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Sample records for cooled james webb

  1. The James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will extend the discoveries of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) by deploying a large cooled infrared telescope around the Sun-Earth Lagrange point L2. With a 6 m aperture and three instruments covering the wavelength range from 0.6 to 28 microns, it will provide sensitivities orders of magnitude better than any other facilities. It is intended to observe the light from the first galaxies and the first supernovae, the assembly of galaxies, and the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems. In this talk I will review the scientific objectives and the ability of the system to meet them. I will close with a summary of possible future IR space missions, ranging from the far IR to planet-finding coronagraphs and interferometers

  2. Cooled infrared filters and dichroics for the James Webb Space Telescope Mid-Infrared Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Gary; Sherwood, Richard

    2008-05-01

    The cooled infrared filters and dichroic beam splitters manufactured for the Mid-Infrared Instrument are key optical components for the selection and isolation of wavelengths in the study of astrophysical properties of stars, galaxies, and other planetary objects. We describe the spectral design and manufacture of the precision cooled filter coatings for the spectrometer (7 K) and imager (9 K). Details of the design methods used to achieve the spectral requirements, selection of thin film materials, deposition technique, and testing are presented together with the optical layout of the instrument.

  3. An Interview with James T. Webb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    This interview with James T. Webb, clinical psychologist and coauthor of "Guiding the Gifted Child" (1982), focuses on ambivalent messages communicated to gifted/talented children, balancing parental attention among gifted and less gifted siblings, teaching social skills, underachievement, benefits of special programing for emotional development,…

  4. Building the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. JWST will make progress In almost every area of astronomy, from the first galaxies to form in the early universe to exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory Is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Innovations that make JWST possible include large-area low-noise infrared detectors, cryogenic ASICs, a MEMS micro-shutter array providing multi-object spectroscopy, a non-redundant mask for interferometric coronagraphy and diffraction-limited segmented beryllium mirrors with active wavefront sensing and control. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  5. NASA 3D Models: James Webb Space Telescope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. The project is working to a 2018 launch date. The JWST will...

  6. Progress on the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    I will describe the scientific program anticipated for the James Webb Space Telescope and the progress in its construction. When the JWST was conceived in 1995 it was expected to make its greatest contributions in the study of the first objects to form after the Big Bang, in the evolution of galaxies, and in the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems. Since then, the age-distance-redshift relation has become clear with the precise measurement of the Hubble constant, the discovery of the accelerating universe, and the remarkable agreement of CMBR calculations with direct measurements of the large-scale structure. So what is left and what has changed? Galaxy formation and growth is still mysterious, star formation is still hidden, the dark matter and dark energy are still unobservable, and the tools at hand may or may not help enough. But the JWST, as a general-purpose observatory, will be available for imaginative use, and is just what Simon White's polemic seems to request. As an example, the JWST should be quite capable of observing transiting exoplanets with remarkable precision, even though there was no requirement to do so, and its coronagraphs will be very good even without a monolithic primary mirror. The JWST mission has now been officially approved by NASA and is in the Federal budget. It is planned for launch in 2014. Flight instruments will begin to arrive at Goddard in mid-2010, and the first flight mirror segments have already passed their first cryogenic tests. The flight detectors have been selected and have remarkable performance; for example, the near IR detectors have dark currents of the order of 10 electrons per pixel per hour.

  7. Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, David

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, working to an October 2018 launch date. Ground testing for the JWST occurred in two test campaigns, at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center. The talk describes the JWST and its optical ground testing.

  8. Physical Characterization of TNOs with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, Alex; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Stansberry, John; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro; Bannister, Michele; Benecchi, Susan; Cook, Jason; Fraser, Wesley; Grundy, Will; Guilbert, Aurelie; Merline, Bill; Moullet, Arielle; Mueller, Michael; Olkin, Cathy; Ragozzine, Darin; Milam, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the physical properties of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are a powerful probe into the processes of planetesimal formation and solar system evolution. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide unique new capabilities for such studies. Here, we outline where the capabilities of JWST

  9. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  10. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  11. Status Update on the James Webb Space Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6 m), cold status. Recent highlights: All mirrors have been fabricated, polished, and gold-coated; the mirror is expected to be diffraction-limited down to a wavelength of 2 microns. The MIRI instrument just completed its cryogenic testing. STScI has released exposure time calculators and sensitivity charts to enable scientists to start thinking about how to use JWST for their science.

  12. Observing Exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin Mark

    2011-01-01

    The search for exoplanets and characterization of their properties has seen increasing success over the last few years. In excess of 500 exoplanets are known and Kepler has approx. 1000 additional candidates. Recently, progress has been made in direct imaging planets, both from the ground and in space. This presentation will discuss the history and current state of technology used for such discoveries, and highlight the new capabilities that will be enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  13. The James Webb Space Telescope: Extending the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; JWST Science Working Group

    2013-01-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb’s capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this poster, I review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research.

  14. Observing Solar System Targets with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    With its anticipated launch date in October 2018, the James Webb Space Telescope will tremendously advance astronomy in the near- and mid-infrared, offering sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. We have developed a white paper that explores observations of Solar System targets with JWST, with the goals of highlighting anticipated Solar System capabilities, motivation of potential observers, and encouragement of further interest and discussion. This paper presents the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. It also illustrates example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System objects, including the giant planets, Kuiper Belt objects, Europa, Titan, and more. We are also collaborating with a set of focus groups that have expanded upon this work, producing a series of further white papers dealing with individual subdisciplines. This work has been supported by NASA Grant NAG5-12457.

  15. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  16. Observing Solar System Objects with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Issacs, J.; Balzano, V.; Nelan, E.P.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Hammel, H.

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will have the capability to observe Solar System objects having apparent rates of motion up to 30 milliarcseconds/sec. The key science drivers are the study of Kuiper Belt Objects, asteroids, comets, and the outer planets and their moons at near and mid-infrared wavelengths. This poster presents the results from a recent study that defined the conceptual design for a capability for JWST to track and observe moving targets. We illustrate about how guide star acquisition and tracking wi11 be handled while retaining the efficient and flexible execution characteristics of JWST event-driven operations. We also show how the JWST pointing control system can readily support moving target observations. The characteristics of Solar System objects that can be observed by JWST are summarized along with descriptions of the major aspects of moving target science observation planning and on-board event-driven execution.

  17. The James Webb Space Telescope: Contamination Control and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elaine M.; Wooldridge, Eve M.

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), expected to launch in 2018 or early 2019, will be the premier observatory for astronomers worldwide. It is optimized for infrared wavelengths and observation from up to 1 million miles from Earth. JWST includes an Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) containing the four main instruments used to observe deep space: Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam), Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec), Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI), and Fine Guidance Sensor/Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (FGS/NIRISS). JWST is extremely sensitive to contamination directly resulting in degradation in performance of the telescope. Contamination control has been an essential focus of this mission since the beginning of this observatory. A particular challenge has been contamination challenges in vacuum chamber operations.

  18. Characterizing Exoplanet Atmospheres with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will have numerous modes for acquiring photometry and spectra of stars, planets, galaxies, and other astronomical objects over wavelengths of 0.6 - 28 microns. Several of these modes are well-suited for observing atomic and molecular features in the atmospheres of transiting or spatially resolved exoplanets. I will present basic information on JWST capabilities, highlight modes that are well-suited for observing exoplanets, and give examples of what may be learned from JWST observations. This will include simulated spectra and expected retrieved chemical abundance, composition, equilibrium, and thermal information and uncertainties. JWST Cycle 1 general observer proposals are expected to be due in March 2018 with launch in October 2018, and the greater scientific community is encouraged to propose investigations to study exoplanet atmospheres and other topics.

  19. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  20. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    The 6.5-m aperture James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a powerful tool for studying and advancing numerous areas of astrophysics. Its Fine Guidance Sensor, Near-Infrared Camera, Near-Infrared Spectrograph, and Mid-Infrared Instrument will be capable of making very sensitive, high angular resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations spanning 0.7 - 28 ?m wavelength. These capabilities are very well suited for probing the conditions of star formation in the distant and local Universe. Indeed, JWST has been designed to detect first light objects as well as to study the fine details of jets, disks, chemistry, envelopes, and the central cores of nearby protostars. We will be able to use its cameras, coronagraphs, and spectrographs (including multi-object and integral field capabilities) to study many aspects of star forming regions throughout the galaxy, the Local Group, and more distant regions. I will describe the basic JWST scientific capabilities and illustrate a few ways how they can be applied to star formation issues and conditions with a focus on Galactic regions.

  1. James Webb Telescope's Near Infrared Camera: Making Models, Building Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2010-10-01

    The Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders is a science education program sponsored by NASA's next large space telescope: The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The E/PO team for JWST's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam), in collaboration with the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council, has developed a long-term relationship with adult leaders from all GSUSA Councils that directly benefits troops of all ages, not only in general science education but also specifically in the astronomical and technology concepts relating to JWST. We have been training and equipping these leaders so they can in turn teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, i.e., the night sky environment. We model what astronomers do by engaging trainers in the process of scientific inquiry, and we equip them to host troop-level astronomy-related activities. It is GSUSA's goal to foster girls’ interest and creativity in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math, creating an environment that encourages their interests early in their lives while creating a safe place for girls to try and fail, and then try again and succeed. To date, we have trained over 158 leaders in 13 camps. These leaders have come from 24 states, DC, Guam, and Japan. While many of the camp activities are related to the "First Light” theme, many of the background activities relate to two of the other JWST and NIRCam themes: "Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems” and "Planetary Systems and the Origin of Life.” The latter includes our own Solar System. Our poster will highlight the Planetary Systems theme: 1. Earth and Moon: Day and Night; Rotation and Revolution. 2. Earth/Moon Comparisons. 3. Size Model: The Diameters of the Planets. 4. Macramé Planetary (Solar) Distance Model. 5.What is a Planet? 6. Planet Sorting Cards. 7. Human Orrery 8. Lookback Time in Our Daily Lives NIRCam E/PO website: http://zeus.as.arizona.edu/ dmccarthy/GSUSA

  2. Titan Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Adamkovics, Mate; Bezard, Bruno; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Comet, Thomas; Hayes, Alaxander G.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lemmon, Mark T.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; hide

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled for launch in 2018, is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) but with a signicantly larger aperture (6.5 m) and advanced instrumentation focusing on infrared science (0.6-28.0 microns). In this paper, we examine the potential for scientic investigation of Titan using JWST, primarily with three of the four instruments: NIRSpec, NIRCam, and MIRI, noting that science with NIRISS will be complementary. Five core scientic themes are identied: (1) surface (2) tropospheric clouds (3) tropospheric gases (4) stratospheric composition, and (5) stratospheric hazes. We discuss each theme in depth, including the scientic purpose, capabilities, and limitations of the instrument suite and suggested observing schemes. We pay particular attention to saturation, which is a problem for all three instruments, but may be alleviated for NIRCam through use of selecting small sub-arrays of the detectorssufcient to encompass Titan, but with signicantly faster readout times. We nd that JWST has very signicant potential for advancing Titan science, with a spectral resolution exceeding the Cassini instrument suite at near-infrared wavelengths and a spatial resolution exceeding HST at the same wavelengths. In particular, JWST will be valuable for time-domain monitoring of Titan, given a ve- to ten-year expected lifetime for the observatory, for example, monitoring the seasonal appearance of clouds. JWST observations in the post-Cassini period will complement those of other large facilities such as HST, ALMA, SOFIA, and next-generation ground-based telescopes (TMT, GMT, EELT).

  3. Power Distribution for Cryogenic Instruments at 6-40K The James Webb Space Telescope Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumler, Peter; Lundquist, Ray; Alvarez, Jose Lorenzo; Sincell, Jeff; Tuttle, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) operates its instruments passively cooled at around 40 Kelvin (K), with a warm Instrument Electronic Compartment (IEC) at 300K attached to it. From the warm electronics all secondary signal and power harnesses have to bridge this 300-40K temperature difference and minimize the power dissipation and parasitic heat leak into the cold region. After an introduction of the ISIM with its instruments, the IEC with the electronics, and the harness architecture with a special radiator, this paper elaborates on the cryogenic wire selection and tests performed to establish current de-rating rules for different wire types. Finally failure modes are analyzed for critical instrument interfaces that could inject excessive currents and heat into the harness and cold side, and several solutions for the removal of such failures are presented.

  4. Astronomy from Space: The Hubble, Herschel and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Space-based astronomy is going through a renaissance, with three Great Observatories currently flying: Hubble in the visible and ultraviolet, Spitzer in the infrared and Chandra in X-rays. The future looks equally bright. The final servicing mission to Hubble will take place in February 2009 and promises to make the observatory more capable than ever with two new cameras, and refurbishment that will allow it to last at least five years. The upcoming launch of the Herschel Space Telescope will open the far-infrared to explore the cool and dusty Universe. Finally, we look forward to the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope in 2013, which wil provide a successor to both Hubble and Spitzer. In this talk, the author discusses some of the highlights of scientific discovery in the last 10 years and reveals the promise to the next 10 years.

  5. XML: James Webb Space Telescope Database Issues, Lessons, and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detter, Ryan; Mooney, Michael; Fatig, Curtis

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present the current concept using extensible Markup Language (XML) as the underlying structure for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) database. The purpose of using XML is to provide a JWST database, independent of any portion of the ground system, yet still compatible with the various systems using a variety of different structures. The testing of the JWST Flight Software (FSW) started in 2002, yet the launch is scheduled for 2011 with a planned 5-year mission and a 5-year follow on option. The initial database and ground system elements, including the commands, telemetry, and ground system tools will be used for 19 years, plus post mission activities. During the Integration and Test (I&T) phases of the JWST development, 24 distinct laboratories, each geographically dispersed, will have local database tools with an XML database. Each of these laboratories database tools will be used for the exporting and importing of data both locally and to a central database system, inputting data to the database certification process, and providing various reports. A centralized certified database repository will be maintained by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. One of the challenges for the database is to be flexible enough to allow for the upgrade, addition or changing of individual items without effecting the entire ground system. Also, using XML should allow for the altering of the import and export formats needed by the various elements, tracking the verification/validation of each database item, allow many organizations to provide database inputs, and the merging of the many existing database processes into one central database structure throughout the JWST program. Many National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects have attempted to take advantage of open source and commercial technology. Often this causes a greater reliance on the use of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS), which is often limiting

  6. James Webb Space Telescope Studies of Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Stiavelli, Massimo; Mather, John C.

    2010-01-01

    time-variable source gives the angular diameter distance through measured time delays of multiple images. Finally, the growth of structure can also be constrained by measuring the mass of the largest galaxy clusters over cosmic time. HST has contributed to the study of dark energy through SN1a and gravitational lensing, as discussed above. HST has also helped to characterize galaxy clusters and the HST-measured constraints on the current Hubble constant H(sub 0) are relevant to the interpretation of dark energy measurements (Riess et al 2009a). HST has not been used to constrain BAO as the large number of galaxy redshifts required, of order 100 million, is poorly matched to HST's capabilities. As the successor to HST, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST; Gardner et al 2006) will continue and extend HST's dark energy work in several ways.

  7. James Webb Space Telescope: The First Light Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    NASA James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world's largest space telescope. Its architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature, is driven by JWST's science objectives. Introduction: Scheduled to start its 5 year mission after 2018, JWST will study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. Its science mission is to: Identify the first bright objects that formed in the early Universe, and follow the ionization history. Determine how galaxies form. Determine how galaxies and dark matter, including gas, stars, metals, overall morphology and active nuclei evolved to the present day. Observe the birth and early development of stars and the formation of planets. And, study the physical and chemical properties of solar systems for the building blocks of Life. Principle: To accomplish the JWST science objectives requires a larger aperture infrared cryogenic space telescope. A large aperture is required because the objects are very faint. The infrared spectral range is required because the objects are so far away that their ultraviolet and visible wavelength spectral lines are red-shifted into the infrared. Because the telescope is infrared, it needs to be cryogenic. And, because of the telescope is infrared, it must operate above the Earth's atmosphere, i.e. in space. JWST is probably the single most complicated mission that humanity has attempted. It is certainly the most difficult optical fabrication and testing challenge of our generation. The JWST 6.5 m diameter primary mirror is nearly a parabola with a conic constant of -0.9967 and radius of curvature at 30K of 15.880 m. The primary mirror is divided into 18 segments with 3 different prescriptions; each with its own off-axis distance and aspheric departure. The radius of curvature

  8. MEMS Microshutter Array System for James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mary J.; Adachi, Tomoko; Allen, Christine; Babu, Sachi; Bajikar, Sateesh; Beamesderfer, Michael; Bradley, Ruth; Denis, Kevin; Costen, Nick; Ewin, Audrey; hide

    2008-01-01

    A complex MEMS microshutter array system has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use as a multi-object aperture array for a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec). The NIRSpec is one of the four major instruments carried by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next generation of space telescope after the Hubble Space Telescope retires. The microshutter arrays (MSAs) are designed for the selective transmission of light with high efficiency and high contrast. It is demonstrated in Figure 1 how a MSA is used as a multiple object selector in deep space. The MSAs empower the NIRSpec instrument simultaneously collect spectra from more than 100 targets therefore increases the instrument efficiency 100 times or more. The MSA assembly is one of three major innovations on JWST and the first major MEMS devices serving observation missions in space. The MSA system developed at NASA GSFC is assembled with four quadrant fully addressable 365x171 shutter arrays that are actuated magnetically, latched and addressed electrostatically. As shown in Figure 2, each MSA is fabricated out of a 4' silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer using MEMS bulk-micromachining technology. Individual shutters are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size close to 100x200 pm (Figure 3). Shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. In order to prevent light leak, light shields are made on to the surrounding frame of each shutter to cover the gaps between the shutters and the Game (Figure 4). Micro-ribs and sub-micron bumps are tailored on hack walls and light shields, respectively, to prevent sticktion, shown in Figures 4 and 5. JWST instruments are required to operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 35K, though they are to be subjected to various levels of ground tests at room temperature. The shutters should therefore maintain nearly flat in the entire temperature range

  9. The CFRP primary structure of the MIRI instrument onboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels Christian; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Schroll, J

    2004-01-01

    The design of the Primary Structure of the Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI) onboard the NASA/ESA James Webb Space Telescope will be presented. The main design driver is the energy flow from the 35 K "hot" satellite interface to the 7 K "cold" MIRI interface. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP...

  10. The James Webb Space Telescope: Inspiration and Context for Physics and Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Dan; Johnston, Tania; Davies, John

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the design, delivery, evaluation and impact of a CPD course for physics and chemistry teachers. A key aim of the course was to use the context of the James Webb Space Telescope project to inspire teachers and lead to enriched teaching of STEM subjects. (Contains 1 box and 3 figures.)

  11. Observing Near-Earth Objects with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Abell, Paul; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Müller, Michael; Reddy, Vishnu; Rivkin, Andrew; Ryan, Erin; Stansberry, John

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has the potential to enhance our understanding of near-Earth objects (NEOs). We present results of investigations into the observability of NEOs given the nominal observing requirements of JWST on elongation (85°-135°) and non-sidereal rates (

  12. Finding our Origins with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is planning a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope designed to study the origins of galaxies, stars, planets and life in the universe. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss the origin and evolution of galaxies, beginning with the Big Bang and tracing what we have learned with Hubble through to the present day. He will show that results from studies with Hubble have led to plans for its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. Webb is scheduled to launch in 2014, and is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the distant past and to penetrate the dusty clouds of gas where stars are still forming today. He will compare Webb to Hubble, and discuss recent progress in the construction of the observatory.

  13. Searching Hubble Space Telescope Archives for Solar System Observations and Planned Improvements for James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmeyer, C. M.; Brasseur, C.; Fleming, S.; Mutchler, M.

    2017-06-01

    We present tips and tools for searching Hubble Space Telescope archives for solar system observations. Additionally, we provide an overview of planned archive improvements for James Webb Space Telescope.

  14. Matlab based Toolkits used to Interface with Optical Design Software for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The viewgraph presentation provides an introduction to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first part provides a brief overview of Matlab toolkits including CodeV, OSLO, and Zemax Toolkits. The toolkit overview examines purpose, layout, how Matlab gets data from CodeV, function layout, and using cvHELP. The second part provides examples of use with JWST, including wavefront sensitivities and alignment simulations.

  15. Combining Social Media with Innovative Ways of Communicating about the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the cutting-edge nature of the James Webb Space Telescope, NASA is using a variety of social and interactive media to engage the public. While we do have a regularly updated static website, we are now also using various interactives (like Flash games and a 3D Tour of the spacecraft) to better explain what the Webb telescope is and how it works. To encourage future generations, we are a partner in an educational engineering design challenge which makes use of a virtual Second Life-like world. Additionally, the public can now watch Webb come together before their eyes by accessing our live webcam, which shows telescope hardware being built in our cleanroom. We are working to make Webb as much of a part of pop culture as the Hubble Space Telescope is. We facilitated the filming of a "Late Night with Jimmy Fallon” segment (called "Hubble Gotchu") featuring Webb and Webb scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A visit to the highly rated sitcom "The Big Bang Theory” resulted in Webb lithos, magnets, posters, a scale model, and more being regularly featured on the set of the show. The most important aspect to creating interesting ways to engage the public is having the ability to communicate and form relationships with as many people as possible. To that end, we are using tools like blogs (e.g., NASA Blueshift) and popular social media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr) to reach out to as many people as we can and to enable them to share and spread the content we provide.

  16. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, II: Design and Build

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, G. S.; Wright, David; Goodson, G. B.

    2015-01-01

    The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides measurements over the wavelength range 5 to 28: 5 µm. MIRI has, within a single "package," four key scientific functions: photometric imaging, coronagraphy, single-source low-spectral resolving power (R similar...... in terms of the "as-built" instrument. It also describes the test program that led to delivery of the tested and calibrated Flight Model to NASA in 2012, and the confirmation after delivery of the key interface requirements....

  17. Potential and Challenges for Stereo 3D Imaging with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Burge, Johannes M.; Stansberry, John

    2017-10-01

    Imagine if we could perceive and visualize cometary outgassing, or see the elevation differences in cloud tops of Jupiter. Imagine if we could view Saturn's rings in their full depth, using real images rather than synthetic stereo pictures. Imagine if we could view these objects in 3D infrared. We present the basic constraints, challenges, and parameters in using both the Hubble and upcoming James Webb space telescopes for simultaneous spectroscopic imaging, across their common wavelength band (~ 700-1600 nm) or in other applications, and outline potential science cases.

  18. Cryo-Vacuum Testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Davila, P. S.; Drury, M. P.; Glazer, S. D.; Krom, J. R.; Lundquist, R. A.; Mann, S. D.; McGuffey, D. B.; Perry, R. L.; Ramey, D. D.

    2011-01-01

    With delivery of the science instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) expected in 2012, current plans call for the first cryo-vacuum test of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) to be carried out at GSFC in early 2013. Plans are well underway for conducting this ambitious test, which will perform critical verifications of a number of optical, thermal, and operational requirements of the IS 1M hardware, at its deep cryogenic operating temperature. We describe here the facilities, goals, methods, and timeline for this important Integration & Test milestone in the JWST program.

  19. James Webb Space Telescope segment phasing using differential optical transfer functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codona, Johanan L; Doble, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    Differential optical transfer function (dOTF) is an image-based, noniterative wavefront sensing method that uses two star images with a single small change in the pupil. We describe two possible methods for introducing the required pupil modification to the James Webb Space Telescope, one using a small (telescope can be measured simultaneously. Also, since dOTF gives the pupil field amplitude as well as the phase, it could provide a first approximation or constraint to the planned iterative phase retrieval algorithms.

  20. Demonstration of extended capture range for James Webb Space Telescope phase retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, R Elizabeth; Acton, D Scott

    2015-07-20

    A geometrical phase retrieval (GPR) algorithm is applied to the problem of image stacking in order to extend the capture range of normal phase retrieval (PR) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and potentially eliminate a lengthy image-stacking process that is based on centroids. Computer simulations are used to establish the capture range of the existing PR algorithm for JWST and demonstrate that it is increased by more than a factor of 10 when combined with GPR, guaranteeing PR capture 95% of the time. An experiment using a scale optical model of JWST was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the GPR algorithm in both coherent and incoherent imaging.

  1. Metrology for Trending Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope Before and After Ambient Environmental Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimichael, Theo; Ohl, Raymond G.; Berrier, Joshua; Gum, Jeffery; Hayden, Joseph; Khreishi, Manal; McLean, Kyle; Redman, Kevin; Sullivan, Joseph; Wenzel, Greg; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy. The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element which contains four science instruments (SIs). Prior to integration with the spacecraft, theJWST optical assembly is put through rigorous launch condition environmental testing. This work reports on the metrology operations conducted to determine any changes in subassembly alignment, including primary mirror segments with respect to each other, the secondary mirror to its support structure, the tertiary mirror assembly to the backplane of the telescope and ultimately to the ISIM.

  2. James Webb Space Telescope Core 2 Test - Cryogenic Thermal Balance Test of the Observatorys Core Area Thermal Control Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Paul; Parrish, Keith; Thomson, Shaun; Marsh, James; Comber, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, will be the largest astronomical telescope ever sent into space. To observe the very first light of the early universe, JWST requires a large deployed 6.5-meter primary mirror cryogenically cooled to less than 50 Kelvin. Three scientific instruments are further cooled via a large radiator system to less than 40 Kelvin. A fourth scientific instrument is cooled to less than 7 Kelvin using a combination pulse-tube Joule-Thomson mechanical cooler. Passive cryogenic cooling enables the large scale of the telescope which must be highly folded for launch on an Ariane 5 launch vehicle and deployed once on orbit during its journey to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. Passive cooling of the observatory is enabled by the deployment of a large tennis court sized five layer Sunshield combined with the use of a network of high efficiency radiators. A high purity aluminum heat strap system connects the three instrument's detector systems to the radiator systems to dissipate less than a single watt of parasitic and instrument dissipated heat. JWST's large scale features, while enabling passive cooling, also prevent the typical flight configuration fully-deployed thermal balance test that is the keystone of most space missions' thermal verification plans. This paper describes the JWST Core 2 Test, which is a cryogenic thermal balance test of a full size, high fidelity engineering model of the Observatory's 'Core' area thermal control hardware. The 'Core' area is the key mechanical and cryogenic interface area between all Observatory elements. The 'Core' area thermal control hardware allows for temperature transition of 300K to approximately 50 K by attenuating heat from the room temperature IEC (instrument electronics) and the Spacecraft Bus. Since the flight hardware is not available for test, the Core 2 test uses high fidelity and flight-like reproductions.

  3. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Sciene Instrument Module (ISIM) Cryo-Vac 3 (CV3) Thermal Vacuum Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Ed

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the test objectives, test summary, test configuration and test performance of the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module CryoVac 3 Thermal Vacuum Test. Verify the ISIM System in its final configuration after environmental exposure and provide a post-environmental performance baseline, including critical ground calibrations needed for science data processing in flight.

  4. Standardization of XML Database Exchanges and the James Webb Space Telescope Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Detter, Ryan; Jones, Ron; Fatig, Curtis C.

    2007-01-01

    Personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project have been working with various standard communities such the Object Management Group (OMG) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) to assist in the definition of a common extensible Markup Language (XML) for database exchange format. The CCSDS and OMG standards are intended for the exchange of core command and telemetry information, not for all database information needed to exercise a NASA space mission. The mission-specific database, containing all the information needed for a space mission, is translated from/to the standard using a translator. The standard is meant to provide a system that encompasses 90% of the information needed for command and telemetry processing. This paper will discuss standardization of the XML database exchange format, tools used, and the JWST experience, as well as future work with XML standard groups both commercial and government.

  5. James Webb Space Telescope Initial Mid-Course Correction Monte Carlo Implementation using Task Parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jeremy; Tichy, Jason; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will be launched into a highly elliptical orbit that does not possess sufficient energy to achieve a proper Sun-Earth L2 libration point orbit. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers are planned to rectify the energy deficit: MCC-1a, MCC-1b, and MCC-2. To validate the propellant budget and trajectory design methods, a set of Monte Carlo analyses that incorporate MCC maneuver modeling and execution are employed. The first analysis focuses on the effects of launch vehicle injection errors on the magnitude of MCC-1a. The second on the spread of potential V based on the performance of the propulsion system as applied to all three MCC maneuvers. The final highlights the slight, but notable, contribution of the attitude thrusters during each MCC maneuver. Given the possible variations in these three scenarios, the trajectory design methods are determined to be robust to errors in the modeling of the flight system.

  6. Cryogenic Photogrammetry and Radiometry for the James Webb Space Telescope Microshutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Victor J.; Morey, Peter A.; Zukowski, Barbara J.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Collins, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) relies on several innovations to complete its five year mission. One vital technology is microshutters, the programmable field selectors that enable the Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) to perform multi-object spectroscopy. Mission success depends on acquiring spectra from large numbers of galaxies by positioning shutter slits over faint targets. Precise selection of faint targets requires field selectors that are both high in contrast and stable in position. We have developed test facilities to evaluate microshutter contrast and alignment stability at their 35K operating temperature. These facilities used a novel application of image registration algorithms to obtain non-contact, sub-micron measurements in cryogenic conditions. The cryogenic motion of the shutters was successfully characterized. Optical results also demonstrated that shutter contrast far exceeds the NIRSpec requirements. Our test program has concluded with the delivery of a flight-qualified field selection subsystem to the NIRSpec bench.

  7. The James Webb Space Telescope's Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam): Making Models, Building Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W., Jr.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2011-09-01

    Since 2003, the Near Infrared Camear (NIRCam) science team for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has conducted "Train the Trainer" workshops for adult leaders of the Girl Scout of the USA (GSUSA), engaging them in the process of scientific inquiry and equipping them to host astronomy-related activities at the troop level. Training includes topics in basic astronomy (night sky, phases of the Moon, the scale of the Solar System and beyond, stars, galaxies, telescopes, etc.) as well as JWST-specific research areas in extra-solar planetary systems and cosmology, to pave the way for girls and women to understand the first images from JWST. Participants become part of our world-wide network of 160 trainers teaching young women essential STEM-related concepts using astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, engineering, and critical thinking.

  8. Alignment and Testing of Critical Interface Fixtures for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclean, Kyle; Bagdanove, Paul; Berrier, Joshua; Cofie, Emmanuel; Glassman, Tiffany; Hadjimichael, Theodore; Johnson, Eric; Levi, Joshua; Lo, Amy; McMann, Joseph; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASAs James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy. The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Primary Mirror Backplane Support Structure (PMBSS) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Electronics Compartment (IEC) which is designed to integrate to the spacecraft bus via six cupcone interfaces. Prior to integration to the spacecraft bus the JWST observatory must undergo environmental testing, handling, and transportation. Multiple fixtures were developed to support these tasks including the vibration fixture and handling and integration fixture (HIF). This work reports on the development of the nominal alignment of the six interfaces and metrology operations performed for the JWST observatory to safely integrate them for successful environmental testing.

  9. Acquiring Spectra of Solar System Objects with the NIRSpec Instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Birkmann, Stephan; Ferruit, Pierre; Guilbert, Aurelie; Holler, Bryan J.; Stansberry, John

    2017-10-01

    The NIRSpec Instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope will allow near-IR spectroscopy in the wavelength range between 0.6 and 5.3 microns with resolving power of ~100, 1000, or 2700. We review strategies for performing spectral observations of solar system objects using each of NIRSpec's available observing modes, including the integral field unit (IFU), multi-Object Spectroscopy (MOS), and fixed slit (FS) templates, and discuss how the choice of mode affects the limiting target brightness as well as the detailed wavelength and spatial coverage obtained. We also discuss the expected pointing accuracy and target acquisition options for moving targets, including the use and limitations of the Wide Aperture Target Acquisition (WATA) capability and of the pre-defined field points that will be available for use with the MOS template to enable the use of custom micro-shutter patterns including ones emulating very long slits.

  10. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, I: Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieke, G. H.; Wright, G. S.; Böker, T.

    2015-01-01

    MIRI (the Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope [JWST]) operates from 5 to 28: 5 μm and combines over this range: (1) unprecedented sensitivity levels; (2) subarcsecond angular resolution; (3) freedom from atmospheric interference; (4) the inherent stability of observing...... in space; and (5) a suite of versatile capabilities including imaging, low- and medium-resolution spectroscopy (with an integral field unit), and coronagraphy. We illustrate the potential uses of this unique combination of capabilities with various science examples: (1) imaging exoplanets; (2) transit...... and eclipse spectroscopy of exoplanets; (3) probing the first stages of star and planet formation, including identifying bioactive molecules; (4) determining star formation rates and mass growth as galaxies are assembled; and (5) characterizing the youngest massive galaxies....

  11. James Webb Space Telescope Observations of Stellar Occultations by Solar System Bodies and Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; French, R. G.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Stansberry, J.; Lin, Z-Y.; Zhang, Z-W.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, Th.; Ortiz, J. L.; Braga-Ribas, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the opportunities provided by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for significant scientific advances in the study of Solar System bodies and rings using stellar occultations. The strengths and weaknesses of the stellar occultation technique are evaluated in light of JWST's unique capabilities. We identify several possible JWST occultation events by minor bodies and rings and evaluate their potential scientific value. These predictions depend critically on accurate a priori knowledge of the orbit of JWST near the Sun–Earth Lagrange point 2 (L2). We also explore the possibility of serendipitous stellar occultations by very small minor bodies as a byproduct of other JWST observing programs. Finally, to optimize the potential scientific return of stellar occultation observations, we identify several characteristics of JWST's orbit and instrumentation that should be taken into account during JWST's development.

  12. Application of Molecular Adsorber Coatings in Chamber A for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.

    2017-01-01

    As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground-based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This presentation describes the application of the MAC technology for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone-based diffusion pump oil, from within JSCs cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test facility called Chamber A. This presentation summarizes the background, fabrication, installation, chemical analysis test results, and future plans for the MAC technology, which was effectively used to protect the JWST test equipment from vacuum chamber contamination. As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground-based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This presentation describes the application of the MAC technology for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone-based diffusion pump oil, from within JSCs cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test

  13. The James Webb Space Telescope instrument suite layout: optical system engineering considerations for a large deployable space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Brent J.; Davila, Pamela S.; Jurotich, Matthew; Hobbs, Gurnie; Lightsey, Paul A.; Contreras, James; Whitman, Tony

    2004-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space-based, infrared observatory designed to study the early stages of galaxy formation in the Universe. The telescope will be launched into orbit about the second Lagrange point and passively cooled to 30-50 K to enable astronomical observations from 0.6 to 28 μm. A group from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Northrop Grumman Space Technology prime contractor team has developed an optical and mechanical layout for the science instruments within the JWST field of view that satisfies the mission requirements. Four instruments required accommodation within the telescope"s field of view: a Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam), a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec), a Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) and a Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) with a tunable filter module. The size and position of each instrument"s field of view allocation were developed through an iterative, concurrent engineering process involving key observatory stakeholders. While some of the system design considerations were those typically encountered during the development of an infrared observatory, others were unique to the deployable and controllable nature of JWST. This paper describes the optical and mechanical issues considered during the field of view layout development, as well as the supporting modeling and analysis activities.

  14. James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Thermal Vacuum Thermal Balance Test Campaign at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Stuart; Comber, Brian (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, designed as a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope when launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments contained within the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K with radiators, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. Thermal-vacuum testing of the flight science instruments at the ISIM element level has taken place in three separate highly challenging and extremely complex thermal tests within a gaseous helium-cooled shroud inside Goddard Space Flight Centers Space Environment Simulator. Special data acquisition software was developed for these tests to monitor over 1700 flight and test sensor measurements, track over 50 gradients, component rates, and temperature limits in real time against defined constraints and limitations, and guide the complex transition from ambient to final cryogenic temperatures and back. This extremely flexible system has proven highly successful in safeguarding the nearly $2B science payload during the 3.5-month-long thermal tests. Heat flow measurement instrumentation, or Q-meters, were also specially developed for these tests. These devices provide thermal boundaries o the flight hardware while measuring instrument heat loads up to 600 mW with an estimated uncertainty of 2 mW in test, enabling accurate thermal model correlation, hardware design validation, and workmanship verification. The high accuracy heat load measurements provided first evidence of a potentially serious hardware design issue that was subsequently corrected. This paper provides an overview of the ISIM-level thermal-vacuum tests and thermal objectives; explains the thermal test configuration and thermal balances; describes special measurement instrumentation and monitoring and control software; presents key test thermal results

  15. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now, and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA s Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein s biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA s plans for the next great telescope in space, the James Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where stars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  16. Model-based thermal system design optimization for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Niedner, Malcolm B.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2017-10-01

    Spacecraft thermal model validation is normally performed by comparing model predictions with thermal test data and reducing their discrepancies to meet the mission requirements. Based on thermal engineering expertise, the model input parameters are adjusted to tune the model output response to the test data. The end result is not guaranteed to be the best solution in terms of reduced discrepancy and the process requires months to complete. A model-based methodology was developed to perform the validation process in a fully automated fashion and provide mathematical bases to the search for the optimal parameter set that minimizes the discrepancies between model and data. The methodology was successfully applied to several thermal subsystems of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Global or quasiglobal optimal solutions were found and the total execution time of the model validation process was reduced to about two weeks. The model sensitivities to the parameters, which are required to solve the optimization problem, can be calculated automatically before the test begins and provide a library for sensitivity studies. This methodology represents a crucial commodity when testing complex, large-scale systems under time and budget constraints. Here, results for the JWST Core thermal system will be presented in detail.

  17. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Simulation Testbed: Segmented Mirror Phase Retrieval Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laginja, Iva; Egron, Sylvain; Brady, Greg; Soummer, Remi; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Bonnefois, Aurélie; Long, Joseph; Michau, Vincent; Choquet, Elodie; Ferrari, Marc; Leboulleux, Lucie; Mazoyer, Johan; N’Diaye, Mamadou; Perrin, Marshall; Petrone, Peter; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

    2018-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a hardware simulator designed to produce JWST-like images. A model of the JWST three mirror anastigmat is realized with three lenses in form of a Cooke Triplet, which provides JWST-like optical quality over a field equivalent to a NIRCam module, and an Iris AO segmented mirror with hexagonal elements is standing in for the JWST segmented primary. This setup successfully produces images extremely similar to NIRCam images from cryotesting in terms of the PSF morphology and sampling relative to the diffraction limit.The testbed is used for staff training of the wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) team and for independent analysis of WFS&C scenarios of the JWST. Algorithms like geometric phase retrieval (GPR) that may be used in flight and potential upgrades to JWST WFS&C will be explored. We report on the current status of the testbed after alignment, implementation of the segmented mirror, and testing of phase retrieval techniques.This optical bench complements other work at the Makidon laboratory at the Space Telescope Science Institute, including the investigation of coronagraphy for segmented aperture telescopes. Beyond JWST we intend to use JOST for WFS&C studies for future large segmented space telescopes such as LUVOIR.

  18. Cryo Testing of tbe James Webb Space Telescope's Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCampen, Julie

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope will be integrated and tested at the Environmental Test Facilities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The cryogenic thermal vacuum testing of the ISIM will be the most difficult and problematic portion of the GSFC Integration and Test flow. The test is to validate the coupled interface of the science instruments and the ISIM structure and to sufficiently stress that interface while validating image quality of the science instruments. The instruments and the structure are not made from the same materials and have different CTE. Test objectives and verification rationale are currently being evaluated in Phase B of the project plan. The test program will encounter engineering challenges and limitations, which are derived by cost and technology many of which can be mitigated by facility upgrades, creative GSE, and thorough forethought. The cryogenic testing of the ISIM will involve a number of risks such as the implementation of unique metrology techniques, mechanical, electrical and optical simulators housed within the cryogenic vacuum environment. These potential risks are investigated and possible solutions are proposed.

  19. New Frontiers for Massive Star Winds: Imaging and Spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope scheduled for launch in 2013. JWST will find the first stars and galaxies that formed in the early universe, connecting the Big Bang to our own Milky Way galaxy. JWST will peer through dusty clouds to see stars forming planetary systems, connecting the Milky Way to our own Solar System. JWST's instruments are designed to work primarily in the infrared range of 1 - 28 microns, with some capability in the visible range. JWST will have a large mirror, 6.5 meters in diameter, and will be diffraction-limited at 2 microns (0.1 arcsec resolution). JWST will be placed in an L2 orbit about 1.5 million km from the Earth. The instruments will provide imaging, coronography, and multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy across the full 1 - 28 micron wavelength range. The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of massive star winds from the Milky Way to the early universe.

  20. A New Large Vibration Test Facility Concept for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian P.; Johnson, Eric L.; Hoksbergen, Joel; Lund, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope consists of three main components, the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Element, the Optical Telescope Element (OTE), and the Spacecraft Element. The ISIM and OTE are being assembled at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC). The combined OTE and ISIM Elements, called OTIS, will undergo sine vibration testing before leaving Goddard. OTIS is the largest payload ever tested at Goddard and the existing GSFC vibration facilities are incapable of performing a sine vibration test of the OTIS payload. As a result, a new large vibration test facility is being designed. The new facility will consist of a vertical system with a guided head expander and a horizontal system with a hydrostatic slip table. The project is currently in the final design phase with installation to begin in early 2015 and the facility is expected to be operational by late 2015. This paper will describe the unique requirements for a new large vibration test facility and present the selected final design concepts.

  1. Science Goals and Laboratory Astrophysics Needs of the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is an infrared-optimized astrophysics observatory to be launched to the Earth-Sun 2nd Lagrange point in 2018. JWST is designed to find and study the first galaxies that formed in the early universe, to peer through dusty clouds in the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds to see star and planet formation at high spatial resolution, and to obtain spectra for characterizing exoplanet atmospheres. The capabilities of JWST will also enable breakthrough studies of rocky and icy bodies throughout the Solar System, stellar astrophysics and resolved stellar populations in the Galactic Center and nearby galaxies, and star formation history at high redshift. The cryogenic telescope will have a 6.5m-diameter segmented primary mirror that provides sensitivity 10X to 100X greater than previous or current facilities, and high angular resolution (0.068 arcsec at 2 microns) at near-IR (0.6 to 5 microns) and mid-IR wavelengths (5 to 28.5 microns). The science instruments have imaging, coronagraphic, and spectroscopic modes that provide spectral resolving power up to ~3000, near-IR multi-object spectroscopy and integral field units. There are several modes specifically designed for near-IR exoplanet transit spectroscopy. This presentation will describe the JWST mission and instrumentation, its science goals, and laboratory astrophysics data that are needed to accomplish them.

  2. An Overview of Integration and Test of the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Michael; Becker, Neil; Bos, Brent; Davila, Pamela; Frey, Bradley; Hylan, Jason; Marsh, James; McGuffey, Douglas; Novak, Maria; Ohl, Raymond; hide

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approx.40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The SIs and Guider are mounted to a composite metering structure with outer dimensions of 2.1x2.2x1.9m. The SI and Guider units are integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center as an instrument suite using a high-fidelity, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator that features a 1.5m diameter powered mirror. The SIs are integrated and aligned to the structure under ambient, clean room conditions. SI performance, including focus, pupil shear and wavefront error, is evaluated at the operating temperature. We present an overview of the ISIM integration within the context of Observatory-level construction. We describe the integration and verification plan for the ISIM element, including an overview of our incremental verification approach, ambient mechanical integration and test plans and optical alignment and cryogenic test plans. We describe key ground support equipment and facilities.

  3. Challenges with Electrical, Electronics, and Electromechanical Parts for James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jah, Muzar A.; Jeffers, Basil S.

    2016-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the space-based observatory that will extend the knowledge gained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Hubble focuses on optical and ultraviolet wavelengths while JWST focuses on the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, to see the earliest stars and galaxies that formed in the Universe and to look deep into nearby dust clouds to study the formation of stars and planets. JWST, which commenced creation in 1996, is scheduled to launch in 2018. It includes a suite of four instruments, the spacecraft bus, optical telescope element, Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM, the platform to hold the instruments), and a sunshield. The mass of JWST is approximately 6200 kg, including observatory, on-orbit consumables and launch vehicle adaptor. Many challenges were overcome while providing the electrical and electronic components for the Goddard Space Flight Center hardware builds. Other difficulties encountered included developing components to work at cryogenic temperatures, failures of electronic components during development and flight builds, Integration and Test electronic parts problems, and managing technical issues with international partners. This paper will present the context of JWST from a EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) perspective with examples of challenges and lessons learned throughout the design, development, and fabrication of JWST in cooperation with our associated partners including the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the European Space Agency (ESA), Lockheed Martin and their respective associated partners. Technical challenges and lessons learned will be discussed.

  4. Ambient Optomechanical Alignment and Pupil Metrology for the Flight Instruments Aboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; hide

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope science instruments are in the final stages of being integrated into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element. Each instrument is tied into a common coordinate system through mechanical references that are used for optical alignment and metrology within ISIM after element-level assembly. In addition, a set of ground support equipment (GSE) consisting of large, precisely calibrated, ambient, and cryogenic structures are used as alignment references and gauges during various phases of integration and test (I&T). This GSE, the flight instruments, and ISIM structure feature different types of complimentary metrology targeting. These GSE targets are used to establish and track six degrees of freedom instrument alignment during I&T in the vehicle coordinate system (VCS). This paper describes the optomechanical metrology conducted during science instrument integration and alignment in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) cleanroom at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The measurement of each instrument's ambient entrance pupil location in the telescope coordinate system is discussed. The construction of the database of target locations and the development of metrology uncertainties is also discussed.

  5. James Webb Space Telescope XML Database: From the Beginning to Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Fatig, Curtis C.

    2005-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project has been defining, developing, and exercising the use of a common eXtensible Markup Language (XML) for the command and telemetry (C&T) database structure. JWST is the first large NASA space mission to use XML for databases. The JWST project started developing the concepts for the C&T database in 2002. The database will need to last at least 20 years since it will be used beginning with flight software development, continuing through Observatory integration and test (I&T) and through operations. Also, a database tool kit has been provided to the 18 various flight software development laboratories located in the United States, Europe, and Canada that allows the local users to create their own databases. Recently the JWST Project has been working with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Object Management Group (OMG) XML Telemetry and Command Exchange (XTCE) personnel to provide all the information needed by JWST and JPL for exchanging database information using a XML standard structure. The lack of standardization requires custom ingest scripts for each ground system segment, increasing the cost of the total system. Providing a non-proprietary standard of the telemetry and command database definition formation will allow dissimilar systems to communicate without the need for expensive mission specific database tools and testing of the systems after the database translation. The various ground system components that would benefit from a standardized database are the telemetry and command systems, archives, simulators, and trending tools. JWST has exchanged the XML database with the Eclipse, EPOCH, ASIST ground systems, Portable spacecraft simulator (PSS), a front-end system, and Integrated Trending and Plotting System (ITPS) successfully. This paper will discuss how JWST decided to use XML, the barriers to a new concept, experiences utilizing the XML structure, exchanging databases with other users, and issues that have

  6. James Webb Space Telescope optical simulation testbed IV: linear control alignment of the primary segmented mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egron, Sylvain; Soummer, Rémi; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Bonnefois, Aurélie; Long, Joseph; Michau, Vincent; Choquet, Elodie; Ferrari, Marc; Leboulleux, Lucie; Levecq, Olivier; Mazoyer, Johan; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Perrin, Marshall; Petrone, Peter; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

    2017-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a tabletop experiment designed to study wavefront sensing and control for a segmented space telescope, such as JWST. With the JWST Science and Operations Center co-located at STScI, JOST was developed to provide both a platform for staff training and to test alternate wavefront sensing and control strategies for independent validation or future improvements beyond the baseline operations. The design of JOST reproduces the physics of JWST's three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) using three custom aspheric lenses. It provides similar quality image as JWST (80% Strehl ratio) over a field equivalent to a NIRCam module, but at 633 nm. An Iris AO segmented mirror stands for the segmented primary mirror of JWST. Actuators allow us to control (1) the 18 segments of the segmented mirror in piston, tip, tilt and (2) the second lens, which stands for the secondary mirror, in tip, tilt and x, y, z positions. We present the most recent experimental results for the segmented mirror alignment. Our implementation of the Wavefront Sensing (WFS) algorithms using phase diversity is tested on simulation and experimentally. The wavefront control (WFC) algorithms, which rely on a linear model for optical aberrations induced by misalignment of the secondary lens and the segmented mirror, are tested and validated both on simulations and experimentally. In this proceeding, we present the performance of the full active optic control loop in presence of perturbations on the segmented mirror, and we detail the quality of the alignment correction.

  7. Unique Spectroscopy and Imaging of Mars with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Gerónimo L.; Altieri, Francesca; Clancy, R. Todd; Encrenaz, Therese; Fouchet, Thierry; Hartogh, Paul; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lopéz-Valverde, Miguel A.; Mumma, Michael J.; Novak, Robert E.; Smith, Michael D.; Vandaele, Ann-Carine; Wolff, Michael J.; Ferruit, Pierre; Milam, Stefanie N.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the main capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for performing observations of Mars. The distinctive vantage point of JWST at the Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L2) will allow sampling the full observable disk, permitting the study of short-term phenomena, diurnal processes (across the east-west axis), and latitudinal processes between the hemispheres (including seasonal effects) with excellent spatial resolutions (0.″07 at 2 μm). Spectroscopic observations will be achievable in the 0.7-5 μm spectral region with NIRSpec at a maximum resolving power of 2700 and with 8000 in the 1-1.25 μm range. Imaging will be attainable with the Near-Infrared Camera at 4.3 μm and with two narrow filters near 2 μm, while the nightside will be accessible with several filters in 0.5 to 2 μm. Such a powerful suite of instruments will be a major asset for the exploration and characterization of Mars. Some science cases include the mapping of the water D/H ratio, investigations of the Martian mesosphere via the characterization of the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium CO2 emission at 4.3 μm, studies of chemical transport via observations of the O2 nightglow at 1.27 μm, high-cadence mapping of the variability dust and water-ice clouds, and sensitive searches for trace species and hydrated features on the Martian surface. In-flight characterization of the instruments may allow for additional science opportunities.

  8. Thermal-Stress Control of Microshutter Arrays in Cryogenic Applications for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel P.; Chuang, Wen-Hsien; Hess, Larry; Hu, Ron; Jhabvala, Murzy; King, Todd; Li, Mary J.; Loughlin, James; Moseley, S. Harvey; Ray, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    We report on methods to minimize thermally-induced deformation in a MEMS-based reconfigurable aperture. The device is an enabling component of the Near-Infrared Spectrometer, a principle instrument on NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. The Microshutter Array consists of 384 x 175 individually addressable shutters which can be magnetically rotated 90 deg into the plane of the array and electrostatically latched open. Each shutter is a 100 x 200 micron rectangular membrane suspended by a small neck region and torsion flexure. The primary materials in the shutter are a 5000A Si3N4 layer for mechanical rigidity, 2000A Al for opacity and electrostatic latching, and 2800A CoFe for magnetic actuation. This multi-layer stack presents a challenge due to the operating temperatures required for the device: both room temperature (300K) and cryogenic temperature (35K). Thermal expansion of the materials causes the shutters to bow out of plane excessively, which can prevent actuation of the shutters, cause damage to portions of the array, and allow light leakage around closed shutters. Here we present our investigation of several methods to prevent microshutter bowing including deposition of additional materials on the shutters to create a symmetrical layer stack and replacing the current stack with low-coefficient of thermal expansion materials. Using shutter-size suspended cantilever beams as a rapid-development test bed, we have reduced out-of-plane bowing between 300K and 35K to 10% or better. We are currently applying these results to microshutter arrays to develop shutters that remain flat from room temperature to cryogenic temperature while retaining the required mechanical, optical, and magnetic properties.

  9. Optical Testing and Verification Methods for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonille, Scott R.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rohrbach, Scott O.; Aronstein, David L.; Bartoszyk, Andrew E.; Bowers, Charles W.; Cofie, Emmanuel; Collins, Nicholas R.; Comber, Brian J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (40K). The JWST Observatory includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) that contains four science instruments (SI) and the fine guider. The SIs are mounted to a composite metering structure. The SI and guider units were integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a suite using the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a full field, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator. SI performance, including alignment and wave front error, were evaluated using OSIM. We describe test and analysis methods for optical performance verification of the ISIM Element, with an emphasis on the processes used to plan and execute the test. The complexity of ISIM and OSIM drove us to develop a software tool for test planning that allows for configuration control of observations, associated scripts, and management of hardware and software limits and constraints, as well as tools for rapid data evaluation, and flexible re-planning in response to the unexpected. As examples of our test and analysis approach, we discuss how factors such as the ground test thermal environment are compensated in alignment. We describe how these innovative methods for test planning and execution and post-test analysis were instrumental in the verification program for the ISIM element, with enough information to allow the reader to consider these innovations and lessons learned in this successful effort in their future testing for other programs.

  10. Space-compatible strain gauges as an integration aid for the James Webb Space Telescope Mid-Infrared Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samara-Ratna, Piyal; Sykes, Jon; Bicknell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    in operation. The Mid-Infrared Instrument is one of four instruments to be used on the James Webb Space Telescope which is due for launch in 2018. This telescope will be successor to the Hubble Space Telescope and is the largest space-based astronomy project ever to be conceived. Critical to operation......Space instruments are designed to be highly optimised, mass efficient hardware required to operate in extreme environments. Building and testing is extremely costly, and damage that appears to have no impact on performance at normal ambient conditions can have disastrous implications when...... to protect the structure from damage. Compatible with space flight requirements, the gauges have been used in both ambient and cryogenic environments and were successfully used to support various tasks including integration to the spacecraft. The article also discusses limitations to using the strain gauge...

  11. The James Webb Space Telescope's Plan for Operations and Instrument Capabilities for Observations in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Stansberry, John A.; Sonneborn, George; Thomas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is optimized for observations in the near- and mid-infrared and will provide essential observations for targets that cannot be conducted from the ground or other missions during its lifetime. The state-of-the-art science instruments, along with the telescope's moving target tracking, will enable the infrared study, with unprecedented detail, for nearly every object (Mars and beyond) in the Solar System. The goals of this special issue are to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community. Key science goals for various targets, observing capabilities for JWST, and highlights for the complementary nature with other missions/observatories are described in this paper.

  12. Cryogenic Testing of the Thermal Vacuum Chamber and Ground Support Equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope in Chamber A at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPirro, M.; Homan, J.; Havey, K.; Ousley, W.

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the largest cryogenic instrument telescope to be developed for space flight. The telescope will be passively cooled to 50 K and the instrument package will be at 40 K with the mid-infrared instrument at 6 K. The final cryogenic test of the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) as an assembly (OTE + ISIM OTIS) will be performed in the largest 15 K chamber in the world, Chamber A at Johnson Space Center. The planned duration of this test will be 100 days in the middle of 2017. Needless to say, this ultimate test of OTIS, the cryogenic portion of JWST will be crucial in verifying the end-to-end performance of JWST. A repeat of this test would not only be expensive, but would delay the launch schedule (currently October 2018). Therefore a series of checkouts and verifications of the chamber and ground support equipment were planned and carried out between 2012 and 2016. This paper will provide a top-level summary of those tests, trades in coming up with the test plan, as well as some details of individual issues that were encountered and resolved in the course of testing.

  13. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now. and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein's biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the univerre, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA's plans for the next great telescope in space, the Jarnes Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where rtars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  14. λ = 2.4 to 5 μm spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRCam instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Thomas P.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Stansberry, John; Leisenring, Jarron; Egami, Eiichi; Schlawin, Everett; Chu, Laurie; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Rieke, Marcia

    2017-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope near-infrared camera (JWST NIRCam) has two 2.‧2×2.‧2 fields of view that can be observed with either imaging or spectroscopic modes. Either of two R˜1500 grisms with orthogonal dispersion directions can be used for slitless spectroscopy over λ=2.4 to 5.0 μm in each module, and shorter wavelength observations of the same fields can be obtained simultaneously. We describe the design drivers and parameters of the grisms and present the latest predicted spectroscopic sensitivities, saturation limits, resolving powers, and wavelength coverage values. Simultaneous short wavelength (0.6 to 2.3 μm) imaging observations of the 2.4 to 5.0 μm spectroscopic field can be performed in one of several different filter bands, either infocus or defocused via weak lenses internal to the NIRCam. The grisms are available for single-object time-series spectroscopy and wide-field multiobject slitless spectroscopy modes in the first cycle of JWST observations. We present and discuss operational considerations including subarray sizes and data volume limits. Potential scientific uses of the grisms are illustrated with simulated observations of deep extragalactic fields, dark clouds, and transiting exoplanets. Information needed to plan observations using these spectroscopic modes is also provided.

  15. Thermal Considerations for Reducing the Cooldown and Warmup Duration of the James Webb Space Telescope OTIS Cryo-Vacuum Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kan; Glazer, Stuart; Ousley, Gilbert; Burt, William

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), set to launch in 2018, is NASAs next-generation flagship telescope. The Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) contain all of the optical surfaces and instruments to capture and analyze the telescopes infrared targets. The integrated OTE and ISIM are denoted as OTIS, and will be tested as a single unit in a critical thermal-vacuum test in mid-2017 at NASA Johnson Space Centers Chamber A facility. The payload will be evaluated for workmanship and functionality in a 20K simulated flight environment during this thermal-vacuum test. However, the sheer thermal mass of the OTIS payload as well as the restrictive gradient, rate, and contamination-related constraints placed on test components precludes rapid cooldown or warmup to its steady-state cryo-balance condition. Hardware safety considerations precludes injection of helium gas for free molecular heat transfer. Initial thermal analysis predicted that transient radiative cooldown from ambient temperatures, while meeting all limits and constraints, would take 33.3 days; warmup similarly would take 28.4 days. This paper discusses methods used to reduce transition times from the original predictions through modulation of boundary temperatures and environmental conditions. By optimizing helium shroud transition rates and heater usage, as well as rigorously re-examining previously imposed constraints, savings of up to three days on cooldown and up to a week on warmup can be achieved. The efficiencies gained through these methods allow the JWST thermal test team to create faster cooldown and warmup profiles, thus reducing the overall test duration and cost, while keeping all of the required test operations.

  16. Eyes on the Universe: The Legacy of the Hubble Space Telescope and Looking to the Future with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the Hubble Space Telescope has revolutionized our understanding of the Universe. Most recently, the complete refurbishment of Hubble in 2009 has given new life to the telescope and the new science instruments have already produced groundbreaking science results, revealing some of the most distant galaxy candidates ever discovered. Despite the remarkable advances in astrophysics that Hubble has provided, the new questions that have arisen demand a new space telescope with new technologies and capabilities. I will present the exciting new technology development and science goals of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, which is currently being built and tested and will be launched this decade.

  17. Modernization of NASA's Johnson Space Center Chamber: A Payload Transport Rail System to Support Cryogenic Vacuum Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sam; Homan, Jonathan; Speed, John

    2016-01-01

    NASA is the mission lead for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next of the "Great Observatories", scheduled for launch in 2018. It is directly responsible for the integration and test (I&T) program that will culminate in an end-to-end cryo vacuum optical test of the flight telescope and instrument module in Chamber A at NASA Johnson Space Center. Historic Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center and one of the largest space simulation chambers in the world. Chamber A has undergone a major modernization effort to support the deep cryogenic, vacuum and cleanliness requirements for testing the JWST. This paper describe the challenges of developing, integrating and modifying new payload rails capable of transporting payloads within the thermal vacuum chamber up to 65,000 pounds. Ambient and Cryogenic Operations required to configure for testing will be explained. Lastly review historical payload configurations stretching from the Apollo program era to current James Webb Space Telescope testing.

  18. Modernization of NASA's Johnson Space Center Chamber: A Liquid Nitrogen System to Support Cryogenic Vacuum Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sammy; Homan, Jonathan; Montz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA is the mission lead for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next of the “Great Observatories”, scheduled for launch in 2018. It is directly responsible for the integration and test (I&T) program that will culminate in an end-to-end cryo vacuum optical test of the flight telescope and instrument module in Chamber A at NASA Johnson Space Center. Historic Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center and one of the largest space simulation chambers in the world. Chamber A has undergone a major modernization effort to support the deep cryogenic, vacuum and cleanliness requirements for testing the JWST. This paper describes the steps performed in efforts to convert the existing the 60’s era Liquid Nitrogen System from a forced flow (pumped) process to a natural circulation (thermo-siphon) process. In addition, the paper will describe the dramatic conservation of liquid nitrogen to support the long duration thermal vacuum testing. Lastly, describe the simplistic and effective control system which results in zero to minimal human inputs during steady state conditions.

  19. The Use of the Molecular Adsorber Coating Technology to Mitigate Vacuum Chamber Contamination During Pathfinder Testing for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Wooldridge, Eve M.; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This paper describes the recent use of the MAC technology during Pathfinder testing of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap persistent outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone based diffusion pump oil, from within JSC's cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test facility called Chamber A. This paper summarizes the sample fabrication, installation, laboratory testing, post-test chemical analysis results, and future plans for the MAC technology, which was effectively used to protect the JWST test equipment from vacuum chamber contamination.

  20. The use of the Molecular Adsorber Coating technology to mitigate vacuum chamber contamination during Pathfinder testing for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Wooldridge, Eve M.; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly A.

    2016-09-01

    As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This paper describes the recent use of the MAC technology during Pathfinder testing of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap persistent outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone based diffusion pump oil, from within JSC's cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test facility called Chamber A. This paper summarizes the sample fabrication, installation, laboratory testing, post-test chemical analysis results, and future plans for the MAC technology, which was effectively used to protect the JWST test equipment from vacuum chamber contamination.

  1. Jwst from Below: An Overview of the Construction of the James Webb Space Telescope, Interesting Metrology, and Cryogenic-Vacuum Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, R.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (40K). The JWST Observatory includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) that contains four science instruments (SI) and the guider. The SIs are mounted to a composite metering structure. The SI and guider units are integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a suite using a telescope simulator (Optical Telescope Element SIMulator; OSIM). OSIM is a full field, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator. SI performance, including alignment and wavefront error, is evaluated using OSIM. This is an overview presentation to undergraduate students and other personnel at the University of Richmond, planned for 12 Oct, 2016. It uses material previously released by NASA on the Internet (e.g., via Flickr) or at engineering conferences (e.g., SPIE). This presentation provides an overview of the status of the project, with an emphasis on optics and measurement.

  2. Relative Throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope as Measured During Ground Testing the Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malumuth, Eliot; Birkmann, Stephan; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Lindler, Don; Martel, Andre; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Te Plate, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Data were obtained for the purpose of measuring the relative throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments (SIs) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as part of the second and third cryogenic-vacuum tests (CV2CV3) of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 2014 and 20152016, at the beginning and end of the environmental test program, respectively. This Poster focuses on data obtained as part of the Initial Optical Baseline and as part of the Final Performance test -- two epochs that roughly bracket the CV3 test. The purpose of the test is to trend relative throughput to monitor for any potential changes from gross problems such as contamination or degradation of an optical element. Point source data were taken at a variety of wavelengths for NIRCam Module A and Module B, NIRSpec, NIRISS, Guider 1 and Guider 2 using the Laser Diode (LD) 1.06 micron, LD 1.55 micron, 2.1 micron LED and 3.5 micron LED, as well as for NIRCam Mod A and B and NIRISS using a tungsten source and the F277W, and F480M filters. Spectra were taken using the G140M, G235M, and G395M gratings for NIRSpec, the GRISMR grism for NIRCam Mod A and B and the GR150C grism for NIRISS. The results of these measurements are compared to what would be expected given the efficiency of each of the optical elements in each SI. Although these data were taken as a check against gross problems, they can also be used to provide the first relative throughput estimate for each SI through the various filters source wavelengths measured in their flight-like configurations.

  3. Modeling Synthetic Spectra for Transiting Extrasolar Giant Planets: Detectability of H2S and PH3 with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Miguel, Yamila; Lunine, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)’s large aperture and wide wavelength coverage will enable it to collect the highest-quality transit spectra observed so far. For exoplanetary atmospheres we expect to retrieve the abundance of the most abundant molecules, such as H2O, CO, and CH4. Other molecules, such as H2S and PH3, have been observed in Jupiter and Saturn but their chemistry and detectability in strongly irradiated planets are largely unknown. In this paper, we make the first effort to study their spectral features in solar composition atmospheres, and evaluate their detectability with the JWST. We model the chemistry of phosphorus and sulfur in solar composition atmospheres. Our model includes the effect of vertical transport. Photochemistry effects are not included in our calculations. Using the abundance profiles, we model the JWST transmission and emission spectra for a K = 6.8 G-type star and for planets with cloud-free solar composition atmospheres. We find PH3 is detectable at 3σ from transmission spectra of the simulated atmosphere with {T}{eq}grism F444W mode with a total observing time of 28.8 hr. H2S is detectable at 3σ in the transmission and emission spectra for the simulated planet with {T}{eq}> 1500 K using the NIRCam LW grism F322W2 mode with a total observing time of 24.0 hr. Our results specifically highlight the importance of including H2S for future abundance retrieval with the JWST. The presence of clouds and hazes challenges the detections of PH3 and H2S, but H2S features are still expected to be present in the emission spectra.

  4. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Cryo-Vacuum (CV) Test at GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Calinda M.

    2014-01-01

    JWST ISIM has entered into its system-level testing program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In December 2013, ISIM successfully completed the first in a series of three cryo-vacuum tests, which included two flight science instruments. Since then, there have been full-fledged efforts towards the CV2 test scheduled to finish at the end of 2014. The complexity of the mission has generated challenging requirements that demand highly reliable system performance and capabilities from the Space Environment Simulator (SES) vacuum chamber. In order to satisfy the program requirements, GSFC had to develop unique structural and thermal hardware to test ISIM. Most noteworthy is a helium shroud structure and cooling system built in order to achieve operational temperatures below 20K (-253C). This paper: (1) provides an overview of the integrated mechanical and thermal facility systems required to achieve the objectives of JWST ISIM testing, (2) communicates the performance and challenges of the SES during the first ISIM test, and (3) summarizes the action plan to improve the system prior to the next test.

  5. Weaving a Webb story: Communicating Science for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s next great observatory is an impressive and complex mission with many tales to tell. Science is a collection of stories and Webb will be a storytelling machine. How are we preparing to share the scientific news to come from this amazing telescope? From news releases to multimedia content to a vast online presence, the stories of the James Webb Space Telescope will require crafting in order to impact the widest audience. We discuss the art of storytelling based on messaging, goals, mediums, and audience, and how you can apply the same principles to communicating your own research.

  6. James Webb Space Telescope Deployment Brushless DC Motor Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ahn N.

    2016-01-01

    A DC motor's performance is usually characterized by a series of tests, which are conducted by pass/fail criteria. In most cases, these tests are adequate to address the performance characteristics under environmental and loading effects with some uncertainties and decent power/torque margins. However, if the motor performance requirement is very stringent, a better understanding of the motor characteristics is required. The purpose of this paper is to establish a standard way to extract the torque components of the brushless motor and gear box characteristics of a high gear ratio geared motor from the composite geared motor testing and motor parameter measurement. These torque components include motor magnetic detent torque, Coulomb torque, viscous torque, windage torque, and gear tooth sliding torque. The Aerospace Corp bearing torque model and MPB torque models are used to predict the Coulomb torque of the motor rotor bearings and to model the viscous components. Gear tooth sliding friction torque is derived from the dynamo geared motor test data. With these torque data, the geared motor mechanical efficiency can be estimated and provide the overall performance of the geared motor versus several motor operating parameters such as speed, temperature, applied current, and transmitted power.

  7. James Gillies

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    "Physicist James gillies is chief of communications at CERN (the European Organisation for Nuclear Research). Based in the Jura foothills, just outside Geneva, Gillies is part of a teamt hat will fire up CERN's Large Hadron Collierd (LHC) - the most complicated piece of scientific equipment ever built." (1/2 page)

  8. Characterizing Cool Giant Planets in Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    While the James Webb Space Telescope will detect and characterize extrasolar planets by transit and direct imaging, a new generation of telescopes will be required to detect and characterize extrasolar planets by reflected light imaging. NASA's WFIRST space telescope, now in development, will image dozens of cool giant planets at optical wavelengths and will obtain spectra for several of the best and brightest targets. This mission will pave the way for the detection and characterization of terrestrial planets by the planned LUVOIR or HabEx space telescopes. In my presentation I will discuss the challenges that arise in the interpretation of direct imaging data and present the results of our group's effort to develop methods for maximizing the science yield from these planned missions.

  9. James Welch's Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, Alan R.

    1979-01-01

    This article examines Surrealism, its definition, and history through example. Special emphasis is on James Welch, a Blackfeet poet from Montana with a comic way of viewing the world in a surrealistic fashion. (RTS)

  10. James Lyon. Miami Vice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysavgi Papayianni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the shortness of its length, Miami Vice by James Lyons is a meticulous study of NBC’s series of the same title, attempting to provide an overview of the show’s social, socio-cultural, and industrial-economic circumstances surrounding its production and distribution in order to highlight its status as a “defining show of its era” (3. The series starring Don Johnson as James Crocket and Philip Michael Thomas as Ricardo Tubbs appeared in 1984. As a continuation of the cop shows of the p...

  11. Patronage avoidance in James

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Kloppenborg Verbin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available James 2:1-13 takes the form of a rhetorical "elaboration on a theme" described in Ps-Cicero's Rhetorica ad Herennium 2.18.28, and is directed not merely at the abstract issue of partiality or the issue of rich versus poor, but at the practice of patronage and its attendant effects on social interaction. James attacks the practice of patronage and reliance on the stereotypes of patronage as demeaning pseudo-friendship as well as the client, and contrasts this with true friendship from God.

  12. Winter Naming: James Welch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1970s James Welch enters American literature as an Indian postmodernist, a fractured classicist of the West, drawing fragments from both sides of the Buckskin Curtain. Reading the likes of Cesar Vallejo and early modernists from Ezra Pound to Theodore Roethke and decreationists such as Ray Carver (through Richard Hugo's tutelage at…

  13. The Home Stretch Almost! Science with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescope V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Bill

    2017-01-01

    JWST has Made tremendous progress in the last few years. JWST Is fully immersed in integration and test, but testing JWST is a formable challenge. JWST's size, complexity, and cryogenic characteristics require a multifaceted test plan to verify mission readiness. Each of these tests are opportunities to uncover issues which must be corrected to be able to move forward. All observatory control, science planning, and science data processing operational systems are on schedule.?

  14. FINDING HIGH-REDSHIFT DARK STARS WITH THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE

    OpenAIRE

    Zackrisson, Erik; Scott, Pat; Rydberg, Claes-Erik; Iocco, Fabio; Edvardsson, Bengt; Ostlin, Goran; Sivertsson, Sofia; Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Gondolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The first stars in the history of the universe are likely to form in the dense central regions of similar to 10(5)-10(6) M-circle dot cold dark matter halos at z approximate to 10-50. The annihilation of dark matter particles in these environments may lead to the formation of so-called dark stars, which are predicted to be cooler, larger, more massive, and potentially more long-lived than conventional population III stars. Here, we investigate the prospects of detecting high-redshift dark sta...

  15. Studying microbiology with Glenn F. Webb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Martin J

    2015-08-01

    I began working with Glenn F. Webb in 1997. At that time, I was on the faculty of Vanderbilt University, in the School of Medicine, in the Department of Medicine, in its Division of Infectious Diseases. As with mathematics, modern medicine has its different disciplines (e.g. Surgery and Internal Medicine), and then further subdivisions (e.g. Cardiology and Infectious Diseases). Within Internal Medicine, most of the divisions are based on the treatment of conditions that relate to a single organ or group of organs -- the heart, the lungs, the kidneys, the digestive system. But the discipline of Infectious Diseases was based on a different concept: the war between humans and microbes.

  16. Obituary: James Houck (1940 - 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedman, Daniel; Barry, Donald; Soifer, Thomas

    's priorities for the 1990s (the "Bahcall Report"), and his persuasive advocacy convinced the panel that SIRTF should be the decade's highest priority. Subsequently, Jim chaired the NASA HQ Astrophysics Advisory Committee and played a crucial role in organizing and participating in legislative advocacy for the SIRTF "new start" that was needed. Jim's extraordinary technical expertise was vital to the essential redesign of SIRTF required to meet NASA targets for the mission cost. Following the success of IRAS, SIRTF was intended primarily as a photometric mission. Jim was the advocate for spectroscopy which subsequently turned out to be the instrument in greatest demand for the cryogenic Spitzer mission. Jim's first scientific paper with the IRS in 2005 announced the presence of a large population of quasars in the early universe so heavily obscured by dust that they had been invisible to optical telescopes. The legacy of the Spitzer IRS is now permanently in place as the "Cornell Atlas of Spitzer IRS Sources" (CASSIS at cassis.sirtf.com), providing an easily accessible archive of mid-infrared spectra (5-37 micron) for everything from outer planet satellites to quasars at the edge of the observable universe. CASSIS will be the fundamental reference archive of mid-infrared spectra for the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. During all these years of major research projects, Jim maintained a consistent dedication to high quality undergraduate teaching, simultaneously with advising numerous PhD students. His most notable legacy for undergraduates at Cornell was his development by 1974 of a research quality telescope close to campus to teach instrumentation and observational techniques. The 25 inch telescope of the Hartung-Boothroyd Observatory not only trained Cornell students for decades, but was also a testbed for spectrographs. What students felt about Jim was summarized by a former undergraduate who told us, "It is no stretch whatsoever to say that I would not be anything

  17. James Blunt matuselaulude edetabeli tipus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Bereavement Registeri andmetel Suurbritannias matustel tellitavate laulude edetabelis: James Blunt "Goodbye My Lover", Robbie Williams "Angels", Jennifer Warnes ja Bill Medley "I've Had the Time Of My Life", Elton John "Candle in the Wind", Righteous Brothers "Unchained Melody"

  18. James Stevens / James Stevens ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stevens, James

    2006-01-01

    Inglise disainerist James Stevensist (sünd. 1962) ja tema tegevusest. J. Stevens 2000. a. Amsterdamis tehtud intervjuus koos Jon Bainsi ja Kim Bulliga 1995. a. Londonis avatud Interneti-agentuurist Obsolete, 1996-2000 tegutsenud Interneti-kohvikust Backspace, mittekommertsiaalse juhtmeteta nerworki Consume.net rajamisest Londonis

  19. James Moir as Inorganic Chemist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    James Moir was a pioneering chemist in the early 1900s who played a leading role in various chemical societies in South Africa. Although he was mainly an organic chemist, he also made contributions in the field of inorganic chemistry. His forays in this field deal with gold extraction using the new solvent thiourea, removal ...

  20. James Frey: Feelings as Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Trysh

    2006-01-01

    James Frey, author of the book "A Million Little Pieces" is accused of embellishing and/or fabricating elements of his story, a graphic but supposedly honest, depiction of his struggle with drugs and alcohol. More and more college students who are caught plagiarizing believe, as Frey seems to, that as long as one agrees with the authors one…

  1. James Brown, Sample Culture and the Permanent Distance of Glory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Jones

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The James Brown song ‘I’m Real’ (1988 features lyrics regaled from James Brown’s back catalogue, alongside vocal samples extracted from his earlier hits. As one of the most sampled artists of the hip-hop era, James employed sampling in order to reclaim his position as the “Godfather of Soul” and express his disatisfaction at having his work overtly plundered. The central questions I pose here focus on what the choice to sample himself reveals about Brown’s status as a Soul legend, and whether the contemporaneous James could sincerely live up to the mythic status inherent to the message of ‘I’m Real’ given its self-conscious form. This confusion appears to be an extension of Walter Benjamin’s conception of déjà vu as an acoustic effect - ‘the cool tomb of long ago, from the vault of which the present seems to return only as an echo’ (Benjamin cited in Breyley, 2009: 145 - only here the slippage between past and present is quite literal, involving the discordant imbrication of two divergent temporal states. Via a detailed investigation of the song ‘I’m Real‘, I will probe Brown’s playful employment of his own past. His gambit, I will argue, may be read simultaneously as testament to his own glory, and as a signifier that the excesses of egotistic auto-projection were always more distant than they first appeared to be.

  2. On a South African English vowel system | Webb | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On a South African English vowel system. V N Webb. Abstract. No abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  3. A Conversation with James Hannan

    OpenAIRE

    Gilliland, Dennis; Ramamoorthi, R.V.

    2010-01-01

    Jim Hannan is a professor who has lived an interesting life and one whose fundamental research in repeated games was not fully appreciated until late in his career. During his service as a meteorologist in the Army in World War II, Jim played poker and made weather forecasts. It is curious that his later research included strategies for repeated play that apply to selecting the best forecaster. ¶ James Hannan was born in Holyoke, Massachusetts on September 14, 1922. He attended St. Jero...

  4. Conference James F.Buckli

    CERN Multimedia

    Buckli,J

    1988-01-01

    L'association du personnel a le plaisir d'accueillir Mons. James F.Buckli, astronaute, né en 1947. Il a participé à la mission Space Lab D1 qui pour la première fois mettait 8 personnes sur orbite.L'ass.du pers. remercie aussi Gordon White(s) de la mission américaine d'avoir permis d'organiser cette conférence

  5. Intervjuu James Corneriga = Interview with James Corner / James Corner ; interv. Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Corner, James

    2006-01-01

    Büroo Field Operations maastikuarhitekt ning Pennsylvania Ülikooli maastikuarhitektuuri osakonna juhataja James Corner oma büroost, maastikust kui "instrumendist", postindustriaalsete aladega seotud projektidest (New Yorgi High Line'i muutmine pargiks ja promenaadiks), tööst suuremahuliste maastikega (Fresh Kills'i soo, endise prügila muutmine pargialaks), maastikuarhitektuurist ja linnakujundusest (maastiku urbanism), õpetamise tähtsusest oma töös ja maastikuarhitektuuri ideede arendamisel. Bibl. lk. 24

  6. Not cool with cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Barry

    2010-09-01

    I confess that I may have missed the point of Roland Ennos's article "Urban cool" (August pp22-25), which describes methods of cooling cities by mitigating and reversing the effect of solar heating and includes an illustration of "evapotranspiration" in, of all places, Greater Manchester.

  7. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Cryo-Vacuum (CV) Test Campaign Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Calinda; Whitehouse, Paul; Lui, Yan; Banks, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    JWST Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) has completed its system-level testing program at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In March 2016, ISIM was successfully delivered for integration with the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) after the successful verification of the system through a series of three cryo-vacuum (CV) tests. The first test served as a risk reduction test; the second test provided the initial verification of the fully-integrated flight instruments; and the third test verified the system in its final flight configuration. The complexity of the mission has generated challenging requirements that demand highly reliable system performance and capabilities from the Space Environment Simulator (SES) vacuum chamber. As JWST progressed through its CV testing campaign, deficiencies in the test configuration and support equipment were uncovered from one test to the next. Subsequent upgrades and modifications were implemented to improve the facility support capabilities required to achieve test requirements. This paper: (1) provides an overview of the integrated mechanical and thermal facility systems required to achieve the objectives of JWST ISIM testing, (2) compares the overall facility performance and instrumentation results from the three ISIM CV tests, and (3) summarizes lessons learned from the ISIM testing campaign.

  8. Contamination control requirements implementation for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), part 1: optics, instruments and thermal vacuum testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Eve M.; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly; Woronowicz, Michael; Novo-Gradac, Kevin; Perry, Radford L.; Macias, Matthew; Arenberg, Jon; Egges, Joanne

    2014-09-01

    The derivation of contamination control (CC) requirements for the JWST Optical Telescope Element (OTE) was presented at the SPIE conference in 20081. Since then, much work has been done to allocate contamination at each phase of Integration and Test (IandT) and to plan for achieving the allocations. Because JWST is such a large and complicated observatory, plans for meeting the requirements are many and varied. There are primary mirror segments that must be cleaned early and maintained clean; there are four science instruments that each have tight contamination requirements but cannot be cleaned after they are integrated onto the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) structure; there is the composite ISIM structure that is fragile and must be minimally handled; there are numerous cryo-vacuum tests that must be controlled and monitored in order to minimize molecular contamination during return to ambient; … and more. An overview of plans developed to implement contamination control for JWST optics, instruments, and thermal vacuum testing for JWST will be presented.

  9. James Hillman (1926-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, E Mark

    2012-09-01

    Presents an obituary for James Hillman. James Hillman, the third child of Madeline and Julian Hillman, died of metastatic bone cancer at his home in Thompson, Connecticut, on October 27, 2011. The parent of "archetypal psychology," he was born on April 12, 1926, at the Breakers, a then-opulent hotel founded by his family that overlooked the boardwalk and beach in Atlantic City, New Jersey. With an extensive footing in the classics and classical humanism, Jim established the foundations for his emerging archetypal psychology. With archetypal psychology, he was to move away from a dependence on the concept of a personal ego in favor of larger sources that relied on his notion of variegated identity. He proposed a profusion of mythical images that emerge under the rubric of "soul." Soul stands as an appellation indicating a deepening of psychic events, such as when dreams, chaos, and "pathologizing" (the struggles of imagination) are most experienced. For Hillman, psychology could not be taken as a separate discipline isolated from mythology, literature, art, philosophy, politics, religion, natural science, and the ordinary affairs of individuals. Hillman envisioned archetypes as processes that bear evidence to personal suffering and, in so doing, prompt the expansion of compassion. In 1975, Jim was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize for his book Re-Visioning Psychology (Harper & Row). In addition to many other citations, Jim had the high honor in 2001 of receiving the Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Reflections on Cambridge: M R James and Ghosts - James' portrait in King's College

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2012-01-01

    .mp4 video file 2012 is the 150th anniversary of of MR James the famous ghost story writers' birth - he will be on the first class stamp. As a very distant descendant of James, but, like him, a Fellow of King's, Alan Macfarlane tells us something about James Filmed in 2009 by Xu Bei

  11. JamesWatt: FatherofSteam Power

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    forced the piston down and the pump rod up, causing water to be pumped out. he overall efficiency of the ... In addition to miserable living conditions, James was hence forced to remain confined to his .... James Watt was married twice, first to a cousin, Margaret Miller in 1764 and after her death to. Ann McGregor in 1776.

  12. Doctors, disease and James Joyce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M

    2008-08-01

    The Irish author James Joyce is regarded as the greatest modernist writer of his time. His works, notably The Dead, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Ulysses and Finnegans Wake--are intensely autobiographic including meticulous descriptions of illness and states of health--no surprise in view of Joyce's medical history and hypochondria. The Dead revolves around the tragic love of a doomed tubercular youth. Ulysses has a graphic description of Mary Joyce-s death, a funeral and a birth; Stephen Dedalus, the character based on Joyce, attends a drinking session with medical students at the lying-in hospital just as Joyce had done as a student; references to syphilis, alcoholism and other illnesses abound.

  13. A Tribute to James Parkinson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, André

    2018-01-01

    Exactly 200 years ago, the London surgeon-apothecary James Parkinson (1755-1824) published a 66-page-long booklet entitled An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, which contains the first clear clinical description of the shaking palsy or paralysis agitans, which we now refer to as Parkinson's disease. However, the value of this essay was not fully recognized during Parkinson's lifetime, which spanned the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic Wars. James Parkinson was one of the most singular figures of his time and place. He was successively or concomitantly a virulent political activist, a popular medical writer, a scholarly medical contributor, a highly appreciated parish doctor, a prominent amateur chemist, a devoted madhouse doctor, and a renowned paleontologist. It is that branch of geology that brought Parkinson fame during his lifetime. He was an insatiable collector of fossils, minerals, and shells that came to form the core of the museum that he set out at his home in Shoreditch, England. These specimens are beautifully illustrated in his Organic Remains of a Former World (1804-1811), a three-volume treatise that rapidly became a standard paleontology textbook. Parkinson was a founding member of the Geological Society of London, and in recognition of his contribution to the nascent field of paleontology his name was given to many fossils, particularly ammonites (e.g. Nautilus parkinsoni). Hence, we owe much to Mr. Parkinson, the Paleontologist, as he used to be referred to after his death, for such a vast and multifaceted contribution to natural science and medicine.

  14. James Stirling Regionalismo y modernidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Esteban Garbayo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn los años treinta, la arquitectura moderna se había introducido en los más remotos lugares del mundo enfrentándose con la infinita idiosincrasia de lo local, y al mismo tiempo, el arquitecto, sintiendo las limitaciones de su estilo e intentando ampliar su vocabulario, se embarcó en un proceso de difusión, asimilación y personalización.La idea de una renovada época después de la posguerra británica, sería compartida por una joven generación de arquitectos con el fin de encontrar una nueva forma de modernidad.Si en sus proyectos domésticos de mediados de los cincuenta, James Stirling partió de una aproximación al regionalismo y a la 'tradición funcional' con el fin de renovar el lenguaje moderno, no abandonaría la idea 'programática' inicial de entender la arquitectura desde una consistencia formal y una lógica que combinaba 'una síntesis común del pasado reciente y una certera actitud hacia el futuro'. AbstractThirties, modern architecture had percolated into remote corners of the world, encountering the infinite idiosyncrasies of locality, and, at the same time, Architects, feelings the limitations of their style and becoming intent upon extending their vocabulary, embarked upon a process of diffusion, assimilation and personalitation.The idea of a renewed period after British postwar, was shared for a new young architects generationto find a new way of modernity.While in his mid fifties housing projects, James Stirling approached to 'regionalism' and 'the functional tradition' to renew the modern language, he wouldn't reject the programmatic idea to understand architecture from a logic and formal consistency that combine 'a common synthesis of the recent past and a certain attitude toward the future'.

  15. A chat with James Watson

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    On 6 September, Nobel laureate James Watson paid a visit to CERN. In this interview, he shares his views with CERN's Paola Catapano.      var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144-0480-kbps-512x288-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1384418', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4');

  16. Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  17. Lines and Spaces: James Dickey's "The Leap."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sandra Cowan

    1992-01-01

    Describes a teacher's experience in presenting her students with James Dickey's poem "The Leap." Focuses on the primary visual images of the poem, the space where memory lives, the space where contemplation thrives, and the space where emotions dwell. (PRA)

  18. St. James marine terminal facility description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  19. Poor and Rich in James: A Relevance Theory Approach to James's Use of the Old Testament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Nelson R.

    2015-01-01

    The epistle of James was for years a forgotten book in academic circles. In recent decades, however, a renewed focus on early Judaism has generated interest in looking at James with new eyes. Poverty and wealth in the epistle continues to be a point of interest. Other topics, however, are still to be explored. One of these topics is the rhetorical…

  20. Space perception and William James's metaphysical presuppositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Martin J

    2011-05-01

    William James's overtly philosophical work may be more continuous with his psychological work than is sometimes thought. His Essays in Radical Empiricism can be understood as an explicit statement of the absolute presupposition that formed the basis of Jamesian psychology: that direct experience is primary and has to be taken at face value. An examination of James's theory of space perception suggests that, even in his early work, he presupposed the primacy of direct experience, and that later changes in his account of space perception can be understood as making his view more consistent with this presupposition. In his earlier view of space perception, James argued that sensations were directly experienced as spatial, though he accepted that spatial relations between sensations may be constructed by higher order thought. In his later view, however, James argued that spatial relations were just as directly experienced as sensations. The work of T. H. Green may have prompted James to recognize the full consequence of his ideas and to realize that taking experience at face value required that spatial relations be thought of as intrinsic to experience rather than the result of intellectual construction.

  1. William James, Gustav Fechner, and Early Psychophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Hawkins

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available American psychologist and philosopher William James devoted the entirety of his career to exploring the nature of volition, as expressed by such phenomena as will, attention, and belief. As part of that endeavor, James's unorthodox scientific pursuits, from his experiments with nitrous oxide and hallucinogenic drugs to his investigation of spiritualist mediums, represent his attempt to address the "hard problems" of consciousness for which his training in brain physiology and experimental psychology could not entirely account. As a student, James's reading in chemistry and physics had sparked his interest in the concepts of energy and force, terms that he later deployed in his writing about consciousness and in his arguments against philosophical monism and scientific materialism, as he developed his radically empiricist ideas privileging discontinuity and plurality. Despite James's long campaign against scientific materialism, he was, however, convinced of the existence of a naturalistic explanation for the more "wayward and fitful" aspects of mind, including transcendent experiences associated with hysteria, genius, and religious ecstasy. In this paper, I examine aspects of James's thought that are still important for contemporary debates in psychology and neuroscience: his "transmission theory" of consciousness, his ideas on the "knowing of things together," and, finally, the related concept of "the compounding of consciousness," which postulates the theoretical possibility for individual entities within a conscious system of thought to "know" the thoughts of others within the system. Taken together, these ideas suggest that James, in spite of, or perhaps because of, his forays into metaphysics, was working toward a naturalistic understanding of consciousness, what I will term a "distributive model," based on his understanding of consciousness as an "awareness" that interacts dynamically within, and in relation to, its environment.

  2. James Watt: Father of Steam Power

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 6. James Watt: Father of Steam Power. K V Gopalakrishnan. General Article Volume 14 Issue 6 June 2009 pp 522-529. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/014/06/0522-0529. Keywords.

  3. James Baldwin: Voyages in Search of Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leeming

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available From the time of his early adolescence until his death, traveling was one of, if not the, driving force of James Baldwin’s life. He traveled to escape, he travelled to discover, and he traveled because traveling was a way of knowing himself, of realizing his vocation.

  4. Senator James Eastland : Mississippi's Jim Crow Democrat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    In the years following World War II, the national Democratic Party aligned its agenda more and more with the goals of the civil rights movement. By contrast, a majority of southern Democrats remained as committed as ever to a longstanding segregationist ideology. Through the career of Senator James

  5. Product placement in movies - James Bond

    OpenAIRE

    Kalová, Simona

    2009-01-01

    Product placement as a means of marketing communication is getting very important. The thesis defines product placement, deals with its history and explains some of its forms. It focuses mainly on its occurrance in movies, especially in the series concerning British secret agent James Bond. The research part focuses on the consumer`s opinion on product placement.

  6. Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Kolokotroni, Maria

    -of-the-art of ventilative cooling potentials and limitations, its consideration in current energy performance regulations, available building components and control strategies and analysis methods and tools. In addition, the report provides twenty six examples of operational buildings using ventilative cooling ranging from...

  7. Tribute to the legend Mr. Veterinary Public Health, Professor James ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author was also destined during his Sabbatical Leave to have an interactive interview session with Prof James Steele after attending the 20th Annual James Steele lecture/ 99th birthday Dinner of Professor James Steele 4th and 6th April 2012 at the Texas School of Public Health, Houston, Texas, USA. The interview ...

  8. Using Webb gliders to maintain a sustained ocean presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, O.; Kohut, J.; Glenn, S.

    2009-05-01

    Buoyancy driven Slocum gliders were a vision of Douglas Webb, which Henry Stommel championed in a vision published in 1989. Slocum gliders have transitioned from a concept to a technology serving research and environmental stewardship. The long duration and low costs of gliders allow them to anchor spatial time series. Large distances, over 600 km, can be covered using a set of alkaline batteries. Lithium batteries can anchor missions that are thousands of kilometers in length. Since the initial tests, a wide range of physical and optical sensors have been integrated into the glider allowing measurements of temperature, salinity, depth averaged currents, surface currents, fluorescence, apparent/inherent optical properties active and passive acoustics. A command/control center, entitled Dockserver, has been developed that allows users to fly fleets of gliders simultaneously in multiple places around the world via the Internet. Since October 2003, Rutgers gliders have conducted 157 missions, traversed >55,000 kilometers, logged >2600 days at sea, and logged ~350,000 vertical profiles. The capabilities of the glider make them an indispensable tool for the growing global effort to build integrated ocean observatories. For example, gliders are now a central tool within the National Science Foundation Ocean Observatory Initiative (OOI) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). Gliders provide a new magnet in which to attract young people into the ocean science and engineering. For example Rutgers undergraduates now anchor long duration flights of gliders world-wide beginning their freshmen year. This is critical to training the next generation.

  9. Product Placement in James Bond Movies

    OpenAIRE

    Habětín, Matěj

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is product placement in James Bond movies. My goal was to explore the issue of product placement on cases of selected movies and its impact on the audience (especially on the Czech audience). I divided my bachelor thesis into six chapters. The first three are mostly theoretical. Here I focus mainly on marketing communications mix and its forms, then on product placement in movies in general. In the remaining three chapters, I occupied with product placement e...

  10. Selected achievements, science directions, and new opportunities for the WEBB small watershed research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Larsen, Matthew C.; Greene, Earl A.; Buss, Heather L.; Clow, David W.; Hunt, Randall J.; Mast, M. Alisa; Murphy, Sheila F.; Peters, Norman E.; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Shanley, James B.; Walker, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Over nearly two decades, the Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) small watershed research program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented how water and solute fluxes, nutrient, carbon, and mercury dynamics, and weathering and sediment transport respond to natural and humancaused drivers, including climate, climate change, and atmospheric deposition. Together with a continued and increasing focus on the effects of climate change, more investigations are needed that examine ecological effects (e.g., evapotranspiration, nutrient uptake) and responses (e.g., species abundances, biodiversity) that are coupled with the physical and chemical processes historically observed in the WEBB program. Greater use of remote sensing, geographic modeling, and habitat/watershed modeling tools is needed, as is closer integration with the USGS-led National Phenology Network. Better understanding of process and system response times is needed. The analysis and observation of land-use and climate change effects over time should be improved by pooling data obtained by the WEBB program during the last two decades with data obtained earlier and (or) concurrently from other research and monitoring studies conducted at or near the five WEBB watershed sites. These data can be supplemented with historical and paleo-environmental information, such as could be obtained from tree rings and lake cores. Because of the relatively pristine nature and small size of its watersheds, the WEBB program could provide process understanding and basic data to better characterize and quantify ecosystem services and to develop and apply indicators of ecosystem health. In collaboration with other Federal and State watershed research programs, the WEBB program has an opportunity to contribute to tracking the short-term dynamics and long-term evolution of ecosystem services and health indicators at a multiplicity of scales across the landscape. 

  11. A Conversation with James J. Morgan

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, James J.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2015-01-01

    In conversation with professor Dianne Newman, Caltech geobiologist, James “Jim” J. Morgan recalls his early days in Ireland and New York City, education in parochial and public schools, and introduction to science in Cardinal Hayes High School, Bronx. In 1950, Jim entered Manhattan College, where he elected study of civil engineering, in particular water quality. Donald O'Connor motivated Jim's future study of O_2 in rivers at Michigan, where in his MS work he learned to model O_2 dynamics of...

  12. Accuracy and Generalizability in Summaries of Affect Regulation Strategies: Comment on Webb, Miles, and Sheeran (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Adam A.; Hemenover, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    In their examination of the effectiveness of affect regulation strategies, Webb, Miles, and Sheeran (2012) offered the results of a broad meta-analysis of studies on regulatory interventions. Their analysis provides an alternative to our earlier, more focused meta-analysis of the affect regulation literature (Augustine & Hemenover, 2009).…

  13. Selected achievements, science directions, and new opportunities for the WEBB Small Watershed Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre D. Glynn; Matthew C. Larsen; Earl A. Greene; Heather L. Buss; David W. Clow; Randall J. Hunt; M. Alisa Mast; Sheila F. Murphy; Norman E. Peters; Stephen D. Sebestyen; James B. Shanley; John F. Walker

    2009-01-01

    Over nearly two decades, the Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) small watershed research program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented how water and solute fluxes, nutrient, carbon, and mercury dynamics, and weathering and sediment transport respond to natural and humancaused drivers, including climate, climate change, and atmospheric...

  14. A perspective on thirty years of the Webb, Pearman and Leuning density corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuhui Lee; William J. Massman

    2011-01-01

    The density correction theory of Webb et al. (1980, Q J Roy Meteorol Soc 106: 85-100, hereafter WPL) is a principle underpinning the experimental investigation of surface fluxes of energy and masses in the atmospheric boundary layer. It has a long-lasting influence in boundary-layer meteorology and micrometeorology, and the year 2010 marks the 30th anniversary of the...

  15. [Nicolas Dobo and Pierre Jame about the army medical general Lucian Jame].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobo, N; Jame, P

    1996-01-01

    Lucien Jame was born October the 20th 1891 at Gourdon (Lot). State Police Officer's son, he studied in Lyon at the Military Health School. Called up August the 6th 1914, he shined among many fights and wore a lot of medals. After the armistice he defended his thesis upon "Venereal diseases prophylaxis study". March the 9th 1921, medical Officer in South Algeria, he published some original articles regarding to leprosis, tuberculosis and malaria. After a competitive examination in France, Lucien Jame became a Medical Commanding Officer of Military Health Service in Toulouse where Nicolas Dobo was at his disposal. August the 6th 1943, in the same rank in Algier then in Rabat, Lucien Jame reached the top of his career as Chief Executive of Military Health Service. He planed First French army medical operations through Italy, France and Germany battles. "Grand-Officier de la Légion d'honneur", the Army Medical General Lucien Jame retired but kept on with works dedicated to hygiene and preventive medicine till he died, June the 16th, 1969.

  16. Kuula. Kellele ei meeldiks James Blunt? / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: James Blunt "Back To Bedlam", Enrique Iglesias "Insomniac", Prince "Planet Earth", Garbage "Absolut Garbage", Justice "Cross", Interpol "Our Love To Admire", Rufus Wainwright "Release The Stars"

  17. James Henry Greathead and the London Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Wright

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and early history of the device known as the ‘Greathead Shield’, an important innovation in Victorian engineering crucial to constructing the London Underground. The aim is to explore the basis on which, many years later, a South African engineer, James Henry Greathead, was accorded prominent public acknowledgment, in the form of a statue, for ‘inventing’ the Shield. From a cultural studies perspective, how is the meaning of ‘invention’ to be understood, given that several other brilliant engineers were involved? The question is adjudicated using the notion of cultural ‘extelligence’, seen in relation to several contemporary and historical accounts, including Greathead’s own record of his achievements in the proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers and presented in The City and South London Railway (1896, edited by James Forrest. The paper was first delivered at the conference on ‘Novelty and Innovation in the Nineteenth Century’ held at the North-West University in May 2016.

  18. Henry James – Modern Theoretician of Narration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra - Denisa IGNA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Henry James, properly named world writer, was one of the first modern novelists, with an exigent writing conscience. The American writer subverted the prejudgement of the omniscient author in favour of the narration which is centred on the characters’ point of view, thus modernising the novel before V. Woolf, Huxley, Thomas Mann, or in our case Camil Petrescu and G. Călinescu. Some bio-bibliographical information familiarises the reader with the life and work of this writer. The larger part of the article is dedicated to a case study of the novel with the metaphorical title: The Figure in the Carpet, where Henry James tries to illustrate in an artistic manner his conception regarding the profundity and ineffability of the literary creation. The conclusion which the author reaches, alternating the familiar plan of the relationship between a married couple with the esthetical plan, is that the relationship between writer and his work represents an act of fully intimacy, just like a ceremony that takes place in the wedding night

  19. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  20. Metacognition and Self-Regulation in James, Piaget, and Vygotsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Emily; Riconscente, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the intertwined constructs of metacognition and self-regulation as they emerge in the works and theories of James, Piaget, and Vygotsky. To coordinate this exploration, we use an interpretive framework based on the relation of subject and object. In this framework, James's perspective on metacognition and self-regulation…

  1. The National Writing Project: A Best Idea from James Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Carol

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how James Gray, founder of the Bay Area Writing Project and later the National Writing Project, began with a simple idea--successful teachers are the best teachers of teachers. Describes how James Gray laid a foundation for what has become a national network with 175 sites across the nation, providing a professional home for thousands of…

  2. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things, that... (10 CFR), Part 50, Section 50.48, requires that nuclear power plants that were licensed before January...

  3. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things, that... physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage...

  4. The Contributions of James Moir to Physical Chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    The Contributions of James Moir to Physical Chemistry. P. Loyson*. Chemistry Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, 6031 South Africa. Received 12 May 2014, revised 5 September 2014, Accepted 5 September 2014. ABSTRACT. James Moir was a pioneering chemist in the ...

  5. James Moir (1874–1929) Pioneering Chemical Analyst in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    James Moir (1874–1929) Pioneering Chemical Analyst in. South Africa in the Early 1900s. Peter Loyson*. Chemistry Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, 6031 South Africa. Received 17 October 2013, accepted 26 March 2014. ABSTRACT. James Moir, a pioneering chemist ...

  6. James Wallbank (Redundant Technology Initiative) (RTI) / James Wallbank ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wallbank, James

    2006-01-01

    James Wallbank (sünd. 1966) on RTI (Aegunud Tehnoloogia Initsiatiiv), mis hoiab alates 2000. aastast käigus Interneti-kohvikut "Access Space") Sheffieldis, rajaja. J. Wallbank 6. 10. 2000 tehtud intervjuus RTI-st, mis kasutab oma installatsioonides, skulptuurides ja teistes madaltehnoloogilistes teostes vanu arvuteid, installatsioonist näitusel "net_condition" Karlssruhe Kunsti- ja Meediatehnoloogia Keskuses (1999), tööst "Network Low Tech Video Wall" (2000) ja muust

  7. REACTOR COOLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  8. Cool collapsible

    OpenAIRE

    Linnér, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Cool collabsible är ett projekt som har handlat om att skapa ett hopfällbart utomhusbord. Arbetet har utförts tillsammans med aka buna design consult. Projektet har fokuserats på att hitta en funktion, teknik och material för att sedan transformera detta till ett innovativt utomhusbord. Genom ett utförligt arbete med att definiera målgruppen skapades ramar som format ett bord till den typiska brukaren. Resultatet blev ett hopfällbart bord som hämtat sin inspiration från naturen. Ett bord som ...

  9. Phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Descurainia sophia Webb ex Prantl: modern and traditional applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Seed of Descurainia sophia  Webb ex Prantl has been traditionally prescribed as treatment for palpitation, varicose vein, varicocele, constipation, hemorrhoid, skin eruptions, and impotence. To outline a view for further approaches, current work compiled a survey on all relevant clinical properties of this medicament in addition to the traditional reports. To do this, databases as PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, IranMedex and Science information databases (SID) were searched by keywords, i.e., “Descu...

  10. Cool visitors

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Pictured, from left to right: Tim Izo (saxophone, flute, guitar), Bobby Grant (tour manager), George Pajon (guitar). What do the LHC and a world-famous hip-hop group have in common? They are cool! On Saturday, 1st July, before their appearance at the Montreux Jazz Festival, three members of the 'Black Eyed Peas' came on a surprise visit to CERN, inspired by Dan Brown's Angels and Demons. At short notice, Connie Potter (Head of the ATLAS secretariat) organized a guided tour of ATLAS and the AD 'antimatter factory'. Still curious, lead vocalist Will.I.Am met CERN physicist Rolf Landua after the concert to ask many more questions on particles, CERN, and the origin of the Universe.

  11. Cool Snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm; Grunert, Klaus G; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Young people snack and their snacking habits are not always healthy. We address the questions whether it is possible to develop a new snack product that adolescents will find attractive, even though it is based on ingredients as healthy as fruits and vegetables, and we argue that developing...... such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  12. A Conversation with James J. Morgan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, James J.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2015-05-01

    In conversation with professor Dianne Newman, Caltech geobiologist, James "Jim" J. Morgan recalls his early days in Ireland and New York City, education in parochial and public schools, and introduction to science in Cardinal Hayes High School, Bronx. In 1950, Jim entered Manhattan College, where he elected study of civil engineering, in particular water quality. Donald O'Connor motivated Jim's future study of O2 in rivers at Michigan, where in his MS work he learned to model O2 dynamics of rivers. As an engineering instructor at Illinois, Jim worked on rivers polluted by synthetic detergents. He chose to focus on chemical studies, seeing it as crucial for the environment. Jim enrolled for PhD studies with Werner Stumm at Harvard, who mentored his research in chemistry of particle coagulation and oxidation processes of Mn(II) and (IV). In succeeding decades, until retirement in 2000, Jim's teaching and research centered on aquatic chemistry; major themes comprised rates of abiotic manganese oxidation on particle surfaces and flocculation of natural water particles, and chemical speciation proved the key.

  13. James Parkinson's Chimera: syndrome or disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempster, P A; Hurwitz, B; Lees, A J

    2017-06-01

    It is 200 years since James Parkinson published An Essay on the Shaking Palsy. While his monograph continues to be acclaimed for its precedence and clarity of description, what is often overlooked is the originality of Parkinson's ideas. Here we show that he appreciated the weakness of the systematic 18th century nosologies, which presupposed that medical species, the building blocks of these Linnaean taxonomic schemes, were as distinct as plant and animal species; and that Parkinson made a conceptual leap about combinations of clinical phenomena in recurring patterns, now recognised to be one of the germs of neurological thinking about syndromes. The Essay's written style underpins another aspect of significance to contemporary neurological practice - an inherent intellectual humility. In this commemorative year we locate the continuing importance of the related notions of syndrome and disease in successive frameworks of knowledge about the shaking palsy. Syndrome and disease are interpreted as dual character concepts, one clinically-based and the other restricted to pathophysiological causation. They both remain fundamental to understanding Parkinson's syndrome-disease today.

  14. James Frame's The Philosophy of Insanity (1860).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jonathan; Philo, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Our aim in presenting this Classic Text is to foster wider analytical attention to a fascinating commentary on insanity by a former inmate of Glasgow Royal Asylum, Gartnavel, James Frame. Despite limited coverage in existing literature, his text (and other writings) have been surprisingly neglected by modern scholars. Frame's Philosophy presents a vivid, affecting, often destigmatizing account of the insane and their institutional provision in Scotland. Derived from extensive first-hand experience, Frame's chronicle eloquently and graphically delineates his own illness and the roles and perspectives of many other actors, from clinicians and managers to patients and relations. It is also valuable as a subjective, but heavily mediated, kaleidoscopic view of old and new theories concerning mental afflictions, offering many insights about the medico-moral ethos and milieu of the mid-Victorian Scottish asylum. Alternating as consolatory and admonitory illness biography, insanity treatise, mental health self-help guide, and asylum reform and promotion manual, it demands scrutiny for both its more progressive views and its more compromised and prejudicial attitudes.

  15. James Wenceslaus Papez, His Circuit, and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B

    2017-01-01

    James Papez worked on the anatomical substrates of emotion and described a circuit, mainly composed of the hippocampus, thalamus and cingulum, and published his observations in 1937. However, such an idea existed before him, as evidenced by the rudimentary indications from Paul Broca, and Paul MacLean added some other structures like, septum, amygdala, and hypothalamus in its ambit and called it the limbic system. Paul Ivan Yakovlev, proposed a circuit which also referred to orbitofrontal, insular, anterior temporal lobe, and other nuclei of thalamus. Further works hinted at cerebellar projections into this system and the clinical picture of aggression, arousal and positive feeding responses with stimulation of cerebellar nuclei, attests its possible role. Finally, the work of Heinrich Klüver and Paul Bucy of the United States of America on ablating the temporal lobes and amygdala and the resultant behaviour of the animals, almost incontrovertibly adduced evidence for the operation of a neural circuitry in the genesis of emotion. Additionally, Papez circuit may also be concerned with memory and damage to its various components in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Korsakoff's syndrome, semantic dementia, and global amnesia, where cognitive disturbance is almost universal, lends credence to its putative role.

  16. James L. Outtz (1947-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Cascio, Wayne

    2016-09-01

    This article memorializes James L. Outtz, who passed away March 26, 2016. For more than 40 years, Outtz was a leading researcher, practitioner, and consultant in the areas of hiring and promotion, employment discrimination, selection-test design and implementation, and legal issues pertaining to employment. He worked tirelessly to enhance opportunities for workforce diversity through greater inclusion of minorities and women. Another important focus was on strategies to minimize adverse impact through alternative approaches to selection. His work significantly influenced best practices in equal employment opportunity, and he was a highly sought-after legal-compliance consultant and testifying expert, advisor to courts, and participant on consent decrees with experts and lawyers from all sides of an issue. His efforts involved some of the most prominent corporations in America and most visible public-sector jurisdictions. In his final 2 years, he became president-elect of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. James F. T. Bugental (1915-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kirk J; Greening, Tom

    2009-01-01

    James F. T. Bugental died peacefully at age 92 at his Petaluma, California, home on September 18, 2008. Jim was a leading psychotherapist and a founding father, with Abraham Maslow and others, of humanistic psychology, or the "third force" (in contrast to psychoanalysis and behaviorism). Jim was also the creator, along with Rollo May, of existential-humanistic psychotherapy. Jim was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, on Christmas Day in 1915. Jim earned his doctorate in 1948 from Ohio State University, where he was influenced by Victor Raimy and George Kelly. After a brief time on the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) faculty in psychology, Jim resigned in 1953 to found the first group practice of psychotherapy, Psychological Service Associates, with Alvin Lasko. With Abraham Maslow and others, Jim was a cofounder of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology (JHP) and the Association for Humanistic Psychology in 1961. Jim also wrote many books on the topic of psychotherapy during his lifetime. Jim was a great and bold spirit--his many writings and teachings are cherished today widely, and the field of psychology is much richer for his efforts. 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Public Use Management Plan James River National Wildlife Refuge 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Public Use Plan for James River National Wildlife Refuge is intended to identify public use issues, objectives, and appropriate strategies for managing public...

  19. James River National Wildlife Refuge: Final comprehensive conservation plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on James River National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  20. James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  1. A BRITISH TOUCH ON TANZIMAT: ARCHITECT WILLIAM JAMES SMITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma İgüs

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the life and works of British architect William James Smith and outlines his contributions to nineteenth century Ottoman architecture and presents his prominence as an architectural historian of nineteenth century British architectural work.

  2. Kuidas kõrgemale ohvitserile ettekannet teha / James Stavridis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stavridis, James, 1955-

    2013-01-01

    Endine NATO Euroopa liitlasvägede ülemjuhataja jagab nõuandeid mõjusa ja konstruktiivse ettekande kirjutamiseks ja selle esitlemiseks. Lisatud foto, kus kujutatud James Stavridise autasustamist president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese poolt

  3. Annual Narrative James River National Wildlife Refuge 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for James River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  4. Pertumbuhan Tunas Ubi Kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Genotipe Jame-jame secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Catur Nugroho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe continuous supply of true-to-type seedling through in vitro technique is very important for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. as the demand for seedlings is increasing. The research consisted of two experiments and they were conducted from February 2013 to February 2014. The first experiment was in vitro shoot multiplication to evaluate the effect of culture medium and single node position on growth and shoot multiplication of cassava Jame-jame genotype. This experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with two factors and four replications. The first factor was culture medium (MS0 and MSB3 and the second factor was single node positions used as explant (basal, middle, and top section of the stem. The result showed that middle section of the stem cultured on MS0 medium had the highest shoot height, number of leaves, and number of nodes. The second experiment was the acclimatization to evaluate the effect of culture period on the success of the acclimatization. This experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with culture period prior to acclimatization as treatment. The results showed that seedlings from period of 12 and 24 weeks after culture showed higher survival rates (80% than seedling from period of 36 and 48 weeks after culture (50 and 40%. Culture period prior to acclimatization had no significant effect on plant height and number of leaves.Keywords: BAP, culture period, single node position, shoot multiplication

  5. Renewable Heating and Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  6. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  7. Obituary: Michael James Ledlow, 1964-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puxley, Philip John; Grashuis, Randon M.

    2004-12-01

    Michael James Ledlow died on 5 June 2004 from a large, unsuspected brain tumor. Since 2000 he had been on the scientific staff of the Gemini Observatory in La Serena, Chile, initially as a Science Fellow and then as a tenure-track astronomer. Michael was born in Bartlesville, Oklahoma on 1 October 1964 to Jerry and Sharon Ledlow. He obtained his Bachelor Degree in astrophysics at the University of Oklahoma in 1987 and attended the University of New Mexico for his graduate work, obtaining his PhD while studying Galaxy Clusters under Frazer Owen in 1994. From 1995-1997 Michael held a postdoctoral position with Jack Burns at New Mexico State University where he used various astronomical facilities including the VLA and Apache Point Observatory to study distant galaxies. From 1998-2000 Michael rejoined the Physics and Astronomy Department at the University of New Mexico where he was a visiting professor until he moved on to Gemini. At the Gemini Observatory, Mike shared in the excitement, hard work and many long days and nights associated with bringing on-line a major new astronomical facility and its instrumentation. Following its commissioning he assisted visiting observers, supported and took data for many more remote users via the queue system, and for each he showed the same care and attention to detail evident in his own research to ensure that all got the best possible data. His research concentrated on the radio and optical properties of galaxy clusters, especially rich Abell clusters such as A2125, on luminous radio galaxies, including the detection of a powerful double radio source in the "wrong sort of galaxy," the spiral system 0313-192, and on EROs (extremely red objects), dusty galaxies barely detectable at optical wavelengths. Michael thoroughly enjoyed living in Chile and enthusiastically immersed himself in the culture of his surroundings. He and his family were actively involved with the International English Spanish Association in La Serena. He had a

  8. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Webb Consolidated Independent School District in Bruni, TX - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Webb Consolidated Independent School District (Webb CISD) in Bruni, TX. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effect...

  9. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James Gilbert Baker, renowned astronomer and optical physicist, died 29 June 2005 at his home in Bedford, New Hampshire at the age of 90. Although his scientific interest was astronomy, his extraordinary ability in optical design led to the creation of hundreds of optical systems that supported astronomy, aerial reconnaissance, instant photography (Polaroid SX70 camera), and the US space programs. He was the recipient of numerous awards for his creative work. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 11 November 1914, the fourth child of Jesse B. Baker and Hattie M. Stallard. After graduating from Louisville DuPont Manual High, he went on to attend the University of Louisville majoring in Mathematics. He became very close to an Astronomy Professor, Dr. Moore, and many times used his telescopes to do nightly observations. While at the university, he built mirrors for his own telescopes and helped form the Louisville Astronomical Society in 1933. At the University of Louisville, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Katherine Breitenstein of Jefferson County, Kentucky. He received his BA in 1935 at the height of the Depression. He began his graduate work in astronomy at the Harvard College Observatory. After his MA (1936), he was appointed a Junior Fellow (1937-1943) in the Prestigious Harvard Society of Fellows. He received his PhD in 1942 from Harvard in rather an unusual fashion, which is worth retelling. During an Astronomy Department dinner, Dr. Harlow Shapley (the director) asked him to give a talk. According to the "Courier-Journal Magazine", "Dr. Shapley stood up and proclaimed an on-the-spot departmental meeting and asked for a vote on recommending Baker for a Ph.D. on the basis of the 'oral exam' he had just finished. The vote was unanimous." It was at Harvard College Observatory during this first stage of his career that he collaborated with Donald H. Menzel, Lawrence H. Aller, and George H. Shortley on a landmark set of papers on the physical processes

  10. The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerk Maxwell, James; Niven, W. D.

    2011-01-01

    homogeneous quadratic functions; 57. On the focal lines of a refracted pencil; 58. An Essay on the mathematical principles of physics. By Rev. James Challis. (Review); 59. On Loschmidt's experiments on diffusion in relation to the kinetic theory of gases; 60. On the final state of a system of molecules in motion subject to forces of any kind; 61. Faraday; 62. Molecules (a lecture); 63. On double refraction in a viscous fluid in motion; 64. On Hamilton's characteristic function for a narrow beam of light; 65. On the relation of geometrical optics to other parts of mathematics and physics; 66. Plateau on soap-bubbles (Review); 67. Grove's Correlation of physical forces (Review); 68. On the application of Kirchhoff's rules for electric circuits to the solution of a geometric problem; 69. Van der Waals on the continuity of the gaseous and liquid states; 70. On the centre of motion of the eye; 71. On the dynamical evidence of the molecular constitution of bodies (a lecture); 72. On the application of Hamilton's characteristic function to the theory of an optical instrument symmetrical about its axis; 73. Atom; 74. Attraction; 75. On Bow's method of drawing diagrams in graphical statics with illustrations from Peaucellier's Linkage; 76. On the equilibrium of heterogeneous substances; 77. Diffusion of gases through absorbing substances; 78. General considerations concerning scientific apparatus; 79. Instruments connected with fluids; 80. Whewell's Writing and correspondence (Review); 81. On Ohm's Law; 82. On the protection of buildings from lightning; 83. Capillary action; 84. Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand Helmholtz; 85. On a paradox in the theory of attraction; 86. On approximate multiple integration between limits by summation; 87. On the unpublished electrical papers of the Hon. Henry Cavendish; 88. Constitution of bodies; 89. Diffusion; 90. Diagrams; 91. Tait's Thermo

  11. Obituary: James N. Kile, 1958-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliver, Edward W.; Lang, Kenneth R.; Willson, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    James N. Kile, of Needham Heights, Massachusetts, died on 17 August 2007, following a brave two-year battle with cancer. One of three children of David R. Kile and Betty Jane Kile, Jim was born in Niagara Falls, New York, on 20 April 1958 and lived in the nearby village of Lewiston before his family settled in Alden, an hour east of Niagara Falls, when Jim was nine. Jim's father worked for American Telephone and Telegraph for 37 years, and his mother was a homemaker. Jim earned his Bachelor's degree in Physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1980, a Master's degree from Northwestern University in 1982, and a Doctorate from Tufts University in 1996 under the direction of Robert Willson. His thesis involved comparison of radio data from the Very Large Array and the Russian RATAN 600 telescope with Yohkoh soft X-ray data, with an emphasis on understanding the relationship between solar noise storms and coronal magnetic fields. While working on his thesis, Jim collaborated with one of us (EWC) at the Air Force Research Laboratory on an investigation of the 154-day periodicity in solar flares. The resulting publication (ApJ 370, 442, 1991) is his most cited work. Jim co-authored four other papers in refereed journals. Jim's professional affiliations included the American Astronomical Society, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the American Geophysical Union, and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Jim worked as a contractor in the defense industry from 1982 until the time of his death, settling in the Boston area in the early 1980s. He worked for Calspan Corporation from 1982-1989, the Ultra Corporation from 1989-1994, and the Riverside Research Institute from 1994-2007. He was a highly-respected expert in radar systems, including radar data and systems analysis, systems engineering, and planning support for radar acquisition programs and technology development. The work entailed frequent extended travel to Norway for system testing

  12. Obituary: James Adolph Westphal, 1930-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, G. Edward

    2004-12-01

    James A. Westphal died September 8, 2004. He had battled a neurological disease related to Alzheimer's for the past year. He was 74. James A. Westphal was born in Dubuque, Iowa, on June 13, 1930. He was raised in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and in Little Rock, Arkansas. Westphal earned his bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Tulsa in 1954, a year after he went to work as geophysical research group leader at Sinclair Research Lab in Tulsa. Westphal first got into the business of scientific instrumentation right after high school, when he did well-logging in Texas and Gulf Coast oil fields. In fact, his work at Sinclair Research Labs involved devising unorthodox methods for oil discovery; one of his discoveries of a new way of processing seismic data first brought him to the attention of Caltech professor Hewitt Dix, who is often considered the father of exploration geophysics. Westphal arrived at Caltech initially on a four-month leave of absence to devise a data processor for Dix, but never left. He discovered that the academic freedom individual professors enjoy was amenable to his own predilections, so he soon began branching out to other areas of scientific investigation at Caltech. Before long, he had teamed up with Bruce Murray to do thermal infrared scans of the moon in order to see if humans could even walk on the lunar surface without sinking into the dusty soil. Westphal and Murray's work showed that rocky areas could be identified with the thermal imaging, which in turn led to the inference that the Apollo astronauts could safely walk on the soil without sinking. Westphal and Murray also teamed up to do the first infrared imaging of Venus and Jupiter. Other projects at Caltech led to Westphal's being hired on permanently by Bob Sharp, who at the time was the geology division chairman. In the following years, Westphal involved himself in novel ways of studying volcanism in Hawaii and Mount St. Helens. He invented a simple and very sensitive tilt meter

  13. Webb Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Prahl, Hampus

    2005-01-01

    I’ve built an Internet based administration front-end for the company Allt I Brand in Jamjö. Allt I Brand’s main goals are maintenance and sale of fire preventive equipment. This front-end is programmed mostly in PHP, connected to a MySQL database. Because both Allt I Brand’s main page and my administration front-end use the same database and the database is designed to virtually fit any type of company, the result is both dynamic and powerful. The front-end design is made to make it easy to ...

  14. King James II Stuart, Irish Elites and Patriot Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Kirill Nikolaevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the insufficiently studied episode of the “Glorious revolution” of 1688-1689, the political fight on Green Island. On the basis of historical sources, the author shows the main directions of Irish policy of last catholic king James II, who tried to fight for his lost British throne, because the majority of population of this catholic country remained loyal to his patron. The author pays special attention to investigating the policy of different ethnic groups represented in Patriot Parliament by their elites. There were two elite groups who supported king James II and tried to influence him: “Old English” aristocracy and “Old Irish” nobility. King’s own elite group also consisted of “New English” and “New Scots”, but during the “Glorious revolution” the majority of them supported the counterpart of king James II – William Orange. Basing the study on historical sources the author proves that eventually king James II had two groups of supporters: “Old English” and “native Irish”. The article is concerned with non-investigated problem of negotiations between king James II and Irish elites and analyses the demands of the last. The author proves that acts and decisions of patriot parliament were the Irish population’s answers to the program and suggestions of king James II and that the main concessions were given to “Old English” aristocracy. The demands of “Old Irish” in agrarian issue were mainly ignored. The Patriot Parliament based the foundations of Jacobite political regime in Ireland during the restoration rebellion of 1689-1691.

  15. Buckley-James Estimator of AFT Models with Auxiliary Covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granville, Kevin; Fan, Zhaozhi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the Buckley-James estimator of accelerated failure time models with auxiliary covariates. Instead of postulating distributional assumptions on the auxiliary covariates, we use a local polynomial approximation method to accommodate them into the Buckley-James estimating equations. The regression parameters are obtained iteratively by minimizing a consecutive distance of the estimates. Asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator are investigated. Simulation studies show that the efficiency gain of using auxiliary information is remarkable when compared to just using the validation sample. The method is applied to the PBC data from the Mayo Clinic trial in primary biliary cirrhosis as an illustration. PMID:25127479

  16. Restaurant Food Cooling Practices†

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, LAURA GREEN; RIPLEY, DANNY; BLADE, HENRY; REIMANN, DAVE; EVERSTINE, KAREN; NICHOLAS, DAVE; EGAN, JESSICA; KOKTAVY, NICOLE; QUILLIAM, DANIELA N.

    2017-01-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

  17. Adiabatic Cooling of Antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielse, G; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Kalra, R; Novitski, E; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Mullers, A; Walz, J

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic cooling is shown to be a simple and effective method to cool many charged particles in a trap to very low temperatures. Up to 3 x 10(6) (p) over bar are cooled to 3.5 K-10(3) times more cold (p) over bar and a 3 times lower (p) over bar temperature than previously reported. A second cooling method cools (p) over bar plasmas via the synchrotron radiation of embedded (p) over bar (with many fewer (p) over bar than (p) over bar) in preparation for adiabatic cooling. No (p) over bar are lost during either process-a significant advantage for rare particles.

  18. The Early Years of Watomika (James Bouchard): Delaware and Jesuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jay

    1989-01-01

    Publishes and critiques the 1855 autobiography of Jesuit Father James Bouchard, born and raised a Delaware named Watomika. Contains information about Watomika's family, genealogy, and early years; his conversion to Christianity; and Delaware religious beliefs and practices. Examines the literary and ethnographic merits of the autobiography. (SV)

  19. James Newton Howard: JAMs with TRI-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reninger, Rosemary D.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an interview with James Newton Howard, a film composer. Provides background information on Howard. Addresses topics such as his most challenging and rewarding scores, his musical background, and the benefits of being associated with the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP). (CMK)

  20. President Nixon at Hickam AFB congratulates Astronaut James Lovell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon and Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., Apollo 13 commander, shake hands at special ceremonies at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. President Nixon was in Hawaii to present the Apollo 13 crew with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor.

  1. Successful pregnancy outcome in Swyer-James-Macleod syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Seema

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Swyer-James-MacLeod (SJM syndrome is a chronic, progressive lung disease as a result of infection and bronchial obstruction that ultimately leads to emphysema. It is associated with chronic cough, sputum production and recurrent chest infections and is occasionally seen in women of reproductive age. The radiological finding of unilateral hyperlucent lung is considered synonymous with the disease entity.

  2. Keening Woman and Today: James Welch's Early Unpublished Novel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    It was most likely in the spring of 1966 that the late American Indian novelist James Welch wrote his first novel, predating his first published fiction by eight years. The titleless, hand-corrected typescript, stored in his Missoula home for many years, is 114 pages long and unfinished. The book is playful and experimental the way warm-ups…

  3. James Moir as Inorganic Chemist | Loyson | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James Moir was a pioneering chemist in the early 1900s who played a leading role in various chemical societies in South Africa. Although he was mainly an organic chemist, he also made contributions in the field of inorganic chemistry. His forays in this field deal with gold extraction using the new solvent thiourea, removal ...

  4. Making sense out of suffering: James 1:2-4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The logic of James 1:2-4 is examined. The argument is viewed as a syllogism, with the demonstrandum: 'The believer who experiences trials must be happy.' The proof of the argument runs as follows: If there are trials, then there is testing ( = refining) of faith. If there is testing ( = refining) of faith, then there is.

  5. History through Red Eyes: A Conversation with James Loewen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetty, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a conversation with James Loewen. Loewen is an author, historian, and professor. In a recent conversation with the author, he shared his views on how American Indian topics and events are traditionally taught and offered his insights into what teachers can do to accommodate multiple perspectives in their examination of…

  6. James Moffett's Mistake: Ignoring the Rational Capacities of the Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehower, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Using Alasdair MacIntyre's theory of tradition-bound rationalities, this essay analyses James Moffett's depiction of the censors who opposed his "Interactions" textbook series in the Kanawha County, West Virginia, schools. Many reviewers have found Moffett's analysis of the censors in "Storm in the Mountains" even-handed and…

  7. Astronaut James Lovell undergoes weight and balance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, undergoes weight and balance tests in the Pyrotechnic installation Building, Merritt Island. Talking with Lovell are (left to right) Charlie Beaty, McDonnell Aircraft Corporation; Karl Stoien, McDonnell Aircraft; NASA suit technician Al Rochford; and Norm Batterson, Weber Aircraft Corporation.

  8. A Final Glory: The Novels of James Salter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowie, William

    1988-01-01

    Critiques five novels by James Salter--THE HUNTERS, THE ARM OF FLESH, A SPORT AND A PASTIME, LIGHT YEARS, and SOLO FACES. Notes that Salter's works have been ignored by literary critics and the public though praised by other authors. (MM)

  9. Licence to Kill: About Accreditation Issues and James Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Ko

    2004-01-01

    Accreditation has become something of a hot topic in higher education. In Europe it has been described as a 'Licence to Kill'. The James Bond metaphor is particularly illustrative when reflecting on quality assurance challenges in higher education. Publications on this subject in recent years reveal that the array of issues associated with…

  10. The medium is the message : James Camerons "Avatar"

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchmeier, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Der Beitrag untersucht James Camerons Film Avatar (2009) hinsichtlich seiner medialen Implikationen. Die außerirdische Welt Pandora, die zunächst als mystische Einheit erscheint, erweist sich in der Analyse als eine Welt, in der die universale Medialität selbst zum Mythos geworden ist.

  11. RETRATO DEL ARTISTA JAMES JOYCE, ADOLESCENTE // A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST JAMES JOYCE AS A YOUNG MAN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mario Elkin Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    ... de Sinthoma y anudamiento a su estructura. // The contrast between some lessons in Seminar XXIII of Jacques Lacan with A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce, that was one of Lacan's sources, brings about how the work depicts...

  12. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  13. Henry James : portraits d'auteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Valtat-Comet, Nelly

    2016-01-01

    Il n'est guère de lieux ni de moments de son œuvre où James, « praticien exemplaire de la représentation », ne réaffirme sa conviction de la gémellité qui lie peinture et littérature. Témoin, sous sa plume, la polysémie constamment réexplorée du mot « portrait », qui appartient au vocabulaire technique de l'une et de l'autre discipline. Je voudrais ici porter ma réflexion sur les textes de James qui se réfèrent à la tradition du « portrait littéraire » ou portrait d'homme de lettres, et plus ...

  14. Die Another Day, James Bond's smoking over six decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Tucker, Anne

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to examine smoking-related content in all 24 James Bond movies in the Eon Productions series from 1962 to 2015. There were favourable downward trends for any smoking by James Bond (p=0.015 for trend), and for tobacco-related spy-gadgetry (p=0.009). Around 20% of Bond's 60 sexual partners smoked in each decade, and most recently in 2012. There were regular mentions of smoking risks to health (starting from 1967) and product placement of branded packs was present in two movies. Overall, the persisting smoking content remains problematic from a public health perspective, especially given the popularity of this movie series. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Reading C.L.R. James Reading Shakespeare | Frassinelli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One needs only to think, with respect to this, about James's lifelong engagement with Shakespeare. Not only did he write and lecture extensively on the latter, including for the BBC and Channel 4,1 but one of the two books that he had planned to write in the last decades of his life, and which he did not live to complete, was ...

  16. The James Connolly Memorial Hospital Electronic Menu Card system

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The James Connolly Memorial Hospital (JCM) require an Electronic Menu Card system so that their patients can choose their meals in a more informed and efficient manner. This entails presenting menus to the patients electronically and with an interface that will allow them to choose their meal. The electronic nature of such a system means more options can be incorporated in terms of language and presentation. In addition the system can be accessed anytime so the information will be available i...

  17. La racionalidad imperialista en la monumental obra de James Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Cuevas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo, parte de un trabajo más extenso sobre la dominación internacional en la economía mundial, revisa los procesos más relevantes para el análisis teórico tomando como referencia La historia de la India británica de James Mill, obra que es un hito en este campo y es la base de todas las teorías posteriores

  18. James Cahill and the Study of Chinese Painting’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaixin Hong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available James Cahill was a leading scholar in the field of Chinese painting studies through his influential teaching and most original and prolific writings. From a global, verbal, and visual perspective, this essay examines how significantly he has challenged and thereby enriched the extant art scholarships in China and the West, and what an enduring legacy he has left behind him in the art historiography.

  19. Temperature responsive cooling apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weker, M.L.; Stearns, R.M.

    1987-08-11

    A temperature responsive cooling apparatus is described for an air conditioner or refrigeration system in operative association with a reservoir of fluid, the air conditioner or refrigeration system having an air cooled coil and means for producing a current of air for cooling the coil, the temperature responsive cooling apparatus comprising: (a) means for transferring the fluid from the reservoir to the air conditioner temperature responsive cooling apparatus, (b) a fluid control device activated by the current of air for cooling the coil; (c) a temperature activated, nonelectrical device for terminating and initiating the flow of fluid therethrough in an intermittent fashion for enhancing the operability of the compressor associated with the refrigeration system and for reducing the quantity of fluid required to cool the coil of the refrigeration system, (d) a fluid treatment device for preventing, reducing or mitigating the deposition of nonevaporative components on the air cooled coil, and (e) means for dispersing the fluid to the air cooled coil from the fluid control device for cooling the coil and increasing the efficiency of the air conditioner thereby reducing the cost of operating and maintaining the air conditioner without damaging the air conditioner and without the deposition of nonevaporative components thereupon.

  20. A new species of Halipegus Looss, 1899 (Trematoda: Derogenidae) parasitic in Rana psilonota Webb, 2001 of Atenquique, Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Règagnon, Virginia; Romero-Mayén, Angeles R

    2013-12-01

    During an inventory of parasites of anurans in Occidental Mexico, an apparently undescribed species of Halipegus was found under the tongue of Rana psilonota Webb, 2001. The objective of this study is to describe this new species. Halipegus psilonotae differs from all other congeners by the combination of the following characters: parasite under the tongue of frogs, body size small, ventral sucker representing 0.19-0.2 of body length, ovary smaller than testes, egg filament short (27.5-40).

  1. Gas turbine cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  2. Evaporative Cooling Availability in Water Based Sensible Cooling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Costelloe, Ben; Finn, Donal

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments have prompted a review of evaporative cooling technology as an effective means of cooling modern deep plan buildings. Prominent among these developments is the success of high temperature sensible cooling systems, such as chilled ceilings, which require a supply of cooling water at 14 to 18°C. Crucial to the success of evaporative cooling technology, as a significant means of cooling in modern applications, is the ability to generate cooling water, in an indirect circuit, ...

  3. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  4. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, in a record-time of 9 months, the magnets of the g-2 experiment were modified and used to build a proton/antiproton storage ring: the "Initial Cooling Experiment" (ICE). It served for the verification of the cooling methods to be used for the "Antiproton Project". Stochastic cooling was proven the same year, electron cooling followed later. Also, with ICE the experimental lower limit for the antiproton lifetime was raised by 9 orders of magnitude: from 2 microseconds to 32 hours. For its previous life as g-2 storage ring, see 7405430. More on ICE: 7711282, 7809081, 7908242.

  5. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  6. Analgesic and Antioxidant Activities of Algerian Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Djeddi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Part of this work deals with t he isolation and structure elucidation of the main polar secondary metabolites of the aerial parts of Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel, as well as the evaluation of their potential analgesic properties , while the rest deals with the antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of roots, stem, fruits and flowers of the plant . It was found that the isoflavones g enistein 1, 6-hydroxygenistein 2, 3'-O-methylorobol 3, pratensein 4, biochanin A 8, the flavones 6-hydroxyapigenin 7 and luteolin 5, the flavonol kaempferol 6,as well as the phenolic compound p-coumaric acid 9 reduce significantly the pain at a concentration dose of 1 mg/kg. The most active compounds were 3 and 8 (86.19% and 75.23%, respectively. The obtained aqueous extracts of R. raetam were also evaluated for their antioxidant activities using two different photometric methods; the results revealed that all extracts exerted very low free radical scavenging activity compared to the well-known butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and lower hydrogen peroxide blocking activity than positive control gallic acid.

  7. Phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Descurainia sophia Webb ex Prantl: modern and traditional applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Nimrouzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seed of Descurainia sophia  Webb ex Prantl has been traditionally prescribed as treatment for palpitation, varicose vein, varicocele, constipation, hemorrhoid, skin eruptions, and impotence. To outline a view for further approaches, current work compiled a survey on all relevant clinical properties of this medicament in addition to the traditional reports. To do this, databases as PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, IranMedex and Science information databases (SID were searched by keywords, i.e., “Descurainia sophia”, “Khaksheer”, and “Flixweed” as well as “pharmacology” and “phytochemistry”. According to the findings, scant experimental evaluation and clinical assessment have been performed on this medicament. Of those, only anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects as well as antioxidant and anthelmintic activities were assessed and confirmed in experimental studies. Despite broad administration of this herb in folk and traditional medicine, only two human clinical trials in bowel discomfort and pregnant subjects were conducted. Taken as a whole, more comprehensive clinical evaluations should be conducted on respective applications to support those traditional and folk uses.

  8. Phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Descurainia sophia Webb ex Prantl: modern and traditional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Seed of Descurainia sophia Webb ex Prantl has been traditionally prescribed as treatment for palpitation, varicose vein, varicocele, constipation, hemorrhoid, skin eruptions, and impotence. To outline a view for further approaches, current work compiled a survey on all relevant clinical properties of this medicament in addition to the traditional reports. To do this, databases as PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, IranMedex and Science information databases (SID) were searched by keywords, i.e., "Descurainia sophia", "Khaksheer", and "Flixweed" as well as "pharmacology" and "phytochemistry". According to the findings, scant experimental evaluation and clinical assessment have been performed on this medicament. Of those, only anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects as well as antioxidant and anthelmintic activities were assessed and confirmed in experimental studies. Despite broad administration of this herb in folk and traditional medicine, only two human clinical trials in bowel discomfort and pregnant subjects were conducted. Taken as a whole, more comprehensive clinical evaluations should be conducted on respective applications to support those traditional and folk uses.

  9. Celebrating 30 years of science from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Ian; Friberg, Per

    2017-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) has been the world’s most successful single-dish telescope at submillimetre wavelengths since it began operations in 1987. From the pioneering days of single-element photometers and mixers, through to the state-of-the-art imaging and spectroscopic cameras, the JCMT has been associated with a number of major scientific discoveries. Famous for the discovery of ‘SCUBA’ galaxies, which are responsible for a large fraction of the far-infrared background, the JCMT has pushed the sensitivity limits arguably more than any other facility in this most difficult of wavebands in which to observe. Closer to home, the first images of huge discs of cool debris around nearby stars gave us clues to the evolution of planetary systems, further evidence of the importance of studying astrophysics in the submillimetre region. Now approaching the 30th anniversary of the first observations, the telescope continues to carry out unique and innovative science. In this review article, we look back on some of the major scientific highlights from the past 30 years. PMID:28989775

  10. Celebrating 30 years of science from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Ian; Holland, Wayne S.; Friberg, Per

    2017-09-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) has been the world's most successful single-dish telescope at submillimetre wavelengths since it began operations in 1987. From the pioneering days of single-element photometers and mixers, through to the state-of-the-art imaging and spectroscopic cameras, the JCMT has been associated with a number of major scientific discoveries. Famous for the discovery of `SCUBA' galaxies, which are responsible for a large fraction of the far-infrared background, the JCMT has pushed the sensitivity limits arguably more than any other facility in this most difficult of wavebands in which to observe. Closer to home, the first images of huge discs of cool debris around nearby stars gave us clues to the evolution of planetary systems, further evidence of the importance of studying astrophysics in the submillimetre region. Now approaching the 30th anniversary of the first observations, the telescope continues to carry out unique and innovative science. In this review article, we look back on some of the major scientific highlights from the past 30 years.

  11. Celebrating 30 years of science from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Ian; Holland, Wayne S; Friberg, Per

    2017-09-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) has been the world's most successful single-dish telescope at submillimetre wavelengths since it began operations in 1987. From the pioneering days of single-element photometers and mixers, through to the state-of-the-art imaging and spectroscopic cameras, the JCMT has been associated with a number of major scientific discoveries. Famous for the discovery of 'SCUBA' galaxies, which are responsible for a large fraction of the far-infrared background, the JCMT has pushed the sensitivity limits arguably more than any other facility in this most difficult of wavebands in which to observe. Closer to home, the first images of huge discs of cool debris around nearby stars gave us clues to the evolution of planetary systems, further evidence of the importance of studying astrophysics in the submillimetre region. Now approaching the 30th anniversary of the first observations, the telescope continues to carry out unique and innovative science. In this review article, we look back on some of the major scientific highlights from the past 30 years.

  12. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still

  13. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  14. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  15. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  16. INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring (see 7405430). Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project. Stochastic cooling proved a resounding success early in 1978 and the antiproton project could go ahead, now entirely based on stochastic cooling. Electron cooling was experimented with in 1979. The 26 kV equipment is housed in the cage to the left of the picture, adjacent to the "e-cooler" located in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7809081.

  17. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, in a record time of 9 months, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring. Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project, to be launched in 1978. Already early in 1978, stochastic cooling proved a resounding success, such that the antiproton (p-pbar)project was entirely based on it. Tests of electron cooling followed later: protons of 46 MeV kinetic energy were cooled with an electron beam of 26 kV and 1.3 A. The cage seen prominently in the foreground houses the HV equipment, adjacent to the "cooler" installed in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7908242.

  18. Conversation between Rock Photographer James Fortune and Grant Scott

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Back in the 1970s, in the aftermath of political, civil, and sexual revolution all over the world, photographer James Fortune plied his trade in the backstages and VIP sections of some of the nation’s biggest music events.\\ud \\ud Beginning in his college days in the late ’60s, Fortune spent more than a decade photographing rock’n’roll icons such as Mick Jagger, Paul McCartney, Robert Plant, Jim Morrison, Elton John and countless others. His catalog of over 15,000 images from the tumultuous ’6...

  19. James Drake (1667-1707): Anatomist and political activist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Rompala, Olivia; Verma, Ketan; Malakpour, Mehran; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Mortazavi, Martin M; Loukas, Marios

    2012-04-01

    James Drake (1667-1707) was a renowned physician, anatomist, and writer whose name was recognized throughout London. He was highly involved in the politics of his time and was a well-known pamphleteer. He also delved into comedies and plays. Drake became a fellow of the Royal Society and the College of Physicians before his early death at 40 years of age. He authored one of the most deservedly popular medical treatises of his time, Anthropologia Nova, which remained a valuable resource to physicians and anatomists alike for decades. The present article reviews the contributions of this little known name in the history of anatomy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. James Van Allen The First Eight Billion Miles

    CERN Document Server

    Foerstner, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Astrophysicist and space pioneer James Van Allen (1914-2006), for whom the Van Allen radiation belts were named, was among the principal scientific investigators for twenty-four space missions, including Explorer I in 1958, the first successful U.S. satellite; Mariner 2's 1962 flyby of Venus, the first successful mission to another planet; and the 1970's Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11, missions that surveyed Jupiter and Saturn. Abigail Foerstner blends space science, drama, military agenda's, cold war politics, and the events of Van Allen's lengthy career to create the first biography of this highl

  1. Compensation and translation: James Ellroy’s White Jazz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Protopopescu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper explores the Romanian translation of James Ellroy’s text “White Jazz”, with a view to explaining away the translator’s choices. The main issues at hand are the solutions provided for the ellipsis present throughout the novel and the slang used by the author, which is typical of L.A.’s ’60’s. The paper provides theoretical data supporting the translator’s choice of rendering certain slang expressions by paraphrase, explanation or even coinage of new words. We also look into how much has been compensated for and what was lost during the process of translation.

  2. James F. Crow and the Art of Teaching and Mentoring

    OpenAIRE

    Hartl, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    To honor James F. Crow on the occasion of his 95th birthday, GENETICS has commissioned a series of Perspectives and Reviews. For GENETICS to publish the honorifics is fitting, as from their birth Crow and GENETICS have been paired. Crow was scheduled to be born in January 1916, the same month that the first issue of GENETICS was scheduled to appear, and in the many years that Crow has made major contributions to the conceptual foundations of modern genetics, GENETICS has chronicled his and ot...

  3. James Baldwin: Biographical Dispatches on a Freedom Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Luke Sinitiere

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the idea of James Baldwin as a freedom writer, the organizing idea of my biography in progress. As a freedom writer, Baldwin was a revolutionary intellectual, an essayist and novelist committed unfailingly to the realization of racial justice, interracial political equality, and economic democracy. While the book is still in process, this short essay narrates autobiographically how I came to meet and know Baldwin’s work, explains in critical fashion my work in relation to existing biographies, and reflects interpretively my thoughts-in- progress on this fascinating and captivating figure of immense historical and social consequence.

  4. "Perplexed in the extreme": The Holt-James controversy of 1902.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinski, Edward J

    2017-08-01

    Although William James never again reprised his lectures on psychology for teachers at Harvard, he spent most of the 1890s presenting them throughout the country. For all his complaints about them, this was a fine source of income and he used the opportunity to revise and refine them over the rest of the decade. By the end of the 1890s, he was prepared to put the talks down in book form, and turned to his long-time publisher, Henry Holt. The two men first became acquainted with each other when James agreed to write a volume for Holt's American Science series. Their relationship, however, did not always result in smooth interactions. The monetary side of the agreement rankled James, and in 1902 more trouble ensued. Holt referred to the events of 1902 as the unhappiest of his professional and personal life. Perhaps to preserve James's public image, two prominent early biographies (Perry's [1935] The Thought and Character of William James, and Henry James III's [1920] Letters of William James) made no mention of the incident. In the final analysis, it is ironic that this little volume, based upon lectures James had initially been reluctant to give, and whose value James had so often downplayed, had caused more than its share of drama. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  6. Modelling of active layer thickness evolution on James Ross Island in 2006-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Uxa, Tomáš

    2017-04-01

    Antarctic Peninsula region has been considered as one of the most rapidly warming areas on the Earth. However, the recent studies (Turner et al., 2016; Oliva et al., 2017) showed that significant air temperature cooling began around 2000 and has continued until present days. The climate cooling led to reduction of active layer thickness in several parts of Antarctic Peninsula region during decade 2006-2015, but the information about spatiotemporal variability of active layer thickness across the region remains largely incoherent due to lack of active layer temperature data from deeper profiles. Valuable insights into active layer thickness evolution in Antarctic Peninsula region can be, however, provided by thermal modelling techniques. These have been widely used to study the active layer dynamics in different regions of Arctic since 1990s. By contrast, they have been employed much less in Antarctica. In this study, we present our first results from two equilibrium models, the Stefan and Kudryavtsev equations, that were applied to calculate the annual active layer thickness based on ground temperature data from depth of 5 cm on one site on James Ross Island, Eastern Antarctic Peninsula, in period 2006/07 to 2014/15. Study site (Abernethy Flats) is located in the central part of the major ice-free area of James Ross Island called Ulu Peninsula. Monitoring of air temperature 2 m above ground surface and ground temperature in 50 cm profile began on January 2006. The profile was extended under the permafrost table down to 75 cm in February 2012, which allowed precise determination of active layer thickness, defined as a depth of 0°C isotherm, in period 2012 to 2015. The active layer thickness in the entire observation period was reconstructed using the Stefan and Kudryavtsev models, which were driven by ground temperature data from depth of 5 cm and physical parameters of the ground obtained by laboratory analyses (moisture content and bulk density) and calculations

  7. Effects of Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel. (Fabaceae on the central nervous system in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tubuly Rida A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel. (Fabaceae, commonly known as ‘raetam’ or ‘broom bush’, is a desert shrub that grows abundantly in North-African countries, Palestine and Syria. Traditionally, this plant has been used as an abortifacient, a purgative and a vermifuge. In the present study, the effect of the methanol (MeOH extract of the aerial parts of R. raetam on the central nervous system (CNS has been evaluated using a mice model. In the photoelectrical cell test, the extract of R. raetam (ERR at a dose of 125 mg/kg body weight did not exhibit any effect on the spontaneous motor activity in mice. At a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, ERR increased ambulatory movement, but had no effect on the non-ambulatory movement, while a dose of 375 mg/kg body weight decreased both ambulatory and non-ambulatory movements. The effect of ERR on the anxiety levels and behaviors of mice was investigated using the elevated plus-maze test. At doses of 125, 250 and 375 mg/kg body weight, ERR decreased anxiety levels without showing an effect on the total activity; it did not affect anxiety levels but increased the total activity; it increased anxiety levels and decreased the total activity, respectively. In the diazepam-induced sleep test, ERR increased the onset of sleep without affecting the duration of sleep at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight. The dose of 375 mg/kg body weight decreased the onset of sleep while increasing the duration of sleep. ERR did not exhibit any effect on the diazepam-induced sleep in the presence of flumazenil or picrotoxin.

  8. James Weldon Johnson and the Speech Lab Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Mustazza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On December 24, 1935, James Weldon Johnson read thirteen of his poems at Columbia University, in a recording session engineered by Columbia Professor of Speech George W. Hibbitt and Barnard colleague Professor W. Cabell Greet, pioneers in the field that became sociolinguistics. Interested in American dialects, Greet and Hibbitt used early sound recording technologies to preserve dialect samples. In the same lab where they recorded T.S. Eliot, Gertrude Stein, and others, James Weldon Johnson read a selection of poems that included several from his seminal collection God’s Trombones and some dialect poems. Mustazza has digitized these and made them publicly available in the PennSound archive. In this essay, Mustazza contextualizes the collection, considering the recordings as sonic inscriptions alongside their textual manifestations. He argues that the collection must be heard within the frames of its production conditions—especially its recording in a speech lab—and that the sound recordings are essential elements in an hermeneutic analysis of the poems. He reasons that the poems’ original topics are reframed and refocused when historicized and contextualized within the frame of The Speech Lab Recordings.

  9. Bioclimatic lessons from James C. Rose's architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vissilia, A.M. [Department of Structural Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Kodrou 13, 105 58 Athens (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    This paper attempts to interpret three residences designed by landscape architect James Rose, focusing on their bioclimatic concepts (layout of the buildings: orientation in relation to sun and wind, geometry of the building form; spacing: site planning-landscape; air movement; openings: size, position and orientation, protection; and building envelope: choice of building materials and construction detailing). James Rose (1913-1991) was one of the three pioneer landscape architects who established modern landscape design in the United States. He had the opportunity to design three residences and their landscapes which constitute the clearest expression of his views about environmental design. Residences conceived in Rose's design philosophy result to the creation of an ''environment'' instead of the ordinary approach of architecture plus landscape, exhibiting his contribution to the development of a less aggressive architecture, more attentive and integrated to the environment. This is a rare approach where the design is product of one single mind that of the landscape architect. Several bioclimatic concepts are apparent in the landscape architect's works, showing a deep concern with the integration between construction and environment. The three cases explored are: the landscape architect's environment (1952, 1970), the Zheutlin environment (1956), and the Slutzker environment (1964). (author)

  10. Film-Induced Tourism in the Way of Saint James

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrezia Lopez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper proposes an analytical approach to the study of the phenomenon of the film-induced pilgrimage tourism, along one of the most historical and relevant European cultural route: the Way of St. James or Camino de Santiago.In the present study, and in order to point out the relation between film broadcast and film-induced tourism, we combine the review of the Jacobean cinema with the statistical analysis of the pilgrims arrived to Santiago de Compostela during the last decade. So, our main aim is to analyse the repercussion of the Jacobean Cinema in the attractiveness of the Way of St. James as tourism destination. We take into consideration the role of the film producers and we also ponder on the marketing policies of the Autonomous Community, which are aimed at promoting the pilgrim’s routes, the Cathedral and the city of Santiago de Compostela. The cinema has played a less important role until now, in comparison with the impact of travel guides and the Jacobean literature, but it is increasing its impact in the international tourism markets. Recently, the American film The Way can be considered to be the first promoter of the film-induced tourism, because the arrivals of pilgrims from USA have been increased after the broadcast of this film since 2010.

  11. Uncovering Cinematic Adaptations of James Joyce’s The Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Marandi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between literature and film is the subject of plentiful analyses and reflections within the general framework of Comparative Literature. A comparison between a literary work and its adaptations shows how filmmakers adhere to the principles of intertextuality. Exploring various adaptations of James Joyce’s The Dead (1914 and comparing them against each other are the main objectives of this research. This study examines how John Huston (1987, Travis Mills and William Ivey Long (2013 adapted James Joyce’s The Dead (1914 culturally, geopolitically, and sociologically. This study demonstrated that Huston’s adaptation was faithful to Joyce’s text in terms of character, costume, culture, and language, whereas Mills and Long’s adaptation was not fully loyal to Joyce especially in terms of character and culture. However, Mills and Long have attempted to create a language similar to Joyce’s. Further, consciousness and interior thoughts as subtle issues precisely shown in the novel were not illustrated wholly in both adaptations. Huston’s creativity was maintained in the last scene, picturing Gabriel’s monologue, whereas Mills and Long’s creativity was shown in creating new postmodern characters and culture.

  12. Indirect evaporative cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, M.J.; Chapman, H.L.; Pescod, D.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics and applications of three indirect evaporative cooling systems are described. The rock bed regenerative unit is now in licensed production and some operational experience is available, while the plastic plate heat exchanger unit has been demonstrated to be effective. A third system, based on a rotary heat exchanger is included. Although less development has been done on it, several successful applications of the heat exchanger are operational. All systems provide comfort cooling in which building indoor temperature varies over the day at an operating cost less than 50% of that of a comparable refrigerated cooling system.

  13. Cryogenic generator cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, P. W.; Fagan, T. J.; Parker, J. H., Jr.; Long, L. J.; Shestak, E. J.; Calfo, R. M.; Hannon, W. F.; Brown, D. B.; Barkell, J. W.; Patterson, A.

    The concept for a hydrogen cooled aluminum cryogenic generator was presented by Schlicher and Oberly in 1985. Following their lead, this paper describes the thermal design of a high voltage dc, multimegawatt generator of high power density. The rotor and stator are cooled by saturated liquid and supercritical hydrogen, respectively. The brushless exciter on the same shaft is also cooled by liquid hydrogen. Component development testing is well under way and some of the test results concerning the thermohydraulic performance of the conductors are reported. The aluminum cryogenic generator's characteristics are attractive for hydrogen economy applications.

  14. LHC cooling gains ground

    CERN Multimedia

    Huillet-Miraton Catherine

    The nominal cryogenic conditions of 1.9 K have been achieved in sectors 5-6 and 7-8. This means that a quarter of the machine has reached the nominal conditions for LHC operation, having attained a temperature of below 2 K (-271°C), which is colder than interstellar space! Elsewhere, the cryogenic system in Sector 8-1 has been filled with liquid helium and cooled to 2K and will soon be available for magnet testing. Sectors 6-7 and 2-3 are being cooled down and cool-down operations have started in Sector 3-4. Finally, preparations are in hand for the cool-down of Sector 1-2 in May and of Sector 4-5, which is currently being consolidated. The LHC should be completely cold for the summer. For more information: http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/Cooldown_status.htm.

  15. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  16. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  17. RETRATO DEL ARTISTA JAMES JOYCE, ADOLESCENTE // A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST JAMES JOYCE AS A YOUNG MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Elkin Ramírez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La confrontación de algunas lecciones del Seminario XXIII de Jacques Lacan con El retrato del artista adolescente de James Joyce, que fue una de las fuentes de Lacan, da por resultado sorprendente cómo la obra plasma a Joyce adolescente, encontrando los anudamientos allí donde la forclusión del Nombre del Padre no le permitía responder y podría dar lugar a desenganches que lo harían desencadenar su psicosis. No obstante, con su obra iba construyendo poco a poco una obra que le sirvió de Sinthoma y anudamiento a su estructura. // The contrast between some lessons in Seminar XXIII of Jacques Lacan with A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce, that was one of Lacan's sources, brings about how the work depicts Joyce as a young man, finding the knottings where the foreclosure of the Name of the Father did not allow him to respond and could lead to some detachments that would trigger his psychosis. Nevertheless, with his work he was gradually building a work that was useful as Sinthome and knotting of his structure.

  18. Cooling tower waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

    1998-05-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

  19. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  20. Stacking with Stochastic Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles seen by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly protected from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently shielded against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 105, the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters)....

  1. Cool Flame Quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Cool flame quenching distances are generally presumed to be larger than those associated with hot flames, because the quenching distance scales with the inverse of the flame propagation speed, and cool flame propagation speeds are often times slower than those associated with hot flames. To date, this presumption has never been put to a rigorous test, because unstirred, non-isothermal cool flame studies on Earth are complicated by natural convection. Moreover, the critical Peclet number (Pe) for quenching of cool flames has never been established and may not be the same as that associated with wall quenching due to conduction heat loss in hot flames, Pe approx. = 40-60. The objectives of this ground-based study are to: (1) better understand the role of conduction heat loss and species diffusion on cool flame quenching (i.e., Lewis number effects), (2) determine cool flame quenching distances (i.e, critical Peclet number, Pe) for different experimental parameters and vessel surface pretreatments, and (3) understand the mechanisms that govern the quenching distances in premixtures that support cool flames as well as hot flames induced by spark-ignition. Objective (3) poses a unique fire safety hazard if conditions exist where cool flame quenching distances are smaller than those associated with hot flames. For example, a significant, yet unexplored risk, can occur if a multi-stage ignition (a cool flame that transitions to a hot flame) occurs in a vessel size that is smaller than that associated with the hot quenching distance. To accomplish the above objectives, a variety of hydrocarbon-air mixtures will be tested in a static reactor at elevated temperature in the laboratory (1g). In addition, reactions with chemical induction times that are sufficiently short will be tested aboard NASA's KC-135 microgravity (mu-g) aircraft. The mu-g results will be compared to a numerical model that includes species diffusion, heat conduction, and a skeletal kinetic mechanism

  2. 75 FR 9904 - James A. Holland; Denial of Hearing; Final Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration James A. Holland; Denial of Hearing; Final Debarment Order...) is denying James A. Holland's request for a hearing and is issuing an order under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) debarring Holland for 5 years from providing services in any capacity...

  3. 76 FR 65112 - James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Part 104 RIN 1105-AB39 James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 AGENCY: Department of... regulations implementing the amendments made by the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010... was killed as a result of the terrorist-related aircraft crashes of September 11, 2001, or the debris...

  4. James Joyce kui religiooni subjekt ja objekt / Kalle Käsper

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käsper, Kalle, 1952-

    2003-01-01

    Arvustus: Joyce, James. Dublinlased : [novellid] / inglise keelest tõlkinud Jaak Rähesoo. 2. tr. [Tallinn] : Varrak, 2003 ; Joyce, James. Kunstniku noorpõlveportree : [romaan] / inglise keelest tõlkinud [ja järelsõna:] Jaak Rähesoo. [Tallinn] : Varrak, 2003; vt ka vastukaja: Raudam, Toomas. Kontra Käsper // Sirp (2003) 20. juuni, lk. 5

  5. Exploring William James's Radical Empiricism and Relational Ontologies for Alternative Possibilities in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    In "A Pluralistic Universe," James argues that the world we experience is more than we can describe. Our theories are incomplete, open, and imperfect. Concepts function to try to shape, organize, and describe this open, flowing universe, while the universe continually escapes beyond our artificial boundaries. For James and myself, the…

  6. 75 FR 11575 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant... Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979,'' issued to Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP...

  7. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... petitioners'') has requested that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant...

  8. Op zoek naar James Bond: media-pelgrimages, fans en masculiniteit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, S.

    2009-01-01

    Visiting the settings of popular films and tv series has become a growing niche in the tourist market. Little is known about what makes these visits so appealing. This question is explored on the basis of the case of James Bond. Twenty-three interviews were conducted with James Bond fans who had

  9. Jame al- Tamsil and Its Etymology and the Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Zolfaghari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract Jame-al-Tamsil book written by Mohammad Ali Hableh Rudy (Live 1054 including the most ancient persian Proverbs and contains the most pure Persian proverbs which had great reader and moral story book during four centuries so more than fifty times is published. This valuable and benefit book with mixing the allegory and poetry with a verse and the Hadith take the story sweet for reader. Author tries to Nurture or change the story to make it sweet and beautiful. In this paper after the introduction of the author and book and his style we will mention his DP Story methods then we say the base of story. hableh rudy at this book used 150 stroy for proverbs that at this paper we found sources of 107 story and we refere to them and we note their differences. Â

  10. James McHenry, MD: physician, patriot, politician and poet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Allen D; Kavaler, Florence

    2003-08-01

    James McHenry emigrated from Ireland to the American colonies in 1771. He studied medicine with Dr. Benjamin Rush in Philadelphia and immediately volunteered as an Army surgeon when the Revolutionary War began. After serving in the medical department in Massachusetts, New York and at Valley Forge in Pennsylvania, he became an aide to General George Washington and subsequently an aide to the Marquis de Lafayette. President Washington appointed McHenry Secretary of War and he continued in that post under president John Adams. While Secretary, he revised military regulations, established a professional standing Army, pacified the Indians, enlarged the naval forces, organized the armed forces under civilian authority and initiated plans for a military academy. Baltimore's Fort Whetstone was renamed Fort McHenry in his honor. During the War of 1812, Fort McHenry gained fame as the birthplace of the national anthem of the United States.

  11. James Clerk Maxwell's class of 1856/57

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, John S

    2015-01-01

    James Clerk Maxwell is known for his outstanding contributions to fundamental physics. These include providing the equations that govern electric and magnetic fields, establishing the basis of modern colourimetry, finding important relationships in thermodynamics, molecular science, mechanics, optics and astronomy. In his first Professorial chair in 1856 at the Marischal College and University of Aberdeen he undertook a substantial amount of teaching that laid the foundation for his later pedagogic output. This paper examines whom he taught, where his first students came from and what they did in later life, drawing material from a privately published memoir. Thumbnail portraits are included for 70% of his class. The analysis complements the usual emphasis on educational method and content. The data provide an interesting sociological survey of what Scottish University education was achieving in the middle of the 19th century and is presented as raw material for a wider enquiry.

  12. Assimilating American Indians in James Fenimore Cooper’s Novels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peprník Michal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article employs critical concepts from sociology and anthropology to examine the stereotype of the Vanishing Indian and disclose its contradictory character. The article argues that in James Fenimore Cooper’s late novels from the 1840s a type of American Indian appears who can be regarded as a Vanishing Indian in many respects as he displays some slight degree of assimilation but at the same time he can be found to reveal a surprising amount of resistance to the process of vanishing and marginalization. His peculiar mode of survival and his mode of living demonstrate a certain degree of acculturation, which comes close to Gerald Vizenor’s survivance and for which I propose a term critical integration. I base my study on Susquesus (alias Trackless, Cooper’s less well-known character from The Littlepage Manuscripts, a three-book family saga.

  13. The scientific papers of James Clerk Maxwell, vol.I

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, James Clerk

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest theoretical physicists of the 19th century, James Clerk Maxwell is best known for his studies of the electromagnetic field. The 101 scientific papers of this two-volume set, arranged chronologically, testify to Maxwell's profound scientific legacy and include the preliminary explorations that culminated in his most famous work, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. One of the nineteenth century's most significant papers, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field," appears here, along with similarly influential expositions of Maxwell's dynamical theory of gases. The author's extensive range of interests is well represented, from his discussions of color blindness and the composition of Saturn's rings to his essays on geometrical optics, ether, and protecting buildings from lightning. His less technical writings are featured as well, including items written for the Encyclopedia Britannica and Nature magazine, book reviews, and popular lectures. Striking in their originality, these ...

  14. [Dr James Lovelock and story about GAIA hypothesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajić, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Gaia is the Anglo-Saxon term for the Hellenic term Gea or Ge, which means Earth. The GAIA hypothesis was launched almost 40 years ago by the famous chemist James Lovelock, who was engaged by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to create a sensitive instrument for searching forms of extraterrestrial life on other planets. Then he published the book The ages of GAIA, which perturbed the world's scientific public of those days. Lovelock struck upon this idea in the late sixties of the past century, during the space race with Russians, when he was hired hy the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to conduct a series of experiments to find and explore life forms on the planet Mars. Experiments executed by the American module Viking failed to trace any life form, as Lovelock had predicted. He called it a dead equilibrium. Then he turned to Earth, whose perspective is totally different from its first neighbors. Venus and Mars, and is far from a dead equilibrium. DAISYWORLD: In this hypothesis. Lovelock represents Earth as one living, giant super organism, composed of all living creatures and its material environnent. In that super organisnm, the level of oxygen, weather conditions, ocean salinity and so on are under constant influence of physical, chemical and biological processes, which provide the existence for such life forms on Earth. Dr James Lovelock represents a pioneer of climatology, and his hypothesis gives a unique insight into the correlation of dynamic processes on our planet, no matter whether they are of physical or biological nature.

  15. Movements of boreal caribou in the James Bay lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Hazell

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the movements and home range of boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus in the James Bay lowlands, northern Ontario. Our preliminary study involves the use of GPS collars with Argos satellite system uplink to monitor movements of caribou and 10 animals were collared in December 2004. Animals appeared to have reduced rates of daily movement starting approximately in mid to late December and stretching until late February. Similarly, most animals appeared to have very reduced rates of movement from the beginning of May to the end of June indicating that this is their calving period (includes both parturition as well as the period immediately after parturition. Thus the over-wintering range was assumed to be where the animals were from mid-December to late February and the calving range was defined as the area they were in from the beginning of May to the end of June. Individual home-ranges were typically large, the mean 90% kernel home range for 2004 - 2007 was 41 579 km2. Over wintering areas and calving areas were small when compared to annual home-range size and reflect the reduced rates of movement during these time periods. Female caribou show site fidelity to calving grounds, using the same core areas year after year. However, the same level of site fidelity was not observed in over-wintering areas. The caribou in the James Bay lowlands display behaviours that are characteristic of both the forest-tundra and forest-forest ecotypes which may warrant the reconsideration of the validity of proposed ecotypes with respect to protection under species-at-risk legislation.

  16. Physiology as the antechamber to metaphysics: the young William James's hope for a philosophical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, P J

    1999-11-01

    In the 5 years before 1878, when his career in psychology was becoming established, William James wrote a series of notes and reviews assessing the work of many of the pioneers in the new field. Adopting a public and confident voice, even while he was privately still uncertain and searching, James criticized the dogmatism of positivist and idealist claims to the study of the human brain and mind. In his short writings of 1873-1877, James started to formulate his own middle path. His first steps on that path show that he did not reject either scientific or philosophic inquiry; instead, he viewed scientific knowledge as a way to understand philosophical questions more deeply. Saving his sharpest critiques for positivism, James endorsed scientific investigation without materialist assmptions. While his career in psychology was still only a hope, James treated science as a means toward humanist insight.

  17. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  18. Solenoidal ionization cooling lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Fernow

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore a practical approach for designing ionization cooling channels with periodic solenoidal focusing. We examine the lattice characteristics in terms of the properties of the coils and the cell geometry. The peak magnetic field in the coils is an important engineering constraint in lattice design. We examine the dependence of the peak field, momentum passband locations, and the beta function on the coil parameters. We make a systematic examination of all allowed lattice configurations taking into account the symmetry properties of the current densities and the beta function. We introduce a unique classification for comparing cooling lattice configurations. While solutions with a single coil per cell illustrate most of the effects that are important for cooling channel design, the introduction of additional coils allows more flexibility in selecting the lattice properties. We look at example solutions for the problem of the initial transverse cooling stage of a neutrino factory or muon collider and compare our results with the properties of some published cooling lattice designs. Scaling laws are used to compare solutions from different symmetry classes.

  19. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  20. Muon ionization cooling experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    A neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly leptonic CP violation. It is also the first step towards muon colliders. The performance of this new and promising line of accelerators relies heavily on the concept of ionisation cooling of minimum ionising muons, for which much R&D is required. The concept of a muon ionisation cooling experiment has been extensively studied and first steps are now being taken towards its realisation by a joint international team of accelerator and particle physicists. The aim of the workshop is to to explore at least two versions of an experiment based on existing cooling channel designs. If such an experiment is feasible, one shall then select, on the basis of effectiveness, simplicity, availability of components and overall cost, a design for the proposed experiment, and assemble the elements necessary to the presentation of a proposal. Please see workshop website.

  1. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.; AHRENS,L.; BRENNAN,M.; HARRISON,M.; KEWISCH,J.; MACKAY,W.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SATOGATA,T.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    2001-06-18

    We introduce plans for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This project has a number of new features as electron coolers go: It will cool 100 GeV/nucleon ions with 50 MeV electrons; it will be the first attempt to cool a collider at storage-energy; and it will be the first cooler to use a bunched beam and a linear accelerator as the electron source. The linac will be superconducting with energy recovery. The electron source will be based on a photocathode gun. The project is carried out by the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics.

  2. How cool is Uchimizu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcerova, Anna; van Emmerik, Tim; Hilgersom, Koen; van de Ven, Frans; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) was first described 200 years ago, but ways to mitigate heat in urban areas reach much further into the past. Uchimizu is a 17th century Japanese tradition, in which water is sprinkled around houses, temples, and in gardens to cool the ground surface and the air, and to settle the dust. Nowadays, megacities such as Tokyo are aiming to revive the - by modern technology suppressed - method, and uchimizu is promoted by local authorities as a "clever way to feel cool". Unfortunately, the number of published studies that have quantified the cooling effects of uchimizu is limited, and only uses measurements of the surface temperature, or air temperature at a single height, as a measure of the cooling effect. In this research a dense 3D Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) setup was used to measure air temperature within once cubic meter of air above an urban surface with high spatial and temporal resolution. Six experiments were performed to systematically study the effect of (1) applied water amount, (2) initial surface temperature, and (3) shading on the cooling effect of uchimizu. We present the results and the subsequent analyses of these experiments, done during summer in Delft, The Netherlands. We show that this simple water sprinkling method has the potential to decrease extreme temperatures in impervious and paved parts of urban areas considerably. Besides mitigating the UHI, uchimizu practice is also an opportunity to increase awareness among citizens, and stimulate citizen participation in solving heat stress problems and energy saving. By providing refreshing insights on the cooling effect of uchimizu, we aim to contribute to the modern revival of this old tradition.

  3. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  4. 75 FR 14637 - James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP) located in Oswego County... related to operation of James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant Power Authority of the State of New York...

  5. Elementary stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  6. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  7. Cooling of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorian H.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the theoretical basis for modeling the cooling evolution of compact stars starting from Boltzmann equations in curved space-time. We open a discussion on observational verification of different neutron star models by consistent statistics. Particular interest has the question of existence of quark matter deep inside of compact object, which has to have a specific influence on the cooling history of the star. Besides of consideration of several constraints and features of cooling evolution, which are susceptible of being critical for internal structure of hot compact stars we have introduced a method of extraction of the mass distribution of the neutron stars from temperature and age data. The resulting mass distribution has been compared with the one suggested by supernove simulations. This method can be considered as an additional checking tool for the consistency of theoretical modeling of neutron stars. We conclude that the cooling data allowed existence of neutron stars with quark cores even with one-flavor quark matter.

  8. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  9. Electron Cooling Study for MEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhang [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Electron cooling of the ion beams is one critical R&D to achieve high luminosities in JLab's MEIC proposal. In the present MEIC design, a multi-staged cooling scheme is adapted, which includes DC electron cooling in the booster ring and bunched beam electron cooling in the collider ring at both the injection energy and the collision energy. We explored the feasibility of using both magnetized and non-magnetized electron beam for cooling, and concluded that a magnetized electron beam is necessary. Electron cooling simulation results for the newly updated MEIC design is also presented.

  10. James L. Tuck Los Alamos ball lightning pioneer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1999-07-01

    James Tuck was well known for starting the Project Sherwood group at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1952. This group was formed to study and develop concepts for controlled fusion energy. In his later years after retiring from Controlled Fusion Division, he continued research at Los Alamos on the topic of ball lightning. He traveled widely giving lectures on both observations of others and his own experimental efforts. He collected anecdotal observations obtained from those in his lecture audiences during his travels and from responses from newspaper articles where he asked for specific information from ball lightning observers. He finally cut off this collection of data when the number of responses became overwhelming. The author's primary publication on ball lightning was a short laboratory report. He planned on publishing a book on the subject but this was never completed before his death. Tuck focused his experimental effort on attempting to duplicate the production of plasma balls claimed to be observed in US Navy submarines when a switch was opened under overload conditions with battery power. During lunch breaks he made use of a Los Alamos N-division battery bank facility to mock up a submarine power pack and switch gear. This non-funded effort was abruptly terminated when an explosion occurred in the facility. An overview of Tuck's research and views will be given. The flavor Jim's personality as well as a ball produced with his experimental apparatus will be shown using video chips.

  11. Writer by Trade: James Ralph’s Claims to Authorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Thomas Mari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To the enterprising journalists of early eighteenth-century Great Britain, the refined status of “author” remained elusive. Journalism itself was a nascent occupation formed in the processes of cultural legitimatization, commercialization, and politicization of authorship. In London, James Ralph, an American expatriate and political writer, emerged as a spokesman for journalism. In his Case of Authors by Profession or Trade, a short treatise published in 1758, Ralph argued that “professional” authors included journalists and other non-patroned writers. They deserved respect as an occupational group, and a special role in society. Ralph equated and extended the privileged notions of authorship and the role of the author — essentially, respectability and some limited independence from political and financial pressures — to his fellow journalists. His Case is worth revisiting because it shows how literary culture was being challenged in his era, extended and subverted as it was by his fellow journalists and their more transitory creations.

  12. James Clerk Maxwell perspectives on his life and work

    CERN Document Server

    McCartney, Mark; Whitaker, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) had a relatively brief, but remarkable life, lived in his beloved rural home of Glenlair, and variously in Edinburgh, Aberdeen, London and Cambridge. His scholarship also ranged wide - covering all the major aspects of Victorian natural philosophy. He was one of the most important mathematical physicists of all time, coming only after Newton and Einstein. In scientific terms his immortality is enshrined in electromagnetism and Maxwell's equations, but as this book shows, there was much more to Maxwell than electromagnetism, both in terms of his science and his wider life. Maxwell's life and contributions to science are so rich that they demand the expertise of a range of academics - physicists, mathematicians, and historians of science and literature - to do him justice. The various chapters will enable Maxwell to be seen from a range of perspectives. Chapters 1 to 4 deal with wider aspects of his life in time and place, at Aberdeen, King's College London and the Cavendish Labo...

  13. Stapp's quantum dualism: The James and Heisenberg model of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, H. P.

    1994-02-01

    Henry Stapp attempts to resolve the Cartesian dilemma by introducing what the author would characterize as an ontological dualism between mind and matter. His model for mind comes from William James' description of conscious events and for matter from Werner Heisenberg's ontological model for quantum events (wave function collapse). His demonstration of the isomorphism between the two types of events is successful, but in the author's opinion fails to establish a monistic, scientific theory. The author traces Stapp's failure to his adamant rejection of arbitrariness, or 'randomness.' This makes it impossible for him (or for Bohr and Pauli before him) to understand the power of Darwin's explanation of biology, let alone the triumphs of modern 'neo-Darwinism.' The author notes that the point at issue is a modern version of the unresolved opposition between Leucippus and Democritus on one side and Epicurus on the other. Stapp's views are contrasted with recent discussions of consciousness by two eminent biologists: Crick and Edelman. They locate the problem firmly in the context of natural selection on the surface of the earth. Their approaches provide a sound basis for further scientific work. The author briefly examines the connection between this scientific (rather than ontological) framework and the new fundamental theory based on bit-strings and the combinatorial hierarchy.

  14. Dialectic of Male Desire in James Joyce’s Exiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Zoleikhaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to investigate James Joyce’s Exiles in light of Jacques Lacan’s theory of desire. Richard Rowan and Robert Hand as the major male characters of the play are involved with intersubjective relationships, the motor force behind which is language and its constitutive lack. Facing lack in the Symbolic order on account of language, they take recourse to desire to find object petit a. Being in a mutual relationship, object petit a fuels desire which makes the subjects establish their identity in accordance with the Other’s desire. What they seek and need is the Other’s desire to give meaning to their otherwise fruitless quest in life. Richard and Robert seek diverse object petit a’s, representative of their goals and ideals in life, to re-fill their lack. Being caught up in the same metonymical deferral of desire, they seek other surrogates throughout the play. This metonymical tendency to seek the Other’s desire paves the ground for the reproduction of desire through fantasy.

  15. James Lee Byars 1/2 an autobiography, sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Byars, James Lee; Eleey, Peter

    2014-01-01

    "I see my autobiography as an arbitrary segment of so many pages of time, of things that I have paid attention to at this point in my life," wrote James Lee Byars (1932-1997) in 1969. He was then 37, about half the average male lifespan at the time, and accordingly thought it appropriate to write his "1/2 autobiography." Byars' art ranged from highly refined objects to extremely minimal performance and events, and books, ephemera and correspondence that he distributed widely among friends and colleagues. Today, more than 15 years after his death, assessments of his art must negotiate Byars' performance of his charismatic self in his life and art. For his first major posthumous survey in the US, exhibition curators Magalí Arriola and Peter Eleey decided to produce a catalogue in two "halves," playing on his "1/2 autobiography": a catalogue of the exhibition itself, including new scholarship, and a sourcebook of primary documents. 1/2 an Autobiography, Sourcebook constitutes the latter volume--a reference guid...

  16. Sir James Young Simpson and religion: myths and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Ewen A; MacGillivray, Neil

    2013-02-01

    This paper analyses two key aspects of the life and work of Sir James Young Simpson: his evangelical Christianity and his reaction to criticism following his use of anaesthesia in obstetrics. Simpson's personal religious struggle is placed in the context of the devastating events surrounding the Disruption of the established Church of Scotland in 1843. Whatever his involvement in the events of that year, the development of his faith demonstrates his simple evangelical conviction in the atonement of Christ, very much in keeping with that of many believers in Victorian Britain. There has arisen the notion (still current as is clear from publications in medical journals within recent years) that there was a savage religious response, especially in Presbyterian Scotland, to his use of chloroform - in reality the attack on Simpson's enthusiastic promotion of chloroform was brief, sporadic and of little moment. Simpson's carefully constructed counter to criticism of anaesthesia, drawing on considerable theological and linguistic expertise, reveals a complexity at odds with the simplicity of his faith. The contrast is so great and the reaction so elaborate that it is proposed that Simpson deliberately exaggerated the affair, believing the publicity could only be valuable.

  17. Sorption cooling: a valid extension to passive cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornink, D.J.; Burger, Johannes Faas; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for

  18. Comments on Ionization Cooling Channel Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics

    2013-12-04

    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this paper we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  19. [Isolation and structure identification of chemical constituents from the seeds of Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-qin; Wang, Xiu-kun; Li, Jun-lin; Cui, Xiang-yu

    2004-01-01

    To isolate and determine the structures of chemical constituents from the seeds of Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl. The chemical constituents were extracted from the seeds of Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl with 75% ethanol and purified by polyamide, silica gel, RP-C18 and Sephadex LH-20 on column chromatography. Chemical methods and spectroscopic methods, such as 1H and 13CNMR, HSQC, HMBC and TOCSY spectra were used for the structural identification. Fifteen compounds were obtained. Twelve of them were identified as quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-beta-gentiobioside (I), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-beta-gentiobioside (II), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-beta-gentiobioside (III), quercetin-7-O-beta-gentiobioside (IV), kaempferol-7-O-beta-gentiobioside (V), isorhamnetin-7-O-beta-gentiobioside (VI), quercetin-3,7-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (VII), kaempferol-3, 7-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (VIII), isorhamnetin-3, 7-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (IX), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-[(2-O-trans-sinnapoyl)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside) (X), sinapic acid ethyl ester (XI) and 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyl-cinnamic acid (XII). Compounds X and VI are new compounds. IV, V, VII, VIII and IX were isolated from Cruciferae family for the first time. I, II, III were obtained from Descurania genus and XI, XII from D. sophia for the first time.

  20. Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

  1. In search of lost opportunities: Marcel Proyce and James Joust discuss doctors, diseases, life and death (a hypothetical conversation between Marcel Proust and James Joyce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most influential thinkers of the last century, Marcel Proust (1871-1922) and James Joyce (1882-1941), met in 1922 but had little to say to each other. Had circumstances been different, what might they have said? They had much in common, including an interest in doctors and diseases, but from different perspectives. Although the meeting was a lost opportunity to explore the insights of two great analysts of the human condition, their lives and works provide a record rich in detail and timeless in relevance. From this, we construct what might have been overheard during a conversation between Marcel Proyce and James Joust almost a century ago.

  2. Presquile National Wildlife Refuge, James River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Presquile National Wildlife Refuge and James River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar...

  3. Photographer: Dominic Hart/Eric James Congressman Norm Mineta and Congresswomen Anna Escho Visit Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Photographer: Dominic Hart/Eric James Congressman Norm Mineta and Congresswomen Anna Escho Visit Bay Area & Monte Vista High School, Cupertino, California to promote communications superhighway along with VP Al Gore

  4. Potential for Contaminant Exposure to Bald Eagles of the James River 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The James River, Virginia has one of the largest concentrations of bald eagles on the east coast of the United States. Effects of environmental contaminants upon...

  5. James Williamson d/b/a Golden Triangle Builders Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Williamson d/b/a Golden Triangle Builders (the Company) is located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  6. James River National Wildlife Refuge: Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on James River National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines...

  7. Presquile National Wildlife Refuge, James River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Presquile National Wildlife Refuge and James River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar...

  8. Annual Activity Report, Fiscal Year 2006: Presquile and James River National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Presquile and James River National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2006 fiscal year. Land acquisition is...

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2010 Academic Award - James C. Liao and Easel Biotechnologies, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winner, Dr. James C. Liao, genetically engineered microorganisms to make higher alcohols (with 3 to 8 carbon atoms) from glucose or directly from carbon dioxide (CO2).

  10. "Ever heard of EVEL Knievel?": James Bond meets the Rural sheriff

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John D Schwetman

    2017-01-01

    James Bond emerged as an international film hero because he represented an aspirational cosmopolitan ideal offering viewers an opportunity to escape to an exciting international arena of adventure during the Cold War. Sheriff J. W...

  11. Aerial photographic water color variations from pollution in the James River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A photographic flight was made over the James River on May 17, 1977. The data show that, in general, James River water has very high sunlight reflectance. In the Bailey Bay area this reflectance is drastically reduced. Also shown is a technique for normalizing off-axis variations in radiance film exposure from camera falloff and uneven sunlight conditions to the nadir value. After data normalization, a spectral analysis is performed that identifies Bailey Creek water in James River water. The spectral results when compared with laboratory spectrometer data indicate that reflectance from James River water is dominated by suspended matter, while the substance most likely responsible for reduced reflectance in Bailey Creek water is dissolved organic carbon.

  12. Environmental Assessment for Public Deer Hunting at James River National Wildlife Refuge 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An excessively high deer population will conflict with any forest management program conducted at James River National Wildlife Refuge. To accomplish the objective...

  13. Kroll, Murakami, and Seneviratne Receive 2013 James B. Macelwane Medals: Citation for Motohiko Murakami

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bass, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The James B. Macelwane Medal of AGU is presented to Motohiko Murakami for his discovery of the postperovskite phase of MgSiO 3 , for a new class of sound velocity measurements under lower mantle pressure...

  14. James Wertsi ja SaxEsti ühiskontsert. "Valge gospel" asub taas tuurile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika laulja ja kitarristi James Wertsi ning saksofonikvarteti SaxEst kontserdituurist Eestis algusega 1. dets. Haljala rahvamajast. Kontserdituurist "Valge gospel" alates 11. dets. kuues Eestimaa kirikus (viimane kontsert 20. dets. Tallinna Linnahallis)

  15. James Hurman "Sisuturundus ei anna kiiret lühiajalist efekti" / intervjueerinud Hando Sinisalu, Heidi Tiik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hurman, James

    2016-01-01

    Intervjuu Passwordi konverentsil ettekandega "Loovus ja äriedu: tõestus selle kohta, et loovad reklaamid suurendavad ärilist edukust" esineva James Hurmaniga edukatest kampaaniatest ja sisuturunduse efektiivsusest

  16. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  17. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  18. Heating, ventilation and cooling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available air and diluting the humidity or mixing the cool humid air with the air from a conventional air conditioner. Climate Specific The performance of an evaporative cooler is highly dependant on atmospheric conditions. Evaporative coolers work best... that an installed system is being maintained correctly by competent persons to ensure both smooth and efficient operation as well as to prevent mould growth. Legionnaires disease is a concern within evaporative coolers if it is not maintained correctly...

  19. Laser Cooling of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Panel (b) com- pares the cooling efficiencies of available thermoelectric coolers ( TECs ) with ZBLANP:Yb3+-based optical refrigerators. Devices based...on materials with low parasitic heating will outperform TECs below 200 . Coolers made from current materials are less efficient than TECs at all...luminescence extraction efficiency are being explored as well. A novel method based on the frustrated total internal reflection across a vacuum “ nano -gap” is

  20. Non-Laser Cooling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilico, Laurent

    We first review trapped ion radiative cooling and show that it is only efficient for high frequency oscillating particles in Penning traps. We then describe in detail resistive cooling and explain in the frame of an exercice why and how thermal equilibrium with the resistor is reached. We finally discuss buffer gas cooling in Paul traps.

  1. Ice for air cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, J.

    1987-04-09

    The first ice plant on an industrial scale came into service at Harmony goldmine in November 1985. This surface installation has a refrigeration output of about 5.2 MW, corresponding to 1000 t/d of ice. The ice melting tank is at a depth of 1088m. The planning and construction of this first industrial-scale ice plant were based on the result obtained from a research project which gave particular emphasis to investigating the problems related to the transport of ice in pipelines and to the ice-to-water heat transfer in ice-melting tanks. The particular advantage of ice as a coolant is that the mass circulation needed with ice is five times less than with water. It is claimed that, in the circumstances which are specific to Harmony mine, ice cooling is economically viable at a depth of only 1,100 m or thereabouts; however, calculations for very powerful cooling systems have shown that ice has a cost advantage over water + Pelton turbines only at depths of 3,000 m or more. Cost comparisons apart, this ice plant is useful for the testing of technology and safety in the production, transport and melting of the ice and prepares the way for a powerful ice cooling system which will work at great depths. 6 references.

  2. Low mass integrated cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Low mass on - detec tor cooling systems are being developed and stud ied by the Detector Technology group (PH - DT) in the CERN Physics Department in close collaboration with LHC and non - LHC experiments . Two approaches are currently being investigated. The first approach, for barrel configurations, consists in integrating the cooli ng apparatus in light mechanical structures support ing the detectors. In this case , the thermal management can be achieved either with light cooling pipes and thin plates or with a network of microchannels embedded in thin strips of silicon or polyimide . Both configuratio ns are being investigated in the context of the 2018 upgrade program of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). Moreover, it is also possible to use a s ilicon microchannel cooling device itself as structural support for the detectors and electronics. Such a configur ation has been adopted by the NA62 collaboration for the ir GigaTracKer (GTK) as well as by the LHCb collaboration for the 2018 major upgrade of...

  3. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  4. James Joyce’s Echoes in Caitriona Lally’s Portrait of Dublin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Estévez-Saá

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available James Stephens and James Joyce have been mentioned as referents for Caitriona Lally’s highly acclaimed debut novel, Eggshells (2015. The present contribution intends to study this new brilliant rendering of the city of Dublin through the eyes of allegedly ‘changeling’ Vivian, whose Joycean creative musings on language serve her to portray contemporary Dublin, as well as to imaginatively project portals to other worlds where she can feel more at ease.

  5. Reworked late Neogene Austrochlamys anderssoni (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from northern James Ross Island, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Pirrie, D; Jonkers, H. A.; Smellie, John L.; Crame, J. Alistair; McArthur, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a new outcrop of fossiliferous Neogene sediments on northern James Ross Island, northern Antarctic Peninsula. Approximately 100 specimens of the pectinid bivalve Austrochlamys anderssoni (Hennig, 1911) were collected from the permafrost active layer. This bivalve species has a late Miocene to late Pliocene range and has previously been reported from both the glaciomarine Hobbs Glacier Formation and the interglacial Cockburn Island Formation in the James Ross Isla...

  6. Renaissance culture at the court of James V, 1528-1542

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Andrea Susan

    1997-01-01

    This study of the cultural activities of the Scottish court in the adult reign of King James V reveals a vibrant, sophisticated and confident outlook, which was more closely integrated with the developments of the northern-European Renaissance than has been apparent hitherto. James V utilised the limited resources at his disposal to good effect, and his cultural patronage propagated multi-layered images of royal power. Continuity with the traditions established by his Stewart forbears, especi...

  7. Kunst, kunstiajalugu ja visuaalkultuur / James Elkins ; intervjueerinud Maarin Mürk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elkins, James, 1955-

    2010-01-01

    Kultuuriteaduste ja kunstide doktorikool korraldas 20.-22. sept. 2010 Eesti Kunstiakadeemia kunstikultuuri teaduskonnas ameerika kunstiteadlase James Elkensi seminari "Kunst, kunstiajalugu ja visuaalkultuuri uuringud. Uurimise ja kirjastamise probleeme ja kontseptsioone tänapäeval". James Elkensiga kunstiteadusest, sellest, kuidas visuaalkultuuri uurimine paneb küsimärgi alla senise kunstiajaloo ning kuidas on võimalik kirjutada ka Euroopa traditsioonist väljapoole jäävat kunstiajalugu, siinsest kunstiajaloo uurimisest ja kirjutamisest

  8. Cooling lubricants; Kuehlschmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Breuer, D. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Blome, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Deininger, C. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Hahn, J.U. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Kleine, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Nies, E. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Pflaumbaum, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Stockmann, R. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Willert, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Sonnenschein, G. [Maschinenbau- und Metall-Berufsgenossenschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    As a rule, the base substances used are certain liquid hydrocarbons from mineral oils as well as from native and synthetic oils. Through the addition of further substances the cooling lubricant takes on the particular qualities required for the use in question. Employees working with cooling lubricants are exposed to various hazards. The assessment of the concentrations at the work station is carried out on the basis of existing technical rules for contact with hazardous substances. However, the application/implementation of compulsory investigation and supervision in accordance with these rules is made difficult by the fact that cooling lubricants are, as a rule, made up of complicated compound mixtures. In addition to protecting employees from exposure to mists and vapours from the cooling lubricants, protection for the skin is also of particular importance. Cooling lubricants should not, if at all possible, be brought into contact with the skin. Cleansing the skin and skin care is just as important as changing working clothes regularly, and hygiene and cleanliness at the workplace. Unavoidable emissions are to be immediately collected at the point where they arise or are released and safely disposed of. This means taking into account all sources of emissions. The programme presented in this report therefore gives a very detailed account of the individual protective measures and provides recommendations for the design of technical protection facilities. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Als Basisstoffe dienen in der Regel bestimmte fluessige Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen aus Mineraloelen sowie aus nativen oder synthetischen Oelen. Durch die Zugabe von weiteren Stoffen erlangt der Kuehlschmierstoff seine fuer den jeweiligen Anwendungsabfall geforderten Eigenschaften. Beschaeftigte, die mit Kuehlschmierstoffen umgehen, sind unterschiedliche Gefahren ausgesetzt. Die Beurteilung der Kuehlschmierstoffkonzentrationen in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz erfolgt auf der Grundlage bestehender

  9. James F. Crow and the art of teaching and mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Daniel L

    2011-12-01

    To honor James F. Crow on the occasion of his 95th birthday, GENETICS has commissioned a series of Perspectives and Reviews. For GENETICS to publish the honorifics is fitting, as from their birth Crow and GENETICS have been paired. Crow was scheduled to be born in January 1916, the same month that the first issue of GENETICS was scheduled to appear, and in the many years that Crow has made major contributions to the conceptual foundations of modern genetics, GENETICS has chronicled his and other major advances in the field. The commissioned Perspectives and Reviews summarize and celebrate Professor Crow's contributions as a research scientist, administrator, colleague, community supporter, international leader, teacher, and mentor. In science, Professor Crow was the international leader of his generation in the application of genetics to populations of organisms and in uncovering the role of genetics in health and disease. In education, he was a superb undergraduate teacher whose inspiration changed the career paths of many students. His teaching skills are legendary, his lectures urbane and witty, rigorous and clear. He was also an extraordinary mentor to numerous graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, many of whom went on to establish successful careers of their own. In public service, Professor Crow served in key administrative positions at the University of Wisconsin, participated as a member of numerous national and international committees, and served as president of both the Genetics Society of America and the American Society for Human Genetics. This Perspective examines Professor Crow as teacher and mentor through the eyes and experiences of one student who was enrolled in his genetics course as an undergraduate and who later studied with him as a graduate student.

  10. Obituary: James Alfred Van Allen, 1914-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, George H.; McIlwain, Carl Edwin

    2006-12-01

    James Alfred Van Allen, world-renowned space scientist, died 9 August 2006 at the age of ninety-one. He succumbed to heart failure after a ten-week period of declining health. Van Allen served for his entire sixty-seven-year professional career as an amazingly productive researcher, space science spokesman, inspired teacher, and valued colleague. The realization by him and his associates that charged particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field began a whole new field of research, magnetospheric physics. Following that initial discovery, he and his associates quickly extended their observations, first to the inner planets, and then to the rest of the planets and beyond. During his tenure at Iowa, he and his group flew instruments on more than sixty successful Earth satellites and planetary spacecraft, including the first missions to the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Van Allen's lifetime publication list numbers more than 275, of which many are widely-cited, seminal papers. He was the sole author of more than 125 of those papers. Beyond the research laboratory, Van Allen worked energetically throughout his career in establishing space research as a new branch of human inquiry. He was among the most sought-after as a committee member and adviser, working at the highest levels of government, including the White House and Congress, and at all levels of the national and international research establishments. Many presentations in the non-scientific arena helped to bring the exciting discoveries and challenges of space research to the attention of the general public. James Van Allen (Van to his many friends and colleagues) was born on 7 September 1914 on a small farm near Mount Pleasant, Iowa, the second of four sons of Alfred Morris Van Allen and Alma Olney Van Allen. After high school in Mount Pleasant, he entered Iowa Wesleyan College, majoring in physics and graduating summa cum laude. While there, he was introduced to geophysics

  11. The Jewish Setting of the Epistle of James

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale C. Allison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many older commentators understood the Epistle of James to address itself to Jews of the diaspora, whether Christian or not. Although few modern scholars have seriously reckoned with this possibility, much is to be said for the thesis. It makes sense for example of important features of the epistle that otherwise would remain unclear, such as its dearth of explicit Christology, its seeming lack of distinctive Christian sentiments, and its thoroughly Jewish orientation. The author was a Jewish Christian still hoping for a Christian place within the Jewish synagogue; he wished for irenic relations with those who did not confess Jesus to be the Messiah. He was thus intentionally quiescent about much for apologetical purposes, a strategy with clear parallels in other ancient Christian literature.Die Joodse agtergrond van die Jakobusbrief. Die Jakobusbrief is deur baie van die ouer kommentaarskrywers gesien as ’n selfverklarende geskrif aan die Jode van die diaspora – hetsy Christene of nie-Christene. Hoewel van die moderne navorsers heelhartig daarmee saamstem, bestaan daar heelwat twyfel oor hierdie siening. Dit maak egter sin ten opsigte van sekere belangrike beskrywings van die brief wat andersins onverklaarbaar sou wees soos die gebrek aan uitdruklike Christologie, die skynbare gebrek aan kenmerkende Christelike sentimente en die grondige Joodse oriëntering daarvan. Die skrywer was ’n Joodse Christen wat steeds gehoop het vir erkenning binne die Joodse sinagoge en versoenende verhoudings met diegene wat nie vir Jesus as die Messias erken het nie, verlang het. Dus was hy met voorbedagde rade baie stil oor baie dinge om apologetiese redes – ’n strategie wat duidelike parallelle met ander antieke Christelike literatuur toon.

  12. Laser cooling by adiabatic transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcia, Matthew; Cline, Julia; Bartolotta, John; Holland, Murray; Thompson, James

    2017-04-01

    We have demonstrated a new method of laser cooling applicable to particles with narrow linewidth optical transitions. This simple and robust cooling mechanism uses a frequency-swept laser to adiabatically transfer atoms between internal and motional states. The role of spontaneous emission is reduced (though is still critical) compared to Doppler cooling. This allows us to achieve greater slowing forces than would be possible with Doppler cooling, and may make this an appealing technique for cooling molecules. In this talk, I will present a demonstration of this technique in a cold strontium system. DARPA QUASAR, NIST, NSF PFC.

  13. Laser Cooling of Molecular Anions

    CERN Document Server

    Yzombard, Pauline; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarise the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C$\\_2^-$, the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photo-detachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C$\\_2^-$, are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources and antimatter physics.

  14. James Chadwick Nobel Prize for Physics 1935. Discovery of the neutron; James Chadwick Premio Nobel de Fisica 1935. Descubrimiento del neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    James Chadwick (1981-1974) was a key figure in the field of nuclear science. Through his studies, he researched the disintegration of atoms by bombarding alpha particles and proved the existence of neutrons. For this discovery, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1935. (Author)

  15. Keeping cool, staying virtuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltorp, Karen

    2015-01-01

    their everyday lives. I focus on love and marriage, the imperatives of appearing cool among peers, and keeping the family’s honour intact through the display of virtuous behaviour. Building on Bourdieu’s writings on the split habitus, I introduce the term composite habitus, as it underscores the aspect...... of a habitus that is split between (sometimes contradictory) composite parts. The composite habitus of the young women is more than a hysteresis effect (where disposition and field are in mismatch and the habitus misfires), as the composite habitus also opens up to a range of possible strategies. I present...

  16. Cooling performance of solar cell driven, thermoelectric cooling prototype headgear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, T.; Azuma, H.; Shimizu, H.; Obora, H.; Sato, S. [Nippon Inst. of Technology, Saitama (Japan). Dept. of Systems Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Cooling performance of solar cell-driven, thermoelectric cooling prototype headgear was examined experimentally. Three types of prototype headgear were made and examined. They were cooled by thermoelectric elements and driven by solar cells. Conventional cooling caps driven by solar cells only blow ambient air to the face with an electric fan. A thermoelectric element was set at the front of the headgear to cool the forehead. Solar cells were mounted on the top and the brim of the headgear to work the thermoelectric element. Three prototypes of headgear with solar cells and a thermoelectric element were made and tested. Refrigeration capacity and thermal comfort were examined by subject in cases of sitting, walking and bicycling. The temperature difference between ambient and cooling temperature was required to be 4-5 degrees Celsius for thermal comfort. (author)

  17. Onderzoeksrapportage duurzaam koelen : EOS Renewable Cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeze, J.; Sluis, van der S.; Wissink, E.

    2010-01-01

    For reducing energy use for cooling, alternative methods (that do not rely on electricity) are needed. Renewable cooling is based on naturally available resources such as evaporative cooling, free cooling, phase change materials, ground subcooling, solar cooling, wind cooling, night radiation &

  18. Low Maintenance Water Treatment for Heating and Cooling Systems: Review of Technologies and Guidelines for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    the Director of ERDC is Dr. James R. Houston. ERDC/CERL TR-07-41 vii Unit Conversion Factors Multiply By To Obtain British thermal units...October 1996. IWC-96-68, pp 632-639. Licina, George J., and Lars Venhuis. (2000). “Biocide Optimization Using an On-Line Biofilm Detector.” Proceedings...Mahrous, Paul Frazer , and Sulaiman Al-Jutaily. (2000). Development of Pretreatments for Cooling Water Systems.” Paper No. 00438. Corrosion 2000. NACE

  19. RETRATO DEL ARTISTA JAMES JOYCE, ADOLESCENTE/A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST JAMES JOYCE AS A YOUNG MAN/PORTRAIT DE L'ARTISTE JAMES JOYCE EN JEUNE HOMME

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mario Elkin Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    ... some lessons in Seminar XXIII of Jacques Lacan with A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce, that was one of Lacan's sources, brings about how the work depicts Joyce as a young man, finding the knottings where the foreclosure of the Name of the Father did not allow him to respond and could lead to some detachments that would tri...

  20. Little Book, Big Waves: The Epistle of James and Global Stewardship in Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora Jean Brake

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At first glance the twenty-first century arena of biotechnology and bioethics seems worlds away from the practical concerns of the first century outlook of the New Testament book of James. A closer look, however, reveals that the issues that James addresses have applications to challenges in bioethics. This article will give an overview of James and examine James’ teaching on wealth, poverty, and generosity and its import for the issue of global stewardship in bioethics.  Stewardship concerns both a Christian’s care and management of time, talents, and treasures.  Faithful use of the resources God has given demonstrates the fruitful faith that James writes of in his epistle. The idea of global stewardship, though “stewardship” is grounded in a distinctly Christian ethic, reflects an emerging discussion in bioethics regarding the need to address the inequities present between the money and time spent on biotechnology in some of the world in proportion to the money spent on meeting the basic healthcare needs of the poor of the entire world.  This New Testament epistle gives clear indications of how the Christian is to view wealth and how the Christian is to respond to poverty.  James, though a comparatively small book, sends a crucial message across the years that should greatly impact how Christians view stewardship in terms of global healthcare needs. 

  1. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  2. Theory of tapered laser cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Hiromi; Wei, J.

    1998-03-25

    A theory of tapered laser cooling for fast circulating ion beams in a storage ring is constructed. The authors describe the fundamentals of this new cooling scheme, emphasizing that it might be the most promising way to beam crystallization. The cooling rates are analytically evaluated to study the ideal operating condition. They discuss the physical implication of the tapering factor of cooling laser, and show how to determine its optimum value. Molecular dynamics method is employed to demonstrate the validity of the present theory.

  3. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  4. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...... the eect: the isothermal magnetic entropy change and the adiabatic temperature change. Some of the manifestations and utilizations of the MCE will be touched upon in a general way and nally I will talk about the results I have obtained on a sample of Gadolinium Iron Garnet (GdIG, Gd3Fe5O12), which...

  5. Film cooling for a closed loop cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2003-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. At least one film cooling hole is defined through a wall of at least one of the cavities for flow communication between an interior of the cavity and an exterior of the vane. The film cooling hole(s) are defined adjacent a potential low LCF life region, so that cooling medium that bleeds out through the film cooling hole(s) reduces a thermal gradient in a vicinity thereof, thereby the increase the LCF life of that region.

  6. Obituary: James H. "Trex" Trexler, 1918-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Ed

    2007-12-01

    James H. "Trex" Trexler, Naval Center for Space Technology, a retired scientist and astronomer, with a 50-year career at NRL died of cancer on October 22, 2005, at the age of 87. Born in Missoula, Montana (May 18, 1918), he grew up in Dallas, Texas, and attended Southern Methodist University (SMU) Engineering School. He combined his interests in astronomy and radio communication and operated the observatory on the SMU campus. Mr. Trexler had a most interesting and rewarding career at NRL, which resulted in notable contributions in scientific and technical developments. While at SMU, he worked on a government-sponsored project on radio detection and tracking of meteors. This work resulted in a call from NRL in 1942 to join the Navy radio detection effort being mounted against the German submarine Wolf Packs that were harassing our North Atlantic convoys on the supply routes to our European Allies. The program proved highly successful causing the breakup of the German Pack operation, and resulted in the sinking and capturing of many U-boats. After World War II, Trex and H. O. Lorenzen brought the German Navy's very advanced Wullenweber Direction Finder back to NRL, and rebuilt it at the Washington Coast Guard Station, south of Alexandria. It served as the prototype for the Direction Finder at the heart of the Navy and Air Force intercept networks and later as the first tracker of the Soviet Sputnik. He received the Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Award for his efforts. In the late l940s, Trex built the radar intercept equipment for the Navy's P4M Airborne Cold War Ferret Program. This capability provided instantaneous frequency and direction of arrival against Soviet radars from high-altitude flights along the Soviet borders. His Radio Physics Branch developed a surface mobile intercept system deployed to the Near East for which the Navy made the first group cash incentive award. With the beginning of the space age, his branch examined the moon as a possible

  7. The contribution of William James to the origins of "scientific" psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Antonio M

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the specific nature of the contribution made by the psychology of William James to the construction of modern scientific psychology. Universally recognized as the father of American scientific psychology, William James still remains a much-debated scientist, mainly for two reasons. First, he was interested in subjects that were often very far from the narrow and traditional approaches taken by the greater part of his contemporary colleagues. Secondly, in order to enlighten psychological issues, he continued to adopt multidisciplinary contributions, rather than selecting only those that stemmed from experimental and specifically laboratory contexts. James has been recently inserted in the more complex international consortium of psychologists, psychiatrists, physicians, psychotherapists, and philosophers that has been called "the French-Swiss-English-and-American psychotherapeutic alliance." This does in reality seem a more appropriate framework for understanding the specificity of James's psychology. In order to illustrate the peculiar Jamesian way of thinking about psychological issues, this paper undertakes an examination of his classical concept of the "stream of thought." Here, in fact, many different contributions converge in defining and outlining "the primary fact of consciousness"--personal, subjective, and introspective observation; philosophical arguments; "mental experiments," and psychopathological experiences; but, most of all, neurological data derived specifically from brain physiology. This last contribution has been too often underestimated, as has also the background of James's training in the development of experimental psychology, neurology, and physiology at Harvard before 1890. The paper concludes with the assertion that James represents the prototype of a new way of defining the scientific quality of modern psychology, far from the narrow definition given by the laboratory experimentalists fresh from the German

  8. King James II in Foreign Historiography: the Main Scientifi c Trends and Approaches .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Kirill

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The fate of the tragic figure of the British king James II Stuart is considered in the article. In this paper the author pays speсial attention to the history of investigation of the character and politics of this person by the British historians, as well as by the leading European and American specialists on the Early Modern Time. The estimates of James II are of vast variety in the British historiography but at the same time diff erent authors have some similar features in their attitude. Except the apologists the British historians on the whole criticized this king and explain that the majority of the problems connected with him are based on the religious factor that is not really right. On the other hand there are some differences in this negative approaches among various scientifi c schools of British historiography. The Whigs stated that James II tried to limit the personal rights of the Englishmen which was the main result of the English revolution of the middle of the 17th century. The Tories proved that the king neglected the gentry’s property rights and tried to transform the dualistic monarchy into absolutism. The Positivists thought that James II supported the Catholic Counterreformation and fought against the Enlightenment. The revisionists and postrevisionists tried to revalue the person of James II based on the true scientific foundations. A special view on James II’ policy is produced by Non-British authors: German, French and American historians.

  9. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  10. Be Cool, Man! / Jevgeni Levik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levik, Jevgeni

    2005-01-01

    Järg 1995. aasta kriminaalkomöödiale "Tooge jupats" ("Get Shorty") : mängufilm "Be Cool, Chili Palmer on tagasi!" ("Be Cool") : režissöör F. Gary Gray, peaosades J. Travolta ja U. Thurman : USA 2005. Lisatud J. Travolta ja U. Thurmani lühiintervjuud

  11. Dialogues in the COOL Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, S.I.P.; Kroeze, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Options for the Long-term (COOL) Project is a participatory integrated assessment (PIA) comprising extensive dialogues at three levels: national, European and global. The objective of the COOL Project was to ‘develop strategic notions on how to achieve drastic reductions of greenhouse

  12. James George Frazer’s Anthropologic Heritage in the Work of Robert Graves

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav M. Pavlović

    2016-01-01

    The works of Sir James George Frazer had an outstanding influence on the literature of modernism. Among those who benefited from Frazer’s ritualism were W. B. Yeats, T. S. Eliot. James Joyce, Ernest Hemingway, D. H. Lawrence, Ezra Pound, Mary Renault, Joseph Campbell, Robert Graves and many others. Robert Graves was known for his famous adaptation of Frazer’s concept of the sacred king who is sacrificed for the benefit of his subjects thus forming the narrative frame for the one of his most c...

  13. M. Pirgerou on D. Izzo and C. Martinez’s Revisionary Interventions into Henry James

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Izzo and Carlo Martinez. Revisionary Interventions Into Henry James. Eds. Napoli, 2008. Revisionary Interventions into Henry James is a compilation of a series of papers presented at a colloquium which took place at Università Orientale in Naples, Italy, on October 27, 2006. In her introduction to the volume, Donatella Izzo acknowledges the “rather blatant plagiarism” (7 which lent the book its title.  The borrowing, of course, refers to Donald Pease’s landmark Revisionary Interve...

  14. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface....... To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  15. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  16. Review of James L. Baughman, Jennifer Ratner-Rosenhagen, and James P. Danky, eds, Protest on the Page: Essays on Print and the Culture of Dissent since 1865 (2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zirra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available James L. Baughman, Jennifer Ratner-Rosenhagen, and James P. Danky, eds, Protest on the Page: Essays on Print and the Culture of Dissent since 1865 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2015. xv + 259 pp. ISBN 978-0-299-30284-9.

  17. Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Osgood, Sarah Jane; Bagepalli, Radhakrishna; Webbon, Waylon Willard; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

  18. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST... Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby... cooling system. (b) Each tankship that has a cargo tank with a required cooling system must have a manual...

  19. Central cooling: absorptive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-08-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available single-effect, lithium-bromide absorption chillers ranging in nominal cooling capacities of 3 to 1,660 tons and double-effect lithium-bromide chillers from 385 to 1,060 tons. The nominal COP measured at operating conditions of 12 psig input steam for the single-effect machine, 85/sup 0/ entering condenser water, and 44/sup 0/F exiting chilled-water, ranges from 0.6 to 0.65. The nominal COP for the double-effect machine varies from 1.0 to 1.15 with 144 psig entering steam. Data are provided to estimate absorption-chiller performance at off-nominal operating conditions. The part-load performance curves along with cost estimating functions help the system design engineer select absorption equipment for a particular application based on life-cycle costs. Several suggestions are offered which may be useful for interfacing an absorption chiller with the remaining Integrated Community Energy System. The ammonia-water absorption chillers are not considered to be readily available technology for ICES application; therefore, performance and cost data on them are not included in this evaluation.

  20. 77 FR 64718 - Safety Zone; Steam Ship Col. James M. Schoonmaker Relocation Project, Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Steam Ship Col. James M. Schoonmaker...-0939 Safety Zone; Steam Ship Col. James M. Schoonmaker relocation project, Maumee River, Toledo, OH. (a...

  1. 76 FR 12360 - Request for Information on Implementation of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... the James Zadroga 9/ 11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-347) AGENCY: National...) requests comments from the public on implementing the provisions of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and... Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-347) and all comments submitted will be...

  2. 75 FR 14488 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; James N. Cox Dayton International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; James N. Cox Dayton International Airport, Dayton, OH AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of... reviewed at this same location or at James M. Cox Dayton International Airport, Dayton, Ohio. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  3. Measurements of Beam Cooling in Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohayai, Tanaz; Snopok, Pavel; Rogers, Chris; Neuffer, David; Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Cooled muon beams are essential for production of high-flux neutrino beams at the Neutrino Factory and high luminosity muon beams at the Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment, MICE aims to demonstrate muon beam cooling through ionization energy loss of muons in material. The standard figure of merit for cooling in MICE is the transverse RMS emittance reduction and to measure this, the individual muon positions and momenta are reconstructed using scintillating-fiber tracking detectors, before and after a low-Z absorbing material. In this study, in addition to a preview on the standard measurement technique, an alternative technique is described, which is the measurement of phase-space density using the novel Kernel Density Estimation method. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE - AC05 - 06OR23100.

  4. In Memoriam: James Harlan Steele (1913—2013)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-19

    Drs. Jennifer McQuiston and Casey Barton Behravesh talk with Dr. Myron Schultz about the legendary Dr. James Harlan Steele.  Created: 5/19/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/20/2014.

  5. Taking Your Talents to Business Communications: Analyzing Effective Communication through LeBron James's Career Moves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manisaligil, Alperen; Bilimoria, Diana

    2016-01-01

    We describe an in-class activity that helps students improve their skills in media selection and use to reinforce effective communication. The activity builds on media richness and channel expansion theories through an examination of the media selection and use of NBA athlete LeBron James and Cleveland Cavaliers majority owner Dan Gilbert during…

  6. Consciousness, Social Heredity, and Development: The Evolutionary Thought of James Mark Baldwin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    James Mark Baldwin is one of the most important and least known early American scientific psychologists. Drawing inspiration from Charles Darwin and other evolutionists of the period, Baldwin developed a biosocial theory of psychological development that influenced both Jean Piaget and Lev S. Vygotsky; and he proposed a mechanism relating learned…

  7. Nuevos Horizontes, James Monroe High School, 1987-1988. Evaluation Section Report. OREA Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Tomi D.; Lista, Carlos

    Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes (Project New Horizons) at James Monroe High School (New York City) served 328 students of limited English proficiency (LEP) in grades 9-12 during the final year of a 3-year funding cycle. The project's purpose was to build on the strengths of the school's extensive computer-assisted instructional program in order to…

  8. James Monroe High School Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes, 1986-1987. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ana L.; And Others

    In its second year of Title VII funding, James Monroe High Schools's Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes (Project New Horizons) served 344 limited-English-speaking recent arrivals from Latin America and the Caribbean, in grades 9 through 12. The program has built on the strengths of the high school's extensive computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program,…

  9. James Monroe High School Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes, a 3-year Title VII-funded bilingual education program, serves 287 Spanish speaking students at James Monroe High School (Bronx, New York). This report evaluates the project's first year of operation, 1985-86. The report contains an introduction describing the school and project goals; information on student…

  10. Policy of king James II Stuart in Ireland, 1686–1688

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Kirill Nikolayevich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to determine the concept of the policy of British monarch James II Stuart in Ireland. The author makes an attempt to determine the principal steps of James II and channels of Crown’s influence on the political, social, religious and economical situation in Ireland. The author analyses the role of Lord Deputy of Ireland Earl of Tyrconnel in forming of James II’s policy and makes an attempt to estimate the scale and results of this reforms for Ireland. Author analysises main components of the London’s policy in “Green Island” so as social, economical and political conditions of James II’s reforms. Author concludes that earl of Tyrconnel had a determined role in Crown’s policy of Ireland in 1685–1688. British monarch reorganized political system and social structure of Ireland so as first from the English invasion gave to Irish Catholics government and army whose aim was to protect the rights and interests of native Irish.

  11. Dr. James McGee shows three astronauts how to handle non-poisonous snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Dr. James W. McGee (right), Medical Operations Office, Manned Spacecraft Center, shows three astronauts how to handle a non-poisonous snake during desert survival training in Washington state. Left to right, are Astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly, Alfred M. Worden, and John L. Swigert Jr.; and Dr. McGee. The astronauts are dressed in faked Arab clothing.

  12. Of Tipping Points and Sinking Ships: A Conversation between James Marriott and Suzi Gablik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gablik, Suzi; Marriott, James

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a conversation between the authors, James Marriott and Suzi Gablik. Marriott is a founding member and co-director of PLATFORM, a London-based, award-winning organization focused on social and ecological justice. Gablik is the author of "The Reenchantment of Art," "Conversations Before the End of Time," and "Living the Magical…

  13. A Marriage of Minds: James R. Jacobs & Shinjoung Yeo Univ. of California-San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Their personalities and backgrounds are very different, but James R. Jacobs and Shinjoung Yeo are passionate about the same causes: librarianship, open government, and empowerment through information. They balance each other. Yeo is focused, realistic, critical, and an excellent researcher. Her superhero alter ego is Wet Blanket Woman, able to…

  14. VOOΛ võtab võimust / Raoul Kutvitz, James Thurlow ; intervjueerinud Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurvitz, Raoul, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Hobusepea galeriis 12. aprillini ja Draakoni galeriis 10. aprillini avatud Raoul Kurvitza näituse "Projekt VOOL" teemal vestlevad kunstnikuga tema ateljees filosoof James Thurlow ja kriitik Andri Ksenofontov. Raoul Kurvitz soovib alustada arutelu üldkultuuriliste muutuste teemal maailmas. Mõistest "vool", kaasaegsest kunstist Eestis jm.

  15. Researcher Profile: An Interview with Russell James, JD, PhD, CFP(R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell James

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Russell James is a professor and the CH Foundation Chair in Personal Financial Planning in the Department of Personal Financial Planning at Texas Tech University, where he is also the Director of Graduate Studies in Charitable Financial Planning. His research is focused on encouraging generosity and satisfaction in financial decision-making.

  16. The Importance of Child Development in Education: A Conservation with James Comer and Chip Wood. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, James; Wood, Chip

    Taped before an audience of teachers from around the country, this 65-minute videotape presents a discussion between James Comer and Chip Wood, noted experts in child development and education, in which they converse and respond to questions about critical issues confronting educators today. During the first part of the video, Comer and Wood…

  17. 77 FR 27118 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... of the navigable waters of the James River centered on position 37 31'13.1'' N/077 25'07.84'' W (NAD..., design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that... which do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. This rule...

  18. 76 FR 54382 - Safety Zone; Labor Day Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... waters of the James River centered on position 37 31'13.1'' N/ ] 077 25'07.84'' W (NAD 1983). Due to the... standards (e.g., specifications of materials, performance, design, or operation; test methods; sampling... significant effect on the human environment. This rule is categorically excluded, under figure 2-1, paragraph...

  19. Wheelwright of the heavens. The life & work of James Ferguson, FRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millburn, J. R.; King, H. C.

    This book is a biography of James Ferguson (1710 - 1776), famous for his clocks with astronomical and tidal dials, and for his mechanical models of the solar system ("orreries"). He is also known as producer of terrestrial globes and as prolific writer on astronomy, mechanics, electricity and horology.

  20. Unusual biogenic calcite structures in two shallow lakes, James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elster, Josef; Nedbalová, Linda; Vodrážka, R.; Láska, K.; Haloda, J.; Komárek, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 535-549 ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 945 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : James Ross Island * cyanobacteria * microalgae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.851, year: 2016

  1. HARP : A submillimetre heterodyne array receiver operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, H.; Buckle, J.; Hills, R.; Bell, G.; Richer, J.; Curtis, E.; Withington, S.; Leech, J.; Williamson, R.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the key design features and performance of HARP, an innovative heterodyne focal-plane array receiver designed and built to operate in the submillimetre on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii. The 4x4 element array uses SIS detectors, and is the first

  2. Review of Ethics in Mental Health Research by James M. DuBois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pies Ronald

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The burgeoning field of medical ethics raises complicated questions for mental health researchers. The critical issues of risk assessment, beneficence, and the moral duties researchers owe their patients are analyzed in James DuBois's well written Ethics in Mental Health Research.

  3. Re-Birthing the Monstrous: James Whale's (Mis)Reading of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picart, Caroline Joan S.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on film and feminism by showing how James Whale's film attempts to excise or severely delimit the disturbing critique of the Romantic politics of gender in Mary Shelley's novel "Frankenstein." Discusses parthenogenesis, showing how the novel critiques the Romantic rhetorical reconstructions of masculine…

  4. Leadership and Some Related Propositions: A Response to the Ideas of James MacGregor Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleedorn, Berenice D.

    The theories of James MacGregor Burns as expressed in his book, "Leadership" (1978), suggest that transformational leadership engages all persons to varying degrees throughout the levels and interstices of society. Burns believes that the transforming leader not only exploits a need or demand of a follower but also looks for his…

  5. The 13th Annual James L. Waters Symposium at Pittcon: Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrus, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the James L. Waters Annual Symposium is to recognize pioneers in the development of instrumentation by preserving the early history of the cooperation and important contributions of inventors, scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs, and marketing organizations. The symposium was held in Pittsburgh, United States in March 2002 to…

  6. 76 FR 78939 - James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ..., fishing, wildlife observation and photography, and environmental education and interpretation. We will... Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish...) and a finding of no significant impact for the environmental assessment for the James Campbell...

  7. Why bad Moods Matter. William James on Melancholy, Mystic Emotion, and the Meaning of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Pott (Heleen J.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWilliam James’s reputation in the field of emotion research is based on his early psychological writings where he defines emotions as ‘feelings of bodily changes’. In his later work, particularly in his study of mystic emotion (1902), James comes up with what looks like a completely

  8. Much Ado about Something? James Bryant Conant, Harvard University, and Nazi Germany in the 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Wayne J.; Smith, Marybeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the actions of noted Harvard University president James Bryant Conant, taken in regard to the Nazi government in Germany, from the time of Conant's becoming president of Harvard University in 1933 to the time of the widespread pogrom in Germany of 9-10 November 1938, known as Kristallnacht. Conant's attitudes and actions…

  9. Theories of Giftedness: Reflections on James Gallagher's Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Dr. James Gallagher published widely on most topics in gifted education, and was often invited to provide commentary on basic theories of giftedness for audiences of psychologists and educators. His own background as a psychologist and special educator as well as a gifted educator positioned him well to hold the theoretical views he did on the…

  10. Media, Digital Technology and Learning in Sport: A Critical Response to Hodkinson, Biesta and James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Eimear; Gard, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: In their 2008 paper, Hodkinson, Biesta and James draw on the sociological theories of Pierre Bourdieu to construct what they claim is a "holistic" theoretical framework for understanding learning. While not an attempt to dissolve the long-standing opposition between "cognitive" and "situated" theories, the…

  11. Bases do pensamento fenomenológico e existencial em William James

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Lopez Calvo de Feijoo

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, temos por objetivo investigar os fundamentos e as bases do pensamento fenomenológico e existencial advindos da Psicologia de William James no que diz respeito à noção de consciência, método e prática clínica. Para tanto, analisamos algumas obras de James e dividimos as suas propostas em três momentos distintos: pragmatismo, funcionalismo e empirismo. Por meio das elaborações em cada um desses momentos, tentamos esclarecer os pontos de encontro e os pontos de desencontro com os pensamentos fenomenológico e existencial. Concluímos que o ponto de encontro diz respeito à tentativa de não objetivação da consciência. Quanto ao desencontro, consideramos que James ainda toma a consciência como objeto da Psicologia e que a fenomenologia e as perspectivas existenciais se afastam da ideia de objeto, uma vez que não consideram a consciência contraposta ao mundo. Outro desencontro apresenta-se na acentuada divergência entre James e o pensamento fenomenológico e existencial no que se refere ao método e à prática bem como aos objetivos da clínica.

  12. Teacher Education at Oxford University: James Is Alive but Living in Karachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The arguments at Oxford about the start of teacher education within the University have been repeated many times and in many ways, not least in the 1972 James Committee. The strong advocacy there for much greater attention to, and investment in, continuing professional development may not have won the day in England, but, through the influence of…

  13. A Return to Love in William James and Jean-Luc Marion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    In this essay Samuel Rocha primarily addresses, and challenges, the modern conception of reason and the lowly place of intuition, feeling, and love in what has become traditional philosophy and education. Drawing upon the rich thought of William James and Jean-Luc Marion, Rocha introduces the reader to a certain harmony between their ideas, most…

  14. James Hutton's Geological Tours of Scotland: Romanticism, Literary Strategies, and the Scientific Quest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Rather than focussing on the relationship between science and literature, this article attempts to read scientific writing as literature. It explores a somewhat neglected element of the story of the emergence of geology in the late eighteenth century--James Hutton's unpublished accounts of the tours of Scotland that he undertook in the years…

  15. CLIC inner detectors cooling simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Ramos, F.; Villarejo Bermudez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The strict requirements in terms of material budget for the inner region of the CLIC detector concepts require the use of a dry gas for the cooling of the respective sen- sors. This, in conjunction with the compactness of the inner volumes, poses several challenges for the design of a cooling system that is able to fulfil the required detec- tor specifications. This note introduces a detector cooling strategy using dry air as a coolant and shows the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations used to validate the proposed strategy.

  16. CO$_2$ cooling experience (LHCb)

    CERN Document Server

    Van Lysebetten, Ann; Verlaat, Bart

    2007-01-01

    The thermal control system of the LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a two-phase C0$_2$ cooling system based on the 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) method. Liquid carbon dioxide is mechanically pumped in a closed loop, chilled by a water-cooled freon chiller and evaporated in the VELO detector. The main goal of the system is the permanent cooling of the VELO silicon sensors and of the heat producing front-end electronics inside a vacuum environment. This paper describes the design and the performance of the system. First results obtained during commissioning are also presented.

  17. Sympathetic Cooling of Quantum Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Meghana; Weimer, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the possibility of maximizing the cooling of a quantum simulator by controlling the system-environment coupling such that the system is driven into the ground state. We make use of various analytical tools such as effective operator formalism and the quantum master equations to exactly solve the model of an Ising spin chain consisting of N particles coupled to a radiation field. We maximize the cooling by finding the dependence of the effective rate of transitions of the various excited states into the ground state. We show that by adding a single dissipative qubit, we already get quite substantial cooling rates. Volkswagen Foundation, DFG.

  18. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  19. Passive low energy cooling of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Baruch

    1994-01-01

    A practical sourcebook for building designers, providing comprehensive discussion of the impact of basic architectural choices on cooling efficiency, including the layout and orientation of the structure, window size and shading, exterior color, and even the use of plantings around the site. All major varieties of passive cooling systems are presented, with extensive analysis of performance in different types of buildings and in different climates: ventilation; radiant cooling; evaporative cooling; soil cooling; and cooling of outdoor spaces.

  20. The poor in the Epistle of James and the Gospel of Thomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Hartin

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores similarities in the thought world of the Epistle of James and the Gospel of Thomas. Particular attention is devoted to the role that the 'poor' and 'poverty' play in both documents. For the Epistle of James it is 'the poor in the world that God has chosen to be rich in faith and heirs of the kingdom' (Ja 2:5.  In a similar vein, in the Gospel of Thomas the kingdom is promised to those who have embraced the poverty of a radical life-style: 'Blessed are the poor, for yours is the kingdom of heaven' (GTh 54. This outlook betrays a basic ethos adopted toward the world. In both the Epistle of James and the Gospel of Thomas the relationship to the world ultimately determines one's relationship to the kingdom or to God. For the Epistle of James the very definition of religion demands that one keep 'oneself unstained from  the world' (Ja 1 :27 and that 'friendship with the world' is enmity with God (Ja 4:4. For the Gospel of Thomas the rejection of the world involves a radical ethos that embraces an intinerant life ('Be passersby' [GTh 42J, which includes a rejection of wealth (GTh 63.'If you do not abstain from the world, you will not find the kingdom' (GTh 27. It is argued that the Gospel of Thomas and the Epistle of James reflect traditional sayings that endorse a similar ethos of radical discipleship.

  1. Advance in MEIC cooling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Ya. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Hutton, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Kimber, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Li, R. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Nissen, E. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, H. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Cooling of ion beams is essential for achieving a high luminosity for MEIC at Jefferson Lab. In this paper, we present the design concept of the electron cooling system for MEIC. In the design, two facilities are required for supporting a multi-staged cooling scheme; one is a 2 MeV DC cooler in the ion pre-booster; the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) ERL-circulator cooler in the collider ring. The simulation studies of beam dynamics in an ERL-circulator cooler are summarized and followed by a report on technology development for this cooler. We also discuss two proposed experiments for demonstrating high energy cooling with a bunched electron beam and the ERL-circulator cooler.

  2. Cooled Ceramic Turbine Vane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — N&R Engineering will investigate the feasibility of cooled ceramics, such as ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine blade concepts that can decrease specific...

  3. Lightweight Passive Microclimate Cooling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    adsorption of working fluid vapor is exo- thermic , so this chamber will reject heat to the environment and will be finned to promote natural convection...estimate of the cooling capacity. The water reservoir was immersed in one liter of water contained in an insulated vessel. A heater was placed in the...placed in a pocket in the vest, which has insulation on the outside. This arrangement limits the cooling lost to the outside. 22 SH-cULI)ER STRAP CKET

  4. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  5. 76 FR 7862 - Implementation of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-347)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Implementation of the James Zadroga 9/11... implementing the provisions of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-347...: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation...

  6. Determination of the Volatile Composition in Essential Oil of Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl (Flixweed) by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Yongquan Zheng; Jun Xu; Fengshou Dong; Xingang Liu; Jing Li; Weili Shan

    2010-01-01

    Exhaustive hydro-distillation of Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl (flixweed) collected from two different locations (Cangzhou city-Sample 1 and Beijing city-Sample 2) gave in both cases yellowish colored oils in 0.31 and 0.26% yield, respectively. Detailed chemical composition of the essential oils was analyzed by GC and GC/MS, and forty and thirty-eight compounds were identified. The results indicated that the most abundant component of Sample 1were cis-β-ocimene (20.1%), menthol (11.2...

  7. Impingement jet cooling in gas turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Due to the requirement for enhanced cooling technologies on modern gas turbine engines, advanced research and development has had to take place in field of thermal engineering. Impingement jet cooling is one of the most effective in terms of cooling, manufacturability and cost. This is the first to book to focus on impingement cooling alone.

  8. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  9. Cooled Low-Noise HEMT Microwave Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, J. Javier; Ortiz, Gerardo G.; Duh, Kuanghann George

    1992-01-01

    Prototype cooled low-noise microwave amplifiers based on high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT's) considered as replacements for cooled ruby masers used as low-noise receiver-front-end amplifiers in communications, radio science, radar systems, radio astronomy, and telemetry. HEMT amplifier operates at 12 K, requires less cooling power and operates at lower cost with simpler, more-reliable cooling system.

  10. New cooling regulation technology of secondary cooling station in DCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Yan, Jun-wei; Zhu, Dong-sheng; Liu, Fei-long; Lei, Jun-xi [The Key Lab of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Liang, Lie-quan [The Key Lab of E-Commerce Market Application Technology of Guangdong Province, Guangdong University of Business Studies, Guangzhou 510320 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a kind of new control technology of secondary cooling station (constant flow rate/variable temperature difference) in district cooling system (DCS) is proposed in view of serial consequences including low efficiency and high operating cost caused by low temperature of supply water in DCS. This technology has been applied in DCS of Guangzhou University City. The result has already indicated that such technology can increase the supply and return temperatures of buildings, return water temperature of primary side in the plate heat exchanger unit, moreover, the efficiency of both the chiller and the whole system are improved significantly. (author)

  11. Beam Cooling with ionisation losses

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo; Kadi, Y; Vlachoudis, V

    2006-01-01

    A novel type of particle "cooling", called Ionization Cooling, is applicable to slow (v of the order of 0.1c) ions stored in a small ring. The many traversals through a thin foil enhance the nuclear reaction probability, in a steady configuration in which ionisation losses are recovered at each turn by a RF-cavity. For a uniform target "foil" the longitudinal momentum spread diverges exponentially since faster (slower) particles ionise less (more) than the average. In order to "cool" also longitudinally, a chromaticity has to be introduced with a wedge shaped "foil". Multiple scattering and straggling are then "cooled" in all three dimensions, with a method similar to the one of synchrotron cooling, but valid for low energy ions. Particles then stably circulate in the beam indefinitely, until they undergo for instance nuclear processes in the thin target foil. This new method is under consideration for the nuclear production of a few MeV/A ion beams. Simple reactions, for instance Li 7 + D Li 8 + p, are more ...

  12. Analyzing the Myth of Gaia and the Ecocritical Point of View in Avatar, by James Cameron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Mezquita Fernández

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that Popular Culture contains a wide variety of myths. In Avatar, a representation of the Myth of Gaia can be distinguished in the world James Cameron created. However, the film can be also analyzed from an ecocritical point of view. Consequently, the following article will show, through such myth and also through James Lovelock’s hypothesis, how Gaia can be observed in Pandora and properly recognized in Eywa Goddess. According to Ecocriticism, Cameron’s view on Pandora is that in which defending the environment is the most relevant issue. The Na’vi, who is the weakest and oppressed group, will be able to overcome the difficulties and defeat the interests of a modern society focused on extracting natural resources at any cost.

  13. Affek van toe tot nou: Die erfenis van Herder, Schleiermacher en William James

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Dreyer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Affect then and now: The heritage of Herder, Schleiermacher and William James. The heritage of Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744�1803, Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768�1834 and William James (1842�1910 is of significance for practical theology. In present-day pastoral care, affect, emotion, feeling and experience are explored by means of, amongst others, narrative theories. In his aesthetics, Herder linked music and literature. Schleiermacher, in his aesthetics, linked his theology of feeling with biography as narrative. Narrativity is central to present-day are theories and praxis in pastoral care. The variety of forms of affect, namely emotion, experience, feeling and mood, has been explored by present-day psychology and psychiatry. These insights can enrich narrative pastoral theories and praxis.

  14. Leading Character?s Antisocial Personality Disorder In James B Stewart?s Blind Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Ayu

    2016-01-01

    110705043 The title of this thesis isLeading Character?s Antisocial Personality Disorder in James B Stewart?s Blind Eyethat is research about antisocial personality of leading character in the novel, namely Dr. Michael Swango. The purpose of this thesis is to find out characteristic of Swango that show he has antisocial personality disorder and to know the causes of his disorder. The writer refers to theory antisocial personality disorder that take in a research of APA (American Psychiatri...

  15. Depth Acuity Methodology for Electronic 3D Displays: eJames (eJ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Department...graphical representation of the two-bar stimuli and complicate cross-type comparisons. A compact variant of the James DPA developed by Howard made the... Holographic Video Display, HVD, Hogel 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17.LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 97

  16. Benthic diatoms (Bacillariophyta) from seepages and streams on James Ross Island (NW Weddell Sea, Antarctica)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopalová, K.; Veselá, J.; Elster, Josef; Nedbalová, Linda; Komárek, Jiří; Van de Vijver, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 145, č. 2 (2012), s. 190-208 ISSN 2032-3913 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 934; GA MŠk ME 945; GA ČR GA206/05/0253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : James Ross Island * Antarctic Peninsula * Bacillariophyceae Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.192, year: 2012

  17. Sense data and the philosophy of mind: Russell, James, and Mach

    OpenAIRE

    Hatfield, Gary

    2002-01-01

    The theory of knowledge in early twentieth-century Anglo American philosophy was oriented toward phenomenally described cognition There was a healthy respect for the mind body problem, which meant that phenomena in both the mental and physical domain were taken sinuously Bertrand Russell's developing position on sense-data and momentary particulars drew upon, and ultimately became like, the neutral monism of Ernst Mach and William James Due to a more recent behaviorist and physicalist inspire...

  18. Aventura ranch field: A classic stratigraphic trap - James Lime, Van Zandt County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A.; Palmer, J.T. (Palmer Petroleum, Inc., Shreveport, LA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Aventura Ranch field, found September 10, 1990, is the most recent significant James Lime discovery in the East Texas basin. Current estimates indicate recoverable reserves of 20 bcf of gas and 1.5 million bbl of condensate. The field represents a classic stratigraphic trap, formed by a facies change from downdip porous and permeable grainstones, terminating updip into carbonate mudstones, wackestones, and unrelated grainstones. The James Lime formation consists of poorly sorted, low-porosity lime wackestone/mudstones, and well-sorted reservoir lime grainstones. The reservoir consists of two facies: (1) skeletal grainstones, and (2) oolitic grainstones. The skeletal grainstones are interpreted as deposits adjacent to the James Lime reef core. The oolitic grainstones were deposited as high-energy shoals or bars in shallow, agitated water, possible paralleling the skeletal grainstones adjacent of the reef. Both interparticle and intraparticle porosity are present in the grainstone facies. Microporosity also is evident and is responsible for suppressing most of the induction log resistivity throughout the field. Resistivity as low as 1.5 ohms is found to be hydrocarbon productive. Subsequent to the development of the Fairway field, a large James Lime stratigraphic trap had been sought for many years, resulting in only the minor discovery of North Athens field. Several dry holes had been drilled amazingly close to the currently productive area. Perseverance and persistence finally paid off with the discovery of Aventura Ranch field. Currently, the field is producing 6 million ft[sup 3] of gas and 425 bbl of condensate a day.

  19. Alcohol consumption among pregnant women in James Town Community, Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Da Pilma Lekettey, Joanita; Dako-Gyeke, Phyllis; Agyemang, Samuel Agyei; Aikins, Moses

    2017-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption among pregnant women is a public health concern, considering its adverse outcomes for both mother and the developing foetus. This study examined factors that facilitate prenatal alcohol consumption, knowledge of adverse outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure and alcohol expenditure among pregnant women in an urban community in Ghana. Methods In June 2014, a survey was conducted among 250 pregnant women sampled from James Town, an urban community in the Greater Ac...

  20. Kroll, Murakami, and Seneviratne Receive 2013 James B. Macelwane Medals: Citation for Motohiko Murakami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The James B. Macelwane Medal of AGU is presented to Motohiko Murakami for his discovery of the postperovskite phase of MgSiO3, for a new class of sound velocity measurements under lower mantle pressure-temperature conditions that have changed our view of whole-Earth chemistry, and for other fundamental contributions that have furthered our understanding of the Earth's deep interior.

  1. PILGRIMAGE AND RELIGIOUS TOURISM ON THE WAY OF ST. JAMES – THE FIRST EUROPEAN CULTURAL ROUTE

    OpenAIRE

    Mróz, Franciszek; Mróz, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    Since last two decades we notice an intensive growth of the pilgrimage movement along the Way os St. James. This route connecting furthests places in Europe and ending in Santiago de Compostela is based on a medieval transportation route called The Royal Route – Via Regia. The route exists for over 1000 years and is constantly developed thanks to actions taken by the authorities of the Catholic Church, governments and non-government organizations, as well as numerous enthusiastics of the Way ...

  2. Simulated Measurements of Cooling in Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford; Snopok, Pavel [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Cooled muon beams set the basis for the exploration of physics of flavour at a Neutrino Factory and for multi-TeV collisions at a Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) measures beam emittance before and after an ionization cooling cell and aims to demonstrate emittance reduction in muon beams. In the current MICE Step IV configuration, the MICE muon beam passes through low-Z absorber material for reducing its transverse emittance through ionization energy loss. Two scintillating fiber tracking detectors, housed in spectrometer solenoid modules upstream and downstream of the absorber are used for reconstructing position and momentum of individual muons for calculating transverse emittance reduction. However, due to existence of non-linear effects in beam optics, transverse emittance growth can be observed. Therefore, it is crucial to develop algorithms that are insensitive to this apparent emittance growth. We describe a different figure of merit for measuring muon cooling which is the direct measurement of the phase space density.

  3. The New English: Hot Stuff or Cool, Man, Cool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Robert W.

    1971-01-01

    The new English, the cool English, requires that teachers and students alike become learners in the quest for the understanding of language. McLuhan speaks directly to all English teachers, and provides insights into the crucial changes in communication that are now going on. (Author)

  4. New Approaches to Final Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab

    2014-11-10

    A high-energy muon collider scenario require a “final cooling” system that reduces transverse emittances by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

  5. Photoexcitation and cooling of positronium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermer, C.D.; Howell, R.H.; Jones, K.M.; Liang, E.P.; Magnotta, F.; Ziock, K.P.

    1988-08-01

    Our demonstration of multiple-photon resonant cycling between the 1/sup 3/S and 2/sup 3/P states of ortho-Positronium (oPs) makes possible the production of cold positronium (Ps) through the technique of laser cooling. A simplified analysis of magnetic mixing in excited-state Ps is given. This effect is important both as a diagnostic of resonant cycling and Ps cooling. The significance of cold Ps in fine structure measurements and the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate is discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Cultural Resources Survey and Monitoring of Joint Task Force Six (JTF-6) Actions in Webb, Zapata, Dimmit, La Salle, Duvall, and Jim Hogg Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    the Texas Archeological Society 34:5-30. Fitzpatrick, W.S., J. Fitzpatrick, and T.N. Campbell 1964 A Rockport Black-on-Gray Vessel from the Vicinity...Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio. Fox, A.A., S.L. Black, and S. James 1979 Intensive Survey and Testing of

  7. How to Cool the Planet by Jeff Goodell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, J.

    2010-12-01

    How to Cool the Planet is a narrative about the radical and controversial world of geoengineering - the deliberate, large-scale manipulation of the earth’s climate to reduce the risk of global warming. Unlike other books on this subject, it is not a polemic or historical review. It is the story of the author, a best-selling author and journalist for the New York Times Magazine, Rolling Stone, and other publications, to answer a not-so-simple question: is geoengineering a crazy idea or not? To answer this question, the author sets out on a quest to talk with - and test the sanity of - the leading scientists in this field, from David Keith, a physicist at the University of Calgary, to James Lovelock, independent scientist best known for his Gaia theory. Along the way, Goodell explores the science behind ideas like cloud brightening and the injection of sulfur particles into the stratosphere to deflect sunlight. But he is equally interested in the moral and ethical issues behind these ideas, as well the hopes and fears of the scientists who are exploring them. In the end, the book is a kind of radical experiment itself, exploring the not just the complexities of an emerging field of science, but the complexities of communicating such audacious thinking to non-scientific readers.

  8. The potential for contaminant exposure to bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) of the James River, Virginia: Prey contaminant studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The James River, Virginia has one of the largest concentrations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on the east coast of the United States. Fish constitute up...

  9. On synthesis and optimization of cooling water systems with multiple cooling towers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available minimization, which incorporates the performances of the cooling towers involved. The study focuses mainly on cooling systems consisting of multiple cooling towers that supply a common set of heat exchangers. The heat exchanger network is synthesized using...

  10. Cool dust and baby stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eales, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The helium that is cooling its camera is about to run out, but the data from the Herschel Space Observatory, which is designed to study how stars and galaxies form, are likely to keep sub-millimetre-wavelength astronomers busy for years to come. Steve Eales explains.

  11. Heat recovery with milk cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindt, P.

    1980-01-01

    Considerable enregy costs in the milk industry come from hot water preparation. Simultaneously, surplus heat results from the milk cooling process. Heat recovery systems are described, and cost benefits will be compared with investment costs. Such systems work economically for operations with more than 25 cows; the amortization period here is between four and five years.

  12. A cool present for LEIR

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    LEIR (Low Energy Ion Ring), which will supply lead ions to the LHC experiments, has taken delivery of one of its key components, its electron cooling system. From left to right, Gérard Tranquille, Virginia Prieto and Roland Sautier, in charge of the electron cooling system for LEIR at CERN, and Christian Lacroix, in charge of installation for the LEIR machine. On 16 December, the day before CERN's annual closure, the LEIR teams received a rather impressive Christmas present. The "parcel" from Russia, measuring 7 metres in length and 4 metres in height, weighed no less than 20 tonnes! The component will, in fact, be one of the key elements of the future LEIR, namely its electron cooling system. LEIR is one of the links in the injector chain that will supply lead ions to the LHC experiments, in particular ALICE (see Bulletin No. 28/2004 of 5 July 2004), within the framework of the I-LHC Project. The electron cooling system is designed to reduce and standardise transverse ion velocity. This focuses the bea...

  13. Cool Runnings For String 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    String 2 is a series of superconducting magnets that are prototypes of those which will be installed in the LHC. It was cooled down to 1.9 Kelvin on September 14th. On Thursday last week, the dipoles of String 2 were successfully taken to nominal current, 11850 A.

  14. Solar-powered cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-12-24

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

  15. International Ventilation Cooling Application Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzer, Peter; Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; OSullivan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The currently running International Energy Agency, Energy and Conservation in Buildings, Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling (VC) project, is coordinating research towards extended use of VC. Within this Annex 62 the joint research activity of International VC Application Database has been carried out, ...

  16. Multi-pass cooling for turbine airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, George [Palm City, FL

    2011-06-28

    An airfoil for a turbine vane of a gas turbine engine. The airfoil includes an outer wall having pressure and suction sides, and a radially extending cooling cavity located between the pressure and suction sides. A plurality of partitions extend radially through the cooling cavity to define a plurality of interconnected cooling channels located at successive chordal locations through the cooling cavity. The cooling channels define a serpentine flow path extending in the chordal direction. Further, the cooling channels include a plurality of interconnected chambers and the chambers define a serpentine path extending in the radial direction within the serpentine path extending in the chordal direction.

  17. Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin; Ekkad, Srinath

    2012-01-01

    FundamentalsNeed for Turbine Blade CoolingTurbine-Cooling TechnologyTurbine Heat Transfer and Cooling IssuesStructure of the BookReview Articles and Book Chapters on Turbine Cooling and Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 2010ReferencesTurbine Heat TransferIntroductionTurbine-Stage Heat TransferCascade Vane Heat-Transfer ExperimentsCascade Blade Heat TransferAirfoil Endwall Heat TransferTurbine Rotor Blade Tip Heat TransferLeading-Edge Region Heat TransferFlat-Surface Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 20102.10 ClosureReferencesTurbine Film CoolingIntroductionFilm Cooling on Rotat

  18. Cooling tower selection and installation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristowe, K.

    1981-02-01

    Conserving and recycling water in industrial plants cooling towers are discussed. The fundamental principles of a cooling tower are explained by considering a droplet of water inside a cooling tower. The need for correct wet bulb selection for a given re-cooled water temperature in order to choose the proper cooling tower size is discussed. Site considerations, which are mainly dependent on the piping requirements and pump placements, are presented. Benefits of various types of pack and maintenance for cooling towers are discussed. (MCW)

  19. A combined capillary cooling system for cooling fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ana Paula; Pelizza, Pablo Rodrigo; Galante, Renan Manozzo; Bazzo, Edson [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (LabCET/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], Emails: ana@labcet.ufsc.br, pablo@labcet.ufsc.br, renan@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br

    2010-07-01

    The operation temperature control has an important influence over the PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) performance. A two-phase heat transfer system is proposed as an alternative for cooling and thermal control of PEMFC. The proposed system consists of a CPL (Capillary Pumped Loop) connected to a set of constant conductance heat pipes. In this work ceramic wick and stainless mesh wicks have been used as capillary structure of the CPL and heat pipes, respectively. Acetone has been used as the working fluid for CPL and deionized water for the heat pipes. Experimental results of three 1/4 inch stainless steel outlet diameter heats pipes and one CPL have been carried out and presented in this paper. Further experiments are planned coupling the proposed cooling system to a module which simulates the fuel cell. (author)

  20. Beam cooling with ionization losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubbia, C. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia (Italy) and CERN AB Department, Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Carlo.Rubbia@cern.ch; Ferrari, A. [CERN AB Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Kadi, Y. [CERN AB Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Vlachoudis, V. [CERN AB Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2006-12-01

    This novel type of Ionization Cooling is an effective method in order to enhance the (strong) interaction probability of slow (few MeV/A) ions stored in a small ring. The many traversals through a thin target strongly improve the nuclear reaction rate with respect to a single-pass collision, in a steady configuration in which ionization losses of a target 'foil' (typically few hundred {mu}g/cm{sup 2} thick) are continuously recovered by an RF-cavity. With a flat foil, betatron oscillations are 'cooled', but the momentum spread diverges exponentially, since faster (slower) particles ionize less (more) than the average. In order to 'cool' the beam also longitudinally, a chromaticity has to be introduced with a wedge-shaped 'foil'. Therefore, in equilibrium conditions, multiple scattering and straggling are both balanced by phase-space compression. Classic Ionization Cooling [A.A. Kolomensky, Atomnaya Energiya 19 (1965) 534; Yu.M. Ado, V.I. Balbekov, Atomnaya Energiya 31(1) (1971) 40-44; A.N. Skrinsky, V.V. Parkhomchuk, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 12 (1981) 3; E.A. Perevendentsev, A.N. Skrinsky, in: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on High Energy Acceleration, 1983, p. 485] is designed to cool the direct beam until it has been compressed and extracted for further use. In practice, this limits its applicability to non-interacting muon beams. Instead, in this new method, applicable to strongly interacting collisions, the circulating beam is not extracted. Ionization cooling provides 'in situ' storage of the beam until it is converted by a nuclear interaction with the target. Simple reactions-for instance {sup 7}Li+D->{sup 8}Li+p-are more favourably produced in the 'mirror' kinematical frame, namely with a heavier ion colliding against a gas-jet D{sub 2} target. Kinematics is generally very favourable, with angles in a narrow angular cone (around {approx}10{sup o} for the mentioned reaction) and with a

  1. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  2. A review of photovoltaic cells cooling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubeer Swar A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights different cooling techniques to reduce the operating temperature of the PV cells. This review paper focuses on the improvement of the performance of the small domestic use PV systems by keeping the temperature of the cells as low as possible and uniform. Different cooling techniques have been investigated experimentally and numerically the impact of the operating temperature of the cells on the electrical and thermal performance of the PV systems. The advantages and disadvantages of ribbed wall heat sink cooling, array air duct cooling installed beneath the PV panel, water spray cooling technique and back surface water cooling are examined in this paper to identify their effective impact on the PV panel performance. It was identified that the water spray cooling system has a proper impact on the PV panel performance. So the water cooling is one way to enhance the electrical efficiency of the PV panel.

  3. Lattice Regenerative Cooling Methods (LRCM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate a novel cooling concept called Lattice Regenerative Cooling Methods (LRCM) for future high thrust in-space propulsion...

  4. Optimization of electron cooling in the Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A.; Burov, A.; Carlson, K.; Prost, L.R.; Sutherland, M.; Warner, A.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Antiprotons in Fermilab's Recycler ring are cooled by a 4.3 MeV, 0.1A DC electron beam (as well as by a stochastic cooling system). The paper describes electron cooling improvements recently implemented: adjustments of electron beam line quadrupoles to decrease the electron angles in the cooling section and better stabilization and control of the electron energy.

  5. Antiproton cooling in the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaitsev, S.; Bolshakov, A.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, Alexey V.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kazakevich, G.; Kramper, B.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G; Schmidt, C.W.; Seletskiy, S.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; Zenkevich, P.; /Fermilab /Moscow, ITEP /Novosibirsk, IYF /Rochester U.

    2005-12-01

    The 8.9-GeV/c Recycler antiproton storage ring is equipped with both stochastic and electron cooling systems. These cooling systems are designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. In this paper we report on an experimental demonstration of electron cooling of high-energy antiprotons. At the time of writing this report, the Recycler electron cooling system is routinely used in collider operations. It has helped to set recent peak luminosity records.

  6. Information technology equipment cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  7. System for cooling a cabinet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    of heat transfer fluid and connected between said one or more cold side heat exchangers and the cold side of the magnetic regenerator, wherein the cooling system is configured to provide a first flow cycle of said heat transfer fluid between the cold store reservoir, the magnetic regenerator and the hot...... side heat exchanger adapted to transfer thermal energy from the cold store reservoir to the hot side heat exchanger,; and at least a second flow cycle of said heat transfer fluid between the cold store reservoir and said one or more cold side heat exchangers adapted to transfer thermal energy from said......The present disclosure relates to a cooling system comprising an active magnetic regenerator having a cold side and a hot side, a hot side heat exchanger connected to the hot side of the magnetic regenerator, one or more cold side heat exchangers, and a cold store reservoir comprising a volume...

  8. Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.; Holloman, Harry; Koester, Steven

    2017-08-29

    A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channel connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.

  9. Ionization cooling ring for muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palmer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical ionization cooling rings could lead to lower cost or improved performance in neutrino factory or muon collider designs. The ring modeled here uses realistic three-dimensional fields. The performance of the ring compares favorably with the linear cooling channel used in the second U.S. Neutrino Factory Study. The normalized 6D emittance of an ideal ring is decreased by a factor of approximately 240, compared with a factor of only 15 for the linear channel. We also examine such real-world effects as windows on the absorbers and rf cavities and leaving empty lattice cells for injection and extraction. For realistic conditions the ring decreases the normalized 6D emittance by a factor of 49.

  10. Flat structure cooled detector assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Nathalie; Coutures, Bernard; Gerin, Nicolas; Reale, S.; Guille, B.

    1994-07-01

    Long wavelength IR detectors need to be cooled at cryogenic temperature to achieve high performances. This specific need makes it difficult to integrate the detector because of high cost of dewar and cooling device designed to fulfill severe vibration conditions. A new era for IR detection could begin with flat structures allowing intrinsic vibration resistance for detectors to be plugged on electronics board. Sofradir has carried out a study about feasibility of detector dewar assembly including a flat Joule-Thomson cooler with porous heat exchanger in cooperation with Air Liquide. The aim of this paper is to put forward the interest of such a product. The very good results achieved demonstrate a promising future for such flat structure detector assembly.

  11. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Laboratory O&M operations and maintenance OA outdoor air OAT outside air temperature PSZ packaged single zone RA return air RAT return air...Barracks 29 Headquarters 17 Offices 5.7 Hospital 4.6 Retail space 1.8 Commissaries 0.9 The OATs are typically 80°–90°F during the cooling season...units were installed across five facilities at Fort Carson, including a training center (classrooms), auditorium, events center, a digester facility

  12. THE INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    ICE was built during 1977, in a record time of 9 months, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring (see 7405430). ICE was a proton and antiproton storage ring, built to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project to be launched in 1978. More on the ICE experimental programme with 7802099. See also 7809081, 7908242.

  13. Renewables for Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This timely report examines the technologies, current markets and relative costs for heat and cold production using biomass, geothermal and solar-assisted systems. It evaluates a range of national case studies and relevant policies. Should the successful and more cost-effective policies be implemented by other countries, then the relatively untapped economic potential of renewable energy heating and cooling systems could be better realised, resulting in potential doubling of the present market within the next few years.

  14. Coherent electron cooling demonstration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brutus, J.C.; Fedotov, A.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Meng, W.; McIntyre, G.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Pinayev, I.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Sheehy, B.; Tepikian, S.; Than, R.; Trbojevic, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G.; Poelker, M.; Rimmer, R.; Bruhwiler, D.; Abell, D.T.; Nieter, C.; Ranjbar, V.; Schwartz, B.; Kholopov M.; Shevchenko, O.; McIntosh, P.; Wheelhouse, A.

    2011-09-04

    Coherent electron cooling (CEC) has a potential to significantly boost luminosity of high-energy, high-intensity hadron-hadron and electron-hadron colliders. In a CEC system, a hadron beam interacts with a cooling electron beam. A perturbation of the electron density caused by ions is amplified and fed back to the ions to reduce the energy spread and the emittance of the ion beam. To demonstrate the feasibility of CEC we propose a proof-of-principle experiment at RHIC using SRF linac. In this paper, we describe the setup for CeC installed into one of RHIC's interaction regions. We present results of analytical estimates and results of initial simulations of cooling a gold-ion beam at 40 GeV/u energy via CeC. We plan to complete the program in five years. During first two years we will build coherent electron cooler in IP2 of RHIC. In parallel we will develop complete package of computer simulation tools for the start-to-end simulation predicting exact performance of a CeC. The later activity will be the core of Tech X involvement into the project. We will use these tools to predict the performance of our CeC device. The experimental demonstration of the CeC will be undertaken in years three to five of the project. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the cooling of ion beam and to compare its measured performance with predictions made by us prior to the experiments.

  15. Soil micromorphology, geochemistry and microbiology at two sites on James Ross Island, Maritime Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Lars A.; Krauze, Patryk; Prater, Isabel; Scholten, Thomas; Wagner, Dirk; Kühn, Peter; Mueller, Carsten W.

    2017-04-01

    Referring to the fundamental question in ecosystem research, how biotic and abiotic processes interact, only a few studies exist for polar regions that integrate microbiological and soil scientific studies . Soils comprise the complex structure and environment that fosters water storage and nutrient cycling determined by its unique chemical, physical and biological properties with respect to the specific climate and parent material. In the extreme environment of Antarctica, soil biological processes are primarily controlled by microbial communities (Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi), and thus microbiota may also determine soils chemical and physical properties in a landscape lacking higher plants at an average air temperature below 0°C. James Ross Island, Maritime Antarctica, offers a pristine laboratory and an exceptional opportunity to study pedogenesis without the influence of vascular plants and burrowing animals. We analysed micromorphological features, chemical and microbiological measures at two sites on James Ross Island (Brandy Bay and St. Martha Cove) with similar substrates (mostly fine-grained calcareous sandstones and siltstones of the Alpha Member of the Santa Martha Formation with varying amounts of conglomerates and mudstones) at similar topographic positions (small plateaus at similar elevation (80m a.s.l.)). The sites represent luv- and leeward conditions with respect to the main southwesterly winds. The climate on James Ross Island is to be described as semi-arid polar-continental, which is in clear contrast to the Southern Shetlands (e.g. King George Island) north of the Antarctic Peninsula. We will present first results of soil physical (bulk density, soil moisture and grains size distribution), pedochemical (SOC, total N and S, pH, CECeff, and pedogenic oxides) micromorphological and microbial analyses (Microbial DNA content, microbial abundances).

  16. Classical interaction of a magnet and a point charge: the Shockley-James paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Timothy H

    2015-01-01

    It is pointed out that the interaction of a magnet and a point charge has not been properly understood because the mutual interactions of the magnet's current carriers have been neglected. The magnet-point-charge interaction is important for understanding some theoretical paradoxes, such as the Shockley-James paradox, and for interpreting some experimentally observed effects, such as the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher phase shifts. Coleman and Van Vleck provide a discussion of the Shockley-James paradox where they note that internal relativistic mechanical momentum (hidden momentum) can be carried by the current carriers of the magnet. Although internal mechanical momentum is indeed dominant for noninteracting particles moving in a closed orbit under the influence of an external electric field, the presence of interactions among the magnet's current carriers leads to an internal electromagnetic momentum, which does not seem to be recognized in the physics literature. In the interacting multiparticle situation, the external charge induces an electrostatic polarization of the magnet, which leads to an internal electromagnetic momentum in the magnet where both the electric and magnetic fields for the momentum are contributed by the magnet particles. This internal electromagnetic momentum for the interacting multiparticle situation is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction compared to the familiar external electromagnetic momentum where the electric field is contributed by the external charged particle and the magnetic field is that due to the magnet. In the present article, the momentum balance of the Shockley-James situation for a system of a magnet and a point charge is calculated in detail for a magnet model consisting of two interacting point charges, which are constrained to move in a circular orbit on a frictionless ring with a compensating negative charge at the center.

  17. 46 CFR 119.420 - Engine cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine cooling. 119.420 Section 119.420 Shipping COAST... Machinery Requirements § 119.420 Engine cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all engines must be water cooled and meet the requirements of this paragraph. (1) The engine head...

  18. 46 CFR 182.420 - Engine cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine cooling. 182.420 Section 182.420 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.420 Engine cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section, all engines must be water cooled and meet...

  19. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available is synthesized using the mathematical optimization technique. This technique is based on superstructure in which all opportunities for cooling water reuse are explored. The cooling tower model is used to predict the thermal performance of the cooling towers....

  20. A Compact 6D Muon Cooling Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, Harold G; Garren, Albert A; Kahn, Stephen A; Mills, Frederick E

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a conceptual design for a compact muon cooling system based on a weak-focusing ring loaded with high-pressure Hydrogen gas. We demonstrate that such a ring will be capable of cooling a circulating muon beam in each of the three spatial dimensions so that 6d cooling of the muon beam phase space is achieved.

  1. Early developments in solar cooling equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description of a development program to design, fabricate and field test a series of solar operated or driven cooling devices, undertaken by the Marshall Space Flight Center in the context of the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974, is presented. Attention is given to two basic design concepts: the Rankine cycle principle and the use of a dessicant for cooling.

  2. Stochastic Cooling with Schottky Band Overlap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Valeri; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    Optimal use of stochastic cooling is essential to maximize the antiproton stacking rate for Tevatron Run II. Good understanding and characterization of the cooling is important for the optimization. The paper is devoted to derivation of the Fokker-Planck equations justified in the case of near or full Schottky base overlap for both longitudinal and transverse coolings.

  3. Elastocaloric cooling materials and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    We are actively pursuing applications of thermoelastic (elastocaloric) cooling using shape memory alloys. Latent heat associated with martensitic transformation of shape memory alloys can be used to run cooling cycles with stress-inducing mechanical drives. The coefficient of performance of thermoelastic cooling materials can be as high as 11 with the directly measured DT of around 17 °C. Depending on the stress application mode, the number of cycles to fatigue can be as large as of the order of 105. Efforts to design and develop thermoelastic alloys with long fatigue life will be discussed. The current project at the University of Maryland is focused on development of building air-conditioners, and at Maryland Energy and Sensor Technologies, smaller scale commercial applications are being pursued. This work is carried out in collaboration with Jun Cui, Yiming Wu, Suxin Qian, Yunho Hwang, Jan Muehlbauer, and Reinhard Radermacher, and it is funded by the ARPA-E BEETIT program and the State of Maryland.

  4. High Performance Torso Cooling Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bruce; Makinen, Janice

    2016-01-01

    The concept proposed in this paper is to improve thermal efficiencies of the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) in the torso area, which could facilitate removal of LCVG tubing from the arms and legs, thereby increasing suited crew member mobility. EVA space suit mobility in micro-gravity is challenging, and it becomes even more challenging in the gravity of Mars. By using shaped water tubes that greatly increase the contact area with the skin in the torso region of the body, the heat transfer efficiency can be increased. This increase in efficiency could provide the required liquid cooling via torso tubing only; no arm or leg LCVG tubing would be required. Benefits of this approach include increased crewmember mobility, enhanced evaporation cooling, increased comfort during Mars EVA tasks, and easing of the overly dry condition in the helmet associated with the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) ventilation loop currently under development. This report describes analysis and test activities performed to evaluate the potential improvements to the thermal performance of the LCVG. Analyses evaluated potential tube shapes for improving the thermal performance of the LCVG. The analysis results fed into the selection of flat flow strips to improve thermal contact with the skin of the suited test subject. Testing of small segments was performed to compare thermal performance of the tubing approach of the current LCVG to the flat flow strips proposed as the new concept. Results of the testing is presented along with recommendations for future development of this new concept.

  5. Astronomy cool women in space

    CERN Document Server

    Yasuda, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Head outside and look up. What do you see? At night you might see stars, the moon, the Milky Way, and planets! During the day all these things will still be there, but they'll be hidden by the bright light of the sun. Astronomy is the study of celestial objects and what's beyond the nebulous boundaries of space. In Astronomy: Cool Women in Space, young readers will be inspired by stories of women who have made great strides in a field that takes courage, persistence, and creativity to pursue. Most people have heard of Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking, but have you heard of Maria Mitchell or Caroline Herschel? For many decades, female astronomers have been defining the field by making discoveries that changed the human relationship with space. Astronomy: Cool Women in Space will introduce young readers to three women who are bringing the science of astronomy forward and inspiring the next generation of astronomers. The primary sources, essentials questions, and knowledge connections within Astronomy: Cool Women ...

  6. James Parkinson and his essay on "shaking palsy", two hundred years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Sánchez, Leonardo; Torres Nupan, Martha; Botero-Meneses, Juan Sebastián

    2017-09-01

    In 1817, British physician James Parkinson published a 66-page document entitled "Essay on the Shaking Palsy". This brief text became a classical and fundamental piece in the history of medicine and, in particular, of neurology. The authors of this article wish to pay tribute to this great pioneer of neurology, 200 years after the publication of his findings, which would, in turn, immortalize his name and give rise to the renaming on the entity in 1860 by Professor Jean Martin Charcot, father of neurology. It would be known, henceforth as Parkinson's disease.

  7. James Steuart: as questões heterodoxas de um economista político conservador

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Mello de Malta

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho busca apresentar as principais questões trazidas pela obra de James Steuart ao pensamento heterodoxo atual. Os trabalhos de Steuart sobre economia política possuem a marca da dualidade. Tal dualidade em seu pensamento o condenou ao ocaso em sua época e à vala comum do mercantilismo por parte da história do pensamento econômico tradicional, mas também foi a riqueza de sua obra. Este artigo procura explorar essa característica dual da obra de Steuart para conectá-la com as releitu...

  8. Buhler, James. Neumeyer, David. Deemer, Rob. Hearing the Movies: Music and Sound in Film History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Silveira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available James Buhler et David Neumeyer sont certainement les auteurs les plus importants à publier sur l’analyse de la musique de film depuis les années quatre-vingt-dix aux Etats-Unis. Entre autres contributions, ils ont édité ensemble (avec Caryl Flinn Music and Cinema, un livre consacré aux différentes perspectives de l’étude de la musique de film. Tous les deux sont professeurs de théorie musicale à l’école de musique de l’université du Texas à Austin (Neumeyer étant aussi professeur à Leslie Wa...

  9. The Darkness In Kill Me If You Can By James Patterson And Marshall Karp

    OpenAIRE

    Masriyanto, Oktivani

    2015-01-01

    This paper entitled is about "The Darkness in Kill Me If You Can By James Patterso & Marshall Karp" discusses the process of darkness depicted in the novel Kill Me If You Can. What is meant by the author of darkness is all that was not good, well it reflected in the character of a person or the plans and actions. So which is described by the author in his novel is Matthew Bannon is an art student and former Marine, at the time of the murders in Grand Central Station. He was at the scene, and ...

  10. The varieties of sick experience: Nietzsche, james, and the art of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirth, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe um diálogo entre William James e Friedrich Nietzsche acerca da natureza da doença e sua superação ou convalescença. À primeira vista, seria uma tolice reconciliar o renascimento religioso com a convalescença que levou Nietzsche à "grande saúde. " A fim de tentar ir além desta insensatez, consideremos cuidadosamente o locus onde a saúde emerge para ambos pensadores. A discussão é motivada, ademais, por um interesse no destino da religião após a morte de Deus

  11. The medical science fiction of James White: Inside and Outside Sector General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard

    2016-12-01

    James White was a Northern Irish science fiction author working in the subgenre of medical science fiction from the mid-1950s to the end of the twentieth century. The aim of this article is to introduce White to scholars working in the medical humanities, pointing to features of interest and critiquing the more excessive utopian impulses of the author. The article covers White's Sector General series, set on a vast intergalactic hospital, as well as the author's standalone fictions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. A portrait of the artist James Joyce as a young man

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Elkin Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    La confrontación de algunas lecciones del Seminario XXIII de Jacques Lacan con El retrato del artista adolescente de James Joyce, que fue una de las fuentes de Lacan, da por resultado sorprendente cómo la obra plasma a Joyce adolescente, encontrando los anudamientos allí donde la forclusión del Nombre del Padre no le permitía responder y podría dar lugar a desenganches que lo harían desencadenar su psicosis. No obstante, con su obra iba construyendo poco a poco una obra que le sirvió de Sinth...

  13. Award for Distinguished Contributions to the Applications of Psychology: James W. Pennebaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology is presented to a person who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, has made distinguished theoretical or empirical advances leading to the understanding or amelioration of important practical problems. The 2016 recipient is James W. Pennebaker, whose research on the therapeutic benefits of expressive writing and the computer-based analysis of everyday language have affected most theoretical and applied areas of psychology. His award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Submillimeter observations of the sun from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.A.; Yee, S.; Roellig, T.L.; Hills, R.; Brock, D. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA) NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA) Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, Cambridge (England) Joint Astronomy Centre, Hilo, HI (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The first submillimeter solar observations from the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea are reported. The JCMT submillimeter heterodyne receiver is used to observe the sun in 850 micron radiation. These are the first submillimeter observations of features on the size scale of the chromospheric supergranular network and of sunspots. A comparison is made between 850 micron images and calcium K line images of the chromospheric supergranular network in the quiet sun and in plage. Images of sunspots are given, noting that their 850 micron brightness is comparable to, or somewhat greater than, that of the quiet sun. 7 refs.

  15. Submillimeter observations of the sun from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Charles A.; Yee, Selwyn; Roellig, Thomas L.; Hills, Richard; Brock, David

    1990-01-01

    The first submillimeter solar observations from the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea are reported. The JCMT submillimeter heterodyne receiver is used to observe the sun in 850 micron radiation. These are the first submillimeter observations of features on the size scale of the chromospheric supergranular network and of sunspots. A comparison is made between 850 micron images and calcium K line images of the chromospheric supergranular network in the quiet sun and in plage. Images of sunspots are given, noting that their 850 micron brightness is comparable to, or somewhat greater than, that of the quiet sun.

  16. Confronting empty spaces: between interpretation and experience in "The Turn of the Screw" by Henry James

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Spinelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Turn of the Screw by Henry James has inspired the most various critical debates for over a century. What is hidden in the folds of the story? What kind of impact does it have on the reader? Like a borderless nebula who attracts and reflects light from other stars, this novella is permeated by a vide fascinant, by a chaotic and disturbing matter “such stuff as dreams are made”. This feeling of absence and uncertainty, that characterizes the story, developed trough the contribution of readers and critics and it found a further still precious echo in The Innocents, a film directed by Jack Clayton in 1961.

  17. Case of Swyer-James syndrome. In relation to the etiologic and physiological aspect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu; Ohtani, Naoshi; Kimura, Sohichi; Izuchi, Rokuro; Iio, Masaaki (National Sanatorium of Nakano, Tokyo (Japan)); Fujinami, Kenji

    1982-09-01

    Infantile infections are thought to constitute one of the main bases of the etiology of Swyer-James syndrome. This case seems to support the above theory allowing for the anamnesis of the pleuritis at 2 years of age, bronchographical findings - bilateral but markedly left-sided bud-like bronchiectatic changes - and left pulmonary angiographical findings - simultaneous appearance of pulmonary arteries and veins with scarce capillary image. Concerning the ventilation of this syndrome, /sup 133/Xe inhalation test showed a ''Pendelluft'' phenomenon, shift of /sup 133/Xe from the healthy to the affected lung on forced expiration.

  18. La Redención del Egotismo: James y Proust como Ejercicios Espirituales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Rorty

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de la recomendaciones de Harold Bloom sobre qué leer y por qué, se plantea que la literatura imaginativa, más que la argumentativa, es la manera más eficiente de alcanzar una autonomía intelectual. Una clase de autonomía que lo libera a uno de formas de pensamiento esterotipadas sobre los seres humanos. Luego estos planteamiento se extrapoldan a los escritores James y Proust como ejemplos de creadores de obras liberadoras del egotismo.

  19. James Parkinson and his essay on “shaking palsy”, two hundred years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Palacios-Sánchez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In 1817, British physician James Parkinson published a 66-page document entitled “Essay on the Shaking Palsy”. This brief text became a classical and fundamental piece in the history of medicine and, in particular, of neurology. The authors of this article wish to pay tribute to this great pioneer of neurology, 200 years after the publication of his findings, which would, in turn, immortalize his name and give rise to the renaming on the entity in 1860 by Professor Jean Martin Charcot, father of neurology. It would be known, henceforth as Parkinson’s disease.

  20. Religious Experience and its Essentialism in William James and Ghazzali’s Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ebadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Religious experience is an approach to which Western thinkers are considered pioneers among whom Schleiermacher is the most prominent. "The essentialism of religious experience" is one of the several approaches that have been adopted in the case of religious experience. Accordingly, the religion that has sides and various dimensions has been reduced to a religious experience and the religious experience is introduced as the essence of religion. What is presented in this article is a comparative study of the essence of religious experience from the perspective of William James and Ghazzāli. Although mystical experience has a different structure form the religious experience and Ghazali as well as other Muslim philosophers and mystics paid more attention to the way of mystical experience, in the works of Ghazali there are also a traces of religious experience and hence, they are adaptable to some aspects of religious experience offered by William James. William James defines the religion “as the feelings, acts, and experiences that can occur for every individual in their solitudes and he believes that feeling is the essential pillar of religion and inherently reinforces it”. Religious experience is the essence of religion and it means that-the truth of the faith is the same as feelings and emotions that emerge from rational reflections on concrete reality as such, and other spiritual, transcendental, mystical and psychological actions are the consequences of these experiences. On the other hand, in the Muslim world, Al-Ghazzali believes that: The ultimate and holy aim of religion is the perception and experience of ultimate truth that can be achieved through good deeds, worship, asceticism and piety. This article tries to find similarities and differences in essence of religious experience of the two thinkers, because it is only in the theory of the essentialism of religious experience that the similarities and differences of

  1. An Analysis of Black American's Social Problems as Reflected in Sonny's Blues by James Baldwin

    OpenAIRE

    Tinambunan, Romina

    2014-01-01

    The thesis is entitled ‘An Analysis of Black American’s Social Problems as reflected in Sonny’s Blues By James Baldwin.’ This thesis is an analysis of social problems which are faced by Black American who live in America, especially the people who live in Harlem and the impact of those social problems. The social problems which are discussed in this thesis are race discrimination, poverty, alcholism, criminality, and drug addict. The purposes of this thesis are to analyze and to provide that ...

  2. Lo studio sperimentale della scrittura autobiografica: la prospettiva di James Pennebaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Lo Iacono

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Describing difficult situations of one’s life in the attempt to clarify what one thinks and feels about them helps to reach clarity within oneself and “vent” – as many people who keep a diary know – yet it can also improve general health, favor personal efficacy as well as positively modify attitudes and interpersonal relationships. James Pennebaker has inaugurated a branch of studies aimed at explaining the effects of expressive writing and the psychological and psychophysiological mechanisms that are activated when we translate trauma and stressful situations into words. The present article describes the study methods applied and the results obtained.

  3. Buhler, James. Neumeyer, David. Deemer, Rob. Hearing the Movies: Music and Sound in Film History

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Silveira

    2012-01-01

    James Buhler et David Neumeyer sont certainement les auteurs les plus importants à publier sur l’analyse de la musique de film depuis les années quatre-vingt-dix aux Etats-Unis. Entre autres contributions, ils ont édité ensemble (avec Caryl Flinn) Music and Cinema, un livre consacré aux différentes perspectives de l’étude de la musique de film. Tous les deux sont professeurs de théorie musicale à l’école de musique de l’université du Texas à Austin (Neumeyer étant aussi professeur à Leslie Wa...

  4. RuCool Operational Oceanography: Using a Fleet of Autonomous Ocean Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graver, J.; Jones, C.; Glenn, S.; Kohut, J.; Schofield, O.; Roarty, H.; Aragon, D.; Kerfoot, J.; Haldeman, C.; Yan, A.

    2007-05-01

    At the Rutgers University Coastal Ocean Observation Lab (RU-COOL), we have constructed a shelf-wide ocean observatory to characterize the physical forcing of continental shelf primary productivity in the New York Bight (NYB). The system is anchored by four enabling technologies, which include the international constellation of ocean color satellites, multi-static high frequency long-range surface current radar, real-time telemetry moorings, and long duration autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Operation of the observatory is through a centralized computer network dedicated to receiving, processing and visualizing the real-time data and then disseminating results to both field scientists and ocean forecasters over the World Wide Web. The system was designed to conduct cutting edge research requiring the addition of rapidly evolving technologies, and to serve society by providing sustained data delivered in real-time. Rutgers COOL continues to work closely with Webb Research Corporation (WRC) in testing and development of the Slocum underwater gliders and continues to apply Slocum gliders in field operations spanning the globe. The continued strong collaboration between WRC and Rutgers has led to advances in glider operations and applications. These include deployment/recovery techniques, improvements in durability and reliability, integrated sensors suites, salinity spike removal, and adaptive controls utilized to optimize mission goals and data return. The gliders have gathered numerous data sets including salt intrusions as seen off of New Jersey, plume tracking, biological water sample matching, and operation through Hurricane Ernesto in 2006. This talk will detail recent oceanographic experiments in which the fleet has been deployed and improvements in the operation of these novel robotic vehicles. These experiments, in locations around the world, have resulted in significant new work in operation of underwater gliders and have gathered new and unique data

  5. Theoretical analysis of the performance of different cooling strategies with the concept of cool exergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    The whole chains of exergy flows for different cooling systems were compared. The effects of cooling demand (internal vs. external solar shading), space cooling method (floor cooling vs. air cooling with ventilation system), and the availability of a nearby natural heat sink (intake air for the v......The whole chains of exergy flows for different cooling systems were compared. The effects of cooling demand (internal vs. external solar shading), space cooling method (floor cooling vs. air cooling with ventilation system), and the availability of a nearby natural heat sink (intake air...... for the ventilation system being outdoor air vs. air from the crawl-space, and air-to-water heat pump vs. ground heat exchanger as cooling source) on system exergy performance were investigated. It is crucial to minimize the cooling demand because it is possible to use a wide range of heat sinks (ground, lake, sea......-water, etc.) and indoor terminal units, only with a minimized demand. The water-based floor cooling system performed better than the air-based cooling system; when an air-to-water heat pump was used as the cooling source, the required exergy input was 28% smaller for the floor cooling system. The auxiliary...

  6. Experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of the high performance cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Patrik, E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk; Malcho, Milan, E-mail: milan.malcho@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    This work deal with experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of cooling device capable transfer high heat fluxes from electric elements to the surrounding. The work contain description of cooling device, working principle of cooling device, construction of cooling device. Experimental part describe the measuring method of device cooling efficiency evaluation. The work results are presented in graphic visualization of temperature dependence of the contact area surface between cooling device evaporator and electronic components on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W and temperature dependence of the loop thermosiphon condenser surface on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W.

  7. The Way of Saint James and the Xacobeo 2010 in the tourism websites of the Spanish autonomous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Fernández-Poyatos, Ph.D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the tourism websites of Spanish autonomous communities crossed by the Way of Saint James. Considering that the Way of Saint James and the Xacobeo 2010 are important touristic opportunities for these autonomous regions, the main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the information about these touristic places in their tourism websites. The analysis focused on two aspects: firstly, establishing whether the autonomous communities have used the Way of Saint James and the Xacobeo 2010 to promote themselves, and secondly, evaluating the quality of the websites. The study included a literature review, definition of concepts and criteria to measure the quality of websites, and the analysis of the content and design of the selected tourism websites. The results show that the Galician website is the most complete in terms of information about the Way of Saint James and the Xacobeo 2010. The information about the Way of Saint James and the Xacobeo 2010 in the websites of the other communities is vague and differs from one website to another. Due to the touristic significance of the Xacobeo 2010 and the importance of Internet as a medium of communication, the research group plans to conduct a new analysis of the communities’ institutional websites in 2011.

  8. Maisotsenko cycle applications for multistage compressors cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, D.; Yurko, I.; Artyukhov, A.; Baga, V.

    2017-08-01

    The present study provides the overview of Maisotsenko Cycle (M-Cycle) applications for gas cooling in compressor systems. Various schemes of gas cooling systems are considered regarding to their thermal efficiency and cooling capacity. Preliminary calculation of M-cycle HMX has been conducted. It is found that M-cycle HMX scheme allows to brake the limit of the ambient wet bulb temperature for evaporative cooling. It has demonstrated that a compact integrated heat and moisture exchange process can cool product fluid to the level below the ambient wet bulb temperature, even to the level of dew point temperature of the incoming air with substantially lower water and energy consumption requirements.

  9. Cooling Tower (Evaporative Cooling System) Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boyd, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lewis, Taylor [Colorado Energy Office, Denver, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M and V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with cooling tower efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M and V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  10. Provisioning cooling elements for chillerless data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2018-02-13

    Systems and methods for cooling include one or more computing structure, an inter-structure liquid cooling system that includes valves configured to selectively provide liquid coolant to the one or more computing structures; a heat rejection system that includes one or more heat rejection units configured to cool liquid coolant; and one or more liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers that include valves configured to selectively transfer heat from liquid coolant in the inter-structure liquid cooling system to liquid coolant in the heat rejection system. Each computing structure further includes one or more liquid-cooled servers; and an intra-structure liquid cooling system that has valves configured to selectively provide liquid coolant to the one or more liquid-cooled servers.

  11. Laboratory Studies of Planetary Hazes: composition of cool exoplanet atmospheric aerosols with very high resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sarah E.; Horst, Sarah; He, Chao; Flandinet, Laurene; Moses, Julianne I.; Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Regis; Vuitton, Veronique; Wolters, Cedric; Lewis, Nikole

    2017-10-01

    We present first results of the composition of laboratory-produced exoplanet haze analogues. With the Planetary HAZE Research (PHAZER) Laboratory, we simulated nine exoplanet atmospheres of varying initial gas phase compositions representing increasing metallicities (100x, 1000x, and 10000x solar) and exposed them to three different temperature regimes (600, 400, and 300 K) with two different “instellation” sources (a plasma source and a UV lamp). The PHAZER exoplanet experiments simulate a temperature and atmospheric composition phase space relevant to the expected planetary yield of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission as well as recently discovered potentially habitable zone exoplanets in the TRAPPIST-1, LHS-1140, and Proxima Centauri systems. Upon exposure to the energy sources, all of these experiments produced aerosol particles, which were collected in a dry nitrogen glove box and then analyzed with an LTQ Orbitrap XL™ Hybrid Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer utilizing m/z ranging from 50 to 1000. The collected aerosol samples were found to contain complex organics. Constraining the composition of these aerosols allows us to better understand the photochemical and dynamical processes ongoing in exoplanet atmospheres. Moreover, these data can inform our telescope observations of exoplanets, which is of critical importance as we enter a new era of exoplanet atmosphere observation science with the upcoming launch of the James Webb Space Telescope. The molecular makeup of these haze particles provides key information for understanding exoplanet atmospheric spectra, and constraining the structure and behavior of clouds, hazes, and other aerosols is at the forefront of exoplanet atmosphere science.

  12. Classical Imaging Triad in a Very Young Child with Swyer-James Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damle, Nishikant A. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Mishra, Rohini; Wadhwa, Jasmeet Kaur [B.L Kapur Memorial Hospital, New Delhi (India)

    2012-06-15

    Swyer-James syndrome (SJS) or Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by roentgenographical hyperlucency of one lung, lobe, or part of a lobe. As originally described, it shows a unilateral small lung with hyperlucency and air trapping on radiographs. It is postinfectious obliterative bronchiolitis due to childhood respiratory infection. In SJS, the involved lung or portion of the lung does not grow normally. The characteristic radiologic appearance is that of pulmonary hyperlucency on chest X-ray/CT caused by over-distention of the alveoli in conjunction with diminished arterial flow detected on Tc-99m MAA pulmonary perfusion scan. Radionuclide pulmonary ventilation studies are considered difficult to perform un very young children as patient co-operation is crucial to achieve adequate tracer entry into the lungs. We present here the case of a female child aged 2 years, who presented with chronic productive cough and fever off and on for 1.5 years. She had classical features on imaging and markedly diminished ventilation on Tc-99m DTPA aerosol study. Our case highlights the typical findings the typical findings on ventilation-perfusion scan (V/Q scan) and suggests that it is possible to conduct a satisfactory ventilation study with Tc-99m DTPA aerosol even in very young children.

  13. The psychophysiology of James Bond: phasic emotional responses to violent video game events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaja, Niklas; Turpeinen, Marko; Saari, Timo; Puttonen, Sampsa; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2008-02-01

    The authors examined emotional valence- and arousal-related phasic psychophysiological responses to different violent events in the first-person shooter video game "James Bond 007: NightFire" among 36 young adults. Event-related changes in zygomaticus major, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi electromyographic (EMG) activity and skin conductance level (SCL) were recorded, and the participants rated their emotions and the trait psychoticism based on the Psychoticism dimension of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire--Revised, Short Form. Wounding and killing the opponent elicited an increase in SCL and a decrease in zygomatic and orbicularis oculi EMG activity. The decrease in zygomatic and orbicularis oculi activity was less pronounced among high Psychoticism scorers compared with low Psychoticism scorers. The wounding and death of the player's own character (James Bond) elicited an increase in SCL and zygomatic and orbicularis oculi EMG activity and a decrease in corrugator activity. Instead of joy resulting from victory and success, wounding and killing the opponent may elicit high-arousal negative affect (anxiety), with high Psychoticism scorers experiencing less anxiety than low Psychoticism scorers. Although counterintuitive, the wounding and death of the player's own character may increase some aspect of positive emotion.

  14. Inland diatoms from the McMurdo Dry Valleys and James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, R.M.M.; Spaulding, S.A.; McKnight, Diane M.; Van De Vijver, B.; Kopalova, K.; Lubinski, D.; Hall, B.; Whittaker, T.

    2008-01-01

    Diatom taxa present in the inland streams and lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and James Ross Island, Antarctica, are presented in this paper. A total of nine taxa are illustrated, with descriptions of four new species (Luticola austroatlantica sp. nov., Luticola dolia sp. nov., Luticola laeta sp. nov., Muelleria supra sp. nov.). In the perennially ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, diatoms are confined to benthic mats within the photic zone. In streams, diatoms are attached to benthic surfaces and within the microbial mat matrix. One species, L. austroatlantica, is found on James Ross Island, of the southern Atlantic archipelago, and the McMurdo Dry Valleys. The McMurdo Dry Valley populations are at the lower range of the size spectrum for the species. Streams flow for 6-10 weeks during the austral summer, when temperatures and solar radiation allow glacial ice to melt. The diatom flora of the region is characterized by species assemblages favored under harsh conditions, with naviculoid taxa as the dominant group and several major diatom groups conspicuously absent. ?? 2008 NRC.

  15. James George Frazer’s Anthropologic Heritage in the Work of Robert Graves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav M. Pavlović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The works of Sir James George Frazer had an outstanding influence on the literature of modernism. Among those who benefited from Frazer’s ritualism were W. B. Yeats, T. S. Eliot. James Joyce, Ernest Hemingway, D. H. Lawrence, Ezra Pound, Mary Renault, Joseph Campbell, Robert Graves and many others. Robert Graves was known for his famous adaptation of Frazer’s concept of the sacred king who is sacrificed for the benefit of his subjects thus forming the narrative frame for the one of his most controversial novels. The dying king is also identified with the poet striving to attain the favour of the Triple Muse Goddess - who represents the embodiment of true poetic inspiration. The aforementioned concept is not the only thing that Graves inherited from his famous ancestor. In our analysis we laid stress on the customs, rituals, magic symbols and deities both authors dealt with. We also observed a striking resemblance of the style Greves and Frazer developed and their euchemeristic approach to myths as well.

  16. The Challenges of the First European Cultural Itinerary: The Way to St. James

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Ines Gusmán Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pilgrimage route to St James is one of the oldest religious itineraries. The Camino (Way came into being as a major pilgrim route in the Middle Ages. Although, in later centuries, it saw long periods of neglect, in the last fifty years, its potential has been rediscovered. It received formal and institutional recognition from the Council of Europe on 23 October 1987, as the first European Cultural Route, then, in 1993, it became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Throughout this time, the final destination has remained the same, the city of Santiago de Compostela (declared a World Heritage Site in 1985, but the itinerary has turned into a polysemic cultural, tourist, monumental, spiritual and sport route. In view of such complexity, we examine how its original religious essence is undergoing semantic changes, which make it attractive for groups of different faiths and creeds, and with varying motivations. For this purpose, we study the tangible (huge monumental heritage and intangible heritage (rituals and practices that enriches and characterises this pilgrimage route. In explaining its polysemy, we will demonstrate why and how the Camino can satisfy the needs of pilgrims and tourists with different motivations and expectations. Finally, we set out the factors that determine the transferability of practices from the Way of St James to other European Cultural Itineraries, for instance the Via Francigena.

  17. Gothic and Grotesque in James Hogg’s The Mysterious Bride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Roselezam Wan Yahya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The word Gothic refers back to the Dark ages in England. The Roman civilization was ruined by the Goths who were the barbarians at that time. As a result of the destruction of Roman Empire, the whole civilization underwent ignorance and darkness. Nowadays, the word Gothic has a variety of meaning and applications. Gothic novels portray exaggerated scenes, haunted castles, monsters and vampires. Scottish Gothic literature started after 1800. This paper will focus on one of the Scottish short stories by James Hogg, “The Mysterious Bride”. Some elements of Gothic and grotesque such as transgression of boundaries, suspense, uncanny and supernatural being are discussed within this short story in order to indicate Hogg’s main intention to use Gothic and grotesque elements in “The Mysterious Bride”. Among all the elemnts in Gothic and grotesque, this paper will mainly apply the presence of the opposites, uncanny, abnormal beings and supernatural events to James Hogg’s “The Mysterious Bride”.

  18. Edwin James' and John Hinton's revisions of Maclure's geologic map of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Aalto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available William Maclure's pioneering geologic map of the eastern United States, published first in 1809 with Observations on the Geology of the United States, provided a foundation for many later maps – a template from which geologists could extend their mapping westward from the Appalachians. Edwin James, botanist, geologist and surgeon for the 1819/1820 United States Army western exploring expedition under Major Stephen H. Long, published a full account of this expedition with map and geologic sections in 1822–1823. In this he extended Maclure's geology across the Mississippi Valley to the Colorado Rockies. John Howard Hinton (1791–1873 published his widely read text: The History and Topography of the United States in 1832, which included a compilations of Maclure's and James' work in a colored geologic map and vertical sections. All three men were to some degree confounded in their attempts to employ Wernerian rock classification in their mapping and interpretations of geologic history, a common problem in the early 19th Century prior to the demise of Neptunist theory and advent of biostratigraphic techniques of correlation. However, they provided a foundation for the later, more refined mapping and geologic interpretation of the eastern United States.

  19. A magia desencantada: Henry James e o caso de "Os amigos dos amigos"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Por meio do exame do conto "Os amigos dos amigos" ("The friends of the friends", de Henry James, bem como de seu processo de criação, este trabalho investiga a categoria do duplo confrontando as suas fontes primitivas com sua adoção na narrativa moderna - um confronto que nos permite sugerir uma chave de interpretação para a ficção jamesiana, e ainda discutir a presença do sobrenatural numa sociedade que privilegia o espetáculo, a publicidade, a novidade, o consumo e o progresso.In order to investigate the category of the double or the Doppelgänger, this paper examines both the short story "The friends of the friends", by Henry James, and its literary creation. By checking the primitive sources of such category against its adoption in the 19th-century narrative, we suggest a key for interpreting the Jamesian fiction, and also discuss the survival of the supernatural in a society that favors the spectacle, the advertising, the novelty, the consumption of goods, and the progress.

  20. Effectiveness of hand cooling and a cooling jacket on post-exercise cooling rates in hyperthermic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Tessa; Dawson, Brian; Barnett, Kimberley; Guelfi, Kym; Brade, Carly; Naylor, Louise; Brydges, Chris; Wallman, Karen

    2018-01-24

    This study compared the effects of a hand cooling glove (∼16°C water temperature; subatmospheric pressure of -40 mmHg) and a cooling jacket (CJ) on post-exercise cooling rates (gastrointestinal core temperature, Tc; skin temperature, Tsk) and cognitive performance (the Stroop Colour-Word test). Twelve male athletes performed four trials (within subjects, counterbalanced design) involving cycling at a workload equivalent to 75% ⩒O 2 max in heat (35.7 ± 0.2°C, 49.2 ± 2.6% RH) until a Tc of 39°C or exhaustion occurred. A 30-min cooling period (in 22.3 ± 0.3°C, 42.1 ± 3.6% RH) followed, where participants adopted either one-hand cooling (1H), two-hand cooling (2H), wore a CJ or no cooling (NC). No significant differences were seen in Tc and Tsk cooling rates between trials; however, moderate effect sizes (d = 0.50-0.76) suggested Tc cooling rates to be faster for 1H, 2H and CJ compared to NC after 5 min; 1H and CJ compared to NC after 10 min and for CJ to be faster than 2H at 25-30 min. Reaction times on the cognitive test were similar between all trials after the 30 min cooling/no-cooling period (p > .05). In conclusion, Tc cooling rates were faster with 1H and CJ during the first 10 min compared to NC, with minimal benefit associated with 2H cooling. Reaction time responses were not impacted by the use of the glove(s) or CJ.

  1. Upright in the storm of time. The physicist James Franck 1882-1964; Aufrecht im Sturm der Zeit. Der Physiker James Franck 1882-1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerich, J.

    2007-07-01

    For the 125th birth day of James Franck in the year 2007 for the first time a scientific biography is presented. Born in Hamburg Franck dedicated himself to the exploration of the atom. Together with Gustav Hertz he succeeded in exciting of bound electrons by collision, whereby the atomic model of Bohr was confirmed. For this both got the Nobel price for the year 1925. Starting from 1921 Franck founded together with Max Born and Robert Pohl the world-wide reputation of Goettingen as a center of physical research. 1933 Franck resigned because of protest against the antisemitic policy of the Nazis and imigrated to the USA. There he dedicated himself to the exploration of the foundation of the photosynthesis. To the request to contribute the the construction of the atomic bomb the Hitler opponent not denied, but wrote after the German capitulation the Franck report in May 1945, in which he described impressively the arguments against the application of the bomb and warned for a nuclear armament race. Although he was because of the great crime of the Nazi regime very critical against the Germans soon after the war he stood up - very to the indignation of his friend Einstein - for the reconcilement and visited Germany and his friends there still several times. 1964 he died at a visit in Goettingen.

  2. Confirmation of shutdown cooling effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kotaro, E-mail: ksato@nelted.co.jp; Tabuchi, Masato; Sugimura, Naoki; Tatsumi, Masahiro [Nuclear Engineering, Limited, 1-3-7 Tosabori Nishi-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 550-0001 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    After the Fukushima accidents, all nuclear power plants in Japan have gradually stopped their operations and have long periods of shutdown. During those periods, reactivity of fuels continues to change significantly especially for high-burnup UO{sub 2} fuels and MOX fuels due to radioactive decays. It is necessary to consider these isotopic changes precisely, to predict neutronics characteristics accurately. In this paper, shutdown cooling (SDC) effects of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels that have unusual operation histories are confirmed by the advanced lattice code, AEGIS. The calculation results show that the effects need to be considered even after nuclear power plants come back to normal operation.

  3. Theoretical insight of adsorption cooling

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2011-06-03

    This letter proposes and presents a thermodynamic formulation to calculate the energetic performances of an adsorption cooler as a function of pore widths and volumes of solid adsorbents. The simulated results in terms of the coefficient of performance are validated with experimental data. It is found from the present analysis that the performance of an adsorption cooling device is influenced mainly by the physical characteristics of solid adsorbents, and the characteristics energy between the adsorbent-adsorbate systems. The present study confirms that there exists a special type of silicagel having optimal physical characteristics that allows us to obtain the best performance.

  4. Thermoelectric Devices Cool, Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Nextreme Thermal Solutions Inc., based in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, licensed thermoelectric technology from NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This has allowed the company to develop cutting edge, thin-film thermoelectric coolers that effective remove heat generated by increasingly powerful and tightly packed microchip components. These solid-state coolers are ideal solutions for applications like microprocessors, laser diodes, LEDs, and even potentially for cooling the human body. Nextreme s NASA technology has also enabled the invention of thermoelectric generators capable of powering technologies like medical implants and wireless sensor networks.

  5. Information technology equipment cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  6. Hot moons and cool stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller René

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The exquisite photometric precision of the Kepler space telescope now puts the detection of extrasolar moons at the horizon. Here, we firstly review observational and analytical techniques that have recently been proposed to find exomoons. Secondly, we discuss the prospects of characterizing potentially habitable extrasolar satellites. With moons being much more numerous than planets in the solar system and with most exoplanets found in the stellar habitable zone being gas giants, habitable moons could be as abundant as habitable planets. However, satellites orbiting planets in the habitable zones of cool stars will encounter strong tidal heating and likely appear as hot moons.

  7. Assessment of spent fuel cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, J.G.; Jones, W.R.; Lanik, G.F. [and others

    1997-02-01

    The paper presents the methodology, the findings, and the conclusions of a study that was done by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) on loss of spent fuel pool cooling. The study involved an examination of spent fuel pool designs, operating experience, operating practices, and procedures. AEOD`s work was augmented in the area of statistics and probabilistic risk assessment by experts from the Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. Operating experience was integrated into a probabilistic risk assessment to gain insight on the risks from spent fuel pools.

  8. Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-06-07

    Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been

  9. Development of the Hydrodynamic Model for Long-Term Simulation of Water Quality Processes of the Tidal James River, Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Shen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms (HABs have frequently occurred in the James River. The State has convened a Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP to review the James River chlorophyll-a standards. The SAP will conduct a scientific study to review the basis for setting the chlorophyll-a standards. To support the SAP study of chlorophyll-a standards, the State of Virginia has decided to develop a numerical modeling system that is capable of simulating phytoplankton and HABs. The modeling system includes a watershed model, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and water quality models. The focus of this study will be on the development and verification of the hydrodynamic model. In order to simulate the complex geometry of the James River, a high-resolution model has been implemented. The model has been calibrated for a long-term period of 23 years. A series of model experiments was conducted to evaluate the impact of forcings on dynamic simulation and transport time. It was found that freshwater discharge is the most sensitive for an accurate simulation of salinity and transport time. The water age predicted by the model in the tidal freshwater region represents the fluctuation of transport processes, and it has a good correlation with the algal bloom, while at the downstream, the transport time simulation agrees with the delay of the HAB in the mesohaline of the James after the HAB occurred in the Elizabeth River due to the transport processes. The results indicate that the hydrodynamic model is capable of simulating the dynamic processes of the James and driving water quality models in the James River.

  10. Intake and physiological response of Jersey cows to cooling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to evaluate the response of Jersey cows to cooling measures in a hot environment, four cows were subjected to four cooling treatments using a Latin square design. Treatments consists of control (access to shade without extra cooling), cooling with fan, cooling with shower, cooling with fan and shower. Animals ...

  11. Traducción resumida del capitulo Webb, N.L. (1992). Assessment of Students' Knowledge of Mathematics: Steps toward a Theory. En Grouws, D.A. (Ed.)Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning. New York: Macmillan, pp. 661-683.

    OpenAIRE

    Rico, Luis

    1996-01-01

    Norman L. Webb (1992) Assessement of Student's knowledge of Mathematics: steps toward a theory. Capítulo 26 del Handbook of Research on Teaching and learning Mathematics D.A.Grouws editor. MacMillan. New York.

  12. ‘Two Minds With but a Single Thought’: W. T. Stead, Henry James, and the Zancig Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In 1906, two writers of disparate repute watched, and then wrote about a series of notorious performances by the London telepathists Julius and Agnes Zancig.One was W. T. Stead, the pugnacious purveyor of New Journalism and hugely influential in shaping public opinion; the other was Henry James, the author of a great number of highbrow, complex, and ultimately poorly selling works of prose fiction.James wrote in a letter of his impression of ‘the 'reality 'of their performance’ in the face of...

  13. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  14. Lava cooling modelled with GPUSPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, Gaetana; Zago, Vito; Bilotta, Giuseppe; Cappello, Annalisa; Herault, Alexis; Del Negro, Ciro

    2017-04-01

    Lava flows are highly complex flows exhibiting non-Newtonian rheology with temperature dependent viscosity and phase transition. The details of the rheology and its dependency on the physical and chemical properties of the lava need to be further addressed. GPUSPH is a fully three-dimensional model for the simulation of the thermal and rheological evolution of lava flows that relies on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) numerical method. Thanks to the Lagrangian, meshless nature of SPH, the model incorporates a more complete physical description of the emplacement process and rheology of lava that considers the free surface, the irregular boundaries represented by the topography, the solidification fronts and the non-Newtonian rheology. We present here the validation of the GPUSPH thermal model, including phase transition (particularly solidification). Validation is done against a number of different problems of growing complexity: the classical Stefan problem, for which analytical solutions are possible, the cooling of a lava lake (compared against semi-analytical solutions) and the cooling of a lava flow comparing the results against a FEM model. We also model the crust formation and thickening, studying the evolution of solidification over time in relation to emplacement characteristics such as total flow thickness and the thermal parameter of liquid and solid lava (emissivity and conductivity). Finally we compare GPUSPH results with a real case study on Etna volcano during the 12th August 2011 lava fountain for which we collected thermal camera data.

  15. Technology cool women who code

    CERN Document Server

    Diehn, Andi

    2015-01-01

    Do you listen to music with an MP3 player or read books on a tablet? Do you play multiplayer video games with people on the other side of the world? Do you have a robot cleaning your kitchen? Maybe not yet, but someday! In Technology: Cool Women Who Code, kids in grades four through six learn about the thrilling effort that goes into researching, inventing, programming, and producing the technology we use today, from iPods to mechanical limbs. Young readers discover exactly what technology is, how it evolved, and where the future may lead. They also meet three women who have contributed to the field in critical ways, including Grace Hopper and Shaundra Bryant Daily. Technology: Cool Women Who Code combines high-interest content with links to online primary sources and essential questions that further expand kids' knowledge and understanding of a topic they come in contact with every day. Compelling portraits of women who have excelled in meeting the challenges of their field keep kids interested and infused w...

  16. Thermodynamics of Quantum Feedback Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liuzzo-Scorpo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to initialize quantum registers in pure states lies at the core of many applications of quantum technologies, from sensing to quantum information processing and computation. In this paper, we tackle the problem of increasing the polarization bias of an ensemble of two-level register spins by means of joint coherent manipulations, involving a second ensemble of ancillary spins and energy dissipation into an external heat bath. We formulate this spin refrigeration protocol, akin to algorithmic cooling, in the general language of quantum feedback control, and identify the relevant thermodynamic variables involved. Our analysis is two-fold: on the one hand, we assess the optimality of the protocol by means of suitable figures of merit, accounting for both its work cost and effectiveness; on the other hand, we characterise the nature of correlations built up between the register and the ancilla. In particular, we observe that neither the amount of classical correlations nor the quantum entanglement seem to be key ingredients fuelling our spin refrigeration protocol. We report instead that a more general indicator of quantumness beyond entanglement, the so-called quantum discord, is closely related to the cooling performance.

  17. Teaching Social Communication Skills Using a Cool versus Not Cool Procedure plus Role-Playing and a Social Skills Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Taubman, Mitchell; Milne, Christine; Dale, Stephanie; Leaf, Jeremy; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Tsuji, Kathleen; Kassardjian, Alyne; Alcalay, Aditt; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John

    2016-01-01

    We utilized a cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing to teach social communication skills to three individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing consisted of the researcher randomly demonstrating the behavior correctly (cool) two times and the behavior incorrectly (not cool) two…

  18. Highly efficient electrocaloric cooling with electrostatic actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rujun; Zhang, Ziyang; Tong, Kwing; Huber, David; Kornbluh, Roy; Ju, Yongho Sungtaek; Pei, Qibing

    2017-09-01

    Solid-state refrigeration offers potential advantages over traditional cooling systems, but few devices offer high specific cooling power with a high coefficient of performance (COP) and the ability to be applied directly to surfaces. We developed a cooling device with a high intrinsic thermodynamic efficiency using a flexible electrocaloric (EC) polymer film and an electrostatic actuation mechanism. Reversible electrostatic forces reduce parasitic power consumption and allow efficient heat transfer through good thermal contacts with the heat source or heat sink. The EC device produced a specific cooling power of 2.8 watts per gram and a COP of 13. The new cooling device is more efficient and compact than existing surface-conformable solid-state cooling technologies, opening a path to using the technology for a variety of practical applications.

  19. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Russel B

    2017-04-04

    A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.

  20. Demineralised water cooling in the LHC accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Peón-Hernández, G

    2002-01-01

    In spite of the LHC accelerator being a cryogenic machine, it remains nevertheless a not negligible heat load to be removed by conventional water-cooling. About 24MW will be taken away by demineralised water cooled directly by primary water from the LHC cooling towers placed at the even points. This paper describes the demineralised water network in the LHC tunnel including pipe diameters, lengths, water speed, estimated friction factor, head losses and available supply and return pressures for each point. It lists all water cooled equipment, highlights the water cooled cables as the most demanding equipment followed by the radio frequency racks and cavities, and by the power converters. Their main cooling requirements and their positions in the tunnel are also presented.