHP systems for five generic building types within the Atlanta metropolitan region, under various operational scenarios following the building thermal (heating and cooling demands. Operating the CCHP system to follow the hourly thermal demand reduces CO2 emissions for most building types both with and without net metering. The system can be economically beneficial for all building types depending on the price of natural gas, the implementation of net metering, and the cost structure assumed for the CCHP system. The greatest reduction in water consumption for energy production and NOx emissions occurs when there is net metering and when the system is operated to meet the maximum yearly thermal demand, although this scenario also results in an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and, in some cases, cost. CCHP systems are more economical for medium office, large office, and multifamily residential buildings.

  15. 外壳水冷式隔爆型电动机冷却水路有限元分析%FEM analysis of water-cooling channel for water-cooling flameproof motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何惠明; 白保东; 王禹; 肖红; 杨晓洲; 范作智

    2012-01-01

    The coal mining water-cooling flameproof motor cannot be drawn out from the motor unit because of deformation of its shell, which makes it difficult to change the motor and maintain the motor unit. The method of adding keyhole caulk weld spots on the outer cooling water jacket was proposed to solve the problem. Based on the elasticity mechanics equations and the principle of finite element method, the stresses and the deformations of the traditional outer cooling water jacket and the outer cooling water jacket with keyhole caulk weld spots were calculated separately in 3. 0 MPa hydraulic pressure by Solid Works COSMO-SXpress finite element analysis method. Water press experiments of the two cooling water jackets were implemented. Obviously, the stress and the deformation of the new cooling water jacket were lower. The experimental result is consistent with the simulation results. It is effective to reduce the stress and the deformation of the cooling water jacket by adding the keyhole caulk weld spots. The new high strength type of water-cooling structure can adapt the high hydraulic pressure to increase the heat release.%煤矿井下用外壳水冷式隔爆电动机在使用过程中电动机外壳容易变形,无法从机组中抽出,影响电机的更换和机组维护.针对此问题,提出了在外水套增加小孔塞焊点的解决方案,基于弹性力学基本方程及有限元分析方法,应用SolidWorks的COSMOSXpress软件,分别计算了3.0MPa水压下传统式冷却水套和带有小孔塞焊点新型冷却水套的应力及形变;对增加小孔塞焊点的新型冷却水套及传统冷却水套分别进行了水压实验,新型外水套形变明显减小.实验结果与仿真结果具有一致性,证明了增加小孔塞焊点减小外水套应力及形变的有效性.增加小孔塞焊点的新型外水套冷却结构可以适应较高水压以达到增加电机散热效果的目的.

  16. The Discussion about Closed Circulating Cooling Water System in Coal Chemical Industry%煤化工项目中闭式循环水系统探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安显威

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic of closed circulating cooling water system and the water-saving reason of closed cooling water were discussed. The process of closed cooling water system and some problem for closed cooling water system were introduced.%探讨了煤化工项目中循环水系统的特点和闭式冷却塔的节水原因,介绍了闭式循环水系统的流程及闭式循环水系统中可能面临的一些问题。

  17. What is "Normative" at Cooling Water Intakes? Defining Normalcy Before Judging Adverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1998-09-23

    Judgments of adverse environmental impact from cooling water intake structures need to be preceded by an appreciation of what is normal. In its repo~ Return to the River, the Independent Scientd5c Group (now called the Independent Scientfilc Advisory Board) --the scientific peer review arm of the Northwest Power Planning Council-- advanced the notion of a "normative river ecosystem" as a new conceptual foundation for salrnonid recovery in the Columbia River basin. With this perspective, the sum of the best scientific understanding of how organisms and aquatic ecosystems function should be the norm or standard of measure for how we judge the effects of human activities on aquatic systems. ,For the best likelihood of recovery, key aspects of altered systems should be brought back toward nonnative (although not necessarily fully back to the historical or pristine state); new alterations should be judged for adversity by how much they move key attributes away from normative or what might be considered normal. In this presentation, I ask what "normative" is for the setting of cooling water intake structures and how this concept could help resolve long-standing disputes between groups interested in avoiding darnage to all organisms that might be entrained or impinged and those who take a more population or community perspective for judging adverse environmental impact. In essence, I suggest that if a water intake does not move the aquatic ecosystem outside the "normative" range, based on expressions of norrrdcy such as those discussed, then no adverse impact has occurred. Having an explicit baseline in normal or normative would place 316(b) analyses on the same conceptual foundation as 316(a) analyses, which strive to demonstrate the continuation of a balanced, indigenous community of aquatic organisms at the power station Iocation.

  18. Research on the effects of cooling water velocity on temperature rise of the water-cooled motor in electric vehicles%冷却水流速对汽车水冷电机温升影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠萍; 柴凤; 程树康

    2012-01-01

    In order to attain the optimal velocity of water-cooled motor & cooling water t the relationship between velocity of water-cooled motor' s cooling water and motor temperature was derived based on the heat transfer and hydrodynamic theory- Motor temperature decreased more with the increase of velocity, when cooling water was in laminar flow. When in turbulent flow, the cooling effect on the motor was further enhanced , however, with the velocity increasing, motor temperature dropped to heat saturation with increasing cooling water flow. In this paper a model of water-cooled induction motor based on the thermal network was established. The steady-state temperature rise of motor under rated load was obtained and the temperature distribution of the winding and the stator yoke was also calculated when in different velocity of cooling water. Experiments were conducted on an induction motor prototype to measure the temperature of the motor under rated load and in various flow rates of cooling water. The numerical simulation results and experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis results, which proves the correctness of theoretical derivation; The study in this paper provides a reference for the water-cooled motor selecting the rational velocity of cooling water.%为获得水冷电机的最佳流速,基于传热学及流体力学理论推导了水冷电机的冷却水流速与电机内部温度的关系.冷却水层流时,电机温度随着流速的增大下降明显;冷却水紊流后,对电机冷却效果进一步增强,但随流速继续增大,电机温度降低程度随冷却水流量增加将出现热饱和;建立了水冷感应电机热网络模型,基于此模型计算了电机额定负载运行稳态温升及不同流速时电机绕组及定子轭部的温度分布;实验测试了样机额定运行及不同冷却水流速时的电机温升.仿真及实验结果与理论分析结果相一致,验证了理论推导的正确性,为水冷电

  19. Effect of spatial sampling from European flux towers for estimating carbon and water fluxes with artificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papale, D.; Black, T Andrew; Carvalhais, Nuno;

    2015-01-01

    Empirical modeling approaches are frequently used to upscale local eddy covariance observations of carbon, water, and energy fluxes to regional and global scales. The predictive capacity of such models largely depends on the data used for parameterization and identification of input-output relati......Empirical modeling approaches are frequently used to upscale local eddy covariance observations of carbon, water, and energy fluxes to regional and global scales. The predictive capacity of such models largely depends on the data used for parameterization and identification of input......-output relationships, while prediction for conditions outside the training domain is generally uncertain. In this work, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used for the prediction of gross primary production (GPP) and latent heat flux (LE) on local and European scales with the aim to assess the portion...... on prediction uncertainty in both, regional GPP and LE budgets and their interannual variability. Results obtained show that for ANN upscaling for continents with relatively small networks of sites, the error due to the sampling can be large and needs to be considered and quantified. The analysis of the spatial...

  20. 焦化冷却水低品质余热的回收利用%Practice of Recycling and Utilization of Low Quality Waste Heat of Cooling Water in Coking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亮; 张顺贤

    2015-01-01

    TImprovement of the recovery and utilization of waste heat in the primary cooler was taken. The new type of steam, hot water dual-use refrigeration and the heating double working conditions of absorption type heat pump unit were developed. The cross flow cooling tower technology, transformation of the original water and water back pipe and other measures were introduced. The purpose of the water temperature process cooling water with low quality of heat and water for heating were realized. So the heating area was expanded, the steam, the new water consumption and dosage of the medicine can be reduced. The single heating season can produce direct benefits 21 260 000 Yuan.%通过对初冷器余热回收利用装置的升级改造,开发新型蒸汽、热水两用型制冷、采暖双工况吸收式热泵机组,引进横流式冷却塔技术,改造原中温水回水工艺管道等措施,实现了辅以蒸汽为热源回收中温工艺冷却水低品质余热来加热采暖水的目的,扩大了采暖供热面积,降低了系统蒸汽、新水消耗和药剂投加量,单个采暖季可产生直接效益2126万元。

  1. Cellular Phone Towers, Towers, Published in 2008, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Towers'. Data by this publisher are often...

  2. Experiments on FTU with an actively water cooled liquid lithium limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzitelli, G., E-mail: giuseppe.mazzitelli@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Apicella, M.L.; Apruzzese, G.; Crescenzi, F.; Iannone, F.; Maddaluno, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pericoli-Ridolfini, V. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Roccella, S.; Reale, M.; Viola, B. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Lyublinski, I.; Vertkov, A. [JSC “RED STAR”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    In order to prevent the overheating of the liquid Li surface and the consequent Li evaporation for T > 500 °C, an advanced version of the liquid lithium limiter has been realized and installed on FTU. This new system, named Cooled Lithium Limiter (CLL), has been optimized to demonstrate the lithium limiter capability to sustain thermal loads as high as 10 MW/m{sup 2} with up to 5 s of plasma pulse duration. The CLL operates with an actively cooled system with water circulation at the temperature of about 200 °C, for heating lithium up to the melting point and for the heat removal during the plasma discharges. To characterize CLL during discharges, a fast infrared camera and the spectroscopic signals from Li and D atom emission have been used. The experiments analyzed so far and simulated by ANSYS code, point out that heat loads as high as 2 MW/m{sup 2} for 1.5 s have been withstood without problems.

  3. Foundry technology and its applications of ductile iron castings produced by water-cooled copper alloy mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The high efficiency mechanized foundry technology of castings produced by using water-cooled copper alloy permanent mold has been systematically studied. Through the researching a Cu-Cr-Mg alloy with high conductivity and good combined mechanical properties used for making permanent mold was developed, and the basic design principles of the water-cooled permanent mold along with the control-range of relevant foundry processing parameters were also established.A cast production line equipped with water-cooled copper alloy mold was designed and fabricated for production of ductile iron automobile gear castings. This production line can consistently make automobile gear castings in QT500-15 and QT600-5 (Chinese Standard) grades of ductile iron with up to 95 % casting success rate.

  4. Experiment Investigation on Electrical and Thermal Performances of a Semitransparent Photovoltaic/Thermal System with Water Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different from the semitransparent building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T system with air cooling, the semitransparent BIPV/T system with water cooling is rare, especially based on the silicon solar cells. In this paper, a semitransparent photovoltaic/thermal system (SPV/T with water cooling was set up, which not only would provide the electrical power and hot water, but also could attain the natural illumination for the building. The PV efficiency, thermal efficiency, and exergy analysis were all adopted to illustrate the performance of SPV/T system. The results showed that the PV efficiency and the thermal efficiency were about 11.5% and 39.5%, respectively, on the typical sunny day. Furthermore, the PV and thermal efficiencies fit curves were made to demonstrate the SPV/T performance more comprehensively. The performance analysis indicated that the SPV/T system has a good application prospect for building.

  5. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-30

    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development

  6. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic

  7. Characterization of Francisella species isolated from the cooling water of an air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Francisella spp. were isolated from cooling water from an air conditioning system in Guangzhou, China. These strains are Gram negative, coccobacilli, non-motile, oxidase negative, catalase negative, esterase and lipid esterase positive. In addition, these bacteria grow on cysteine-supplemented media at 20 °C to 40 °C with an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Francisella. Biochemical tests and phylogenetic and BLAST analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and sdhA genes indicated that one strain was very similar to Francisella philomiragia and that the other strains were identical or highly similar to the Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. strain 08HL01032 we previously described. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains demonstrated that multiple Francisella species exist in air conditioning systems.

  8. Characterization of Francisella species isolated from the cooling water of an air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Quan; Li, Xunde; Qu, Pinghua; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Juntao; Atwill, Edward R; Chen, Shouyi

    2015-01-01

    Strains of Francisella spp. were isolated from cooling water from an air conditioning system in Guangzhou, China. These strains are Gram negative, coccobacilli, non-motile, oxidase negative, catalase negative, esterase and lipid esterase positive. In addition, these bacteria grow on cysteine-supplemented media at 20 °C to 40 °C with an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Francisella. Biochemical tests and phylogenetic and BLAST analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and sdhA genes indicated that one strain was very similar to Francisella philomiragia and that the other strains were identical or highly similar to the Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. strain 08HL01032 we previously described. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains demonstrated that multiple Francisella species exist in air conditioning systems.

  9. A fiber-coupled 9xx module with tap water cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleuning, D.; Anthon, D.; Chryssis, A.; Ryu, G.; Liu, G.; Winhold, H.; Fan, L.; Xu, Z.; Tanbun-Ek, T.; Lehkonen, S.; Acklin, B.

    2016-03-01

    A novel, 9XX nm fiber-coupled module using arrays of highly reliable laser diode bars has been developed. The module is capable of multi-kW output power in a beam parameter product of 80 mm-mrad. The module incorporates a hard-soldered, isolated stack package compatible with tap-water cooling. Using extensive, accelerated multi-cell life-testing, with more than ten million device hours of test, we have demonstrated a MTTF for emitters of >500,000 hrs. In addition we have qualified the module in hard-pulse on-off cycling and stringent environmental tests. Finally we have demonstrated promising results for a next generation 9xx nm chip design currently in applications and qualification testing

  10. Direct Preparation of Nano-Quasicrystals via a Water-Cooled Wedge-Shaped Copper Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully synthesized multicomponent Mg-based nano-quasicrystals (nano-QCs through a simple route by using a water-cooled wedge-shaped copper mould. Nanoscale QCs are prepared directly on tip of wedge-shaped castings. The further study shows that nano-QCs in the Mg71Zn26Y2Cu1 alloy show well microhardness of greater than HV450. Electrochemical properties of three kinds of quasicrystal alloys are investigated in simulated seawater. The Mg71Zn26Y2Cu1 nano-QC alloy presents the best corrosion resistance in this study for the formation of well-distributed nano-QC phases (1~5 nm and polygonal Mg2(Cu,Y nanophases (40~50 nm.

  11. Manufacturing surface hardened components of 42CrMo4 by water-air spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretzki, T.; Krause, C.; Frolov, I.; Hassel, T.; Nicolaus, M.; Bach, F.W. [Inst. of Materials Science, Leibniz Univ. Hannover, Garbsen (Germany); Kaestner, M.; Abo-Namous, O.; Reithmeier, E. [Inst. of Measurement and Control Engineering, Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany); National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine, Dniepropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2009-12-15

    By employing integrated heat-treatment using forging heat, a significant shortening of the process chain is attained for manufacturing precision forged components with considerable savings in time and energy. With the aid of water-air spray cooling, surface hardening and tempering can be carried out without, at the same time, reheating the component following quenching. In this work, geometric models of splines and single cylinder crankshafts (both made of 1.7225) were surface hardened and tempered using a purpose-built rotating spray unit The obtained hardness, microstructures and their distortions were investigated. To optically and spatially detect the components, fringe and shadow projection systems were employed. In a second research topic, the influence of the spray parameters on the component's distortion was investigated. For both components; the splined shaft and the crankshaft geometries, it was possible to carry out successful surface heat-treatments using these processes. (orig.)

  12. Photoelectrochemical Study of Corrosion Resisting Property of Cupronickel B10 in Simulated Cooling Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qunjie; WAN Zongyue; ZHOU Guoding; YIN Renhe; CAO Weimin; LIN Changjian

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion behavior for cupronickel B10 electrode in simulated cooling water has been studied by using cyclic voltammetry, a photocurrent response method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The cupronickel electrode shows a p-type photoresponse to positive and negative potential scan, which comes from Cu2O layer on its surface, but its Iph.max is less than that in borax buffer solution. The corrosion resisting property of the cupronickel B10 electrode appeared worse with the increase in the concentrations of Cl-, SO2-4 and S2 ions, as well as with increasing pH. The rise in the temperature may result in a photoresponse changes from p-type to n-type, and the corrosion resisting property fell simultaneously. The results of the EIS measurement agree well with those obtained by a photoelectrochemical method.

  13. Study on an Eco-Friendly Corrosion and Scale Inhibitor in Simulated cooling water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defang Zeng1

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a composite eco-friendly phosphate-free corrosion and scale inhibitor used in simulated cooling water has been developed by sodium polyacrylate, zinc sulfate, sodium tungstate, sodium gluconate and triethanolamine . The corrosion and scale inhibition rate were respectively evaluated by weight loss experiment , the static scale inhibition test and electrochemical test. The results indicated that the corrosion and scale inhibitor was consisted of polyacrylate 14ppm,zinc sulfate 3ppm,sodium tungstate 7ppm,sodium gluconate 2ppm and triethanolamine12ppm.The corrosion inhibition rate could reached 92.79%, and anti-scaling inhibition rate could reached 96.01%. The formula was efficient , phosphate-free and environmental, it would be widely used

  14. Radionuclides in the Cooling Water Systems for the NuMi Beamline and the Antiproton Production Target Station at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumura, Hiroshi; Bessho, Kotaro; Sekimoto, Shun; Yashima, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Sakamoto, Yukio; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Oishi, Koji; Boehnlein, David; Lauten, Gary; Leveling, Anthony; Mokhov, Nikolai; Vaziri, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    At the 120-GeV proton accelerator facilities of Fermilab, USA, water samples were collected from the cooling water systems for the target, magnetic horn1, magnetic horn2, decay pipe, and hadron absorber at the NuMI beamline as well as from the cooling water systems for the collection lens, pulse magnet and collimator, and beam absorber at the antiproton production target station, just after the shutdown of the accelerators for a maintenance period. Specific activities of {\\gamma} -emitting radionuclides and 3H in these samples were determined using high-purity germanium detectors and a liquid scintillation counter. The cooling water contained various radionuclides depending on both major and minor materials in contact with the water. The activity of the radionuclides depended on the presence of a deionizer. Specific activities of 3H were used to estimate the residual rates of 7Be. The estimated residual rates of 7Be in the cooling water were approximately 5% for systems without deionizers and less than 0.1% f...

  15. Cooler than air. Evaporative cooling makes it possible; Kuehler als die Luft erlaubt.. Verdunstungskuehlung macht's moeglich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (