WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooled nuclear power

  1. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  2. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC made editorial corrections and... analysis for liquid and gaseous radwaste system components for light water nuclear power...

  3. Thermal-hydraulic tests of a recirculation cooling installation for the Rostov nuclear power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balunov, B. F.; Balashov, V. A.; Il'in, V. A.; Krayushnikov, V. V.; Lychakov, V. D.; Meshalkin, V. V.; Ustinov, A. N.; Shcheglov, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    Results obtained from thermal-hydraulic tests of the recirculation cooling installation used as part of the air cooling system under the containments of the Rostov nuclear power station Units 3 and 4 are presented. The operating modes of the installation during normal operation (air cooling on the surface of finned tubes), under the conditions of anticipated operational occurrences (air cooling and steam condensation from a steam-air mixture), and during an accident (condensation of pure steam) are considered. Agreement is obtained between the results of tests and calculations carried out according to the recommendations given in the relevant regulatory documents. A procedure of carrying out thermal calculation for the case of steam condensation from a steam-air mixture on the surface of fins is proposed. The possibility of efficient use of the recirculation cooling installation in the system for reducing emergency pressure under the containment of a nuclear power station is demonstrated.

  4. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  5. Startup of Pumping Units in Process Water Supplies with Cooling Towers at Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, V. V., E-mail: vberlin@rinet.ru; Murav’ev, O. A., E-mail: muraviov1954@mail.ru; Golubev, A. V., E-mail: electronik@inbox.ru [National Research University “Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Aspects of the startup of pumping units in the cooling and process water supply systems for thermal and nuclear power plants with cooling towers, the startup stages, and the limits imposed on the extreme parameters during transients are discussed.

  6. Cooling water shortage causes nuclear power plant standstill; Hitzefrei fuer Atomstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenker, O.

    2003-09-01

    The cooling water shortage during the high 'Michaela' induced operators of nuclear and coal power plants to run their plants at lower power. In future heat waves, decentralisation and shutdown of inefficient large-scale power plants may be the only solution. (orig.) [German] Niedrige Pegelstaende, erwaermte Fluesse: Weil das Kuehlwasser knapp wurde, zwang Hoch 'Michaela' die Betreiber von Atom- und Kohle-Kraftwerken zum Drosseln ihrer Anlagen. Gegen kuenftige Hitzewellen hilft nur die Dezentralisierung der Energiewirtschaft und die Abkehr von ineffizienten Grosskraftwerken. (orig.)

  7. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  9. Organohalogen products from chlorination of cooling water at nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    Eight nuclear power units at seven locations in the US were studied to determine the effects of chlorine, added as a biocide, on the composition of cooling water discharge. Water, sediment and biota samples from the sites were analyzed for total organic halogen and for a variety of organohalogen compounds. Haloforms were discharged from all plants studied, at concentrations of a few ..mu..g/L (parts-per-billion). Evidence was obtained that power plants with cooling towers discharge a significant portion of the haloforms formed during chlorination to the atmosphere. A complex mixture of halogenated phenols was found in the cooling water discharges of the power units. Cooling towers can act to concentrate halogenated phenols to levels approaching those of the haloforms. Examination of samples by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry did not result in identification of any significant concentrations of lipophilic base-neutral compounds that could be shown to be formed by the chlorination process. Total concentrations of lipophilic (Bioabsorbable) and volatile organohalogen material discharged ranged from about 2 to 4 ..mu..g/L. Analysis of sediment samples for organohalogen material suggests that certain chlorination products may accumulate in sediments, although no tissue bioaccumulation could be demonstrated from analysis of a limited number of samples. 58 references, 25 figures, 31 tables.

  10. The effects of age on nuclear power plant containment cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofaro, R.; Subudhi, M.; Travis, R.; DiBiasio, A.; Azarm, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Davis, J. [Science Applications International Corp., New York, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the performance and availability of containment cooling systems in US commercial nuclear power plants. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. The effects of age were characterized for the containment cooling system by reviewing and analyzing failure data from national databases, as well as plant-specific data. The predominant failure causes and aging mechanisms were identified, along with the components that failed most frequently. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also examined. A containment cooling system unavailability analysis was performed to examine the potential effects of aging by increasing failure rates for selected components. A commonly found containment spray system design and a commonly found fan cooler system design were modeled. Parametric failure rates for those components in each system that could be subject to aging were accounted for in the model to simulate the time-dependent effects of aging degradation, assuming no provisions are made to properly manage it. System unavailability as a function of increasing component failure rates was then calculated.

  11. Cooling tower restoration in the joint nuclear power station Neckar 1; Kuehlturmsanierung im Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, G. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Braeuning, G. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Dekker, G. [Marley Kuehlturm GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany). Bereich Vertrieb neuer Kuhlturm-Anlagen

    1996-11-01

    Since the starting operation of the Power Station GKN I (Joint Nuclear Power Station Neckar I) in the year 1976, the cell cooler of the plant was, except for those cases in which continuous-flow cooling was possible, continually in operation. Aim of the restoration, after an operational time of 17 years, is a further constructional and thermal service life of about 15 to 20 years. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit der Inbetriebnahme des Kraftwerkes GKN I im Jahr 1976 war der Zellenkuehler der Anlage bis auf die Faelle, in denen Durchlaufkuehlung moeglich war, ununterbrochen in Betrieb. Ziel der Sanierung nach ueber 17jaehriger Betriebszeit ist eine weitere bauliche und thermische Nutzungsdauer von etwa 15 bis 20 Jahren. (orig.)

  12. The impact of monochloramine on the diversity and dynamics of Legionella pneumophila subpopulations in a nuclear power plant cooling circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubek, Delphine; Le Brun, Matthieu; Leblon, Gerard; DuBow, Michael; Binet, Marie

    2013-08-01

    Members of the pathogenic Legionella genus encounter suitable growth conditions in nuclear power plant cooling circuits. To limit its proliferation and ensure that levels remain below regulatory thresholds, chemical treatment with monochloramine can be used in continuous or sequential conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of monochloramine on L. pneumophila subpopulations in the cooling circuits of a nuclear power plant. The chosen procedure involved monitoring the diversity and dynamics of L. pneumophila subpopulations every month over the course of a year in a nuclear power plant cooling circuit, which was treated for 2 months during the period under study. This study confirmed the effectiveness of monochloramine to limit L. pneumophila concentrations in cooling circuits. The culturable L. pneumophila community was strongly affected by the injection of monochloramine. Several subpopulations persisted during treatment at low concentrations (below the detection limit of standard methods), suggesting that the susceptibility of L. pneumophila is strain dependent. Although the composition of the subpopulations was not similar, the resilience of the community structure was observed. Indeed, the community eventually returned to its initial structure and presented a similar pattern of richness, diversity and uniformity to that seen before treatment.

  13. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  14. Design Study of Modular Nuclear Power Plant with Small Long Life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors Utilizing MOX Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilham, Muhammad; Su’ud, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Growing energy needed due to increasing of the world’s population encourages development of technology and science of nuclear power plant in its safety and security. In this research, it will be explained about design study of modular fast reactor with helium gas cooling (GCFR) small long life reactor, which can be operated over 20 years. It had been conducted about neutronic design GCFR with Mixed Oxide (UO2-PuO2) fuel in range of 100-200 MWth NPPs of power and 50-60% of fuel fraction variation with cylindrical pin cell and cylindrical balance of reactor core geometry. Calculation method used SRAC-CITATION code. The obtained results are the effective multiplication factor and density value of core reactor power (with geometry optimalization) to obtain optimum design core reactor power, whereas the obtained of optimum core reactor power is 200 MWth with 55% of fuel fraction and 9-13% of percentages.

  15. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  16. Comparative analysis of cooling systems for energy equipment of combined heat and power plants and nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutov, B. F.; Lazarev, M. V.; Ermakova, S. V.; Zisman, S. L.; Kaplanovich, L. S.; Svetushkov, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    In the 20th century, the thermal power engineering in this country was oriented toward oncethrough cooling systems. More than 50% of the CHPP and NPP capacities with once-through cooling systems put into operation before the 1990s were large-scale water consumers but with minimum irretrievable water consumption. In 1995, the Water Code of the Russian Federation was adopted in which restrictions on application of once-through cooling systems for newly designed combined heat and power plants (CHPPs) were introduced for the first time. A ban on application of once-through systems was imposed by the current Water Code of the Russian Federation (Federal law no. 74-FZ, Art. 60 Cl. 4) not only for new CHPPs but also for those to be modified. Clause 4 of Article 60 of the Water Code of the Russian Federation contravenes law no. 7-FZ "On Protection of the Environment" that has priority significance, since the water environment is only part of the natural environment and those articles of the Water Code of the Russian Federation that are related directly to electric power engineering, viz., Articles 46 and 62. In recent decades, the search for means to increase revenue charges and the economic pressure on the thermal power industry caused introduction by law of charges for use of water by cooling systems irrespective of the latter's impact on the water quality of the source, the environment, the economic efficiency of the power production, and the living conditions of the people. The long-range annual increase in the water use charges forces the power generating companies to switch transfer once-through service water supply installations to recirculating water supply systems and once-through-recirculating systems with multiple reuse of warm water, which drastically reduces the technical, economic, and ecological characteristic of the power plant operation and also results in increasing power rates for the population. This work comprehensively substantiates the demands of

  17. Study Neutronic of Small Pb-Bi Cooled Non-Refuelling Nuclear Power Plant Reactor (SPINNOR) with Hexagonal Geometry Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Krisna, Dwita; Su'ud, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear reactor technology is growing rapidly, especially in developing Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The utilization of nuclear energy in power generation systems has been progressing phase of the first generation to the fourth generation. This final project paper discusses the analysis neutronic one-cooled fast reactor type Pb-Bi, which is capable of operating up to 20 years without refueling. This reactor uses Thorium Uranium Nitride as fuel and operating on power range 100-500MWtNPPs. The method of calculation used a computer simulation program utilizing the SRAC. SPINNOR reactor is designed with the geometry of hexagonal shaped terrace that radially divided into three regions, namely the outermost regions with highest percentage of fuel, the middle regions with medium percentage of fuel, and most in the area with the lowest percentage. SPINNOR fast reactor operated for 20 years with variations in the percentage of Uranium-233 by 7%, 7.75%, and 8.5%. The neutronic calculation and analysis show that the design can be optimized in a fast reactor for thermal power output SPINNOR 300MWt with a fuel fraction 60% and variations of Uranium-233 enrichment of 7%-8.5%.

  18. Safety assessment for electricity generation failure accident of gas cooled nuclear power plant using system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2013-04-15

    The power production failure happens in the loss of coolant of the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The air ingress is a serious accident in gas cooled NPPs. The quantification of the study performed by the system dynamics (SD) method which is processed by the feedback algorithms. The Vensim software package is used for the simulation, which is performed by the Monte-Carlo method. Two kinds of considerations as the economic and safety properties are important in NPPs. The result shows the stability of the operation when the power can be decided. The maximum value of risk is the 11.77 in 43rd and the minimum value is 0.0 in several years. So, the success of the circulation of coolant is simulated by the dynamical values. (orig.)

  19. A LOPA application to the hydrogen cooling system of the main electric generator of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Flavia M.; Frutuoso e Melo, Paulo Fernando Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: flaviamvasconcelos@gmail.com; frutuoso@con.ufrj.br; Saldanha, P.L. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Reatores]. E-mail: saldanha@cnen.gov.br

    2008-07-01

    The Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) is a powerful analytical tool for assessing the adequacy of protection layers used to mitigate risks in a process plant. LOPA applies semi-quantitative measures to evaluate the frequency of potential incidents and the probability of failure of protection layers. This paper presents an application of the Layer of Protection Analysis technique to a nuclear power plant in order to evaluate the cooling system of an electric generator, so as to identify scenarios that might lead to a plant shutdown. Next, the frequencies of occurrence of these events and the probability of failure on demand of the independent protection layers are determined. Here a difficulty is related to the lack of failure and initiating event data. The consequences identified are listed as impact events and are classified as to their severity level. The initiating causes are listed for each impact event and the likelihood is estimated for each initiating cause. Independent Protection Layers (ILPs) are listed. The mitigated event likelihood is studied and additional ILPs can be evaluated and added to reduce the risk. As a conclusion, LOPA demonstrated that the hydrogen inner-cooling electric generator system is in compliance with the risk scenarios adopted for this study. Some suggestions were made in order to automate some manual actions to increase the system reliability. (author)

  20. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... generated from the chemical reaction of the cladding with water or steam shall not exceed 0.01 times the... light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... reactors. (a)(1)(i) Each boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power reactor fueled with uranium oxide...

  1. Nuclear Theory - Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.; Kozier, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    The results from modern nuclear theory are accurate and reliable enough to be used for practical applications, in particular for scattering that involves few-nucleon systems of importance to nuclear power. Using well-established nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that fit well the NN scattering data, and the AGS form of the three-body theory, we have performed precise calculations of low-energy neutron-deuteron (n+d) scattering. We show that three-nucleon force effects that have impact on the low-energy vector analyzing powers have no practical effects on the angular distribution of the n+d cross-section. There appear to be problems for this scattering in the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) libraries, at the incident neutron energies less than 3.2 MeV. Supporting experimental data in this energy region are rather old (>25 years), sparse and often inconsistent. Our three-body results at low energies, 50 keV to 10.0 MeV, are compared to the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) -3.3 evaluated angular distributions. The impact of these results on the calculated reactivity for various critical systems involving heavy water is shown.

  2. Thermal-hydraulics, physical chemistry, and technology at nuclear power stations equipped with fast-neutron sodium-cooled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V. V.; Efanov, A. D.; Kozlov, F. A.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2007-12-01

    Main results of investigations aimed at developing a verified system of computer codes that take into account the interrelation among nuclear-physical, thermal-hydraulic, physicochemical, thermal-mechanical, mass-transfer, and technological processes in nuclear power installations and at substantiating the models used as the core of these codes are presented together with the results of tests carried out to obtain data for verifying the codes.

  3. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  4. Environmental effects of large discharges of cooling water. Experiences from Swedish nuclear power plants; Miljoeeffekter av stora kylvattenutslaepp. Erfarenheter fraan de svenska kaernkraftverken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlin, Ulf; Lindahl, Sture; Neuman, Erik; Sandstroem, Olof; Svensson, Jonny

    2009-07-15

    Monitoring the environmental effects of cooling water intake and discharge from Swedish nuclear power stations started at the beginning of the 1960s and continues to this day. In parallel with long-term monitoring, research has provided new knowledge and methods to optimise possible discharge locations and design, and given the ability to forecast their environmental effects. Investigations into the environmental effects of cooling-water are a prerequisite for the issuing of power station operating permits by the environmental authorities. Research projects have been carried out by scientists at universities, while the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the Swedish Board of Fisheries, and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, are responsible for the greater part of the investigations as well as of the research work. The four nuclear power plants dealt with in this report are Oskarshamn, Ringhals, Barsebaeck and Forsmark. They were taken into operation in 1972, 1975, 1975 and 1980 resp. - a total of 12 reactors. After the closure of the Barsebaeck plants in 2005, ten reactors remain in service. The maximum cooling water discharge from the respective stations was 115, 165, 50 and 135 m3/s, which is comparable to the mean flow of an average Swedish river - c:a 150 m3/s. The report summarizes studies into the consequences of cooling water intake and discharge. Radiological investigations made at the plants are not covered by this review. The strategy for the investigations was elaborated already at the beginning of the 1960s. The investigations were divided into pre-studies, baseline investigations and monitoring of effects. Pre-studies were partly to gather information for the technical planning and design of cooling water intake and outlet constructions, and partly to survey the hydrographic and ecological situation in the area. Baseline investigations were to carefully map the hydrography and ecology in the area and their natural

  5. Nuclear Power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s vigorous efforts to propel development of nuclear power are paying off as the country’s nuclear power sector advances at an amazing pace. At present, China has set up three enormous nuclear power bases, one each in Qinshan of Zhejiang Province, Dayawan of Guangdong

  6. Lunar nuclear power plant design for thermal-hydraulic cooling in nano-scale environment: Nuclear engineering-based interdisciplinary nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Systemix Global Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The environment of the Moon is nearly vacant, which has very low density of several kinds of gases. It has the molecular level contents of the lunar atmosphere in Table 1, which is recognized that radiation heat transfer is a major cooling method. The coolant of the nuclear power plant (NPP) in the lunar base is the Moon surface soil , which is known as the regolith. The regolith is the layer of loose and heterogeneous material covering the solid rock. For finding the optimized length of the radiator of the coolant in the lunar NPP, the produced power and Moon environmental temperature are needed. This makes the particular heat transfer characteristics in heat transfer in the Moon surface. The radiation is the only heat transfer way due to very weak atmosphere. It is very cold in the night time and very hot in the daytime on the surface of the ground. There are comparisons between lunar high land soil and Earth averages in Table 2. In the historical consideration, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky made a suggestion for the colony on the Moon.. There are a number of ideas for the conceptual design which have been proposed by several scientists. In 1954, Arthur C. Clarke mentioned a lunar base of inflatable modules covered in lunar dust for insulation. John S. Rinehart suggested the structure of the stationary ocean of dust, because there could be a mile-deep dust ocean on the Moon, which gives a safer design. In 1959, the project horizon was launched regarding the U.S. Army's plan to establish a fort on the Moon by 1967. H. H. Koelle, a German rocket engineer of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, leaded the project (ABMA). There was the first landing in 1965 and 245 tons of cargos were transported to the outpost by 1966. The coolant material of regolith in the Moon is optimized for the NPP. By the simulation, there are some results. The temperature is calculated as the 9 nodals by radiation heat transfer from the potassium coolant to the regolith flow. The high efficiency

  7. Application of remote sensing techniques for monitoring the thermal pollution of cooling-water discharge from nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuqun; Shi, Ping; Mao, Qingwen

    2003-08-01

    This article introduces a practical method to investigate thermal pollution in coastal water from satellite data. The intensity and distribution areas of thermal pollution by the heated effluent discharge from the nuclear power plant on Daya Bay, southern China were investigated by using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal band data from 1994 to 2001. A local algorithm was developed, based on sea-truth data of water surface temperature measured when the satellite passed over the study area. The local algorithm was then applied to estimate water temperature from TM data. It shows that the remote sensing technique provides an effective means to quantitatively monitor the intensity of thermal pollution and to retrieve a very detailed distribution pattern of thermal pollution in coastal waters. The remotely-sensed results of the thermal pollution can be used for environmental management of coastal waters.

  8. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  9. Successful implementation of ageing management exemplified at the cooling tower of Emsland nuclear power plant; Erfolgreiche Umsetzung von Alterungsmanagement am Beispiel Kuehlturm des Kernkraftwerkes Emsland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Alexander [Hochtief Solutions AG, Consult IKS Energy, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Design Kraftwerke; Dueweling, Carsten [Kernkraftwerke Lippe-Ems GmbH, Lingen (Germany). Abschnitt Bautechnik

    2013-07-15

    The present paper describes the successful implementation of the restoration of water-distribution channels at the cooling tower of the Emsland nuclear power plant under the aspect of ageing management. The main challenge of aging management is the determination of potential aging mechanism and to avoid systematically and effectively their damaging influences. In the course of the annual site inspections abnormalities at the lower side of the water-distribution channels of the cooling tower were detected, analysed, and repaired. The extraordinary high chlorine equivalent of the cooling water was identified as main reason of the damages located. Due to extensive infiltration into the concrete structure, chloride-induced corrosion generates a volume expansion of the reinforcement and thereby to a blast off of the concrete covering. According to the restoration concept, the damaged concrete was removed by maximum pressure water jet blasting; where necessary the reinforcement was retrofitted and a layered concrete substitution was applied by synthetic cement mortar. The realised procedures conserve the load bearing reinforcement only for a certain period, because the permanent chloride infiltration could not be stopped. Therefore, the structure has to be monitored permanently. (orig.)

  10. Radiation dose assessment for the biota of terrestrial ecosystems in the shoreline zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant cooling pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Gaschak, Sergey P; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Hinton, Thomas G; Coughlin, Daniel; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. This paper addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to draw down naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  11. RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  12. 核电循环泵轴承冷却风扇结构及其流场分析%Structure and Flow Field Analysis of Bearing Cooling Fans of the Circulating Cooling Water Pump in a Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明哲; 王晓冬; 孙德臣

    2016-01-01

    The circulating cooling water pump in a nuclear power plant operates in a high temperature environment,and the pump bearing receives a large amount of heat load,so the work reliability is of great importance.To reduce the bearing’s working temperature and ensure its safe operation,a cooling device should be installed in the pump system.The structure of the bearing’s axial flow cooling fan in the pump was proposed,and the optimum design method of the bearing’s axial flow cooling fan in the pump was established.For the fan blades,the optimized calculation using BFGS algorithm was proceeded.A simulation verification of the system was proposed by using FLUENT,whose results showed that the design method is suitable for the bearing’s axial flow cooling fan design in circulating cooling water pumps in a nuclear power plant.%核电站冷却水循环泵在高温环境下工作,泵轴承受到很大的热负载,其工作可靠性至关重要。为降低轴承工作温度、保证轴承安全工作,在泵轴系统上设置了冷却装置。提出了泵轴承冷却用轴流式风扇的结构,建立了风扇结构的 BFGS 优化计算方法,采用计算流体力学软件 FLUENT 对风扇流场进行了数值分析。数值模拟结果表明,基于 BFGS 设计方法得到的冷却风扇性能有较好的设计计算精度,能够满足核电站冷却水循环泵轴承冷却的要求,该计算方法方便可行。

  13. Solar-powered cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-12-24

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

  14. RETHINKING NUCLEAR POWER SAFETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident sounds alarm bells in China’s nuclear power industry In the wake of the Fukushima nucleara ccident caused by the earthquake andt sunami in Japan,the safety of nuclearp ower plants and the development of nuclear power have raised concerns,

  15. Distribution of a pelagic tunicate, Salpa fusiformis in warm surface current of the eastern Korean waters and its impingement on cooling water intakes of Uljin nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jinho; Choi, Hyun Woo; Lee, Woo Jin; Kim, Dongsung; Lee, Jae Hac

    2008-07-01

    Impingement of a large amount of gelatinous plankton, Salpa fusiformis on the seawater intake system-screens in a nuclear power plant at Uljin was firstly recorded on 18th June 2003. Whole amount of the clogged animals was estimated were presumptively at 295 tons and the shortage of cooling seawater supply by the animal clogging caused 38% of decrease in generation capability of the power plant. Zooplankton collection with a multiple towing net during the day and at night from 5 to 6 June 2003 included various gelatinous zooplanktons known to be warm water species such as salps and siphonophores. Comparatively larger species, Salpa fusiformis occupied 25.4% in individual density among the gelatinous plankton and showed surface distribution in the depth shallower than thermocline, performing little diel vertical migration. Temperature, salinity and satellite data also showed warm surface current predominated over the southern coastal region near the power plant in June. The results suggested that warm surface current occasionally extended into the neritic region may transfer S. fusiformis, to the waters off the power plant. The environmental factors and their relation to ecobiology of the large quantity of salpa population that are being sucked into the intake channel of the power plant are discussed.

  16. Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Bonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be available. It is assumed that during the Station Black-Out sequence the first pressurizer safety valve fails stuck open after 3 cycles of water release, respectively, 17 cycles in total. During the transient, the water in the fuel channels evaporates first while the moderator tank is still partially full. The moderator tank inventory acts as a temporary heat sink for the decay heat, which is evacuated through conduction and radiation heat transfer, delaying core degradation. This feature, together with the large volume of the steel filler pieces in the lower plenum and a high primary system volume to thermal power ratio, derives in a very slow transient in which RPV failure time is four to five times larger than that of other German PWRs.

  17. Evaluation of fuel fabrication and the back end of the fuel cycle for light-water- and heavy-water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.L.; Olsen, A.R.

    1979-06-01

    The classification of water-cooled nuclear reactors offers a number of fuel cycles that present inherently low risk of weapons proliferation while making power available to the international community. Eight fuel cycles in light water reactor (LWR), heavy water reactor (HWR), and the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) systems have been proposed to promote these objectives in the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) program. Each was examined in an effort to provide technical and economic data to INFCE on fuel fabrication, refabrication, and reprocessing for an initial comparison of alternate cycles. The fuel cycles include three once-through cycles that require only fresh fuel fabrication, shipping, and spent fuel storage; four cycles that utilize denatured uranium--thorium and require all recycle operations; and one cycle that considers the LWR--HWR tandem operation requiring refabrication but no reprocessing.

  18. Nuclear Power Feasibility 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés Beltrán, José María; Hill, Barrie Frederick; Kadak, Andrew C.; Shultz, Donald F.; Spitalnik, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power is a proven technology and has the potential to generate virtually limitless energy with no significant greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear power can become one of the main options to contribute to substantial cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions. Modern development of nuclear power technology and the established framework of international agreements and conventions are responding to the major political, economic and environmental issues -high capital costs, the risks posed by ...

  19. Improved and safer nuclear power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J J

    1989-04-21

    Recent progress in advanced nuclear power development in the United States is revealing high potential for nuclear reactor systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the present generation. Passive, or intrinsic, characteristics are applied not only to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction but also to ensure continued cooling of the fuel and its containment systems even if a major breakdown of the normal cooling and control functions were to occur. The chance of a severe accident is thereby substantially reduced. The plant designs that are emerging are simpler and more rugged, have a longer life span, and place less burden on equipment and operating personnel. Modular design concepts and design standardization are also used to reduce construction time and engineering costs, giving promise that the cost of generating power from these systems will be competitive with alternative methods.

  20. Thermoelectric Devices Cool, Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Nextreme Thermal Solutions Inc., based in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, licensed thermoelectric technology from NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This has allowed the company to develop cutting edge, thin-film thermoelectric coolers that effective remove heat generated by increasingly powerful and tightly packed microchip components. These solid-state coolers are ideal solutions for applications like microprocessors, laser diodes, LEDs, and even potentially for cooling the human body. Nextreme s NASA technology has also enabled the invention of thermoelectric generators capable of powering technologies like medical implants and wireless sensor networks.

  1. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  2. 滨海核电厂冷却水排水建筑物布置的应用研究%Application Research on Cooling Water Outlet Structure Arrangement of Coastal Nuclear Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 汤东升

    2012-01-01

    Arrangement design of Cooling Water Outlet Structure is a key problem for Coastal Nuclear Power Station. Cooling Water Outlet structure ensures the normal operation of units, and it protect the equipments of Coastal Nuclear Power Station against storm surge by Cooling Water Outlet Structure. This paper illustrates the design criterions which need to be followed of hydraulic arrangement in Coastal Nuclear Power Station, as well as provides the experience in the Cooling Water Outlet structure arrangement design of Coastal Nuclear Power Station.%冷却水排水建筑物布置是滨海核电厂水工建筑物布置设计中的关键问题,排水建筑物不仅确保核电厂冷却水系统正常运行,同时保护核电厂免受风暴潮危害影响.通过对已建滨海核电厂冷却水排水建筑物布置特点进行分类阐述,为排水建筑物布置设计提供工程应用参考.

  3. Nuclear power in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J. (British Nuclear Forum, London (UK))

    1991-04-01

    The 1990s are turning out to be a most crucial phase for the nuclear industries of Europe. A time of uncertainty, as well as considerable opportunity, lies ahead. Despite a measure of public and political opposition to nuclear power, many are beginning to realise that, as a method of generating electricity that produces only 1% of greenhouse gases compared to coal per unit of electricity, nuclear energy may be the best alternative to the burning of fossil fuels. Although advances have been made in renewable energy, nuclear power is still the main non-fossil fuel source that can cope with today's energy demands. (author).

  4. Nuclear Power in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  5. Safety and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, John; Gunning, Angela.

    1988-05-01

    Representatives of the supporters and opponents of civil nuclear power put forward the arguments they feel the public should consider when making up their mind about the nuclear industry. The main argument in favour of nuclear power is about the low risk in comparison with other risks and the amount of radiation received on average by the population in the United Kingdom from different sources. The aim is to show that the nuclear industry is fully committed to the cause of safety and this has resulted in a healthy workforce and a safe environment for the public. The arguments against are that the nuclear industry is deceitful, secretive and politically motivated and thus its arguments about safety, risks, etc, cannot be trusted. The question of safety is considered further - in particular the perceptions, definitions and responsibility. The economic case for nuclear electricity is not accepted. (U.K.).

  6. A Parametric Study of the Impact of the Cooling Water Site Specific Conditions on the Efficiency of a Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. A. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the thermal analysis for the impact of the cooling seawater site specific conditions on the thermal efficiency of a conceptual pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant (PWR NPP is presented. The PWR NPP thermal performance depends upon the heat transfer analysis of steam surface condenser accounting for the key parameters such as the cooling seawater salinity and temperature that affect the condenser overall heat transfer coefficient and fouling factor. The study has two aspects: the first one is the impact of the temperature and salinity within a range of (290 K–310 K and 0.00–60000 ppm on the seawater thermophysical properties such as density, specific heat, viscosity, and thermal conductivity that reflect a reduction in the condenser overall heat transfer coefficient from 2.25 kW/m2 K to 1.265 kW/m2 K at temperature and salinity of 290 K and 0.00 ppm and also from 2.35 kW/m2 K to 1.365 kW/m2 K at temperature and salinity of 310 K and 60000 ppm, whereas the second aspect is the fouling factor variations due to the seawater salinity. The analysis showed that the two aspects have a significant impact on the computation of the condenser overall heat transfer coefficient, whereas the increase of seawater salinity leads to a reduction in the condenser overall heat transfer coefficient.

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  8. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  9. Survey for the presence of Naegleria fowleri amebae in lake water used to cool reactors at a nuclear power generating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamerson, Melissa; Remmers, Kenneth; Cabral, Guy; Marciano-Cabral, Francine

    2009-04-01

    Water from Lake Anna in Virginia, a lake that is used to cool reactors at a nuclear power plant and for recreational activities, was assessed for the presence of Naegleria fowleri, an ameba that causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). This survey was undertaken because it has been reported that thermally enriched water fosters the propagation of N. fowleri and, hence, increases the risk of infection to humans. Of 16 sites sampled during the summer of 2007, nine were found to be positive for N. fowleri by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. However, total ameba counts, inclusive of N. fowleri, never exceeded 12/50 mL of lake water at any site. No correlation was obtained between the conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and pH of water and presence of N. fowleri. To date, cases of PAM have not been reported from this thermally enriched lake. It is postulated that predation by other protozoa and invertebrates, disturbance of the water surface from recreational boating activities, or the presence of bacterial or fungal toxins, maintain the number N. fowleri at a low level in Lake Anna.

  10. Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Dgiby; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Pitt, Jonathan

    2006-08-08

    This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or "radiation fields" around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry.

  11. Nuclear power economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, Ian; Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Many countries recognize the substantial role which nuclear power has played in providing energy security of supply, reducing import dependence and reducing greenhouse gas and polluting emissions. Nevertheless, as such considerations are far from being fully accounted for in liberalized or deregulated power markets, nuclear plants must demonstrate their viability in these markets on commercial criteria as well as their lifecycle advantages. Nuclear plants are operating more efficiently than in the past and unit operating costs are low relative to those of alternative generating technologies. The political risk facing the economic functioning of nuclear in a number of countries has increased with the imposition of nuclear-specific taxes that in some cases have deprived operators of the economic incentive to continue to operate existing plants.

  12. Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzberg, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    The conceptual design is for a liquid metal (LM) cooled nuclear reactor that would provide heat to a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion subsystem to provide electricity for electric propulsion thrusters and spacecraft power. The baseline power level is 100 kWe to the user. For long term power generation, UN pin fuel with Nb1Zr alloy cladding was selected. As part of the SP-100 Program this fuel demonstrated lifetime with greater than six atom percent burnup, at temperatures in the range of 1400-1500 K. The CBC subsystem was selected because of the performance and lifetime database from commercial and aircraft applications and from prior NASA and DOE space programs. The high efficiency of the CBC also allows the reactor to operate at relatively low power levels over its 15-year life, minimizing the long-term power density and temperature of the fuel. The scope of this paper is limited to only the nuclear components that provide heated helium-xenon gas to the CBC subsystem. The principal challenge for the LM reactor concept was to design the reactor core, shield and primary heat transport subsystems to meet mission requirements in a low mass configuration. The LM concept design approach was to assemble components from prior programs and, with minimum change, determine if the system met the objective of the study. All of the components are based on technologies having substantial data bases. Nuclear, thermalhydraulic, stress, and shielding analyses were performed using available computer codes. Neutronics issues included maintaining adequate operating and shutdown reactivities, even under accident conditions. Thermalhydraulic and stress analyses calculated fuel and material temperatures, coolant flows and temperatures, and thermal stresses in the fuel pins, components and structures. Using conservative design assumptions and practices, consistent with the detailed design work performed during the SP-100 Program, the mass of the reactor, shield, primary heat

  13. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. Gas Cooled, Natural Uranium, D20 Moderated Power Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, R.C.; Beasley, E.G.; DeBoer, T.K.; Evans, T.C.; Molino, D.F.; Rothwell, W.S.; Slivka, W.R.

    1956-08-01

    The attractiveness of a helium cooled, heavy water moderated, natural uranium central station power plant has been investigated. A fuel element has been devised which allows the D20 to be kept at a low pressure while the exit gas temperature is high. A preliminary cost analysis indicates that, using currently available materials, competitive nuclear power in foreign countries is possible.

  15. Nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-28

    This press dossier presented in Shanghai (China) in April 1999, describes first the activities of the Framatome group in the people`s republic of China with a short presentation of the Daya Bay power plant and of the future Ling Ao project, and with a description of the technological cooperation with China in the nuclear domain (technology transfers, nuclear fuels) and in other industrial domains (mechanics, oil and gas, connectors, food and agriculture, paper industry etc..). The general activities of the Framatome group in the domain of energy (nuclear realizations in France, EPR project, export activities, nuclear services, nuclear fuels, nuclear equipments, industrial equipments) and of connectors engineering are presented in a second and third part with the 1998 performances. (J.S.)

  16. Solar-powered cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2015-07-28

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system that uses nanostructural materials such as aerogels, zeolites, and sol gels as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material while the material is at a relatively low temperature, perhaps at night. During daylight hours, when the nanostructural materials is heated by the sun, the refrigerant are thermally desorbed from the surface of the aerogel, thereby creating a pressurized gas phase in the vessel that contains the aerogel. This solar-driven pressurization forces the heated gaseous refrigerant through a condenser, followed by an expansion valve. In the condenser, heat is removed from the refrigerant, first by circulating air or water. Eventually, the cooled gaseous refrigerant expands isenthalpically through a throttle valve into an evaporator, in a fashion similar to that in more conventional vapor recompression systems.

  17. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  18. Uranium contamination due to nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Sanchez, A.; Vera Tome, F.; Diaz Bejarano, J.; Garcia Aparicio, A. (Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica)

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of uranium isotopes and their daughters in the natural series were performed in the cooling reservoirs and their neighborhood of two nuclear power plants, [alpha] and [gamma] spectrometry of samples were used to measure the natural and artificial radionuclides. The nuclear power plants are in the southwest of Spain and one of them has been in operation since 1982, the other plant is in the construction phase. We compare the results obtained for the two sites. (orig.).

  19. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  20. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  1. Liquid metal cooled reactors for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Van Hoomissen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The technology basis for evaluation of liquid metal cooled space reactors is summarized. Requirements for space nuclear power which are relevant to selection of the reactor subsystem are then reviewed. The attributes of liquid metal cooled reactors are considered in relation to these requirements in the areas of liquid metal properties, neutron spectrum characteristics, and fuel form. Key features of typical reactor designs are illustrated. It is concluded that liquid metal cooled fast spectrum reactors provide a high confidence, flexible option for meeting requirements for SP-100 and beyond.

  2. 77 FR 13156 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1. The license provides, among other things, that the facility is...) 50.46, ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light- water nuclear...

  3. Overview paper on nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I.; Cope, D.F.

    1980-09-01

    This paper was prepared as an input to ORNL's Strategic Planning Activity, ORNL National Energy Perspective (ONEP). It is intended to provide historical background on nuclear power, an analysis of the mission of nuclear power, a discussion of the issues, the technology choices, and the suggestion of a strategy for encouraging further growth of nuclear power.

  4. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  5. Nuclear power renaissance or demise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossani, Umair

    2010-09-15

    Nuclear power is going through a renaissance or demise is widely debated around the world keeping in mind the facts that there are risks related to nuclear technology and at the same time that is it environmentally friendly. My part of the argument is that there is no better alternative than Nuclear power. Firstly Nuclear Power in comparison to all other alternative fuels is environmentally sustainable. Second Nuclear power at present is at the dawn of a new era with new designs and technologies. Third part of the debate is renovation in the nuclear fuel production, reprocessing and disposal.

  6. Let us learn nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Wan Sang

    2006-08-15

    This book teach us nuclear power through nine chapters with recommendation and a prolog. The contents of this book are how did Formi become a scientist? what does atom look like? discover of neutron, what is an isotope?, power in the nuclear, various radiation, artificial nuclear transformation, nuclear fission and clinging atomic nucleus. It also has an appendix on SF story ; an atom bomb war. It explains basic nuclear physic in easy way with pictures.

  7. Nuclear electric power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

  8. Small high cooling power space cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T. V.; Raab, J.; Durand, D.; Tward, E. [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Redondo Beach, Ca, 90278 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The small High Efficiency pulse tube Cooler (HEC) cooler, that has been produced and flown on a number of space infrared instruments, was originally designed to provide cooling of 10 W @ 95 K. It achieved its goal with >50% margin when limited by the 180 W output ac power of its flight electronics. It has also been produced in 2 stage configurations, typically for simultaneously cooling of focal planes to temperatures as low as 35 K and optics at higher temperatures. The need for even higher cooling power in such a low mass cryocooler is motivated by the advent of large focal plane arrays. With the current availability at NGAS of much larger power cryocooler flight electronics, reliable long term operation in space with much larger cooling powers is now possible with the flight proven 4 kg HEC mechanical cooler. Even though the single stage cooler design can be re-qualified for those larger input powers without design change, we redesigned both the linear and coaxial version passive pulse tube cold heads to re-optimize them for high power cooling at temperatures above 130 K while rejecting heat to 300 K. Small changes to the regenerator packing, the re-optimization of the tuned inertance and no change to the compressor resulted in the increased performance at 150 K. The cooler operating at 290 W input power achieves 35 W@ 150 K corresponding to a specific cooling power at 150 K of 8.25 W/W and a very high specific power of 72.5 W/Kg. At these powers the cooler still maintains large stroke, thermal and current margins. In this paper we will present the measured data and the changes to this flight proven cooler that were made to achieve this increased performance.

  9. Direct jet impingement cooling of power electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Skuriat, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to improve the operational reliability of a power module and increase the efficiency of its associated cooling system by integrating the design of the cooler as part of the module. Power modules are increasingly used in a variety of applications ranging from aircraft and mass transport systems, to motor control and power conversion in the home. Reliability of the power module is very important in aerospace applications where the highest levels o...

  10. 四代核电技术(高温堆)产业化探讨%Chinese Development of Generation IV Nuclear Power Technology--High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊; 肖国平; 鲁盛会; 张见营; 王芝芬; 李金英

    2015-01-01

    该文综述了四代核电技术(高温堆)的发展现状和技术特点,对中国高温气冷堆的产业化提出了建议,供政府及相关行业集团公司等参考。%The author reviewed the development of generation IV nuclear power technology --Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor(HTR) . Some The advice of industrialization of HTR in China was proposed.The article can give some advice for the government and relevant company.

  11. Power electronics substrate for direct substrate cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Khiet [Mission Viejo, CA; Ward, Terence G [Redondo Beach, CA; Mann, Brooks S [Redondo Beach, CA; Yankoski, Edward P [Corona, CA; Smith, Gregory S [Woodland Hills, CA

    2012-05-01

    Systems and apparatus are provided for power electronics substrates adapted for direct substrate cooling. A power electronics substrate comprises a first surface configured to have electrical circuitry disposed thereon, a second surface, and a plurality of physical features on the second surface. The physical features are configured to promote a turbulent boundary layer in a coolant impinged upon the second surface.

  12. 200MW高温气冷堆汽轮机热力系统能损分析%Energy Loss Analysis of Turbine in 200MW High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇

    2015-01-01

    采用能级效率法对200 MW高温气冷堆核电机组的热力系统能损分析,特别是对各级加热器的能损进行了解耦分析.通过引入加热器的热耗影响因数,获得了VWO、TRL、75%TRL、50%TRL 4种工况下各级加热器对降低热力系统热耗的影响和变化规律.以上分析方法和结果,可以为200MW高温气冷堆核电机组的热力系统的设计、优化、运行和维护提供重要参考.%In this paper,energy loss analysis of thermal power system of 200MW high temperature gas cooled reactor nuclear power plant with the energy level efficiency method, especially for the energy loss decoupling analysis of each heater.By introducing the heat consumption influence coefficient, the influence of each heater in reducing the heat consumption of thermodynamic system under the conditions of VWO,TRL,75% ofTRL and 50% ofTRL was obtained.The above results provide important reference for the design,optimization,operation and maintenance of the thermal system of 200MW high temperature gas cooled reactor nuclear power plant.

  13. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  14. Test of different measures for the prevention of scaling in the cooling system of Grohnde nuclear power plant; Test verschiedener Massnahmen zur Verhuetung von Kalkablagerungen im Kuehlsystem des Kernkraftwerks Grohnde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czolkoss, W. [Taprogge GmbH, Wetter (Germany); Jacobi, G.; Schueler, A. [Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Grohnde GmbH, Emmerthal (Germany); Fichte, W. [Allianz-Zentrum fuer Technik GmbH (AZT), Ismaning (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    In the cooling system of the Grohnde Nuclear Power Plant, heavy calcium carbonate precipitations have occurred in the turbine condenser and in the cooling tower since 1994. Those precipitations cause performance losses and high cleaning costs. Reasons for the intensified precipitation are apparently the biologically upgraded water quality of the river Weser, as well as specific operational conditions of the cooling system (partial recirculation of cooling water). It was noticed that the formation of calcium carbonate deposits occurred within a limited period of less than two weeks in May. The calcium precipitation was that strong during this time that it could not be stopped despite the immediate application of corundum cleaning balls in the tube cleaning system. (orig.) [German] Im Kuehlsystem des Kernkraftwerks Grohnde kommt es seit 1994 zu starken Kalkausfaellungen im Turbinenkondensator und im Kuehlturm, die Leistungsverluste und hohe Reinigungskosten verursachen. Das Auftreten der Kalkabscheidungen haengt offensichtlich mit der oekologisch verbesserten Wasserqualitaet der Weser und spezifischen Betriebsbedingungen des Kuehlsystems zusammen. Die Auswertung der Betriebsmessdaten des Kuehlwassers zeigt, dass eine der Ursachen der zeitlich begrenzten, extremen Kalkabscheidung im Kuehlsystem offenbar das Wachstum von Mikroorganismen in der Weser ist, aus der das Kuehlsystem gespeist wird. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  16. Direct-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, R.; Ayers, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2008-12-23

    The goal of the Direct-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate project is to reduce the size and weight of the heat sink for power electronics used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The concept proposed in this project was to develop an innovative power electronics mounting structure, model it, and perform both thermal and mechanical finite-element analysis (FEA). This concept involved integrating cooling channels within the direct-bonded copper (DBC) substrate and strategically locating these channels underneath the power electronic devices. This arrangement would then be directly cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG), essentially eliminating the conventional heat sink and associated heat flow path. The concept was evaluated to determine its manufacturability, its compatibility with WEG, and the potential to reduce size and weight while directly cooling the DBC and associated electronics with a coolant temperature of 105 C. This concept does not provide direct cooling to the electronics, only direct cooling inside the DBC substrate itself. These designs will take into account issues such as containment of the fluid (separation from the electronics) and synergy with the whole power inverter design architecture. In FY 2008, mechanical modeling of substrate and inverter core designs as well as thermal and mechanical stress FEA modeling of the substrate designs was performed, along with research into manufacturing capabilities and methods that will support the substrate designs. In FY 2009, a preferred design(s) will be fabricated and laboratory validation testing will be completed. In FY 2010, based on the previous years laboratory testing, the mechanical design will be modified and the next generation will be built and tested in an operating inverter prototype.

  17. Global Protest Against Nuclear Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Protest against nuclear power plants, uranium mining and nuclear testing was a major mobilizing force in the rise of mass environmental movements in the 1970s and 1980s around the globe. Nevertheless, the historiography of anti-nuclear protest remains largely limited to national stories about...

  18. Cooling power of transverse thermoelectrics for cryogenic cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Ma, Ming; Grayson, M.

    2016-05-01

    Transverse Peltier coolers have been experimentally and theoretically studied since 1960s due to their capability of achieving cooling in a single-leg geometry. Recently proposed pxn-type transverse thermoelectrics reveal the possibility of intrinsic or undoped transverse coolers that can, in principle, function at cryogenic temperatures, which has drawn more attention to the performance of such transverse coolers. However, unlike longitudinal thermoelectrics, the equations for transverse thermoelectrics cannot be solved analytically. In this study, we therefore calculate the thermoelectric transport in transverse coolers numerically, and introduce a normalized notation, which reduces the independent parameters in the governing equations to a normalized electric field E* and a hot-side transverse figure of merit zTh, only. A numerical study of the maximum cooling temperature difference and cooling power reveals the superior performance of transverse thermoelectric coolers compared to longitudinal coolers with the same figure of merit, providing another motivation in the search for new transverse thermoelectric materials with large figure of merit.

  19. Health Risks of Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bernard L.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with the wastes generated in nuclear power plants and the health risks involved as compared to those of wastes generated by coal-fired plants. Concludes that the risks of nuclear power plants are many times smaller than the risks from alternative energy resources. (GA)

  20. Nuclear Power Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Chengge; Li Shulan

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's nuclear power industry experienced such three stages as initiation, moderate development and active development. So far, there have been 11 nuclear power units in service in the Chinese mainland with a total installed capacity of 9 100 MW. In addition, there are 24 units being constructed or to be constructed as listed in the 11th Five-Year Plan.

  1. Nuclear power: Unexpected health benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellenberger, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Public fears of nuclear power are widespread, especially in the aftermath of accidents, yet their benefits are rarely fully considered. A new study shows how the closure of two nuclear power plants in the 1980s increased air pollution and led to a measurable reduction in birth weights, a key indicator of future health outcomes.

  2. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  3. 核电循环冷却水一氯胺反应动力学规律%Research on kinetic of monochloramine in circulating cooling water system of nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫俊国; 刘剑; 王胜龙; JosephDELAAT; FlorenceBERNE; 崔崇威

    2011-01-01

    Desinfection of cooling water system of nuclear plant is the research focus for nuclear power sys- tems. With the circulating cooling water module from Dampierre nuclear plant in France, we study the kinetic of consumption of monoehloramine as a desinfeet and determine that the consumption of monochloramine with raw water is the first-order kinetic reaction, and the rate constant is 0. 002 min - 1. The analysis of consumption of monochloramine with Fe3 + added in shows that, the Fe3+ has no significant effect on the consumption of monochloramine. The results can provide technical support and guidance for the design and management of nu- clear power plants in China.%核电站循环冷却水系统的消毒是核电水系统的研究重点.以法国丹皮尔核电站冷却塔模型为研究对象,进行一氯胺消毒剂的消耗动力学研究,确定以天然原水为循环水介质的一氯胺消耗动力学符合一级反应的动力学模型,其反应速率常数为0.002min^-1;以人工模拟投加Fe^3+进行一氯胺消耗分析表明,Fe^3+对一氯胺的消耗无显著影响.

  4. Towards sustainable nuclear power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, Andrei A.; Murogov, Victor M.; Kuptsov, Ilya S. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering of NNRU MEPhl, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    The review of the current situation in the nuclear energy sector carried out in this article brings to light key problems and contradictions, development trends and prospects, which finally determine the role and significance of nuclear power as a factor ensuring a sustainable energy development. Authors perspectives on the most appropriate developments of nuclear power, which should be based on a balanced use of proven innovative nuclear technologies and comprehensive multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle are expressed. The problems of wording appropriate and essential requirements for new countries with respect to their preparedness to develop nuclear programs, taking into account their development level of industry and infrastructure as well as national heritages and peculiarities, are explained. It is also indicated that one of the major components of sustainability in the development of nuclear power, which legitimates its public image as a power technology, is the necessity of developing and promoting the concepts of nuclear culture, nuclear education, and professional nuclear ethics. (orig.)

  5. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  6. Greenfield nuclear power for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarenpaa, Tapio

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, licensing for new nuclear power is ongoing. The political approval is to be completed in 2010. Fennovoima's project is unique in various ways: (i) the company was established only in 2007, (ii) its ownership includes a mixture of local energy companies, electricity-intensive industries and international nuclear competence through E.ON, and (iii) it has two alternative greenfield sites. There are five prerequisites for a successful nuclear power project in a transparent democracy of today: (1) need for additional power capacity, (2) actor prepared to invest, (3) established competence, (4) available site, (5) open communications, and (6) favorable public opinion.

  7. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difilippo, F.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  8. Analysis of loss-of-coolant accident for a fast-spectrum lithium-cooled nuclear reactor for space-power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G. E.; Petrik, E. J.; Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    A two-dimensional, transient, heat-transfer analysis was made to determine the temperature response in the core of a conceptual space-power nuclear reactor following a total loss of reactor coolant. With loss of coolant from the reactor, the controlling mode of heat transfer is thermal radiation. In one of the schemes considered for removing decay heat from the core, it was assumed that the 4 pi shield which surrounds the core acts as a constant-temperature sink (temperature, 700 K) for absorption of thermal radiation from the core. Results based on this scheme of heat removal show that melting of fuel in the core is possible only when the emissivity of the heat-radiating surfaces in the core is less than about 0.40. In another scheme for removing the afterheat, the core centerline fuel pin was replaced by a redundant, constant temperature, coolant channel. Based on an emissivity of 0.20 for all material surfaces in the core, the calculated maximum fuel temperature for this scheme of heat removal was 2840 K, or about 90 K less than the melting temperature of the UN fuel.

  9. Cooling Tower Optimization A Simple Way to Generate Green Megawatts and to Increase the Efficiency of a Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.

    2014-07-01

    The profitability of nuclear power plants is worldwide challenged by low electricity prices. One hand low cost shale gas is offering a low price electricity production , other hand additional taxes on fuel are reducing the operating income of nuclear power stations. The optimization of cooling towers can help to increase the efficiency and profit of a nuclear power plant. (Author)

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  11. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  12. Nuclear Power Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China's nuclear power industry experienced such three stages as initiation,moderate development and active development.So far,there have been 11 nuclear power units in service in the Chinese mainland with a total installed capacity of 9 100 MW.In addition,there are 24 units being constructed or to be constructed as listed in the 11th Five-Year Plan.

  13. Climate change and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2000-04-01

    The nuclear industry has increased its efforts to have nuclear power plants integrated into the post- Kyoto negotiating process of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) states: ''For many reasons, current and future nuclear energy projects are a superior method of generating emission credits that must be considered as the US expands the use of market- based mechanisms designed around emission credit creation and trading to achieve environmental goals ''. The NEI considers that nuclear energy should be allowed to enter all stages of the Kyoto ''flexibility Mechanisms'': emissions trading, joint implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. The industry sees the operation of nuclear reactors as emission ''avoidance actions'' and believes that increasing the generation of nuclear power above the 1990 baseline year either through extension and renewal of operating licenses or new nuclear plant should be accepted under the flexibility mechanisms in the same way as wind, solar and hydro power. For the time being, there is no clear definition of the framework conditions for operating the flexibility mechanisms. However, eligible mechanisms must contribute to the ultimate objective of the Climate Convention of preventing ''dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system''. The information presented in the following sections of this report underlines that nuclear power is not a sustainable source of energy, for many reasons. In conclusion, an efficient greenhouse gas abatement strategy will be based on energy efficiency and not on the use of nuclear power. (author)

  14. 百万级压水堆核电站空冷汽轮机选型研究%Calculation and Selecting of Air-cooled Turbine in 1 000 MW PWR Nuclear Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建军; 孙传军; 赵迪

    2015-01-01

    针对国内某核电厂址的初步气象条件,进行了百万等级核电机组空冷汽轮机选型计算分析。分析结果表明,该厂址参数下若选用半转速核电汽轮机,目前已有的末级叶片不能满足要求,需要开发全新的空冷末级叶片;而利用大型火电空冷汽轮机已有运行业绩的末级叶片,开发全转速百万级核电空冷汽轮机,将花费较少的时间和经费,是比较适宜的方案。某厂址气象条件在我国北方具有代表性,上述工作为我国北方缺水地区核电站汽轮机选型提供了参考。建议国内汽轮机厂利用已有核电、火电汽轮机技术积累,尽快启动全转速百万级核电空冷汽轮机研发工作,形成具有完全自主知识产权的百万级核电空冷汽轮机技术,抢占技术制高点。%By analyzing the weather characters of one potential 1000MW nuclear power station site ,this paper calculated the air-cooled steam turbine exhausting area .It is concluded that the present last long blade used in half-speed turbine is not suitable,new last long blade shall be developed if we want to use half-speed turbine in 1 000MW air-cooled nuclear power station.However,the full-speed turbines and their last long blades used in coal burning power station are appropriate for this site,excepting plus one low pressure turbine and some measures to remove moisture steam in the last stage .The latter is better,for it will cost less money and time .The site mentioned in this paper is representive in China north area ,and this paper is useful for turbine selecting of nuclear power station in this area .Domestic turbine manufacturers have accumulated many experiences and technologies by manufacturing and developing half -speed nuclear turbine and air-cooled full-speed turbines in coal burning power station .It is suggested the domestic turbine manufacturers should setup the research work as soon as possible .

  15. Effects of Nuclear Energy on Sustainable Development and Energy Security: Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sungjoo Lee; Byungun Yoon; Juneseuk Shin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a stepwise method of selecting appropriate indicators to measure effects of a specific nuclear energy option on sustainable development and energy security, and also to compare an energy option with another. Focusing on the sodium-cooled fast reactor, one of the highlighted Generation IV reactors, we measure and compare its effects with the standard pressurized water reactor-based nuclear power, and then with coal power. Collecting 36 indicators, five experts select seven key indic...

  16. Real issue with nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.W.

    1976-04-22

    The voter referendums on nuclear power planned in some states can affect the energy supply and economic health of the public at large more than it affects the industry that provides nuclear power, the author states. He makes the point that those responsible for energy supplies in the U. S.--the President and all relevant Federal agencies, the majority of Congress, the national utility industry, major laboratories, universities and consulting firms, and other energy industries--all favor nuclear power. The complex U.S. energy situation is reviewed, and the hope of alternative energy sources, practice of energy conservation, and benefits of nuclear power are summarized. Specifically, the California Initiative and its three conditions which it says should dictate the future of nuclear power are reviewed. The author does not believe that the reasons that are usually given in opposing nuclear power are the real reasons. He states that ''it seems clear that the principal philosophy behind the initiatives is one of halting economic growth by striking at the energy source that would make that growth possible.'' Attention is called to the morality of nuclear power by asking where is the morality: in leaving future generations an insufficient amount of energy, limiting their abilities to solve the economic and employment problems; in squandering our finite supply of fossil fuels while ignoring nuclear fuels; in forcing the nation into further dependence on unpredictable foreign nations for its energy supply; in expecting other states to provide California with the energy that it does not want to generate itself; and in allowing an arbitrary limit on growth to be set by groups of political activists. (MCW)

  17. Nuclear power - the glittering prizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, C.C.

    The paper on the benefits of nuclear power is based on a lecture given for the Institution of Nuclear Engineers, London, 1986. Suggestions for short term benefits include a clean environment and a cheap energy source, whereas suggestions for long term benefits include freedom from want in the world and avoidance of 'energy wars'. These benefits are discussed along with alternative energy sources, the financial savings to be saved from nuclear power, world energy wealth, depletion of world energy reserves, and risks due to radiation exposure.

  18. Topics in nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its "lessons learned" have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  19. Laser Cooled High-Power Fiber Amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Nemova, Galina

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model for laser cooled continuous-wave fiber amplifier is presented. The amplification process takes place in the Tm3+-doped core of the fluoride ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass fiber. The cooling process takes place in the Yb3+:ZBLAN fiber cladding. It is shown that for each value of the pump power and the amplified signal there is a distribution of the concentration of the Tm3+ along the length of the fiber amplifier, which provides its athermal operation. The influence of a small deviation in the value of the amplified signal on the temperature of the fiber with the fixed distribution of the Tm3+ions in the fiber cladding is investigated.

  20. Seismic design optimization of IHP cooling baffle in nuclear power plant%核电厂IHP通风围板的抗震设计优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰

    2012-01-01

    核电厂一体化堆顶组件(IHP)通风围板为驱动机构磁轭线圈的冷却提供了间隙均匀的通道.为了优化IHP通风围板的设计,根据ANSI/AISC N690分析了当前设计的通风围板的关键结构件在D级使用限制下的应力和变形并对关键结构件进行了初步设计优化,然后对IHP通风围板进行了有限元分析并对通风围板进行了最终设计改进.经过抗震设计优化通风围板的最大应力值分布趋于均匀.本文对抗震类设备的设计优化具有一定的参考价值.%Integrated head package (IHP) cooling baffle supplies uniform gap cooling channel for control rod drive mechanism coil stack. For optimizing design of IHP cooling baffle, stress and deformation of cooling baffle key parts were analyzed at Level D service limit according to ANSI/AISC 690, and primary optimization of key parts was processed. Then the cooling baffle was analyzed using finite element method, and final design improvement of baffle was made. The result shows better maximum stress distribution is obtained after optimization. This paper could be referenced for design optimization of seismic components.

  1. Effects of Nuclear Energy on Sustainable Development and Energy Security: Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjoo Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a stepwise method of selecting appropriate indicators to measure effects of a specific nuclear energy option on sustainable development and energy security, and also to compare an energy option with another. Focusing on the sodium-cooled fast reactor, one of the highlighted Generation IV reactors, we measure and compare its effects with the standard pressurized water reactor-based nuclear power, and then with coal power. Collecting 36 indicators, five experts select seven key indicators to meet data availability, nuclear energy relevancy, comparability among energy options, and fit with Korean energy policy objectives. The results show that sodium-cooled fast reactors is a better alternative than existing nuclear power as well as coal electricity generation across social, economic and environmental dimensions. Our method makes comparison between energy alternatives easier, thereby clarifying consequences of different energy policy decisions.

  2. Nuclear power demonstrating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmajian, V. V.; Haldeman, C. W.

    1980-08-12

    Apparatus for demonstrating the operation of a closed loop nuclear steam electric generating plant includes a transparent boiler assembly having immersion heating elements, which may be quartz lamps or stainless steel encased resistive immersion heating units with a quartz iodide lamp providing a source of visible radiation when using the encased immersion heating units. A variable voltage autotransformer is geared to a support rod for simulated reactor control rods for controlling the energy delivered to the heating elements and arranged so that when the voltage is high, the rods are withdrawn from the boiler to produce increased heating and illumination proportional to rod position, thereby simulating nuclear reaction. A relief valve, steam outlet pipe and water inlet pipe are connected to the boiler with a small stainless steel resistive heating element in the steam outlet pipe providing superheat. This heater is connected in series with a rheostat mounted on the front panel to provide superheat adjustments and an interlock switch that prevents the superheater from being energized when the steam valve is off with with no flow through the superheater. A heavy blue plastic radiation shield surrounds the boiler inside a bell jar.

  3. Nuclear power data; Kernenergie in Zahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The report ''nuclear power data'' includes data on the following issues: nuclear power plants in Germany including their operational characteristics, gross data on electricity generation in Germany, primary energy consumption in Germany, nuclear power plants worldwide, top ten nuclear power plants worldwide with respect to electricity generation in 2012.

  4. Nuclear power data; Kernenergie in Zahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The report ''nuclear power data'' includes data on the following issues: nuclear power plants in Germany including their operational characteristics, gross data on electricity generation in Germany, primary energy consumption in Germany, nuclear power plants worldwide, top ten nuclear power plants worldwide with respect to electricity generation in 2012.

  5. Nuclear Equation of State and Neutron Star Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yeunhwan; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the nuclear equation of state (EoS) to the neutron star cooling. New era for nuclear EoS has begun after the discovery of $\\sim 2\\msun$ neutron stars PSR J1614$-$2230 and PSR J0348$+$0432 [1, 2]. Also recent works on the mass and radius of neutron stars from low-mass X-ray binaries [3] strongly constrain the EoS of nuclear matter. On the other hand, observations of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A (Cas A) more than 10 years confirmed the existence of nuclear superfluidity [4, 5]. Nuclear superfluidity reduces the heat capacities as well as neutrino emissivities. With nuclear superfluidity the neutrino emission processes are highly suppressed, and the existence of superfluidity makes the cooling path quite different from that of the standard cooling process. Superfluidity also allows new neutrino emission process, which is called `Pair Breaking and Formation'(PBF). PBF is a fast cooling process and can explain the fast cooling rate of neutron star in Cas A. Therefore, it is essent...

  6. Nuclear power world report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-07-15

    At the end of 2013, 435 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. This means that the number decreased by 2 units compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2012. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 398,861 MWe, the aggregate net power, to 378,070 MWe (gross: 392,793 MWe, net: 372,572 MWe, new data base as of 2013: nameplate capacities). Four units were commissioned in 2014; three units in China and one in India. Eight units were shut down permanently in 2013; 2 units in Japan, and four units in the USA. Two units in Canada were declared permanently shut-down after a long-term shutdown. 70 nuclear generating units - 2 more than at the end of 2012 - were under construction in late 2013 in 15 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 73,814 MWe and net power of approx. 69,279 MWe. Six new projects have been started in 2013 in four countries (Belarus, China, the Republic of Korea, and the United Arab Emirates). Worldwide, some 125 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases license applications have been submitted or contracts have already been signed. Some 100 further projects are planned. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2013 achieved a level of approx. 2,364.15 billion (109) kWh (2012: approx. 2,350.80 billion kWh). Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-I fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated net production has reached approx. 70,310 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 15,400 reactor years. (orig.)

  7. Global Protest Against Nuclear Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhof, Astrid Mignon; Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Protest against nuclear power plants, uranium mining and nuclear testing played a pivotal role in the rise of a mass environmental movement around the globe in the 1970s and 1980s. Nevertheless, the history of anti-nuclear activism has largely been told from a strictly national perspective....... This focus issue approaches the phenomenon from a transnational perspective for the first time. Against the backdrop of the debate on transnational history, this article develops a framework of analysis, and contextualizes anti-nuclear protest in a broader postwar perspective. The contributions show...... that anti-nuclear movements across the globe were transnationally connected. First, scientific expertise and protest practices were transferred between movements, and subsequently adapted to local requirements. Secondly, transnational cooperation and networks did indeed emerge, playing an important role...

  8. Kaon Condensates, Nuclear Symmetry Energy and Cooling of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, S

    2003-01-01

    The cooling of neutron stars by URCA processes in the kaon-condensed neutron star matter for various forms of nuclear symmetry energy is investigated. The kaon-nucleon interactions are described by a chiral lagrangian. Nuclear matter energy is parametrized in terms of the isoscalar contribution and the nuclear symmetry energy in the isovector sector. High density behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy plays an essential role in determining the composition of the kaon-condensed neutron star matter which in turn affects the cooling properties. We find that the symmetry energy which decreases at higher densities makes the kaon-condensed neutron star matter fully protonized. This effect inhibits strongly direct URCA processes resulting in slower cooling of neutron stars as only kaon-induced URCA cycles are present. In contrast, for increasing symmetry energy direct URCA processes are allowed in the almost whole density range where the kaon condensation exists.

  9. Nuclear power - menace or miracle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porritt, J.; Gittus, J.

    1988-04-01

    The main points of the anti-nuclear lobby are put by the Director of Friends of the Earth. These are on its failure to provide cheaper electricity, reactor safety (the Chernobyl accident is cited), on the problems of radioactive waste disposal and on the public preference for a non-nuclear energy programme. Coal is seen as able to provide most of the United Kingdom's energy needs until the 22nd century. Long-term solutions to the energy and environmental problems are energy conservation and renewable energy sources. The pro-nuclear case is made by the Director of Communication and Information at the UK Atomic Energy Authority. This is that renewable energy sources will not be viable for another 30 years or so and, anyway, do not solve all the environmental problems. The choice of energy is thus coal or nuclear. Coal gives rise to acid rain and, as it is in limited supply, is too valuable simply to burn. Nuclear power can provide the energy economically and safely. The accident at Chernobyl is not possible in the UK. The amount of high level nuclear waste generated is small and measures for its disposal will be taken. The levels of radiation due to the nuclear power industry are small compared with natural radiation levels, and have not been shown to cause higher than normal levels of leukaemia or cancer. (U.K.).

  10. The future of nuclear power

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James

    2012-01-01

    Newly conceived, safer reactor designs are being built in the United States (and around the world) to replace the 104 obsolete operating nuclear power reactors in this country alone. The designs--which once seemed exotic and futuristic--are now 40 years old, and one by one these vintage Generation II plants will reach the end of productive service in the next 30 years. The Future of Nuclear Power examines the advanced designs, practical concepts, and fully developed systems that have yet to be used. This book introduces readers to the traditional, American system of units, with some archaic te

  11. The UK nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, J. G. [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    In the United Kingdom, nuclear power plants are operated by three companies: Nuclear Electric (NE), Scottish Nuclear (SN), and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). The state-operated power industry was privatized in 1989 with the exception of nuclear power generation activities, which were made part of the newly founded (state-owned) NE and SN. At the same time, a moratorium on the construction of new nuclear power plants was agreed. Only Sizewell B, the first plant in the UK to be equipped with a pressurized water reactor, was to be completed. That unit was first synchronized with the power grid on February 14, 1995. Another decision in 1989 provided for a review to be conducted in 1994 of the future of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in the country. The results of the review were presented by the government in a white paper on May 9, 1995. Accordingly, NE and SN will be merged and privatized in 1996; the headquarters of the new holding company will be in Scotland. The review does not foresee the construction of more nuclear power plants. However, NE hopes to gain a competitive edge over other sources of primary energy as a result of this privatization, and advocates construction of a dual-unit plant identical with Sizewell B so as to avoid recurrent design and development costs. Outside the UK, the company plans to act jointly with the reactor vendor, Westinghouse, especially in the Pacific region; a bid submitted by the consortium has been shortisted by the future operator of the Lungmen nuclear power plant project in Taiwan. In upgrading the safety of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe, the new company will be able to work through existing contacts of SN. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Grossbritannien werden Kernkraftwerke von drei Gesellschaften betrieben: Nuclear Electric (NE), Scottish Nuclear (SN) und British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL). Die staatliche Energieversorgung wurde im Jahre 1989 bis auf die Kernaktivitaeten privatisiert; diese wurden in die neu

  12. Nuclear power generation incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Myerscough, PB

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has undergone major expansion and developments in recent years; this third edition contains much revised material in presenting the state-of-the-art of nuclear power station designs currently in operation throughout the world. The volume covers nuclear physics and basic technology, nuclear station design, nuclear station operation, and nuclear safety. Each chapter is independent but with the necessary technical overlap to provide a complete work on the safe and economic design and operation of nuclear power stations.

  13. Venus Surface Power and Cooling System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Mellott, Kenneth D.

    2004-01-01

    A radioisotope power and cooling system is designed to provide electrical power for the a probe operating on the surface of Venus. Most foreseeable electronics devices and sensors simply cannot operate at the 450 C ambient surface temperature of Venus. Because the mission duration is substantially long and the use of thermal mass to maintain an operable temperature range is likely impractical, some type of active refrigeration may be required to keep certain components at a temperature below ambient. The fundamental cooling requirements are comprised of the cold sink temperature, the hot sink temperature, and the amount of heat to be removed. In this instance, it is anticipated that electronics would have a nominal operating temperature of 300 C. Due to the highly thermal convective nature of the high-density atmosphere, the hot sink temperature was assumed to be 50 C, which provided a 500 C temperature of the cooler's heat rejecter to the ambient atmosphere. The majority of the heat load on the cooler is from the high temperature ambient surface environment on Venus. Assuming 5 cm radial thickness of ceramic blanket insulation, the ambient heat load was estimated at approximately 77 watts. With an estimated quantity of 10 watts of heat generation from electronics and sensors, and to accommodate some level of uncertainty, the total heat load requirement was rounded up to an even 100 watts. For the radioisotope Stirling power converter configuration designed, the Sage model predicts a thermodynamic power output capacity of 478.1 watts, which slightly exceeds the required 469.1 watts. The hot sink temperature is 1200 C, and the cold sink temperature is 500 C. The required heat input is 1740 watts. This gives a thermodynamic efficiency of 27.48 %. The maximum theoretically obtainable efficiency is 47.52 %. It is estimated that the mechanical efficiency of the power converter design is on the order of 85 %, based on experimental measurements taken from 500 watt power

  14. Expansion cooled CO nuclear pumped laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. F.; Bird, P. F.; Mansfield, C. R.; Helmick, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a series of experiments designed to investigate the performance of a fission fragment excited CO laser with gasdynamic cooling. The experiments use a wall source of fission fragments to provide excitation of CO or CO gas mixtures. A separate investigation examines the effects on vibrational excitation distribution of CO or CO gas mixtures with the addition of UF6.

  15. Free Cooling-Aware Dynamic Power Management for Green Datacenters

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jungsoo; Ruggiero, Martino; Atienza Alonso, David

    2012-01-01

    Free cooling, i.e., directly using outside cold air and/or water to cool down datacenters, can provide significant power savings of datacenters. However, due to the limited cooling capability, which is tightly coupled with climate conditions, free cooling is currently used only in limited locations (e.g., North Europe) and periods of the year. Moreover, the applicability of free cooling is further restricted along with the conservative assumption on workload characteristics and the virtual ma...

  16. A gas-cooled reactor surface power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Lenard, Roger X.; Harms, Gary A.

    1999-01-01

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

  17. Nuclear Power on Energy Agenda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The big debate on whether or not to use nuclear power as an energy option has raged among countries like the U.S., Britain, and Germany for decades, with not even the advent and threat of global warming forcing a conclusion. China, however, has always stressed energy diversity and been determined to develop and use this alternative energy source.

  18. Improved cooling design for high power waveguide system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. C. J.; Hartop, R.

    1981-06-01

    Testing of X band high power components in a traveling wave resonator indicates that this improved cooling design reduces temperature in the waveguide and flange. The waveguide power handling capability and power transmission reliability is increased substantially.

  19. Study on Heat Recovery Technology of Closed Cooling Water System for Nuclear Power Plants%核电厂闭式冷却水系统余热回收技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建中; 侯平利; 胡友情; 王世勇

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种能回收闭式冷却水系统余热的节能减排技术方案,可在凝结水温度不大于34℃的条件下利用凝结水来代替海水吸收闭式冷却水系统中的余热.文中给出了红沿河核电厂1000MW级机组的应用分析实例.结果表明,通过回收闭式冷却水系统余热可增加机组出力约1.5 MW,减少温排水海洋污染约2.1×107t/a,产生经济效益约3.58×106元/a.%A new technology of energy saving and emission reducing which can recover the heat of closed cooling water was proposed. The condensate is used to absorb the heat from the closed cooling water when the condensate temperature is not greater than 34*10, instead of sea water. An application case for Hongyanhe 1000 MW class nuclear power plant is given to show that with this method, the unit output would be increased about 1.5 MW, the warm water emission would be reduced about 2.1xlO71 /a and the economic benefit would be increased about 3.58xlO6 RMB each year.

  20. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two

  1. Perspective of Using the Results of Monitoring and Modeling of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant's Cooling Pond as Analogue for the US DOE Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faybishenko, B.; Voitsekhovich, O. V.; Bugay, D.; Skalskjj, A.; Shestopalov, V. M.; Zheleznyak, M.; Kashparov, V. A.; Antropov, A. S.; Kireev, S. I.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Ivanov, Y.; Oskolkov, B.; Marra, J.; Jannik, T.; Farfan, E.; Monken-Fernandes, H.; Hinton, T.; Smith, J.; Onishi, Y.; Konoplev, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although there are many contaminated sites that may be suitable candidates for providing analogue information for the development and testing of environmental modeling and risk assessment approaches, of particular scientific and practical interests is the feasibility study of planned decommissioning and remediation of the highly contaminated Chernobyl Cooling Pond (CP), located within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ). The presence of the CP has caused an artificially high groundwater table within the ChEZ. After the planned cessation of water pumping from the Pripyat River to the CP, substantial areas of sediments, containing 137Cs, 90Sr, and hot particles with U, Pu, and Am. will be exposed to the atmosphere, and the groundwater level is expected to decline by as much as 7 m. The areal extent of the exposed zone, the dissolution rate, mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides will vary over time, depending on the dynamics of seepage losses from the pond and climatic conditions. The objective of the presentation is to discuss hydrological and geochemical processes, a conceptual model, and the results and perspectives of numerical modeling of coupled surface water-groundwater flow and transport, including the parameter estimation and uncertainty evaluation for various decommissioning and remediation options of the CP. In particular, the results of 1D, 2D, and 3D simulations of radionuclide transport in surface water and groundwater will be discussed, along with the evaluation of Kd parameters from the results of field monitoring and modeling of seasonal variations of 137Cs concentrations in pond water and sediments. It will be shown that the results of field monitoring and modeling of the Chernobyl CP can be used as analogue for several US DOE sites to improve scientific and practical understanding of subsurface hydrological and geochemical processes, as well as to obtain a better understanding of processes affecting natural attenuation of radionuclides in

  2. Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyolar, Bennett K.

    A solar thermal cooling system using novel non-tracking External Compound Parabolic Concentrators (XCPC) has been built at the University of California, Merced and operated for two cooling seasons. Its performance in providing power for space cooling has been analyzed. This solar cooling system is comprised of 53.3 m2 of XCPC trough collectors which are used to power a 23 kW double effect (LiBr) absorption chiller. This is the first system that combines both XCPC and absorption chilling technologies. Performance of the system was measured in both sunny and cloudy conditions, with both clean and dirty collectors. It was found that these collectors are well suited at providing thermal power to drive absorption cooling systems and that both the coinciding of available thermal power with cooling demand and the simplicity of the XCPC collectors compared to other solar thermal collectors makes them a highly attractive candidate for cooling projects.

  3. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  4. Nuclear power a reference handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Harry R

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, nuclear power has been identified as a viable alternative to traditional energy sources to stem global climate change, and condemned as risky to human health and environmentally irresponsible. Do the advantages of nuclear energy outweigh the risks, especially in light of the meltdown at the Fukushima plant in 2011? This guide provides both a comprehensive overview of this critical and controversial technology, presenting reference tools that include important facts and statistics, biographical profiles, a chronology, and a glossary. It covers major controversies and proposed solutions in detail and contains contributions by experts and important stakeholders that provide invaluable perspective on the topic.

  5. Study of the comparative dynamics of the incorporation of tissue free-water tritium (TFWT) in bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Almaraz nuclear power plant cooling reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)], E-mail: ymiralle@unex.es; Garcia, E. [Department of Applied Physics, Technical Forest Engineering School, University of Extremadura, 10600 (Plasencia) Caceres (Spain); Paniagua, J.M. [Department of Applied Physics, Polytechnic School, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    The Almaraz nuclear power plant (Spain) uses the water of Arrocampo reservoir for cooling, and consequently raises the radioactive levels of the aquatic ecosystem of this reservoir. From July 2002 to June 2005, monthly samples of surface water, bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from this reservoir. They were analyzed to determine the temporal evolution of the levels of {sup 3}H in surface water and of its transfer from the surface water to free-water in the tissues (TFWT) of the aforementioned two organisms. The tritium levels in the surface water oscillate with a biannual period, with their values in the study period ranging between 53 and 433 Bq/L. The incorporation of tritium to bulrushes and carp was fairly similar, the respective mean concentration factors being 0.74 and 0.8 (unitless, as Bq/L tissue water per Bq/L reservoir water). The temporal evolution of the levels fairly closely followed that observed for the surface water tritium, although detailed analysis showed the dominant periodicity for the bulrushes to be annual. This difference reflects the influence on the incorporation of tritium to bulrushes of diverse environmental and metabolic factors, especially evapotranspiration and the seasonal growth of this plant.

  6. Study of the comparative dynamics of the incorporation of tissue free-water tritium (TFWT) in bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Almaraz nuclear power plant cooling reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, A; García, E; Paniagua, J M; Rodríguez, A

    2009-03-01

    The Almaraz nuclear power plant (Spain) uses the water of Arrocampo reservoir for cooling, and consequently raises the radioactive levels of the aquatic ecosystem of this reservoir. From July 2002 to June 2005, monthly samples of surface water, bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from this reservoir. They were analyzed to determine the temporal evolution of the levels of (3)H in surface water and of its transfer from the surface water to free-water in the tissues (TFWT) of the aforementioned two organisms. The tritium levels in the surface water oscillate with a biannual period, with their values in the study period ranging between 53 and 433 Bq/L. The incorporation of tritium to bulrushes and carp was fairly similar, the respective mean concentration factors being 0.74 and 0.8 (unitless, as Bq/L tissue water per Bq/L reservoir water). The temporal evolution of the levels fairly closely followed that observed for the surface water tritium, although detailed analysis showed the dominant periodicity for the bulrushes to be annual. This difference reflects the influence on the incorporation of tritium to bulrushes of diverse environmental and metabolic factors, especially evapotranspiration and the seasonal growth of this plant.

  7. 核电厂辅助冷却水系统水锤计算与防护%Water Hammer Calculation and Prevention of Auxiliary Cooling Water System in Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学华; 熊兴才; 薛海青

    2014-01-01

    对核电厂常规岛辅助冷却水系统由板式换热器改为管壳式换热器并取消升压泵的方案特点进行了定性分析,指出了系统方案改进后的辅助冷却水系统正常停运时会产生水锤现象。通过对辅助冷却水系统建模定量计算了循环水泵停泵工况时的水锤最大压力,提出了通过调整阀门关闭时间消除水锤现象的防护方案并进行了计算验证。%ABSTRACT:This paper,first of all,qualitatively analyzes the characteristic of the auxiliary cooling water system of the conventional island of the nuclear power plant which uses the tube heater instead of the plate heater,pointing out that water hammer phenomena may be caused in the improved system. The maximum pressure of the water hammer when the circulating water pump is shut down is simulated and calculated. Finally the paper proposes the water hammer prevention solution of regulating the valve closing time and certifies the scheme by calculation.

  8. Economic evaluation of geothermal power generation, heating, and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoglu, Mehmet; Cengel, Yunus A. [Nevada Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Economic analysis of a typical geothermal resource shows that potential revenues from geothermal heating or cooling can be much larger than those from power generation alone. Geothermal heating may generate up to about 3.1 times and geothermal absorption cooling 2.9 times as much revenue as power generation alone. Similarly, combined power generation and heating may generate about 2.1 times and combined power generation and cooling about 1.2 times as much revenue as power generation alone. Cost and payback period comparison appear to favor power generation, followed by district heating. (Author)

  9. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  10. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic

  11. Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, A.; Bharathan, D.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the identification and evaluation of methods by which the net power output of an air-cooled geothermal power plant can be enhanced during hot ambient conditions with a minimal amount of water use.

  12. The economics of nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Ronald L.

    We extend economic analysis of the nuclear power industry by developing and employing three tools. They are (1) compilation and unification of operating and accounting data sets for plants and sites, (2) an abstract industry model with major economic agents and features, and (3) a model of nuclear power plant operators. We build a matched data set to combine dissimilar but mutually dependant bodies of information. We match detailed information on the activities and conditions of individual plants to slightly more aggregated financial data. Others have exploited the data separately, but we extend the sets and pool available data sets. The data reveal dramatic changes in the industry over the past thirty years. The 1980s proved unprofitable for the industry. This is evident both in the cost data and in the operator activity data. Productivity then improved dramatically while cost growth stabilized to the point of industry profitability. Relative electricity prices may be rising after nearly two decades of decline. Such demand side trends, together with supply side improvements, suggest a healthy industry. Our microeconomic model of nuclear power plant operators employs a forward-looking component to capture the information set available to decision makers and to model the decision-making process. Our model includes features often overlooked elsewhere, including electricity price equations and liability. Failure to account for changes in electricity price trends perhaps misled earlier scholars, and they attributed to other causes the effects on profits of changing price structures. The model includes potential losses resulting from catastrophic nuclear accidents. Applications include historical simulations and forecasts. Nuclear power involves risk, and accident costs are borne both by plant owners and the public. Authorities regulate the industry and balance conflicting desires for economic gain and safety. We construct an extensible model with regulators, plant

  13. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW.

  14. SACTI 模式在核电厂冷却塔环境影响预测的应用研究%The Application of SACTI Model in Environmental Impact Forecast of Cooling Tower in Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国良; 游春华; 王一川; 谭承军; 张琨; 魏新渝

    2016-01-01

    介绍了SACTI模式的原理和计算程序,以某内陆核电厂为案例预测了冷却塔的环境影响。结果表明:冷却塔可见雾羽、荫屏、太阳能损失、水沉积、盐沉积等环境影响主要分布在厂址主导风向下风向的几百米之内,随距离增加影响逐渐减小,盐沉积量最大值出现在距离300 m处。在冷却塔环境影响评价准则和预测模型改进方面还需开展进一步的研究。%The principle and calculation procedures of SACTI model are described .And the environmental im-pacts from the cooling towers in a nuclear power plant inland are assessed .The results show that visible plume , plume shadowing , solar energy loss , water deposition and salt deposition mainly distribute within a few hundred meters downwind to the study plant site .The adverse environmental effects gradually decrease with the increas-ing of distance , but the maximum value of salt deposit appears at the distance of 300 m.More research is re-quired to determine evaluation criteria and to improve prediction models to better understand the adverse envi -ronmental effects .

  15. Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Nuclear Physicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuka Takaharu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I give an overview on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and a report on voluntary activities of Japanese nuclear physicists in this terrible event, including their major outcome.

  16. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed though a variety of dose reduction techniques. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction, quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  17. Study of Natural Convection Passive Cooling System for Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdillah, Habibi; Saputra, Geby; Novitrian; Permana, Sidik

    2017-07-01

    Fukushima nuclear reactor accident occurred due to the reactor cooling pumps and followed by all emergencies cooling systems could not work. Therefore, the system which has a passive safety system that rely on natural laws such as natural convection passive cooling system. In natural convection, the cooling material can flow due to the different density of the material due to the temperature difference. To analyze such investigation, a simple apparatus was set up and explains the study of natural convection in a vertical closed-loop system. It was set up that, in the closed loop, there is a heater at the bottom which is representing heat source system from the reactor core and cooler at the top which is showing the cooling system performance in room temperature to make a temperature difference for convection process. The study aims to find some loop configurations and some natural convection performances that can produce an optimum flow of cooling process. The study was done and focused on experimental approach and simulation. The obtained results are showing and analyzing in temperature profile data and the speed of coolant flow at some point on the closed-loop system.

  18. The economics of solar powered absorption cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Analytic procedure evaluates cost of combining absorption-cycle chiller with solar-energy system in residential or commercial application. Procedure assumes that solar-energy system already exists to heat building and that cooling system must be added. Decision is whether to cool building with conventional vapor-compression-cycle chiller or to use solar-energy system to provide heat input to absorption chiller.

  19. Nuclear fuel assemblies' deformations measurement by optoelectronic methods in cooling ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchenko, E. S.; Zavyalov, P. S.; Finogenov, L. V.; Khakimov, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing the reliability and life-time of nuclear fuel is actual problems for nuclear power engineering. It takes to provide the high geometric stability of nuclear fuel assemblies (FA) under exploitation, since various factors cause FA mechanical deformation (bending and twisting). To obtain the objective information and make recommendations for the FA design improvement one have to fulfill the post reactor FA analysis. Therefore it takes measurements of the FA geometric parameters in cooling ponds of nuclear power plants. As applied to this problem we have developed and investigated the different optoelectronic methods, namely, structured light method, television and shadow ones. In this paper effectiveness of these methods has been investigated using the special experimental test stand and fulfilled researches are described. The experimental results of FA measurements by different methods and recommendation for their usage is given.

  20. Nuclear Power and Merchant Shipping (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Warren H. [Library of Congress

    1965-01-01

    This booklet tells about the use of nuclear energy for merchant ships. It explores its advantages and disadvantages, describes a nuclear merchant ship, speculates about the effect of nuclear power upon seaborne trade, and discusses some of the differences between conventional and nuclear merchant ships.

  1. Seismic hazard mitigation for nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frieder Seible

    2013-01-01

    The seismic safety of nuclear power plant(NPP) has always been a major consideration in the site selection,design,operation,and more recently recertification of existing installations.In addition to the actual NPP and all their operational and safety related support systems,the storage of spent fuel in temporary or permanent storage facilities also poses a seismic risk.This seismic risk is typically assessed with state-of-the-art modeling and analytical tools that capture everything from the ground rupture or source of the earthquake to the site specific ground shaking,taking geotechnical parameters and soil-foundation-structure-interaction (SFSI) into account to the non-linear structural response of the reactor core,the containment structure,the core cooling system and the emergency cooling system(s),to support systems,piping systems and non-structural components,and finally the performance of spent fuel storage in the probabilistically determined operational basis earthquake (OBE) or the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) scenario.The best and most meaningful validation and verification of these advanced analytical tools is in the form of full or very large scale experimental testing,designed and conducted in direct support of model and analysis tool calibration.This paper outlines the principles under which such calibration testing should be conducted and illustrates with examples the kind of testing and parameter evaluation required.

  2. Design data and safety features of commerical nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddleson, F.A.

    1976-06-01

    Design data, safety features, and site characteristics are summarized for 34 nuclear power units in 17 power stations in the United States. Six pages of data are presented for each plant, consisting of thermal-hydraulic and nuclear factors, containment features, emergency-core-cooling systems, site features, circulating water system data, and miscellaneous factors. An aerial perspective is also presented for each plant. This volume covers Light Water Reactors (LWRs) with dockets 50-508 through 50-549, four HTGRs--50-171, 50-267, 50-450/451, 50-463/464, the Atlantic Floating Station 50-477/478, and the Clinch River Breeder 50-537.

  3. Severe Accident Simulation of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Espinosa-Paredes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA simulation in the boiling water reactor (BWR of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP at 105% of rated power is analyzed in this work. The LVNPP model was developed using RELAP/SCDAPSIM code. The lack of cooling water after the LOCA gets to the LVNPP to melting of the core that exceeds the design basis of the nuclear power plant (NPP sufficiently to cause failure of structures, materials, and systems that are needed to ensure proper cooling of the reactor core by normal means. Faced with a severe accident, the first response is to maintain the reactor core cooling by any means available, but in order to carry out such an attempt is necessary to understand fully the progression of core damage, since such action has effects that may be decisive in accident progression. The simulation considers a LOCA in the recirculation loop of the reactor with and without cooling water injection. During the progression of core damage, we analyze the cooling water injection at different times and the results show that there are significant differences in the level of core damage and hydrogen production, among other variables analyzed such as maximum surface temperature, fission products released, and debris bed height.

  4. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  5. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  6. Emerging Two-Phase Cooling Technologies for Power Electronic Inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, J.S.

    2005-08-17

    In order to meet the Department of Energy's (DOE's) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FVCT) goals for volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost, the cooling of the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical. Currently the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are primarily cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG) mixture. The cooling fluid operates as a single-phase coolant as the liquid phase of the WEG does not change to its vapor phase during the cooling process. In these single-phase systems, two cooling loops of WEG produce a low temperature (around 70 C) cooling loop for the power electronics and motor/generator, and higher temperature loop (around 105 C) for the internal combustion engine. There is another coolant option currently available in automobiles. It is possible to use the transmission oil as a coolant. The oil temperature exists at approximately 85 C which can be utilized to cool the power electronic and electrical devices. Because heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference between the device's hot surface and the coolant, a device that can tolerate higher temperatures enables the device to be smaller while dissipating the same amount of heat. Presently, new silicon carbide (SiC) devices and high temperature direct current (dc)-link capacitors, such as Teflon capacitors, are available but at significantly higher costs. Higher junction temperature (175 C) silicon (Si) dies are gradually emerging in the market, which will eventually help to lower hardware costs for cooling. The development of high-temperature devices is not the only way to reduce device size. Two-phase cooling that utilizes the vaporization of the liquid to dissipate heat is expected to be a very effective cooling method. Among two-phase cooling methods, different technologies such as spray, jet impingement, pool boiling and submersion, etc. are being developed. The

  7. Studies on advanced water-cooled reactors beyond generation Ⅲ for power generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xu

    2007-01-01

    China's ambitious nuclear power program motivates the country's nuclear community to develop advanced reactor concepts beyond generation Ⅲ to ensure a long-term, stable, and sustainable development of nuclear power. The paper discusses some main criteria for the selection of future water-cooled reactors by considering the specific Chinese situation. Based on the suggested selection criteria, two new types of water-cooled reactors are recommended for future Chinese nuclear power generation. The high conversion pressurized water reactor utilizes the present PWR technology to a large extent. With a conversion ratio of about 0.95, the fuel utilization is increased about 5 times. This significantly improves the sustainability of fuel resources. The supercritical water-cooled reactor has favorable features in economics,sustainability and technology availability. It is a logical extension of the generation Ⅲ PWR technology in China.The status of international R&D work is reviewed. A new supercritieal water-cooled reactor (SCWR) core structure (the mixed reactor core) and a new fuel assembly design (two-rows FA) are proposed. The preliminary analysis using a coupled neutron-physics/thermal-hydranlics method is carded out. It shows good feasibility for the new design proposal.

  8. Cooling Concepts for High Power Density Magnetic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biela, Juergen; Kolar, Johann W.

    In the area or power electronics there is a general trend to higher power densities. In order to increase the power density the systems must be designed optimally concerning topology, semiconductor selection, etc. and the volume of the components must be decreased. The decreasing volume comes along with a reduced surface for cooling. Consequently, new cooling methods are required. In the paper an indirect air cooling system for magnetic devices which combines the transformer with a heat sink and a heat transfer component is presented. Moreover, an analytic approach for calculating the temperature distribution is derived and validated by measurements. Based on these equations a transformer with an indirect air cooling system is designed for a 10kW telecom power supply.

  9. Nuclear power a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Irvine, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    With the World desperate to find energy sources that do not emit carbon gasses, nuclear power is back on the agenda and in the news, following the increasing cost of fossil fuels and concerns about the security of their future supply. However, the term 'nuclear power' causes anxiety in many people and there is confusion concerning the nature and extent of the associated risks. Here, Maxwell Irvine presents a concise introduction to the development of nuclear physics leading up to the emergence of the nuclear power industry. He discusses the nature of nuclear energy and deals with various aspec

  10. 76 FR 48184 - Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... a permanently shut down nuclear reactor facility. PBAPS Unit 1 was a high-temperature, gas-cooled... nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' paragraph (b)(1) states, ``The licensee shall... its objective to provide high assurance that activities involving special nuclear material are...

  11. Getting More Out Of Nuclear Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s first nuclear power plant generated 31 billion kw/h electricity from 1991 to 2007 Major repair work on the first phase of the Qinshan nuclear power plant,which began operation in 1991 as China’s first nuclear power plant,was completed on January 13,2008.The overhaul has improved the reliability and safety of the reactors and given the oper- ators experience for running,repairing

  12. A modular gas-cooled cermet reactor system for planetary base power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahshan, Salim N.; Borkowski, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Fission nuclear power is foreseen as the source for electricity in planetary colonization and exploration. A six module gas-cooled, cermet-fueled reactor is proposed that can meet the design objectives. The highly enriched core is compact and can operate at high temperature for a long life. The helium coolant powers six modular Brayton cycles that compare favorably with the SP-100-based Brayton cycle.

  13. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project 2001-001, Westinghouse Electric Co. Grant Number: DE-FG07-02SF22533, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% versus about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors [LWRs]) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus, the need for a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators, and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies: LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which are also in use around the world. The reference SCWR design for the U.S. program is a direct cycle system operating at 25.0 MPa, with core inlet and outlet temperatures of 280 and 500 C, respectively. The coolant density decreases from about 760 kg/m3 at the core inlet to about 90 kg/m3 at the core outlet. The inlet flow splits with about 10% of the inlet flow going down the space between the core barrel and the reactor pressure vessel (the downcomer) and about 90% of the inlet flow going to the plenum at the top of the rector pressure vessel, to then flow down through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. Here it mixes with the feedwater from the downcomer and flows upward to remove the heat in the fuel channels. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core. The coolant is heated to about 500 C and delivered to the turbine. The purpose of this NERI project was to assess the reference U.S. Generation IV SCWR design and explore alternatives to determine feasibility. The project was

  14. Naegleria fowleri in cooling waters of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerva, L.; Kasprzak, W.; Mazur, T.

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of nonvirulent and three strains of virulent variants of Naegleria fowleri amoebae were isolated from the examined cooling water samples from 9 power plants. The virulent variants were obtained solely from effluents discharged from power plants with a closed-circuit cooling N. fowleri was not detected outside the reach of the thermal pollution. A disinfection of out-flowing cooling water seems to be an unnecessary investment in our climate. Warm discharge water should under no conditions be used directly for sports and recreational purposes.

  15. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  16. Helium-cooling in fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Baxi, C.B.; Hamilton, C.J.; Schleicher, R.W.; Streckert, H.

    1994-11-01

    This paper reviews different helium-cooled first wall and blanket designs; and compares the selection of structural materials. The authors found that the solid breeder, SiC-composite material option generates the lowest amount of induced radioactivity and afterheat and has the highest temperature capability. When combined with the direct cycle gas turbine system, it has the potential to be the most economical fusion system and can compete with advanced fission reactors. When compared to martensitic steel and V-alloy, SiC-composite is the least developed of these three structural materials, a focused development effort will be needed. Fundamental research has begun in addressing the issues of optimized composite materials, irradiation effects, leak tightness and low activation braze materials. Development of helium-cooled high heat flux components and further development of the direct cycle gas turbine system will also be needed.

  17. Cryogenic cooling for high power laser amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perin J.P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using DPSSL (Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers as pumping technology, PW-class lasers with enhanced repetition rates are developed. Each of the Yb YAG amplifiers will be diode-pumped at a wavelength of 940 nm. This is a prerequisite for achieving high repetition rates (light amplification duration 1 millisecond and repetition rate 10 Hz. The efficiency of DPSSL is inversely proportional to the temperature, for this reason the slab amplifier have to be cooled at a temperature in the range of 100 K–170 K with a heat flux of 1 MW*m−2. This paper describes the thermo-mechanical analysis for the design of the amplification laser head, presents a preliminary proposal for the required cryogenic cooling system and finally outlines the gain of cryogenic operation for the efficiency of high pulsed laser.

  18. Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

    2014-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  19. Ultrasonic gas accumulation detection and evaluation in nuclear cooling pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingyu; Lin, Bin; Shin, Yong-June; Wang, Jingjiang; Tian, Zhenhua

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a novel ultrasonic guided wave based inspection methodology for detecting and evaluating gas accumulation in nuclear cooling pipe system. The sensing is in-situ by means of low-profile permanently installed piezoelectric wafer sensors to excite interrogating guided waves and to receive the propagating waves in the pipe structure. Detection and evaluation is established through advanced cross time-frequency analysis to extract the phase change in the sensed signal when the gas is accumulating. A correlation between the phase change and the gas amount has been established to provide regulatory prediction capability based on measured sensory data.

  20. Nuclear power plant operation 2016. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2017-05-15

    A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2016, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in a further issue.

  1. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  2. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.E. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

  3. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Results of work performed from January 1, 1977 through March 31, 1977 on the Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Process Heat and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (impure Helium), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes progress to date on alloy selection for VHTR Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) applications and for DCHT applications. The present status on the simulated reactor helium loop design and on designs for the testing and analysis facilities and equipment is discussed.

  4. Tube failures due to cooling process problem and foreign materials in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J. [Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Jalan Tok Muda, Kapar 42200 (Malaysia); Purbolaksono, J., E-mail: judha@uniten.edu.m [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Km 7 Jalan Kajang-Puchong, Kajang 43009, Selangor (Malaysia); Beng, L.C. [Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Jalan Tok Muda, Kapar 42200 (Malaysia)

    2010-07-15

    Cooling process which uses water for heat transfer is an essential factor in coal-fired and nuclear plants. Loss of cooling upset can force the plants to shut down. In particular, this paper reports visual inspections and metallurgical examinations on the failed SA210-A1 right-hand side (RHS) water wall tube of a coal-fired plant. The water wall tube showed the abnormal outer surface colour and has failed with wide-open ductile rupture and thin edges indicating typical signs of short-term overheating. Metallurgical examinations confirmed the failed tube experiencing higher temperature operation. Water flow starvation due to restriction inside the upstream tube is identified as the main root cause of failure. The findings are important to take failure mitigation actions in the future operation. Discussion on the typical problems related to the cooling process in nuclear power plants is also presented.

  5. Modelling of jet-impingement cooling for power electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Rizvi, M.J.; Skuriat, R.; Tilford, Tim; Bailey, Christopher; Johnson, C. Mark; Lu, Hua

    2009-01-01

    The use of an innovative jet impingement cooling system in a power electronics application is investigated using numerical analysis. The jet impingement system, outlined by Skuriat et al, consists of a series of cells each containing an array of holes. Cooling fluid is forced through the device, forming an array of impingement jets. The jets are arranged in a manner, which induces a high degree of mixing in the interface boundary layer. This increase in turbulent mixing is intended to induce ...

  6. U.S. Forward Operating Base Applications of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, George W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a high level overview of current nuclear power technology and the potential use of nuclear power at military bases. The size, power ranges, and applicability of nuclear power units for military base power are reviewed. Previous and current reactor projects are described to further define the potential for nuclear power for military power.

  7. Nuclear Power Sources for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharkin, N. E.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Usov, V. A.

    This chapter contains the information about nuclear power sources for space systems. Reactor nuclear sources are considered that use the energy of heavy nuclei fission generated by controlled chain fission reaction, as well as the isotope ones producing heat due to the energy of nuclei radioactive decay. Power of reactor nuclear sources is determined by the rate of heavy nuclei fission that may be controlled within a wide range from the zero up to the nominal one. Thermal power of isotope sources cannot be controlled. It is determined by the type and quantity of isotopes and decreases in time due to their radioactive decay. Both, in the reactor sources and in the isotope ones, nuclear power is converted into the thermal one that may be consumed for the coolant heating to produce thrust (Nuclear Power Propulsion System, NPPS) or may be converted into electricity (Nuclear Power Source, NPS) dynamically (a turbine generator) or statically (thermoelectric or thermionic converters). Electric power is supplied to the airborne equipment or is used to produce thrust in electric (ionic, plasma) low-thrust engines. A brief description is presented of the different nuclear systems with reactor and isotopic power sources implemented in Russia and the USA. The information is also given about isotopic sources for the ground-based application, mainly for navigation systems.

  8. Prospects for development of an innovative water-cooled nuclear reactor for supercritical parameters of coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyakin, S. G.; Kirillov, P. L.; Baranaev, Yu. D.; Glebov, A. P.; Bogoslovskaya, G. P.; Nikitenko, M. P.; Makhin, V. M.; Churkin, A. N.

    2014-08-01

    The state of nuclear power engineering as of February 1, 2014 and the accomplished elaborations of a supercritical-pressure water-cooled reactor are briefly reviewed, and the prospects of this new project are discussed based on this review. The new project rests on the experience gained from the development and operation of stationary water-cooled reactor plants, including VVERs, PWRs, BWRs, and RBMKs (their combined service life totals more than 15 000 reactor-years), and long-term experience gained around the world with operation of thermal power plants the turbines of which are driven by steam with supercritical and ultrasupercritical parameters. The advantages of such reactor are pointed out together with the scientific-technical problems that need to be solved during further development of such installations. The knowledge gained for the last decade makes it possible to refine the concept and to commence the work on designing an experimental small-capacity reactor.

  9. Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jake P Gentle

    2012-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

  10. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  11. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry`s practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  12. Macrofouling control in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekis, E.W. Jr.; Keoplin-Gall, S.M.; McCarthy, R.E.

    1991-11-01

    Macrofouling of cooling-water systems is one of the more significant and costly problems encountered in the nuclear power industry. Both marine and freshwater macroinvertebrates can be responsible for losses in plant availability because of plugged intakes and heat transfer equipment. There is a greater diversity of macrofouling organisms in marine waters than in fresh waters. Marine macrofouling organisms include barnacles, mollusks, bryozoans, and hydroids. Barnacles are crustaceans with feathery appendages, which allow them to attach to a variety of surfaces. They are a major cause of severe macrofouling because they can remain attached even after death. The major freshwater macrofouling organisms include the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea) and the newest freshwater macrofouler, the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The introduction of the Zebra Mussel into the Great Lakes has created economic and ecological problems that will not easily be solved. The threat of intercontinental dispersal of the Zebra Mussel in America is serious. Research programs have been initiated around the country to develop control methods for this macrofouling problem. The various control methodologies can be classified in the following categories: biological, chemical, physical, and mechanical. Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of Actibrom against mature Zebra Mussels.

  13. Space nuclear power: a strategy for tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Energy: reliable, portable, abundant and low cost will be a most critical factor, perhaps the sine qua non, for the unfolding of man's permanent presence in space. Space-based nuclear power, in turn, is a key technology for developing such space platforms and the transportation systems necessary to service them. A strategy for meeting space power requirements is the development of a 100-kW(e) nuclear reactor system for high earth orbit missions, transportation from Shuttle orbits to geosynchronous orbit, and for outer planet exploration. The component technology for this nuclear power plant is now underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As permanent settlements are established on the Moon and in space, multimegawatt power plants will be needed. This would involve different technology similar to terrestrial nuclear power plants.

  14. Nuclear power propulsion system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroteev, A. S.; Oshev, Yu. A.; Popov, S. A.; Karevsky, A. V.; Solodukhin, A. Ye.; Zakharenkov, L. E.; Semenkin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed designs of high-power space tugs that utilize solar or nuclear energy to power an electric jet engine are reviewed. The conceptual design of a nuclear power propulsion system (NPPS) is described; its structural diagram, gas circuit, and electric diagram are discussed. The NPPS incorporates a nuclear reactor, a thermal-to-electric energy conversion system, a system for the conversion and distribution of electric energy, and an electric propulsion system. Two criterion parameters were chosen in the considered NPPS design: the temperature of gaseous working medium at the nuclear reactor outlet and the rotor speed of turboalternators. The maintenance of these parameters at a given level guarantees that the needed electric voltage is generated and allows for power mode control. The processes of startup/shutdown and increasing/reducing the power, the principles of distribution of electric energy over loads, and the probable emergencies for the proposed NPPS design are discussed.

  15. Trends in HPC and Data Center Power, Packaging, and Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    air vs liquid-cooling, and metrics to track it all will be discussed. About the speaker Michael K. Patterson is a Senior Principal Engineer in the Technical Computing Group - Systems Architecture & Pathfinding at the Intel Corporation, in Dupont, Washington, where he works in the power, thermal, and energy-efficient-performance areas of High Performance Computing. The work covers silicon level activity, through platform and rack-level solutions, and on up to interface with Data Center power and cooling technologies. He did his undergraduate work at Purdue University, received his MS degree in Management from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, an...

  16. Temporal response of laser power standards with natural convective cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Gan, Haiyong; Yu, Jing; Zang, Erjun

    2016-01-25

    Laser power detectors with natural convective cooling are convenient to use and hence widely applicable in a power range below 150 W. However, the temporal response characteristics of the laser power detectors need to be studied in detail for accurate measurement. The temporal response based on the absolute laser power standards with natural convective cooling is studied through theoretical analysis, numerical simulations, and experimental verifications. Our results show that the response deviates from a single exponential function and that an ultimate response balance is difficult to achieve because the temperature rise of the heat sink leads to continuous increase of the response. To determine the measurement values, an equal time reading method is proposed and validated by the laser power calibrations.

  17. Workshop on nuclear power growth and nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    It is widely viewed that an expansion of nuclear power would have positive energy, economic and environmental benefits for the world. However, there are concerns about the economic competitiveness, safety and proliferation and terrorism risks of nuclear power. The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power will depend on the ability of governments and industry to address these concerns, including the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen nonproliferation, nuclear materials accountability and nuclear security. In his Prague speech, President Obama stated: 'we should build a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, including an international fuel bank, so that countries can access peaceful power without increasing the risks of proliferation. That must be the right of every nation that renounces nuclear weapons, especially developing countries embarking on peaceful programs. And no approach will succeed if it's based on the denial of rights to nations that play by the rules. We must harness the power of nuclear energy on behalf of our efforts to combat climate change, and to advance peace opportunity for all people.' How can the President's vision, which will rekindle a vigorous public debate over the future of nuclear power and its relation to proliferation, be realized? What critical issues will frame the reemerging debate? What policies must be put into place to address these issues? Will US policy be marked more by continuity or change? To address these and other questions, the Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars will host a workshop on the future of nuclear power and nonproliferation.

  18. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant..., Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (NUREG-1437, Supplement 1), dated......

  19. A small high temperature gas cooled reactor for nuclear marine propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugiere, F.; Sillon, C. [Ecole des Applications Militaires de l' Energie Atomique, 50 - Cherbourg (France); Foster, A.; Hamilton, P.; Jewer, S.; Thompson, A.C. [Defence College of Electromechanical Engineering, Nuclear Dept., Military Rd, Gosport (United Kingdom); Kingston, T.; Williams, A.M.; Beeley, P.A. [Rolls-Royce (Marine Power), Raynesway, Derby (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Results from a design study for a hypothetical nuclear marine propulsion plant are presented. The plant utilizes a small High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGCR) similar to the GTHTR300 design by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency with power being generated by a direct cycle gas turbine. The GTHTR300 design is modified in order to achieve the required power of 80 MWth and core lifetime of approximately 10 years. Thermal hydraulic analysis shows that in the event of a complete loss of flow accident the hot channel fuel temperature exceeds the 1600 Celsius degrees limit due to the high power peaking in assemblies adjacent to the inner reflector. Reactor dynamics shows oscillatory behaviour in rapid power transients. An automatic control rod system is suggested to overcome this problem. (authors)

  20. Thermionic reactors for space nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griaznov, Georgii M.; Zhabotinskii, Evgenii E.; Serbin, Victor I.; Zrodnikov, Anatolii V.; Pupko, Victor Ia.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Usov, V. A.; Nikolaev, Iu. V.

    Compact thermionic nuclear reactor systems with satisfactory mass performance are competitive with space nuclear power systems based on the organic Rankine and closed Brayton cycles. The mass characteristics of the thermionic space nuclear power system are better than that of the solar power system for power levels beyond about 10 kWe. Longlife thermionic fuel element requirements, including their optimal dimensions, and common requirements for the in-core thermionic reactor design are formulated. Thermal and fast in-core thermionic reactors are considered and the ranges of their sensible use are discussed. Some design features of the fast in-core thermionic reactors cores (power range to 1 MWe) including a choice of coolants are discussed. Mass and dimensional performance for thermionic nuclear power reactor system are assessed. It is concluded that thermionic space nuclear power systems are promising power supplies for spacecrafts and that a single basic type of thermionic fuel element may be used for power requirements ranging to several hundred kWe.

  1. Nuclear Engineering Technologists in the Nuclear Power Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes manpower needs in nuclear engineering in the areas of research and development, architectural engineering and construction supervision, power reactor operations, and regulatory tasks. Outlines a suitable curriculum to prepare students for the tasks related to construction and operation of power reactors. (GS)

  2. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  3. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  4. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2011-03-01

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  5. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  6. A thermosyphon heat pipe cooler for high power LEDs cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Tian, Wenkai; Lv, Lucang

    2016-08-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) cooling is facing the challenge of high heat flux more seriously with the increase of input power and diode density. The proposed unique thermosyphon heat pipe heat sink is particularly suitable for cooling of high power density LED chips and other electronics, which has a heat dissipation potential of up to 280 W within an area of 20 mm × 22 mm (>60 W/cm2) under natural air convection. Meanwhile, a thorough visualization investigation was carried out to explore the two phase flow characteristics in the proposed thermosyphon heat pipe. Implementing this novel thermosyphon heat pipe heat sink in the cooling of a commercial 100 W LED integrated chip, a very low apparent thermal resistance of 0.34 K/W was obtained under natural air convection with the aid of the enhanced boiling heat transfer at the evaporation side and the enhanced natural air convection at the condensation side.

  7. The Role of Nuclear Power in Eurpoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The World Energy Council has published the results of an in-depth review of the current state of nuclear power in Europe, and the possible role of this energy source in Europe's energy future. This regional study combines policy insights, technical details and an analysis of the potential for nuclear as a part of the energy-mix.

  8. Viscous Particle Breakup within a Cooling Nuclear Fireball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lock Haven Univ., Lock Haven, PA (United States); Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramon, C. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reid, J. D. [Lock Haven Univ., Lock Haven, PA (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Following the surface detonation of a nuclear weapon, the Earth’s crust and immediate surroundings are drawn into the fireball and form melts. Fallout is formed as these melts incorporate radioactive material from the bomb vapor and cool rapidly. The resultant fallout plume and dispersion of radioactive contamination is a function of several factors including weather patterns and fallout particle shapes and size distributions. Accurate modeling of the size distributions of fallout forms an important data point for dispersion codes that calculate the aerial distribution of fallout. While morphological evidence for aggregation of molten droplets is well documented in fallout glass populations, the breakup of these molten droplets has not been similarly studied. This study documents evidence that quenched fallout populations preserve evidence of molten breakup mechanisms.

  9. High power density reactors based on direct cooled particle beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. R.; Horn, F. L.

    Reactors based on direct cooled High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) type particle fuel are described. The small diameter particle fuel is packed between concentric porous cylinders to make annular fuel elements, with the inlet coolant gas flowing inwards. Hot exit gas flows out along the central channel of each element. Because of the very large heat transfer area in the packed beds, power densities in particle bed reactors (PBRs) are extremely high resulting in compact, lightweight systems. Coolant exit temperatures are high, because of the ceramic fuel temperature capabilities, and the reactors can be ramped to full power and temperature very rapidly. PBR systems can generate very high burst power levels using open cycle hydrogen coolant, or high continuous powers using closed cycle helium coolant. PBR technology is described and development requirements assessed.

  10. Argentina: Nuclear power development and Atucha 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2015-08-15

    In 2014, nuclear energy generated about 5,257 GWh of electricity or a total share of 4.05 % of the total electrical energy of about 129,747.63 GWh kWh produced in Argentina and there has been a trend for this production to increase. Argentina currently has a nuclear production capacity of 1,010 megawatts of electrical energy. However, when the Atucha 2 nuclear power plant is completed and starts commercial operation, it will add 745 megawatts to this electrical production capacity. There are two sites with nuclear power plants in Argentina: Atucha and Embalse. The Embalse nuclear power plant went into operation in 1984. At the Atucha site, the Atucha-1 nuclear power plant started operation in 1974. It was the first nuclear power plant in Latin America. Construction of Atucha-2 started in 1981 but advanced slowly due to funding and was suspended in 1994 when the plant was 81 % built. In 2003, new plans were approved to complete the Atucha 2. I summer 2014 the plant went critical for the first time. The construction was completed under a contract with AECL.

  11. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  12. Study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong Huu Tan [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2000-03-01

    The report presents main results of the study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam which have been carried out at Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission in collaboration with Ministry of Industry of Vietnam and other countries like Japan, Canada and Korea. The study covers all topics related to the nuclear power introduction into Vietnam such as electricity demands and supply, economics, finance, technology, safety, manpower, site selection etc. (author)

  13. Technical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors associated with dry-cooled nuclear energy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    The report includes a review of the current state-of-the-art of dry-cooling technology for industrial and power-generating facilities and an evaluation of its technical potential and cost for large nuclear power plants. Criteria are formulated for coarse screening of the arid regions of the Western United States to select a surrogate site for more detailed site-specific analyses. The screening criteria included seismic considerations, existing transportation facilities, institutional and jurisdictional constraints, waste heat dissipation effects, water requirements, and ecologic and socioeconomic considerations. The Galt site near Las Vegas, Nevada was selected for the surrogate site analysis to assess important issues related to the construction and operation of twelve dry-cooled nuclear power plants at an arid location remote from major load centers. The assessment covers geotechnical, atmospheric and hydrologic considerations, special aspects of transporting large equipment overland to the site from seaports, analyses of potential transmission routes to major load centers, local institutional and taxing provisions, and ecologic and socioeconomic impacts.

  14. Heat and power sources based on nuclear shipbuilding technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veshnyakov, K.; Fadeev, Y.; Panov, Y.; Polunichev, V. [JSC Afrikantov OKBM, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The report gives information on the application of power units with small-power nuclear reactors as advanced energy sources to provide world consumers with electric power, domestic and industrial heat and fresh water. The report describes the technical concept of ABV unified reactor plant (RP) for floating and ground small power plants (SPP) developed in JSC 'Afrikantov OKBM'. The report contains the technical specification of the ABV RP utilizing an integral water-cooled reactor with thermal power of 38 to 45 MW, natural coolant circulation and improved inherent safety, as well as main characteristics of the reactor and core fuel ensuring acceptable mobility of the RP and NPP as a whole. The indicated refueling interval is 10-12 years. The report gives a detailed description of the concept for RP safety provision and compliance with international radiation and nuclear safety requirements, as well as the description of passive and other safety systems securing stability to any low-probability internal events, personnel errors and external impacts. The report provides data on application and technological properties of the floating and ground SPPs with a unified ABV RP; absence of spent fuel and radioactive waste at floating nuclear power plants (FNPP); FNPP transportation to consumers in a ready-to-operate state; arrangement, operation and disposal requirements.

  15. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  16. A combined gas cooled nuclear reactor and fuel cell cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David J.

    Rising oil costs, global warming, national security concerns, economic concerns and escalating energy demands are forcing the engineering communities to explore methods to address these concerns. It is the intention of this thesis to offer a proposal for a novel design of a combined cycle, an advanced nuclear helium reactor/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) plant that will help to mitigate some of the above concerns. Moreover, the adoption of this proposal may help to reinvigorate the Nuclear Power industry while providing a practical method to foster the development of a hydrogen economy. Specifically, this thesis concentrates on the importance of the U.S. Nuclear Navy adopting this novel design for its nuclear electric vessels of the future with discussion on efficiency and thermodynamic performance characteristics related to the combined cycle. Thus, the goals and objectives are to develop an innovative combined cycle that provides a solution to the stated concerns and show that it provides superior performance. In order to show performance, it is necessary to develop a rigorous thermodynamic model and computer program to analyze the SOFC in relation with the overall cycle. A large increase in efficiency over the conventional pressurized water reactor cycle is realized. Both sides of the cycle achieve higher efficiencies at partial loads which is extremely important as most naval vessels operate at partial loads as well as the fact that traditional gas turbines operating alone have poor performance at reduced speeds. Furthermore, each side of the cycle provides important benefits to the other side. The high temperature exhaust from the overall exothermic reaction of the fuel cell provides heat for the reheater allowing for an overall increase in power on the nuclear side of the cycle. Likewise, the high temperature helium exiting the nuclear reactor provides a controllable method to stabilize the fuel cell at an optimal temperature band even during transients helping

  17. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy......

  18. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  19. Specific power of liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.

    1987-10-01

    Calculations of the core specific power for conceptual space-based liquid-metal-cooled reactors, based on heat transfer considerations, are presented for three different fuel types: (1) pin-type fuel; (2) cermet fuel; and (3) thermionic fuel. The calculations are based on simple models and are intended to provide preliminary comparative results. The specific power is of interest because it is a measure of the core mass required to produce a given amount of power. Potential problems concerning zero-g critical heat flux and loss-of-coolant accidents are also discussed because these concerns may limit the core specific power. Insufficient experimental data exists to accurately determine the critical heat flux of liquid-metal-cooled reactors in space; however, preliminary calculations indicate that it may be a concern. Results also indicate that the specific power of the pin-type fuels can be increased significantly if the gap between the fuel and the clad is eliminated. Cermet reactors offer the highest specific power because of the excellent thermal conductivity of the core matrix material. However, it may not be possible to take fuel advantage of this characteristic when loss-of-coolant accidents are considered in the final core design. The specific power of the thermionic fuels is dependent mainly on the emitter temperature. The small diameter thermionic fuels have specific powers comparable to those of pin-type fuels. 11 refs., 12 figs, 2 tabs.

  20. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  1. Studies of Fourteen Nuclear-Powered Airplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, J. N.; McCulloch, J. C.; Schmill, W. C.; Ward, W. H.

    1952-09-01

    A representative series of aircraft which could be powered by a relatively low-temperature liquid-coolant-cycle nuclear power plant are described. Present aircraft such as the B-36, B-52, and B-47 bombers as well as new designs were investigated. Design and performance characteristics of all the aircraft are presented.

  2. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides guidance on recordkeeping and... nuclear material control and accounting system requirements for nuclear power plants. This guide applies...

  3. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In DG-5028... Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit comments by July 16, 2012...

  4. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... petitioners'') has requested that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant... with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant (Fitzpatrick), Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

  5. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  6. Transient Load Following and Control Analysis of Advanced S-CO2 Power Conversion with Dry Air Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, Anton; Sienicki, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycles are under development as advanced energy converters for advanced nuclear reactors, especially the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). The use of dry air cooling for direct heat rejection to the atmosphere ultimate heat sink is increasingly becoming a requirement in many regions due to restrictions on water use. The transient load following and control behavior of an SFR with an S-CO2 cycle power converter utilizing dry air cooling have been investigated. With extension and adjustment of the previously existing control strategy for direct water cooling, S-CO2 cycle power converters can also be used for load following operation in regions where dry air cooling is a requirement

  7. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs.

  8. The nuclear power discussion in change. Nuclear controversy has shifted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Kuester, Wolf J.; Popp, Manfred

    2015-07-15

    The public discussion on nuclear energy is not focused on power plant safety anymore. A globally good safety statistic and years of information activity on safety technology provided progress, even though all incidents are still discussed with great dedication. Nevertheless the field of disposal receives more prominence in public discussions since 1976; reprocessing of irradiated fuels and storage of nuclear waste follow the topic of nuclear power plants with temporary shift. During a long preparation time technical and operational know-how was gathered for both fields that is now available for use on large technical scale. For the entire disposal complex exists a comprehensive concept prepared by the federal government, which has to be put into practice together with the industry. The priority assignment for a dialogue with the public is to comprehensively inform on extend and quality of problem solutions and to highlight that even here the safety of the biological-cycle is the guiding principle for all considerations.

  9. Nuclear Power: Entering the Stage of Active Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lianyi; Zhu Li

    2009-01-01

    @@ Development course Since 1970 when the construction preparation of Qinshan No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant started, China's nuclear power industry has grown out of nothing, and then adjusted the step from moderate development to vigorous development. In this course, China's nuclear power equipment manufacturing industry has also been unceasingly developing and strengthening itself with the construction of nuclear power plants one by one.

  10. Thermodynamics in nuclear power plant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems, honing in on the application of these principles to nuclear reactor powersystems. It includes all the necessary information regarding the fundamental laws to gain a complete understanding and apply them specifically to the challenges of operating nuclear plants. Beginning with definitions of thermodynamic variables such as temperature, pressure and specific volume, the book then explains the laws in detail, focusing on pivotal concepts such as enthalpy and entropy, irreversibilit

  11. Recent Advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Heon Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recent advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants (ONPPs are reviewed, including their general arrangement, design parameters, and safety features. The development of ONPP concepts have continued due to initiatives taking place in France, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Russia’s first floating nuclear power stations utilizing the PWR technology (KLT-40S and the spar-type offshore floating nuclear power plant designed by a research group in United States are considered herein. The APR1400 and SMART mounted Gravity Based Structure (GBS-type ONPPs proposed by a research group in South Korea are also considered. In addition, a submerged-type ONPP designed by DCNS of France is taken into account. Last, issues and challenges related to ONPPs are discussed and summarized.

  12. Cooling System Design for PEM Fuel Cell Powered Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    radiator #7. The fan blades and shroud were formed using stereo lithography; the fan motor was a brushless DC motor with motor controller. These...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6110--10-9253 Cooling System Design for PEM Fuel Cell Powered Air Vehicles June 18, 2010...Stroman, Michael W. Schuette,* and Gregory S. Page† Naval Research Laboratory 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20375-5342 NRL/MR/6110--10-9253

  13. Magnetocaloric Materials and the Optimization of Cooling Power Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikus, Patrick; Canavan, Edgar; Heine, Sarah Trowbridge; Matsumoto, Koichi; Numazawa, Takenori

    2014-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect is the thermal response of a material to an external magnetic field. This manuscript focuses on the physics and the properties of materials which are commonly used for magnetic refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures. After a brief overview of the magnetocaloric effect and associated thermodynamics, typical requirements on refrigerants are discussed from a standpoint of cooling power density optimization. Finally, a compilation of the most important properties of several common magnetocaloric materials is presented.

  14. Legionella control in power station cooling towers using oxidising biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Christian; Rawlinson, Julia; Killeen, Paul [Ecolab PTY LTD, Ascot, WA (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    Power stations have used oxidising biocides such as chlorine or bromine for many years to control microbial growth in their cooling towers. In this paper Ecolab trademark looks at the direct effect halogen concentration has on Legionella populations in order to determine the most effective halogenation rate required to ensure that the site key performance indicator (KPI) of < 100 colony-forming units (cfu) per mL can be maintained. (orig.)

  15. Summary of space nuclear reactor power systems, 1983--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1993-08-11

    This report summarizes major developments in the last ten years which have greatly expanded the space nuclear reactor power systems technology base. In the SP-100 program, after a competition between liquid-metal, gas-cooled, thermionic, and heat pipe reactors integrated with various combinations of thermoelectric thermionic, Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling energy conversion systems, three concepts:were selected for further evaluation. In 1985, the high-temperature (1,350 K), lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectric conversion was selected for full scale development. Since then, significant progress has been achieved including the demonstration of a 7-y-life uranium nitride fuel pin. Progress on the lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics has progressed from a concept, through a generic flight system design, to the design, development, and testing of specific components. Meanwhile, the USSR in 1987--88 orbited a new generation of nuclear power systems beyond the, thermoelectric plants on the RORSAT satellites. The US has continued to advance its own thermionic fuel element development, concentrating on a multicell fuel element configuration. Experimental work has demonstrated a single cell operating time of about 1 1/2-y. Technology advances have also been made in the Stirling engine; an advanced engine that operates at 1,050 K is ready for testing. Additional concepts have been studied and experiments have been performed on a variety of systems to meet changing needs; such as powers of tens-to-hundreds of megawatts and highly survivable systems of tens-of-kilowatts power.

  16. The Fundamentals and Status of Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzie, Regis A.

    2011-11-01

    Nuclear power has enormous potential to provide clean, safe base-load electricity to the world's growing population. Harnessing this potential in an economic and responsible manner is not without challenges. Safety remains the principal tenet of our operating fleet, which currently provides ˜20% of U.S. electricity generated. The performance of this fleet from economic and safety standpoints has improved dramatically over the past several decades. This nuclear generation also represents greater than 70% of the emission free electricity with hydroelectric power providing the majority of the remainder. There have been many lessons learned from the more than 50 years of experience with nuclear power and these have been factored into the new designs now being constructed worldwide. These new designs, which have enhanced safety compared to the operating fleet, have been simplified by employing passive safety systems and modular construction. There are applications for licenses of more than 20 new reactors under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; the first of these licenses will be completed in early 2012, and the first new U.S. reactor will start operating in 2016. Yet there are still more improvements that can be made and these are being pursued to achieve an even greater deployment of nuclear power technology.

  17. Operating Experience at the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, S. (ed.)

    1966-09-15

    Sweden's first nuclear power reactor Agesta, achieved criticality on July 17, 1963. Full power (65 MW{sub t}) was attained on March 20, 1964. Aagesta is a heavy water cooled and moderated pressure vessel reactor used for production of electricity as well as for district heating. The design, assembly and construction etc, of the reactor was described in detail in a staff report by AB Atomenergi, 'The Aagesta Nuclear Power Station' edited by B McHugh, which was published in September, 1964. In the book experiences from the commissioning and the first operation of the reactor were reported as well as findings from the extensive reactor physics studies made during this period. The report now presented is written by members of the operating team at Aagesta since its start. It reflects in general the experiences up to the end of 1965. The Aagesta Log, however, covers the period up to the normal summer stop 1966. The reactor has hitherto produced 506,000 MWh power of which 48,700 MWh have been electric power. In July 1965 the responsibility for the reactor operation was taken over by the Swedish State Power Board from AB Atomenergi, which company had started the reactor and operated it until the summer break 1965.

  18. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  19. Development of Thermoelectric Power Generation and Peltier Cooling Properties of Materials for Thermoelectric Cryocooling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Development of Thermoelectric Power Generation and Peltier Cooling Properties of Materials for Thermoelectric...Thermoelectric Power Generation and Peltier Cooling Properties of Materials for Thermoelectric Cryocooling Devices Report Title The research

  20. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit......

  1. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed......

  2. Delayed gamma power measurement for sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, R., E-mail: romain.coulon@cea.f [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Normand, S., E-mail: stephane.normand@cea.f [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ban, G., E-mail: ban@lpccaen.in2p3.f [ENSICAEN, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex 4 (France); Barat, E.; Montagu, T.; Dautremer, T. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Modelisation Simulation et Systemes, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Brau, H.-P. [ICSM, Centre de Marcoule, BP 17171 F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Dumarcher, V. [AREVA NP, SET, F-84500 Bollene (France); Michel, M.; Barbot, L.; Domenech, T.; Boudergui, K.; Bourbotte, J.-M. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jousset, P. [CEA, LIST, Departement des Capteurs, du Signal et de l' Information, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Barouch, G.; Ravaux, S.; Carrel, F. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Modelisation Simulation et Systemes, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saurel, N. [CEA, DAM, Laboratoire Mesure de Dechets et Expertise, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Frelin-Labalme, A.-M.; Hamrita, H. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: {sup 20}F and {sup 23}Ne tagging agents are produced by fast neutron flux. {sup 20}F signal has been measured at the SFR Phenix prototype. A random error of only 3% for an integration time of 2 s could be achieved. {sup 20}F and {sup 23}Ne power measurement has a reduced temperature influence. Burn-up impact could be limited by simultaneous {sup 20}F and {sup 23}Ne measurement. - Abstract: Previous works on pressurized water reactors show that the nitrogen 16 activation product can be used to measure thermal power. Power monitoring using a more stable indicator than ex-core neutron measurements is required for operational sodium-cooled fast reactors, in order to improve their economic efficiency at the nominal operating point. The fluorine 20 and neon 23 produced by (n,{alpha}) and (n,p) capture in the sodium coolant have this type of convenient characteristic, suitable for power measurements with low build-up effects and a potentially limited temperature, flow rate, burn-up and breeding dependence. This method was tested for the first time during the final tests program of the French Phenix sodium-cooled fast reactor at CEA Marcoule, using the ADONIS gamma pulse analyzer. Despite a non-optimal experimental configuration for this application, the delayed gamma power measurement was pre-validated, and found to provide promising results.

  3. What is nuclear power in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    The aggressive use of such non-fossil energy as the atomic energy with high power density and energy production efficiency is an indispensable choice aiming at the low-carbon society. There is a trial calculation that the carbon dioxide emission of 40000 ton can be suppressed by nuclear power generation by one ton of uranium. The basis of nuclear research after the Second World War in Japan was established by the researchers learnt in Argonne National Laboratory. In 2010, NPPs under operation are 54 units and the total electric generating power is 48.85GW. The amount of nuclear power generation per person of the people is 0.38kW in Japan, and it is near 0.34kW of the United States. However, the TMI accident and the Chernobyl disaster should have greatly stagnated the nuclear industry of Japan although it is not more serious than the United States. A lot of Japanese unconsciously associate a nuclear accident with the atomic bomb. According to the investigation which Science and Technology Agency carried out to the specialist in 1999, ``What will be the field where talent should be emphatically sent in the future?'' the rank of nuclear technology was the lowest in 32 fields. The influence of the nuclear industry stagnation was remarkable in the education. The subject related to the atomic energy of a university existed 19 in 1985 that was the previous year of the Chernobyl disaster decreased to 7 in 2003. In such a situation, we have to rely on the atomic energy because Japan depends for 96% of energy resources on import. The development of the fuel reprocessing and the fast breeder reactor has been continued in spite of a heavy failure. That is the only means left behind for Japan to be released from both fossil fuel and carbon dioxide.

  4. Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-16

    Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of water to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort

  5. Assessment of nuclear power plant siting methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.; Hobbs, B.F.; Pierce, B.L.; Meier, P.M.

    1979-11-01

    Several different methods have been developed for selecting sites for nuclear power plants. This report summarizes the basic assumptions and formal requirements of each method and evaluates conditions under which each is correctly applied to power plant siting problems. It also describes conditions under which different siting methods can produce different results. Included are criteria for evaluating the skill with which site-selection methods have been applied.

  6. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    with uranium to make mixed-oxide ( MOX ) fuel, in which the 239Pu largely substitutes for 235U. Two French reprocessing plants at La Hague can each...and France also have older plants to reprocess gas-cooled reactor fuel, and India has a 275-ton plant.53 About 200 metric tons of MOX fuel is used...to make MOX fuel for today’s nuclear power plants are modest. Existing commercial light water reactors use ordinary water to slow down, or “moderate

  7. Power flattening on modified CANDLE small long life gas-cooled fast reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monado, Fiber; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul; Ariani, Menik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the candidates of next generation Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that expected to be operated commercially after 2030. In this research conceptual design study of long life 350 MWt GFR with natural uranium metallic fuel as fuel cycle input has been performed. Modified CANDLE burn-up strategy with first and second regions located near the last region (type B) has been applied. This reactor can be operated for 10 years without refuelling and fuel shuffling. Power peaking reduction is conducted by arranging the core radial direction into three regions with respectively uses fuel volume fraction 62.5%, 64% and 67.5%. The average power density in the modified core is about 82 Watt/cc and the power peaking factor decreased from 4.03 to 3.43.

  8. Power flattening on modified CANDLE small long life gas-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monado, Fiber [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia and Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University (Indonesia); Su' ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Ariani, Menik [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University (Indonesia); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [CRINES, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okoyama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-09-30

    Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the candidates of next generation Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that expected to be operated commercially after 2030. In this research conceptual design study of long life 350 MWt GFR with natural uranium metallic fuel as fuel cycle input has been performed. Modified CANDLE burn-up strategy with first and second regions located near the last region (type B) has been applied. This reactor can be operated for 10 years without refuelling and fuel shuffling. Power peaking reduction is conducted by arranging the core radial direction into three regions with respectively uses fuel volume fraction 62.5%, 64% and 67.5%. The average power density in the modified core is about 82 Watt/cc and the power peaking factor decreased from 4.03 to 3.43.

  9. Public participation and trust in nuclear power development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of nuclear power in China requires not only increasing institutional capacity to prevent and adequately cope with nuclear risks, but also increasing public trust in governmental agencies and nuclear enterprises managing nuclear risks. Using a case study on Haiyang nuclear power plant

  10. Public participation and trust in nuclear power development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of nuclear power in China requires not only increasing institutional capacity to prevent and adequately cope with nuclear risks, but also increasing public trust in governmental agencies and nuclear enterprises managing nuclear risks. Using a case study on Haiyang nuclear power plant

  11. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  12. CLAD CARBIDE NUCLEAR FUEL, THERMIONIC POWER, MODULES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The general objective is to evaluate a clad carbide emitter, thermionic power module which simulates nuclear reactor installation, design, and...performance. The module is an assembly of two series-connected converters with a single common cesium reservoir. The program goal is 500 hours

  13. Financing strategies for nuclear power decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-07-01

    The report analyzes several alternatives for financing the decommissioning of nuclear power plants from the point of view of assurance, cost, equity, and other criteria. Sensitivity analyses are performed on several important variables and possible impacts on representative companies' rates are discussed and illustrated.

  14. Nuclear Power: Problems in Information Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, William

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered at the Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh's nuclear power plant as the result of an inability to process information effectively and keep pace with technological change. The creation of a separate division trained and directed to manage the plant's information flows is described and evaluated. (CLB)

  15. Human Mars Surface Mission Nuclear Power Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2018-01-01

    A key decision facing Mars mission designers is how to power a crewed surface field station. Unlike the solar-powered Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) that could retreat to a very low power state during a Martian dust storm, human Mars surface missions are estimated to need at least 15 kilowatts of electrical (kWe) power simply to maintain critical life support and spacecraft functions. 'Hotel' loads alone for a pressurized crew rover approach two kWe; driving requires another five kWe-well beyond what the Curiosity rover’s Radioisotope Power System (RPS) was designed to deliver. Full operation of a four-crew Mars field station is estimated at about 40 kWe. Clearly, a crewed Mars field station will require a substantial and reliable power source, beyond the scale of robotic mission experience. This paper explores the applications for both fission and RPS nuclear options for Mars.

  16. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide 5.66, ``Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide... Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants,'' and 10 CFR part 26, ``Fitness for Duty Programs.'' The......

  17. The Design of the Trading Mechanism to Adapt the Development of Mixed Cooling Heating and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. N.; Li, Z. H.; Zhou, H. M.; Zhao, Q.; Xu, X. F.

    2017-08-01

    The enterprise who has combined cooling heating and power system has both the customer group and the power generation resources. Therefore, it can be used as a power user, and can also be used as a power generation enterprise to participate in the direct purchase of electricity. This paper combines characteristics of mixed cooling heating and power, designs application business model of mixed cooling heating and power, and puts forward to the scene of cooling heating and power trading scheme, helping the enterprise according to the power supply and demand situation in the region adjust their positions and participate in the electricity market.

  18. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  19. The development of advanced cooling methods for high-power electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, T. J.; Ciaccio, M. P.; Downing, R. S.; Smith, W. G.

    1990-10-01

    Consideration is given to various technologies developed to meet the difficult cooling requirements of high-density power electronics equipment for the aerospace industry. Topics discussed include liquid impingement cooling, compact high-density cooler, integrally cooled semiconductor, high heat flux cold plane, immersion cooling, modular reflux cooler, and forced-flow two-phase cooling systems. It is concluded that the new technologies are capable of providing the temperature control necessary to maintain desired electronic reliabilities using high-conductance cooling approaches.

  20. Nuclear-Powered GPS Spacecraft Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Bernard

    1977-05-01

    This is the final report of a study to investigate the potential benefits of a nuclear (radioisotope) - powered satellite for advanced phases of the Global Positioning System (GPS) program. The critical parameters were: power to user; mean mission duration; orbital predictability; thermal control of on-board frequency standards; and vulnerability. The reference design approach is described, and input data are given for two power systems that are under development: an organic Rankine system and a Brayton cycle system. Reference design details are provided and structural design and analysis are discussed, as well as thermal design and analysis. A higher altitude version is also considered.

  1. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  2. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear

  3. Transactions of the fifth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these paper include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  4. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  5. Investigation of the Use of Absorption Cooling Cycles to Reduce the Amount of Cooling Water Needed for Power Plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, Bobby D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report outlines a preliminary study on the feasibility of using absorption cooling technology to cool thermoelectric power plants. Water availability is becoming more important in the production of energy throughout the world, especially in thermoelectric power generation. Currently, thermoelectric power generation accounts for about 48% of all water withdrawals in the United States. Rising population, increasing e lectricity use per capita, and decreasing water reserves threaten the availability of water for use in cooling power plants. To this end, Sandia National Laboratories has begun an initiative to find ways to increase the water use efficiency of power plants . In 2016, the New Mexico Small Business Association funded a project whereby Sandia would complete a preliminary assessment of the viability of utilizing absorption cooling technologies to aid in cooling thermoelectric power plants, thereby decreasing the amount of water required to generate electricity. This project was proposed by Thales Energy, a small business located in Albuquerque, NM. Due to time and money constraints, only a preliminary analysis was performed. The results indicate that the use of a bsorption cooling technologies is scientifically feasible and that, with more engineering analysis, may be economically feasible for some power plants, dependent upon local environmental conditions and the price currently being paid for cooling water by th e plant.

  6. Photovoltaic cost reduction powered by nuclear spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Between 1975 to 2010, Japan has spent an average of 2700 Million per year on nuclear R&D and 74 Million per year on solar energy R&D (2010 dollars). While the cost of photovoltaics dropped by a factor of 30 during that time, the overnight cost to build a nuclear power plant has doubled between 2003 and 2009. The price of commercially available photovoltaics has been shown to follow a power law reduction with the number of units produced. This begs the question as to what the current price of these systems would be had some of the available funds used for nuclear R&D been spent on the acquisition of photovoltaics. Here we show the reduction in price for single crystal photovoltaic panels if the Japanese government spent some of their nuclear R&D funds on the installation of these systems. We use historical cost and cumulative production for the world and Japan to build a learning curve model for PV. If the government had spent only 0.07% of its nuclear R&D budget toward PV technology since 1975, photovoltaics would now have reached 1/Watt, the point at which they are cost competitive with conventional resources.

  7. Intelligent Component Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefteri Tsoukalas

    2010-07-30

    Reliability and economy are two major concerns for a nuclear power generation system. Next generation nuclear power reactors are being developed to be more reliable and economic. An effective and efficient surveillance system can generously contribute toward this goal. Recent progress in computer systems and computational tools has made it necessary and possible to upgrade current surveillance/monitoring strategy for better performance. For example, intelligent computing techniques can be applied to develop algorithm that help people better understand the information collected from sensors and thus reduce human error to a new low level. Incidents incurred from human error in nuclear industry are not rare and have been proven costly. The goal of this project is to develop and test an intelligent prognostics methodology for predicting aging effects impacting long-term performance of nuclear components and systems. The approach is particularly suitable for predicting the performance of nuclear reactor systems which have low failure probabilities (e.g., less than 10-6 year-). Such components and systems are often perceived as peripheral to the reactor and are left somewhat unattended. That is, even when inspected, if they are not perceived to be causing some immediate problem, they may not be paid due attention. Attention to such systems normally involves long term monitoring and possibly reasoning with multiple features and evidence, requirements that are not best suited for humans.

  8. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear...

  9. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  10. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, T.J. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  11. Design and construction of nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Schnell, Jürgen; Meiswinkel, Rüdiger; Bergmeister, Konrad; Fingerloos, Frank; Wörner, Johann-Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Despite all the efforts being put into expanding renewable energy sources, large-scale power stations will be essential as part of a reliable energy supply strategy for a longer period. Given that they are low on CO2 emissions, many countries are moving into or expanding nuclear energy to cover their baseload supply.Building structures required for nuclear installations whose protective function means they are classified as safety-related, have to meet particular construction requirements more stringent than those involved in conventional construction. This book gives a comprehensive overv

  12. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su; Chae, Kyu Nam

    1996-12-01

    The major contents in this study are as follows : (1) Efforts are made to examine the role of nuclear energy considering environmental regulation. An econometric model for energy demand and supply including carbon tax imposition is established. (2) Analysis for the learning effect of nuclear power plant operation is performed. The study is focused to measure the effect of technology homogeneity on the operation performance. (3) A preliminary capital cost of the KALIMER is estimated by using cost computer program, which is developed in this study. (author). 36 refs.,46 tabs., 15 figs.

  13. Assessment of solar-powered cooling of buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, H.M.

    1975-04-01

    Three solar-powered cooling concepts are analyzed and evaluated. These are: (1) the solar Rankine concept in which a Rankine cycle driven by solar energy is used to drive a vapor compression refrigeration machine, (2) the solar-assisted Rankine concept in which a Rankine cycle driven by both solar energy and fuel combustion is used to drive a vapor compression refrigeration machine, and (3) the solar absorption concept in which solar energy is used to drive an absorption refrigeration machine. These concepts are compared on the bases of coefficient of performance, requirements for primary fuel input, and economic considerations. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  14. State of the art of nuclear facilities with organic cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brede, O.; Nagel, S.; Ziegenbein, D.

    1984-06-01

    USA, Canadian, and USSR activities aimed at developing nuclear facilities with organic cooled reactors are summarized. The facilities OMRE, PNPF, WR-1, and ARBUS are described, discussing in particular the problems of the chemistry of organic coolants. Finally, problems of further development and prospects of the application of organic cooled reactors are briefly outlined.

  15. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 12, boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  16. Heat pipe cooled reactors for multi-kilowatt space power supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranken, W.A.; Houts, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Three nuclear reactor space power system designs are described that demonstrate how the use of high temperature heat pipes for reactor heat transport, combined with direct conversion of heat to electricity, can result in eliminating pumped heat transport loops for both primary reactor cooling and heat rejection. The result is a significant reduction in system complexity that leads to very low mass systems with high reliability, especially in the power range of 1 to 20 kWe. In addition to removing heat exchangers, electromagnetic pumps, and coolant expansion chambers, the heat pipe/direct conversion combination provides such capabilities as startup from the frozen state, automatic rejection of reactor decay heat in the event of emergency or accidental reactor shutdown, and the elimination of single point failures in the reactor cooling system. The power system designs described include a thermoelectric system that can produce 1 to 2 kWe, a bimodal modification of this system to increase its power level to 5 kWe and incorporate high temperature hydrogen propulsion capability, and a moderated thermionic reactor concept with 5 to 20 kWe power output that is based on beryllium modules that thermally couple cylindrical thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) to radiator heat pipes.

  17. Heat pipe cooled reactors for multi-kilowatt space power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranken, W. A.; Houts, M. G.

    Three nuclear reactor space power system designs are described that demonstrate how the use of high temperature heat pipes for reactor heat transport, combined with direct conversion of heat to electricity, can result in eliminating pumped heat transport loops for both primary reactor cooling and heat rejection. The result is a significant reduction in system complexity that leads to very low mass systems with high reliability, especially in the power range of 1 to 20 kWe. In addition to removing heat exchangers, electromagnetic pumps, and coolant expansion chambers, the heat pipe/direct conversion combination provides such capabilities as startup from the frozen state, automatic rejection of reactor decay heat in the event of emergency or accidental reactor shutdown, and the elimination of single point failures in the reactor cooling system. The power system designs described include a thermoelectric system that can produce 1 to 2 kWe, a bimodal modification of this system to increase its power level to 5 kWe and incorporate high temperature hydrogen propulsion capability, and a moderated thermionic reactor concept with 5 to 20 kWe power output that is based on beryllium modules that thermally couple cylindrical thermionic fuel elements (TFE's) to radiator heat pipes.

  18. 75 FR 14638 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and...Energy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee), for operation of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant... Manager, Plant Licensing Branch III-2, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear...

  19. Light weight space power reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewig, H.; Mughabghab, S.; Lazareth, O.; Perkins, K.; Schmidt, E.; Powell, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    A Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) unit capable of propelling a manned vehicle to MARS will be required to have a value of {alpha} (kg/kWe) which is less than five. In order to meet this goal the reactor mass, and thus its contribution to the value of {alpha} will have to be minimized. In this paper a candidate for such a reactor is described. It consists of a gas cooled Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), with specially chosen materials which allow it to operate at an exit temperature of approximately 2000 K. One of the unique features of a PBR is the direct cooling of particulate fuel by the working fluid. This feature allows for high power densities, highest possible gas exit temperatures, for a given fuel temperature and because of the thin particle bed a low pressure drop. The PBR's described in this paper will have a ceramic moderator (Be{sub 2}C), ZrC coated fuel particles and a carbon/carbon hot frit. All the reactors will be designed with sufficient fissile loading to operate at full power for seven years. The burn up possible with particulate fuel is approximately 30%--50%. These rector designs achieve a value of {alpha} less than unity in the power range of interest (5 MWe). 5 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Microgravity Spray Cooling Research for High Powered Laser Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivich, Chad P.

    2004-01-01

    An extremely powerful laser is being developed at Goddard Space Flight Center for use on a satellite. This laser has several potential applications. One application is to use it for upper atmosphere weather research. In this case, the laser would reflect off aerosols in the upper atmosphere and bounce back to the satellite, where the aerosol velocities could be calculated and thus the upper atmosphere weather patterns could be monitored. A second application would be for the US. Air Force, which wants to use the laser strategically as a weapon for satellite defense. The Air Force fears that in the coming years as more and more nations gain limited space capabilities that American satellites may become targets, and the laser could protect the satellites. Regardless of the ultimate application, however, a critical step along the way to putting the laser in space is finding a way to efficiently cool it. While operating the laser becomes very hot and must be cooled to prevent overheating. On earth, this is accomplished by simply running cool tap water over the laser to keep it cool. But on a satellite, this is too inefficient. This would require too much water mass to be practical. Instead, we are investigating spray cooling as a means to cool the laser in microgravity. Spray cooling requires much less volume of fluid, and thus could be suitable for use on a satellite. We have inherited a 2.2 second Drop Tower rig to conduct our research with. In our experiments, water is pressurized with a compressed air tank and sprayed through a nozzle onto our test plate. We can vary the pressure applied to the water and the temperature of the plate before an experiment trial. The whole process takes place in simulated microgravity in the 2.2 second Drop Tower, and a high speed video camera records the spray as it hits the plate. We have made much progress in the past few weeks on these experiments. The rig originally did not have the capability to heat the test plate, but I did

  1. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  2. 75 FR 16524 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background First.... NFP-58, which authorizes operation of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (PNPP). The license... rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the...

  3. U.S. Nuclear Power Reactor Plant Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — Demographic data on U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors, including: plant name/unit number, docket number, location, licensee, reactor/containment type, nuclear...

  4. Numerical analysis of transient pressure variation in the condenser of a nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinjun; Zhou, Zijie; Song, Zhao [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Lu, Qiankui; Li, Jiafu [Dong Fang Turbine Co., Ltd, Deyang (China)

    2016-02-15

    To research the characteristics of the transient variation of pressure in a nuclear power station condenser under accident condition, a mathematical model was established which simulated the cycling cooling water, heat transfer and pressure in the condenser. The calculation program of transient variation characteristics was established in Fortran language. The pump's parameter, cooling line's organization, check valve's feature and the parameter of siphonic water-collecting well are involved in the cooling water flow's mathematical model. The initial conditions of control volume are determined by the steady state of the condenser. The transient characteristics of a 1000 MW nuclear power station's condenser and cooling water system were examined. The results show that at the condition of plant-power suspension of pump, the cooling water flow rate decreases rapidly and refluxes, then fluctuates to 0. The variation of heat transfer coefficient in the condenser has three stages: at start it decreases sharply, then increases and decreases, and keeps constant in the end. Under three conditions (design, water and summer), the condenser pressure goes up in fluctuation. The time intervals between condenser's pressure signals under three conditions are about 26.4 s, which can fulfill the requirement for safe operation of nuclear power station.

  5. Community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    This is the first of a two part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Here I am concerned with anticipating community response. In part two (Burt, 1978), I am concerned with conflict resolution strategies. The specific policy used as illustration is siting nuclear power facilities. Published accounts of siting nuclear facilities are used to identify basic social parameters of the nuclear power issue as a community conflict. Changes in the form and content of relations in the network among opponents and proponents of a facility are described. Subsequently, the description is used to specify a causal model of the manner in which conflict escalation is promoted or inhibited by the characteristics and leadership structure of a community in which a nuclear facility is proposed. Hypotheses are derived predicting what types of communities can be expected to become embroiled in conflict and the process that conflict escalation will follow.

  6. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairlie Ian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  7. Key issues in space nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  8. Overview of materials technologies for space nuclear power and propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Ott, L. J.; Ingersoll, D. T.; Ellis, R. J.; Grossbeck, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    A wide range of different space nuclear systems are currently being evaluated as part of the DOE Special Purpose Fission Technology program. The near-term subset of systems scheduled to be evaluated range from 50 kWe gas-, pumped liquid metal-, or liquid metal heat pipe-cooled reactors for space propulsion to 3 kWe heat pipe or pumped liquid metal systems for Mars surface power applications. The current status of the materials technologies required for the successful development of near-term space nuclear power and propulsion systems is reviewed. Materials examined in this overview include fuels (UN, UO2, UZrH), cladding and structural materials (stainless steel, superalloys, refractory alloys), neutron reflector materials (Be, BeO), and neutron shield materials (B4C,LiH). The materials technologies issues are considerably less demanding for the 3 kWe reactor systems due to lower operating temperatures, lower fuel burnup, and lower radiation damage levels. A few reactor subcomponents in the 3 kWe reactors under evaluation are being used near or above their engineering limits, which may adversely affect the 5 to 10 year lifetime design goal. It appears that most of these issues for the 3 kWe reactor systems can be accommodated by incorporating a few engineering design changes. Design limits (temperature, burnup, stress, radiation levels) for the various materials proposed for space nuclear reactors will be summarized. For example, the temperature and stress limits for Type 316 stainless steel in the 3 kWe Na-cooled heat pipe reactor (Stirling engine) concept will be controlled by thermal creep and CO2 corrosion considerations rather than radiation damage issues. Conversely, the lower operating temperature limit for the LiH shield material will likely be defined by ionizing radiation damage (radiolysis)-induced swelling, even for the relatively low radiation doses associated with the 3 kWe reactor. .

  9. Nuclear Power for Sustainable Development : Current Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Adamantiades, A.; Kessides, I.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in nuclear power has been revived as a result of volatile fossil fuel prices, concerns about the security of energy supplies, and global climate change. This paper describes the current status and future plans for expansion of nuclear power, the advances in nuclear reactor technology, and their impacts on the associated risks and performance of nuclear power. Advanced nuclear reactors have been designed to be simpler and safer, and to have lower costs than currently operating reactor...

  10. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    OpenAIRE

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operat...

  11. Nuclear power development in the Eighties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibe, L.D.

    1974-01-01

    Plans to accelerate the nation-wide rural electrification program and tap energy sources to reduce dependency on oil-fired plants to reasonably low levels within the decade in the Philippines were announced. The specific goals of the National Energy Plan are: the reduction of the country's oil dependency for its total energy needs from the present high 93 percent to 76 percent by 1985; for power generation, the contribution of oil-fired power plants to be reduced from the present level of 75 percent to 37 percent by 1985; and for other energy uses, 15 percent to 20 percent savings through conservation measures and improvements in energy utilization efficiency. The Energy Plan aims at a balanced contribution from hydro, conventional thermal, geothermal, and nuclear plants by 1990. Plans for the power generation expansion program by the National Power Corporation (NPC) are described for the Luzon, Mindanao, and Visayas regions. It is concluded that the National Energy Plan and the NPC program encompass: no additional oil-fired generating units except for those planned or ordered; geothermal and nuclear power stations will provide energy for future base load operations; and hydro installation will provide peaking needs. (MCW)

  12. The Resurgence of U.S. Nuclear Power, 2. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The updated report provides an overview of the opportunities for nuclear power in the U.S. electric industry, including a concise look at the challenges faced by nuclear power, the ability of advanced nuclear reactors to address these challenges, and the current state of nuclear power generation. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of U.S. Nuclear Power including its history, the current market environment, and the future of nuclear power in the U.S.; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in nuclear power; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of new nuclear power plants; a description of nuclear power technology including existing reactors, as well as 3rd and 4th generation reactor designs; a review of the economics of new nuclear power projects and comparison to other generation alternatives; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting nuclear power development; profiles of the key reactor manufacturers participating in the U.S. nuclear power market; and, profiles of the leading U.S. utilities participating in the U.S. nuclear power market.

  13. 77 FR 55509 - Indiana Michigan Power Company; Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' and Appendix K to 10 CFR 50, ``ECCS... regulations. As written, the regulations presume the use of zircaloy or ZIRLO TM fuel rod cladding. Thus, an... fuel rod cladding material. Accordingly, the licensee requested an exemption that would allow the...

  14. Nuclear power: Is the renaissance real or a mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.-Holger; McDonald, Alan

    2010-09-15

    In 2009, in the midst of the global financial and economic crises that began in 2008, and as the nuclear power industry posted its first two-year decline in installed capacity in history, the IAEA revised its projections for future nuclear power growth upwards. This paper summarizes the status of nuclear power in the world today and the status of all steps in the nuclear fuel cycle. It summarizes nuclear power's prospects and important trends in key factors. It explains the reasons for optimism and rising expectations about nuclear power's future, and it acknowledges that there is, nonetheless, much uncertainty.

  15. Environmental Problems Associated with Decommissioning of Chernobyl Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, T. Q.; Oskolkov, B. Y.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gashchak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.; Jannik, G. T.; Farfan, E. B.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination is a fairly pressing issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained bodies of water in the Chernobyl Region and Ukrainian Polesye with a water surface area of 22.9 km2. The major hydrological feature of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is that its water level is 6-7 m higher than the water level in the Pripyat River and water losses due to seepage and evaporation are replenished by pumping water from the Pripyat River. In 1986, the accident at the ChNPP #4 Reactor Unit significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. According to the 2001 data, the total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits was as follows: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq for 137Cs; 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq for 90Sr, and 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq for 239+240Pu. Since ChNPP is being decommissioned, the ChNPP Cooling Pond of such a large size will no longer be needed and cost effective to maintain. However, shutdown of the water feed to the Pond would expose the contaminated bottom deposits and change the hydrological features of the area, destabilizing the radiological and environmental situation in the entire region in 2007 - 2008, in order to assess potential consequences of draining the ChNPP Cooling Pond, the authors conducted preliminary radio-ecological studies of its shoreline ecosystems. The radioactive contamination of the ChNPP Cooling Pond shoreline is fairly variable and ranges from 75 to 7,500 kBq/m2. Three areas with different contamination levels were selected to sample soils, vegetation, small mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptilians in order to measure their 137Cs and 90Sr content. Using the ERICA software, their dose exposures were estimated. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated dose rates were found to be as follows: amphibians - 11

  16. Nuclear Propulsion and Power Non-Nuclear Test Facility (NP2NTF): Preliminary Analysis and Feasibility Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors, which power nuclear propulsion and power systems, and the nuclear radiation and residual radioactivity associated with these systems, impose...

  17. Nuclear Power:Entering the Stage of Active Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Development course Since 1970 when the construction preparation of Qinshan No.1 Nuclear Power Plant started,China's nuclear power industry has grown out of nothing,and then adjusted the step from moderate development to vigorous development.In this course,China's nuclear power equipment manufacturing industry has also been unceasingly developing and strengthening itself with the construction of nuclear power plants one by one.

  18. Spallator: a new option for nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.; Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.; Powell, J.R.; Kouts, H.J.

    1983-06-01

    The principles of the spallator reactor are reviewed. Advances in linear accelerator technology allow the design and construction of high current (hundreds of mA) continuous wave high energy (thousands of MeV) proton machines in the near term. Spallation neutronic calculations building on existing experimental results, indicate substantial neutron yields on uranium targets. Spallator target assembly designs based on water cooled reactor technology indicate operable efficient systems. Fuel cycles are presented which supply fissile material to thermal power reactors and reduce fission product waste. Preliminary comparative analysis indicates an economically competitive system in which a single purpose self-sufficient spallator supplies fuel to a number of LWRs. The spallator assures a long-term LWR power reactor economy. International interest in advancing the technology is indicated.

  19. Non-Cooled Power System for Venus Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Denise; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    The Planetary Science Decadal Survey of 2013-2022 stated that the exploration of Venus is of significant interest. Studying the seismic activity of the planet is of particular importance because the findings can be compared to the seismic activity of Earth. Further, the geological and atmospheric properties of Venus will shed light into the past and future of Earth. This paper presents a radioisotope power system (RPS) design for a small low-power Venus lander. The feasibility of the new power system is then compared to that of primary batteries. A requirement for the power source system is to avoid moving parts in order to not interfere with the primary objective of the mission - to collect data about the seismic activity of Venus using a seismometer. The target mission duration of the lander is 117 days, a significant leap from Venera 13, the longest-lived lander on the surface of Venus, which survived for 2 hours. One major assumption for this mission design is that the power source system will not provide cooling to the other components of the lander. This assumption is based on high-temperature electronics technology that will enable the electronics and components of the lander to operate at Venus surface temperature. For the proposed RPS, a customized General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHSRTG) is designed and analyzed. The GPHS-RTG is chosen primarily because it has no moving parts and it is capable of operating for long duration missions on the order of years. This power system is modeled as a spherical structure for a fundamental thermal analysis. The total mass and electrical output of the system are calculated to be 24 kilograms and 26 Watts, respectively. An alternative design for a battery-based power system uses Sodium Sulfur batteries. To deliver a similar electrical output for 117 days, the battery mass is calculated to be 234 kilograms. Reducing mission duration or power required will reduce the required battery mass

  20. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  1. Effect of input power on cooling property of a thermoacoustic cooling system with diameter-expanded prime movers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, So; Sakamoto, Shin-ichi; Orino, Yuichiro; Wada, Takahiro; Inui, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-01

    We studied a thermoacoustic cooling system driven at low temperatures to make practical use of the system. Aiming to reduce the driving temperature of the thermoacoustic system, we developed a loop-tube-type thermoacoustic system with diameter-expanded two-stage prime movers, i.e., a heat-to-sound transducer. The system drove at 67 °C. Additionally, we developed a prototype for a thermoacoustic cooling system with a diameter-expanded two-stage prime mover. In the experiment, the cooling point temperature was decreased by 4.4 °C from room temperature, i.e., 20 °C. To improve the cooling performance of the prototype thermoacoustic cooling system, we experimentally investigated the effect of increasing the input power on the cooling performance.

  2. Internal Mainland Nuclear Power Liquid Waste Treatment Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU; Xin-feng; ZHANG; Zhen-tao; ZHENG; Wen-jun; WANG; Lei; YANG; Lin-yue; HUA; Xiao-hui; ZHENG; Yu; YANG; Yong-gang; WU; Yan

    2013-01-01

    Taohuajiang power station is the first internal mainland nuclear power station,and it adopts AP1000nuclear technology belongs to the Westinghouse Electric Corporation.To ensure the safety of the environment around the station and satisfy the radio liquid waste discharge standards,our team has researched the liquid waste treatment technology for the internal mainland nuclear power plant.According

  3. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  4. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed o

  5. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  6. Nuclear power plant operation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanae, Katsushige [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Mitsumori, Kojiro

    1997-07-01

    In this report, the system for operation of a nuclear power plant and the qualities required for its operators were summarized. In Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Atomic Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. operation is continuously made by 6 groups containing each 10 workers on three shifts. A group including the person in charge participates in the operation through cooperation of the control center and the respective spots. The group leaders are chosen from those approved as a person responsible to its operation. The conditions for the person responsible were as follows: to receive simulator training for senior operator, to have more than 7 years experience of operating a nuclear power plant, to pass a practical examination on the ordinary operation and the emergency one, to receive a training course to master the knowledge and techniques for operating an atomic reactor and to success the oral examination on practical knowledge required to perform the duty. Further, the simulators for ABWR training produced by Toshiba Corp. and Hitachi Ltd. were introduced as an example. And the practical training procedures to manipulate the simulator were presented. (M.N.)

  7. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed.

  8. The future of nuclear power: value orientations and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Stephen C; Rosa, Eugene A; Dan, Amy; Dietz, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a revival of interest in nuclear power. Two decades ago, the expansion of nuclear power in the United States was halted by widespread public opposition as well as rising costs and less than projected increases in demand for electricity. Can the renewed enthusiasm for nuclear power overcome its history of public resistance that has persisted for decades? We propose that attitudes toward nuclear power are a function of perceived risk, and that both attitudes and risk perceptions are a function of values, beliefs, and trust in the institutions that influence nuclear policy. Applying structural equation models to data from a U.S. national survey, we find that increased trust in the nuclear governance institutions reduces perceived risk of nuclear power and together higher trust and lower risk perceptions predict positive attitudes toward nuclear power. Trust in environmental institutions and perceived risks from global environmental problems do not predict attitudes toward nuclear power. Values do predict attitudes: individuals with traditional values have greater support for, while those with altruistic values have greater opposition to, nuclear power. Nuclear attitudes do not vary by gender, age, education, income, or political orientation, though nonwhites are more supportive than whites. These findings are consistent with, and provide an explanation for, a long series of public opinion polls showing public ambivalence toward nuclear power that persists even in the face of renewed interest for nuclear power in policy circles.

  9. Nuclear superfluidity and cooling time of neutron-star crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monrozeau, C.; Margueron, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud, F-91406 Orsay CEDEX (France); Sandulescu, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud, F-91406 Orsay CEDEX (France); Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-03-15

    We analyse the effect of neutron superfluidity on the cooling time of inner crust matter in neutron stars, in the case of a rapid cooling of the core. The specific heat of the inner crust, which determines the thermal response of the crust, is calculated in the framework of HFB approach at finite temperature. The calculations are performed with two paring forces chosen to simulate the pairing properties of uniform neutron matter corresponding respectively to Gogny-BCS approximation and to many-body techniques including polarisation effects. Using a simple model for the heat transport across the inner crust, it is shown that the two pairing forces give very different values for the cooling time. (authors)

  10. Passive residual energy utilization system in thermal cycles on water-cooled power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Guilherme M.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F., E-mail: placco@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAV/DCTA) Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, Rubens S. dos, E-mail: rsantos@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN -RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work presents a concept of a residual energy utilization in nuclear plants thermal cycles. After taking notice of the causes of the Fukushima nuclear plant accident, an idea arose to adapt a passive thermal circuit as part of the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System). One of the research topics of IEAv (Institute for Advanced Studies), as part of the heat conversion of a space nuclear power system is a passive multi fluid turbine. One of the main characteristics of this device is its passive capability of staying inert and be brought to power at moments notice. During the first experiments and testing of this passive device, it became clear that any small amount of gas flow would generate power. Given that in the first stages of the Fukushima accident and even during the whole event there was plenty availability of steam flow that would be the proper condition to make the proposed system to work. This system starts in case of failure of the ECCS, including loss of site power, loss of diesel generators and loss of the battery power. This system does not requires electricity to run and will work with bleed steam. It will generate enough power to supply the plant safety system avoiding overheating of the reactor core produced by the decay heat. This passive system uses a modified Tesla type turbine. With the tests conducted until now, it is possible to ensure that the operation of this new turbine in a thermal cycle is very satisfactory and it performs as expected. (author)

  11. The fourth nuclear power plant in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2017-01-15

    Since 2006 the nuclear sector in Argentina has aimed at recovering and strengthening its capabilities and facilities. Part of the challenge posed by this revival has been to also accompany the development of activities with a higher level of responsibility for safety and the environment. Among the strategic decisions taken in recent years, one main highlight is the construction of the nuclear power plant CAREM25 entirely with Argentine technology and design under the responsibility of the National Atomic Energy Commission. On February 4, 2015, the Ministry of Federal Planning and the National Energy Administration (NEA) signed the agreement for cooperation and construction of pressurized water reactor (PWR) with ACP-1000 technology, developed in the Peoples Republic of China.

  12. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  13. The high-temperature sodium coolant technology in nuclear power installations for hydrogen power engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, F. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Alekseev, V. V.; Konovalov, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    In the case of using high-temperature sodium-cooled nuclear power installations for obtaining hydrogen and for other innovative applications (gasification and fluidization of coal, deep petroleum refining, conversion of biomass into liquid fuel, in the chemical industry, metallurgy, food industry, etc.), the sources of hydrogen that enters from the reactor plant tertiary coolant circuit into its secondary coolant circuit have intensity two or three orders of magnitude higher than that of hydrogen sources at a nuclear power plant (NPP) equipped with a BN-600 reactor. Fundamentally new process solutions are proposed for such conditions. The main prerequisite for implementing them is that the hydrogen concentration in sodium coolant is a factor of 100-1000 higher than it is in modern NPPs taken in combination with removal of hydrogen from sodium by subjecting it to vacuum through membranes made of vanadium or niobium. Numerical investigations carried out using a diffusion model showed that, by varying such parameters as fuel rod cladding material, its thickness, and time of operation in developing the fuel rods for high-temperature nuclear power installations (HT NPIs) it is possible to exclude ingress of cesium into sodium through the sealed fuel rod cladding. However, if the fuel rod cladding loses its tightness, operation of the HT NPI with cesium in the sodium will be unavoidable. Under such conditions, measures must be taken for deeply purifying sodium from cesium in order to minimize the diffusion of cesium into the structural materials.

  14. Future Expectation for China's Nuclear Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China:the future of nuclear power Wang Yonggan:In terms of the highlighted issue of energy security,oil is of paramount importance,coal is the foundation and electricity is the pivot according to China's energy strategy.The national total installed power capacity will hit a record high of 900 GW in 2010,and will probably approach 1 500 GW in 2020 when coal-fired power will continue to dominate,and alternative energy such as nuclear energy,hydroenergy,wind energy,and others will take up only 30% at most.Therefore,China remains in dire need to create more room for alternative energy.To solve this problem,solutions should be found in the diversification of energy,especially large-scale development of alternative energy,by which a lowered-and ultimately zeroed-growth of coal-fired generating units could be realized,and the target of low,even zero carbon emission could come true.

  15. Nuclear power plant for deep sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Jun; Itoh, Yasuyoshi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Hashidate, Koji; Ambo, Noriaki; Ishizaka, Yuichi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi.

    1991-08-29

    The present invention provides a nuclear reactor utilized as an energy source for a deep-sea submarine boat and a fixed energy source at the bottom of the sea. Here to fore, electric power generation by using chemical cells or radioisotopes has been considered as such an energy source. However, since the power and the heat generation density per weight is small, it is poor in the practicality. Then, utilization of a small-sized and highly safe nuclear reactor easy to operate is desired. That is, a reactor is disposed in the lower portion of a pressure resistant shell filled with water. An electric power generator which is directly connected to a steam turbine is contained in the upper portion. The space above the reactor containing water is used as a condenser for the turbine. In the reactor having such a constitution, countermeasures for the occurrence of accidents such as pipeline rupture can be simplified and the structure is simple to improve the safety. (I.S.).

  16. Enhanced Passive Cooling for Waterless-Power Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Salvador B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Recent advances in the literature and at SNL indicate the strong potential for passive, specialized surfaces to significantly enhance power production output. Our exploratory computational and experimental research indicates that fractal and swirl surfaces can help enable waterless-power production by increasing the amount of heat transfer and turbulence, when compared with conventional surfaces. Small modular reactors, advanced reactors, and non-nuclear plants (e.g., solar and coal) are ideally suited for sCO2 coolant loops. The sCO2 loop converts the thermal heat into electricity, while the specialized surfaces passively and securely reject the waste process heat in an environmentally benign manner. The resultant, integrated energy systems are highly suitable for small grids, rural areas, and arid regions.

  17. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  18. Nuclear Power and the World's Energy Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, V; Dunning-Davies, J

    2004-01-01

    The global requirements for energy are increasing rapidly as the global population increases and the under-developed nations become more advanced. The traditional fuels used in their traditional ways will become increasingly unable to meet the demand. The need for a review of the energy sources available is paramount, although the subsequent need to develop a realistic strategy to deal with all local and global energy requirements is almost as important. Here attention will be restricted to examining some of the claims and problems of using nuclear power to attempt to solve this major question.

  19. DCS emulator development for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Y. [Hitachi Canada Ltd., Power and Industry Div., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Ishii, K.; Chiba, D. [Hitachi Ltd., Information and Control Systems Div., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Continual training of operators is one of the principal means by which Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operational efficiency can be improved. Since this training cannot take place in the actual NPP, NPP simulator applications must be used instead. While digitalization scope of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems has been expanded to the entire plant by using Distributed Control System (DCS) implementation, Hitachi has implemented DCS emulator on a general purpose Personal Computer (PC) and applied it to simulator applications. This paper reviews such DCS emulator development for NPP by Hitachi. (author)

  20. CFD-DEM simulation of a conceptual gas-cooled fluidized bed nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Lucilla C.; Su, Jian, E-mail: lucillalmeida@gmail.com, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Aguirre, Joao, E-mail: aguirre@rocky-dem.com [Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software (ESSS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Several conceptual designs of the fluidized-bed nuclear reactor have been proposed due to its many advantages over conventional nuclear reactors such as PWRs and BWRs. Amongst their characteristics, the enhanced heat transfer and mixing enables a more uniform temperature distribution, reducing the risk of hot-spot and excessive fuel temperature, in addition to resulting in a higher burnup of the fuel. Furthermore, the relationship between the bed height and reactor neutronics turns the coolant flow rate control into a power production mechanism. Moreover, the possibility of removing the fuel by gravity from the movable core in case of a loss-of-cooling accident increases its safety. High-accuracy modeling of particles and coolant flow in fluidized bed reactors is needed to evaluate reliably the thermal-hydraulic efficiency and safety margin. The two-way coupling between solid and fluid can account for high-fidelity solid-solid interaction and reasonable accuracy in fluid calculation and fluid-solid interaction. In the CFD-DEM model, the particles are modeled as a discrete phase, following the DEM approach, whereas the fluid flow is treated as a continuous phase, described by the averaged Navier-Stokes equations on a computational cell scale. In this work, the coupling methodology between Fluent and Rocky is described. The numerical approach was applied to the simulation of a bubbling fluidized bed and the results were compared to experimental data and showed good agreement. (author)

  1. 77 FR 30030 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to Nuclear Management and Resources... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' Part 50, ``Domestic......

  2. Design of an improved high cooling power 4 K GM cryocooler and helium compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X. H.

    2015-12-01

    High cooling power 4 K cryocoolers are in high demand given their broad applications in such fields as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and low temperature superconductors. ARS has recently designed and developed a high cooling power 4 K pneumatic-drive GM cryocooler which achieves a typical cooling power of 1.75 W/4.2 K. Steady input power of our newly developed helium compressor supplied to the cold head is 11.8 kW at 60 Hz. The operational speed of the cold head is 30 RPM. The effects of geometries and operational conditions on the cooling performance of this 4 K GM cryocooler are also experimentally tested.

  3. Financing strategy for Indonesian Nuclear Power Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subki, I.M.; Arbie, B.; Adiwardojo; Seotrisnanto, A.Y. [National Atomic Enegy Agency, Batan (Indonesia)

    1998-07-01

    In anticipation of the introduction in the early 2000s of a nuclear power plant, the Government of Indonesia (GOI), through the National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) , has formulated a Bid Invitation Specification (BIS) in parallel with the completion of the NPP Feasibility Study. This BIS formulation assumed an open international tender for the first unit of the NPP with project financing as a conventional loan. The GOI's recent policy is to minimize government financial support for power development. This paper summarizes a financing strategy for the Indonesian NPP project to make the NPP economically viable, and provides a general discussion on project financing using a conventional approach, Build--Own-Operate (BOO) and a counter-purchase approach. Innovative approaches for financing are still being pursued in order to obtain an optimum solution for investors and owners, to fulfill the Indonesian government's requirements. (author)

  4. Neutron measurements at nuclear power reactors [55

    CERN Document Server

    Scherpelz, R I

    2002-01-01

    Staff from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute), have performed neutron measurements at a number of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Neutron radiation fields at light water reactor (LWR) power plants are typically characterized by low-energy distributions due to the presence of large amounts of scattering material such as water and concrete. These low-energy distributions make it difficult to accurately monitor personnel exposures, since most survey meters and dosimeters are calibrated to higher-energy fields such as those produced by bare or D sub 2 O-moderated sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf sources. Commercial plants typically use thermoluminescent dosimeters in an albedo configuration for personnel dosimetry and survey meters based on a thermal-neutron detector inside a cylindrical or spherical moderator for dose rate assessment, so their methods of routine monitoring are highly dependent on the energy of the neutron fields. Battelle has participate...

  5. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1... request to generically extend the rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but...

  6. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  7. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP). The license provides, among other things... operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's regulations provide mechanisms...

  8. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea... COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear..., construction, operation and maintenance of the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000), the APR1400...

  9. Simulation and performance enhancement of the air cooling system in a DC/AC power converter station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozowy, R.; El-Shaboury, A.; Soliman, H.; Ormiston, S. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzed the flow structure and heat transfer in a large 3-dimensional domain with turbulence, mixed convection, an impinging jet, and flow over heated blocks. The objective was to better understand turbulent mixed-convection cooling of heat-generating bodies in 3-dimensional enclosures, which is important to industry. The cooling of 2 thyristor valve halls was simulated. Each valve hall housed 3 towers that contained electronics used in DC/AC power conversion. The simulation results included the magnitudes of the net air flows for all the inter-block gaps and the maximum temperature in each gap. A parametric study was also performed to investigate the effects of the air inlet location, size and aspect ratio. The effects of the air injection angle on cooling effectiveness was also examined. The study showed that for fixed inlet mass flow rate, significant improvement in the cooling effectiveness can be obtained by changing the injection angle of the inlet air jet, the location of the inlet grill, or the size of the inlet grill. It was concluded that these study results may be relevant to other applications, such as the design of power transformers, the design of cooling systems for spent nuclear fuel and computer server cooling racks. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  10. USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

    2006-11-27

    Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

  11. International nuclear power status 2002; International kernekraftstatus 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2003-03-01

    This report is the ninth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2002, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory: 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2001); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2002; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  12. International nuclear power status 2001; International kernekraftstatus 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2002-04-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2001, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Nuclear terrorism; 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2000); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2001; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  13. Optimization Tool for Direct Water Cooling System of High Power IGBT Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Thermal management of power electronic devices is essential for reliable system performance especially at high power levels. Since even the most efficient electronic circuit becomes hot because of ohmic losses, it is clear that cooling is needed in electronics and even more as the power increases. One of the most important activities in the thermal management and reliability improvement is the cooling system design. As industries are developing smaller power devices with higher power densitie...

  14. Design and Transient Analysis of Passive Safety Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Galvez, Cristhian

    2011-01-01

    The Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) is a pebble fueled, liquid salt cooled, high temperature nuclear reactor design that can be used for electricity generation or other applications requiring the availability of heat at elevated temperatures. A stage in the design evolution of this plant requires the analysis of the plant during a variety of potential transients to understand the primary and safety cooling system response. This study focuses on the performance of the pa...

  15. From nuclear power to coal power: Aerosol-induced health and radiative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielonen, Tero; Laakso, Anton; Karhunen, Anni; Kokkola, Harri; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Korhonen, Hannele; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated what would be the climate and PM-induced air quality consequences if all nuclear reactors worldwide were closed down and replaced by coal combustion. In a way, this presents a "worst-case scenario" since less polluting energy sources are available. We studied simultaneously the radiative and health effects of coal power emissions using a global 3-D aerosol-climate model (ECHAM-HAMMOZ). This approach allowed us to estimate the effects of a major global energy production change from low carbon source to a high carbon one using detailed spatially resolved population density information. We included the radiative effects of both CO2 and PM2.5 but limited the study of health effects to PM2.5 only. Our results show that the replacement of nuclear power with coal power would have globally caused an average of 150,000 premature deaths per year during the period 2005-2009 with two thirds of them in Europe. For 37 years the aerosol emissions from the additional coal power plants would cool the climate but after that the accumulating CO2 emissions would accelerate the warming of the climate.

  16. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  17. Yawning chasm of French nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    The financial problems of the nuclear power industry in France are explained. Cogema, the waste reprocessing company ventured into the French financial futures market and lost money. It is trying to sue its brokers over this disaster. Framatome, the State reactor manufacturer is trying to diversify into aeronautics, electronics and foodstuffs. The electric utility EdF is sliding into debt and, with no price rise allowed, this situation will get worse. Theoretically EdF should be delivering cheap electricity from nuclear power stations. However, French electricity prices are not significantly cheaper than those of Germany and the United Kingdom. The generating capacity will increase greatly over the next few years. The availability of existing plants is also improving. In spite of efforts to export its electricity (about 10% is exported) EdF seem unable to make its extra electricity cheaper and is heavily in debt. The fast breeder programme has also not lived up to expectations due to a sodium leak at Superphenix. (U.K.).

  18. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  19. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  20. International nuclear power status 1999; International kernekraftstatus 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejerup, C.F.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    2000-03-01

    This report isthe sixth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 1999, the report contains: General trends in the development of nuclear power; The past and possible future of Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plant; Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1998); An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 1999; The development in Sweden; The development in Eastern Europe; The development in the rest of the world; Trends in the development of reactor types; Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  1. Pathogenic amoebae in power-plant cooling lakes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

    1981-06-01

    Cooling waters and associated algae and sediments from four northern and four southern/western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. Unheated control waters and algae/sediments from four northern and five southern/western sites were also tested. When comparing results from the test versus control sites, a significantly higher proportion (P less than or equal to 0.05) of the samples from the test sites were positive for thermophilic amoeba, thermophilic Naegleria and pathogenic Naegleria. The difference in number of samples positive for thermophilic Naegleria between heated and unheated waters, however, was attributable predominantly to the northern waters and algae/sediments. While two of four northern test sites yielded pathogenic Naegleria, seven of the eight isolates were obtained from one site. Seasonality effects relative to the isolation of the pathogen were also noted at this site. One pathogen was isolated from a southwestern test site. Pathogens were not isolated from any control sites. Some of the pathogenic isolates were analyzed serologically and classified as pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. Salinity, pH, conductivity, and bacteriological profiles did not obviously correlate with the presence or absence of pathogenic Naegleria. While thermal addition was significantly associated with the presence of thermophilic Naegleria (P less than or equal to 0.05), the data implicate other as yet undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic thermophile. Until further delineation of these parameters is effected, generalizations cannot be made concerning the effect of thermal impact on the growth of pathogenic amoeba in a particular cooling system.

  2. 76 FR 75771 - Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Part 52 RIN 3150-AI10 Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Supplement 3, ``Guidance for Protective Action Strategies,'' to NUREG... Guidance Emergency Planning for Nuclear Power Plants;'' and NUREG/CR-7002, ``Criteria for Development of...

  3. Nuclear Power Important for China’s Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Will China change its nuclear power development goal after the nuclear crisis in Japan? Yu Zhouping, former Head othe Chinese Delegation to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),and Tian jiashu, Director of the Nuclea Safety Center under the Ministry of Environmental Protection believe thatChina’s nuclear power

  4. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  5. Design for micro-combined cooling, heating and power systems stirling engines and renewable power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    ‘Design for Micro-Combined Cooling, Heating & Power Systems’ provides a manual for the technical and structural design of systems for supplying decentralised energy in residential buildings. It presents the micro-combined cooling, heating & power systems Stirling engines & renewable energy sources (mCCHP-SE-RES) systems in an accessible manner both for the public at large, and for professionals who conceive, design or commercialise such systems or their components.  The high performance levels of these systems are demonstrated within the final chapter by the results of an experiment in which a house is equipped with a mCCHP-SE-RES system. The reader is also familiarized with the conceptual, technical and legal aspects of modern domestic energy systems; the components that constitute these systems; and advanced algorithms for achieving the structural and technical design of such systems. In residential buildings, satisfying demands of durable development has gradually evolved from necessity to...

  6. Nuclear power and the public: an update of collected survey research on nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W.L.; Melber, B.D.; Overcast, T.D.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect, analyze, and summarize all of the nuclear power-related surveys conducted in the United States through June 1981, that we could obtain. The surveys collected were national, statewide, and areawide in scope. Slightly over 100 surveys were collected for an earlier, similar effort carried out in 1977. About 130 new surveys were added to the earlier survey data. Thus, about 230 surveys were screened for inclusion in this report. Because of space limitations, national surveys were used most frequently in this report, followed distantly by state surveys. In drawing our conclusions about public beliefs and attitudes toward nuclear power, we placed most of our confidence in survey questions that were used by national polling firms at several points in time. A summary of the research findings is presented, beginning with general attitudes toward nuclear power, followed by a summary of beliefs and attitudes about nuclear power issues, and ended by a summary of beliefs and attitudes regarding more general energy issues.

  7. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed.

  8. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy.

  9. Thermal Aspects of Using Alternative Nuclear Fuels in Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Lisa Christine

    A SuperCritical Water-cooled Nuclear Reactor (SCWR) is a Generation IV concept currently being developed worldwide. Unique to this reactor type is the use of light-water coolant above its critical point. The current research presents a thermal-hydraulic analysis of a single fuel channel within a Pressure Tube (PT)-type SCWR with a single-reheat cycle. Since this reactor is in its early design phase many fuel-channel components are being investigated in various combinations. Analysis inputs are: steam cycle, Axial Heat Flux Profile (AHFP), fuel-bundle geometry, and thermophysical properties of reactor coolant, fuel sheath and fuel. Uniform and non-uniform AHFPs for average channel power were applied to a variety of alternative fuels (mixed oxide, thorium dioxide, uranium dicarbide, uranium nitride and uranium carbide) enclosed in an Inconel-600 43-element bundle. The results depict bulk-fluid, outer-sheath and fuel-centreline temperature profiles together with the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles along the heated length of fuel channel. The objective is to identify the best options in terms of fuel, sheath material and AHFPS in which the outer-sheath and fuel-centreline temperatures will be below the accepted temperature limits of 850°C and 1850°C respectively. The 43-element Inconel-600 fuel bundle is suitable for SCWR use as the sheath-temperature design limit of 850°C was maintained for all analyzed cases at average channel power. Thoria, UC2, UN and UC fuels for all AHFPs are acceptable since the maximum fuel-centreline temperature does not exceed the industry accepted limit of 1850°C. Conversely, the fuel-centreline temperature limit was exceeded for MOX at all AHFPs, and UO2 for both cosine and downstream-skewed cosine AHFPs. Therefore, fuel-bundle modifications are required for UO2 and MOX to be feasible nuclear fuels for SCWRs.

  10. Economics of Nuclear Power Plant and the development of nuclear power in Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Thuy Nguyen Thi; Song, JinHo [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kwang Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    There are many factors affecting the capital costs like: increased plant size, multiple unit construction, improved construct methods, increase the lifetime of plant and so on, and beside is technical to enhancing the safety for NPPs. For the question that whether building a NPP is really economic than other energy resources or not, we will find the answer by comparing the USD per kWh of different energy sources as: nuclear power, coal, oil, hydro natural energy sources. The situation of energy in Vietnam was also mentioned in this paper. Vietnam has an abundant natural resources likes: coal, gas, hydro power etc, but from year 2013 to now Vietnam facing of electricity shortage and to solve the problem, Vietnam Government has chosen nuclear power energy to achieve energy balance between the rate of energy consumption and the ability to energy supply. Eight units will be built in Vietnam and in October 2014 Vietnamese officials have chosen Rosatom's AES-2006 design with VVER-1200/v-491 reactors for country's first nuclear power plant at Ninh Thuan and a second plant should follow based on a partnership with Japan. In this paper, the breakdown of NPP costs is considered. All the costs for building a NPP includes: the investment costs are the largest components (about 60%), fuel costs (15%), O and M costs (25%) and external costs are lower than 1% of the kWh costs. The situation for energy in Vietnam was mentioned with increase annually by 5.5 %, and now the shortage electricity is the big problem in power section. The purpose of this report is to give a general picture to consider the cost of nuclear power. It includes all the costs for building a nuclear power plant like total capital investment costs, production costs, external costs in which the capital investment costs is the largest component of the kWh cost. Nuclear energy Power was chosen to deal with situation of diminishing resources shortages.

  11. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2007; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Kampmann, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2008-05-15

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2007 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  12. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2008; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2009-06-15

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2008 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  13. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2004; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    The report is the second report in a new series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2004 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  14. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2006; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.); Kampmann, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2007-04-15

    The report is the fourth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2006 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  15. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2005; Kernekraft of nuklear sikkerhed 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampman, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2006-03-15

    The report is the third report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2005 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  16. A Study on the Economic Feasibility of Nuclear Power Caused by Fukushima Nuclear Power Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwon [Korea Nuclear Energy Promotion Agency, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    It would be necessary to utilize the economic competitiveness of the generation cost calculated based on the previous power plant generation cost and the overall safety related costs taken into account after the Fukushima incident, i. e. expenses related to safety facilities, legal restrictions, environmental expenses and social expenses for the mid and long-term strategy establishment of energy. The above conclusion is premised on utilizing the levelized generation cost method, base load operation (based on a certain utilization rate), straight-line depreciation method, etc. However, this thesis would be significantly meaningful at this point where the general public, including civic groups, etc. are concerned with the economic feasibility and safety of nuclear power plant, and that even after considering the social expenses such as safety related expenses after the Fukushima incident, the generation cost of nuclear power plant still remains competitive.

  17. Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White,John R.; Kinsmen,Douglas; Regan,Thomas M.; Bobek,Leo M.

    2005-08-29

    The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class transceiver that has the ability to verify the position and contents of the SNF cask. The power conversion process, which converts the gamma photon energy into electrical power, is based on a variation of the successful dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design developed by Konarka Technologies, Inc. (KTI). In particular, the focus of the current research is to make direct use of the high-energy gamma photons emitted from SNF, coupled with a scintillator material to convert some of the incident gamma photons into photons having wavelengths within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high-energy gammas from the SNF will generate some power directly via Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect, and the generated visible photons output from the scintillator material can also be converted to electrical power in a manner similar to that of a standard solar cell. Upon successful implementation of an energy conversion device based on this new gammavoltaic principle, this inherent power source could then be utilized within SNF storage casks to drive a tamper-proof, low-power, electronic detection/security monitoring system for the spent fuel. The current project has addressed several aspects associated with this new energy conversion concept, including the development of a base conceptual design for an inherent gamma-induced power conversion unit for SNF monitoring, the characterization of the radiation environment that can be expected within a typical SNF storage system, the initial evaluation of Konarka's base solar cell design, the design and

  18. Survey on the consciousness structure toward nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Yoshida, T. (Nomura Research Institute, Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1981-05-01

    A survey on the popular consciousness toward nuclear power generation was carried out by direct means of questionnaire to 1600 persons, ages from 20 to 69, in power demand areas (Tokyo and Osaka) and power supply areas (sites of nuclear power generation) from early February to early March, 1980, and the recovery rate was 74.4% (1190 persons). The results are described by way of their explanation. The purpose is to clarify the structure of popular consciousness toward nuclear energy, in particular nuclear power generation, and the nature of its acceptance. That is, it was surveyed how general people in the power supply and the power demand areas are taking nuclear power generation concerning its need and safety, and further how the attitudes are constituted and vary.

  19. Reframing nuclear power in the UK energy debate: nuclear power, climate change mitigation and radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickerstaff, K; Lorenzoni, I; Pidgeon, N F; Poortinga, W; Simmons, P

    2008-04-01

    In the past decade, human influence on the climate through increased use of fossil fuels has become widely acknowledged as one of the most pressing issues for the global community. For the United Kingdom, we suggest that these concerns have increasingly become manifest in a new strand of political debate around energy policy, which reframes nuclear power as part of the solution to the need for low-carbon energy options. A mixed-methods analysis of citizen views of climate change and radioactive waste is presented, integrating focus group data and a nationally representative survey. The data allow us to explore how UK citizens might now and in the future interpret and make sense of this new framing of nuclear power--which ultimately centers on a risk-risk trade-off scenario. We use the term "reluctant acceptance" to describe how, in complex ways, many focus group participants discursively re-negotiated their position on nuclear energy when it was positioned alongside climate change. In the concluding section of the paper, we reflect on the societal implications of the emerging discourse of new nuclear build as a means of delivering climate change mitigation and set an agenda for future research regarding the (re)framing of the nuclear energy debate in the UK and beyond.

  20. Site-dependent factors affecting the economic feasibility of solar powered absorption cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure has been developed which can be used to determine the economic feasibility of solar powered absorption cooling systems. This procedure has been used in a study to investigate the influence of the site-dependent parameters on the economic feasibility of solar absorption cooling. The purpose of this study was to make preliminary site selections for solar powered absorption cooling systems. This paper summarizes the results of that study.

  1. Spray cooling characteristics of nanofluids for electronic power devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shou-Shing; Leu, Hsin-Yuan; Liu, Hao-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a single spray for electronic power devices using deionized (DI) water and pure silver (Ag) particles as well as multi-walled carbon nanotube (MCNT) particles, respectively, is studied herein. The tests are performed with a flat horizontal heated surface using a nozzle diameter of 0.5 mm with a definite nozzle-to-target surface distance of 25 mm. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction and mass flow rate of the liquid on the surface heat flux, including critical heat flux (CHF), are explored. Both steady state and transient data are collected for the two-phase heat transfer coefficient, boiling curve/ cooling history, and the corresponding CHF. The heat transfer removal rate can reach up to 274 W/cm(2) with the corresponding CHF enhancement ratio of 2.4 for the Ag/water nanofluids present at a volume fraction of 0.0075% with a low mass flux of 11.9 × 10(-4) kg/cm(2)s.

  2. Remote Measurement of Heat Flux from Power Plant Cooling Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Alfred J.; Kurzeja, Robert J.; Villa-Aleman, Eliel; Bollinger, James S.; Pendergast, Malcolm M.

    2013-06-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated a correlation between the rate of heat loss q" from an experimental fluid to the air above and the standard deviation σ of the thermal variability in images of the fluid surface. These experimental results imply that q" can be derived directly from thermal imagery by computing σ. This paper analyses thermal imagery collected over two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the same relationship exists. Turbulent boundary layer theory predicts a linear relationship between q" and σ when both forced (wind driven) and free (buoyancy driven) convection are present. Datasets derived from ground- and helicopter-based imagery collections had correlation coefficients between σ and q" of 0.45 and 0.76, respectively. Values of q" computed from a function of σ and friction velocity u* derived from turbulent boundary layer theory had higher correlations with measured values of q" (0.84 and 0.89). Finally, this research may be applicable to the problem of calculating losses of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere during high-latitude cold-air outbreaks because it does not require the information typically needed to compute sensible, evaporative, and thermal radiation energy losses to the atmosphere.

  3. Optimization Tool for Direct Water Cooling System of High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    important issue for thermal design engineers. This paper aims to present a user friendly optimization tool for direct water cooling system of a high power module which enables the cooling system designer to identify the optimized solution depending on customer load profiles and available pump power. CFD...

  4. Dosimetry in nuclear power plants; Dosimetria en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastra B, J. A. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    To control the occupationally exposed personnel dose working at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, two types of dosemeters are used, the thermoluminescent (TLD) which is processed monthly, and the direct reading dosemeter that is electronic and works as daily control of personal dose. In the case of the electronic dosemeters of direct reading conventional, the readings and dose automatic registers and the user identity to which he was assigned to each dosemeter was to carry out the restricted area exit. In activities where the ionizing radiation sources are not fully characterized, it is necessary to relocate the personal dosemeter or assigned auxiliary dosemeters (TLDs and electronics) to determine the dose received by the user to both whole body and in any specific area of it. In jobs more complicated are used a tele dosimetry system where the radiation protection technician can be monitoring the user dose to remote control, the data transmission is by radio. The dosimetry activities are documented in procedures that include dosemeter inventories realization, the equipment and dosemeters calibration, the dosimetry quality control and the discrepancies investigation between the direct reading and TLD systems. TLD dosimetry to have technical expertise in direct and indirect dosimetry and two technicians in TLD dosimetry; electronic dosimetry to have 4 calibration technicians. For the electronic dosemeters are based on a calibrator source of Cesium-137. TLD dosemeters to have an automatic radiator, an automatic reader which can read up to 100 TLD dosemeters per hour and a semiautomatic reader. To keep the equipment under a quality process was development a process of initial entry into service and carried out a periodic verification of the heating cycles. It also has a maintenance contract for the equipment directly with the manufacturer to ensure their proper functioning. The vision in perspective of the dosimetry services of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  5. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the d...

  6. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  7. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  8. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  9. Nuclear power's mysterious afterlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-10-10

    As the number of nuclear reactors which have reached the end of their service life or will do so by the end of the 1990s grows, nuclear power plant decommissioning is becoming a major issue. A table shows more than thirty reactors in Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the UK are candidates for decommissioning. Definite plans and cost estimates are being demanded of the plant owners. However it is becoming clear that even the USA, which has the greatest decommissioning experience, has not had to deal with the large reactors which now have to be dealt with. The experience and progress of decommissioning in the UK, France, Germany and the rest of Europe is reviewed. Problems of disposing of the mainly low-level radio-active wastes generated by decommissioning are discussed. The estimation of costs has become complicated by the idea of discounting costs which means relatively small sums set aside now will be sufficient to pay for the decommissioning in the decades to come. (UK).

  10. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34).

  11. Optimization of power-cycle arrangements for Supercritical Water cooled Reactors (SCWRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizon-A-Lugrin, Laure

    The world energy demand is continuously rising due to the increase of both the world population and the standard of life quality. Further, to assure both a healthy world economy as well as adequate social standards, in a relatively short term, new energy-conversion technologies are mandatory. Within this framework, a Generation IV International Forum (GIF) was established by the participation of 10 countries to collaborate for developing nuclear power reactors that will replace the present technology by 2030. The main goals of these nuclear-power reactors are: economic competitiveness, sustainability, safety, reliability and resistance to proliferation. As a member of the GIF, Canada has decided to orient its efforts towards the design of a CANDU-type Super Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR). Such a system must run at a coolant outlet temperature of about 625°C and at a pressure of 25 MPa. It is obvious that at such conditions the overall efficiency of this kind of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) will compete with actual supercritical water-power boilers. In addition, from a heat-transfer viewpoint, the use of a supercritical fluid allows the limitation imposed by Critical Heat Flux (CHF) conditions, which characterize actual technologies, to be removed. Furthermore, it will be also possible to use direct thermodynamic cycles where the supercritical fluid expands right away in a turbine without the necessity of using intermediate steam generators and/or separators. This work presents several thermodynamic cycles that could be appropriate to run SCWR power plants. Improving both thermal efficiency and mechanical power constitutes a multi-objective optimization problem and requires specific tools. To this aim, an efficient and robust evolutionary algorithm, based on genetic algorithm, is used and coupled to an appropriate power plant thermodynamic simulation model. The results provide numerous combinations to achieve a thermal efficiency higher than 50% with a

  12. Power, power density and efficiency optimization for a closed cycle helium turbine nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Lingen E-mail: lgchenna@public.wh.hb.cn; Zheng Junlin; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2003-09-01

    The performance of a closed cycle helium turbine nuclear power plant for submarine propulsion is optimized in this paper. The power output, power density (ratio of power output to maximum specific volume in the cycle) and thermal efficiency of the cycle are derived. The maximum power, power density and efficiency are obtained by searching for the optimum heat conductance distribution among the hot side heat exchanger (intermediate heat exchanger), cold side heat exchanger (precooler) and recuperator for fixed total heat exchanger inventory with respect to the corresponding optimization objectives. The optimum results are compared with those reported in recent references for the conceptual design of a closed cycle helium turbine nuclear power plant for submarine propulsion. The numerical example shows that the method herein is valid and effective.

  13. ANALYSIS OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR POWERED HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS HYDROGEN PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; A. M. Gandrik

    2010-11-01

    An updated reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The reactor heat is used to produce heat and electric power to the HTE plant. A Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 44.4% was used to provide the electric power. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 1.1 million cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 42.8% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.85 kg/s (66 million SCFD) and an oxygen production rate of 14.6 kg/s (33 million SCFD). An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.03/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20% for a reactor cost of $2000/kWt and $2.41/kg of hydrogen for a reactor cost of $1400/kWt.

  14. Consideration of sub-cooled LN2 circulation system for HTS power machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Hirai, Hirokazu; Nara, N.; Nagasaka, T.; Hirokawa, M.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We consider a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The planned circulation system consists of a sub-cool heat exchanger (subcooler) and a circulation pump. The sub-cooler will be connected to a neon turbo- Brayton cycle refrigerator with a cooling power of 2 kW at 65 K. Sub-cooled LN will be delivered into the sub-cooler by the pump and cooled within it. Sub-cooled LN is adequate fluid for cooling HTS power equipment, because its dielectric strength is high and it supports a large critical current. However, a possibility of LN solidification in the sub-cooler is a considerable issue. The refrigerator will produce cold neon gas of about 60 K, which is lower than the nitrogen freezing temperature of 63 K. Therefore, we designed two-stage heat exchangers which are based on a plate-fin type and a tube-intube type. Process simulations of those heat exchangers indicate that sub-cooled LN is not frozen in either sub-cooler. The plate-fin type sub-cooler is consequently adopted for its reliability and compactness. Furthermore, we found that a cooling system with a Brayton refrigerator has the same total cooling efficiency as a cooling system with a Stirling refrigerator.

  15. Gamma spectrometric characterization of short cooling time nuclear spent fuels using hemispheric CdZnTe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, A; Szabó, J L; Arenas-Carrasco, J; Arlt, R; Dubreuil, A; Esmailpur-Kazerouni, K

    2000-01-01

    After years of cooling, nuclear spent fuel gamma emissions are mainly due to caesium isotopes which are emitters at 605, 662 and 796-801 keV. Extensive work has been done on such fuels using various CdTe or CdZnTe probes. When fuels have to be measured after short cooling time (during NPP outage) the spectrum is much more complex due to the important contributions of niobium and zirconium in the 700 keV range. For the first time in a nuclear power plant, four spent fuels of the Kozloduy VVER reactor no 4 were measured during outage, 37 days after shutdown of the reactor. In such conditions, good resolution is of particular interest, so a 20 mm sup 3 hemispheric crystal was used with a resolution better than 7 keV at 662 keV. This paper presents the experimental device and analyzes the results which show that CdZnTe commercially available detectors enabled us to perform a semi-quantitative determination of the burn-up after a short cooling time. In addition, it is discussed how a burn-up evolution code (CESAR)...

  16. 75 FR 16523 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License... M.S. Fertel, Nuclear Energy Institute). The licensee's request for an exemption is...

  17. Use of Cooling Thermal Storage as a Heat Sink for Steam Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Ahmed Sabry

    In the present paper, a system is proposed for improving the performance of steam power plant with air-cooled condenser during peak loads. In this system, the power plant comprises two steam turbines, and the air-cooled condenser is replaced by two condensers. The first one is air-cooled (dry) and used for condensing the exhaust steam of the first turbine, while the second is water-cooled and serves to condense the steam outlet of the second turbine. The warm cooling water exiting the wet condenser is pumped to a cooling storage container, where it is cooled and re-circulated to the wet condenser. Cooling is produced by a refrigeration machine driven by the extra electric power generated by the two turbines during the time of the off-peak-loads (low electricity rates). Simple energy analyses have been developed to predict the energy characteristics of this system. The results of this paper showed that the proposed system leads to improving the plant power output at peak-loads. About 6, 16, 24 and 33% increase in generated plant power can be achieved at peak-loads (high electricity rates) when the ambient temperature is 20, 30, 40 and 50°C respectively, and the whole steam exiting both turbines is cooled in a wet condenser to a design temperature of 20°C. The results showed also that choice of the capacity of each turbine is essentially affected by the quality of the refrigeration machine and ambient temperature.

  18. Human Factors in Nuclear Power Engineering in Polish Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaczmarek-Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Human factors in nuclear power engineering in Polish conditions” focuses on analysis of dynamics of preparing Polish society to build fi rst nuclear power plant in XXI century in Poland. Authors compare experience from constructing nuclear power plant Sizewell B (Great Britain and Sizewell C, which is in preparation phase with polish nuclear power program. Paper includes aspects e.g. of creating nuclear safety culture and social opinion about investment. Human factors in nuclear power engineering are as well important as relevant economical and technical factors, but very often negligible. In Poland where history about Czarnobyl is still alive, and social opinion is created on emotions after accident in Fukushima, human factors are crucial and should be under comprehensive consideration.

  19. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  20. THR-TH: a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor core thermal hydraulics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    The ORNL version of PEBBLE, the (RZ) pebble bed thermal hydraulics code, has been extended for application to a prismatic gas cooled reactor core. The supplemental treatment is of one-dimensional coolant flow in up to a three-dimensional core description. Power density data from a neutronics and exposure calculation are used as the basic information for the thermal hydraulics calculation of heat removal. Two-dimensional neutronics results may be expanded for a three-dimensional hydraulics calculation. The geometric description for the hydraulics problem is the same as used by the neutronics code. A two-dimensional thermal cell model is used to predict temperatures in the fuel channel. The capability is available in the local BOLD VENTURE computation system for reactor core analysis with capability to account for the effect of temperature feedback by nuclear cross section correlation. Some enhancements have also been added to the original code to add pebble bed modeling flexibility and to generate useful auxiliary results. For example, an estimate is made of the distribution of fuel temperatures based on average and extreme conditions regularly calculated at a number of locations.

  1. 76 FR 55137 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides methods that......

  2. Nuclear Systems (NS): Kilopower Small Fission Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear power systems enable human and robotic exploration missions to solar system locations where other power system alternatives are infeasible,...

  3. Risk management and maintenance optimization of nuclear reactor cooling piping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augé, L.; Capra, B.; Lasne, M.; Bernard, O.; Bénéfice, P.; Comby, R.

    2006-11-01

    Seaside nuclear power plants have to face the ageing of nuclear reactor cooling piping systems. In order to minimize the duration of the production unit shutdown, maintenance operations have to be planned well in advance. In a context where owners of infrastructures tend to extend the life span of their goods while having to keep the safety level maximum, Oxand brings its expertise and know-how in management of infrastructures life cycle. A dedicated methodology relies on several modules that all participate in fixing network optimum replacement dates: expertise on ageing mechanisms (corrosion, cement degradation...) and the associated kinetics, expertise on impacts of ageing on functional integrity of piping systems, predictive simulation based on experience feedback, development of monitoring techniques focused on actual threats. More precisely, Oxand has designed a patented monitoring technique based on optic fiber sensors, which aims at controlling the deterioration level of piping systems. This preventive maintenance enables the owner to determine criteria for network replacement based on degradation impacts. This approach helps the owner justify his maintenance strategy and allows him to demonstrate the management of safety level. More generally, all monitoring techniques used by the owners are developed and coupled to predictive simulation tools, notably thanks to processes based on Bayesian approaches. Methodologies to evaluate and optimize operation budgets, depending on predictions of future functional deterioration and available maintenance solutions are also developed and applied. Finally, all information related to infrastructure ageing and available maintenance options are put together to reach the right solution for safe and performing infrastructure management.

  4. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  5. Sub-cooled liquid nitrogen cryogenic system with neon turbo-refrigerator for HTS power equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S.; Hirai, H.; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hirokawa, M.; Eguchi, T.; Hayashi, H.; Iwakuma, M.; Shiohara, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a prototype sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The system consists of a neon turbo-Brayton refrigerator with a LN sub-cooler and LN circulation pump unit. The neon refrigerator has more than 2 kW cooling power at 65 K. The LN sub-cooler is a plate-fin type heat exchanger and is installed in a refrigerator cold box. In order to carry out the system performance tests, a dummy cryostat having an electric heater was set instead of a HTS power equipment. Sub-cooled LN is delivered into the sub-cooler by the LN circulation pump and cooled within it. After the sub-cooler, sub-cooled LN goes out from the cold box to the dummy cryostat, and comes back to the pump unit. The system can control an outlet sub-cooled LN temperature by adjusting refrigerator cooling power. The refrigerator cooling power is automatically controlled by the turbo-compressor rotational speed. In the performance tests, we increased an electric heater power from 200 W to 1300 W abruptly. We confirmed the temperature fluctuation was about ±1 K. We show the cryogenic system details and performance test results in this paper.

  6. Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems for nuclear reactors :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vernon, Milton E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanchez, Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of a Sandia National Laboratories internally funded research program to study the coupling of nuclear reactors to gas dynamic Brayton power conversion systems. The research focused on developing integrated dynamic system models, fabricating a 10-30 kWe closed loop Brayton cycle, and validating these models by operating the Brayton test-loop. The work tasks were performed in three major areas. First, the system equations and dynamic models for reactors and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems were developed and implemented in SIMULINKTM. Within this effort, both steady state and dynamic system models for all the components (turbines, compressors, reactors, ducting, alternators, heat exchangers, and space based radiators) were developed and assembled into complete systems for gas cooled reactors, liquid metal reactors, and electrically heated simulators. Various control modules that use proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback loops for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed were also developed and implemented. The simulation code is called RPCSIM (Reactor Power and Control Simulator). In the second task an open cycle commercially available Capstone C30 micro-turbine power generator was modified to provide a small inexpensive closed Brayton cycle test loop called the Sandia Brayton test-Loop (SBL-30). The Capstone gas-turbine unit housing was modified to permit the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller to form a closed loop. The Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator were used without modification. The Capstone systems nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system also were reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled by adjusting the alternator load by using the electrical grid as the load bank. The SBL-30 test loop was operated at

  7. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2003 (in Danish); Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2004-03-01

    The report, 'Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2003' (Nuclear power and nuclear safe-ty 2003) is the first report in a new series of annual reports on the international devel-opment of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nu-clear emergency preparedness. The report series is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency and re-places the previous series, 'International kernekraftstatus' (International Nuclear Po-wer Status). The report for 2003 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production and regional trends, development of reactors and emergency management systems, safety-related events with nuclear power production, and international rela-tions and conflicts. (au)

  8. Feasibility Research of Nuclear-power System for Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Xiao-chun; SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xin-ming; LI; Long; XU; Zhi-long; SHAO; Jing

    2013-01-01

    The idea of making nuclear-powered car can dated back to 1950s,and Ford company developed the first nuclear-powered car Nucleon which theoretically based on uranium-235 fission powered engine.Recently,General Motors released its Cadillac"World Thorium Fuel Concept"car at 2009 Chicago Auto Show,which didn’t include a working thorium-powered engine.But it’s claimed that the thorium laser

  9. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  10. Nuclear power plants. Fundamentals, application and hazards of radioactivity; Atomkraftwerke. Grundlagen, Nutzung, Gefahren der Radioaktivitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetz, Michael

    2011-07-01

    The book includes the following chapters: (1) Fundamentals of atomic physics.(2) Radioactive radiation. (3) Nuclear power plants. (4) Reactor types: light water-cooled reactor, heavy-water reactor, high-temperature reactor, breeding reactor. (5) Fuel cycle: uranium mining, uranium isotope enrichment, NPP operation, spent fuel processing, radioactive waste disposal. (6) Measured variables and units: radiation, radiation dose, mass end energy. (7) Radioactivity measurement. (8) Hazards due to radioactive radiation.

  11. Analysis of the evaporative towers cooling system of a coal-fired power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laković Mirjana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling system of a 110 MW coal-fired power plant located in central Serbia, where eight evaporative towers cool down the plant. An updated research on the evaporative tower cooling system has been carried out to show the theoretical analysis of the tower heat and mass balance, taking into account the sensible and latent heat exchanged during the processes which occur inside these towers. Power plants which are using wet cooling towers for cooling condenser cooling water have higher design temperature of cooling water, thus the designed condensing pressure is higher compared to plants with a once-through cooling system. Daily and seasonal changes further deteriorate energy efficiency of these plants, so it can be concluded that these plants have up to 5% less efficiency compared to systems with once-through cooling. The whole analysis permitted to evaluate the optimal conditions, as far as the operation of the towers is concerned, and to suggest an improvement of the plant. Since plant energy efficiency improvement has become a quite common issue today, the evaluation of the cooling system operation was conducted under the hypothesis of an increase in the plant overall energy efficiency due to low cost improvement in cooling tower system.

  12. Power Module Cooling for Future Electric Vehicle Applications: A Coolant Comparison of Oil and PGW

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    POWER MODULE COOLING FOR FUTURE ELECTRIC VEHICLE APPLICATIONS: A COOLANT COMPARISON OF OIL AND PGW T. E. Salem U. S. Naval Academy 105...and efficient power converters are being developed to support the needs of future ground vehicle systems. This progress is being driven by...2006 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Power Module Cooling For Future Electric Vehicle Applications: A Coolant

  13. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation...

  14. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation...

  15. THE COOLING OF THE CASSIOPEIA A NEUTRON STAR AS A PROBE OF THE NUCLEAR SYMMETRY ENERGY AND NUCLEAR PASTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, William G.; Hooker, Joshua; Li, Bao-An [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429-3011 (United States); Murphy, Kyleah [Umpqua Community College, Roseburg, OR 97470 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    X-ray observations of the neutron star (NS) in the Cas A supernova remnant over the past decade suggest the star is undergoing a rapid drop in surface temperature of ≈2%-5.5%. One explanation suggests the rapid cooling is triggered by the onset of neutron superfluidity in the core of the star, causing enhanced neutrino emission from neutron Cooper pair breaking and formation (PBF). Using consistent NS crust and core equations of state (EOSs) and compositions, we explore the sensitivity of this interpretation to the density dependence of the symmetry energy L of the EOS used, and to the presence of enhanced neutrino cooling in the bubble phases of crustal ''nuclear pasta''. Modeling cooling over a conservative range of NS masses and envelope compositions, we find L ≲ 70 MeV, competitive with terrestrial experimental constraints and other astrophysical observations. For masses near the most likely mass of M ≳ 1.65 M {sub ☉}, the constraint becomes more restrictive 35 ≲ L ≲ 55 MeV. The inclusion of the bubble cooling processes decreases the cooling rate of the star during the PBF phase, matching the observed rate only when L ≲ 45 MeV, taking all masses into consideration, corresponding to NS radii ≲ 11 km.

  16. Non-nuclear power sources for deep space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennel, E.B.; Tang, C.; Santarius, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    Electric propulsion and non-nuclear power can be used in tandem as a replacement for the current chemical booster and radioisotope thermoelectric generators now in use for deep space applications (i.e., to the asteroid belt and beyond). In current generation systems, electric propulsion is usually considered to be impractical because of the lack of high power for deep space, and non-nuclear power is thought to be impractical partly due to its high mass. However, when taken in combination, a solar powered electric upper stage can provide ample power and propulsion capability for use in deep space. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) systems have generally been selected for missions only when other systems are absolutely unavailable. The disadvantages of radioisotopes include the need for nuclear safety as another dimension of concern in payload integration; the lack of assured availability of plutonium in the post-cold-war world; the enormous cost of plutonium-238; and the system complexity introduced by the need to continuously cool the system during the pre-launch phase. A conservative estimate for the total power for the solar array at beginning of life (BOL) may be in the range of 25 kW in order to provide 500 W continuous power at Jupiter. The availability of {approximately} 25 kW(e) in earth orbit raises the interesting possibility of coupling electric propulsion units to this free electric power. If electric propulsion is used to raise the probe from low-earth-orbit to an earth-escape trajectory, the system could actually save on low-earth orbit mass. Electric propulsion could be used by itself in a spiral trajectory orbit raising maneuver to earth escape velocity, or it could be used in conjunction with a chemical upper stage (either solid rocket or liquid), which would boost the payload to an elliptical orbit. The concept is to begin the Earth-Jupiter trip with a swing-by near the Sun close to the orbit of Venus and perhaps even closer if thermal

  17. Nuclear power policy as a differential game

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines nuclear energy output in a differential game framework involving two countries. The countries differ regarding nuclear technology with one being relatively safe and the other less safe. Simulation of a numerical model gives the following results, (i) A cooperative agreement will imply less use of nuclear energy compared with both a noncooperative Nash equilibrium and an uncontrolled market solution, (ii) The country with relatively safe nuclear energy technology benefits m...

  18. International nuclear power status 2000; International kernekraftstatus 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    2001-03-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2000, the report contains: 1. General trends in the development of nuclear power. 2. Deposition of low-level radioactive waste. 3. Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1999). 4. An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2000. 5. The development in Sweden. 6. The development in Eastern Europe. 7. The development in the rest of the world. 8. Trends in the development of reactor types. 9. Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  19. Space Nuclear Power Public and Stakeholder Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Sandra M.; Sklar, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The 1986 Challenger accident coupled with the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident increased public concern about the safety of spacecraft using nuclear technology. While three nuclear powered spacecraft had been launched before 1986 with little public interest, future nuclear powered missions would see significantly more public concern and require NASA to increase its efforts to communicate mission risks to the public. In 1987 a separate risk communication area within the Launch Approval Planning Group of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was created to address public concern about the health, environmental, and safety risks of NASA missions. The lessons learned from the risk communication strategies developed for the nuclear powered Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini missions are reviewed in this paper and recommendations are given as to how these lessons can be applied to future NASA missions that may use nuclear power systems and other potentially controversial NASA missions.

  20. China’s Nuclear Power Plants in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Plant Phase I Located in Haiyan,Zhejiang Province,Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I is t he first 300-megawatt pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant independently designed,constructed,operated and managed by China.The plant came into commercial operation in April 1994.

  1. Operating results 2015. Nuclear power plants. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-05-15

    A report is given on the opening results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in further issue.

  2. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  3. Device for cooling the main vessel of a fast fission nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debru, M.

    1984-10-16

    The annular space delimited by the main vessel and an internal shell is in communication with the zone of the reactor vessel, in which the cold primary liquid is located. The annular space delimited by the shell and by an internal shell is in communication with the lower part of the core via tubes. Thus, the cold primary liquid is injected into the space where it circulates from bottom to top, and flows into the space, where it circulates from top to bottom while at the same time cooling the main vessel. The invention applies, in particular, to fast fission nuclear reactors cooled by liquid sodium.

  4. Nuclear power plants. Site choice; Usinas nucleoeletricas. Escolha de local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atala, Drausio Lima

    2009-07-01

    This book establishes the standards for selection and development of criteria for evaluation of new nuclear sites in Brazil. The places where the new nuclear power plants will be installed must be adequate for construction and operation of the power plants will be submitted to Brazilian environmental and nuclear legislation of the Union, states and the local governments, besides to accomplish the world good practices of this activity.

  5. Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance Optimization with Heuristic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Andrija Volkanovski; Leon Cizelj

    2014-01-01

    The test and maintenance activities are conducted in the nuclear power plants in order to prevent or limit failures resulting from the ageing or deterioration. The components and systems are partially or fully unavailable during the maintenance activities. This is especially important for the safety systems and corresponding equipment because they are important contributors to the overall nuclear power plant safety. A novel method for optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear ...

  6. The nuclear power option in the Italian energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nucci, M.R.

    2006-07-15

    Italy took a pioneering role in the early development of nuclear power. This source of energy should have provided the answer to the lack of domestic fossil resources. Due to the cheap oil prices, the influence of the state hydrocarbons company ENI and an influential petroleum lobby, following the nationalisation of the electricity sector in the early sixties, the nuclear option was no longer consequently pursued. Italy became heavily dependent on imported oil. Although in the period 1974-1975 an intensive nuclear power development programme was launched, the share of nuclear power remained marginal. In the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster and following the referendum phasing out nuclear power in 1987, the national energy policy was newly defined. Our analysis will follow the customary practice to subdivide the Italian nuclear power development into three phases: the pioneering years till the mid-1960s; the period between 1966 and 1987 and the post-Chernobyl phase. We discuss the early phase at a certain length, since it is symptomatic of the way in Italy technological and industrial matters are dealt with and well illustrates the alliance games and behaviour of still existing market players. Although disputes about the alleged advantages of nuclear power are revived with certain regularity and are justified with arguments such as climate change and dependence on imported fuel, we argue that a return to nuclear power in Italy is not foreseeable. Nonetheless, the country cannot be considered a nuclear-free area. Nuclear wastes still play a disquieting role and imported electricity is generated also by nuclear power. Moreover, another tendency has set through. Due to a large liquidity provided by the mandated divestments in the framework of the liberalisation of the electricity market, the previous monopolist ENEL is heavily investing in generating capacities, including stakes in nuclear plants abroad, especially in new EU countries. (author)

  7. Operating experience with nuclear power plants 2015. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-07-01

    The VGB Technical Committee ''Nuclear Plant Operation'' has been exchanging operating experience about nuclear power plants for more than 30 years. Plant operators from several European countries are participating in the exchange. A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from Germany. The second part of this report will focus on nuclear power plant in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

  8. Integrated diagnostic technique for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofuku, Akio [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    It is very important to detect and identify small anomalies and component failures for the safe operation of complex and large-scale artifacts such as nuclear power plants. Each diagnostic technique has its own advantages and limitations. These facts inspire us not only to enhance the capability of diagnostic techniques but also to integrate the results of diagnostic subsystems in order to obtain more accurate diagnostic results. The article describes the outline of four diagnostic techniques developed for the condition monitoring of the fast breeder reactor 'Monju'. The techniques are (1) estimation technique of important state variables based on a physical model of the component, (2) a state identification technique by non-linear discrimination function applying SVM (Support Vector Machine), (3) a diagnostic technique applying WT (Wavelet Transformation) to detect changes in the characteristics of measurement signals, and (4) a state identification technique effectively using past cases. In addition, a hybrid diagnostic system in which a final diagnostic result is given by integrating the results from subsystems is introduced, where two sets of values called confidence values and trust values are used. A technique to determine the trust value is investigated under the condition that the confidence value is determined by each subsystem.

  9. Nuclear power plant Severe Accident Research Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkins, J T; Cunningham, M A

    1983-01-01

    The Severe Accident Research Plan (SARP) will provide technical information necessary to support regulatory decisions in the severe accident area for existing or planned nuclear power plants, and covers research for the time period of January 1982 through January 1986. SARP will develop generic bases to determine how safe the plants are and where and how their level of safety ought to be improved. The analysis to address these issues will be performed using improved probabilistic risk assessment methodology, as benchmarked to more exact data and analysis. There are thirteen program elements in the plan and the work is phased in two parts, with the first phase being completed in early 1984, at which time an assessment will be made whether or not any major changes will be recommended to the Commission for operating plants to handle severe accidents. Additionally at this time, all of the thirteen program elements in Chapter 5 will be reviewed and assessed in terms of how much additional work is necessary and where major impacts in probabilistic risk assessment might be achieved. Confirmatory research will be carried out in phase II to provide additional assurance on the appropriateness of phase I decisions. Most of this work will be concluded by early 1986.

  10. General digitalized system on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, Katsumi; Kadohara, Hozumi; Taniguchi, Manabu [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Hitherto, instrumentation control system in a PWR nuclear power plant has stepwisely adopted digital technology such as application of digital instrumentation control device to ordinary use (primary/secondary system control device, and so on), application of CRT display system to monitoring function, and so forth, to realize load reduction of an operator due to expansion of operation automation range, upgrading of reliability and maintenance due to self-diagnosis function, reduction of mass in cables due to multiple transfer, and upgrading of visual recognition due to information integration. In next term PWR plant instrumentation control system, under consideration of application practice of conventional digital technology, application of general digitalisation system to adopt digitalisation of overall instrumentation control system containing safety protection system, and central instrumentation system (new type of instrumentation system) and to intend to further upgrade economics, maintenance, operability/monitoring under security of reliability/safety is planned. And, together with embodiment of construction program of the next-term plant, verification at the general digitalisation proto-system aiming at establishment of basic technology on the system is carried out. Then, here was described on abstract of the general digitalisation system and characteristics of a digital type safety protection apparatus to be adopted in the next-term plant. (G.K.)

  11. Numerical study on mirror of high power laser with heatpipe cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayuan, II; Zhu, Haihong; Cheng, Zuhai

    2008-12-01

    Mirror surface of high power laser would be deformed by the pressure of the coolant in a liquid cooling mirror system. In order to eliminate the impact of pressure and vibration of cooling water to the stability of the output beam, a cooling mirror with heatpipe is designed. With the same structure and conditions, solid mirror, water cooling mirror and heat pipe cooling mirror are simulated by ANSYS program. The time-varying thermal deformations of the group mirrors after 60s under the net heat absorption of 12W/cm2 are obtained. The maximal peak and valley difference value of mirror surface deformation of solid mirror along Z-axis, water cooling mirror and heat pipe cooling mirror after 60s is 1.33μm, 0.845 μm and 0.1094 μm respectively.

  12. Advances in conceptual design of a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rosales; Fajardo, Garcia; Curbelo, Perez; Oliva, Munoz; Hernandez, Garcia, E-mail: jrosales@instec.cu [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Habana City (Cuba); Castells, Escriva [Energetic Engeniering Institute, Politechnical University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Abanades [Department of Simulation of Termoenergetic Systems, Politechnical University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The possibilities of a nuclear energy development are considerably increasing with the world energetic demand increment. However, the management of nuclear waste from conventional nuclear power plants and its inventory minimization are the most important issues that should be addressed. Fast reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are the main options to reduce the long-lived radioactive waste inventory. Pebble Bed Very High Temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy development challenges. The conceptual design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) has been made in preliminary studies. The TADSEA is an ADS cooled by helium and moderated by graphite that uses as fuel small amounts of transuranic elements in the form of TRISO particles, confined in 3 cm radius graphite pebbles forming a pebble bed configuration. It would be used for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production. In this paper, the results of a method for calculating the number of whole pebbles fitting in a volume according to its size are showed. From these results, the packing fraction influence on the TADSEAs main work parameters is studied. In addition, a redesign of the previous configuration, according to the established conditions in the preliminary design, i.e. the exit thermal power, is made. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of the TRISO particles inside the pebbles can not be negligible. In this paper, a study of the power density distribution inside the pebbles by means of a detailed simulation of the TRISO fuel particles and using an homogeneous composition of the fuel is addressed. (author)

  13. Applications of neutron radiography for the nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Barton, John P.

    2016-11-01

    The World Conference on Neutron Radiography (WCNR) and International Topical Meeting on Neutron Radiography (ITMNR) series have been running over 35 years. The most recent event, ITMNR-8, focused on industrial applications and was the first time this series was hosted in China. In China, more than twenty new nuclear power plants are in construction and plans have been announced to increase the nuclear capacity further by a factor of three within fifteen years. There are additional prospects in many other nations. Neutron tests were vital during previous developments of materials and components for nuclear power applications, as reported in this conference series. For example a majority of the 140 papers in the Proceedings of the First WCNR are for the benefit of the nuclear power industry. Included are reviews of the diverse techniques being applied in Europe, Japan, the United States, and at many other centers. Many of those techniques are being utilized and advanced to the present time. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Applications include examination of nuclear waste, nuclear fuels, cladding, control elements, and other critical components. In this paper, the techniques developed and applied internationally for the nuclear power industry since the earliest years are reviewed, and the question is asked whether neutron test techniques can be of value in development of the present and future generations of nuclear power plants world-wide.

  14. Analysis of Contradiction Between Cool and Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Shaozhong

    2008-01-01

    @@ At the beginning of 2008,the Central,East and South China suffered a rare snow and ice disaster.After the disaster,power generation and power grid enterprises faced a big problem of power coal supply.

  15. The Possibility of Building Nuclear Power Plant Free from Severe Accident Risk PWR NPP with advanced all passive safety cooling systems (AAP SCS)%发展无严重事故风险核电站的曙光具有完全非能动安全冷却系统的压水堆核电站

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宏才

    2013-01-01

    A complete set of advanced all passive safety cooling systems (AAP SCS) for PWR NPP,actuated by natural force has been put forward in the article.Here the natural force mainly means the fore,which created by change of pressure distribution in the first loop of PWR as a result of operational regime conversion from one to another,including occurrence of accident situation.Correspondent safety cooling system will be actuated naturally and then put it into passive operation after occurring some kind of accident,so accidental situation will be mitigated right after it's occurrence and core residual heat will be naturally moved from the active core to the ultimate heat sink.There is no need to rely on automatic control system,any active equipment and human actions in all working process of the AAP SCS,which can reduce the probability of severe accident to zero,so as to exclude the need of evacuation plan around AAP nuclear power plant and eliminate the public's concern and doubt about nuclear power safety.Implementation of the AAP SCS concept is only based on use of evolutionary measures and state-of-the-art technology.So at present time it can be used for design of new-type third generation PWR nuclear power plant without severe accident risk,and for modernization of existing second generation nuclear power plant.%本文提出了用自然力直接触发启动压水堆核电站一整套完全非能动的停堆安全冷却系统.这里的自然力主要是指一回路运行工况转换时由于其压力分布变化所形成的压差力.在这一系统中,当进行停堆或发生某种一回路事故工况时,相应的安全冷却系统便自然地投入运行,立即缓解事故后果,将事故时一回路释放的能量及堆芯余热非能动地排入最终热阱.在全过程中不依靠自动控制系统、能动设备及任何人为因素的介入,即可确保对堆芯余热无限期的安全冷却能力,完全避免压水堆核电站发生向环境泄漏放射性物

  16. Comparative assessment of out-of-core nuclear thermionic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, W. C.; Koenig, D. R.; Prickett, W. Z.

    1975-01-01

    The hardware selections available for fabrication of a nuclear electric propulsion stage for planetary exploration were explored. The investigation was centered around a heat-pipe-cooled, fast-spectrum nuclear reactor for an out-of-core power conversion system with sufficient detail for comparison with the in-core system studies completed previously. A survey of competing power conversion systems still indicated that the modular reliability of thermionic converters makes them the desirable choice to provide the 240-kWe end-of-life power for at least 20,000 full power hours. The electrical energy will be used to operate a number of mercury ion bombardment thrusters with a specific impulse in the range of about 4,000-5,000 seconds.

  17. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

  18. Introduction to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Tyror, J G; Grant, P J

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to the Neutron Kinetics of Nuclear Power Reactors introduces the reader to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors. Topics covered include the neutron physics of reactor kinetics, feedback effects, water-moderated reactors, fast reactors, and methods of plant control. The reactor transients following faults are also discussed, along with the use of computers in the study of power reactor kinetics. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the reactor physics characteristics of a nuclear power reactor and their influence on system design and

  19. Nuclear electric power safety, operation, and control aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Knowles, J Brian

    2013-01-01

    Assesses the engineering of renewable sources for commercial power generation and discusses the safety, operation, and control aspects of nuclear electric power From an expert who advised the European Commission and UK government in the aftermath of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl comes a book that contains experienced engineering assessments of the options for replacing the existing, aged, fossil-fired power stations with renewable, gas-fired, or nuclear plants. From geothermal, solar, and wind to tidal and hydro generation, Nuclear Electric Power: Safety, Operation, and Control Aspects ass

  20. Resource Needs for Nuclear Power Generation in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. B. Nyarko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power is a proven technology that has served humanity for the past fifty years. It has provided electricity for several countries and shall continue to serve as a viable base load source of electric power. The need for skilled human resources for nuclear practice cannot be overlooked in the quest of any nation to adopt the technology. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission and the University of Ghana in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency have thus started a Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences to provide the human resources needed for nuclear power generation in Ghana. The School currently offers second degree courses as well as doctor of philosophy courses. Financial, land and water resource needs for nuclear power generation have been discussed. Availability of the national grid due to the deregulation of the electric power sector has also been discussed. Nuclear Fuel availability has been discussed along with the steps Ghana has to go through to obtain the technology to her development. The legal and legislative framework for nuclear power generation has also been presented. The programs currently available from the IAEA to assist Ghana to develop nuclear power have also been discussed. Conclusions have been drawn based on the discussions made.

  1. User's guide for the BNW-III optimization code for modular dry/wet-cooled power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, D.J.; Faletti, D.W.

    1984-09-01

    This user's guide describes BNW-III, a computer code developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Dry Cooling Enhancement Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The BNW-III code models a modular dry/wet cooling system for a nuclear or fossil fuel power plant. The purpose of this guide is to give the code user a brief description of what the BNW-III code is and how to use it. It describes the cooling system being modeled and the various models used. A detailed description of code input and code output is also included. The BNW-III code was developed to analyze a specific cooling system layout. However, there is a large degree of freedom in the type of cooling modules that can be selected and in the performance of those modules. The costs of the modules are input to the code, giving the user a great deal of flexibility.

  2. The outlook for application of powerful nuclear thermionic reactor - powered space electric jet propulsion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semyonov, Y.P.; Bakanov, Y.A.; Synyavsky, V.V.; Yuditsky, V.D. [Rocket-Space Corp. `Energia`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes main study results for application of powerful space electric jet propulsion unit (EJPUs) which is powered by Nuclear Thermionic Power Unit (NTPU). They are combined in Nuclear Power/Propulsion Unit (NPPU) which serves as means of spacecraft equipment power supply and spacecraft movement. Problems the paper deals with are the following: information satellites delivery and their on-orbit power supply during 10-15 years, removal of especially hazardous nuclear wastes, mining of asteroid resources and others. Evaluations on power/time/mass relationship for this type of mission are given. EJPU parameters are compatible with Russian existent or being under development launch vehicle. (author)

  3. Development of the nuclear plant analyzer for Korean standard Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Hwan; Kim, Hyeong Heon; Song, In Ho; Hong, Eon Yeong; Oh, Yeong Taek [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop an NPA for the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 and 4, the first KSNP type plant. In this study, the process model simulating the overall plant systems, GUI and simulation executive which provide the functions of an engineering simulator were developed, and the NPA was completed by integrating them. The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : main feedwater system, auxiliary feedwater system, Chemical and Volume Control System(CVCS), Safety Injection System(SIS), Shutdown Cooling System(SCS), electric power supply system, Core Protection Calculator(CPC), various plant control system, development of the graphics screens for each system, real-time simulation, simulation control for the enhancement of functional capabilities, user friendly GUI, collection of the design and operating data, establishment of the NPA database, integration of the GUI and simulation control program with process model, collection of the data for the verification and validation of the developed NPA, collection of the plant test data, collection and review of the results of other computer codes, verification of the simulation accuracy by comparing the NPA results with the actual plant data, validation of the simulation capability of the NPA, comparison against available data from other analysis suing different computer codes.

  4. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  5. Psychological empowerment in French nuclear power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fillol, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Since the eighties, nuclear safety has been discussed in organizational studies and constitutes nowadays a specific stream with several standpoints. Regarding the reliability of nuclear plants, the nuclear safety literature has emphasized on the crucial role of individuals and human factors. Especially, some researchers have noticed rule breaking behavior and the impact of individual self-confidence on thebehavior; but without deepening their analyses. As high self-esteem and confidence, i.e....

  6. History of nuclear power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.P.

    2006-07-15

    The 1973 energy crisis prompted the United States to suspend supplies of enriched uranium to the reactor being built in Brazil, Angra I. In 1975, the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement was announced. The Programme was a failure. Today the Angra II nuclear reactor has been completed, the only reactor completed under the agreement with Germany. Brazil's last military President implemented the Parallel Nuclear Programme, which included uranium enrichment with the justification of developing the technology that had not been transferred through the Nuclear Agreement with Germany. In 1986, the existence of a deep shaft drilled by the Air Force was revealed. A Technical Report concluded that it had all the characteristics and dimensions required to test a nuclear bomb. Some years later, the Civilian Government acknowledged the existence of an underground nuclear explosion facility and symbolically sealed this shaft. The situation in Brazil has improved recently. Brazil ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco on the denuclearisation of Latin America and established ABACC, an agency handling mutual inspections of nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. Brazil also signed the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. The uranium enrichment activities are being transferred to a civilian industry. More importantly, I do not believe that the uranium enrichment project is intended to endow Brazil with the capacity to produce nuclear weapons. (author)

  7. Performance analysis of a combined cycle gas turbine power plant by using various inlet air cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, Murad A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gazi University (Turkey)], e-mail: mrahim@gazi.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, the use of gas turbines in combined cycle power plants has increased. Turbine inlet air cooling appears to be the best solution for maximizing both production and efficiency, particularly in a hot climate. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of different air cooling systems on the gas turbine's performance and carbon dioxide emissions. Computer simulations were carried out, using the THERMOFLEX program, on fogging, evaporative cooling, adsorption cooling, and electrical chiller cooling systems as well as on a base case without cooling system. Results showed that inlet air cooling systems are effective in increasing the efficiency of gas turbine power plants. In addition it was found that absorption chillers are the best system for increasing power generation but that economic and source analyses should be conducted before installing a cooling system. This paper demonstrated that inlet air cooling systems have the ability to increase net power generation of gas turbine power plants.

  8. State of Fukushima nuclear fuel debris tracked by Cs137 in cooling water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambow, B; Mostafavi, M

    2014-11-01

    It is still difficult to assess the risk originating from the radioactivity inventory remaining in the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactors. Here we show that cooling water analyses provide a means to assess source terms for potential future releases. Until now already about 34% of the inventories of (137)Cs of three reactors has been released into water. We found that the release rate of (137)Cs has been constant for 2 years at about 1.8% of the inventory per year indicating ongoing dissolution of the fuel debris. Compared to laboratory studies on spent nuclear fuel behavior in water, (137)Cs release rates are on the higher end, caused by the strong radiation field and oxidant production by water radiolysis and by impacts of accessible grain boundaries. It is concluded that radionuclide analyses in cooling water allow tracking of the conditions of the damaged fuel and the associated risks.

  9. Cooling Performance Evaluation of the Hybrid Heat Pipe for Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate the concept of the cooling device, 2-step CFD analysis was conducted for the cooling performance of hybrid heat pipe, which consists of single fuel assembly model and full scope dry cask model. As a passive cooling device of the metal cask for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel, hybrid heat pipe was applied to DPC developed in Korea. Hybrid heat pipe is the heat pipe containing neutron absorber can be used as a passive cooling in nuclear application with both decay heat removal and control the reactivity. In this study, 2-step CFD analysis was performed to find to evaluate the heat pipe-based passive cooling system for the application to the dry cask. Only spent fuel pool cannot satisfy the demands for high burnup fuel and large amount of spent fuel. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare supplement of the storage facilities. As one of the candidate of another type of storage, dry storage method have been preferred due to its good expansibility of storage capacity and easy long-term management. Dry storage uses the gas or air as coolant with passive cooling and neutron shielding materials was used instead of water in wet storage system. It is relatively safe and emits little radioactive waste for the storage. As short term actions for the limited storage capacity of spent fuel pool, it is considered to use dry interim/long term storage method to increase the capacity of spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. For 10-year cooled down spent fuel in the pool storage, fuel rod temperature inside metal cask is expected over 250 .deg. C in simulation. Although it satisfied the criteria that cladding temperature of the spent fuel should keep under 400 .deg. C during storage period, high temperature inside cask can accelerate the thermal degradation of the structural materials consisting metal cask and fuel assembly as well as limitation of the storage capacity of metal cask. In this paper, heat pipe-based cooling device for the dry storage cask was suggested for

  10. Thermoacoustic Duplex Technology for Cooling and Powering a Venus Lander Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sierra Lobo proposes to develop a technology that can provide both cooling and electric power generation using heat. When coupled with a radioisotope heat source,...

  11. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur, E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: melissa.dubinsky@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: onur.tastan@rizzoassoc.com [RIZZO Associates Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miano, Sandra C., E-mail: scm27@psu.edu [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), RJ (Brazil); Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  12. Golden Nuclear Power:A Big Cake of Irresistible Temptations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Bo; Wang Ben

    2006-01-01

    @@ By 2020, the nuclear power installed capacity in China will go up from 8700 MW in 2005 to 40,000 MW. It signifies that30 generating units with a capacity of 1000 MW each will have been built. In fact, the development of nuclear power wants not merely enthusiasm. "The national policy maintains that we should take a road of localized development This is of great benefit to the expansion of nuclear power in China. However, many people still doubt whether the manufacturing capability and level can meet the requirements of nuclear safety, and multiple introductions are not good for digestion and assimilation, so that there exist potential risks in operation, maintenance and technical support," said Zeng Qingxiong, manager of financing section, Daya Bay Financial Company, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Co. Ltd (CGNPC).

  13. 77 FR 35080 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... fossil fuel generation, renewable energy sources, demand-side measures such as energy conservation, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance...

  14. Fundamental studies in cryogenic cooling of power electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, L. C.; Sehmbey, M. S.; Hahm, O. J.; Chui, C. J.

    1994-09-01

    This study details the results from experiments conducted to study the heat transfer characteristics during liquid nitrogen spray cooling and pool boiling from a heater array. Four different nozzles at various pressures were used to study the variation in spray cooling heat transfer at liquid nitrogen temperature. Effect of nozzle and flow rate on the critical heat flux and the heat transfer coefficient are presented. This study also provides empirical correlations for the spray cooling characteristics. The critical heat flux and the heat transfer coefficient have been correlated using nondimensional numbers. The study also shows the importance of surface roughness for spray cooling with liquid nitrogen. The rougher surfaces were shown to have significantly higher heat transfer rates and similar critical heat fluxes occurring at lower temperatures. The results from experiments conducted to study the pool boiling heat transfer from a vertical array with flush mounted heat sources are also presented. The lower heaters were found to enhance the heat transfer from the upper heaters due to bubble pumped convection.

  15. Analysis of distributed cooled high power millimeter wave windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.D.; Caplan, M.; Reitter, T.A.

    1995-09-09

    The sectional high-frequency (100--170 GHz) distributed cooled window has been investigated both electromagnetically and thermally previously using computational electromagnetics (EM) and thermal codes. Recent data describes the relationship to some experimental data for the window. Results are presented for time domain CW EM analyses and CW thermal and stress calculations.

  16. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E. [LABORELEC, Chemistry of Water (Belgium); Brognez, J. [ELECTRABEL, TIHANGE Nuclear Power Station (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    In the late 1970's and early 1980's, with the development of the nuclear programme in many European countries, the recirculation of cooling water in power stations became an issue which required urgent attention. The concentration of several plants of 1000 MW or more on sites along inland waterways actually made simple once-through cooling impossible, owing to the risk of an unacceptable rise in the river's water temperature. The chemical composition of natural freshwater in western European waterways is such that when it becomes slightly concentrated, scale is rapidly formed. The relatively low solubility of calcium carbonate and the degassing of the carbon dioxide during close contact between the water and air in the heat exchangers of the cooling tower explain this precipitation tendency. Fairly soon, experts in the electricity power generation companies highlighted the need for on-site, pilot loop simulations, in order to foresee the physico-chemical phenomena that could arise in industrial installations. The number of financially justifiable processing possibilities could be briefly summarised by the following three solutions: to adapt the concentration factor in order to be under the calcium carbonate solubility limit and thereby avoid the need for any water conditioning; to accept concentration factors of between 1.4 and 1.9 and control the calcium carbonate precipitation through controlled acid injection in the circulation water; to raise the concentration factor over 5 and soften the makeup water through the addition of lime and flocculant. The last of these solutions was rarely ever used in Belgium and France. It was however widely used in Germany. Its application requires a greater investment and leads to higher operating costs than acid injection. Furthermore, it leads to the problem of daily drying and disposal of several dozen tonnes of sludge, which have to be recycled or dumped. In an increasingly stringent environmental context, this

  17. Knowledge of and Attitude to Nuclear Power among Residents around Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant in Jiangsu of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningle Yu, Yimei Zhang, Jin Wang, Xingjiang Cao, Xiangyong Fan, Xiaosan Xu, Furu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aims of this paper were to determine the level of knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power among residents around Tianwan Nuclear power plant in Jiangsu of China.Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional design was adopted.Participants: 1,616 eligible participants who lived around the Tianwan nuclear power plant within a radius of 30km and at least 18 years old were recruited into our study and accepted epidemiological survey.Methods: Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires consisting of a socio-demographic sheet. Inferential statistics, t-test, ANOVA test and multivariate regression analysis were used to compare the differences between each subgroup and correlation analysis was conducted to understand the relationship between different factors and dependent variables.Results: Our investigation found that the level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power was generally not high. Respondents' gender, age, marital status, residence, educational level, family income and the distance away from the nuclear power plant are important effect factors to the knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power.Conclusions: The public concerns about nuclear energy's impact are widespread. The level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power needs to be improved urgently.

  18. Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron source activated by an accelerator that adds clear safety advantages and fuel f...

  19. Output Feedback Dissipation Control for the Power-Level of Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of its strong inherent safety features and the high outlet temperature, the modular high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (MHTGR is the chosen technology for a new generation of nuclear power plants. Such power plants are being considered for industrial applications with a wide range of power levels, thus power-level regulation is very important for their efficient and stable operation. Exploiting the large scale asymptotic closed-loop stability provided by nonlinear controllers, a nonlinear power-level regulator is presented in this paper that is based upon both the techniques of feedback dissipation and well-established backstepping. The virtue of this control strategy, i.e., the ability of globally asymptotic stabilization, is that it takes advantage of the inherent zero-state detectability property of the MHTGR dynamics. Moreover, this newly built power-level regulator is also robust towards modeling uncertainty in the control rod dynamics. If modeling uncertainty of the control rod dynamics is small enough to be omitted, then this control law can be simplified to a classical proportional feedback controller. The comparison of the control performance between the newly-built power controller and the simplified controller is also given through numerical study and theoretical analysis.

  20. Real-time temperature estimation in a multiple device power electronics system subject to dynamic cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, J. N.; Stone, D. A.; Foster, M. P.; Gladwin, D.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a technique to estimate the temperature of each power electronic device in a thermally coupled, multiple device system subject to dynamic cooling. Using a demonstrator system, the thermal transfer impedance between pairs of devices is determined in the frequency domain for a quantised range of active cooling levels using a technique based on pseudorandom binary sequences. The technique is illustrated by application to the case temperatures of power devices. For each coolin...

  1. 75 FR 76051 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ..., ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' and appendix...\\TM\\ fuel rod cladding. Thus, an exemption from the requirements of 10 CFR 50.46 and Appendix K is needed to support the ] use of different fuel rod cladding material. Therefore, the licensee requested...

  2. Nuclear Power from Fission Reactors. An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Technical Information Center.

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide a basic understanding of nuclear fission energy and different fission reaction concepts. Topics discussed are: energy use and production, current uses of fuels, oil and gas consumption, alternative energy sources, fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants, boiling water and pressurized water reactors, the light…

  3. 75 FR 61779 - R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and... Operating License No. DPR-18, issued to R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant (Ginna), located in Ontario, New York. In accordance with 10 CFR...

  4. Recent Advances in Nuclear Powered Electric Propulsion for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in-space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent U.S. high power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems,

  5. Measures against the adverse impact of natural wind on air-cooled condensers in power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The natural wind plays disadvantageous roles in the operation of air-cooled steam condensers in power plant.It is of use to take various measures against the adverse effect of wind for the performance improvement of air-cooled condensers.Based on representative 2×600 MW direct air-cooled power plant,three ways that can arrange and optimize the flow field of cooling air thus enhance the heat transfer of air-cooled condensers were proposed.The physical and mathematical models of air-cooled condensers with various flow leading measures were presented and the flow and temperature fields of cooling air were obtained by CFD simulation.The back pressures of turbine were calculated for different measures on the basis of the heat transfer model of air-cooled condensers.The results show that the performance of air-cooled condensers is improved thus the back pressure of turbine is lowered to some extent by taking measures against the adverse impact of natural wind.

  6. The role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor in the future of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollaway, W.R.; Lidsky, L.M.; Miller, M.M.

    1990-12-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of the potential role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) in the future of nuclear power. The development of a usable actinide burning strategy could be an important factor in the acceptance and implementation of a next generation of nuclear power. First, the need for nuclear generating capacity is established through the analysis of energy and electricity demand forecasting models which cover the spectrum of bias from anti-nuclear to pro-nuclear. The analyses take into account the issues of global warming and the potential for technological advances in energy efficiency. We conclude, as do many others, that there will almost certainly be a need for substantial nuclear power capacity in the 2000--2030 time frame. We point out also that any reprocessing scheme will open up proliferation-related questions which can only be assessed in very specific contexts. The focus of this report is on the fuel cycle impacts of actinide burning. Scenarios are developed for the deployment of future nuclear generating capacity which exploit the advantages of actinide partitioning and actinide burning. Three alternative reactor designs are utilized in these future scenarios: The Light Water Reactor (LWR); the Modular Gas-Cooled Reactor (MGR); and the Integral Fast Reactor (FR). Each of these alternative reactor designs is described in some detail, with specific emphasis on their spent fuel streams and the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Four separation and partitioning processes are utilized in building the future nuclear power scenarios: Thermal reactor spent fuel preprocessing to reduce the ceramic oxide spent fuel to metallic form, the conventional PUREX process, the TRUEX process, and pyrometallurgical reprocessing.

  7. A Two-Phase Cooling Loop for Fission Surface Power Waste Heat Transport Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current lunar-based Fission Surface Power (FSP) Systems that will support sustained surface outposts consist of a nuclear reactor with power converters, whose waste...

  8. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir

  9. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2010; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2011-07-15

    The report is the eighth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2010 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, and conflicts and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  10. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2009; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thorlaksen, B. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2010-05-15

    The report is the seventh report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2009 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, conflicts and the European safety directive. (LN)

  11. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2011; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nonboel, E. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aage, H.K.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thomsen, J. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2012-07-15

    The report is the ninth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2011 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  12. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2012; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E. (eds.); Oelgaard, P.L. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Israelson, C.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thomsen, J. [Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark)

    2013-11-15

    The report is the tenth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is prepared in collaboration between DTU Nutech and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2012 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the results of the EU stress test. (LN)

  13. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis for energy related applications. [nuclear power plant sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukelic, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    No useable LANDSAT 4 TM data were obtained for the Hanford site in the Columbia Plateau region, but TM simulator data for a Virginia Electric Company nuclear power plant was used to test image processing algorithms. Principal component analyses of this data set clearly indicated that thermal plumes in surface waters used for reactor cooling would be discrenible. Image processing and analysis programs were successfully testing using the 7 band Arkansas test scene and preliminary analysis of TM data for the Savanah River Plant shows that current interactive, image enhancement, analysis and integration techniques can be effectively used for LANDSAT 4 data. Thermal band data appear adequate for gross estimates of thermal changes occurring near operating nuclear facilities especially in surface water bodies being used for reactor cooling purposes. Additional image processing software was written and tested which provides for more rapid and effective analysis of the 7 band TM data.

  14. Valuing modular nuclear power plants in finite time decision horizon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, S.; Roelofs, F; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs, (according to IAEA, ‘small’ refers to reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfro

  15. Nuclear power program and technology development in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung-Oke

    1994-12-31

    KEPCO has successfully implemented the construction and operation of nuclear power plants since the early 1970s, and will continue to build safer and more efficient nuclear plants in the future in accordance with the nuclear power development plan previously established. KEPCO will also make every effort to enhance nuclear safety and obtain the public`s acceptance for nuclear power. We are, however, facing the same difficulties, as United States and other countries have, in strengthened regulatory requirements, public acceptance, radwaste disposal, and acquisition of new plant sites despite an active nuclear power program. Story of Ted Turner, CNN; {open_quotes}It ain`t as easy as it looks.{close_quotes} Yes! It is difficult. But we will cope with these issues so that we can promote the nuclear power development and continue to supply a highly economical and clean energy to the world. In this regard, it is my sincere wish that each organization participating in the nuclear industry, especially Korea and United States strengthen their ties and help each other so that we together can successfully accomplish our goals.

  16. Increasing photovoltaic panel power through water cooling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calebe Abrenhosa Matias

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a cooling apparatus using water in a commercial photovoltaic panel in order to analyze the increased efficiency through decreased operating temperature. The system enables the application of reuse water flow, at ambient temperature, on the front surface of PV panel and is composed of an inclined plane support, a perforated aluminum profile and a water gutter. A luminaire was specially developed to simulate the solar radiation over the module under test in a closed room, free from the influence of external climatic conditions, to carry out the repetition of the experiment in controlled situations. The panel was submitted to different rates of water flow. The best water flow rate was of 0.6 L/min and net energy of 77.41Wh. Gain of 22.69% compared to the panel without the cooling system.

  17. Method and system for powering and cooling semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Steven J; Ladran, Anthony S

    2014-02-25

    A semiconductor laser system includes a diode laser tile. The diode laser tile includes a mounting fixture having a first side and a second side opposing the first side and an array of semiconductor laser pumps coupled to the first side of the mounting fixture. The semiconductor laser system also includes an electrical pulse generator thermally coupled to the diode bar and a cooling member thermally coupled to the diode bar and the electrical pulse generator.

  18. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Iman [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Walker, Michael E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Hsieh, Ming-Kai [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Dzombak, David A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Liu, Wenshi [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Vidic, Radisav D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus® with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH3 and CO2 evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH3 mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., kNH3 < 4×10-3 m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO3). The effect of the CO2 mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., kCO2<4×10-6 m/s).

  19. Devices and methods for managing noncondensable gasses in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquino, Wayne; Moen, Stephan C.; Wachowiak, Richard M.; Gels, John L.; Diaz-Quiroz, Jesus; Burns, Jr., John C.

    2016-11-15

    Systems passively eliminate noncondensable gasses from facilities susceptible to damage from combustion of built-up noncondensable gasses, such as H2 and O2 in nuclear power plants, without the need for external power and/or moving parts. Systems include catalyst plates installed in a lower header of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) condenser, a catalyst packing member, and/or a catalyst coating on an interior surface of a condensation tube of the PCCS condenser or an annular outlet of the PCCS condenser. Structures may have surfaces or hydrophobic elements that inhibit water formation and promote contact with the noncondensable gas. Noncondensable gasses in a nuclear power plant are eliminated by installing and using the systems individually or in combination. An operating pressure of the PCCS condenser may be increased to facilitate recombination of noncondensable gasses therein.

  20. Devices and methods for managing noncombustible gasses in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquino, Wayne; Moen, Stephan C; Wachowiak, Richard M; Gels, John L; Diaz-Quiroz, Jesus; Burns, Jr., John C

    2014-12-23

    Systems passively eliminate noncondensable gasses from facilities susceptible to damage from combustion of built-up noncondensable gasses, such as H2 and O2 in nuclear power plants, without the need for external power and/or moving parts. Systems include catalyst plates installed in a lower header of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) condenser, a catalyst packing member, and/or a catalyst coating on an interior surface of a condensation tube of the PCCS condenser or an annular outlet of the PCCS condenser. Structures may have surfaces or hydrophobic elements that inhibit water formation and promote contact with the noncondensable gas. Noncondensable gasses in a nuclear power plant are eliminated by installing and using the systems individually or in combination. An operating pressure of the PCCS condenser may be increased to facilitate recombination of noncondensable gasses therein.

  1. Devices and methods for managing noncombustible gasses in nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquino, Wayne; Moen, Stephan C; Wachowiak, Richard M; Gels, John L; Diaz-Quiroz, Jesus; Burns, Jr., John C

    2014-12-23

    Systems passively eliminate noncondensable gasses from facilities susceptible to damage from combustion of built-up noncondensable gasses, such as H2 and O2 in nuclear power plants, without the need for external power and/or moving parts. Systems include catalyst plates installed in a lower header of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) condenser, a catalyst packing member, and/or a catalyst coating on an interior surface of a condensation tube of the PCCS condenser or an annular outlet of the PCCS condenser. Structures may have surfaces or hydrophobic elements that inhibit water formation and promote contact with the noncondensable gas. Noncondensable gasses in a nuclear power plant are eliminated by installing and using the systems individually or in combination. An operating pressure of the PCCS condenser may be increased to facilitate recombination of noncondensable gasses therein.

  2. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems Analysis Dept.; Waymire, Russell L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems Analysis Dept.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  3. Malaysian public perception towards nuclear power energy-related issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia had considered nuclear energy as an option for future electricity generation during the 9th Malaysia Development Plan. Since 2009, Malaysia had implemented a number of important preparatory steps towards this goal, including the establishment of Nuclear Power Corporation of Malaysia (MNPC) as first Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO) in Malaysia. In light of the establishment of MNPC, the National Nuclear Policy was formulated in 2010 and a new comprehensive nuclear law to replace the existing Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) is currently in the pipeline. Internationally, public acceptance is generally used to gauge the acceptance of nuclear energy by the public whenever a government decides to engage in nuclear energy. A public survey was conducted in between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia. The methodology of this research was aim on finding an overview of the general knowledge, public-relation recommendation, perception and acceptance of Malaysian towards the nuclear power development program. The combination of information gathered from this study can be interpreted as an indication of the complexity surrounding the development of nuclear energy and its relationship with the unique background of Malaysian demography. This paper will focus mainly on energy-related section in the survey in comparison with nuclear energy.

  4. The Impact of Climate Changes on the Thermal Performance of a Proposed Pressurized Water Reactor: Nuclear-Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said M. A. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for studying the impact of the cooling water temperature on the thermal performance of a proposed pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant (PWR NPP through the thermodynamic analysis based on the thermodynamic laws to gain some new aspects into the plant performance. The main findings of this study are that an increase of one degree Celsius in temperature of the coolant extracted from environment is forecasted to decrease by 0.39293 and 0.16% in the power output and the thermal efficiency of the nuclear-power plant considered, respectively.

  5. Analysis of Possible Application of High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors to Contemporary Large-Output Steam Power Plants on Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk T.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analysis of possible application of helium to cooling high-temperature nuclear reactor to be used for generating steam in contemporary ship steam-turbine power plants of a large output with taking into account in particular variable operational parameters. In the first part of the paper types of contemporary ship power plants are presented. Features of today applied PWR reactors and proposed HTR reactors are discussed. Next, issues of load variability of the ship nuclear power plants, features of the proposed thermal cycles and results of their thermodynamic calculations in variable operational conditions, are presented.

  6. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Andrew S.; Kuma, Manish [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, State University of New York, Buffalo (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Seismic isolation is a viable strategy for protecting safety-related nuclear structures from the effects of moderate to severe earthquake shaking. Although seismic isolation has been deployed in nuclear structures in France and South Africa, it has not seen widespread use because of limited new build nuclear construction in the past 30 years and a lack of guidelines, codes and standards for the analysis, design and construction of isolation systems specific to nuclear structures. The funding by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission of a research project to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and MCEER/University at Buffalo facilitated the writing of a soon-to-be-published NUREG on seismic isolation. Funding of MCEER by the National Science Foundation led to research products that provide the technical basis for a new section in ASCE Standard 4 on the seismic isolation of safety-related nuclear facilities. The performance expectations identified in the NUREG and ASCE 4 for seismic isolation systems, and superstructures and substructures are described in the paper. Robust numerical models capable of capturing isolator behaviors under extreme loadings, which have been verified and validated following ASME protocols, and implemented in the open source code OpenSees, are introduced.

  7. The Politics of Nuclear Power and Waste Storage in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)), e-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg

    2010-09-15

    A complex interplay of social, economic, and political factors makes anticipating the scale and scope of nuclear power expansion difficult for both established and aspiring nuclear nations. In response, this article investigates the forms of social, political, and economic organization conducive to nuclear power expansion. We define 'socio-political economy' as the dynamic forces of state and society which influence the nuclear power industry. We begin by developing a theoretical framework of nuclear socio-political economy based primarily upon the evolution of nuclear energy in France (with supplemental insights from the former Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States). This emergent framework posits that strong state involvement in guiding economic development, centralization of national energy planning, campaigns to link technological progress to a national revitalization, influence of technocratic ideology on policy decisions, subordination of challenges to political authority, and low levels of civic activism were influential factors in supporting the expansion of nuclear power in France. These six catalysts create conducive conditions in unique ways. First, a history of strong government intervention in guiding the direction of economic development is a requisite condition seemingly because nuclear power is a 'socio--technically inflexible' technology that requires a high degree of supply chain coordination which only the government is capable of unifying. Second, a highly centralized energy sector infuses the requisite control for planning and implementing a sustained expansion of nuclear power in the midst of a politicized environment. Third, the presence of a government strategy that attempts to link technological developments to a national renaissance fosters the formation of a national culture which tolerates risks associated with risk-prone technologies. Fourth, the dominance of a technocratic approach to policymaking appears

  8. Nuclear spin cooling by electric dipole spin resonance and coherent population trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Xian; Duan, Su-Qing; Zhang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear spin fluctuation suppression is a key issue in preserving electron coherence for quantum information/computation. We propose an efficient way of nuclear spin cooling in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) by the coherent population trapping (CPT) and the electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) induced by optical fields and ac electric fields. The EDSR can enhance the spin flip-flop rate and may bring out bistability under certain conditions. By tuning the optical fields, we can avoid the EDSR induced bistability and obtain highly polarized nuclear spin state, which results in long electron coherence time. With the help of CPT and EDSR, an enhancement of 1500 times of the electron coherence time can been obtained after a 500 ns preparation time.

  9. Impact of nuclear data on sodium-cooled fast reactor calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aures, Alexander; Bostelmann, Friederike; Zwermann, Winfried; Velkov, Kiril

    2016-03-01

    Neutron transport and depletion calculations are performed in combination with various nuclear data libraries in order to assess the impact of nuclear data on safety-relevant parameters of sodium-cooled fast reactors. These calculations are supplemented by systematic uncertainty analyses with respect to nuclear data. Analysed quantities are the multiplication factor and nuclide densities as a function of burn-up and the Doppler and Na-void reactivity coefficients at begin of cycle. While ENDF/B-VII.0 / -VII.1 yield rather consistent results, larger discrepancies are observed between the JEFF libraries. While the newest evaluation, JEFF-3.2, agrees with the ENDF/B-VII libraries, the JEFF-3.1.2 library yields significant larger multiplication factors.

  10. Impact of nuclear data on sodium-cooled fast reactor calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aures Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron transport and depletion calculations are performed in combination with various nuclear data libraries in order to assess the impact of nuclear data on safety-relevant parameters of sodium-cooled fast reactors. These calculations are supplemented by systematic uncertainty analyses with respect to nuclear data. Analysed quantities are the multiplication factor and nuclide densities as a function of burn-up and the Doppler and Na-void reactivity coefficients at begin of cycle. While ENDF/B-VII.0 / -VII.1 yield rather consistent results, larger discrepancies are observed between the JEFF libraries. While the newest evaluation, JEFF-3.2, agrees with the ENDF/B-VII libraries, the JEFF-3.1.2 library yields significant larger multiplication factors.

  11. An overview of future sustainable nuclear power reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Poullikkas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an overview of the current and future nuclear power reactor technologies is carried out. In particular, the nuclear technology is described and the classification of the current and future nuclear reactors according to their generation is provided. The analysis has shown that generation II reactors currently in operation all around the world lack significantly in safety precautions and are prone to loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In contrast, generation III reactors, which are ...

  12. Nuclear power sources in outer space. [spacecraft propulsion legal aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1978-01-01

    Legal problems associated with nuclear power sources in space are discussed with particular reference to the Cosmos 954 incident. Deliberations of the Legal and Scientific and Technical Subcommittees on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on this subject are discussed.

  13. China's First Salvaging Robot for Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Researchers from the CAS Institute of Optics and Electronics in Chengdu,capital of southwest China's Sichuan Province, have been successful in building China's first robot for searching and retrieving underwater foreign objects in nuclear power stations.

  14. Construction, Maintenance and Demolition of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smet, Camiel de [Hilti Corporation, P.O. Box 333, FL-9494 Schaan (Liechtenstein)

    2008-07-01

    Hilti is your reliable partner in nuclear power plant construction, maintenance and demolition worldwide. Professional advice and innovative solutions for virtually every phase of construction and supply technologically leading products and systems to increase your productivity and help to create and maintain safe and lasting plants is offered. The solutions for nuclear power plants construction, maintenance and demolition have been employed with great success in many different countries on a wide variety of projects due in no small way to their worldwide availability. An unbroken, international exchange of experience upholds a permanent innovation process. This assures our customers that they always receive products on the very latest technological standard. This paper is not intended to cover all topics related to nuclear power plants. The idea is more to give a kind of an overview. The paper covers briefly the following topics: safety (corrosion and fire), fastenings, measuring and finally decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  16. Multi-Decadal Global Cooling and Unprecedented Ozone Loss Following a Regional Nuclear Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M. J.; Toon, O. B.; Lee-Taylor, J. M.; Robock, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present the first study of the global impacts of a regional nuclear war with an Earth system model including atmospheric chemistry, ocean dynamics, and interactive sea-ice and land models (Mills et al., 2014). A limited, regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan in which each side detonates 50 15-kt weapons could produce about 5 Tg of black carbon. This would self-loft to the stratosphere, where it would spread globally, producing a sudden drop in surface temperatures and intense heating of the stratosphere. Using the Community Earth System Model with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM1(WACCM)), we calculate an e-folding time of 8.7 years for stratospheric black carbon, compared to 4-6.5 years for previous studies (figure panel a). Our calculations show that global ozone losses of 20-50% over populated areas, levels unprecedented in human history, would accompany the coldest average surface temperatures in the last 1000 years (figure panel c). We calculate summer enhancements in UV indices of 30-80% over Mid-Latitudes, suggesting widespread damage to human health, agriculture, and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Killing frosts would reduce growing seasons by 10-40 days per year for 5 years. Surface temperatures would be reduced for more than 25 years, due to thermal inertia and albedo effects in the ocean and expanded sea ice. The combined cooling and enhanced UV would put significant pressures on global food supplies and could trigger a global nuclear famine. Knowledge of the impacts of 100 small nuclear weapons should motivate the elimination of the more than 17,000 nuclear weapons that exist today. Mills, M. J., O. B. Toon, J. Lee-Taylor, and A. Robock (2014), Multidecadal global cooling and unprecedented ozone loss following a regional nuclear conflict, Earth's Future, 2(4), 161-176, doi:10.1002/2013EF000205.

  17. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-01-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  18. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-02-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  19. Fuel element concept for long life high power nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements have burnups that are an order of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved by conventional design practice. Elements have greater time integrated power producing capacity per unit volume. Element design concept capitalizes on known design principles and observed behavior of nuclear fuel.

  20. A Chandra Study of the Image Power Spectra of 41 Cool Core and Non-Cool Core Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chenhao; Zhu, Zhenghao; Li, Weitian; Hu, Dan; Wang, Jingying; Gu, Junhua; Gu, Liyi; Zhang, Zhongli; Liu, Chengze; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new diagnostic to segregate cool core (CC) clusters from non-cool core (NCC) clusters by studying the two-dimensional power spectra of the X-ray images observed with the Chandra X-ray observatory. Our sample contains 41 members ($z=0.01\\sim 0.54$), which are selected from the Chandra archive when a high photon count, an adequate angular resolution, a relatively complete detector coverage, and coincident CC-NCC classifications derived with three traditional diagnostics are simultaneously guaranteed. We find that in the log-log space the derived image power spectra can be well represented by a constant model component at large wavenumbers, while at small wavenumbers a power excess beyond the constant component appears in all clusters, with a clear tendency that the excess is stronger in CC clusters. By introducing a new CC diagnostic parameter, i.e., the power excess index (PEI), we classify the clusters in our sample and compare the results with those obtained with three traditional C...

  1. Possible genetic damage in the Czech nuclear power plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, Radim J. [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz; Roessner, Pavel [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Rubes, Jiri [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic); Beskid, Olena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Dusek, Zdik [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Chvatalova, Irena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Schmuczerova, Jana [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Milcova, Alena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Solansky, Ivo [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Bavorova, Hana [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Ocadlikova, Dana [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Kopecna, Olga [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic); Musilova, Petra [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2006-01-29

    The aim of our study was to identify occupational risk of irradiation exposure in the Czech nuclear power plant workers. We analyzed levels of chromosomal aberrations, a well-known biomarker of early biological effects and a predictor of cancer risk. We applied the conventional method of cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, whole chromosome painting for chromosomes 1 and 4, combined with a pancentromeric probe) to three groups: 123 subjects in the Temelin nuclear power plant (2 years in use), 114 subjects in the Dukovany nuclear power plant (20 years in use), and 53 matched controls from Ceske Budejovice. Nuclear power plant workers were divided into two groups: subjects with admittance into the monitored zone, and others. Following factors were also analyzed: GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, XPD, XRCC1, hOGG1, p53, MTHFR, and MS gene polymorphisms, levels of vitamins A, C, E, and folate in plasma, and level of cotinine in urine. Long-term exposure to ionizing radiation in the monitored zone was 0.47 {+-} 1.50 mSv (miliSievert) in the Temelin nuclear power plant and 5.74 {+-} 9.57 mSv in the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Using the conventional cytogenetic analysis, we observed 1.90 {+-} 0.95 and 1.82 {+-} 1.19% AB.C. (percent of aberrant cells) in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.39 {+-} 1.01 and 2.33 {+-} 1.04% AB.C. in the Dukovany nuclear power plant, for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, we found 2.25 {+-} 0.82% AB.C. Genomic frequency of translocations F {sub G}/100 measured by FISH was 1.89 {+-} 1.40 and 2.01 {+-} 1.68 in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.48 {+-} 1.93 and 2.14 {+-} 1.62 in the Dukovany nuclear power plant for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, F {sub G}/100 was 1.83 {+-} 1.19. Following factors were identified as potential confounders by the conventional cytogenetic analysis: XPD-6, by the FISH: age, GSTP1 and p53Bst genotypes, long-term use

  2. Coaxial Ring Cyclotron as a Perspective Nuclear Power Engineering Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Tumanyan, A. R.; Simonyan, Kh. A.; Mkrtchyan, R. L.; Amatuni, A. Ts.; Avakyan, R. O.; Khudaverdyan, A. G.

    1995-01-01

    The circuit arrangement of the proposed coaxial ring cyclotron (CRC) is described, and its main advantages, such as simple injection technique, several injected beams summation option, high efficiency, are considered. The proposed proton accelerator is a perspective machine for the solution of the main problems of the present day nuclear power engineering as well as for the next-generation nuclear power plants, representing a combination of subcritical reactors and particle accelerators. The ...

  3. International nuclear power status 1994; International kernekraftstatus 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejerup, C.F.; Majborn, B.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the first in a planned series of annual reports covering the international development in the field of nuclear power. The report deals with: statistical information on the electricity produced by nuclear power plants; major safety-related incidents in 1994; the development in Sweden, Eastern Europe, and the rest of the world; the trends of development of a number of reactor types; the trends of development in the fuel cycle. (au).

  4. Nuclear power in our societies; Le nucleaire dans nos societes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardeau, J.C.

    2011-07-01

    Hiroshima, Chernobyl, Fukushima Daiichi are the well known sad milestones on the path toward a broad development of nuclear energy. They are so well known that they have blurred certainly for long in a very unfair way the positive image of nuclear energy in the public eye. The impact of the media appetite for disasters favours the fear and puts aside all the achievements of nuclear sciences like nuclear medicine for instance and all the assets of nuclear power like the quasi absence of greenhouse gas emission or its massive capacity to produce electricity or heat. The unique solution to enhance nuclear acceptance is the reduction of the fear through a better understanding of nuclear sciences by the public. (A.C.)

  5. Development of human resources for Indian nuclear power programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R B Grover; R R Puri

    2013-10-01

    The continuing research and development on nuclear technology by research establishments in the country and maturing of Indian industry have brought the nuclear energy programme in India to a stage where it is poised to take a quantum leap forward. The vision of expansion of nuclear power also requires a wellstructured specialized human resource development programme. This paper discusses the requirements of the human resource development programme for nuclear energy, the challenges in the way of its realization, its national and international status and traces the history of nuclear education in the country. It brings out the linkage of human resource development programme with the nuclear energy programme in the country. It also describes the initiatives by the university system in the area of nuclear education and support provided by the Department of Atomic Energy to the university system by way of extra-mural funding and by providing access to research facilities.

  6. Cyber Norms for Civilian Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirito, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The international community agrees that the safe operation of civilian nuclear infrastructure is in every population’s best interest. One challenge each government must address is defining and agreeing to a set of acceptable norms of behavior in cyberspace as they relate to these facilities. The introduction of digital systems and networking technologies into these environments has led to the possibility that control and supporting computer systems are now accessible and exploitable, especially where interconnections to global information and communications technology (ICT) networks exist. The need for norms of behavior in cyberspace includes what is expected of system architects and cyber defenders as well as adversaries who should abide by rules of engagement even while conducting acts that violate national and international laws. The goal of this paper is to offer three behavioral cyber norms to improve the overall security of the ICT and Operational Technology (OT) networks and systems that underlie the operations of nuclear facilities. These norms of behavior will be specifically defined with the goals of reducing the threats associated to the theft of nuclear materials, accidental release of radiation and sabotage of nuclear processes. These norms would also include instances where an unwitting attacker or intelligence collection entity inadvertently makes their way into a nuclear facility network or system and can recognize they are in a protected zone and an approach to ensuring that these zones are not exploitable by bad actors to place their sensitive cyber effect delivery systems.

  7. Russian nuclear power plants for marine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to establish a systematic approach for future proliferation and environmental analyses of Russia's marine nuclear reactor systems, this paper summarizes and analyzes the available open-source information on the design properties of reactor systems and nuclear fuels. The most distinctive features of Russian marine reactor development are pointed out, and similarities and differences between Russian military and civilian reactor systems and fuel are discussed. Relevant updated information on all Russian vessels using nuclear propulsion is presented in Annex I. The basic analytic division in this paper follows vessel generations first to third generation; and reactor types PWR and LMC technology. Most of the available information is related to nuclear icebreakers. This information is systematically analyzed in order to identify stages in the development of Russia's civilian naval nuclear reactors. Three different reactor models are discussed: OK-150, OK-900 and KLT-40, together with several versions of these. Concerning military reactors, it is not possible to identify characteristics for the individual reactor models, so the basic division follows vessel generations first to third generation. From the information available, however, it is possible to identify the main lines along which the design of submarines of especially the first and the second generation has been made. The conclusions contain a discussion of possible implications of the results, in addition to suggestions for further work. (au)

  8. The cooling of the Cassiopeia A neutron star as a probe of the nuclear symmetry energy and nuclear pasta

    CERN Document Server

    Newton, William G; Hooker, Joshua; Li, Bao-An

    2013-01-01

    X-ray observations of the neutron star in the Cas A supernova remnant over the past decade suggest the star is undergoing rapid cooling, with a drop in surface temperature of $\\approx$ 2-5.5%. One of the leading explanations suggests the rapid cooling is triggered by the onset of neutron superfluidity in the core of the star, causing enhanced neutrino emission from neutron Cooper pair breaking and formation (PBF). Using consistent neutron star crust and core equations of state (EOSs) and compositions, we explore the sensitivity of this interpretation to the density dependence of the symmetry energy $L$ of the EOS used, and to the presence of enhanced neutrino cooling in the bubble phases of crustal "nuclear pasta". Using a conservative range of possible neutron star masses and envelope compositions, we find $L\\lesssim70$ MeV, competitive with constraints from terrestrial experimental constraints and other astrophysical observations. If one demands that $M\\gtrsim 1.4 M_{\\odot}$, the constraint becomes more res...

  9. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  10. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  11. High-sensitivity cooled coil system for nuclear magnetic resonance in kHz range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Yong-Ho; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Lin, Jun; Zhao, Jing

    2014-11-01

    In several low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF-NMR) and surface nuclear magnetic resonance applications, i.e., in the frequency range of kHz, high sensitivity magnetic field detectors are needed. Usually, low-Tc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with a high field sensitivity of about 1 fT/Hz(1/2) are employed as detectors. Considering the flux trapping and operational difficulties associated with low-Tc SQUIDs, we designed and fabricated liquid-nitrogen-cooled Cu coils for NMR detection in the kHz range. A cooled coil system consisting of a 9-cm diameter Cu coil and a low noise preamplifier was systematically investigated and reached a sensitivity of 2 fT/Hz(1/2) at 77 K, which is 3 times better compared to the sensitivity at 300 K. A Q-switch circuit as an essential element for damping the ringing effects of the pickup coil was developed to acquire free induction decay signals of a water sample with minimum loss of signal. Our studies demonstrate that cooled Cu coils, if designed properly, can provide a comparable sensitivity to low-Tc SQUIDs.

  12. Moldova Power Sources Development including Nuclear Power Plant possible participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comendant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available For the new power market conditions Moldova power sources development options up to 2030 are evaluated, attempting to propose the best solutions in this respect and the ways they be realized.

  13. A Series Dissertation on Tianwan Nuclear Power Station--Summary of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiankun

    2006-01-01

    This is a summary in relation to the construction and operation of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station (the Project) at Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, the People' s Republic of China. The breakdown specialty topic shall been given in times to come. In this report, the author attempted to give some general description of the Project, including the Project site' s general layout and geographical conditions. A description of its exposure to the elements is also provided, supported by some data made available to us. The key component parts of the Project are described, namely, the nuclear island which includes the reactor, steam generator and so on; the conventional island and the balance of plant. Wherever possible, the improvements to the reactor design over the operating V320 are highlighted, which result in the V428 reactor model. The supplier and contractor for the major equipment such as the reactor and the turbine is the Russian company, namely Atomstroyexport (ASE). There are third country suppliers who provide other equipment. For instance, Siemens supplies the full digital I&C system and Framatome ANP supplies the emergency diesel generators; the metal-clad switchgear cabinet by ABB of Australia; the main steam isolation valve unit by CCI AG of Switzerland. All these foreign suppliers are well known globally. Their experience and quality of the equipment supplied by them are well recognized by the people in the respective fields. As for the civil work and erection work, the most experienced and trustworthy local contractors have been selected. These contractors have proven their competence in similar contract work before. For the testing of the equipment, stringent and proper procedures which meet international standards are adopted. Finally, the author wished on this report could provide the world a safety and advanced Nuclear Project building in China.

  14. Integrated three-dimensional module heat exchanger for power electronics cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Kevin; Lustbader, Jason

    2013-09-24

    Embodiments discussed herein are directed to a power semiconductor packaging that removes heat from a semiconductor package through one or more cooling zones that are located in a laterally oriented position with respect to the semiconductor package. Additional embodiments are directed to circuit elements that are constructed from one or more modular power semiconductor packages.

  15. Rugged passively cooled high power laser fiber optic connectors and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.; McKay, Ryan P.

    2016-06-07

    There are provided high power laser connectors and couplers and methods that are capable of providing high laser power without the need for active cooling to remote, harsh and difficult to access locations and under difficult and harsh conditions and to manage and mitigate the adverse effects of back reflections.

  16. Rugged passively cooled high power laser fiber optic connectors and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.; McKay, Ryan P.

    2016-06-07

    There are provided high power laser connectors and couplers and methods that are capable of providing high laser power without the need for active cooling to remote, harsh and difficult to access locations and under difficult and harsh conditions and to manage and mitigate the adverse effects of back reflections.

  17. SNPSAM - Space Nuclear Power System Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Seo, Jong T.

    The current version of SNPSAM is described, and the results of the integrated thermoeletric SP-100 system performance studies using SNPSAM are reported. The electric power output, conversion efficiency, coolant temperatures, and specific pumping power of the system are calculated as functions of the reactor thermal power and the liquid metal coolant type (Li or NaK-78) during steady state operation. The transient behavior of the system is also discussed.

  18. Prediction and attendance of Angra 2 nuclear power plant cycle extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Amory [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. - ELETRONUCLEAR, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: adias@eletronuclear.gov.br; Ferreira Junior, Decio Brandes M.; Morgado, Mario Monteiro; Santos, Barbara Oliveira dos; Oliveira, Monica Georgia Nunes [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. - ELETRONUCLEAR, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: deciobr@eletronuclear.gov.br; mariomm@eletronuclear.gov.br; oliveira@eletronuclear.gov.br; mongeor@eletronuclear.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The Report Project Nuclear and Thermohydraulic (RPNT) of the Nuclear Power Plant Angra 2 previews extension of the cycle, using a feedback of core reactor reactivity, through the reduction of the moderator average temperature and power. In this phase, the reactor power remains almost invariable. Furthermore, the extension of cycle can be stretch after the limit of the temperature reduction has been reached, through of reactor power fall until the determined date for the end cycle and the start outage for the next cycle. The proposal of this work is to show the Power Plant results during the phase of moderator temperature reduction and to compare with the predict values obtained from reactivity balance calculation methodology used for the Reactor Physics. In general, the results of this work can collaborate for the extension behavior evaluation of the cycles of the Nuclear Power Plant 2, being used the procedure of cooling reduction average temperature, as well as, it will also collaborate for methodology qualification applied for the Reactor Physics during the reactivity balance calculation. (author)

  19. Nuclear power: on line; Kernenergie Online

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Christian [atw Redaktion, Hattingen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Presentation of these contents in the World Wide Web (WWW): Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) - itu.jrc.ec.europa.eu Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen (Germany) - www.kkw-gundremmingen.de Canadian Nuclear Association (Canada) - www.cna.ca Kernkraftwerk Krsko (Slovenia) - www.nek.si. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear power: The beginning of the end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The global significance of nuclear energy is greatly overestimated - accounting for share of barely two per cent of worldwide energy consumption, it is a rather phoney giant: The closer one look at facts, the less potential this controversial energy source seems to hold for the future. (orig.)

  1. Moving Beyond Pretense: Nuclear Power and Nonproliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    an epidemic, such as the interhuman transmission of the H5N1 bird flu virus , or prospective conflicts resulting from cli- mate change do not have...Nuclear Industry of Iran.” 32. Gordon, “Russia to Offer U.S. Deal.” 181 33. David Albright, Paul Brannan, and Robert Kelley, “Mys- teries Deepen Over

  2. Low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization with helium-cooled samples and nitrogen-driven magic-angle spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent; Tycko, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We describe novel instrumentation for low-temperature solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS), focusing on aspects of this instrumentation that have not been described in detail in previous publications. We characterize the performance of an extended interaction oscillator (EIO) microwave source, operating near 264 GHz with 1.5 W output power, which we use in conjunction with a quasi-optical microwave polarizing system and a MAS NMR probe that employs liquid helium for sample cooling and nitrogen gas for sample spinning. Enhancement factors for cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals in the 100-200 range are demonstrated with DNP at 25K. The dependences of signal amplitudes on sample temperature, as well as microwave power, polarization, and frequency, are presented. We show that sample temperatures below 30K can be achieved with helium consumption rates below 1.3 l/h. To illustrate potential applications of this instrumentation in structural studies of biochemical systems, we compare results from low-temperature DNP experiments on a calmodulin-binding peptide in its free and bound states.

  3. Low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization with helium-cooled samples and nitrogen-driven magic-angle spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent; Tycko, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We describe novel instrumentation for low-temperature solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS), focusing on aspects of this instrumentation that have not been described in detail in previous publications. We characterize the performance of an extended interaction oscillator (EIO) microwave source, operating near 264 GHz with 1.5 W output power, which we use in conjunction with a quasi-optical microwave polarizing system and a MAS NMR probe that employs liquid helium for sample cooling and nitrogen gas for sample spinning. Enhancement factors for cross-polarized 13C NMR signals in the 100-200 range are demonstrated with DNP at 25 K. The dependences of signal amplitudes on sample temperature, as well as microwave power, polarization, and frequency, are presented. We show that sample temperatures below 30 K can be achieved with helium consumption rates below 1.3 l/h. To illustrate potential applications of this instrumentation in structural studies of biochemical systems, we compare results from low-temperature DNP experiments on a calmodulin-binding peptide in its free and bound states.

  4. Precision measurement of the nuclear polarization in laser-cooled, optically pumped $^{37}\\mathrm{K}$

    CERN Document Server

    Fenker, Benjamin; Melconian, Dan; Anderson, Rhys M A; Anholm, Melissa; Ashery, Daniel; Behling, Richard S; Cohen, Iuliana; Craiciu, Ioana; Donohue, John M; Farfan, Christian; Friesen, Daniel; Gorelov, Alexandre; McNeil, James; Mehlman, Michael; Norton, Heather; Olchanski, Konstantin; Smale, Scott; Theriault, O; Vantyghem, Adrian N; Warner, Claire L

    2016-01-01

    We report a measurement of the nuclear polarization of laser-cooled, optically-pumped $^{37}\\mathrm{K}$ atoms which will allow us to precisely measure angular correlation parameters in the beta-decay of the same atoms. These results will be used to test the $V-A$ framework of the weak interaction at high precision. At the TRIUMF Neutral Atom Trap (TRINAT), a magneto-optical trap (MOT) confines and cools neutral $^{37}\\mathrm{K}$ atoms and optical pumping spin-polarizes them. We monitor the nuclear polarization of the same atoms that are decaying in situ by photoionizing a small fraction of the partially polarized atoms and then use the standard optical Bloch equations to model their population distribution. We obtain an average nuclear polarization of $P = 0.9913\\pm0.0008$, which is significantly more precise than previous measurements with this technique. Since our current measurement of the beta-asymmetry has $0.2\\%$ statistical uncertainty, the polarization measurement reported here will not limit its over...

  5. Regulatory and safety aspects of ageing in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufer, B. [OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France). Nuclear Safety Div.

    2002-08-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is a semi-autonomous body within the OECD established in 1958 with the mandate to promote co-operation among the governments of its participating countries in furthering the development of nuclear power as a safe, environmentally acceptable and economicy energy source. While all of groups have detailed programmes involving important aspects, this paper will focus specifically on the work of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) and the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). (orig.)

  6. Experimental and numerical study on a micro jet cooling solution for high power LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An active cooling solution based on close-looped micro impinging jet is proposed for high power light emitting diodes (LEDs). In this system, a micro pump is utilized to enable the fluid circulation, impinging jet is used for heat exchange between LED chips and the present system. To check the feasibility of the present cooling system, the preliminary experiments are conducted without the intention of parameter opti-mization on micro jet device and other system components. The experiment results demonstrate that the present cooling system can achieve good cooling effect. For a 16.4 W input power, the surface temperature of 2 by 2 LED array is just 44.2℃ after 10 min operation, much lower than 112.2℃, which is measured without any active cool-ing techniques at the same input power. Experimental results also show that increase in the flow rate of micro pump will greatly enhance the heat transfer efficiency, how-ever, it will increase power consumption. Therefore, it should have a trade-off be-tween the flow rate and the power consumption. To find a suitable numerical model for next step parameter optimization, numerical simulation on the above experiment system is also conducted in this paper. The comparison between numerical and ex-periment results is presented. For two by two chip array, when the input power is 4 W, the surface average temperature achieved by a steady numerical simulation is 34℃, which is close to the value of 32.8℃ obtained by surface experiment test. The simu-lation results also demonstrate that the micro jet device in the present cooling sys-tem needs parameter optimization.

  7. Application of objective provision tree to development of standard review plan for sodium-cooled fast reactor nuclear design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Moo-Hoon; Suh, Namduk; Choi, Yongwon; Shin, Andong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A systematic methodology was developed for the standard review plan for sodium-cooled fast reactor nuclear design. The process is first to develop an objective provision tree of sodium-cooled fast reactor for the reactivity control safety function. The provision tree is generally developed by designer to confirm whether the design satisfies the defense-in-depth concept. Then applicability of the current standard review plan of nuclear design for light water reactor to sodium-cooled fast reactor was evaluated and complemented by the developed objective provision tree.

  8. Investigation of structure of superconducting power transmission cables with LN2 counter-flow cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Mitsuho; Fuchino, Shuichiro; Higuchi, Noboru

    2003-04-01

    Establishment of long-distance cooling techniques and design of a compact cross section are required for development of HTC superconducting underground power cables. To save space of return coolant, a counter-flow cooling system appears promising. However, it is difficult to cool down long cables because of heat exchange between counter-flows due to high thermal conductivity of dielectric materials which separate both flows in range of liquid nitrogen temperature. We estimated temperature distributions analytically along model HTS power cables with counter-flow. Results of calculation showed that when liquid-nitrogen-impregnated polypropylene laminated paper was chosen for a dielectric material, great thickness was required to reduce heat exchange between counter-flows. We investigated various cable structures to optimize the counter-flow cooling system and cable size.

  9. Cooling unit for a superconducting power cable. Two years successful operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Friedhelm [Messer Group GmbH, Krefeld (Germany); Kutz, Thomas [Messer Industriegase GmbH, Bad Soden (Germany); Stemmle, Mark [Nexans Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Kugel, Torsten [Westnetz GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    High temperature super conductors (HTS) can efficiently be cooled with liquid nitrogen down to a temperature of 64 K (-209 C). Lower temperatures are not practical, because nitrogen becomes solid at 63 K (-210 C). To achieve this temperature level the coolant has to be vaporized below atmospheric pressure. Messer has developed a cooling unit with an adequate vacuum subcooler, a liquid nitrogen circulation system, and a storage vessel for cooling an HTS power cable. The cooling unit was delivered in 2013 for the German AmpaCity project of RWE Deutschland AG, Nexans and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Within this project RWE and Nexans installed the worldwide longest superconducting power cable in the city of Essen, Germany. The cable is in operation since March 10th, 2014.

  10. Zirconium determination by cooling curve analysis during the pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, B.R., E-mail: brian.westphal@inl.gov; Price, J.C.; Bateman, K.J.; Marsden, K.C.

    2015-02-15

    An alternative method to sampling and chemical analyses has been developed to monitor the concentration of zirconium in real-time during the casting of uranium products from the pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel. The method utilizes the solidification characteristics of the uranium products to determine zirconium levels based on standard cooling curve analyses and established binary phase diagram data. Numerous uranium products have been analyzed for their zirconium content and compared against measured zirconium data. From this data, the following equation was derived for the zirconium content of uranium products: Zr=0.14M+131.56-12.63(348.65-0.16LT){sup 1/2} where M is the mass (kg) of the ingot and LT is the liquidus temperature (K) found by cooling curve analyses. Based on this equation, a reasonable fit of calculated to measured zirconium content was established considering the errors in the system.

  11. Disordered nuclear pasta, magnetic field decay, and crust cooling in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, C J; Briggs, C M; Caplan, M E; Cumming, A; Schneider, A S

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear pasta, with non-spherical shapes, is expected near the base of the crust in neutron stars. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations of pasta show long lived topological defects that could increase electron scattering and reduce both the thermal and electrical conductivities. We model a possible low conductivity pasta layer by increasing an impurity parameter Q_{imp}. Predictions of light curves for the low mass X-ray binary MXB 1659-29, assuming a large Q_{imp}, find continued late time cooling that is consistent with Chandra observations. The electrical and thermal conductivities are likely related. Therefore observations of late time crust cooling can provide insight on the electrical conductivity and the possible decay of neutron star magnetic fields (assuming these are supported by currents in the crust).

  12. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    2004 was somewhat of a record year for the Swedish nuclear power stations. No serious faults occurred, and production exceeded previous record outputs. Total output from the eleven nuclear power units during the year amounted to 75 TWh, which is the largest amount of power ever produced by nuclear power in Sweden. Corresponding figures for earlier years are 59 TWh (2003), 65 TWh (2002) and 69 TWh (2001). An important reason for this excellent result was the very high energy availability. Forsmark 1, for example, exceeded 97 % availability, while Forsmark 2 just reached 97 %. For all the Swedish nuclear power stations as a whole, availability in 2004 amounted to 91 %. In addition to the connection between production and energy availability, there is also a connection with safety. During the year, safety in the Swedish power stations has been high, not only in absolute terms but also in an international perspective. One measure of safety is to be found in the number of accidents, incidents, anomalies or deviations reported to the IAEA on a scale known as the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). Sweden has undertaken to report all events in accordance with this international system. Three reports were submitted by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, which is responsible for national reporting, during the year. None of them had any significance for reactor safety: all were categorised as incidents or minor deviations from the regulations. Summarising, 2004 has been an excellent year for nuclear power safety, which is also reflected by the record electricity production during the year.

  13. Thermal ecology of Naegleria fowleri from a power plant cooling reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, H W; McLaughlin, G L

    1990-07-01

    The pathogenic, free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of human primary amebic meningoencephalitis. N. fowleri has been isolated from thermally elevated aquatic environments worldwide, but temperature factors associated with occurrence of the amoeba remain undefined. In this study, a newly created cooling reservoir (Clinton Lake, Illinois) was surveyed for Naegleria spp. before and after thermal additions from a nuclear power plant. Water and sediment samples were collected from heated and unheated arms of the reservoir and analyzed for the presence of thermophilic Naegleria spp. and pathogenic N. fowleri. Amoebae were identified by morphology, in vitro cultivation, temperature tolerance, mouse pathogenicity assay, and DNA restriction fragment length analysis. N. fowleri was isolated from the thermally elevated arm but not from the ambient-temperature arm of the reservoir. The probability of isolating thermophilic Naegleria and pathogenic N. fowleri increased significantly with temperature. Repetitive DNA restriction fragment profiles of the N. fowleri Clinton Lake isolates and a known N. fowleri strain of human origin were homogeneous.

  14. Thermal ecology of Naegleria fowleri from a power plant cooling reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, H.W. (Illinois State Univ., Normal (USA)); McLaughlin, G.L. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The pathogenic, free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of human primary amebic meningoencephalitis. N. fowleri has been isolated from thermally elevated aquatic environments worldwide, but temperature factors associated with occurrence of the amoeba remain undefined. In this study, a newly created cooling reservoir (Clinton Lake, Illinois) was surveyed for Naegleria spp. before and after thermal additions from a nuclear power plant. Water and sediment samples were collected from heated and unheated arms of the reservoir and analyzed for the presence of thermophilic Naegleria spp. and pathogenic N. fowleri. Amoebae were identified by morphology, in vitro cultivation, temperature tolerance, mouse pathogenicity assay, and DNA restriction fragment length analysis. N. fowleri was isolated from the thermally elevated arm but not from the ambient-temperature arm of the reservoir. The probability of isolating thermophilic Naegleria and pathogenic N. fowleri increased significantly with temperature. Repetitive DNA restriction fragment profiles of the N. fowleri Clinton Lake isolates and a known N. fowleri strain of human origin were homogeneous.

  15. Power Counting and Wilsonian Renormalization in Nuclear Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Valderrama, Manuel Pavon

    2016-01-01

    Effective field theories are the most general tool for the description of low energy phenomena. They are universal and systematic: they can be formulated for any low energy systems we can think of and offer a clear guide on how to calculate predictions with reliable error estimates, a feature that is called power counting. These properties can be easily understood in Wilsonian renormalization, in which effective field theories are the low energy renormalization group evolution of a more fundamental ---perhaps unknown or unsolvable--- high energy theory. In nuclear physics they provide the possibility of a theoretically sound derivation of nuclear forces without having to solve quantum chromodynamics explicitly. However there is the problem of how to organize calculations within nuclear effective field theory: the traditional knowledge about power counting is perturbative but nuclear physics is not. Yet power counting can be derived in Wilsonian renormalization and there is already a fairly good understanding ...

  16. Appliance of software engineering in development of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Y. W.; Kim, H. C.; Yun, C. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B. R. [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    Application of computer technology in nuclear power plant is also a necessary transformation as in other industry fields. But until now, application of software technology was not wide-spread because of its potential effect to safety in nuclear field. It is an urgent theme to develop evaluation guide and regulation techniques to guarantee safety, reliability and quality assurance. To meet these changes, techniques for development and operation should be enhanced to ensure the quality of software systems. In this study, we show the difference between waterfall model and software life-cycle needed in development of nuclear power plant and propose the consistent framework needed in development of instrumentation and control system of nuclear power plant.

  17. Limitations of Nuclear Power as a Sustainable Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Pearce

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review and analysis of the challenges that nuclear power must overcome in order to be considered sustainable. The results make it clear that not only do innovative technical solutions need to be generated for the fundamental inherent environmental burdens of nuclear energy technology, but the nuclear industry must also address difficult issues of equity both in the present and for future generations. The results show that if the concept of just sustainability is applied to the nuclear energy sector a global large-scale sustainable nuclear energy system to replace fossil fuel combustion requires the following: (i a radical improvement in greenhouse gas emissions intensity by improved technology and efficiency through the entire life cycle to prevent energy cannibalism during rapid growth; (ii the elimination of nuclear insecurity to reduce the risks associated with nuclear power so that the free market can indemnify it without substantial public nuclear energy insurance subsidies; (iii the elimination of radioactive waste at the end of life and minimization of environmental impact during mining and operations; and (iv the nuclear industry must regain public trust or face obsolescence as a swarm of renewable energy technologies quickly improve both technical and economic performance.

  18. UKAEA's role in the future of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.

    1988-01-01

    The article on how the UKAEA sees its role in the future was first presented at the conference on 'The future of nuclear power after Sizewell B', held in London, 1987. A description is given of the context within which the UKAEA works. To meet its objectives and the needs of its customers, the authority plans to extend its studies along three main lines of development. The first is the development of future nuclear energy systems, including the fast reactor and fusion. The second is the support of the current United Kingdom nuclear technology, which includes work on:-magnox reactors, advanced gas cooled reactors, fuel cycle research, waste disposal and decommissioning. The third is on underpinning research and cross-fertilisation.

  19. MACSTOR{trademark}: Dry spent fuel storage for the nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F.E.; Pattantyus, P. [AECL Candu, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Hanson, A.S. [Transnuclear, Inc., Hawthorne, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Safe storage of spent fuel has long been an area of critical concern for the nuclear power industry. As fuel pools fill up and re-racking possibilities become exhausted, power plant operators will find that they must ship spent fuel assemblies off-site or develop new on-site storage options. Many utility companies are turning to dry storage for their spent fuel assemblies. The MACSTOR (Modular Air-cooled Canister STORage) concept was developed with this in mind. Derived from AECL`s successful vertical loading, concrete silo program for storing CANDU nuclear spent fuel, MACSTOR was developed for light water reactor spent fuel and was subjected to full scale thermal testing. The MACSTOR Module is a monolithic, shielded concrete vault structure than can accommodate up to 24 spent fuel canisters. Each canister holds 12 PWR or 32 PWR previously cooled spent fuel assemblies with burn-up rates as high as 45,000 MWD/MTU. The structure is passively cooled by natural convection through an array of inlet and outlet gratings and galleries serving a central plenum where the (vertically) stored canisters are located. The canisters are continuously monitored by means of a pressure monitoring system developed by TNI. The MACSTOR system includes the storage module(s), an overhead gantry system for cask handling, a transfer cask for moving fuel from wet to dry storage and a cask transporter. The canister and transfer cask designs are based on Transnuclear transport cask designs and proven hot cell transfer cask technology, adapted to requirements for on-site spent fuel storage. This Modular Air Cooled System has a number of inherent advantages: efficient use of construction materials and site space; cooling is virtually impossible to impede; has the ability to monitor fuel confinement boundary integrity during storage; the fuel canisters may be used for both storage and transport and canisters utilize a flanged, ASME-III closure system that allows for easy inspection.

  20. Power sources involving ~ 300W PEMFC fuel cell stacks cooled by different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two constructions of ~300W PEMFC stacks, cooled by different media, were analysed. An open-cathode ~300W PEMFC stack cooled by air (Horizon, Singapore and a PEMFC F-42 stack cooled by a liquid medium (Schunk, Germany were chosen for all of the investigations described in this paper. The potential for the design and construction of power sources involving fuel cells, as well as of a hybrid system (fuel cell-lithium battery for mobile and stationary applications, is presented and discussed. The impact of certain experimental parameters on PEMFC stack performance is analysed and discussed.