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Sample records for conversion methods sixth

  1. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  2. The sixth Nordic conference on the application of scientific methods in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Sixth Nordic Conference on the Application of Scientific Methods in Archaeology with 73 participants was convened in Esbjerg (Denmark), 19-23 September 1993. Isotope dating of archaeological, paleoecological and geochronological objects, neutron activation and XRF analytical methods, magnetometry, thermoluminescence etc. have been discussed. The program included excursions to archaeological sites and a poster session with 12 posters. (EG)

  3. Numerical solution of sixth-order boundary-value problems using Legendre wavelet collocation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Haq, Sirajul; Mukhtar, Safyan; Khan, Imad

    2018-03-01

    An efficient method is proposed to approximate sixth order boundary value problems. The proposed method is based on Legendre wavelet in which Legendre polynomial is used. The mechanism of the method is to use collocation points that converts the differential equation into a system of algebraic equations. For validation two test problems are discussed. The results obtained from proposed method are quite accurate, also close to exact solution, and other different methods. The proposed method is computationally more effective and leads to more accurate results as compared to other methods from literature.

  4. Spline methods for conversation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The consider the numerical solution of physical theories, in particular hydrodynamics, which can be formulated as systems of conservation laws. To this end we briefly describe the Basis Spline and collocation methods, paying particular attention to representation theory, which provides discrete analogues of the continuum conservation and dispersion relations, and hence a rigorous understanding of errors and instabilities. On this foundation we propose an algorithm for hydrodynamic problems in which most linear and nonlinear instabilities are brought under control. Numerical examples are presented from one-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics. 9 refs., 10 figs

  5. Systems and methods for wave energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Daniel G.; Cantara, Justin; Nathan, Craig; Lopes, Amy M.; Green, Brandon E.

    2017-02-28

    Systems for wave energy conversion that have components that can survive the harsh marine environment and that can be attached to fixed structures, such as a pier, and having the ability to naturally adjust for tidal height and methods for their use are presented.

  6. Methods for Mining and Summarizing Text Conversations

    CERN Document Server

    Carenini, Giuseppe; Murray, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Due to the Internet Revolution, human conversational data -- in written forms -- are accumulating at a phenomenal rate. At the same time, improvements in speech technology enable many spoken conversations to be transcribed. Individuals and organizations engage in email exchanges, face-to-face meetings, blogging, texting and other social media activities. The advances in natural language processing provide ample opportunities for these "informal documents" to be analyzed and mined, thus creating numerous new and valuable applications. This book presents a set of computational methods

  7. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  8. A sixth-order continuous-time bandpass sigma-delta modulator for digital radio IF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, van J.A.E.P.; Plassche, van de R.J.; Stikvoort, E.F.; Venes, A.G.W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a sixth-order continuous-time bandpass sigma-delta modulator (SDM) for analog-to-digital conversion of intermediate-frequency signals. An important aspect in the design of this SDM is the stability analysis using the describing function method. The key to the analysis is the

  9. Conversion of metal plutonium to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, A.V.; Subbotin, V.G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Mashirev, V.P. [ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    Report contains experimental results on metal plutonium of weapon origin samples conversion to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method. Circuits of processes are described. Their advantages and shortcomings are shown. Parameters of plutonium dioxide powders (phase and fraction compositions, poured density) manufactured by pyrochemical method in RFNC-VNIITF are shown as well. (authors)

  10. Brief encounters with qualitative methods in health research: conversation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a brief introductory outline of the conversation analytic method, and some of its applications in health research. Drawing on extant literature and an illustrative original case study of suicide risk-assessment in primary care, the core tenets and techniques of the approach are described.

  11. A Method for Effective Conversion of Saccharides to Furfural Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for the effective conversion of one or more mono-, di-, oligo- or polysaccharides to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), in an ionic liquid by means of a chromium catalyst mixture comprising chromium (II) and chromium (III) species. The invention also provides a...

  12. Calibration method for direct conversion receiver front-ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Müller

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology induced process tolerances in analog circuits cause device characteristics different from specification. For direct conversion receiver front-ends a system level calibration method is presented. The malfunctions of the devices are compensated by tuning dominant circuit parameters. Thereto optimization techniques are applied which use measurement values and special evaluation functions.

  13. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Nelson, Lee O [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  14. The effect of four instructional methods, gender, and time of testing on the achievement of sixth graders learning to interpret graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jerry Wayne

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of four instructional methods (direct instruction, computer-aided instruction, video observation, and microcomputer-based lab activities), gender, and time of testing (pretest, immediate posttest for determining the immediate effect of instruction, and a delayed posttest two weeks later to determine the retained effect of the instruction) on the achievement of sixth graders who were learning to interpret graphs of displacement and velocity. The dependent variable of achievement was reflected in the scores earned by students on a testing instrument of established validity and reliability. The 107 students participating in the study were divided by gender and were then randomly assigned to the four treatment groups, each taught by a different teacher. Each group had approximately equal numbers of males and females. The students were pretested and then involved in two class periods of the instructional method which was unique to their group. Immediately following treatment they were posttested and two weeks later they were posttested again. The data in the form of test scores were analyzed with a two-way split-plot analysis of variance to determine if there was significant interaction among technique, gender, and time of testing. When significant interaction was indicated, the Tukey HSD test was used to determine specific mean differences. The results of the analysis indicated no gender effect. Only students in the direct instruction group and the microcomputer-based laboratory group had significantly higher posttest-1 scores than pretest scores. They also had significantly higher posttest-2 scores than pretest scores. This suggests that the learning was retained. The other groups experienced no significant differences among pretest, posttest-1, and posttest-2 scores. Recommendations are that direct instruction and microcomputer-based laboratory activities should be considered as effective stand-alone methods for

  15. Sixth form pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1968-01-01

    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  16. Automated logic conversion method for plant controller systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Miyo, Tsunemasa; Okano, Masato.

    1990-01-01

    An automated method is proposed for logic conversion from functional description diagrams to detailed logic schematics by incorporating expertise knowledge in plant controller systems design. The method uses connection data of function elements in the functional description diagram as input, and synthesizes a detailed logic structure by adding elements to the given connection data incrementally, and to generate detailed logic schematics. In logic synthesis, for building up complex synthesis procedures by combining generally-described knowledge, knowledge is applied by groups. The search order of the groups is given by upper-level knowledge. Furthermore, the knowledge is expressed in terms of two classes of rules; one for generating a hypothesis of individual synthesis operations and the other for considering several hypotheses to determine the connection ordering of elements to be added. In the generation of detailed logic schematics, knowledge is used as rules for deriving various kinds of layout conditions on schematics, and rules for generating two-dimensional coordinates of layout objects. Rules in the latter class use layout conditions to predict intersections among layout objects without their coordinates being fixed. The effectiveness of the method with 150 rules was verified by its experimental application to some logic conversions in a real power plant design. Evaluation of the results showed them to be equivalent to those obtained by well qualified designers. (author)

  17. Life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment method for energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbur, Baris Burak; Xiang, Liming; Dubey, Swapnil; Choo, Fook Hoong; Duan, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new LCA integrated thermoeconomic approach is presented. • The new unit fuel cost is found 4.8 times higher than the classic method. • The new defined parameter increased the sustainability index by 67.1%. • The case studies are performed for countries with different CO 2 prices. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) based thermoeconomic modelling has been applied for the evaluation of energy conversion systems since it provided more comprehensive and applicable assessment criteria. This study proposes an improved thermoeconomic method, named as life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment (LCiTA), which combines the LCA based enviroeconomic parameters in the production steps of the system components and fuel with the conventional thermoeconomic method for the energy conversion systems. A micro-cogeneration system is investigated and analyzed with the LCiTA method, the comparative studies show that the unit cost of fuel by using the LCiTA method is 3.8 times higher than the conventional thermoeconomic model. It is also realized that the enviroeconomic parameters during the operation of the system components do not have significant impacts on the system streams since the exergetic parameters are dominant in the thermoeconomic calculations. Moreover, the improved sustainability index is found roundly 67.2% higher than the previously defined sustainability index, suggesting that the enviroeconomic and thermoeconomic parameters decrease the impact of the exergy destruction in the sustainability index definition. To find the feasible operation conditions for the micro-cogeneration system, different assessment strategies are presented. Furthermore, a case study for Singapore is conducted to see the impact of the forecasted carbon dioxide prices on the thermoeconomic performance of the micro-cogeneration system.

  18. Method of electroplating a conversion electron emitting source on implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Suresh C [Setauket, NY; Gonzales, Gilbert R [New York, NY; Adzic, Radoslav [East Setauket, NY; Meinken, George E [Middle Island, NY

    2012-02-14

    Methods for preparing an implant coated with a conversion electron emitting source (CEES) are disclosed. The typical method includes cleaning the surface of the implant; placing the implant in an activating solution comprising hydrochloric acid to activate the surface; reducing the surface by H.sub.2 evolution in H.sub.2SO.sub.4 solution; and placing the implant in an electroplating solution that includes ions of the CEES, HCl, H.sub.2SO.sub.4, and resorcinol, gelatin, or a combination thereof. Alternatively, before tin plating, a seed layer is formed on the surface. The electroplated CEES coating can be further protected and stabilized by annealing in a heated oven, by passivation, or by being covered with a protective film. The invention also relates to a holding device for holding an implant, wherein the device selectively prevents electrodeposition on the portions of the implant contacting the device.

  19. Method for conversion of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zacher, Alan H.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Orth, Rick J.

    2010-03-30

    A process is disclosed for conversion of salts of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds forming useful conversion products including, e.g., .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and/or salts of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Conversion products find use, e.g., as feedstock and/or end-use chemicals.

  20. Dazzling Sixth Ethnic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    WITH its first round in Lhasa, Tibet, the Beijing leg of the Sixth National Games for Traditional Sports of Minority Nationalities was China's largest sports ceremony at the end of this century. The reason for holding the games in two places for the first time is that the 50th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China and the 40th anniversary of democratic reform in the

  1. New method for conversion of uranium hexafluoride to uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabayashi, S.; Suzuki, M.; Tanaka, H.

    1987-01-01

    Five different methods for conversion of UF 6 to ceramic-grade UO 2 powder have been developed to industrial scale. Two of them, the ammonium diuranate (ADU) and AUC processes, are based on precipitation of uranium compounds from aqueous solutions. The other three follow a dry route in which UF 6 is hydrolyzed and reduced by steam and hydrogen using fluidized bed techniques, rotating kilns, or flame chemistry methods. The ADU process has the advantage of flexible product powder characteristics, while disadvantages include a large quantity of waste, low powder fluidity, and a complicated process. On the other hand, the dry process using fluidized-bed techniques has the advantages of hydrofluoric acid recovery, a free-flowing powder, and process simplicity, but the disadvantages of poorer ceramic properties for the product. The new method developed at Mitsubishi Metal Corp. is a semidry process, which has well-balanced merits over the ADU process and the dry process using fluidized-bed techniques. This process is very attractive from powder characteristics, process simplicity, and waste reduction

  2. Dimensioning Method for Conversational Video Applications in Wireless Convergent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Perez Leal

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available New convergent services are becoming possible, thanks to the expansion of IP networks based on the availability of innovative advanced coding formats such as H.264, which reduce network bandwidth requirements providing good video quality, and the rapid growth in the supply of dual-mode WiFi cellular terminals. This paper provides, first, a comprehensive subject overview as several technologies are involved, such as medium access protocol in IEEE802.11, H.264 advanced video coding standards, and conversational application characterization and recommendations. Second, the paper presents a new and simple dimensioning model of conversational video over wireless LAN. WLAN is addressed under the optimal network throughput and the perspective of video quality. The maximum number of simultaneous users resulting from throughput is limited by the collisions taking place in the shared medium with the statistical contention protocol. The video quality is conditioned by the packet loss in the contention protocol. Both approaches are analyzed within the scope of the advanced video codecs used in conversational video over IP, to conclude that conversational video dimensioning based on network throughput is not enough to ensure a satisfactory user experience, and video quality has to be taken also into account. Finally, the proposed model has been applied to a real-office scenario.

  3. Dimensioning Method for Conversational Video Applications in Wireless Convergent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso JoséI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New convergent services are becoming possible, thanks to the expansion of IP networks based on the availability of innovative advanced coding formats such as H.264, which reduce network bandwidth requirements providing good video quality, and the rapid growth in the supply of dual-mode WiFi cellular terminals. This paper provides, first, a comprehensive subject overview as several technologies are involved, such as medium access protocol in IEEE802.11, H.264 advanced video coding standards, and conversational application characterization and recommendations. Second, the paper presents a new and simple dimensioning model of conversational video over wireless LAN. WLAN is addressed under the optimal network throughput and the perspective of video quality. The maximum number of simultaneous users resulting from throughput is limited by the collisions taking place in the shared medium with the statistical contention protocol. The video quality is conditioned by the packet loss in the contention protocol. Both approaches are analyzed within the scope of the advanced video codecs used in conversational video over IP, to conclude that conversational video dimensioning based on network throughput is not enough to ensure a satisfactory user experience, and video quality has to be taken also into account. Finally, the proposed model has been applied to a real-office scenario.

  4. Methods for locating ground faults and insulation degradation condition in energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamy, Mohamed; Elasser, Ahmed; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2015-08-11

    Methods for determining a ground fault or insulation degradation condition within energy conversion systems are described. A method for determining a ground fault within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline waveform of differential current to a waveform of differential current during operation for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. A method for determining insulation degradation within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline frequency spectra of differential current to a frequency spectra of differential current transient at start-up for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. In one embodiment, the energy conversion system may be a photovoltaic system.

  5. Method and device for current driven electric energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Device comprising an electric power converter circuit for converting electric energy. The converter circuit comprises a switch arrangement with two or more controllable electric switches connected in a switching configuration and controlled so as to provide a current drive of electric energy from...... configurations such as half bridge buck, full bridge buck, half bridge boost, or full bridge boost. A current driven conversion is advantageous for high efficient energy conversion from current sources such as solar cells or where a voltage source is connected through long cables, e.g. powerline cables for long...... an associated electric source connected to a set of input terminals. This is obtained by the two or more electric swiches being connected and controlled to short-circuit the input terminals during a part of a switching period. Further, a low pass filter with a capacitor and an inductor are provided to low pass...

  6. Neural network based method for conversion of solar radiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Ali N.; Muneer, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Generalized regression neural network is used to predict the solar radiation on tilted surfaces. ► The above network, amongst many such as multilayer perceptron, is the most successful one. ► The present neural network returns a relative mean absolute error value of 9.1%. ► The present model leads to a mean absolute error value of estimate of 14.9 Wh/m 2 . - Abstract: The receiving ends of the solar energy conversion systems that generate heat or electricity from radiation is usually tilted at an optimum angle to increase the solar incident on the surface. Solar irradiation data measured on horizontal surfaces is readily available for many locations where such solar energy conversion systems are installed. Various equations have been developed to convert solar irradiation data measured on horizontal surface to that on tilted one. These equations constitute the conventional approach. In this article, an alternative approach, generalized regression type of neural network, is used to predict the solar irradiation on tilted surfaces, using the minimum number of variables involved in the physical process, namely the global solar irradiation on horizontal surface, declination and hour angles. Artificial neural networks have been successfully used in recent years for optimization, prediction and modeling in energy systems as alternative to conventional modeling approaches. To show the merit of the presently developed neural network, the solar irradiation data predicted from the novel model was compared to that from the conventional approach (isotropic and anisotropic models), with strict reference to the irradiation data measured in the same location. The present neural network model was found to provide closer solar irradiation values to the measured than the conventional approach, with a mean absolute error value of 14.9 Wh/m 2 . The other statistical values of coefficient of determination and relative mean absolute error also indicate the

  7. Examining the sustainability of Screening for Distress, the sixth vital sign, in two outpatient oncology clinics: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Shannon; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; White, Deborah; Bultz, Barry D

    2018-01-01

    Research indicates that cancer patients experience significant multifactorial distress during their journey. To address this, cancer centers are implementing Screening for Distress programs; however, little is known about the sustainability of these programs. This study sought to examine the sustainability of a Screening for Distress program in 2 cancer clinics 6 months post implementation. A mixed-methods cross-sectional design was utilized. To determine if screening rates, screening conversations and appropriate interventions occurred and the charts of 184 consecutive patients attending the head and neck or neuro-oncology clinics over a 3 week period were reviewed. To examine the barriers and facilitators of sustainability, 16 semi-structured interviews with administrators, physicians, and nurses were conducted. Of the 184 charts reviewed, 163 (88.6%) had completed screening tools. Of these 163, 130 (79.8%) indicated that a conversation occurred with the patient about the identified distress as reported on the screening tool. Of the 89 (54.6%) charts where the need for an intervention was indicated, 68 (76.4%) had an intervention documented. Six oncologists, 7 nurses, and 3 administrators were interviewed, and 5 themes which influenced the sustainability of the program emerged: (1) attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs about the program; (2) implementation approach; (3) outcome expectancy of providers; (4) integration with existing practices; and (5) external factors. This study suggests that Screening for Distress was largely sustained, possibly due to positive attitudes and outcome expectancy. However, sustainability may be enhanced by formally integrating screening with existing practices, addressing potential knowledge gaps, and ensuring engagement with all stakeholder groups. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Numerical investigation of sixth order Boussinesq equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkovska, N.; Vucheva, V.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a family of conservative finite difference schemes for the Boussinesq equation with sixth order dispersion terms. The schemes are of second order of approximation. The method is conditionally stable with a mild restriction τ = O(h) on the step sizes. Numerical tests are performed for quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. The numerical experiments show second order of convergence of the discrete solution to the exact one.

  9. Power conversion and control methods for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dachuan

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of renewable energy due to the growing concern over the pollution caused by fossil-fuel-based energy. Renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, can be used to enhance the safety, reliability, sustainability, and transmission efficiency of a power system. This dissertation focuses on the power conversion and control for two major renewable-energy sources: PV and fuel cell. Firstly, a current-based, maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed for PV energy. An economical converter system using the above scheme for converting the output from PV panels into 60 Hz AC voltage is developed and built. Secondly, a novel circuit model for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stack that is useful in the design and analysis of fuel-cell-based power systems is proposed. This Pspice-based model uses elements available in the Pspice library with some modifications to represent both the static and dynamic responses of a PEM fuel-cell module. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the simulation and experimental results. Thirdly, a DSP-controlled three-phase induction-motor drive using constant voltage over frequency is built and can be used in a fuel-cell automobile. A hydrogen sensor is used in the drive to both sound an alarm and shut down the inverter trigger pulses through the DSP. Finally, a hybrid power system consisting of PV panels and fuel cell is proposed and built. In the proposed system, PV panels can supply most of the power when the sunlight is available, and the excess power required by the load is supplied by a fuel cell. Load sharing between a fuel cell (FC) and the PV panel is investigated by both simulation and experiments.

  10. Syngas conversion to a light alkene and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.

    2017-11-14

    Methods of producing a light alkene. The method comprises contacting syngas and tungstated zirconia to produce a product stream comprising at least one light alkene. The product stream is recovered. Methods of converting syngas to a light alkene are also disclosed. The method comprises heating a precursor of tungstated zirconia to a temperature of between about 350.degree. C. and about 550.degree. C. to form tungstated zirconia. Syngas is flowed over the tungstated zirconia to produce a product stream comprising at least one light alkene and the product stream comprising the at least one light alkene is recovered.

  11. Multi-views storage model and access methods of conversation history in converged IP messaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meilian; Yang, Dong; Zhou, Xing

    2013-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the requirements of conversation history storage in CPM (Converged IP Messaging) system, a Multi-views storage model and access methods of conversation history are proposed. The storage model separates logical views from physical storage and divides the storage into system managed region and user managed region. It simultaneously supports conversation view, system pre-defined view and user-defined view of storage. The rationality and feasibility of multi-view presentation, the physical storage model and access methods are validated through the implemented prototype. It proves that, this proposal has good scalability, which will help to optimize the physical data storage structure and improve storage performance.

  12. Validity of the CT to attenuation coefficient map conversion methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, R.; Ahangari Shahdehi, R.; Fazilat Moadeli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The most important commercialized methods of attenuation correction in SPECT are based on attenuation coefficient map from a transmission imaging method. The transmission imaging system can be the linear source of radioelement or a X-ray CT system. The image of transmission imaging system is not useful unless to replacement of the attenuation coefficient or CT number with the attenuation coefficient in SPECT energy. In this paper we essay to evaluate the validity and estimate the error of the most used method of this transformation. The final result shows that the methods which use a linear or multi-linear curve accept a error in their estimation. The value of mA is not important but the patient thickness is very important and it can introduce a error more than 10 percent in the final result

  13. A simple method for conversion of airborne gamma-ray spectra to ground level doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim

    1996-01-01

    A new and simple method for conversion of airborne NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectra to dose rates at ground level has been developed. By weighting the channel count rates with the channel numbers a spectrum dose index (SDI) is calculated for each spectrum. Ground level dose rates then are determined...... by multiplying the SDI by an altitude dependent conversion factor. The conversion factors are determined from spectra based on Monte Carlo calculations. The results are compared with measurements in a laboratory calibration set-up. IT-NT-27. June 1996. 27 p....

  14. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report concerns our research on base-catalyzed coal solubilization and a new approach for hydrogen addition. The work on base-catalyzed, chemical solubilization is continuing. this report is focused on the hydrogenation research. Specifically it deals with the use of arene chromium carbonyl complexes as reagents for the addition of dideuterium to coal molecules. In one phase of the work, he has established that the aromatic hydrocarbons in a representative coal liquid can be converted in very good yield to arene chromium carbonyl compounds. In a second phase of the work directly related to our objective of improved methods for catalytic hydrogenation, he has established that the aromatic constituents of the same coal liquid add dideuterium in the presence of added napththalene chromium carbonyl.

  15. Reaching with the sixth sense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Bulthoff, Heinrich H.

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular system constitutes the silent sixth sense: It automatically triggers a variety of vital reflexes to maintain postural and visual stability. Beyond their role in reflexive behavior, vestibular afferents contribute to several perceptual and cognitive functions and also support volunt...

  16. Calorimetric Measurement for Internal Conversion Efficiency of Photovoltaic Cells/Modules Based on Electrical Substitution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Terubumi; Tatsuta, Muneaki; Abe, Yamato; Takesawa, Minato

    2018-02-01

    We have succeeded in the direct measurement for solar cell/module internal conversion efficiency based on a calorimetric method or electrical substitution method by which the absorbed radiant power is determined by replacing the heat absorbed in the cell/module with the electrical power. The technique is advantageous in that the reflectance and transmittance measurements, which are required in the conventional methods, are not necessary. Also, the internal quantum efficiency can be derived from conversion efficiencies by using the average photon energy. Agreements of the measured data with the values estimated from the nominal values support the validity of this technique.

  17. Neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors: a comparison of data sets and interpolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, C.S.; Killough, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Various segments of the health physics community advocate the use of different sets of neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors as a function of energy and different methods of interpolation between discrete points in those data sets. The major data sets and interpolation methods are used to calculate the spectrum average fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors for five spectra associated with the various shielded conditions of the Health Physics Research Reactor. The results obtained by use of the different data sets and interpolation methods are compared and discussed. (author)

  18. A Comparison between Three Methods of Language Sampling: Freeplay, Narrative Speech and Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Rezapour

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The spontaneous language sample analysis is an important part of the language assessment protocol. Language samples give us useful information about how children use language in the natural situations of daily life. The purpose of this study was to compare Conversation, Freeplay, and narrative speech in aspects of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU, Type-token ratio (TTR, and the number of utterances. Methods: By cluster sampling method, a total of 30 Semnanian five-year-old boys with normal speech and language development were selected from the active kindergartens in Semnan city. Conversation, Freeplay, and narrative speech were three applied language sample elicitation methods to obtain 15 minutes of children’s spontaneous language samples. Means for MLU, TTR, and the number of utterances are analyzed by dependent ANOVA. Results: The result showed no significant difference in number of elicited utterances among these three language sampling methods. Narrative speech elicited longer MLU than freeplay and conversation, and compared to freeplay and narrative speech, conversation elicited higher TTR. Discussion: Results suggest that in the clinical assessment of the Persian-language children, it is better to use narrative speech to elicit longer MLU and to use conversation to elicit higher TTR.

  19. ATR technique, an appropriate method for determining the degree of conversion in dental giomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prejmerean, Cristina; Prodan, Doina; Vlassa, Mihaela; Prejmerean, Vasile; Cuc, Stanca; Moldovan, Marioara; Streza, Mihaela; Buruiana, Tinca; Colceriu, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Dental light-curing giomers were developed to combine the favourable properties of diacrylic resin composites (DRCs) and glass-ionomer cements (GICs) in a single material and to eliminate their inherent drawbacks. Giomers are characterized by their aesthetic appearance, high mechanical properties, adhesion to dental tissues as well as fluoride release and recharge abilities. The qualities of the giomers are greatly influenced by the level of conversion of the component resins. Infrared spectroscopy is one of the most largely used techniques for the determination of the degree of conversion in resin-based dental materials. However different results were obtained due to the performances of the used methods. The present work presents the determination of conversion degree in a series of dental copolymers and their corresponding giomers using transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and an attenuated total reflection technique (ATR) technique, respectively, the main aim being the study of the influence of the materials composition and of the light curing modes upon the achieved conversion in the cured giomers. Beautifil II commercial giomer was used as a control. A halogen lamp and a diode-blue LED lamp were used for the curing of the materials. The results showed that the composition of the resins greatly influenced the conversion. The highest conversions (up to 79%) were obtained in the case of the experimental giomers which contained the experimental Bis-GMA urethane analogue, followed by the Beautifil II giomer (61%) and experimental giomers based on commercial Bis-GMA (up to 50%), respectively. The resins light-cured by using the diode-blue LED lamp presented slightly higher conversions than the resins cured by halogen lamp. The study demonstrates the possibility to evaluate easily and reproducibly the conversion in light-curing composite materials with complex chemical composition and structure, particularly in the case of giomers by using the

  20. A novel MPPT method for enhancing energy conversion efficiency taking power smoothing into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jizhen; Meng, Hongmin; Hu, Yang; Lin, Zhongwei; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We discuss the disadvantages of conventional OTC MPPT method. • We study the relationship between enhancing efficiency and power smoothing. • The conversion efficiency is enhanced and the volatility of power is suppressed. • Small signal analysis is used to verify the effectiveness of proposed method. - Abstract: With the increasing capacity of wind energy conversion system (WECS), the rotational inertia of wind turbine is becoming larger. And the efficiency of energy conversion is significantly reduced by the large inertia. This paper proposes a novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method to enhance the efficiency of energy conversion for large-scale wind turbine. Since improving the efficiency may increase the fluctuations of output power, power smoothing is considered as the second control objective. A T-S fuzzy inference system (FIS) is adapted to reduce the fluctuations according to the volatility of wind speed and accelerated rotor speed by regulating the compensation gain. To verify the effectiveness, stability and good dynamic performance of the new method, mechanism analyses, small signal analyses, and simulation studies are carried out based on doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine, respectively. Study results show that both the response speed and the efficiency of proposed method are increased. In addition, the extra fluctuations of output power caused by the high efficiency are reduced effectively by the proposed method with FIS

  1. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  2. Hearsay Ethnography: Conversational Journals as a Method for Studying Culture in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Susan Cotts; Swidler, Ann

    2009-04-01

    Social scientists have long struggled to develop methods adequate to their theoretical understanding of meaning as collective and dynamic. While culture is widely understood as an emergent property of collectivities, the methods we use keep pulling us back towards interview-situated accounts and an image of culture as located in individual experience. Scholars who seek to access supra-individual semiotic structures by studying public rituals and other collectively-produced texts then have difficulty capturing the dynamic processes through which such meanings are created and changed in situ. To try to capture more effectively the way meaning is produced and re-produced in everyday life, we focus here on conversational interactions-the voices and actions that constitute the relational space among actors. Conversational journals provide us with a method: the analysis of texts produced by cultural insiders who keep journals of who-said-what-to-whom in conversations they overhear or events they participate in during the course of their daily lives. We describe the method, distinguishing it from other approaches and noting its drawbacks. We then illustrate the methodological advantages of conversational journals with examples from our texts. We end with a discussion of the method's potential in our setting as well as in other places and times.

  3. Effect of Cooling Methods on Methane Conversion via Dielectric-Barrier Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baowei; Yang Kuanhui; Xu Genhui

    2008-01-01

    Effects of cooling methods on stability and methane conversion rate using dielectric-barrier discharges (DBD) were systematically investigated in this article. The results showed that the methane conversion rate was as high as 44.43% in a pure methane system at a flow rate of 100 mL ± min -1 and an input power of 234.2 W with air cooling. A dark greenish and soft film-like carbon was deposited on the outer surface of quartz tube when the outer electrode was water-cooled, which decreased the methane conversion. With air cooling of inner electrode the selectivity of C 2 hydrocarbons was higher than that with other cooling methods, while the C 3 hydrocarbons had higher selectivity with flowing water cooling. Cooling the inner electrode could restrain the carbon deposition, but would decrease the methane conversion rate. The stability of both reaction and plasma operation can be improved through cooling the reactor. From thermodynamic analysis, it was found that the effective collisions frequency among the reactant molecules and free electrons (e - ) increased with temperature, which in turn led to a higher methane conversion rate and a change in the distribution of products.

  4. Multimodal Corpus Analysis as a Method for Ensuring Cultural Usability of Embodied Conversational Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose the method of multimodal corpus analysis to collect enough empirical data for modeling the behavior of embodied conversational agents. This is a prerequisite to ensure the usability of such complex interactive systems. So far, the development of embodied agents suffers fr...

  5. En introduktion til CARM: The Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Bierring

    2014-01-01

    Dette working paper er en introduktion til og kort diskussion af workshopmetoden Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method (CARM), som er en metode udviklet til at afholde workshops på baggrund af resultater fra interaktionsanalyser. Artiklen er den første introduktion til CARM-metoden på dansk, og...

  6. Conversation analysis as a method for investigating interaction in care home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwin, John

    2014-11-01

    This article gives an outline of how the socio-linguistic approach of conversation analysis can be applied to the analysis of carer-patient interaction in care homes. A single case study from a routine encounter in a residential care home is presented. This is used to show how the conversation analysis method works, the kinds of interactional and communication features it can expose, and what specific contribution this kind of micro-interactional approach may make to improving quality of care in these environments. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. The role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder: a mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaan RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard A Kanaan,1,2 David Armstrong,3 Simon Wessely2 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Psychological Medicine, King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Weston Education Centre, Denmark Hill, 3Department of General Practice, King’s College London, Capital House, London, UK Objective: Since DSM-5 removed the requirement for a psychosocial formulation, neurologists have been able to make the diagnosis of conversion disorder without psychiatric input. We sought to examine whether neurologists and specialist psychiatrists concurred with this approach.Design: We used mixed methods, first surveying all the neurologists in the UK and then interviewing the neuropsychiatrists in a large UK region on the role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder.Results: Of the surveyed neurologists, 76% did not think that psychiatrists were essential for the diagnosis and 71% thought that psychiatrists did not even consider conversion disorder when referred a case. The neuropsychiatrists who were interviewed held complex models of conversion disorder. They believed all cases could be explained psychosocially in theory, but the nature of the diagnostic encounter often prevented it in practice; all felt that psychosocial formulation could be very helpful and some felt that it was essential to diagnosis.Conclusion: Although neurologists do not think psychiatrists are required for diagnosing conversion disorder, specialist psychiatrists disagree, at least in some cases. Keywords: functional neurological disorders, classification, qualitative research, survey, psychiatric formulation

  8. The role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Richard A; Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Since DSM-5 removed the requirement for a psychosocial formulation, neurologists have been able to make the diagnosis of conversion disorder without psychiatric input. We sought to examine whether neurologists and specialist psychiatrists concurred with this approach. We used mixed methods, first surveying all the neurologists in the UK and then interviewing the neuropsychiatrists in a large UK region on the role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder. Of the surveyed neurologists, 76% did not think that psychiatrists were essential for the diagnosis and 71% thought that psychiatrists did not even consider conversion disorder when referred a case. The neuropsychiatrists who were interviewed held complex models of conversion disorder. They believed all cases could be explained psychosocially in theory, but the nature of the diagnostic encounter often prevented it in practice; all felt that psychosocial formulation could be very helpful and some felt that it was essential to diagnosis. Although neurologists do not think psychiatrists are required for diagnosing conversion disorder, specialist psychiatrists disagree, at least in some cases.

  9. Theoretical mechanics for sixth forms

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Forms, Second Edition is a 14-chapter book that begins by elucidating the nature of theoretical mechanics. The book then describes the statics of a particle in illustration of the techniques of handling vector quantities. Subsequent chapters focus on the principle of moments, parallel forces and centers of gravity; and the application of Newton's second law to the dynamics of a particle and the ideas of work and energy, impulse and momentum, and power. The concept of friction is also explained. This volume concludes with chapters concerning motion in a circle an

  10. An optimized rapid bisulfite conversion method with high recovery of cell-free DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shaohua; Long, Fei; Cheng, Juanbo; Huang, Daixin

    2017-12-19

    Methylation analysis of cell-free DNA is a encouraging tool for tumor diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis. Sensitivity of methylation analysis is a very important matter due to the tiny amounts of cell-free DNA available in plasma. Most current methods of DNA methylation analysis are based on the difference of bisulfite-mediated deamination of cytosine between cytosine and 5-methylcytosine. However, the recovery of bisulfite-converted DNA based on current methods is very poor for the methylation analysis of cell-free DNA. We optimized a rapid method for the crucial steps of bisulfite conversion with high recovery of cell-free DNA. A rapid deamination step and alkaline desulfonation was combined with the purification of DNA on a silica column. The conversion efficiency and recovery of bisulfite-treated DNA was investigated by the droplet digital PCR. The optimization of the reaction results in complete cytosine conversion in 30 min at 70 °C and about 65% of recovery of bisulfite-treated cell-free DNA, which is higher than current methods. The method allows high recovery from low levels of bisulfite-treated cell-free DNA, enhancing the analysis sensitivity of methylation detection from cell-free DNA.

  11. Calcium phosphate formation from sea urchin - (brissus latecarinatus via modified mechano-chemical (ultrasonic conversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Samur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to produce apatite structures, such as hydroxyapatite (HA and fluorapatite (FA, from precursor calcium phosphates of biological origin, namely from sea urchin, with mechano-chemical stirring and hot-plating conversion method. The produced materials were heat treated at 800 °C for 4 hours. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies were conducted. Calcium phosphate phases were developed. The SEM images showed the formation of micro to nano-powders. The experimental results suggest that sea urchin, Brissus latecarinatus skeleton could be an alternative source for the production of various mono or biphasic calcium phosphates with simple and economic mechano-chemical (ultrasonic conversion method.

  12. Method for conversion of carbohydrate polymers to value-added chemical products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongchao C [Norwood, NJ; Brown, Heather M [Kennewick, WA; Su, Yu [Richland, WA

    2012-02-07

    Methods are described for conversion of carbohydrate polymers in ionic liquids, including cellulose, that yield value-added chemicals including, e.g., glucose and 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) at temperatures below 120.degree. C. Catalyst compositions that include various mixed metal halides are described that are selective for specified products with yields, e.g., of up to about 56% in a single step process.

  13. A graphical method for estimating the tunneling factor for mode conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamental parameter characterizing the strength of any mode conversion process is the tunneling parameter, which is typically determined from a model dispersion relation which is transformed into a differential equation. Here a graphical method is described which gives the tunneling parameter from quantities directly measured from a simple graph of the dispersion relation. The accuracy of the estimate depends only on the accuracy of the measurements

  14. Sixth national stakeholder workshop summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    On June 17--18, 1998, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Worker and Community Transition convened its sixth National Stakeholder Workshop at the Ramada Plaza Hotel Old Town in Alexandria, Virginia. Approximately 325 stakeholders attended representing DOE headquarters and field offices, contractors, labor organizations, state and local government, education and community interest groups. The meeting addressed the progress made on the issues and challenges identified at the last stakeholder`s meeting in Oakland, California on April 9--11, 1997. Also discussed were the full range of the Department`s work force issues and creative solutions to the inherent challenges of simultaneously implementing the Department`s post Cold-War mission, work force restructuring guidance, contract reform objectives, asset disposition, performance-based management requirements, and business process improvement policies. The format of the Workshop included several plenary sessions and a number of small group discussion sessions. The small group sessions focused on topics related to labor issues, work force restructuring, work force planning, community transition, and employee concerns. The sessions provided a wide range of views on worker and community transition issues. The plenary sessions of the Workshop included presentations on the following topics: welcome and introductions; opening remarks; building a better labor-management relationship; keynote speech from Secretary of Energy Federico Pena; meeting tomorrow`s challenges (early site closures); harnessing the contracting process to encourage local growth; and, the British experience in economic conversion.

  15. ICENES '91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, μ-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session

  16. Sixth taste – starch taste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists from Oregon State University, USA, came up with the newest theory of the sixth taste – starch taste that might soon join the basic five tastes. This argument is supported by studies done on both animals and humans, the results of which seem to indicate the existence of separate receptors for starch taste, others than for sweet taste. Starch is a glucose homopolymer that forms an α-glucoside chain called glucosan or glucan. This polysaccharide constitutes the most important source of carbohydrates in food. It can be found in groats, potatoes, legumes, grains, manioc and corn. Apart from its presence in food, starch is also used in textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and stationery industries as well as in glue production. This polysaccharide is made of an unbranched helical structure – amylose (15–20%, and a structure that forms branched chains – amylopectin (80–85%. The starch structure, degree of its crystallisation or hydration as well as its availability determine the speed of food-contained starch hydrolysis by amylase. So far, starch has been considered tasteless, but the newest report shows that for people of different origins it is associated with various aliments specific for each culture. Apart from a number of scientific experiments using sweet taste inhibitors, the existence of the sixth taste is also confirmed by molecular studies. However, in order to officially include starch taste to the basic human tastes, it must fulfil certain criteria. The aim of the study is to present contemporary views on starch.

  17. IAEA research contracts. Sixth annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-04-01

    This volume is the sixth annual report and presents full summaries of 37 final reports from contracts, sponsored under the Agency's Research Contract Programme, which were completed during 1965. Including these, a total of 136 summaries have been published in the various fields in which support is provided under the IAEA Research contract program. In every case the summary of the contractor's final report has been prepared by that member of the Agency's scientific staff who has been most closely connected with the particular branch of research concerned. The scientific data are the responsibility of the contractor, though the Agency is responsible for any additional observations. The reports presented are related to research in the field of radioactive waste management and environmental sciences; health physics and radiation protection; radiobiology; safeguards methods; nuclear reactors physics and nuclear fuels; radioisotope applications in agriculture, medicine and hydrology.

  18. IAEA research contracts. Sixth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This volume is the sixth annual report and presents full summaries of 37 final reports from contracts, sponsored under the Agency's Research Contract Programme, which were completed during 1965. Including these, a total of 136 summaries have been published in the various fields in which support is provided under the IAEA Research contract program. In every case the summary of the contractor's final report has been prepared by that member of the Agency's scientific staff who has been most closely connected with the particular branch of research concerned. The scientific data are the responsibility of the contractor, though the Agency is responsible for any additional observations. The reports presented are related to research in the field of radioactive waste management and environmental sciences; health physics and radiation protection; radiobiology; safeguards methods; nuclear reactors physics and nuclear fuels; radioisotope applications in agriculture, medicine and hydrology

  19. Accuracy of cell calculation methods used for analysis of high conversion light water reactor lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang-Joon; Okumura, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Yukio; Tanaka, Ken-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Validation tests were made for the accuracy of cell calculation methods used in analyses of tight lattices of a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel core in a high conversion light water reactor (HCLWR). A series of cell calculations was carried out for the lattices referred from an international HCLWR benchmark comparison, with emphasis placed on the resonance calculation methods; the NR, IR approximations, the collision probability method with ultra-fine energy group. Verification was also performed for the geometrical modelling; a hexagonal/cylindrical cell, and the boundary condition; mirror/white reflection. In the calculations, important reactor physics parameters, such as the neutron multiplication factor, the conversion ratio and the void coefficient, were evaluated using the above methods for various HCLWR lattices with different moderator to fuel volume ratios, fuel materials and fissile plutonium enrichments. The calculated results were compared with each other, and the accuracy and applicability of each method were clarified by comparison with continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations. It was verified that the accuracy of the IR approximation became worse when the neutron spectrum became harder. It was also concluded that the cylindrical cell model with the white boundary condition was not so suitable for MOX fuelled lattices, as for UO 2 fuelled lattices. (author)

  20. An enhanced component connection method for conversion of fault trees to binary decision diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyte-Prescott, R.; Andrews, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) is widely applied to assess the failure probability of industrial systems. Many computer packages are available, which are based on conventional kinetic tree theory methods. When dealing with large (possibly non-coherent) fault trees, the limitations of the technique in terms of accuracy of the solutions and the efficiency of the processing time become apparent. Over recent years, the binary decision diagram (BDD) method has been developed that solves fault trees and overcomes the disadvantages of the conventional FTA approach. First of all, a fault tree for a particular system failure mode is constructed and then converted to a BDD for analysis. This paper analyses alternative methods for the fault tree to BDD conversion process. For most fault tree to BDD conversion approaches, the basic events of the fault tree are placed in an ordering. This can dramatically affect the size of the final BDD and the success of qualitative and quantitative analyses of the system. A set of rules is then applied to each gate in the fault tree to generate the BDD. An alternative approach can also be used, where BDD constructs for each of the gate types are first built and then merged to represent a parent gate. A powerful and efficient property, sub-node sharing, is also incorporated in the enhanced method proposed in this paper. Finally, a combined approach is developed taking the best features of the alternative methods. The efficiency of the techniques is analysed and discussed

  1. A novel energy conversion based method for velocity correction in molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hanhui [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-Engine, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Ningning [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ku, Xiaoke, E-mail: xiaokeku@zju.edu.cn [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Fan, Jianren [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has become an important tool for studying micro- or nano-scale dynamics and the statistical properties of fluids and solids. In MD simulations, there are mainly two approaches: equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD and NEMD). In this paper, a new energy conversion based correction (ECBC) method for MD is developed. Unlike the traditional systematic correction based on macroscopic parameters, the ECBC method is developed strictly based on the physical interaction processes between the pair of molecules or atoms. The developed ECBC method can apply to EMD and NEMD directly. While using MD with this method, the difference between the EMD and NEMD is eliminated, and no macroscopic parameters such as external imposed potentials or coefficients are needed. With this method, many limits of using MD are lifted. The application scope of MD is greatly extended.

  2. A novel energy conversion based method for velocity correction in molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hanhui; Liu, Ningning; Ku, Xiaoke; Fan, Jianren

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has become an important tool for studying micro- or nano-scale dynamics and the statistical properties of fluids and solids. In MD simulations, there are mainly two approaches: equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD and NEMD). In this paper, a new energy conversion based correction (ECBC) method for MD is developed. Unlike the traditional systematic correction based on macroscopic parameters, the ECBC method is developed strictly based on the physical interaction processes between the pair of molecules or atoms. The developed ECBC method can apply to EMD and NEMD directly. While using MD with this method, the difference between the EMD and NEMD is eliminated, and no macroscopic parameters such as external imposed potentials or coefficients are needed. With this method, many limits of using MD are lifted. The application scope of MD is greatly extended.

  3. [Conversion methods of freshwater snail tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Hua; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Liu, Xue-Qin

    2009-06-01

    Mollusk biomass is usually expressed as wet mass with shell, but this expression fails to represent real biomass due to the high calcium carbonate content in shells. Tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass are relatively close to real biomass. However, the determination process of these two parameters is very complicated, and thus, it is necessary to establish simple and practical conversion methods for these two parameters. A total of six taxa of freshwater snails (Bellamya sp., Alocinma longicornis, Parafossarulus striatulus, Parafossarulus eximius, Semisulcospira cancellata, and Radix sp.) common in the Yangtze Basin were selected to explore the relations of their five shell dimension parameters, dry and wet mass with shells with their tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass. The regressions of the tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass with the five shell dimension parameters were all exponential (y = ax(b)). Among them, shell width and shell length were more precise (the average percentage error between observed and predicted value being 22.0% and 22.5%, respectively) than the other three parameters in the conversion of dry mass. Wet mass with shell could be directly converted to tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass, with an average percentage error of 21.7%. According to the essence of definition and the errors of conversion, ash free dry mass would be the optimum parameter to express snail biomass.

  4. Structured catalyst bed and method for conversion of feed materials to chemical products and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong , Liu; Wei, [Richland, WA

    2012-01-24

    The present invention is a structured monolith reactor and method that provides for controlled Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The invention controls mass transport limitations leading to higher CO conversion and lower methane selectivity. Over 95 wt % of the total product liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the monolithic catalyst are in the carbon range of C.sub.5-C.sub.18. The reactor controls readsorption of olefins leading to desired products with a preselected chain length distribution and enhanced overall reaction rate. And, liquid product analysis shows readsorption of olefins is reduced, achieving a narrower FT product distribution.

  5. Achievement of extreme resolution for the selective by depth Moessbauer method on conversion electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenkov, M.I.; Zhdanov, V.S.; Ryzhikh, V.Yu.; Chubisov, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    At the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan the depth selective conversion electrons Moessbauer spectroscopy (DSCEMS) method was realized on the facility designed on the magnet sector beta-spectrometer base with the dual focusing equipped with non-equipotential electron source in the multi-ribbon variant and the position-sensitive detector. In the work the model statistical calculations of energy and angular distributions experienced not so many times of inelastic scattering acts were carried out

  6. Effect of Pilates method and conversation circles on the health of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi da Silva Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Health education practices associated with oriented exercises have potential beneficial effect on health promotion and prevention of chronic diseases. Objective: This study aimed to verify the effect of an intervention protocol using Pilates and conversation circles on the functional autonomy and quality of life of older adults in the context of the primary health care of Taió, SC, Brazil. Methods: This study applied a single case experimental design (ABAB, with 24 participants aged 60 years or older who changed phases with and without interventions performed with Pilates sessions and conversation circles. At the end of each phase, anamnesis interview applied with the WHOQOL-OLD inventory and the GDLAM protocol were individually performed. Results: Interventions were associated with increased functional parameters and quality of life as well as to reduced body mass index. Participants also reported improvement in emotional conditions, body harmony and global mobility. Conclusion: The Pilates Method assured increased functionality of the volunteers, and further studies should be carried out to evaluate the subjective indicators.

  7. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method to determine the catalytic conversion of cellulose from carbon-supported hydrogenolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Glauco F.; Ramos, Luiz A.; Barrett, Dean H.; Curvelo, Antonio Aprígio S.; Rodella, Cristiane B.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new method to determine the catalytic conversion of cellulose using TGA has been developed. • TGA is able to differentiate between carbon from cellulose and carbon from the catalyst. • Building an analytical curve from TGA results enables the accurate determination of cellulose conversion. - Abstract: The ability to determine the quantity of solid reactant that has been transformed after a catalytic reaction is fundamental in accurately defining the conversion of the catalyst. This quantity is also central when investigating the recyclability of a solid catalyst as well as process control in an industrial catalytic application. However, when using carbon-supported catalysts for the conversion of cellulose this value is difficult to obtain using only a gravimetric method. The difficulty lies in weighing errors caused by loss of the solid mixture (catalyst and non-converted cellulose) after the reaction and/or moisture adsorption by the substrate. These errors are then propagated into the conversion calculation giving erroneous results. Thus, a quantitative method using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been developed to determine the quantity of cellulose after a catalytic reaction by using a tungsten carbide catalyst supported on activated carbon. Stepped separation of TGA curves was used for quantitative analysis where three thermal events were identified: moisture loss, cellulose decomposition and CO/CO 2 formation. An analytical curve was derived and applied to quantify the residual cellulose after catalytic reactions which were performed at various temperatures and reaction times. The catalytic conversion was calculated and compared to the standard gravimetric method. Results showed that catalytic cellulose conversion can be determined using TGA and exhibits lower uncertainty (±2%) when compared to gravimetric determination (±5%). Therefore, it is a simple and relatively inexpensive method to determine catalytic

  8. Method and apparatus for clockless analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2007-03-06

    An apparatus and method for analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection includes at least one stage, which includes a first switch, second switch, current source or capacitor, and discriminator. The discriminator changes state in response to a current or charge associated with the input signal exceeding a threshold, thereby indicating whether the current or charge associated with the input signal is greater than the threshold. The input signal includes a peak or a charge, and the converter includes a peak or charge detect mode in which a state of the switch is retained in response to a decrease in the current or charge associated with the input signal. The state of the switch represents at least a portion of a value of the peak or of the charge.

  9. Hybrid Intelligent Control Method to Improve the Frequency Support Capability of Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Young Heo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid intelligent control method that enables frequency support control for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs wind turbines. The proposed method for a wind energy conversion system (WECS is designed to have PMSG modeling and full-scale back-to-back insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT converters comprising the machine and grid side. The controller of the machine side converter (MSC and the grid side converter (GSC are designed to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT based on an improved hill climb searching (IHCS control algorithm and de-loaded (DL operation to obtain a power margin. Along with this comprehensive control of maximum power tracking mode based on the IHCS, a method for kinetic energy (KE discharge control of the supporting primary frequency control scheme with DL operation is developed to regulate the short-term frequency response and maintain reliable operation of the power system. The effectiveness of the hybrid intelligent control method is verified by a numerical simulation in PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results show that the proposed approach can improve the frequency regulation capability in the power system.

  10. Coupling analysis of energy conversion in multi-mode vibration structural control using a synchronized switch damping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Hongli; Qiu, Jinhao; Xia, Pinqi; Inman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Modal coupling is an important issue in the analysis and control of structural systems with multi-degrees of freedom (MDOF). In this paper, modal coupling induced by energy conversion in the structural control of an MDOF system using a synchronized switch damping method is investigated theoretically and validated numerically. In the analysis, it is supposed that the voltage on the piezoelectric actuator is switched at the displacement extrema of a given mode. Two types of coupling in energy conversion are considered. The first is whether the switching action based on one mode induces energy conversion of the other modes. The second is whether the vibration of one mode affects the energy conversion of the other modes. The results indicate that the modal coupling in energy conversion is very complicated. In most cases the switching action based on one mode does induce energy conversion of another mode, but the efficiency depends on the frequency ratio of the two modes. The vibration of one mode affects the energy conversion of another mode only when the frequency ratio of the two modes takes some special values. Discussions are also given on the potential application of the theoretical results in the design of an energy harvesting device. (paper)

  11. Conversion factors for a mobile survey method by car in the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, R.; Saito, K.

    2003-01-01

    Conversion factors for the purpose of mobile survey by car in the Chernobyl area have been evaluated using simulation calculations. In the calculations, the width of road is assumed as being 4 m, 10 m and 20 m and the surrounding area is divided into ten zones contaminated homogeneously by 137 Cs with different depth profiles in the ground. The air kerma contribution from all zones to the road is simulated. A conversion factor is calculated by dividing the air kerma rate in typical land-use adjacent to the road by that on the road. Conversion factors in various land uses around the roads are examined. The calculated conversion factors agree with the conversion factors measured in the Chernobyl area within an accuracy of 20%. Further, basic data, needed for composing conversion factors appropriate to other contaminated regions with different depth distributions from the Chernobyl area, are also indicated. (author)

  12. Management of marine cage aquaculture. Environmental carrying capacity method based on dry feed conversion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huiwen; Sun, Yinglan

    2007-11-01

    Marine cage aquaculture produces a large amount of waste that is released directly into the environment. To effectively manage the mariculture environment, it is important to determine the carrying capacity of an aquaculture area. In many Asian countries trash fish is dominantly used in marine cage aquaculture, which contains more water than pellet feed. The traditional nutrient loading analysis is for pellet feed not for trash fish feed. So, a more critical analysis is necessary in trash fish feed culturing areas. Corresponding to FCR (feed conversion rate), dry feed conversion rate (DFCR) was used to analyze the nutrient loadings from marine cage aquaculture where trash fish is used. Based on the hydrodynamic model and the mass transport model in Xiangshan Harbor, the relationship between the water quality and the waste discharged from cage aquaculture has been determined. The environmental carrying capacity of the aquaculture sea area was calculated by applying the models noted above. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the water quality parameters considered in this study. The simulated results show that the maximum nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were 0.216 mg/L and 0.039 mg/L, respectively. In most of the sea area, the nutrient concentrations were higher than the water quality standard. The calculated environmental carrying capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus in Xiangshan Harbor were 1,107.37 t/yr and 134.35 t/yr, respectively. The waste generated from cage culturing in 2000 has already exceeded the environmental carrying capacity. Unconsumed feed has been identified as the most important origin of all pollutants in cage culturing systems. It suggests the importance of increasing the feed utilization and improving the feed composition on the basis of nutrient requirement. For the sustainable development of the aquaculture industry, it is an effective management measure to keep the stocking density and pollution loadings below the environmental carrying

  13. New exact solutions of sixth-order thin-film equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa M. Taha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TheG′G-expansion method is used for the first time to find traveling-wave solutions for the sixth-order thin-film equation, where related balance numbers are not the usual positive integers. New types of exact traveling-wave solutions, such as – solitary wave solutions, are obtained the sixth-order thin-film equation, when parameters are taken at special values.

  14. A storage and display method for radioisotope imaging using scan conversion memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Masaomi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Nakanishi, Fumiko; Suzuki, Shigeo; Miyabayashi, Hiroyasu

    1975-01-01

    The scan conversion memory (SCM) has been applied to a method for the storage and display of radioisotope images. Scan data were fed into SCM as pulse signals with X and Y axis from the scinti-scanner or the scinti-camera. The electric charge on the SCM target is directly proportional to the pulse density. A TV display was executed immediately after the recording of a radioisotope image. If necessary, a seven additive color display to the image density could be obtained by a simple color slicer, and the image could be hard-copied by a video hard-copy printer. Characteristics of the SCM were experimentally clarified as follows: the practical resolution was 700 line/TV; ten levels gray scale were discriminated on the video monitor, the uniformity, measured by an oscilloscope was less than 20%, and dead time of the pulse interval at full scale signal was 5 μ sec. In their representation, the SCM scintigrams were observed as closely resembling conventional film scintigrams. Superimposed imaging of an X-ray picture and a radioisotope image can be realized by using the SCM, for an increase in anatomical localization on reading images. The SCM scintigram can be applied rapidly and can be the viewer of radioisotope imaging. (auth.)

  15. Development and manufacturing cycle for potassium nitrate and phosphate producing by conversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. И. Алексеев

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Russian market of potash mineral fertilizers in 2014 and forecast for 2015-2019 show [http://businesstat.ru/images/demo/potash_fertilizers_russia.pdf] that today the most widespread potash fertilizer is  the potassium chloride. But chloride-free potassium-containing products are in the highest demand at the fertilizer market. One of possible solutions to this problem is recrystallization of the potassium chloride or potassium-containing mineral ores using nitrate-containing or phosphorus-containing salt products. The basis for justifying processing conditions for polymineral potassium-containing salt raw materials and salt mineral ores is the data on phase equilibria in multicomponent water-salt systems. Knowledge of the regularities of phase equilibria in multicomponent salt systems helps to develop optimal conditions for complex processing of polymineral natural and technical raw materials. Below it is present the results of technological calculations for processing potash mineral raw materials with account of the complex nature of its utilization. Based on the analysis of the solubility diagrams of mutual salt systems different cyclic processes for production of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and nitrate and sodium chloride from dihydrogen phosphate and sodium nitrate and potassium chloride by conversion method have been designed, and ways of these processes optimization have been proposed for reducing the cost of certain technical  operations.

  16. Applying linguistic methods to understanding smoking-related conversations on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Brown, Cati G; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-03-01

    Social media, such as Twitter, have become major channels of communication and commentary on popular culture, including conversations on our nation's leading addiction: tobacco. The current study examined Twitter conversations following two tobacco-related events in the media: (1) President Obama's doctor announcing that he had quit smoking and (2) the release of a photograph of Miley Cyrus (a former Disney child star) smoking a cigarette. With a focus on high-profile individuals whose actions can draw public attention, we aimed to characterise tobacco-related conversations as an example of tobacco-related public discourse and to present a novel methodology for studying social media. Tweets were collected 11-13 November 2011 (President Obama) and 1-3 August 2011 (Miley Cyrus) and analysed for relative frequency of terms, a novel application of a linguistic methodology. The President Obama data set (N=2749 tweets) had conversations about him quitting tobacco as well as a preponderance of information on political activity, links to websites, racialised terms and mention of marijuana. Websites and terms about Obama's smoke-free status were most central to the conversation. In the Miley Cyrus data (N=4746 tweets), terms that occurred with the greatest relative frequency were positive, emotional and supportive of quitting (eg, love, and please), with words such as 'love' most central to the conversation. People are talking about tobacco-related issues on Twitter, and semantic network analysis can be used to characterise on-line conversations. Future interventions may be able to harness social media and major current events to raise awareness of smoking-related issues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Ethanol by Electrochemical Synthesis Method Using Cu-Zn Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Ramadan, S.; Fariduddin, S.; Aminudin, A. R.; Hayatri, A. K.

    2018-01-01

    Research on conversion of carbon dioxide into ethanol has been done. The conversion process is carried out in a sodium bicarbonate electrolyte solution in an electrochemical synthesis reactor. As cathode was used Cu-Zn, while as anode carbon was utilized. Variations of voltage, concentration of sodium bicarbonate electrolyte solution and time of electrolysis were performed to determine the optimum conditions to convert carbon dioxide into ethanol. Sample of the electrochemical synthesis process was analyzed by gas chromatography. From the result, it is found that the optimum conditions of the electrochemical synthesis process of carbon dioxide conversion into ethanol are voltage, concentration of sodium bicarbonate electrolyte solution and time of electrolysis are 3 volts, 0.4 M and 90 minutes with the ethanol concentration of 10.44%.

  18. Methods for calculating dose conversion coefficients for terrestrial and aquatic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulanovsky, A.; Proehl, G.; Gomez-Ros, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Plants and animals may be exposed to ionizing radiation from radionuclides in the environment. This paper describes the underlying data and assumptions to assess doses to biota due to internal and external exposure for a wide range of masses and shapes living in various habitats. A dosimetric module is implemented which is a user-friendly and flexible possibility to assess dose conversion coefficients for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The dose conversion coefficients have been derived for internal and various external exposure scenarios. The dosimetric model is linked to radionuclide decay and emission database, compatible with the ICRP Publication 38, thus providing a capability to compute dose conversion coefficients for any nuclide from the database and its daughter nuclides. The dosimetric module has been integrated into the ERICA Tool, but it can also be used as a stand-alone version

  19. Method for internal conversion coefficients determination by means of a magnetic spectrometer. Application to 129Xe and 77Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arqueros, F.; Campos, J.

    1986-01-01

    The method used for efficiency calibration of a magnetic electron spectrometer and its applications to conversion electron spectrometry is described. The present results point out that apparatus combining magnetic deflection and semiconductor detection have a nondecreasing interest in nuclear spectrometry for applications where good resolution and large background rejection are both necessary. The present apparatus can be employed with source of relatively low activity, (0.lμCi). The nuclides studied were 129 Xe and 77 Se resulting from 129 Cs and 77 Br decay. The parent nulcides were produced in ISOLDE on line isotope separator at CERN. The efficiency calibration method used for energies higher than 200 keV made use of the well known beta spectrum of 36 Cl. The calibration for low energies was made with Auger electron intensities and suitable conversion lines of 129 Xenon. Results for relative intensities of conversion electron lines and intense gamma lines of 129 Xe and 77 Se are given. From these measurements internal conversion coefficients for transitions of both nuclides were obtained. The results were in agreement with theoretical calculations. (author)

  20. Selection of biomass thermochemical conversion technology in the Netherlands : A best worst method approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kaa, G.; Kamp, L.M.; Rezaei, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the technology battle for biomass conversion in the Netherlands. Three types of technologies are currently fighting the battle for standard dominance: combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Twelve relevant factors for standard dominance were found: ‘financial strength’,

  1. A convenient method for the conversion of N-acyloxazolidinones to hydroxamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Hasegawa, Hikaru; Ghorpade, Sandeep R

    2002-10-03

    Treatment of N-acyloxazolidinones with hydroxylamines using samarium triflate as a Lewis acid provides the corresponding hydroxamic acids in 50-98% yields at room temperature. The conversion proceeds with high degree of chemoselectivity and without racemization of chiral centers alpha- to the acyl group. [reaction: see text

  2. Implementation of a Monte Carlo method to model photon conversion for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizo, C. del; Tobias, I.; Perez-Bedmar, J.; Pan, A.C.; Luque, A.

    2008-01-01

    A physical model describing different photon conversion mechanisms is presented in the context of photovoltaic applications. To solve the resulting system of equations, a Monte Carlo ray-tracing model is implemented, which takes into account the coupling of the photon transport phenomena to the non-linear rate equations describing luminescence. It also separates the generation of rays from the two very different sources of photons involved (the sun and the luminescence centers). The Monte Carlo simulator presented in this paper is proposed as a tool to help in the evaluation of candidate materials for up- and down-conversion. Some application examples are presented, exploring the range of values that the most relevant parameters describing the converter should have in order to give significant gain in photocurrent

  3. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic materials. Part I: conversion of rye straw to valuable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Thomas; Wörmeyer, Kai; Lima, Juan Carlos Ixcaraguá; Bockemühl, Vera; Antranikian, Garabed; Brunner, Gerd; Smirnova, Irina

    2011-04-01

    The conversion of lignocellulose to valuable products requires I: a fractionation of the major components hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, II: an efficient method to process these components to higher valued products. The present work compares liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment to the soda pulping process and to the ethanol organosolv pretreatment using rye straw as a single lignocellulosic material. The organosolv pretreated rye straw was shown to require the lowest enzyme loading in order to achieve a complete saccharification of cellulose to glucose. At biomass loadings of up to 15% (w/w) cellulose conversion of LHW and organosolv pretreated lignocellulose was found to be almost equal. The soda pulping process shows lower carbohydrate and lignin recoveries compared to the other two processes. In combination with a detailed analysis of the different lignins obtained from the three pretreatment methods, this work gives an overview of the potential products from different pretreatment processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recommended methods for evaluating the benefits of ECUT Program outputs. [Energy Conversion and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.; Winter, C.

    1986-03-01

    This study was conducted to define and develop techniques that could be used to assess the complete spectrum of positive effects resulting from the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program activities. These techniques could then be applied to measure the benefits from past ECUT outputs. In addition, the impact of future ECUT outputs could be assessed as part of an ongoing monitoring process, after sufficient time has elapsed to allow their impacts to develop.

  5. BAESNUM, a conversational computer program for the Bayesian estimation of a parameter by a numerical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, A.G.; Jaarsma, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a conversational computer program which, via Bayes' theorem, numerically combines the prior distribution of a parameter with a likelihood function. Any type of prior and likelihood function can be considered. The present version of the program includes six types of prior and employs the binomial likelihood. As input the program requires the law and parameters of the prior distribution and the sample data. As output it gives the posterior distribution as a histogram. The use of the program for estimating the constant failure rate of an item is briefly described

  6. The effect of curing units and methods on degree of conversion of two types of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani Tabatabaei M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Halogen lamp is the commonly used light source for composite photo polymerization. Recently, high power halogen lamps, LED and plasma arc are introduced for improving the polymerization. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conventional and high power halogen lamps and LED light curing unit on degree of conversion of two different composite resins.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study two halogen units (Coltolux 50 with the intensity of  330 mW/cm2 and Optilux 501 with two different operating modes of standard with the intensity of 820 mW/cm2 and Ramp with the intentsiy of 100-1030mW/cm2 and one LED light curing unit (620 mW/cm2 were used. The composites were hybrid (Tetric ceram and nanofilled (Filteke supreme. Each materials/curing method contained three samples and degree of conversion (DC was measured with FTIR. Data were analyzed statistically with one way and two way ANOVA, Tukey HSD. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance.Results: Tetric ceram revealed higher DCthan Supreme. Tetric ceram showed a significant decrease in DC when Coltolux 50 was used in comparison to LED and Optilux 501. The latters did not show significant effect on DC of this material. DC of Supreme polymerized with various curing modes was not significantly different.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, degree of conversion in hybrid composites was higher than nanofilled. In comparison with conventional halogen lamp (Coltolux 50, high intensity halogen lamps and LED unit significantly lead to higher degree of conversion in hybrid composites.

  7. Sixth international workshop on linear colliders. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urakawa, Junji [ed.

    1995-08-01

    The sixth international workshop on linear colliders (LC95) was held by KEK at Tsukuba Center for Institute. In the workshop 8 parallel working group were organized: WG1 (beam sources and injection linacs), WG2 (damping rings and bunch compressors), WG3 (a: RF sources and structures, b: superconducting cavities, c: two beam accelerators), WG4 (beam dynamics in main linacs), WG5 (final focus and integration regions), WG6 (beam instrumentation), WG7 (overall parameters and construction techniques), WG8 (gamma-gamma collider and miscellaneous). This issue compiles materials which were used in the workshop. (J.P.N.).

  8. The search for the sixth quark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauneau, M.

    1995-01-01

    The National Fermi Laboratory near Chicago has the world's most powerful accelerator, the Tevatron. With this instrument, researchers have found clues to the existence of the sixth quark; proof of its existence would confirm the theory of fundamental interactions which attempts to explain the origin of the universe. This theory recognizes three forces, weak, electromagnetic and strong, which are, or not, acting on the different particles. This paper retraces the history of the discovery of the elementary particles, an adventure in which the development of major research instruments has played an important part. (author)

  9. Sixth international workshop on linear colliders. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urakawa, Junji

    1995-08-01

    The sixth international workshop on linear colliders (LC95) was held by KEK at Tsukuba Center for Institute. In the workshop 8 parallel working group were organized: WG1 (beam sources and injection linacs), WG2 (damping rings and bunch compressors), WG3 (a: RF sources and structures, b: superconducting cavities, c: two beam accelerators), WG4 (beam dynamics in main linacs), WG5 (final focus and integration regions), WG6 (beam instrumentation), WG7 (overall parameters and construction techniques), WG8 (gamma-gamma collider and miscellaneous). This issue compiles materials which were used in the workshop. (J.P.N.)

  10. Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Ethanol by Electrochemical Synthesis Method Using Brass as A Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septian Ramadan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of potential and gas flow rate were investigated to determine the optimum conditions of the electrochemical synthesis process to convert carbon dioxide to ethanol. The conversion process is carried out using a NaHCO3 electrolyte solution in an electrochemical reactor equipped with a cathode and anode. As cathode is used brass, while as anode is used carbon. The result of the electrochemical synthesis process was analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the content of the compounds produced qualitatively and quantitatively. The optimum electrochemical synthesis conditions to convert carbon dioxide to ethanol are potential and gas flow rate are 3 volts and 0.5 L/minutes with ethanol concentration yielded 1.32%.

  11. Engaging Conversationally: A Method for Engaging Students in Their Learning and Examining Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kiener

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the principles of the scholarship of teaching and learning and action research this study sought to examine how an instructor created and facilitated engagement in his students. The research was primarily undertaken to further define the middle range theory of mutual engagement. Theoretical sampling was used to analyze approximately 100 pieces of data that included instructor notes, teaching observations, feedback from conference presentations, student assessments, and end of semester student evaluations. Engaging conversationally (EC emerged as the phenomenon that described the instructor’s engagement in the learning process. EC was an ongoing cyclical pattern of inquiry that included preparing, reflecting and modeling. Interconnected in the pattern of inquiry were personality traits, counselor education, and teaching philosophy.

  12. An evaluation of different delivery methods for teaching binary, hex and decimal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kempthorne

    Full Text Available The ability to convert between binary, hexadecimal, and decimal numbering systems is a fundamental skill commonly taught to tertiary-level computing and ICT students. This paper presents the results of a multiple year investigation into the application of differing approaches for the teaching and learning of these skills. Specifically, the study compares traditional lectures, games, and group activities with student levels of academic achievement. Student prior experience with numbering system conversion is also analysed. The study reveals that, overall, the game-based approach resulted in the highest average test scores; however, when students were divided into groups with and without prior experience, the students with prior experience performed better with a traditional lecture approach.

  13. A novel headspace gas chromatographic method for in situ monitoring of monomer conversion during polymerization in an emulsion environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhong, Jin-Feng; Hu, Hui-Chao

    2012-05-18

    This paper describes a novel multiple-headspace extraction/gas chromatographic (MHE-GC) technique for monitoring monomer conversion during a polymerization reaction in a water-based emulsion environment. The polymerization reaction of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in an aqueous emulsion is used as an example. The reaction was performed in a closed headspace sample vial (as a mini-reactor), with pentane as a tracer. In situ monitoring of the vapor concentration of the tracer, employing a multiple headspace extraction (sampling) scheme, coupled to a GC, makes it possible to quantitatively follow the conversion of MMA during the early stages of polymerization. Data on the integrated amount of the tracer vapor released from the monomer droplet phase during the polymerization is described by a mathematic equation from which the monomer conversion can be calculated. The present method is simple, automated and economical, and provides an efficient tool in the investigation of the reaction kinetics and effects of the reaction conditions on the early stage of polymerization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of preparation method and CuO promotion in the conversion of ethanol into 1,3-butadiene over SiO2-MgO catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelici, Carlo; Velthoen, Marjolein E Z; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A

    2014-01-01

    Silica-magnesia (Si/Mg=1:1) catalysts were studied in the one-pot conversion of ethanol to butadiene. The catalyst synthesis method was found to greatly influence morphology and performance, with materials prepared through wet-kneading performing best both in terms of ethanol conversion and

  15. Evaluation of core physics analysis methods for conversion of the INL advanced test reactor to low-enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M. D.; Chang, G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Computational neutronics studies to support the possible conversion of the ATR to LEU are underway. Simultaneously, INL is engaged in a physics methods upgrade project to put into place modern computational neutronics tools for future support of ATR fuel cycle and experiment analysis. A number of experimental measurements have been performed in the ATRC in support of the methods upgrade project, and are being used to validate the new core physics methods. The current computational neutronics work is focused on performance of scoping calculations for the ATR core loaded with a candidate LEU fuel design. This will serve as independent confirmation of analyses that have been performed previously, and will evaluate some of the new computational methods for analysis of a candidate LEU fuel for ATR. (authors)

  16. SU-F-I-24: Feasibility of Magnetic Susceptibility to Relative Electron Density Conversion Method for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K; Kadoya, N; Chiba, M; Matsushita, H; Jingu, K [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Sato, K; Nagasaka, T; Yamanaka, K [Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Dobashi, S; Takeda, K [Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop radiation treatment planning using magnetic susceptibility obtained from quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) via MR imaging. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a method for generating a substitute for a CT image from an MRI. Methods: The head of a healthy volunteer was scanned using a CT scanner and a 3.0 T MRI scanner. The CT imaging was performed with a slice thickness of 2.5 mm at 80 and 120 kV (dual-energy scan). These CT images were converted to relative electron density (rED) using the CT-rED conversion table generated by a previous dual-energy CT scan. The CT-rED conversion table was generated using the conversion of the energy-subtracted CT number to rED via a single linear relationship. One T2 star-weighted 3D gradient echo-based sequence with four different echo times images was acquired using the MRI scanner. These T2 star-weighted images were used to estimate the phase data. To estimate the local field map, a Laplacian unwrapping of the phase and background field removal algorithm were implemented to process phase data. To generate a magnetic susceptibility map from the local field map, we used morphology enabled dipole inversion method. The rED map was resampled to the same resolution as magnetic susceptibility, and the magnetic susceptibility-rED conversion table was obtained via voxel-by-voxel mapping between the magnetic susceptibility and rED maps. Results: A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and rED is not observed through our method. Conclusion: Our results show that the correlation between magnetic susceptibility and rED is not observed. As the next step, we assume that the voxel of the magnetic susceptibility map comprises two materials, such as water (0 ppm) and bone (-2.2 ppm) or water and marrow (0.81ppm). The elements of each voxel were estimated from the ratio of the two materials.

  17. Application of the dose rate spectroscopy to the dose-to-curie conversion method using a NaI(Tl) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JI, Young-Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Kim, Chang-Jong; Kang, Mun Ja; Park, Sang Tae

    2015-01-01

    Dose rate spectroscopy is a very useful method to directly calculate the individual dose rate from the converted energy spectrum for the dose rate using the G-factor which is related to the used detector response function. A DTC conversion method for the estimation of the radioactivity based on the measured dose rate from the radioactive materials can then be modified into a simple equation using the dose rate spectroscopy. In order to make the method validation of the modified DTC conversion method, experimental verifications using a 3″φx3″ NaI(Tl) detector were conducted at the simple geometry of the point source located onto a detector and more complex geometries which mean the assay of the simulated radioactive material. In addition, the linearity about the results from the modified DTC conversion method was also estimated by increasing the distance between source positions and a detector to confirm the method validation in the energy, dose rate, and distance range of the gamma nuclides. - Highlights: • A modified DTC conversion method using the dose rate spectroscopy was established. • In-situ calibration factors were calculated from the MCNP simulation. • Radioactivities of the disk sources were accurately calculated using a modified DTC conversion method. • A modified DTC conversion method was applied to the assay of the radioactive material

  18. An Open Conversation on Using Eye-Gaze Methods in Studies of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venker, Courtney E.; Kover, Sara T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Eye-gaze methods have the potential to advance the study of neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their increasing use, challenges arise in using these methods with individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and in reporting sufficient methodological detail such that the resulting research is replicable and interpretable. Method: This…

  19. Efficient method for the conversion of agricultural waste into sugar alcohols over supported bimetallic catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tathod, Anup P; Dhepe, Paresh L

    2015-02-01

    Promoter effect of Sn in the PtSn/γ-Al2O3 (AL) and PtSn/C bimetallic catalysts is studied for the conversion of variety of substrates such as, C5 sugars (xylose, arabinose), C6 sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose), hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinogalactan), inulin and agricultural wastes (bagasse, rice husk, wheat straw) into sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, arabitol, galactitol). In all the reactions, PtSn/AL showed enhanced yields of sugar alcohols by 1.5-3 times than Pt/AL. Compared to C, AL supported bimetallic catalysts showed prominent enhancement in the yields of sugar alcohols. Bimetallic catalysts characterized by X-ray diffraction study revealed the stability of catalyst and absence of alloy formation thereby indicating that Pt and Sn are present as individual particles in PtSn/AL. The TEM analysis also confirmed stability of the catalysts and XPS study disclosed formation of electron deficient Sn species which helps in polarizing carbonyl bond to achieve enhanced hydrogenation activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conversion from film to image plates for transfer method neutron radiography of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper summarizes efforts to characterize and qualify a computed radiography (CR) system for neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). INL has multiple programs that are actively developing, testing, and evaluating new nuclear fuels. Irradiated fuel experiments are subjected to a number of sequential post-irradiation examination techniques that provide insight into the overall behavior and performance of the fuel. One of the first and most important of these exams is neutron radiography, which provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Results from neutron radiography are often the driver for subsequent examinations of the PIE program. Features of interest that can be evaluated using neutron radiography include irradiation-induced swelling, isotopic and fuel-fragment redistribution, plate deformations, and fuel fracturing. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique with film for imaging fuel. INL is pursuing multiple efforts to advance its neutron imaging capabilities for evaluating irradiated fuel and other applications, including conversion from film to CR image plates. Neutron CR is the current state-of-the-art for neutron imaging of highly-radioactive objects. Initial neutron radiographs of various types of nuclear fuel indicate that radiographs can be obtained of comparable image quality currently obtained using film. This paper provides neutron radiographs of representative irradiated fuel pins along with neutron radiographs of standards that informed the qualification of the neutron CR system for routine use. Additionally, this paper includes evaluations of some of the CR scanner parameters and their effects on image quality.

  1. Sixth Computational Biomechanics for Medicine Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Poul MF; Miller, Karol; Computational Biomechanics for Medicine : Deformation and Flow

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for mechanical engineers is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, biomedical sciences, and medicine. This book is an opportunity for computational biomechanics specialists to present and exchange opinions on the opportunities of applying their techniques to computer-integrated medicine. Computational Biomechanics for Medicine: Deformation and Flow collects the papers from the Sixth Computational Biomechanics for Medicine Workshop held in Toronto in conjunction with the Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention conference. The topics covered include: medical image analysis, image-guided surgery, surgical simulation, surgical intervention planning, disease prognosis and diagnostics, injury mechanism analysis, implant and prostheses design, and medical robotics.

  2. Sixth International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali; Bar-Yam, Yaneer; Unifying Themes in Complex Systems

    2008-01-01

    The International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS) creates a unique atmosphere for scientists of all fields, engineers, physicians, executives, and a host of other professionals to explore the common themes and applications of complex systems science. In June 2006, 500 participants convened in Boston for the sixth ICCS, exploring an array of topics, including networks, systems biology, evolution and ecology, nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation, as well as neural, psychological, psycho-social, socio-economic, and global systems. This volume selects 77 papers from over 300 presented at the conference. With this new volume, Unifying Themes in Complex Systems continues to build common ground between the wide-ranging domains of complex systems science.

  3. Sixth Meeting on CPT and Lorentz Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    CPT and Lorentz Symmetry

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the Proceedings of the Sixth Meeting on CPT and Lorentz Symmetry, held at Indiana University in Bloomington on June 17–21, 2013. The Meeting focused on tests of these fundamental symmetries and on related theoretical issues, including scenarios for possible violations. Topics covered at the meeting include searches for CPT and Lorentz violations involving: accelerator and collider experiments; atomic, nuclear, and particle decays; birefringence, dispersion, and anisotropy in cosmological sources; clock-comparison measurements; electromagnetic resonant cavities and lasers; tests of the equivalence principle; gauge and Higgs particles; high-energy astrophysical observations; laboratory tests of gravity; matter interferometry; neutrino oscillations and propagation; oscillations and decays of neutral mesons; particle–antiparticle comparisons; post-newtonian gravity in the solar system and beyond; second- and third-generation particles; space-based missions; spectroscopy of hydrogen and ant...

  4. Methods for conversion of lignocellulosic-derived products to transportation fuel precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2017-10-03

    Methods are disclosed for converting a biomass-derived product containing levulinic acid and/or gamma-valerolactone to a transportation fuel precursor product containing diesel like hydrocarbons. These methods are expected to produce fuel products at a reduced cost relative to conventional approaches.

  5. An Investigation of Mathematics Anxiety among Sixth through Eighth Grade Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgin, Osman; Baloglu, Mustafa; Catlioglu, Hakan; Gurbuz, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate mathematics anxiety among 220 sixth through eighth grade Turkish students in terms of mathematics achievement levels, perceived enjoyment of the mathematics teaching method, perceived enjoyment of mathematics, and perceived help with mathematics from parents. The Mathematics Anxiety Scale for…

  6. The Effectiveness of Using Brainstorming Strategy in the Development of Academic Achievement of Sixth Grade Students in English Grammar at Public Schools in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkawi, Nibal Abdelkarim Mousa; Smadi, Mona

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to identify the effect of using brainstorming method in the teaching of English grammar; to improve the level of sixth grade students in English grammar at public schools in Jordan. The study population consisted of all sixth grade students of both sexes. The sample of the study was chosen in the random stratified manner,…

  7. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  8. Newspapers in Science Education: A Study Involving Sixth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-San; Wang, Yun-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the learning performance of sixth grade elementary school students using newspapers in science teaching. A quasi-experimental design with a single group was used in this study. Thirty-three sixth grade elementary school students participated in this study. The research instruments consisted of three…

  9. Creating Critical Conversations: Investigating the Utility of Socratic Dialogues in Elementary Social Studies Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Lisa Brown

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the utility of Socratic dialogues in the elementary social studies methods course. Findings include preservice teachers' behaviors during dialogues, perceived strengths and challenges of using Socratic dialogues in teacher education, and the impact on student learning. Challenges and apprehensions encountered by the teacher…

  10. Method of conversion of caustic liquid radioactive wastes containing sodium nitrates into solid insoluble products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Brownell, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    A proposal is made to convert caustic, liquid, radioactive wastes containing sodium nitrate into a solid product by reaction with powdered aluminium silicate at temperatures between 30 0 and 100 0 C, which is practically insoluble (10 -7 to 10 -10 g/cm 2 -day) and is thermally stable. A cancrinite is formed which binds the radioactive salts in the cage-like structure of its crystal lattice. The method is also suitable for liquid wastes from the Purex method as well as for wastes containing fission products of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in concentrations of 0.37 M to 0.01 M. Numerous detailed examples explain the invention. (UW/LH) [de

  11. Review: Annette N. Markham & Nancy K. Baym (Eds. (2009. Internet Inquiry: Conversations About Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Biricik

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As suggested by the title, this edited collection of articles is aimed at creating a dialogue on crosscutting epistemological and methodological issues relating to qualitative internet study. The scope of the book is not to provide quick tips, but rather encourage the reader to seek new methods of conducting online research. The book is creatively structured into six parts, each one addressing a key question on methods. In addition to the two editors' contributions, 13 accomplished scholars from various disciplines intelligibly respond and share their own qualitative research experiences in online environments, providing a precise and valuable contribution to current debates in internet studies. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100396

  12. Methods for conversion of carbohydrates in ionic liquids to value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haibo [The Woodlands, TX; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Zongchao C [Norwood, NJ

    2011-05-10

    Methods are described for converting carbohydrates including, e.g., monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides in ionic liquids to value-added chemicals including furans, useful as chemical intermediates and/or feedstocks. Fructose is converted to 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) in the presence of metal halide and acid catalysts. Glucose is effectively converted to HMF in the presence of chromium chloride catalysts. Yields of up to about 70% are achieved with low levels of impurities such as levulinic acid.

  13. Optimization of Linear Permanent Magnet (PM Generator with Triangular-Shaped Magnet for Wave Energy Conversion using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Hussain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design optimization of linear permanent magnet (PM generator for wave energy conversion using finite element method (FEM. A linear PM generator with triangular-shaped magnet is proposed, which has higher electromagnetic characteristics, superior performance and low weight as compared to conventional linear PM generator with rectangular shaped magnet. The Individual Parameter (IP optimization technique is employed in order to optimize and achieve optimum performance of linear PM generator. The objective function, optimization variables; magnet angle,M_θ(∆ (θ, the pole-width ratio, P_w ratio(τ_p/τ_mz,, and split ratio between translator and stator, δ_a ratio(R_m/R_e, and constraints are defined. The efficiency and its main parts; copper and iron loss are computed using time-stepping FEM. The optimal values after optimization are presented which yields highest efficiency. Key

  14. Conversion of chemical energy in an explosive by a magnetohydrodynamic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, E.F.; Ostashev, V.E.; Svetsov, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine different methods for realizing the MHD method for converting chemical energy of a condensed explosive into pulsed electrical energy. It is shown that explosive MHD generators, which are compact sources of powerful pulses of electrical energy, are characterized by their relative simplicity, autonomy and maneuverability of firing and they are capable of operating in the frequency-periodic mode. A number of projects have been proposed for explosive MHD generators in the megajoule range. Practical experience has been gained in creating frequency-periodic action generators as well as autonomous setups using superconducting magnetic systems. The increase in the operational efficiency of an explosive MHD generator is primarily related to increasing the magnetic Reynolds number of the flow, which can be attained, in particular, by using different schemes for accumulating the energy of the explosion. The use of a metallic liner, which expands under the pressure of the detonation products, in an explosive MHD generator is, in the practical sense, apparently hopeless. The general information available on the parameters and properties of explosive MHD generators gives a basis for concluding that this generator is a promising source of powerful energy pulses. In a certain range of parameters, it can be an alternative to the use of conventional high-energy pulse devices

  15. A new design method for fluidized bed conversion of largely heterogeneous binary fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szentannai Pal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Binary fuels of a fluidized bed combustor or gasifier are solids composed of two groups of particles. Their optimal handling in the same bed becomes rather difficult if their hydrodynamic properties differ by two orders of magnitude or more. Both of these fuel classes are directly fed into the reactor in most cases but the rather homogeneous fuel originally fed switches into a binary character inside the reactor in some others. A typical example of the latter case is the thermal utilization of rubber wastes. A novel design is proposed in the present paper by setting up a non-mixing, non-elutriated binary bed. Design criteria and procedure are formulated as well. One of the known calculation methods is proposed to be applied for assuring a segregated bed by means of choosing the bed components, geometry, and gas velocity conveniently. Cold model experiments are proposed to be applied for assuring no elutriation of the fine fuel particles and no sinking of the coarse fuel particles in the same time. A simple experiment is proposed for determining the common minimum fluidization velocity of the binary bed because known calculation methods can not be applied here.

  16. 27 CFR 19.722 - Conversion between metric and U.S. units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... General § 19.722 Conversion between metric and U.S. units. When liters are converted to wine gallons, the...: (a) If the conversion from liters to U.S. units is made before multiplying by the number of cases, the quantity in U.S. units shall be rounded to the sixth decimal; or (b) If the conversion is made...

  17. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY TEST OF CoMo/ZnO CATALYST ON ETHANOL CONVERSION USING STEAM REFORMING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wega Trisunaryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity test of CoMo/ZnO catalyst for steam reforming of ethanol have been investigated. The catalysts preparation was carried out by impregnation of Co and/or Mo onto ZnO sample. Water excess was used in ethanol feed for steam reforming process under mol ratio of ethanol:water (1:10. Characterizations of catalysts were conducted by analysis of metal content using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Determination of catalysts acidity was conducted by gravimetric method of adsorption of pyridine base. Catalytic activity test on ethanol conversion using steam reforming method was conducted in a semi-flow reactor system, at a temperature of 400 oC, for 1.5 h under N2 flow rate of 10 mL/min. Gas product was analyzed by gas chromatograph with TCD system. The results of catalysts characterizations showed that the impregnation of Co and/or Mo metals on ZnO sample increased its acidity and specific surface area. The content of Co in Co/ZnO and CoMo/ZnO catalysts was 1.14 and 0.49 wt%. The Mo content in CoMo/ZnO catalyst was 0.36 wt%. The catalytic activity test result on ethanol conversion showed that the ZnO, Co/ZnO, and CoMo/ZnO catalysts produced gas fraction of 16.73, 28.53, and 35.53 wt%, respectively. The coke production of ZnO, Co/ZnO, and CoMo/ZnO catalysts was 0.86, 0.24, and 0.08 wt%, respectively. The gas products consisted mainly of hydrogen.   Keywords: CoMo/ZnO catalyst, steam reforming, ethanol

  18. Method and apparatus for in-situ characterization of energy storage and energy conversion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Jon P [Idaho Falls, ID; Motloch, Chester G [Idaho Falls, ID; Morrison, John L [Butte, MT; Albrecht, Weston [Layton, UT

    2010-03-09

    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for determining an impedance of an energy-output device using a random noise stimulus applied to the energy-output device. A random noise signal is generated and converted to a random noise stimulus as a current source correlated to the random noise signal. A bias-reduced response of the energy-output device to the random noise stimulus is generated by comparing a voltage at the energy-output device terminal to an average voltage signal. The random noise stimulus and bias-reduced response may be periodically sampled to generate a time-varying current stimulus and a time-varying voltage response, which may be correlated to generate an autocorrelated stimulus, an autocorrelated response, and a cross-correlated response. Finally, the autocorrelated stimulus, the autocorrelated response, and the cross-correlated response may be combined to determine at least one of impedance amplitude, impedance phase, and complex impedance.

  19. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods. Tenth quarterly report, January--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1990-12-31

    This report concerns our research on base-catalyzed coal solubilization and a new approach for hydrogen addition. The work on base-catalyzed, chemical solubilization is continuing. this report is focused on the hydrogenation research. Specifically it deals with the use of arene chromium carbonyl complexes as reagents for the addition of dideuterium to coal molecules. In one phase of the work, he has established that the aromatic hydrocarbons in a representative coal liquid can be converted in very good yield to arene chromium carbonyl compounds. In a second phase of the work directly related to our objective of improved methods for catalytic hydrogenation, he has established that the aromatic constituents of the same coal liquid add dideuterium in the presence of added napththalene chromium carbonyl.

  20. Development of an integrated optimization method for analyzing effect of energy conversion efficiency under uncertainty – A case study of Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, S.W.; Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H.; Hao, Q.; Nie, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Superiority–inferiority full-infinite mixed-integer method is developed. • The method can tackle uncertainties of fuzzy sets, crisp and functional intervals. • The method is applied to a real case of planning energy system. • Effects of energy-conversion efficiency on energy systems are analyzed. • Results can support policy enactment of conversion efficiency improvement. - Abstract: In this study, a superiority–inferiority full-infinite mixed-integer programming (SFMP) method is developed for analyzing the effect of energy conversion efficiency under uncertainty. SFMP can effectively tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets, crisp intervals and functional intervals, it also can directly reflect relationships among multiple fuzzy sets through varying superiority and inferiority degrees with a high computational efficiency. Then the developed SFMP is applied to a real case of planning energy system for Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, where multiple scenarios related to different energy-conversion efficiency are concerned. Results for energy processing, energy conversion, capacity expansion, pollutant emission and system cost have been generated. It is proved that SFMP is an effective approach to deal with the uncertainties in energy systems with interactive and uncertain characteristics. A variety of uncertainties existed in energy conversion processes and impact factors could affect the modeling result. Results show that improvement of energy-conversion efficiency can effectively facilitate reducing energy resources consumption, optimizing energy generation pattern, decreasing capacity expansion, as well as mitigating pollutant emissions. Results also reveal that, for the study area, electric power has a highest energy saving potential among heating, oil processing, coal washing and refining. Results can help decision makers to generate desired alternatives that can facilitate policy enactment of conversion efficiency

  1. Raising voices: How sixth graders construct authority and knowledge in argumentative essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Mary Elizabeth

    This qualitative classroom-based study documents one teacher-researcher's response to the "voice" debate in composition studies and to the opposing views expressed by Elbow and Bartholomae. The author uses Bakhtin's principle of dialogism, Hymes's theory of communicative competence, as well as Ivanic's discussion of discoursally constructed identities to reconceptualize voice and to redesign writing instruction in her sixth grade classroom. This study shows how students, by redefining and then acting on that voice pedagogy in terms that made sense to them, shaped the author's understanding of what counts as "voiced" writing in non-narrative discourse. Based on a grounded-theory analysis of the twenty-six sixth graders' argumentative essays in science, the author explains voice, not as a property of writers or of texts, but as a process of "knowing together"---a collaborative, but not entirely congenial, exercise of establishing one's authority by talking with, against, and through other voices on the issue. As the results of this study show, the students' "I-Ness" or authorial presence within their texts, was born in a nexus of relationships with "rivals," "allies" and "readers." Given their teacher's injunctions to project confidence and authority in argumentative writing, the students assumed fairly adversarial stances toward these conversational partners throughout their essays. Exaggerating the terms for voiced writing built into the curriculum, the sixth graders produced essays that read more like caricatures than examples of argumentation. Their displays of rhetorical bravado and intellectual aggressiveness, however offsetting to the reader, still enabled these sixth graders to composed voiced essays. This study raises doubts about the value of urging students to sound like their "true selves" or to adopt the formal registers of academe. Students, it seems clear, stand to gain by experimenting with a range of textual identities. The author suggests that voice

  2. C-point and V-point singularity lattice formation and index sign conversion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Pal, Sushanta; Ruchi; Senthilkumaran, P.

    2017-06-01

    The generic singularities in an ellipse field are C-points namely stars, lemons and monstars in a polarization distribution with C-point indices (-1/2), (+1/2) and (+1/2) respectively. Similar to C-point singularities, there are V-point singularities that occur in a vector field and are characterized by Poincare-Hopf index of integer values. In this paper we show that the superposition of three homogenously polarized beams in different linear states leads to the formation of polarization singularity lattice. Three point sources at the focal plane of the lens are used to create three interfering plane waves. A radial/azimuthal polarization converter (S-wave plate) placed near the focal plane modulates the polarization states of the three beams. The interference pattern is found to host C-points and V-points in a hexagonal lattice. The C-points occur at intensity maxima and V-points occur at intensity minima. Modulating the state of polarization (SOP) of three plane waves from radial to azimuthal does not essentially change the nature of polarization singularity lattice as the Poincare-Hopf index for both radial and azimuthal polarization distributions is (+1). Hence a transformation from a star to a lemon is not trivial, as such a transformation requires not a single SOP change, but a change in whole spatial SOP distribution. Further there is no change in the lattice structure and the C- and V-points appear at locations where they were present earlier. Hence to convert an interlacing star and V-point lattice into an interlacing lemon and V-point lattice, the interferometer requires modification. We show for the first time a method to change the polarity of C-point and V-point indices. This means that lemons can be converted into stars and stars can be converted into lemons. Similarly the positive V-point can be converted to negative V-point and vice versa. The intensity distribution in all these lattices is invariant as the SOPs of the three beams are changed in an

  3. Taste of Fat: A Sixth Taste Modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Philippe; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Khan, Naim A

    2016-01-01

    An attraction for palatable foods rich in lipids is shared by rodents and humans. Over the last decade, the mechanisms responsible for this specific eating behavior have been actively studied, and compelling evidence implicates a taste component in the orosensory detection of dietary lipids [i.e., long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)], in addition to textural, olfactory, and postingestive cues. The interactions between LCFA and specific receptors in taste bud cells (TBC) elicit physiological changes that affect both food intake and digestive functions. After a short overview of the gustatory pathway, this review brings together the key findings consistent with the existence of a sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids. The main steps leading to this new paradigm (i.e., chemoreception of LCFA in TBC, cell signaling cascade, transfer of lipid signals throughout the gustatory nervous pathway, and their physiological consequences) will be critically analyzed. The limitations to this concept will also be discussed in the light of our current knowledge of the sense of taste. Finally, we will analyze the recent literature on obesity-related dysfunctions in the orosensory detection of lipids ("fatty" taste?), in relation to the overconsumption of fat-rich foods and the associated health risks. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Sixth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1980-12-18

    INTRODUCTION TO THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING WORKSHOP, STANFORD GEOTHERMAL PROGRAM Henry J. Ramey, Jr., and Paul Kruger Co-Principal Investigators Ian G. Donaldson Program Manager Stanford Geothermal Program The Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 16, 1980. As with previous Workshops the attendance was around 100 with a significant participation from countries other than the United States (18 attendees from 6 countries). In addition, there were a number of papers from foreign contributors not able to attend. Because of the success of all the earlier workshops there was only one format change, a new scheduling of Tuesday to Thursday rather than the earlier Wednesday through Friday. This change was in general considered for the better and will be retained for the Seventh Workshop. Papers were presented on two and a half of the three days, the panel session, this year on the numerical modeling intercomparison study sponsored by the Department of Energy, being held on the second afternoon. This panel discussion is described in a separate Stanford Geothermal Program Report (SGP-TR42). This year there was a shift in subject of the papers. There was a reduction in the number of papers offered on pressure transients and well testing and an introduction of several new subjects. After overviews by Bob Gray of the Department of Energy and Jack Howard of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, we had papers on field development, geopressured systems, production engineering, well testing, modeling, reservoir physics, reservoir chemistry, and risk analysis. A total of 51 papers were contributed and are printed in these Proceedings. It was, however, necessary to restrict the presentations and not all papers printed were presented. Although the content of the Workshop has changed over the years, the format to date has proved to be satisfactory. The objectives of the Workshop, the bringing together of

  5. Method and circuit for stabilizing conversion gain of radiation detectors of a radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoub, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for calibrating the gain of an array of radiation detectors of a radiation detection system comprising the steps of: (a) measuring in parallel for each radiation detector using a predetermined calibration point the energy map status, thereby obtaining an energy response vector whose elements correspond to the individual output of each radiation detector, each predetermined calibration point being a prescribed location corresponding to one of the radiation detectors; (b) multiplying that energy response vector with a predetermined deconvolution matrix, the deconvolution matrix being the inversion of a contribution matrix containing matrix elements C/sub IJ/, each such matrix element C/sub IJ/ of the contribution matrix representing the relative contribution level of a radiation detector j of the detection system for a point radiation source placed at a location i, thereby obtaining a gain vector product for the radiation detectors; (c) adjusting the gains of the radiation detectors with respect to the gain vector product such that a unity gain vector is essentially obtained; (d) measuring again the energy map status according to step (a); and (e) if the energy map status fails to essentially produce a unity gain vector repeat steps (a) to (d) until the energy map status substantially corresponds to unity

  6. CONVERSION OF FOREIGN COMPANIES ACCOUNTS IN THE ACCOUNT CONSOLIDATION PROCESS IN ROMANIA UNDER THE CLOSING RATE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana BANUTA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches a topical theme of debate both in the professional academic environment and especially in the economic practice, i.e. the manner of converting the accounts of foreign companies in the account consolidation process, in Romania. We analyse the conditions of applying the accounting regulations related to the consolidation of accounts, in Romania, focusing on the manner of converting the accounts of the foreign companies according to Order no. 1802/2014 approving the accounting regulations on individual annual financial statements and consolidated annual financial statements and to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. We focused on the presentation of the practical method of applying the conversion of the accounts of the foreign companies according to the closing rate method, because irrespective of the accounting referential applied by the parent company for consolidation, this method occurs in the pre-consolidation stage, if the group leader has affiliates abroad, and the individual financial statements of the companies in the consolidation perimeter have different disclosure currencies.

  7. First-principles method for calculating the rate constants of internal-conversion and intersystem-crossing transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiev, R R; Cherepanov, V N; Baryshnikov, G V; Sundholm, D

    2018-02-28

    A method for calculating the rate constants for internal-conversion (k IC ) and intersystem-crossing (k ISC ) processes within the adiabatic and Franck-Condon (FC) approximations is proposed. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by calculation of k IC and k ISC for a set of organic and organometallic compounds with experimentally known spectroscopic properties. The studied molecules were pyrromethene-567 dye, psoralene, hetero[8]circulenes, free-base porphyrin, naphthalene, and larger polyacenes. We also studied fac-Alq 3 and fac-Ir(ppy) 3 , which are important molecules in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The excitation energies were calculated at the multi-configuration quasi-degenerate second-order perturbation theory (XMC-QDPT2) level, which is found to yield excitation energies in good agreement with experimental data. Spin-orbit coupling matrix elements, non-adiabatic coupling matrix elements, Huang-Rhys factors, and vibrational energies were calculated at the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) levels. The computed fluorescence quantum yields for the pyrromethene-567 dye, psoralene, hetero[8]circulenes, fac-Alq 3 and fac-Ir(ppy) 3 agree well with experimental data, whereas for the free-base porphyrin, naphthalene, and the polyacenes, the obtained quantum yields significantly differ from the experimental values, because the FC and adiabatic approximations are not accurate for these molecules.

  8. Bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy in infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, J.; Bone, I.

    1979-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with a bilateral sixth nerve palsy caused by infectious mononucleosis is described. The neurological presentation of infectious mononucleosis is discussed. PMID:225738

  9. Political Awareness of Sixth Graders in a Rural Kentucky County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, J. Allen; Conner, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Presents charts depicting responses of rural sixth grade students to factual and opinion questions about political awareness. Concludes that students have limited knowledge and awareness of the various levels of government and of matters related to government. (Author/KC)

  10. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1981-01-01

    The Sixth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 13-15, 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the National Bureau of Standards. Fifty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; four papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  11. Examination of Nonchromate Conversion Coatings for Aluminum Armor From Three Final Candidates Using Accelerated Corrosion and Adhesion Test Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Placzankis, Brian

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of three final candidate nonchromate conversion coatings on aluminum alloys 5083, 7039, and 6061 coated with standard solvent-based Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) system...

  12. Exact periodic solutions of the sixth-order generalized Boussinesq equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenov, O Y

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines a class of nonlinear sixth-order generalized Boussinesq-like equations (SGBE): u tt = u xx + 3(u 2 ) xx + u xxxx + αu xxxxxx , α in R, depending on the positive parameter α. Hirota's bilinear transformation method is applied to the above class of non-integrable equations and exact periodic solutions have been obtained. The results confirmed the well-known nonlinear superposition principle.

  13. Particle-based methods for multiscale modeling of blood flow in the circulation and in devices: challenges and future directions. Sixth International Bio-Fluid Mechanics Symposium and Workshop March 28-30, 2008 Pasadena, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji; Imai, Y; Matsuki, N; Xenos, Mikhail; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2010-03-01

    A major computational challenge for a multiscale modeling is the coupling of disparate length and timescales between molecular mechanics and macroscopic transport, spanning the spatial and temporal scales characterizing the complex processes taking place in flow-induced blood clotting. Flow and pressure effects on a cell-like platelet can be well represented by a continuum mechanics model down to the order of the micrometer level. However, the molecular effects of adhesion/aggregation bonds are on the order of nanometer. A successful multiscale model of platelet response to flow stresses in devices and the ensuing clotting responses should be able to characterize the clotting reactions and their interactions with the flow. This paper attempts to describe a few of the computational methods that were developed in recent years and became available to researchers in the field. They differ from traditional approaches that dominate the field by expanding on prevailing continuum-based approaches, or by completely departing from them, yielding an expanding toolkit that may facilitate further elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of blood flow and the cellular response to it. We offer a paradigm shift by adopting a multidisciplinary approach with fluid dynamics simulations coupled to biophysical and biochemical transport.

  14. Measuring denitrification after grassland renewal and grassland conversion to cropland by using the 15N gas-flux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchen, Caroline; Eschenbach, Wolfram; Flessa, Heinz; Giesemann, Anette; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Well, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    Denitrification, the reduction of oxidized forms of inorganic N to N2O and N2 is an important pathway of gaseous nitrogen losses. Measuring denitrification, especially the reduction of N2O to N2, expressed in the product ratio (N2O/(N2O + N2)), is rather difficult and hence rarely performed under field conditions. But using the 15N gas-flux method allows determining N transformation processes in their natural environment. In order to develop effective climate mitigation strategies understanding the N2O source is essential. We used the 15N gas-flux method to determine N2O and N2 emissions following grassland renewal and conversion techniques. Therefore we selected three different treatments: control (C), mechanical grassland renovation (GR) (autumn 2013) and grassland conversion to maize (GM) (spring 2014) from field plot trials on two different sites (Histic Gleysoil and Plaggic Anthrosol) near Oldenburg, Lower Saxony, Germany. We applied 15N labeled KNO3- (60 atom. % 15N) at a rate equivalent to common farming practices (150 kg N*ha-1) using needle injection of fertilizer solution in three different depths (10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm) for homogeneous soil labeling up to 30 cm in microplots. During the first 10 days after application (May 2014) gas flux measurements from closed chambers were performed every second day and then weekly following a period of 8 weeks. Gas samples were analyzed for δ15N of N2 and N2O by IRMS according to Lewicka-Szczebak et al. (2013). Concentration and 15N enrichment of NO3- in soil water was determined on weekly samples using the SPIN-MAS technique (Stange et al. 2007). Fluxes of N2 and N2O evolved from the 15N labeled soil nitrogen pool were calculated using the equations of Spott et al. (2006). Peak events of N2 and N2O emissions occurred during the first 10 days of measurement, showing differences in soil types, as well as treatment variations. N2 fluxes up to 178 g*ha-1*day-1 and N2O fluxes up to 280 g*ha-1*day-1 were measured on the

  15. The sixth generation of Chinese cinema : marginalized urban young in contemporary China

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the Sixth Generation of Chinese cinema. Specifically what constitutes the Sixth generation, and what the generational designation implies for the Sixth Generation. Central issues are whether there is a Sixth Generation, and how it differs from the preceding generations. In order to understand the debate about the Sixth Generation it is necessary to first look at the discourse on the Generation, and to illuminate what constitutes a generation in Chinese...

  16. Multi-channel up-conversion infrared spectrometer and method of detecting a spectral distribution of light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A multi-channel infrared spectrometer for detecting an infrared spectrum of light received from an object. The spectrometer comprises a wavelength converter system comprising a nonlinear material and having an input side and an output side. The wavelength converter system comprises at least a first...... on the first side into light in a second output wavelength range output on the second side. The spectrometer further comprises a demultiplexer configured for demultiplexing light in the first up-conversion channel and light in the second up-conversion channel. The demultiplexer is located on the first side...

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sixth Order Stable Central Difference Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for solving self-adjoint singularly perturbed two-point boundary value problems. ... semiconductor devices, diffraction theory, .... y x is continuously differentiable in the interval [0 1] and applying ...... known as boundary layer, is observed at the.

  18. Hybrid layer difference between sixth and seventh generation bonding agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Syavira Suryabrata

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Since etching is completed at the same stage as priming and bonding, when applying the sixth and seventh generation bonding, the exposed smear layers are constantly surrounded by primer and bonding and cannot collapse. The smear layer and the depth of penetration of resin bonding in dentinal tubules are completely integrated into hybrid layer. The purpose of this laboratory research was to study the penetration depth of two self etching adhesive. Fourteen samples of human extracted teeth were divided into two groups. Each groups consisted of seven samples, each of them was treated with sixth generation bonding agent and the other was treated with seventh generation bonding agent. The results disclosed that the penetration into dentinal tubules of seventh generation bonding agent was deeper than sixth generation bonding agent. Conclusion: bond strength will improve due to the increasing of penetration depth of resin bonding in dentinal tubules.

  19. Uranium conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina

    2006-03-01

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF 6 and UF 4 are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material

  20. Apparatus and method for enabling quantum-defect-limited conversion efficiency in cladding-pumped Raman fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heebner, John E.; Sridharan, Arun K.; Dawson, Jay Walter; Messerly, Michael J.; Pax, Paul H.

    2016-09-20

    Cladding-pumped Raman fiber lasers and amplifiers provide high-efficiency conversion efficiency at high brightness enhancement. Differential loss is applied to both single-pass configurations appropriate for pulsed amplification and laser oscillator configurations applied to high average power cw source generation.

  1. Identifying Mechanisms of Change in a Conversation Therapy for Aphasia Using Behaviour Change Theory and Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fiona M.; Best, Wendy; Beckley, Firle Christina; Maxim, Jane; Beeke, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Conversation therapy for aphasia is a complex intervention comprising multiple components and targeting multiple outcomes. UK Medical Research Council (MRC) guidelines published in 2008 recommend that in addition to measuring the outcomes of complex interventions, evaluation should seek to clarify how such outcomes are produced,…

  2. Reflectance conversion methods for the VIS/NIR imaging spectrometer aboard the Chang'E-3 lunar rover: based on ground validation experiment data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Liu Jian-Zhong; Zhang Guang-Liang; Zou Yong-Liao; Ling Zong-Cheng; Zhang Jiang; He Zhi-Ping; Yang Ben-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The second phase of the Chang'E Program (also named Chang'E-3) has the goal to land and perform in-situ detection on the lunar surface. A VIS/NIR imaging spectrometer (VNIS) will be carried on the Chang'E-3 lunar rover to detect the distribution of lunar minerals and resources. VNIS is the first mission in history to perform in-situ spectral measurement on the surface of the Moon, the reflectance data of which are fundamental for interpretation of lunar composition, whose quality would greatly affect the accuracy of lunar element and mineral determination. Until now, in-situ detection by imaging spectrometers was only performed by rovers on Mars. We firstly review reflectance conversion methods for rovers on Mars (Viking landers, Pathfinder and Mars Exploration rovers, etc). Secondly, we discuss whether these conversion methods used on Mars can be applied to lunar in-situ detection. We also applied data from a laboratory bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) using simulated lunar soil to test the availability of this method. Finally, we modify reflectance conversion methods used on Mars by considering differences between environments on the Moon and Mars and apply the methods to experimental data obtained from the ground validation of VNIS. These results were obtained by comparing reflectance data from the VNIS measured in the laboratory with those from a standard spectrometer obtained at the same time and under the same observing conditions. The shape and amplitude of the spectrum fits well, and the spectral uncertainty parameters for most samples are within 8%, except for the ilmenite sample which has a low albedo. In conclusion, our reflectance conversion method is suitable for lunar in-situ detection.

  3. A Survey of English Sixth Formers' Knowledge of Early Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Mary

    2017-10-01

    Objectives To ascertain the knowledge of young people aged 16 to 19 of early brain development and their attitudes towards the care of babies and preschool children. Design Cross-sectional, school- and college-based survey including all sixth form students present on the days of data collection. The survey instrument comprised forced-choice questions in four sections: Demographics, Perceptions and Understanding of Early Childhood Development, Parental Behaviors to Support Early Brain development, and Resource Needs and Usage. Setting Two sixth form schools and one sixth form college in three towns of varying affluence in the West Midlands of the United Kingdom. Method The survey was mounted online and completed by 905 students who returned it directly to the researcher. Results Most students knew that tobacco, alcohol, and drugs are hazardous in pregnancy, and many recognized the impact of maternal stress on fetal brain development. Many believed that babies can be "spoiled" and did not appreciate the importance of reading to babies and of the relationship between play and early brain development. A significant minority thought that physical activity and a healthy diet have little impact on young children's development. Respondents said they would turn firstly to their parents for advice on baby care rather than professionals. Conclusion Young people need educating about parenting activities that support the all-round healthy development of infants. The importance of a healthy diet, physical activity, reading, and play should be included in sixth form curricula and antenatal classes. Consideration should be given to educating grandparents because of their influence on new parents.

  4. Hilbert's sixth problem: between the foundations of geometry and the axiomatization of physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Leo

    2018-04-28

    The sixth of Hilbert's famous 1900 list of 23 problems was a programmatic call for the axiomatization of the physical sciences. It was naturally and organically rooted at the core of Hilbert's conception of what axiomatization is all about. In fact, the axiomatic method which he applied at the turn of the twentieth century in his famous work on the foundations of geometry originated in a preoccupation with foundational questions related with empirical science in general. Indeed, far from a purely formal conception, Hilbert counted geometry among the sciences with strong empirical content, closely related to other branches of physics and deserving a treatment similar to that reserved for the latter. In this treatment, the axiomatization project was meant to play, in his view, a crucial role. Curiously, and contrary to a once-prevalent view, from all the problems in the list, the sixth is the only one that continually engaged Hilbet's efforts over a very long period of time, at least between 1894 and 1932.This article is part of the theme issue 'Hilbert's sixth problem'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Hilbert's sixth problem: between the foundations of geometry and the axiomatization of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Leo

    2018-04-01

    The sixth of Hilbert's famous 1900 list of 23 problems was a programmatic call for the axiomatization of the physical sciences. It was naturally and organically rooted at the core of Hilbert's conception of what axiomatization is all about. In fact, the axiomatic method which he applied at the turn of the twentieth century in his famous work on the foundations of geometry originated in a preoccupation with foundational questions related with empirical science in general. Indeed, far from a purely formal conception, Hilbert counted geometry among the sciences with strong empirical content, closely related to other branches of physics and deserving a treatment similar to that reserved for the latter. In this treatment, the axiomatization project was meant to play, in his view, a crucial role. Curiously, and contrary to a once-prevalent view, from all the problems in the list, the sixth is the only one that continually engaged Hilbet's efforts over a very long period of time, at least between 1894 and 1932. This article is part of the theme issue `Hilbert's sixth problem'.

  6. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  7. "Learn Young, Learn Fair", a Stress Management Program for Fifth and Sixth Graders: Longitudinal Results from an Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraag, Gerda; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Kok, Gerjo; Hosman, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effects of a universal stress management program (Learn Young, Learn Fair) on stress, coping, anxiety and depression in fifth and sixth grade children. Methods: Fifty-two schools (1467 children) participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Data was collected in the fall of 2002, the spring of 2003,…

  8. A conversion method of air-kerma from the primary, scatter and leakage radiations to ambient dose equivalent for calculating the mamography x-ray shielding barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrati, H.

    2005-01-01

    The primary, scatter, and leakage doses(in Gy), which constitute the data base for calculating shielding requirements for x-ray facilities, are often converted to the equivalent dose (in sievert) by using a constant of conversion of 1.145Sv/Gy. This constant is used for diagnostic radiology as well as for mammography spectra, and is derived by considering an exposure of 1 R corresponds to an air kerma of 8.73 m Gy, which renders by tradition an equivalent dose of 10 mSv. However, this conversion does not take into account the energy dependence of the conversion coefficients relating air kerma to the equivalent dose as described in ICRU report. Moreover, current radiation protection standards propose the use of the quantity ambient dose equivalent in order to qualify the efficiently of given radiation shielding. Therefore, in this study, a new approach has been introduced for derivation ambient dose equivalent from air kerma to calculate shielding requirements in mammography facilities. This new approach has been used to compute the conversion coefficients relating air kerma to ambient dose equivalent for mammography reference beam series of the Netherlands Metrology Institute Van Swinden Laboratorium (NMi), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) laboratories. The calculation has been performed by the means of two methods which show a maximum deviation less than 10%2 for the primary, scatter, and leakage radiations. The results show that the conversion coefficients vary from 0.242 Sv/ Gy to 0.692 Sv/Gy with an average value of 0.436 Sv/Gy for the primary and the scatter radiations, and form 0.156 Sv/Gy to 1.329 Sv/Gy with an average value of 0.98 Sv/Gy for the leakage radiation. Simpkin et al. using an empirical approach propose a conversion value of 0.50 Sv/Gy for the mammography x-ray spectra. This value approximately coincides with the average conversion value of 0.436 Sv/Gy obtained in this work for

  9. No Easy Talk: A Mixed Methods Study of Doctor Reported Barriers to Conducting Effective End-of-Life Conversations with Diverse Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyjeyanthi S Periyakoil

    Full Text Available Though most patients wish to discuss end-of-life (EOL issues, doctors are reluctant to conduct end-of-life conversations. Little is known about the barriers doctors face in conducting effective EOL conversations with diverse patients. This mixed methods study was undertaken to empirically identify barriers faced by doctors (if any in conducting effective EOL conversations with diverse patients and to determine if the doctors' age, gender, ethnicity and medical sub-specialty influenced the barriers reported.Mixed-methods study of multi-specialty doctors caring for diverse, seriously ill patients in two large academic medical centers at the end of the training; data were collected from 2010 to 2012.Doctor-reported barriers to EOL conversations with diverse patients.1040 of 1234 potential subjects (84.3% participated. 29 participants were designated as the development cohort for coding and grounded theory analyses to identify primary barriers. The codes were validated by analyses of responses from 50 randomly drawn subjects from the validation cohort (n= 996 doctors. Qualitative responses from the validation cohort were coded and analyzed using quantitative methods. Only 0.01% doctors reported no barriers to conducting EOL conversations with patients. 99.99% doctors reported barriers with 85.7% finding it very challenging to conduct EOL conversations with all patients and especially so with patients whose ethnicity was different than their own. Asian-American doctors reported the most struggles (91.3%, followed by African Americans (85.3%, Caucasians (83.5% and Hispanic Americans (79.3% in conducting EOL conversations with their patients. The biggest doctor-reported barriers to effective EOL conversations are (i language and medical interpretation issues, (ii patient/family religio-spiritual beliefs about death and dying, (iii doctors' ignorance of patients' cultural beliefs, values and practices, (iv patient/family's cultural differences in truth

  10. Corrosion behaviour of chemical conversion treatments on as-cast Mg-Al alloys: Electrochemical and non-electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, E.; Juers, C.; Steinmetz, J.

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are often used in as-cast conditions. So, the aim of this work is to characterize the corrosion protection of as-cast AZ91D alloys coated with simple chemical conversion (phosphate-permanganate, and cerium-based coatings). With the two coatings, the electrochemical measurements show that the corrosion protection is due to both the inhibition of cathodic and anodic reactions, because of the presence of stable CeO 2 or manganese oxides in basic pH. Nevertheless, the non-electrochemical tests of corrosion are required to bring to light the healing effect of phosphate-permanganate coating compared to Ce-coating and to describe the corrosion behaviour completely. Finally phosphoric and soda pickling associated to phosphate-permanganate conversion treatment or cerium coating are ecologically efficient alternatives to fluoride-based pickling and the chromating treatment.

  11. Corrosion behaviour of chemical conversion treatments on as-cast Mg-Al alloys: Electrochemical and non-electrochemical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, E. [Institut Jean Lamour UMR CNRS 7198, Nancy Universite - Corrosion Group, B.P. 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)], E-mail: emmanuel.rocca@lcsm.uhp-nancy.fr; Juers, C.; Steinmetz, J. [Institut Jean Lamour UMR CNRS 7198, Nancy Universite - Corrosion Group, B.P. 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)

    2010-06-15

    Magnesium alloys are often used in as-cast conditions. So, the aim of this work is to characterize the corrosion protection of as-cast AZ91D alloys coated with simple chemical conversion (phosphate-permanganate, and cerium-based coatings). With the two coatings, the electrochemical measurements show that the corrosion protection is due to both the inhibition of cathodic and anodic reactions, because of the presence of stable CeO{sub 2} or manganese oxides in basic pH. Nevertheless, the non-electrochemical tests of corrosion are required to bring to light the healing effect of phosphate-permanganate coating compared to Ce-coating and to describe the corrosion behaviour completely. Finally phosphoric and soda pickling associated to phosphate-permanganate conversion treatment or cerium coating are ecologically efficient alternatives to fluoride-based pickling and the chromating treatment.

  12. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society sixth annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, P.M.; Phillips, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society comprise 103 papers on the following subjects: fuel technology, nuclear plant safety, instrumentation, public and regulatory matters, fusion, fuel behaviour under normal and accident conditions, nuclear plant design and operations, thermal hydraulics, reactor physics, accelerators, waste management, new reactor concepts

  13. Proceedings of Sixth National Seminar of Waste Management Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta; Zainus Salimin; Lubis, Erwansyah; Herlan Martono; Aisyah; Syahrir; Erini Yuwatini; Thamzil Las; Kusnanto

    2008-06-01

    The sixth proceedings of the seminar on technology of waste management held by National Nuclear Energy Agency on June 24, 2007. The aim of seminar is to increase strengthening of radioactive waste management infrastructure to support a success in nuclear energy program in Indonesia. The proceedings consist of 32 articles from researcher of BATAN and outside BATAN. (PPIKSN)

  14. Book Review: Game Ranch Management (Sixth Edition) | Peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Game Ranch Management (Sixth Edition). Book Authors: J du P Bothma & J.G. du Toit (Eds.) 2016, Van Schaik Publishers, PO Box 12681, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria, South Africa 1012 pages, hardcover, eBook and ePub. ISBN: 9780627033469, 9780627033476 (eBook), 9780627034909 (ePub). Price R949.00 ...

  15. christian prisoners: fifth and sixth century inscriptions from corinth1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    instances, there is material from the fifth or sixth centuries. By this time, the majority of ... as Christian on the basis of crosses as well as specific Christian names ... Even when a petition to be rescued or ransomed is not expressed directly, it is ...

  16. Sixth-Form Projects in Biology: A Case History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. M.; Parker, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the problems encountered in devising sixth-form projects are discussed and a detailed account given of one project in which a study was made of the effect of onion bulb volatiles on the germination of lettuce seed. (Author)

  17. Sixth annual report of RADMIL 1990/91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This sixth annual report of RADMIL draws together all parts of the programme of monitoring of radiation and radioactivity in Lancashire from April 1990 to March 1991, including work on radon and intertidal areas, which in previous years has been published separately, and measurements relating to internal exposure from airborne particulates and foodstuffs, i.e. milk, meat, aquatic foods, vegetables etc. (UK)

  18. Sixth ITER technical meeting on safety and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, G.; Baker, D.

    1997-01-01

    The article summarizes the topics of the Sixth Technical Meeting on Safety and Environment which was held to review the first draft of the Non-Site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-2) and the draft of the ITER Final Design Report Safety Assessment (FDR-Safety) during October 27 - November 4, 1997 at the ITER San Diego Joint Work Site

  19. Achievement Effects of Homework in Sixth Grade Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, John Q.; Bennett, Albert

    This study examines the relationship between the amount of time sixth graders reported spending on homework and their achievement gains on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) between the spring of 1988 and the spring of 1989. Selected for participation were one or two classes in each of 30 public elementary schools in Chicago. Of the 30 schools,…

  20. Gifted Sixth-Graders and Primary Source Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David A.; Schlaggar, Sheila

    1993-01-01

    A sixth-grade gifted class studied the history of philosophy, including selections from such philosophers as Plato, Confucius, Buddha, Marcus Aurelius, and Moses Maimonides. Readings drew on fundamental features of child experience, such as their sense of justice, concern for moral values, and questions about reality. The paper describes classroom…

  1. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Sixth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Colin; Wright, Wayne E.

    2017-01-01

    The sixth edition of this bestselling textbook has been substantially revised and updated to provide a comprehensive introduction to bilingualism and bilingual education in the 21st century. Written in a compact and clear style, the book covers all the crucial issues in bilingualism at individual, group and societal levels. Updates to the new…

  2. Sixth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Solimento, S. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings contain contributions from about 200 participants to the 6th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'99) held in Naples May 24-29, 1999, and organized jointly by the University of Naples "Federico II," the University of Maryland at College Park, and the Lebedev Institute, Moscow. This was the sixth of a series of very successful meetings started in 1990 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland. The other meetings in the series were held in Moscow (1992), Baltimore (1993), Taiyuan P.R.C. (1995) and Balatonfuered, Hungary (1997). The present one was held at the campus Monte Sant'Angelo of the University "Federico II" of Naples. The meeting sought to provide a forum for updating and reviewing a wide range of quantum optics disciplines, including device developments and applications, and related areas of quantum measurements and quantum noise. Over the years, the ICSSUR Conference evolved from a meeting on quantum measurement sector of quantum optics, to a wide range of quantum optics themes, including multifacet aspects of generation, measurement, and applications of nonclassical light (squeezed and Schrodinger cat radiation fields, etc.), and encompassing several related areas, ranging from quantum measurement to quantum noise. ICSSUR'99 brought together about 250 people active in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on nonclassical light sources and related areas. The Conference was organized in 8 Sections: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations; Harmonic oscillators and squeeze transformations; Methods of quantum interference and correlations; Quantum measurements; Generation and characterisation of non-classical light; Quantum noise; Quantum communication and information; and Quantum-like systems.

  3. Preparation of silico-alumino-phosphates by the rapid crystallization method and their catalytic performance in the conversion of methanol to light olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inui, T.; Matsuda, H.; Okaniwa, H.; Miyamoto, A. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1990-02-19

    Shape-selective silico-alumino-phosphates, SAPO-34 and SAPO-17, having the chabazite and erionite structure, respectively, were prepared within 4 h of hydrothermal treatment by the rapid crystallization method. They are highly effective for the selective conversion of methanol to light olefins, such as ethene, propene and butenes. It is shown that these SAPOs are more weakly acidic than typical H-ZSM-5 but more strongly acidic than H-Fe-silicates. 7 figs., 24 refs.

  4. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  5. Matching procedure for the sixth Painleve equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzetti, Davide

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the isomonodromy deformation method, we present a constructive procedure to obtain the critical behaviour of Painleve VI transcendents and solve the connection problem. This procedure yields two- and one-parameter families of solutions, including trigonometric and logarithmic behaviours, and three classes of solutions with Taylor expansion at a critical point

  6. Comprehensive method for analyzing the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells under different spectral irradiances considering both photonic and electrical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Kok-Keong; Khlyabich, Petr P.; Hong, Kai-Jeat; Reyes-Martinez, Marcos; Rand, Barry P.; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Method to analyze power-conversion efficiency under various solar irradiance. • Power-conversion efficiency at local irradiance is 5.4% higher than AM1.5G. • Diffuse local irradiance has gain of 23.7–27.9% relative to AM1.5G conditions. • Annual average energy density yield is estimated as 31.89 kW h/m 2 in Malaysia. - Abstract: The solar spectral irradiance varies significantly for different locations and time due to latitude, humidity, cosine effect of incident sunlight, etc. For convenience, the power-conversion efficiency of a solar cell is referenced to the international standard of AM1.5G spectral irradiance, which inevitably leads to varying performance of deployed solar cells under the specific local climate and insolation conditions. To predict the actual performance of solar cells under local climate conditions, we propose a methodology to compute the power-conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells based upon indoor measurement with a solar simulator, the measured local solar spectrum, and making use of both optical and electrical factors. From our study, the annual average energy density yield of poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells under the local spectral irradiance of Malaysia is estimated to be 31.89 kW h/m 2 and the power-conversion efficiency is increased by 5.4% compared to that measured under AM1.5G conditions. In addition, diffuse solar irradiance (cloudy condition) was found to be in favor of P3HT:PCBM solar cells, with gain of 23.7–27.9% relative to AM1.5G conditions.

  7. Method for customizing an organic Rankine cycle to a complex heat source for efficient energy conversion, demonstrated on a Fischer Tropsch plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGenova, Kevin J.; Botros, Barbara B.; Brisson, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Methods for customizing organic Rankine cycles are proposed. ► A set of cycle modifications help to target available heat sources. ► Heat sources with complex temperature–enthalpy profiles can be matched. ► Significant efficiency improvements can be achieved over basic ORC’s. -- Abstract: Organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) provide an alternative to traditional steam Rankine cycles for the conversion of low grade heat sources into power, where conventional steam power cycles are known to be inefficient. A large processing plant often has multiple low temperature waste heat streams available for conversion to electricity by a low temperature cycle, resulting in a composite heat source with a complex temperature–enthalpy profile. This work presents a set of ORC design concepts: reheat stages, multiple pressure levels, and balanced recuperators; and demonstrates the use of these design concepts as building blocks to create a customized cycle that matches an available heat source. Organic fluids are modeled using a pure substance database. The pinch analysis technique of forming composite curves is applied to analyze the effect of each building block on the temperature–enthalpy profile of the ORC heat requirement. The customized cycle is demonstrated on a heat source derived from a Fischer Tropsch reactor and its associated processes. Analysis shows a steam Rankine cycle can achieve a 20.6% conversion efficiency for this heat source, whereas a simple organic Rankine cycle using hexane as the working fluid can achieve a 20.9% conversion efficiency. If the ORC building blocks are combined into a cycle targeted to match the temperature–enthalpy profile of the heat source, this customized ORC can achieve 28.5% conversion efficiency.

  8. Development of a process for co-conversion of Pu-U nitrate mixed solutions to mixed oxide powder using microwave heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Masumichi; Ohtsuka, Katsuyuki; Ohshima, Hirofumi; Isagawa, Hiroto; Akiyama, Hideo; Todokoro, Akio; Naruki, Kaoru

    1983-01-01

    For the complete nuclear fuel cycle, the development of a process for the co-conversion of Pu-U nitrate mixed solutions to mixed oxide powder has been performed along the line of non-proliferation policy of nuclear materials. A new co-conversion process using a microwave heating method has been developed and successfully demonstrated with good results using the test unit with a capacity of 2 kg MOX/d. Through the experiments and engineering test operations, several important data have been obtained concerning the feasibility of the test unit, powder characteristics and homogeneity of the product, and impurity pickups during denitration process. The results of these experimental operations show that the co-conversion process using a microwave heating method has many excellent advantages, such as good powder characteristics of the product, good homogeneity of Pu-U oxide, simplicity of the process, minimum liquid waste, no possibility of changing the Pu/U ratio and stable operability of the plant. Since August 1979, plutonium nitrate solution transported from the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been converted to mixed oxide powder which has the Pu/U ratio = 1. The products have been processed to the ATR ''FUGEN'' reloading fuel. Based on the successful development of the co-conversion process, the microwave heating direct denitration facility with a 10 kg MOX/d capacity has been constructed adjacent to the reprocessing plant. This facility will come into hot operation by the fall of this year. For future development of the microwave heating method, a continuous direct denitration, a vitrification of high active liquid waste and a solidification of the plutonium-contaminated waste are investigated in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (author)

  9. Age-specific effective doses for pediatric MSCT examinations at a large children's hospital using DLP conversion coefficients: a simple estimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Karen E.; Wang, Bo

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for an easily accessible method for effective dose estimation in pediatric CT. To estimate effective doses for a variety of pediatric neurological and body CT examinations in five age groups using recently published age- and region-specific dose length product (DLP) to effective dose conversion coefficients. A retrospective review was performed of 1,431 consecutive CT scans over a 12-week period using age- and weight-adjusted CT protocols. Age- and region-specific DLP to effective dose conversion coefficients were applied to console-displayed DLP data. Effective dose estimates for single-phase head CT scans in neonatal, and 1-, 5-, 10- and 15-year-old age groups were 4.2, 3.6, 2.4, 2.0 and 1.4 mSv, respectively. For abdomen/pelvis CT scans the corresponding effective doses were 13.1, 11.1, 8.4, 8.9 and 5.9 mSv. The range of pediatric CT effective doses is wide, from ultralow dose protocols (<1 mSv) to extended-coverage body examinations (10-15 mSv). Age- and region-specific pediatric DLP to effective dose conversion coefficients provide an accessible and user-friendly method for estimating pediatric CT effective doses that is available to radiologists working without medical physics support. (orig.)

  10. Investigation of the HU-density conversion method and comparison of dose distribution for dose calculation on MV cone beam CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Joo; Lee, Seu Ran; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Modern radiation therapy techniques, such as Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) has become a routine clinical practice on linear accelerators for the increase the tumor dose conformity and improvement of normal tissue sparing at the same time. For these highly developed techniques, megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) system produce volumetric images at just one rotation of the x-ray beam source and detector on the bottom of conventional linear accelerator for real-time application of patient condition into treatment planning. MV CBCT image scan be directly registered to a reference CT data set which is usually kilo-voltage fan-beam computed tomography (kVFBCT) on treatment planning system and the registered image scan be used to adjust patient set-up error. However, to use MV CBCT images in radiotherapy, reliable electron density (ED) distribution are required. Patients scattering, beam hardening and softening effect caused by different energy application between kVCT, MV CBCT can cause cupping artifacts in MV CBCT images and distortion of Houns field Unit (HU) to ED conversion. The goal of this study, for reliable application of MV CBCT images into dose calculation, MV CBCT images was modified to correct distortion of HU to ED using the relationship of HU and ED from kV FBCT and MV CBCT images. The HU-density conversion was performed on MV CBCT image set using Dose difference map was showing in Figure 1. Finally, percentage differences above 3% were reduced depending on applying density calibration method. As a result, total error co uld be reduced to under 3%. The present study demonstrates that dose calculation accuracy using MV CBCT image set can be improved my applying HU-density conversion method. The dose calculation and comparison of dose distribution from MV CBCT image set with/without HU-density conversion method was performed. An advantage of this study compared to other approaches is that HU

  11. Monte Carlo Method in the calculate of conversion coefficients for dose in children's organs and tissues subjected to dentistric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, E.C.M.; Khoury, H.; Lima, F.R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing utilization of oral X-rays, specially in youngsters and children, prompts the assessment of equivalent doses in their organs and tissues. With this purpose, Monte Carlo code was adopted to simulate an X-ray source irradiating phantoms of the MIRD-5 type with different ages (10, 15 and 40 years old) to calculate the conversion coefficients which transform the exposure at skin to equivalent doses at several organs and tissues of interest. In order to check the computer program, simulations were performed for adult patients using the original code (ADAM,FOR developed by GSF Germany) and the adapted program (MCDRO,PAS). Good agreement between results obtained by both programs was observed. Applications to incisive, canine and molar teeth were simulated. The conversion factors were calculated for the following organs and tissues: thyroid, active bone marrow (head and whole body), bone (facial skeleton, cranium and whole body), skin (head and whole body) and crystalline. Based on the obtained results, it follows that the younger the patient and the langer the field area, the higher the doses in assessed organs and tissues

  12. Pictorial Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Kristina

    1982-01-01

    Provides the rationale for considering communication in a graphic domain and suggests a specific goal for designing work stations which provide graphic capabilities in educational settings. The central element of this recommendation is the "pictorial conversation", a highly interactive exchange that includes pictures as the central elements.…

  13. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Ability to Identify Mistakes Related to Angle Concept of Sixth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Cigdem; Erbay, Hatice Nur; Guner, Pinar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study we try to highlight prospective mathematics teachers' ability to identify mistakes of sixth grade students related to angle concept. And also we examined prospective mathematics teachers' knowledge of angle concept. Study was carried out with 30 sixth-grade students and 38 prospective mathematics teachers. Sixth grade students…

  14. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge: A Predictor of Sixth Graders' Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Hosin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the knowledge of mathematics content of elementary pre-service teachers at a sixth grade level. The researcher administered a mathematics test for sixth graders mandated by the Texas Education Agency to pre-service teachers; the same test was given to sixth graders in Texas. The study found that pre-service teachers performed…

  15. A high-performance liquid chromatography-electronic circular dichroism online method for assessing the absolute enantiomeric excess and conversion ratio of asymmetric reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Mingchao; Li, Li; Yin, Dali

    2017-03-01

    Asymmetric reactions often need to be evaluated during the synthesis of chiral compounds. However, traditional evaluation methods require the isolation of the individual enantiomer, which is tedious and time-consuming. Thus, it is desirable to develop simple, practical online detection methods. We developed a method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-electronic circular dichroism (HPLC-ECD) that simultaneously analyzes the material conversion ratio and absolute optical purity of each enantiomer. In particular, only a reverse-phase C18 column instead of a chiral column is required in our method because the ECD measurement provides a g-factor that describes the ratio of each enantiomer in the mixtures. We used our method to analyze the asymmetric hydrosilylation of β-enamino esters, and we discussed the advantage, feasibility, and effectiveness of this new methodology.

  16. Exact periodic solutions of the sixth-order generalized Boussinesq equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenov, O Y [Department of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Technical University of Sofia, PO Box 384, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: okam@abv.bg

    2009-09-18

    This paper examines a class of nonlinear sixth-order generalized Boussinesq-like equations (SGBE): u{sub tt} = u{sub xx} + 3(u{sup 2}){sub xx} + u{sub xxxx} + {alpha}u{sub xxxxxx}, {alpha} in R, depending on the positive parameter {alpha}. Hirota's bilinear transformation method is applied to the above class of non-integrable equations and exact periodic solutions have been obtained. The results confirmed the well-known nonlinear superposition principle.

  17. Prediction of soil urea conversion and quantification of the importance degrees of influencing factors through a new combinatorial model based on cluster method and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tao; Guo, Xianghong; Sun, Xihuan; Ma, Juanjuan; Zhang, Shaowen; Zhang, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative prediction of soil urea conversion is crucial in determining the mechanism of nitrogen transformation and understanding the dynamics of soil nutrients. This study aimed to establish a combinatorial prediction model (MCA-F-ANN) for soil urea conversion and quantify the relative importance degrees (RIDs) of influencing factors with the MCA-F-ANN method. Data samples were obtained from laboratory culture experiments, and soil nitrogen content and physicochemical properties were measured every other day. Results showed that when MCA-F-ANN was used, the mean-absolute-percent error values of NH 4 + -N, NO 3 - -N, and NH 3 contents were 3.180%, 2.756%, and 3.656%, respectively. MCA-F-ANN predicted urea transformation under multi-factor coupling conditions more accurately than traditional models did. The RIDs of reaction time (RT), electrical conductivity (EC), temperature (T), pH, nitrogen application rate (F), and moisture content (W) were 32.2%-36.5%, 24.0%-28.9%, 12.8%-15.2%, 9.8%-12.5%, 7.8%-11.0%, and 3.5%-6.0%, respectively. The RIDs of the influencing factors in a descending order showed the pattern RT > EC > T > pH > F > W. RT and EC were the key factors in the urea conversion process. The prediction accuracy of urea transformation process was improved, and the RIDs of the influencing factors were quantified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi-skyrmion solutions of a sixth order Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floratos, I.

    2001-08-01

    In this thesis, we study some of the classical properties of an extension of the Skyrme model defined by adding a sixth order derivative term to the Lagrangian. In chapter 1, we review the physical as well as the mathematical motivation behind the study of the Skyrme model and in chapter 2, we give a brief summary of various extended Skyrme models that have been proposed over the last few years. We then define a new sixth order Skyrme model by introducing a dimensionless parameter λ that denotes the mixing between the two higher order terms, the Skyrme term and the sixth order term. In chapter 3 we compute numerically the multi-skyrmion solutions of this extended model and show that they have the same symmetries with the usual skyrmion solutions. In addition, we analyse the dependence of the energy and radius of these classical solutions with respect to the coupling constant λ. We compare our results with experimental data and determine whether this modified model can provide us with better theoretical predictions than the original one. In chapter 4, we use the rational map ansatz, introduced by Houghton, Manton and Sutcliffe, to approximate minimum energy multi-skyrmion solutions with B ≤ 9 of the SU(2) model and with B ≤ 6 of the SU(3) model. We compare our results with the ones obtained numerically and show that the rational map ansatz works just as well for the generalised model as for the pure Skyrme model, at least for B ≤ 5. In chapter 5, we use a generalisation of the rational map ansatz, introduced by loannidou, Piette and Zakrzewski, to construct analytically some topologically non-trivial solutions of the extended model in SU(3). These solutions are spherically symmetric and some of them can be interpreted as bound states of skyrmions. Finally, we use the same ansatz to construct low energy configurations of the SU(N) sixth order Skyrme model. (author)

  19. Proceedings Sixth Workshop on Trends in Functional Programming in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Simon

    2018-01-01

    The Sixth International Workshops on Trends in Functional Programming in Education, TFPIE 2017, was held on 22 June 2017 at the University of Kent, in Canterbury, UK, and was co-located with TFP, the Symposium on Trends in Functional Programming. The goal of TFPIE is to gather researchers, professors, teachers, and all professionals interested in functional programming in education. This includes the teaching of functional programming, but also the application of functional programming as a t...

  20. The sixth sense : synaesthesia and British aestheticism, 1860-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Poueymirou, Margaux Lynn Rosa

    2009-01-01

    “The Sixth Sense: Synaesthesia and British Aestheticism 1860-1900” is an interdisciplinary examination of the emergence of synaesthesia conceptually and rhetorically within the ‘art for art’s sake’ movement in mid-to-late Victorian Britain. Chapter One investigates Swinburne’s focal role as both theorist and literary spokesman for the nascent British Aesthetic movement. I argue that Swinburne was the first to practice what Pater meant by ‘aesthetic criticism’ and that synaesthe...

  1. Contributions to the sixth international conference on fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-15

    The ICFRM series has documented progress in the field of fusion reactor materials since the first conference held in Tokyo in 1984. The conference series has continually increased its coverage to the point where it now includes the comprehensive range of materials science and technology areas that enable systems designers to meet the needs of current experiments and to present innovative solutions for future energy systems. This publication contains five contributions to the sixth international conference which have each been indexed separately.

  2. Sixth international symposium on mycotoxins and phycotoxins: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This book contains only the abstracts of seminars that were delivered on the sixth international symposium on mycotoxins and phycotoxins on 22-25 July 1985 in Pretoria under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Subject-coverage includes biosynthesis, metabolism, structure and chemical properties, analysis, biochemical mechanisms, toxicity, and pathology of mycotoxins and phycotoxins

  3. Quantum conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ICOAM 2015 The electromagnetic momentum transferred transferred to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ℏk does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the tran...

  4. Conversational sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  5. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  6. Discussion on resin conversion related problems in the process of using ion exchange method to recover uranium from carbonate lixivium in a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suqin; Du Yuhai; Long Qing; Han Wei; Que Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Ion exchange method was used to recover uranium from carbonate lixivium in a uranium mine, lean resin was converted by sodium bicarbonate solution. Because of high sodium bicarbonate, chlorine and uranium concentration in the converted solution, it is difficult to effectively use. Combined with the production practices of the mine, the resin conversion related problems were analyzed. Some measures were taken for improving utilization rate of the converted solution, and good results were obtained. The utilization rate of the converted solution increased to about 20% from less than lO%, and the consumption of sodium bicarbonate reduced by about 30%. (authors)

  7. A fully automated conversational agent for promoting mental well-being: A pilot RCT using mixed methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien Hoa Ly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fully automated self-help interventions can serve as highly cost-effective mental health promotion tools for massive amounts of people. However, these interventions are often characterised by poor adherence. One way to address this problem is to mimic therapy support by a conversational agent. The objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness and adherence of a smartphone app, delivering strategies used in positive psychology and CBT interventions via an automated chatbot (Shim for a non-clinical population — as well as to explore participants' views and experiences of interacting with this chatbot. A total of 28 participants were randomized to either receive the chatbot intervention (n = 14 or to a wait-list control group (n = 14. Findings revealed that participants who adhered to the intervention (n = 13 showed significant interaction effects of group and time on psychological well-being (FS and perceived stress (PSS-10 compared to the wait-list control group, with small to large between effect sizes (Cohen's d range 0.14–1.06. Also, the participants showed high engagement during the 2-week long intervention, with an average open app ratio of 17.71 times for the whole period. This is higher compared to other studies on fully automated interventions claiming to be highly engaging, such as Woebot and the Panoply app. The qualitative data revealed sub-themes which, to our knowledge, have not been found previously, such as the moderating format of the chatbot. The results of this study, in particular the good adherence rate, validated the usefulness of replicating this study in the future with a larger sample size and an active control group. This is important, as the search for fully automated, yet highly engaging and effective digital self-help interventions for promoting mental health is crucial for the public health.

  8. A simple method for estimating the effective dose in dental CT. Conversion factors and calculation for a clinical low-dose protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homolka, P.; Kudler, H.; Nowotny, R.; Gahleitner, A.; Wien Univ.

    2001-01-01

    An easily appliable method to estimate effective dose including in its definition the high radio-sensitivity of the salivary glands from dental computed tomography is presented. Effective doses were calculated for a markedly dose reduced dental CT protocol as well as for standard settings. Data are compared with effective doses from the literature obtained with other modalities frequently used in dental care. Methods: Conversion factors based on the weighted Computed Tomography Dose Index were derived from published data to calculate effective dose values for various CT exposure settings. Results: Conversion factors determined can be used for clinically used kVp settings and prefiltrations. With reduced tube current an effective dose for a CT examination of the maxilla of 22 μSv can be achieved, which compares to values typically obtained with panoramic radiography (26 μSv). A CT scan of the mandible, respectively, gives 123 μSv comparable to a full mouth survey with intraoral films (150 μSv). Conclusion: For standard CT scan protocols of the mandible, effective doses exceed 600 μSv. Hence, low dose protocols for dental CT should be considered whenever feasable, especially for paediatric patients. If hard tissue diagnoses is performed, the potential of dose reduction is significant despite the higher image noise levels as readability is still adequate. (orig.) [de

  9. Conversational Analysis as a Method for Research on Intercultural Learning: A Report on a Project with the Aim of "Learning by Undertaking Research"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Berkenbusch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversational analysis—situated between pragmatic linguistics and qualitative empirical research—is a complex method, which needs a lot of time and dedication. It is necessary to develop a so-called “analytical mentality”. The aim of the project presented in this paper was to develop the theoretical insights and the practical skills of a group of students for this kind of research. They worked together throughout the duration of the project, especially in the collec¬tion of empiric material: i.e. the recording of conversations between foreign and German stu¬dents, the transcription of the material, a group discussion on the data and finally its analysis. This articles aims at showing what students can learn by doing this kind of work, based on examples of the collected empirical material: (1 they will be introduced to the different levels and stages of the research process and have the chance to develop a methodical and methodological competence; (2 their general communicative competences and their special competences of the foreign language will increase, as well as (3 their knowledge of intercultural learning by working with authentic data of intercultural communication. So, for instance, stereotypes and how they have been constructed during the interaction may be analysed and precisely described on a micro-analytical level. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901335

  10. [Conversation analysis for improving nursing communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Myungsun

    2007-08-01

    Nursing communication has become more important than ever before because quality of nursing services largely depends on the quality of communication in a very competitive health care environment. This article was to introduce ways to improve nursing communication using conversation analysis. This was a review study on conversation analysis, critically examining previous studies in nursing communication and interpersonal relationships. This study provided theoretical backgrounds and basic assumptions of conversation analysis which was influenced by ethnomethodology, phenomenology, and sociolinguistic. In addition, the characteristics and analysis methods of conversation analysis were illustrated in detail. Lastly, how conversation analysis could help improve communication was shown, by examining researches using conversation analysis not only for ordinary conversations but also for extraordinary or difficult conversations such as conversations between patients with dementia and their professional nurses. Conversation analysis can help in improving nursing communication by providing various structures and patterns as well as prototypes of conversation, and by suggesting specific problems and problem-solving strategies in communication.

  11. Neutronic analysis for conversion of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 facility using Monte Carlo methods and UO{sub 2} LEU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anim-Sampong, S.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Maakuu, B.T.; Gbadago, J.K. [Ghana Research Reactor-1 Centre, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Materials Science, National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Andam, A. [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Physics (Ghana); Liaw, J.J.R.; Matos, J.E. [Argonne National Lab., RERTR Programme, Div. of Nuclear Engineering (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Monte Carlo particle transport methods and software (MCNP) have been applied to the modelling, simulation and neutronic analysis for the conversion of the HEU-fuelled (high enrichment uranium) core of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) facility. The results show that the MCNP model of the GHARR-1 facility, which is a commercial version of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) is good as the simulated neutronic and other reactor physics parameters agree with very well with experimental and zero power results. Three UO{sub 2} LEU (low enrichment uranium) fuels with different enrichments (12.6% and 19.75%), core configurations, core loadings were utilized in the conversion studies. The nuclear criticality and kinetic parameters obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation and neutronic analysis using three UO{sub 2} LEU fuels are in close agreement with results obtained for the reference 90.2% U-Al HEU core. The neutron flux variation in the core, fission chamber and irradiation channels for the LEU UO{sub 2} fuels show the same trend as the HEU core as presented in the paper. The Monte Carlo model confirms a reduction (8% max) in the peak neutron fluxes simulated in the irradiation channels which are utilized for experimental and commercial activities. However, the reductions or 'losses' in the flux levels neither affects the criticality safety, reactor operations and safety nor utilization of the reactor. Employing careful core loading optimization techniques and fuel loadings and enrichment, it is possible to eliminate the apparent reductions or 'losses' in the neutron fluxes as suggested in this paper. Concerning neutronics, it can be concluded that all the 3 LEU fuels qualify as LEU candidates for core conversion of the GHARR-1 facility.

  12. Dose conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    The following is discussed in this report: concepts and quantities used in calculating radiation dose from internal and external exposure. Tabulations of dose conversion factor for internal and external exposure to radionuclides. Dose conversion factors give dose per unit intake (internal) or dose per unit concentration in environment (external). Intakes of radionuclides for internal exposure and concentrations of radionuclides in environment for external exposure are assumed to be known. Intakes and concentrations are obtained, e.g., from analyses of environmental transport and exposure pathways. differences between dosimetry methods for radionuclides and hazardous chemicals are highlighted

  13. Human analog tests of the sixth stage of object permanence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishman, M; Conant, M; Pasnak, R

    1995-06-01

    Two adult cats were tested on multiple invisible displacement. A dowel was established as a secondary reinforcer and hidden in a manner similar to that used to assess the culmination of sensorimotor intelligence in human infants. Three other cats were tested on single invisible displacement, a simpler version of the task. For human infants, this task is used to assess the beginning of mental representation in the sixth and last stage of sensorimotor intelligence. The cats' searches on these tasks were consistent with representation of an unsensed object and fully developed sensorimotor intelligence.

  14. Sixth international conference on electrical machines and drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains 111 papers presented at the Sixth International Conference on Electrical Machines and Drives. The topics covered include: miniature and micro motors; induction motors; DC machines; reluctance motors; condition monitoring; synchronous machines and drives; induction machines; induction generators; simulation; design; and operating experience; linear machines; noise and vibration; special machines. Separate abstracts have been prepared for a paper on linear step motors for control rod drives and for a paper on a motor drive for gas filtration in gas-cooled reactors. (UK)

  15. Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnosky, Anthony D; Matzke, Nicholas; Tomiya, Susumu; Wogan, Guinevere O U; Swartz, Brian; Quental, Tiago B; Marshall, Charles; McGuire, Jenny L; Lindsey, Emily L; Maguire, Kaitlin C; Mersey, Ben; Ferrer, Elizabeth A

    2011-03-03

    Palaeontologists characterize mass extinctions as times when the Earth loses more than three-quarters of its species in a geologically short interval, as has happened only five times in the past 540 million years or so. Biologists now suggest that a sixth mass extinction may be under way, given the known species losses over the past few centuries and millennia. Here we review how differences between fossil and modern data and the addition of recently available palaeontological information influence our understanding of the current extinction crisis. Our results confirm that current extinction rates are higher than would be expected from the fossil record, highlighting the need for effective conservation measures.

  16. Simple extraction methods that prevent the artifactual conversion of chlorophyll to chlorophyllide during pigment isolation from leaf samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xueyun; Tanaka, Ayumi; Tanaka, Ryouichi

    2013-06-19

    When conducting plant research, the measurement of photosynthetic pigments can provide basic information on the physiological status of a plant. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is becoming widely used for this purpose because it provides an accurate determination of a variety of photosynthetic pigments simultaneously. This technique has a drawback compared with conventional spectroscopic techniques, however, in that it is more prone to structural modification of pigments during extraction, thus potentially generating erroneous results. During pigment extraction procedures with acetone or alcohol, the phytol side chain of chlorophyll is sometimes removed, forming chlorophyllide, which affects chlorophyll measurement using HPLC. We evaluated the artifactual chlorophyllide production during chlorophyll extraction by comparing different extraction methods with wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis leaves that lack the major isoform of chlorophyllase. Several extraction methods were compared to provide alternatives to researchers who utilize HPLC for the analysis of chlorophyll levels. As a result, the following three methods are recommended. In the first method, leaves are briefly boiled prior to extraction. In the second method, grinding and homogenization of leaves are performed at sub-zero temperatures. In the third method, N, N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) is used for the extraction of pigments. When compared, the first two methods eliminated almost all chlorophyllide-forming activity in Arabidopsis thaliana, Glebionis coronaria, Pisum sativum L. and Prunus sargentii Rehd. However, DMF effectively suppressed the activity of chlorophyllase only in Arabidopsis leaves. Chlorophyllide production in leaf extracts is predominantly an artifact. All three methods evaluated in this study reduce the artifactual production of chlorophyllide and are thus suitable for pigment extraction for HPLC analysis. The boiling method would be a practical choice when leaves are not too

  17. An Object-Based Image Analysis Method for Monitoring Land Conversion by Artificial Sprawl Use of RapidEye and IRS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Balestrat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In France, in the peri-urban context, urban sprawl dynamics are particularly strong with huge population growth as well as a land crisis. The increase and spreading of built-up areas from the city centre towards the periphery takes place to the detriment of natural and agricultural spaces. The conversion of land with agricultural potential is all the more worrying as it is usually irreversible. The French Ministry of Agriculture therefore needs reliable and repeatable spatial-temporal methods to locate and quantify loss of land at both local and national scales. The main objective of this study was to design a repeatable method to monitor land conversion characterized by artificial sprawl: (i We used an object-based image analysis to extract artificial areas from satellite images; (ii We built an artificial patch that consists of aggregating all the peripheral areas that characterize artificial areas. The “artificialized” patch concept is an innovative extension of the urban patch concept, but differs in the nature of its components and in the continuity distance applied; (iii The diachronic analysis of artificial patch maps enables characterization of artificial sprawl. The method was applied at the scale of four departments (similar to provinces along the coast of Languedoc-Roussillon, in the South of France, based on two satellite datasets, one acquired in 1996–1997 (Indian Remote Sensing and the other in 2009 (RapidEye. In the four departments, we measured an increase in artificial areas of from 113,000 ha in 1997 to 133,000 ha in 2009, i.e., an 18% increase in 12 years. The package comes in the form of a 1/15,000 valid cartography, usable at the scale of a commune (the smallest territorial division used for administrative purposes in France that can be adapted to departmental and regional scales. The method is reproducible in homogenous spatial-temporal terms, so that it could be used periodically to assess changes in land conversion

  18. A method for conversion of Hounsfield number to electron density and prediction of macroscopic pair production cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoeoes, T.; Nilsson, M.; Ahlgren, L.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the determination of electron density using a narrow beam attenuation geometry is described. The method does not require that the elemental composition of the phantom materials is known. The Hounsfield numbers for the phantom materials used were determined using five different CT scanners. A relationship between Hounsfield number and electron density can thus be established, which is of considerable value in radiation therapy treatment planning procedures. Measurements of the ratio coherent/incoherent scattering of low energy photons in a certain geometry has proven valuable for determination of atomic number, which in its turn can be used for estimation of macroscopic pair production coefficients for high energy photons. The combination of knowledge of electron density with methods for determination of processes, dependent on atomic number, can form a base for adequate composition of phantom materials for purposes of testing dose calculation algorithms for photons and electrons. (orig.)

  19. A Steady-State Analysis Method for Modular Multilevel Converters Connected to Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Modular multilevel converters (MMCs have shown great potential in the area of multi-megawatt wind energy conversion system (WECS based on permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs. However, the studies in this area are few, and most of them refer to the MMC used in high-voltage direct current (HVDC systems, and hence the characteristics of the PMSG are not considered. This paper proposes a steady-state analysis method for MMCs connected to a PMSG-based WECS. In the proposed method, only the wind speed (operating condition is required as input, and all the electrical quantities in the MMC, including the amplitudes, phase angles and their harmonics, can be calculated step by step. The analysis method is built on the proposed d-q frame mathematical model. Interactions of electrical quantities between the MMC and PMSG are comprehensively considered. Moreover, a new way to calculate the average switching functions are adopted in order to improve the accuracy of the analysis method. Applications of the proposed method are also presented, which includes the characteristic analysis of capacitor voltage ripples and the capacitor sizing. Finally, the accuracy of the method and the correctness of the analysis are verified by simulations and experiments.

  20. Study on the effect of measuring methods on incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by home-made setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Zhi; Luo, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Yi-Duo; Huang, Xiao-Chun; Li, Dong-Mei; Meng, Qing-Bo

    2010-10-01

    An experimental setup is built for the measurement of monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) of solar cells. With this setup, three kinds of IPCE measuring methods as well as the convenient switching between them are achieved. The setup can also measure the response time and waveform of the short-circuit current of solar cell. Using this setup, IPCE results of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are determined and compared under different illumination conditions with each method. It is found that the IPCE values measured by AC method involving the lock-in technique are sincerely influenced by modulation frequency and bias illumination. Measurements of the response time and waveform of short-circuit current have revealed that this effect can be explained by the slow response of DSCs. To get accurate IPCE values by this method, the measurement should be carried out with a low modulation frequency and under bias illumination. The IPCE values measured by DC method under the bias light illumination will be disturbed since the short-circuit current increased with time continuously due to the temperature rise of DSC. Therefore, temperature control of DSC is considered necessary for IPCE measurement especially in DC method with bias light illumination. Additionally, high bias light intensity (>2 sun) is found to decrease the IPCE values due to the ion transport limitation of the electrolyte.

  1. Study on the effect of measuring methods on incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by home-made setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Zhi; Luo, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Yi-Duo; Huang, Xiao-Chun; Li, Dong-Mei; Meng, Qing-Bo

    2010-10-01

    An experimental setup is built for the measurement of monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) of solar cells. With this setup, three kinds of IPCE measuring methods as well as the convenient switching between them are achieved. The setup can also measure the response time and waveform of the short-circuit current of solar cell. Using this setup, IPCE results of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are determined and compared under different illumination conditions with each method. It is found that the IPCE values measured by AC method involving the lock-in technique are sincerely influenced by modulation frequency and bias illumination. Measurements of the response time and waveform of short-circuit current have revealed that this effect can be explained by the slow response of DSCs. To get accurate IPCE values by this method, the measurement should be carried out with a low modulation frequency and under bias illumination. The IPCE values measured by DC method under the bias light illumination will be disturbed since the short-circuit current increased with time continuously due to the temperature rise of DSC. Therefore, temperature control of DSC is considered necessary for IPCE measurement especially in DC method with bias light illumination. Additionally, high bias light intensity (>2 sun) is found to decrease the IPCE values due to the ion transport limitation of the electrolyte.

  2. [Methods and Applications to estimate the conversion factor of Resource-Based Relative Value Scale for nurse-midwife's delivery service in the national health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyun; Jung, Yoomi

    2009-08-01

    This paper analyzed alternative methods of calculating the conversion factor for nurse-midwife's delivery services in the national health insurance and estimated the optimal reimbursement level for the services. A cost accounting model and Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) model were developed to estimate the conversion factor of Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) for nurse-midwife's services, depending on the scope of revenue considered in financial analysis. The data and sources from the government and the financial statements from nurse-midwife clinics were used in analysis. The cost accounting model and SGR model showed a 17.6-37.9% increase and 19.0-23.6% increase, respectively, in nurse-midwife fee for delivery services in the national health insurance. The SGR model measured an overall trend of medical expenditures rather than an individual financial status of nurse-midwife clinics, and the cost analysis properly estimated the level of reimbursement for nurse-midwife's services. Normal vaginal delivery in nurse-midwife clinics is considered cost-effective in terms of insurance financing. Upon a declining share of health expenditures on midwife clinics, designing a reimbursement strategy for midwife's services could be an opportunity as well as a challenge when it comes to efficient resource allocation.

  3. Nitrate conversion and supercritical fluid extraction of UO2-CeO2 solid solution prepared by an electrolytic reduction-coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, L.Y.; Duan, W.H.; Wen, M.F.; Xu, J.M.; Zhu, Y.J.

    2014-01-01

    A low-waste technology for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been developed recently, which involves the conversion of actinide and lanthanide oxides with liquid N 2 O 4 into their nitrates followed by supercritical fluid extraction of the nitrates. The possibility of the reprocessing of SNF from high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) with nitrate conversion and supercritical fluid extraction is a current area of research in China. Here, a UO 2 -CeO 2 solid solution was prepared as a surrogate for a UO 2 -PuO 2 solid solution, and the recovery of U and Ce from the UO 2 -CeO 2 solid solution with liquid N 2 O 4 and supercritical CO 2 containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) was investigated. The UO 2 -CeO 2 solid solution prepared by electrolytic reduction-coprecipitation method had square plate microstructures. The solid solution after heat treatment was completely converted into nitrates with liquid N 2 O 4 . The XRD pattern of the nitrates was similar to that of UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 . 3H 2 O. After 120 min of online extraction at 25 MPa and 50 , 99.98% of the U and 98.74% of the Ce were recovered from the nitrates with supercritical CO 2 containing TBP. The results suggest a promising potential technology for the reprocessing of SNF from HTGRs. (orig.)

  4. Effect of Curing Direction on Microtensile Bond Strength of Fifth and Sixth Generation Dental Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nadaf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Composite restorative materials and dental adhesives are usually cured with light sources. The light direction may influence the bond strength of dental adhesives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light direction on the microtensile bond strength of fifth and sixth generation dental adhesives.Materials and Methods: Prime & Bond NT and Clearfil SE bond were used with different light directions.Sixty human incisor teeth were divided into 4 groups (n=15. In groups A and C, Clearfil SE bond with light curing direction from buccal was used for bonding a composite resin to dentin. In groups B and D, Prime & Bond NT with light curing direction from composite was used. After thermocycling the specimens were subjected to tensile force until debonding occurred and values for microtensile bond strength were recorded. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test.Results: The findings showed that the bond strength of Clearfil SE bond was significantly higher than that of Prime&Bond NT (P<0.001. There was no significant difference between light curing directions (P=0.132.Conclusion: Light curing direction did not have significant effect on the bond strength. Sixth generation adhesives was more successful than fifth generation in terms of bond strength to dentin.

  5. A new method for brain tumor detection using the Bhattacharyya similarity coefficient, color conversions and neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Mansori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is widely applied for examination and diagnosis of brain tumors based on its advantages of high resolution in detecting the soft tissues and especially of its harmless radiation damages to human bodies. The goal of the processing of images is automatic segmentation of brain edema and tumors, in different dimensions of the magnetic resonance images. Methods: The proposed method is based on the unsupervised method which discovers the tumor region, if there is any, by analyzing the similarities between two hemispheres and computes the image size of the goal function based on Bhattacharyya coefficient which is used in the next stage to detect the tumor region or some part of it. In this stage, for reducing the color variation, the gray brain image is segmented, then it is turned to gray again. The self-organizing map (SOM neural network is used the segmented brain image is colored and finally the tumor is detected by matching the detected region and the colored image. This method is proposed to analyze MRI images for discovering brain tumors, and done in Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran, in 2014. Results: The results for 30 randomly selected images from data bank of MRI center in Hamedan was compared with manually segmentation of experts. The results showed that, our proposed method had the accuracy of more than 94% at Jaccard similarity index (JSI, 97% at Dice similarity score (DSS, and 98% and 99% at two measures of specificity and sensitivity. Conclusion: The experimental results showed that it was satisfactory and can be used in automatic separation of tumor from normal brain tissues and therefore it can be used in practical applications. The results showed that the use of SOM neural network to classify useful magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and demonstrated a good performance.

  6. DMF as an Additive in a Two-Step Spin-Coating Method for 20% Conversion Efficiency in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jionghua; Xu, Xin; Zhao, Yanhong; Shi, Jiangjian; Xu, Yuzhuan; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Dongmei; Wu, Huijue; Meng, Qingbo

    2017-08-16

    DMF as an additive has been employed in FAI/MAI/IPA (FA= CH 2 (NH 2 ) 2 , MA = CH 3 NH 3 , IPA = isopropanol) solution for a two-step multicycle spin-coating method in order to prepare high-quality FA x MA 1-x PbI 2.55 Br 0.45 perovskite films. Further investigation reveals that the existence of DMF in the FAI/MAI/IPA solution can facilitate perovskite conversion, improve the film morphology, and reduce crystal defects, thus enhancing charge-transfer efficiency. By optimization of the DMF amount and spin-coating cycles, compact, pinhole-free perovskite films are obtained. The nucleation mechanisms of perovskite films in our multicycle spin-coating process are suggested; that is, the introduction of DMF in the spin-coating FAI/MAI/IPA solution can lead to the formation of an amorphous phase PbX 2 -AI-DMSO-DMF (X = I, Br; A = FA, MA) instead of intermediate phase (MA) 2 Pb 3 I 8 ·2DMSO. This amorphous phase, similar to that in the one-step method, can help FAI/MAI penetrate into the PbI 2 framework to completely convert into the perovskite. As high as 20.1% power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been achieved with a steady-state PCE of 19.1%. Our work offers a simple repeatable method to prepare high-quality perovskite films for high-performance PSCs and also help further understand the perovskite-crystallization process.

  7. POLLA-NESC, Resonance Parameter R-Matrix to S-Matrix Conversion by Reich-Moore Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saussure, G. de; Perez, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The program transforms a set of r-matrix nuclear resonance parameters into a set of equivalent s-matrix (or Kapur-Peierls) resonance parameters. 2 - Method of solution: The program utilizes the multilevel formalism of Reich and Moore and avoids diagonalization of the level matrix. The parameters are obtained by a direct partial fraction expansion of the Reich-Moore expression of the collision matrix. This approach appears simpler and faster when the number of fission channels is known and small. The method is particularly useful when a large number of levels must be considered because it does not require diagonalization of a large level matrix. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: By DIMENSION statements, the program is limited to maxima of 100 levels and 5 channels

  8. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  9. Georeferenced cartography dataset of the La Fossa crater fumarolic field at Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy: conversion and comparison of data from local to global positioning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Sammarco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study illustrates the procedures applied for the coordinate system conversion of the historical fumarole positions at La Fossa crater, to allow their comparison with newly acquired global positioning system (GPS data. Due to the absence of ground control points in the field and on both the old Gauss Boaga and the new UTM WGS 1984 maps, we had to model the transformation errors between the two systems using differential GPS techniques. Once corrected, the maps show a residual Easting shifting, due to erroneous georeferencing of the original base maps; this is corrected by morphological comparative methods. The good correspondence between the corrected positions of the historical data and the results of the new GPS survey that was carried out in 2009 highlights the good quality of the old surveys, although they were carried out without the use of accurate topographical instruments.

  10. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  11. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  12. Acute sixth nerve palsy in a young man, beware of the 'red herring'.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, E C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Cranial nerve palsies has several etiologies including vascular insufficiency, neoplasm, trauma and inflammation. Isolated sixth nerve palsy is an extremely rare presenting feature of leukemia. AIM: We describe an unusual ocular presentation of a bilateral progressive sixth nerve palsy in a young male with a preceding head injury. CONCLUSION: Acquired sixth nerve palsies in young adults may be due to trauma but in the absence of a definitive history other systemic processes must be outruled. We describe a case of bilateral sixth nerve palsy in a patient with ALL with no obvious CNS involvement. Potential etiological mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Foundations of Intelligent Systems : Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tianrui

    2012-01-01

    Proceedings of The Sixth International Conference on Intelligent System and Knowledge Engineering presents selected papers from the conference ISKE 2011, held December 15-17 in Shanghai, China. This proceedings doesn’t only examine original research and approaches in the broad areas of intelligent systems and knowledge engineering, but also present new methodologies and practices in intelligent computing paradigms. The book introduces the current scientific and technical advances in the fields of artificial intelligence, machine learning, pattern recognition, data mining, information retrieval, knowledge-based systems, knowledge representation and reasoning, multi-agent systems, natural-language processing, etc. Furthermore, new computing methodologies are presented, including cloud computing, service computing and pervasive computing with traditional intelligent methods. The proceedings will be beneficial for both researchers and practitioners who want to utilize intelligent methods in their specific resea...

  14. Proceedings of the Sixth Seminar on Computation in Nuclear Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) had held the Sixth Seminar on Computation in Nuclear Science and Technology on January 16-17, 1996. The seminar is an event for information exchange among interest society in computation, modeling, and simulation. Similar as previous seminar in the past year, there were also non-BATAN and university-bound presenters and participants whose interest are in the field of science and technology. Examining the papers presented in this seminar, it shows that beside digging the so called classical computation methods, some papers brought relatively new topics like the determination and influence of chaos, neural network method, and expert system. Judging from the variety of the topics, one can conclude that interests in computation and its application are growing stronger in Indonesia

  15. A GENERALIZED NON-LINEAR METHOD FOR DISTORTION CORRECTION AND TOP-DOWN VIEW CONVERSION OF FISH EYE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Singh Bawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS have been developed to automate and modify vehicles for safety and better driving experience. Among all computer vision modules in ADAS, 360-degree surround view generation of immediate surroundings of the vehicle is very important, due to application in on-road traffic assistance, parking assistance etc. This paper presents a novel algorithm for fast and computationally efficient transformation of input fisheye images into required top down view. This paper also presents a generalized framework for generating top down view of images captured by cameras with fish-eye lenses mounted on vehicles, irrespective of pitch or tilt angle. The proposed approach comprises of two major steps, viz. correcting the fish-eye lens images to rectilinear images, and generating top-view perspective of the corrected images. The images captured by the fish-eye lens possess barrel distortion, for which a nonlinear and non-iterative method is used. Thereafter, homography is used to obtain top-down view of corrected images. This paper also targets to develop surroundings of the vehicle for wider distortion less field of view and camera perspective independent top down view, with minimum computation cost which is essential due to limited computation power on vehicles.

  16. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future.

  17. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Seong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future

  18. Teacher Guidance of Algebraic Formula Building: Functional Grammatical Analysis of a Whole-Class Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkower, Betina; Shreyar, Sam; Pérez, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    How does teacher-guided whole-class interaction contribute to expanding students' potential for making and exchanging mathematical meanings? We address this question through an interpretative analysis of a whole-group conversation in a sixth grade class taught by an experienced teacher in a school in Southern Argentina. The extended interaction…

  19. Transverse Slicing of the Sixth-Seventh Costal Cartilaginous Junction: A Novel Technique to Prevent Warping in Nasal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Tara Lynn; Cheng, Homan; Pakdel, Amir; Kiss, Alex; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Costal cartilage is an important reconstructive tissue for correcting nasal deformities. Warping of costal cartilage, a recognized complication, can lead to significant functional and aesthetic problems. The authors present a technique to prevent warping that involves transverse slicing of the sixth-seventh costal cartilaginous junction, that when sliced perpendicular to the long axis of the rib, provides multiple long, narrow, clinically useful grafts with balanced cross-sections. The aim was to measure differences in cartilage warp between this technique (TJS) and traditional carving techniques. Costal cartilage was obtained from human subjects and cut to clinically relevant dimensions using a custom cutting jig. The sixth-seventh costal cartilaginous junction was sliced transversely leaving the outer surface intact. The adjacent sixth rib cartilage was carved concentrically and eccentrically. The samples were incubated and standardized serial photography was performed over time up to 4 weeks. Warp was quantified by measuring nonlinearity of the grafts using least-squares regression and compared between carving techniques. TJS grafts (n = 10) resulted in significantly less warp than both eccentrically (n = 3) and concentrically carved grafts (n = 3) (P < 0.0001). Warp was significantly higher with eccentric carving compared with concentric carving (P < 0.0001). Warp increased significantly with time for both eccentric (P = 0002) and concentric (P = 0.0007) techniques while TJS warp did not (P = 0.56). The technique of transverse slicing costal cartilage from the sixth-seventh junction minimizes warp compared with traditional carving methods providing ample grafts of adequate length and versatility for reconstructive requirements.

  20. Proceedings of the sixth structural engineering convention. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Nagesh R.; Ramanjaneyulu, K.; Samuel Knight, G.M.

    2008-12-01

    Many of the developments taking place at present in India and abroad in the field of structural engineering have been captured in this sixth Structural Engineering Convention. The areas covered are: (i) Advances in Concrete Structures, (ii) Advances in Steel Structures, (iii) Advances in Computational Structural Mechanics, (iv) Testing and Evaluation of Structures/Structural components, (v) New Materials of Construction, (vi) Analysis and Design of Structures against Natural Hazards, (vii) Health Monitoring of Structures, (viii) Repair, Retrofit and Rehabilitation of Structures, (ix) Advances in Construction Techniques/Practices and Guidelines and Codal Recommendations (x) Behaviour of Structures under Blast/Impact Loading and (xi) Fatigue and Fracture. About 200 papers that include contributory, invited, keynote and plenary papers are included in the proceedings. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  1. Proceedings of the sixth structural engineering convent ion. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Nagesh R.; Ramanjaneyulu, K.; Samuel Knight, G.M.

    2008-12-01

    Many of the developments taking place at present in India and abroad in the field of structural engineering have been captured in this sixth Structural Engineering Convention. The areas covered are: (i) Advances in Concrete Structures, (ii) Advances in Steel Structures, (iii) Advances in Computational Structural Mechanics, (iv) Testing and Evaluation of Structures/Structural components, (v) New Materials of Construction, (vi) Analysis and Design of Structures against Natural Hazards, (vii) Health Monitoring of Structures, (viii) Repair, Retrofit and Rehabilitation of Structures, (ix) Advances in Construction Techniques/Practices and Guidelines and Codal Recommendations (x) Behaviour of Structures under Blast/Impact Loading and (xi) Fatigue and Fracture. About 200 papers that include contributory, invited, keynote and plenary papers are included in the proceedings. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health highlights selected papers presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research organized by Jackson State University (JSU from September 13−16, 2009 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. The Symposium was built upon the overwhelming success of previous symposia hosted by JSU and co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH RCMI-Center for Environmental Health, the U.S. Department of Education Title III Graduate Education Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the JSU Office of Academic Affairs, and the JSU Office of Research and Federal Relations. [...

  3. Cusp-Gun Sixth-Harmonic Slotted Gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, R. C.; McDermott, D. B.; Hirata Luhmann, Y., Jr.; Gallagher, D. A.; Spencer, T. A.

    2000-10-01

    A high-harmonic slotted gyrotron has been constructed at UC Davis to be driven by a 70 kV, 3.5 A, axis-encircling electron beam from a Northrop Grumman Cusp gun. The 94 GHz, slotted sixth-harmonic gyrotron is predicted to generate 50 kW with an efficiency of 20%. Using the profile of the adiabatic field reversal from the UC Davis superconducting test-magnet, EGUN simulations predict that an axis-encircling electron beam will be generated with an axial velocity spread of Δ v_z/v_z=10% for the desired velocity ratio of α =v_z/v_z=1.5. The design will also be presented for an 8th-harmonic W-band gyrotron whose magnetic field can be supplied by a lightweight permanent magnet.

  4. A report from the Sixth International Mouse Genome Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S. [Saint Mary`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics

    1992-12-31

    The Sixth Annual Mouse Genome Conference was held in October, 1992 at Buffalo, USA. The mouse is one of the primary model organisms in the Human Genome Project. Through the use of gene targeting studies the mouse has become a powerful biological model for the study of gene function and, in addition, the comparison of the many homologous mutations identified in human and mouse have widened our understanding of the biology of these two organisms. A primary goal in the mouse genome program has been to create a genetic map of STSs of high resolution (<1cM) that would form the basis for the physical mapping of the whole mouse genome. Buffalo saw substantial new progress towards the goal of a very high density genetic map and the beginnings of substantive efforts towards physical mapping in chromosome regions with a high density of genetic markers.

  5. Conversion of a Capture ELISA to a Luminex xMAP Assay using a Multiplex Antibody Screening Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Harold N.; Murphy, Robin; Lopez, Erica; Garcia, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    consumables necessary for coupling beads to the capture antibody of interest. (See Materials section for a detailed list of kit contents.) In this experiment, we convert a pre-optimized ELISA assay for TNF-alpha cytokine to the xMAP platform and compare the performance of the two methods 7-11. TNF-alpha is a biomarker used in the measurement of inflammatory responses in patients with autoimmune disorders. We begin by coupling four candidate capture antibodies to four different microsphere sets or regions. When mixed together, these four sets allow for the simultaneous testing of all four candidates with four separate detection antibodies to determine the best antibody pair, saving reagents, sample and time. Two xMAP assays are then constructed with the two most optimal antibody pairs and their performance is compared to that of the original ELISA assay in regards to signal strength, dynamic range, and sensitivity. PMID:22806215

  6. SU-F-J-193: Efficient Dose Extinction Method for Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) of Real Tissue Samples for Validation of CT HU to Stopping Power Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R; Baer, E; Jee, K; Sharp, G; Flanz, J; Lu, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: For proton therapy, an accurate model of CT HU to relative stopping power (RSP) conversion is essential. In current practice, validation of these models relies solely on measurements of tissue substitutes with standard compositions. Validation based on real tissue samples would be much more direct and can address variations between patients. This study intends to develop an efficient and accurate system based on the concept of dose extinction to measure WEPL and retrieve RSP in biological tissue in large number of types. Methods: A broad AP proton beam delivering a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) is used to irradiate the samples with a Matrixx detector positioned immediately below. A water tank was placed on top of the samples, with the water level controllable in sub-millimeter by a remotely controlled dosing pump. While gradually lowering the water level with beam on, the transmission dose was recorded at 1 frame/sec. The WEPL were determined as the difference between the known beam range of the delivered SOBP (80%) and the water level corresponding to 80% of measured dose profiles in time. A Gammex 467 phantom was used to test the system and various types of biological tissue was measured. Results: RSP for all Gammex inserts, expect the one made with lung-450 material (<2% error), were determined within ±0.5% error. Depends on the WEPL of investigated phantom, a measurement takes around 10 min, which can be accelerated by a faster pump. Conclusion: Based on the concept of dose extinction, a system was explored to measure WEPL efficiently and accurately for a large number of samples. This allows the validation of CT HU to stopping power conversions based on large number of samples and real tissues. It also allows the assessment of beam uncertainties due to variations over patients, which issue has never been sufficiently studied before.

  7. SU-F-J-193: Efficient Dose Extinction Method for Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) of Real Tissue Samples for Validation of CT HU to Stopping Power Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R; Baer, E; Jee, K; Sharp, G; Flanz, J; Lu, H [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: For proton therapy, an accurate model of CT HU to relative stopping power (RSP) conversion is essential. In current practice, validation of these models relies solely on measurements of tissue substitutes with standard compositions. Validation based on real tissue samples would be much more direct and can address variations between patients. This study intends to develop an efficient and accurate system based on the concept of dose extinction to measure WEPL and retrieve RSP in biological tissue in large number of types. Methods: A broad AP proton beam delivering a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) is used to irradiate the samples with a Matrixx detector positioned immediately below. A water tank was placed on top of the samples, with the water level controllable in sub-millimeter by a remotely controlled dosing pump. While gradually lowering the water level with beam on, the transmission dose was recorded at 1 frame/sec. The WEPL were determined as the difference between the known beam range of the delivered SOBP (80%) and the water level corresponding to 80% of measured dose profiles in time. A Gammex 467 phantom was used to test the system and various types of biological tissue was measured. Results: RSP for all Gammex inserts, expect the one made with lung-450 material (<2% error), were determined within ±0.5% error. Depends on the WEPL of investigated phantom, a measurement takes around 10 min, which can be accelerated by a faster pump. Conclusion: Based on the concept of dose extinction, a system was explored to measure WEPL efficiently and accurately for a large number of samples. This allows the validation of CT HU to stopping power conversions based on large number of samples and real tissues. It also allows the assessment of beam uncertainties due to variations over patients, which issue has never been sufficiently studied before.

  8. Nitrate conversion and supercritical fluid extraction of UO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} solid solution prepared by an electrolytic reduction-coprecipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, L.Y. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology; China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Duan, W.H.; Wen, M.F.; Xu, J.M.; Zhu, Y.J. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology

    2014-04-01

    A low-waste technology for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been developed recently, which involves the conversion of actinide and lanthanide oxides with liquid N{sub 2}O{sub 4} into their nitrates followed by supercritical fluid extraction of the nitrates. The possibility of the reprocessing of SNF from high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) with nitrate conversion and supercritical fluid extraction is a current area of research in China. Here, a UO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} solid solution was prepared as a surrogate for a UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} solid solution, and the recovery of U and Ce from the UO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} solid solution with liquid N{sub 2}O{sub 4} and supercritical CO{sub 2} containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) was investigated. The UO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} solid solution prepared by electrolytic reduction-coprecipitation method had square plate microstructures. The solid solution after heat treatment was completely converted into nitrates with liquid N{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The XRD pattern of the nitrates was similar to that of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} . 3H{sub 2}O. After 120 min of online extraction at 25 MPa and 50 , 99.98% of the U and 98.74% of the Ce were recovered from the nitrates with supercritical CO{sub 2} containing TBP. The results suggest a promising potential technology for the reprocessing of SNF from HTGRs. (orig.)

  9. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  10. The Value of Supplementing Science Education with Outdoor Instruction for Sixth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Devin Joseph Guilford

    Science education is moving away from memorization of facts to inquiry based learning. Adding outdoor instruction can be an effective way to promote this exploratory method of learning. The limited number of empirical studies available have shown significant increase in attitudes and learning with outdoor science instruction. An eight-week quasi-experimental teacher research study was conducted to further this research and assess the value of schoolyard science instruction on student engagement and learning. Participants were 60 students in two sixth grade middle school Earth Science classes. A crossover study design was used with two classes alternating as experimental and control groups. NASA Global Precipitation Measurement mission curriculum was used (NASA/GPM, 2011). While the results did not show a clear increase in student engagement and content knowledge, the study adds to the body of knowledge on outdoor instruction and identifies limitations to consider in future studies.

  11. The sixth plenary meeting of the seminar 'Steel and nonmetallic inclusions'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiseleva, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The sixth plenary session of the 'Steel and non-metallic inclusions' seminar held in Volgograd in July of 1976 dealt, primarily with the application of rare-earth REM and alkaline earth AEM metals in metallurgy. The following problems were discussed: REM sources, alloyages with REM and AEM rational methods of producing them, industrial application of REM in metallurgy, the effect of REM on the quality of steel and the physicochemical nature of at effect. The seminar ended with a summary of the discussion and recommendations as to the areas of application of REM in metallurgy, as well as a summary of the basic requirements to be met in employing those metals in any field of metallurgy

  12. Development of methane conversion improvement method by recycling of residual methane for steam reforming as a part of R and D of HTGR-hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Hino, Ryutaro; Koiso, Hiroshi.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to improve methane conversion for an HTGR-steam reforming system by recycling of residual methane. The residual methane in a product gas after steam reforming was recycled with a gas separator of polyimide membrane. Gas separation characteristics of the separator were investigated experimentally and numerically, and an experimental study on recycling system was carried out. The results showed that the recycling system improves apparent methane conversion, ratio of methane conversion to methane supply from a cylinder, from 20 to 32% compared with those without recycling. (author)

  13. Sixth negotiations meeting on the joint implementation of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Y.

    2003-01-01

    During the Sixth ITER Negotiations Meeting (N6), the JA delegation reported that JA had sent a letter to China on 22 October 2002 on behalf of the ITER Negotiators in response to a letter from Mr. Liu, Vice Minister of Science and Technology of China. The Canadian delegation reported on the special informal ITER session at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Lyon, France, and noted that it raised the ITER profile in a positive way. The EU delegation reported on the adoption, within the Sixth Framework Programme, of the Specific Euratom Programme, which gives an explicit basis for continuing activities in the period up to the end of 2006, including a provision of up to Euro 200 million for a possible start of ITER construction. The RF delegation reported that the ITER activities in the Russian Federation are conducted in accordance with the Federal Program (2002-2005) approved by the Russian Government. Funding for ITER activities in 2003 is expected to be on the same level as in previous years. It was reported that the mandate of the Russian delegation to participate in the Negotiations in 2003 is expected to be approved soon by the Government. The RF delegation also reported that they had received informal enquiries from the Republic of Korea about possible participation in ITER. Significant progress was also made on a wide range of other issues, including matters such as the treaty to implement ITER (the Joint Implementation Agreement - JIA), procurement allocation and the intellectual property rights that would accrue to participants in the project. The Negotiators agreed that the international organization responsible for implementing the project would be called the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization. The delegations noted the progress in developing the fifth draft of the JIA and charged the NSSG to elaborate further the JIA and Related Instruments. At the conclusion of the N6 meeting, the delegations reaffirmed their belief that the critical issues

  14. e-Learning Content Design for Corrective Maintenance of Toshiba BMC 80.5 based on Knowledge Conversion using SECI Method: A Case Study in Aerospace Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permata Shabrina, Ayu; Pramuditya Soesanto, Rayinda; Kurniawati, Amelia; Teguh Kurniawan, Mochamad; Andrawina, Luciana

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge is a combination of experience, value, and information that is based on the intuition that allows an organization to evaluate and combine new information. In an organization, knowledge is not only attached to document but also in routine value creating activities, therefore knowledge is an important asset for the organization. X Corp is a company that focused on manufacturing aerospace components. In carrying out the production process, the company is supported by various machines, one of the machines is Toshiba BMC 80.5. The machine is used occasionally and therefore maintenance activity is needed, especially corrective maintenance. Corrective maintenance is done to make a breakdown machine back to work. Corrective maintenance is done by maintenance operator whose retirement year is close. The long term experience of the maintenance operator needs to be captured by the organization and shared across maintenance division. E-learning is one type of media that can support and assist knowledge sharing. This research purpose is to create the e-learning content for best practice of corrective maintenance activity for Toshiba BMC 80.5 by extracting the knowledge and experience from the operator based on knowledge conversion using SECI method. The knowledge source in this research is a maintenance supervisor and a senior maintenance engineer. From the evaluation of the e-learning content, it is known that the average test score of the respondents who use the e-learning increases from 77.5 to 87.5.

  15. Sixth meeting of the ITPA Topical Group on Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donne, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Sixth Meeting of the International Tokamak Physics Activities (ITPA) Topical Group (TG) on Diagnostics was held at JAERI, Naka from 19-21 February 2004. This meeting was combined with a Progress Meeting on ITER/BPX (burning plasma experiment) relevant diagnostic developments on-going in Japan. For the first time, ITPA members from China, as well as observers from South Korea, attended. In addition, an associated sub-meeting was held at General Atomics, San Diego, 23-24 April, immediately after the 15th Topical Conference on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics. At the sub-meeting a special one-day session was devoted to issues related to beam-aided spectroscopy. In total more than 50 participants attended the meetings and all ITER partners were represented. The key topics reviewed and discussed at the TG meeting were: (i) the overall status of diagnostics developments for ITER, (ii) the progress in the research on the designated high priority topics, (iii) the progress with some key ITER/BPX-relevant diagnostic developments ongoing in the ITPA participant laboratories, (iv) the progress and plans for the work of the specialist working groups, (v) the status and plans for the International Diagnostic Database

  16. Proceedings of the Sixth Forum: Energy day in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The problem of ''Regional Planning as a Part of National Energy Planning'' has been chosen as a subject of the Sixth FORUM, with the aim of giving an impetus to the necessary transfer of certain responsibilities in the planning process, as well as in the process of energy management, to local levels. Transformation procedures in Croatia which help establish the infrastructure of state and local authorities essentially lead to the recognition of tasks on each of the level so that operational activities run as efficiently as possible. It should be emphasised that on global level the energy sector is facing major changes leading to market liberalization and demonopolization. Discussion are being held regarding market range and opportunities, requirements and levels of planning, needs and scope of government and local community measures in achieving increased energy efficiency and utilization of renewable resources, and ultimately in overall energy management. The objective of this FORUM is to start discussions of all the mentioned problems without giving final solutions or removing dilemmas. The only unquestionable issue is that each country will have to find its own manner in transforming the energy sector, in defining the range and mode of planning within the sector, as well as the proportions and active involvement of the state and local community in increasing energy efficiency and environment protection. Experiences and views of our foreign colleagues are certainly going to be of great help in our efforts to review the needs of the Republic of Croatia. (author)

  17. Proceedings of the sixth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1992-07-01

    The Sixth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 12--14, 1992. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the Program has been decentralized to the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by a substantial number of researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) ceramics, (2) development and corrosion resistance of iron aluminide, advanced austenitic and chromium-niobium alloys, and (3) technology assessment and technology transfer. This conference is held each year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. The agenda for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B. ASM International cosponsored the conference, for which we are especially grateful.

  18. Environmental situation in Austria. Sixth environmental control report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deweis, M.; Kaitna, M.

    2001-01-01

    This sixth environmental control report gives an overall picture of the situation of the environment in Austria for the period from 1997 to 2000. It emphasizes the areas of the Austrian environmental policy where significant improvements were achieved, such as the reduction of air pollutant emissions and the improvement of the quality of running waters. It also deals with problem areas such as transport, climate protection and renewable energy, where new solutions will have to be found within the framework of the Austrian and European environmental policies and already agreed upon strategies will have to be translated into daily practice. This environmental control report was written by experts of the Federal Environment Agency, which is an agency subordinate to the Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, and which acquired independent status in the form of a limited company. The report gives comprehensive information on all aspects of environmental monitoring in Austria, with a huge amount of numerical, geographical and evaluated data. The report is structured by the following chapters: population and land use; air; global climate change; stratospheric ozone degradation; water; soil; forests; environmental protection; agriculture; traffic; industry; economic audit; waste; contaminated sites; energy; noise; secure handling of chemicals; plant-protective agents; gene technology; radioecology. Those chapters which are in the INIS subject scope, dealing with radioecology and ecological aspects of nuclear and non-nuclear energy are treated individually on analytical level for the INIS database. (a.n.)

  19. Sixth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has presented periodically its National Report prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities related to nuclear safety. Due to the implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, an Extraordinary National Report was presented in 2012. This Sixth National Report is an update of the Fifth National Report in relation to the Convention on Nuclear Safety articles and also an update of the Extraordinary Report with respect to the action taken related to lesson learned from the Fukushima accident. It includes relevant information for the period of 2010/2012. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations

  20. Sixth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Brazil has presented periodically its National Report prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities related to nuclear safety. Due to the implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, an Extraordinary National Report was presented in 2012. This Sixth National Report is an update of the Fifth National Report in relation to the Convention on Nuclear Safety articles and also an update of the Extraordinary Report with respect to the action taken related to lesson learned from the Fukushima accident. It includes relevant information for the period of 2010/2012. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations.

  1. Computer code conversion using HISTORIAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kumakura, Toshimasa.

    1990-09-01

    When a computer program written for a computer A is converted for a computer B, in general, the A version source program is rewritten for B version. However, in this way of program conversion, the following inconvenient problems arise. 1) The original statements to be rewritten for B version are lost. 2) If the original statements of the A version rewritten for B version would remain as comment lines, the B version source program becomes quite large. 3) When update directives of the program are mailed from the organization which developed the program or when some modifications are needed for the program, it is difficult to point out the part to be updated or modified in the B version source program. To solve these problems, the conversion method using the general-purpose software management aid system, HISTORIAN, has been introduced. This conversion method makes a large computer code a easy-to-use program for use to update, modify or improve after the conversion. This report describes the planning and procedures of the conversion method and the MELPROG-PWR/MOD1 code conversion from the CRAY version to the JAERI FACOM version as an example. This report would provide useful information for those who develop or introduce large programs. (author)

  2. Conversational evidence in therapeutic dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Tom; Busch, Robbie; Couture, Shari

    2008-07-01

    Family therapists' participation in therapeutic dialogue with clients is typically informed by evidence of how such dialogue is developing. In this article, we propose that conversational evidence, the kind that can be empirically analyzed using discourse analyses, be considered a contribution to widening psychotherapy's evidence base. After some preliminaries about what we mean by conversational evidence, we provide a genealogy of evaluative practice in psychotherapy, and examine qualitative evaluation methods for their theoretical compatibilities with social constructionist approaches to family therapy. We then move on to examine the notion of accomplishment in therapeutic dialogue given how such accomplishments can be evaluated using conversation analysis. We conclude by considering a number of research and pedagogical implications we associate with conversational evidence.

  3. SU-E-J-122: The CBCT Dose Calculation Using a Patient Specific CBCT Number to Mass Density Conversion Curve Based On a Novel Image Registration and Organ Mapping Method in Head-And-Neck Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J; Lasio, G; Chen, S; Zhang, B; Langen, K; Prado, K; D’Souza, W; Yi, B; Huang, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a CBCT HU correction method using a patient specific HU to mass density conversion curve based on a novel image registration and organ mapping method for head-and-neck radiation therapy. Methods: There are three steps to generate a patient specific CBCT HU to mass density conversion curve. First, we developed a novel robust image registration method based on sparseness analysis to register the planning CT (PCT) and the CBCT. Second, a novel organ mapping method was developed to transfer the organs at risk (OAR) contours from the PCT to the CBCT and corresponding mean HU values of each OAR were measured in both the PCT and CBCT volumes. Third, a set of PCT and CBCT HU to mass density conversion curves were created based on the mean HU values of OARs and the corresponding mass density of the OAR in the PCT. Then, we compared our proposed conversion curve with the traditional Catphan phantom based CBCT HU to mass density calibration curve. Both curves were input into the treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculation. Last, the PTV and OAR doses, DVH and dose distributions of CBCT plans are compared to the original treatment plan. Results: One head-and-neck cases which contained a pair of PCT and CBCT was used. The dose differences between the PCT and CBCT plans using the proposed method are −1.33% for the mean PTV, 0.06% for PTV D95%, and −0.56% for the left neck. The dose differences between plans of PCT and CBCT corrected using the CATPhan based method are −4.39% for mean PTV, 4.07% for PTV D95%, and −2.01% for the left neck. Conclusion: The proposed CBCT HU correction method achieves better agreement with the original treatment plan compared to the traditional CATPhan based calibration method

  4. SU-E-J-122: The CBCT Dose Calculation Using a Patient Specific CBCT Number to Mass Density Conversion Curve Based On a Novel Image Registration and Organ Mapping Method in Head-And-Neck Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Bel Air, MD (United States); Lasio, G; Chen, S; Zhang, B; Langen, K; Prado, K; D’Souza, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yi, B [Univ. of Maryland School Of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huang, J [University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a CBCT HU correction method using a patient specific HU to mass density conversion curve based on a novel image registration and organ mapping method for head-and-neck radiation therapy. Methods: There are three steps to generate a patient specific CBCT HU to mass density conversion curve. First, we developed a novel robust image registration method based on sparseness analysis to register the planning CT (PCT) and the CBCT. Second, a novel organ mapping method was developed to transfer the organs at risk (OAR) contours from the PCT to the CBCT and corresponding mean HU values of each OAR were measured in both the PCT and CBCT volumes. Third, a set of PCT and CBCT HU to mass density conversion curves were created based on the mean HU values of OARs and the corresponding mass density of the OAR in the PCT. Then, we compared our proposed conversion curve with the traditional Catphan phantom based CBCT HU to mass density calibration curve. Both curves were input into the treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculation. Last, the PTV and OAR doses, DVH and dose distributions of CBCT plans are compared to the original treatment plan. Results: One head-and-neck cases which contained a pair of PCT and CBCT was used. The dose differences between the PCT and CBCT plans using the proposed method are −1.33% for the mean PTV, 0.06% for PTV D95%, and −0.56% for the left neck. The dose differences between plans of PCT and CBCT corrected using the CATPhan based method are −4.39% for mean PTV, 4.07% for PTV D95%, and −2.01% for the left neck. Conclusion: The proposed CBCT HU correction method achieves better agreement with the original treatment plan compared to the traditional CATPhan based calibration method.

  5. An overview of the third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palsies of the third, fourth and sixth cranial nerves have ophthalmological consequences. W Marais, MB .... dorsal aspect of the brain (Fig. 4). • crossed ... right hypertropia in left gaze and left .... Clinical Science Course, section 5. American.

  6. Complexity in Coalition Operations: The Campaign of the Sixth Coalition Against Napoleon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The Campaign of the Sixth Coalition, from the Summer of 1813 until the abdication of Napoleon in April 1814, offers some important and valid insights into the successful execution of coalition warfare...

  7. Contribution to the experimental study of excited levels of some light nuclei by using the method of angular correlation of internal conversion pairs and monopolar pairs; Contribution a l'etude experimentale de niveaux excites de quelques noyaux legers par la methode des Correlations angulaires des paires de conversion interne Et des paires monopolaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, Raymond

    1950-07-01

    In a first part, the author presents a brief theory of angular correlations of internal conversion pairs and monopolar pairs, and indicates the complete formulations which are used to compute all the angular correlations corresponding to the performed experiments. In a second part, he describes a beta spectrometer, outlines factors which govern the energy resolving power, and the peculiarity of summation of two pulses proportional to the energy of the electron and positron which build up an internal pair. In a third part, the author reports experiments of angular correlations, indicates the shapes of monopolar spectra for different angles between electron and positron emission directions, determines the multipolarity of gamma radiations from the first excited levels of {sup 13}C and {sup 12}C, and gives the angular moments, parity and isobaric spin of two excited levels of the {sup 12}C [French] Dans la premiere partie de notre travail, nous exposons une theorie sommaire des correlations angulaires des paires de conversion interne et des paires monopolaires. A la fin de cette premiere partie sont indiquees les formules completes, qui nous ont servi a calculer pratiquement toutes les correlations angulaires correspondant a nos experiences. Dans la deuxieme partie, nous decrivons un spectrometre beta a scintillation. Nous insistons surtout sur les elements qui determinent le pouvoir de resolution en energie et sur la particularite de sommation de deux impulsions proportionnelles a l'energie de l'electron et du positron formant une paire interne. Dans la troisieme partie, nous exposons nos experiences de correlations angulaires. Nous avons repris une mesure precise de la correlation angulaire des paires monopolaires provenant du niveau 6,05 Mev de l'Oxygene 16. Il nous a ete egalement possible de donner l'allure des spectres monopolaires pour differents angles formes par les directions d'emission de l'electron et du positron. Nous avons determine par la methode des

  8. PREFACE: The Sixth International Conference on Gravitation & Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Ghanashyam; Souradeep, Tarun

    2008-07-01

    The sixth International Conference on Gravitation & Cosmology (ICGC-2007) was organized at IUCAA, Pune, 17-21 December 2007. This series of international meetings, held every four years under the auspices of the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), has now spanned two decades. Previous ICGC meetings were held at Cochin University of Science and Technology (2004), Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (2000), IUCAA, Pune (1995), Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (1991) & Goa (1987). These meetings have broad international participation and feature leading experts in the field of Cosmology, gravitational waves and quantum gravity. The frontier of research in Gravitation and Cosmology has seen remarkable progress in the past decades. On the theoretical front, black holes and cosmological singularities continue to challenge and attract quantum gravity researchers. The quest for the detection of Gravitational waves and the promise of gravitational wave astronomy continues to grow and breakthroughs of the past couple of years indicate that numerical relativity is catching up too. The past few years have also seen very ambitious experimental efforts to verify general relativity as the theory of gravitation. Cosmology has been veritably transformed into a precision science with the tremendous improvement in the quantity and quality of cosmological observations. The exquisite measurements not only allow refinement of the cosmological model parameters but have begun to allow observational tests of underlying fundamental assumptions and hunt for subtle deviations that could be the key to understanding the early universe. The sixth meeting brought together active scientists from all over the globe to present the state of the art at the frontiers of research. It also offered younger Indian researchers an opportunity for interaction with experts from within India and abroad. The meeting was attended by over 160 participants. The scientific

  9. Conversion from Engineering Units to Telemetry Counts on Dryden Flight Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Jay A.

    1998-01-01

    Dryden real-time flight simulators encompass the simulation of pulse code modulation (PCM) telemetry signals. This paper presents a new method whereby the calibration polynomial (from first to sixth order), representing the conversion from counts to engineering units (EU), is numerically inverted in real time. The result is less than one-count error for valid EU inputs. The Newton-Raphson method is used to numerically invert the polynomial. A reverse linear interpolation between the EU limits is used to obtain an initial value for the desired telemetry count. The method presented here is not new. What is new is how classical numerical techniques are optimized to take advantage of modem computer power to perform the desired calculations in real time. This technique makes the method simple to understand and implement. There are no interpolation tables to store in memory as in traditional methods. The NASA F-15 simulation converts and transmits over 1000 parameters at 80 times/sec. This paper presents algorithm development, FORTRAN code, and performance results.

  10. Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil

    2011-01-01

    This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…

  11. Sixth Annual NASA Ames Space Science and Astrobiology Jamboree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery; Howell, Steve; Fonda, Mark; Dateo, Chris; Martinez, Christine M.

    2018-01-01

    Welcome to the Sixth Annual NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Jamboree at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The Space Science and Astrobiology Division consists of over 60 Civil Servants, with more than 120 Cooperative Agreement Research Scientists, Post-Doctoral Fellows, Science Support Contractors, Visiting Scientists, and many other Research Associates. Within the Division there is engagement in scientific investigations over a breadth of disciplines including Astrobiology, Astrophysics, Exobiology, Exoplanets, Planetary Systems Science, and many more. The Division's personnel support NASA spacecraft missions (current and planned), including SOFIA, K2, MSL, New Horizons, JWST, WFIRST, and others. Our top-notch science research staff is spread amongst three branches in five buildings at ARC. Naturally, it can thus be difficult to remain abreast of what fellow scientific researchers pursue actively, and then what may present and/or offer regarding inter-Branch, intra-Division future collaborative efforts. In organizing this annual jamboree, the goals are to offer a wholesome, one-venue opportunity to sense the active scientific research and spacecraft mission involvement within the Division; and to facilitate communication and collaboration amongst our research scientists. Annually, the Division honors one senior research scientist with a Pollack Lecture, and one early career research scientist with an Outstanding Early Career Space Scientist Lecture. For the Pollack Lecture, the honor is bestowed upon a senior researcher who has made significant contributions within any area of research aligned with space science and/or astrobiology. This year we are pleased to honor Linda Jahnke. With the Early Career Lecture, the honor is bestowed upon an early-career researcher who has substantially demonstrated great promise for significant contributions within space science, astrobiology, and/or, in support of spacecraft missions addressing such

  12. Sixth International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Evgenia Benova et al 2016 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. VV The Sixth International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'14) was organized by St. Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, with co-organizer PLASMER Foundation. It was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, at the Black Sea Coast, from June 30 to July 6, 2014. The scientific programme covers the topics Fusion Plasma and Materials; Plasma Modeling and Fundamentals; Plasma Sources, Diagnostics and Technology. The Workshop Plasma for Sustainable Environment was co-organized together with the Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, Lisbon, Portugal. A special Workshop on Remote GOLEM operation was organized by the Institute of Plasma Physics, Prague, Czech Republic for the students and interested participants to work remotely with the Czech TOKAMAK GOLEM. As with the previous issues of this scientific meeting, its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 19 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma and materials, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the participants

  13. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  14. The conversational interface talking to smart devices

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael; Griol, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the conversational interface, which is becoming the main mode of interaction with virtual personal assistants, smart devices, various types of wearables, and social robots. The book consists of four parts: Part I presents the background to conversational interfaces, examining past and present work on spoken language interaction with computers; Part II covers the various technologies that are required to build a conversational interface along with practical chapters and exercises using open source tools; Part III looks at interactions with smart devices, wearables, and robots, and then goes on to discusses the role of emotion and personality in the conversational interface; Part IV examines methods for evaluating conversational interfaces and discusses future directions. · Presents a comprehensive overview of the various technologies that underlie conversational user interfaces; · Combines descriptions of conversational user interface technologies with a gui...

  15. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...

  16. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  17. The diagnostic yield of neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy - Sankara Nethralaya Abducens Palsy Study (SNAPS: Report 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Gopinathan Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to assess the etiology of sixth nerve palsy and on the basis of our data, to formulate a diagnostic algorithm for the management in sixth nerve palsy. Design: Retrospective chart review. Results: Of the 104 neurologically isolated cases, 9 cases were attributable to trauma, and 95 (86.36% cases were classified as nontraumatic, neurologically isolated cases. Of the 95 nontraumatic, isolated cases of sixth nerve palsy, 52 cases were associated with vasculopathic risk factors, namely diabetes and hypertension and were classified as vasculopathic sixth nerve palsy (54.7%, and those with a history of sixth nerve palsy from birth (6 cases were classified as congenital sixth nerve palsy (6.3%. Of the rest, neuroimaging alone yielded a cause in 18 of the 37 cases (48.64%. Of the other 19 cases where neuroimaging did not yield a cause, 6 cases were attributed to preceding history of infection (3 upper respiratory tract infection and 3 viral illnesses, 2 cases of sixth nerve palsy were found to be a false localizing sign in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and in 11 cases, the cause was undetermined. In these idiopathic cases of isolated sixth nerve palsy, neuroimaging yielded no positive findings. Conclusions: In the absence of risk factors, a suggestive history, or positive laboratory and clinical findings, neuroimaging can serve as a useful diagnostic tool in identifying the exact cause of sixth nerve palsy. Furthermore, we recommend an algorithm to assess the need for neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy.

  18. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  19. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-01-01

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  20. Comparison of Writing Anxiety and Writing Dispositions of Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Ramazan Berk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine sixth, seventh and eighth grade students’ writing anxiety and dispositions and to examine to what extent they predict each other. The basis of this study is to determine whether writing disposition is the significant predictor of writing anxiety or not and whether students’ grade levels and genders are significant predictor of writing anxiety and dispositions or not. The research was designed according to survey model. The study group, selected through simple sampling method, is made up of 860 students studying at 6th, 7th and 8th grades in elementary schools of Şarkışla District, Sivas. While “Writing Anxiety Scale”, adapted into Turkish by Özbay and Zorbay (2011, was administered to determine the study group’s writing anxiety level, “Writing Disposition Scale”, adapted into Turkish by İşeri and Ünal (2010, was used to determine the writing disposition level. At the end of the study, it was found that writing disposition is a significant predictor of writing anxiety and students’ grade levels and genders are significant predictors of writing anxiety and dispositions. An education environment to create a strong writing disposition for students is recommended. Also, similar studies on different dimensions of the issue can be conducted.

  1. Modulation transfer function of a fish-eye lens based on the sixth-order wave aberration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Han; Lu, Lijun; Cao, Yiqing

    2018-01-10

    A calculation program of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a fish-eye lens is developed with the autocorrelation method, in which the sixth-order wave aberration theory of ultra-wide-angle optical systems is used to simulate the wave aberration distribution at the exit pupil of the optical systems. The autocorrelation integral is processed with the Gauss-Legendre integral, and the magnification chromatic aberration is discussed to calculate polychromatic MTF. The MTF calculation results of a given example are then compared with those previously obtained based on the fourth-order wave aberration theory of plane-symmetrical optical systems and with those from the Zemax program. The study shows that MTF based on the sixth-order wave aberration theory has satisfactory calculation accuracy even for a fish-eye lens with a large acceptance aperture. And the impacts of different types of aberrations on the MTF of a fish-eye lens are analyzed. Finally, we apply the self-adaptive and normalized real-coded genetic algorithm and the MTF developed in the paper to optimize the Nikon F/2.8 fish-eye lens; consequently, the optimized system shows better MTF performances than those of the original design.

  2. School Contextual Features of Social Disorder and Mental Health Complaints—A Multilevel Analysis of Swedish Sixth-Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitte Modin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed school-contextual features of social disorder in relation to sixth-grade students’ experiences of bullying victimization and mental health complaints. It investigated, firstly, whether the school’s concentrations of behavioural problems were associated with individual students’ likelihood of being bullied, and secondly, whether the school’s concentrations of behavioural problems and bullying victimization predicted students’ emotional and psychosomatic health complaints. The data were derived from the Swedish National Survey of Mental Health among Children and Young People, carried out among sixth-grade students (approximately 12–13 years old in Sweden in 2009. The analyses were based on information from 59,510 students distributed across 1999 schools. The statistical method used was multilevel modelling. While students’ own behavioural problems were associated with an elevated risk of being bullied, attending a school with a higher concentration of students with behavioural problems also increased the likelihood of being bullied. Attending a school with higher levels of bullying victimization and behavioural problems predicted more emotional and psychosomatic complaints, even when adjusting for their individual level analogues. The findings indicate that school-level features of social disorder influence bullying victimization and mental health complaints among students.

  3. A longitudinal study of school connectedness and academic outcomes across sixth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Kate; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Rakes, Christopher R

    2012-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examines the extent to which school connectedness (i.e., students' perceptions of school support and the number of adults with whom they have a positive relationship) is associated with academic outcomes across sixth grade for students from high poverty neighborhoods. Data were collected from 330 sixth-grade students attending two middle schools in a large public school district. Specifically, students completed a survey to assess their perceived connection to the school environment, and academic information regarding students' grades, attendance, and discipline referrals was obtained from school records. Results from latent growth curve modeling showed that, on average, students' perceptions of school support declined significantly across the sixth-grade year. However, students who reported less decline, or growth, in school support across sixth grade had higher academic achievement at the end of the year than students who reported more decline in school support. Sixth-grade boys were at a greater risk for negative outcomes (i.e., lower school support, lower GPAs, and more discipline referrals) across the school year than girls. Results point to the importance of perceived connectedness to school in helping economically disadvantaged students experience a safe and successful transition to middle school. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. All rights reserved.

  4. A conversion method of air kerma from the primary, scatter, and leakage radiations to effective dose for calculating x-ray shielding barriers in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrati, Hedi

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a new approach has been introduced for derivation of the effective dose from air kerma to calculate shielding requirements in mammography facilities. This new approach has been used to compute the conversion coefficients relating air kerma to the effective dose for the mammography reference beam series of the Netherlands Metrology Institute Van Swinden Laboratorium, National Institute of Standards and Technology, and International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories. The results show that, in all cases, the effective dose in mammography energy range is less than 25% of the incident air kerma for the primary and the scatter radiations and does not exceed 75% for the leakage radiation

  5. Proceedings of the Sixth Seminar on Computation in Nuclear Science and Technology; Lokakarya Komputasi dalam Sains dan Teknologi Nuklir VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) had held the Sixth Seminar on Computation in Nuclear Science and Technology on January 16-17, 1996. The seminar is an event for information exchange among interest society in computation, modeling, and simulation. Similar as previous seminar in the past year, there were also non-BATAN and university-bound presenters and participants whose interest are in the field of science and technology. Examining the papers presented in this seminar, it shows that beside digging the so called classical computation methods, some papers brought relatively new topics like the determination and influence of chaos, neural network method, and expert system. Judging from the variety of the topics, one can conclude that interests in computation and its application are growing stronger in Indonesia.

  6. Practical Applications of Intelligent Systems : Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tianrui

    2012-01-01

    Proceedings of The Sixth International Conference on Intelligent System and Knowledge Engineering presents selected papers from the conference ISKE 2011, held December 15-17 in Shanghai, China. This proceedings doesn’t only examine original research and approaches in the broad areas of intelligent systems and knowledge engineering, but also present new methodologies and practices in intelligent computing paradigms. The book introduces the current scientific and technical advances in the fields of artificial intelligence, machine learning, pattern recognition, data mining, information retrieval, knowledge-based systems, knowledge representation and reasoning, multi-agent systems, natural-language processing, etc. Furthermore, new computing methodologies are presented, including cloud computing, service computing and pervasive computing with traditional intelligent methods. The proceedings will be beneficial for both researchers and practitioners who want to utilize intelligent methods in their specific res...

  7. DEVELOPING VALUES OF PANCASILA’S SECOND PRINCIPLE FOR SIXTH GRADER STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abduh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine (1 the development of values from the second principle of Pancasila for sixth graders; (2 what are the constraints of sixth grade teachers in developing the values of the second principle of Pancasila; (3 the solution from teachers to overcome the obstacles in developing the values to the learners. Data were collected using an open questionnaire. Informants were the teachers of sixth graders. Data were analyzed using data reduction, data display, and conclusion/ verification. To develop the values of the second principle of Pancasila: (a students needed the examples from various stakeholders such as teachers, parents and community leaders; (b the problem is the selfish attitude of learners who did not cooperate with their  friends; (c the solution suggested were having patience and diligence.

  8. Isolated unilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy: A rare presentation of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liang Boo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral infection endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. Neurological manifestations in dengue infection are relatively uncommon, and include encephalitis, encephalopathy, neuromuscular disorders and neuro-ocular disorders. Cranial mononeuropathy is a rare manifestation of dengue infection. A 40-year-old man was diagnosed with isolated, unilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy complicating dengue infection. The patient was managed accordingly, and full ocular recovery was observed. This was the first reported case of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy associated with dengue fever in Malaysia. It is important for clinicians to consider dengue as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with fever and sixth cranial nerve palsy.

  9. Central pontine myelinolysis presenting as isolated sixth nerve palsy in third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Divakar Gosavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old primigravida presented with isolated left sixth nerve palsy at 38 weeks gestation. Her MRI showed a lesion consistent with central pontine myelinolysis (CPM. Extensive investigations did not reveal any secondary cause for the CPM. She recovered spontaneously in 2 weeks with complete resolution of her MRI changes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CPM occurring in third trimester in the absence of identifiable secondary causes and of CPM presenting as an isolated sixth nerve palsy. We discuss the reported causes of CPM in pregnancy, possible pathophysiologic mechanisms involved and the anatomic basis of the unique clinical presentation of sixth nerve palsy in our case.

  10. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  11. Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  12. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  13. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  14. Evaluating multiple polylogarithm values at sixth roots of unity up to weight six

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, J. M.; Smirnov, A. V.; Smirnov, V. A.

    2017-06-01

    We evaluate multiple polylogarithm values at sixth roots of unity up to weight six, i.e. of the form G (a1 , … ,aw ; 1) where the indices ai are equal to zero or a sixth root of unity, with a1 ≠ 1. For w ≤ 6, we construct bases of the linear spaces generated by the real and imaginary parts of G (a1 , … ,aw ; 1) and obtain a table for expressing them as linear combinations of the elements of the bases.

  15. Direct digital conversion detector technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

    1995-06-01

    Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

  16. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  17. Tenth-Order Lepton Anomalous Magnetic Moment--Sixth-Order Vertices Containing Vacuum-Polarization Subdiagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Tatsumi; Hayakawa, Masashi; Kinoshita, Toichiro; Nio, Makiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the values of contributions to the electron g-2 from 300 Feynman diagrams of the gauge-invariant Set III(a) and 450 Feynman diagrams of the gauge-invariant Set III(b). The evaluation is carried out in two versions. Version A is to start from the sixth-order magnetic anomaly M 6 obtained in the previous work. The mass-independent contributions of Set III(a) and Set III(b) are 2.1275(2) and 3.3271(6) in units of (α/π) 5 , respectively. Version B is based on the recently developed automatic code generation scheme. This method yields 2.1271(3) and 3.3271(8) in units of (α/π) 5 , respectively. They are in excellent agreement with the results of the first method within the uncertainties of numerical integration. Combining these results as statistically independent we obtain the best values, 2.1273(2), and 3.3271(5) times (α/π) 5 , for the mass-independent contributions of the Set III(a) and Set III(b), respectively. We have also evaluated mass-dependent contributions of diagrams containing muon and/or tau-particle loop. Including them the total contribution of Set III(a) is 2.1349(2) and that of Set III(b) is 3.3299(5) in units of (α/π) 5 . The total contributions to the muon g-2 of various leptonic vacuum-polarization loops of Set III(a) and Set III(b) are 112.418(32) and 15.407(5) in units of (α/π) 5 , respectively.

  18. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  19. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  20. Conversations in African Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  1. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Training of nuclear facility personnel: proceedings of the sixth symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning excellence in operator training; achieving excellence through the accreditation process; managing and organizing the training function; operations training methods and processes; the role of simulators in achieving excellence; maintenance and technical training methods and processes; staffing and qualifying the training organization; and measuring training effectiveness

  3. Training of nuclear facility personnel: proceedings of the sixth symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning excellence in operator training; achieving excellence through the accreditation process; managing and organizing the training function; operations training methods and processes; the role of simulators in achieving excellence; maintenance and technical training methods and processes; staffing and qualifying the training organization; and measuring training effectiveness.

  4. Conversion Disorder- Mind versus Body: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder.

  5. Conversion Disorder— Mind versus Body: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J.; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder. PMID:26155375

  6. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  7. Measurements of weak conversion lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, A.I.; Frantsev, Yu.E.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a new methods for measuring weak conversion lines with the help of the β spectrometer of the π √ 2 type which permits to increase the reliability of the results obtained. According to this method the measurements were carried out by short series with the storage of the information obtained on the punched tape. The spectrometer magnetic field was stabilized during the measuring of the conversion spectra with the help of three nmr recorders. Instead of the dependence of the pulse calculation rate on the magnetic field value was measured the dependence of the calculation rate on the value of the voltage applied between the source and the spectrometer chamber. A short description of the automatic set-up for measuring conversion lines according to the method proposed is given. The main set-up elements are the voltage multiplexer timer, printer, scaler and the pulse analyzer. With the help of the above methods obtained is the K 1035, 8 keV 182 Ta line. It is obtained as a result of the composition of 96 measurement series. Each measurement time constitutes 640 s 12 points are taken on the line

  8. The Influences of the Sixth Graders' Parents' Internet Literacy and Parenting Style on Internet Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Liu, Hung-Tzu; Guo, Yuan-Chang; Tseng, Kuo-Hung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the sixth grade students' parents' Internet literacy and parenting style on Internet parenting in Kaohsiung County in Taiwan. Upon stratified cluster sampling, a total of 822 parents from 34 classes in 28 schools participated in this study. The descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used to analyze the responses…

  9. From holes to huts: reconstructing an extinct type of architecture at the Sixth Nile Cataract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varadzin, Ladislav; Varadzinová, L.; Pacina, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 357 (2017), s. 589-604 ISSN 0003-598X Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : North Africa * Sudan * Sixth Nile Cataract * Mesolithic * architecture * drilled holes Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 1.536, year: 2016

  10. The sixth catalogue of galactic Wolf-Rayet stars, their past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hucht, K.A. van der; Conti, P.S.; Lundstroem, I.; Stenholm, B.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the Sixth Catalogue of galactic Wolf-Rayet stars (Pop I), a short history on the five earlier WR catalogues, improved spectral classification, finding charts, a discussion on related objects, and a review of the current statur of Wolf-Rayet star research. The appendix presents a bibliography on most of the Wolf-Rayet literature published since 1867. (orig.)

  11. THE SIXTH SEAL IN REVELATION 6:12-17 1. INTRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before attention is given to the sixth seal, some general remarks on form must be ..... the listeners had images from the seven letters fresh in memory. They ... coherence with the rest of the book, providing more information about what was said ...

  12. Leaping from Discrete to Continuous Independent Variables: Sixth Graders' Science Line Graph Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Stacy K.; Boote, David N.

    2017-01-01

    Students often struggle to interpret graphs correctly, despite emphasis on graphic literacy in U.S. education standards documents. The purpose of this study was to describe challenges sixth graders with varying levels of science and mathematics achievement encounter when transitioning from interpreting graphs having discrete independent variables…

  13. Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…

  14. Negotiating Discourses: Sixth-Grade Students' Use of Multiple Science Discourses during a Science Fair Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Kimberley

    2007-01-01

    This study offers important insights into the coexistence of multiple discourses and the link between these discourses and science understanding. It offers concrete examples of students' movement between multiple discourses in sixth-grade science fair presentations, and shows how those multiple discourses in science practices illuminate students'…

  15. An Analysis of Global Problems Issues in Sixth and Seventh Grade Science Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis

    The study examines the extent to which the global issues of population growth, world hunger, air quality and atmosphere, and water resources were treated in sixth and seventh grade science textbooks. Ten textbooks were examined by five raters to determine the amount of content presented by different textbooks on global issues, the number of pages…

  16. The Effects of a Water Conservation Instructional Unit on the Values Held by Sixth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Andrew; Tomera, Audrey

    1977-01-01

    Sixth grade students were divided into two groups. Students in one group received instruction on water conservation using expository and discovery activities. The students in the control group received none. Results gave evidence that students' values could be changed by this mode of water conservation instruction. (MA)

  17. A Summary of an Assessment of Fourth and Sixth Grade Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CTB / McGraw-Hill, Monterey, CA.

    A comprehensive assessment was made of the status of elementary education in Missouri in reading, mathematics, language, and study skills. The Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) and the Short Form Test of Academic Aptitude (SFTAA) were administered to a sample of Missouri fourth and sixth graders. For each curricular area, Missouri…

  18. Problem Solving vs. Troubleshooting Tasks: The Case of Sixth-Grade Students Studying Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Rafi'; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2014-01-01

    We compared the materialization of knowledge integration processes in class discussions that followed troubleshooting (TS) and problem-solving (PS) tasks and examined the impact of these tasks on students' conceptual understanding. The study was conducted in two sixth-grade classes taught by the same teacher, in six lessons that constituted a…

  19. Exploring the Use of Technology to Support Literacy of Sixth Grade Students with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball-Inman, Jaime Renee

    2017-01-01

    The degree to which the utilization of technology supports the academic achievement of sixth grade students with reading disabilities was examined using a quantitative research design. The data analysis involved the results from the Educational Technology Assessment Program to measure achievement. The Standardized Test for the Assessment of…

  20. The Effect of Departmentalization on the Reading Achievement of Sixth-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary B.

    A study examined whether departmentalization affected the reading achievement of sixth-grade students attending a Chicago public school. A random sample of 30 students was chosen from a group of 53 who received instruction in a departmentalized program. A second random sample of 30 was selected from a total of 54 students who received instruction…

  1. Comparison of Writing Anxiety and Writing Dispositions of Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Rifat Ramazan; Ünal, Emre

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine sixth, seventh and eighth grade students' writing anxiety and dispositions and to examine to what extent they predict each other. The basis of this study is to determine whether writing disposition is the significant predictor of writing anxiety or not and whether students' grade levels and genders are…

  2. Sixth Finnish research seminar on solid waste management. Proceedings; Kuudes jaetehuollon tutkimusseminaari 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelkonen, M. (ed.)

    2001-07-01

    The sixth Finnish seminar on solid waste management includes mostly question regarding landfills. The focus has been on the quality of waste and the pre-treatment before disposal as well as on the control of landfill emissions. Other questions discussed at the seminar included organic waste treatment and waste management systems.

  3. A Structural Equation Model of the Writing Process in Typically-Developing Sixth Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.; Gray, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how sixth grade children planned, translated, and revised written narrative stories using a task reflecting current instructional and assessment practices. A modified version of the Hayes and Flower (1980) writing process model was used as the theoretical framework for the study. Two hundred one…

  4. Chinese and Singaporean Sixth-Grade Students' Strategies for Solving Problems about Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunlian; Hwang, Stephen; Cai, Jinfa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 361 Chinese and 345 Singaporean sixth-grade students' performance and problem-solving strategies for solving 14 problems about speed. By focusing on students from two distinct high-performing countries in East Asia, we provide a useful perspective on the differences that exist in the preparation and problem-solving strategies…

  5. Recreation Sports to host Sixth Annual Bench Press Competition March 17

    OpenAIRE

    Kropff, Catherine L.

    2007-01-01

    Music will blare, red and white lights will flash, and fans will cheer at the Sixth Annual Bench Press Competition to be held Saturday, March 17 at Virginia Tech. Participants will go to the bench to show their lifting skills beginning at 10 a.m. in War Memorial Gym.

  6. An Evaluation of the Cooperative Learning Process by Sixth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of cooperative learning on the science lessons achievement of primary school students and to designate their views on cooperative learning process. 135 sixth-grade students attending the same school took part in the study. The model of this study was the Solomon four-group model. In the…

  7. Strengthening Academic Vocabulary with Word Generation® Helps Sixth-Grade Students Improve Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Velten, Justin

    2015-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental study, we assessed the promise of Word Generation, a research-based academic vocabulary program, on improving the reading achievement outcomes of struggling sixth-grade readers in an after-school small group instructional setting. After 34 hours of academic vocabulary instruction, we compared the performance of a…

  8. Sixth BHD Symposium and First International Upstate Kidney Cancer Symposium: latest scientific and clinical discoveries

    OpenAIRE

    Bratslavsky, Gennady; Woodford, Mark R.; Daneshvar, Michael; Mollapour, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The Sixth BHD Symposium and First International Upstate Kidney Cancer Symposium concluded in September 2015, in Syracuse, NY, USA. The program highlighted recent findings in a variety of areas, including drug development, therapeutics and surgical management of patients with BHD and multi-focal renal tumors, as well as multidisciplinary approaches for patients with localized, locally advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  9. Sixth BHD Symposium and First International Upstate Kidney Cancer Symposium: latest scientific and clinical discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratslavsky, Gennady; Woodford, Mark R; Daneshvar, Michael; Mollapour, Mehdi

    2016-03-29

    The Sixth BHD Symposium and First International Upstate Kidney Cancer Symposium concluded in September 2015, in Syracuse, NY, USA. The program highlighted recent findings in a variety of areas, including drug development, therapeutics and surgical management of patients with BHD and multi-focal renal tumors, as well as multidisciplinary approaches for patients with localized, locally advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  10. An Exploratory Study of Face-to-Face and Cyberbullying in Sixth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordino, Denise B.; Accordino, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    In a pilot study, sixth grade students (N = 124) completed a questionnaire assessing students' experience with bullying and cyberbullying, demographic information, quality of parent-child relationship, and ways they have dealt with bullying/cyberbullying in the past. Two multiple regression analyses were conducted. The multiple regression analysis…

  11. Servant Leadership in English Sixth Form Colleges: What Do Teachers Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoten, David William

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether servant leadership can be applied to college management. The research methodology involved questionnaire and co-constructed discussion eliciting the views of teachers on how they interpret leadership in a sixth form college. Three other models of leadership were discussed along with…

  12. Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on methodologies for intelligent systems (Poster Session)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harber, K.S. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    This volume contains papers which have been selected for the poster Session at the Sixth International Symposium for Intelligent Systems held October 1991, The following major areas were covered: expert systems; intelligent databases; knowledge representation; learning and adaptive systems; and logic for artificial intelligence. Nineteen full papers are included. (GHH)

  13. 8 CFR 212.9 - Applicability of section 212(a)(32) to certain derivative third and sixth preference and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certain derivative third and sixth preference and nonpreference immigrants. 212.9 Section 212.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY REQUIREMENTS: NONIMMIGRANTS... certain derivative third and sixth preference and nonpreference immigrants. A derivative beneficiary who...

  14. The Effect of Inquiry-Based Explorations in a Dynamic Geometry Environment on Sixth Grade Students' Achievements in Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Ayhan Kursat; Yenmez, Arzu Aydogan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using a dynamic geometry environment (DGE) together with inquiry-based explorations on the sixth grade students' achievements in polygons and congruency and similarity of polygons. Two groups of sixth grade students were selected for this study: an experimental group composed of 66…

  15. Effects of formative assessments to develop self-regulation among sixth grade students: Results from a randomized controlled intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meusen-Beekman, Kelly; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Boshuizen, Els

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of a formative assessment intervention in writing assignments in sixth grade. We examined whether formative assessments would improve self-regulation, motivation and self-efficacy among sixth graders, and whether differential effects exist between formative

  16. Official Minutes of the Sixth INDC Meeting, Vienna, 8-12 October 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, R.; Dunford, C.L.; Schmidt, J.J.; Lorenz, A.

    1974-10-01

    Prof. Glubrecht, Head of the Department of Research and Isotopes and specialist in radiation botanic and biophysics at the University of Hannover welcomed the participants to the Sixth INDC meeting on behalf of the Director General. Prof. Glubrecht outlined the importance of ''Nuclear Data'' which, on one hand, represent the basic laws of nature and, on the other hand, constitute a necessary tool in many scientific and applied researches. In the past, following the guidelines given by the INDC, the efforts were almost uniquely directed towards neutron data, in view of their interest for fission reactors, and an efficient international cooperation in this field has been established: the compilation and the dissemination of these data on a world-wide scale is a very useful and successful achievement. It appears, however, that the scope ha s no w to be widened to a greater variety of applications, for example nuclear data used in safeguards, in controlled fusion research, in nuclear medicine, in nuclear methods for agriculture and general biology, in industrial equipment etc... This necessity simply arises from the fact that in these specialities, many scientists who have to make use of nuclear data are not in a position to know which are the most reliable data available or, at least, in which margins these data have to be used. The ''Symposium on Applications of Nuclear Data in Science and Technology'', organized by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS) at Paris in March 1973, clearly demonstrated not only a continuing need for neutron data but also an increasingly important need in fields such as nuclear structure, decay scheme and reaction data. This Symposium as well as the recommendations of the IWGNSRD, can be considered as the first step in the development of a carefully conceived extension of the IAEA programme in a broadened nuclear data domain and its manyfold applications.

  17. Do different standard plate counting (IDF/ISSO or AOAC) methods interfere in the conversion of individual bacteria counts to colony forming units in raw milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassoli, L D; Lima, W J F; Esguerra, J C; Da Silva, J; Machado, P F; Mourão, G B

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to establish the correlation between individual bacterial count (IBC) obtained by flow cytometry and the number of colony forming units (CFU) determined by standard plate count (SPC) in raw milk using two different reference methodologies: the methodology of the International Dairy Federation (IDF) - International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4833, incubation for 72 h at 30°C and the methodology of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), incubation for 48 h at 35°C. For this, 100 bovine milk samples (80 ml) from different farms were collected in a sterile bottle and maintained refrigerated at 4°C and were delivered to the laboratory. In the laboratory, the samples were divided into two vials of 40 ml each. Then, half of the vials were forwarded for the SPC analysis, and the other half were analysed using the equipment BactoScan FC. The analyses by flow cytometry and SPC were performed at the same time (maximum deviation of +/- 1 h). To transform the data from IBC ml(-1) to CFU ml(-1) (IDF or AOAC methodology), a standard linear regression equation was used, as recommended by IDF/ISO-196. The difference between the reference methodologies affects the equation that transforms IBC into CFU and therefore the accuracy of the results. The results estimated by the equation using the ISO 4833 methodology were on average 0·18 log units higher than the results estimated using the equation using the AOAC methodology. After the comparison of the methodologies, it was concluded that there is an impact of the reference methodologies on the conversion of the results from IBC to CFU. Depending on the methodology adopted by each laboratory or country, there may not be equivalence in the results. Hence, the laboratories specialized in milk quality analysis that have changed their methodology for analysis, passing from the MAPA (AOAC) methodology to the IDF standard, need to develop new conversion equations to make their

  18. IMAGE CONVERSION FOR LASER PYROGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian PETRU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All previous studies of pyrography have been focussed on colour obtained through modifying the work parameters. This paper analyses colour nuances obtained by laser woodworking by measuring colour changes digitally. The investigated parameter is colour reproduction by laser technology, using different image conversion methods (Halftone Round, Jarvis, and so on. The changes of image reproduction are analysed globally and colour by colour. The results show that the colour nuances are represented to a more and less degree, according to the conversion method selected. To evaluate the aesthetic changes, CIEL*a*b* colour measurements were applied. The results show that laser burning on wood surfaces has a great influence on wood colour. These findings will be useful to develop innovative design possibilities for wood surfaces for furniture and other products.

  19. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  20. Conversation Analysis and Classroom Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING A-ning; LI Fan; CUI Jing

    2015-01-01

    Conversation Analysis shows the evidence of the social nature of people’s action including talk-in-interaction from a micro-level perspective. The method for basing its analysis on the authentic data rather than the retrospective interviews for gain⁃ing the participants’perception makes it unique in discovering the emic perspective of the social interaction. CA, often called as a“micro”methodology, provides theoretical insights and useful analytical tool for exploring the interaction in classrooms.

  1. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  2. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  3. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Uranium conversion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Dellamano, J.C.

    1989-12-01

    A set of mathematical equations was developed and used to estimate the radiological significance of each radionuclide potentially present in the uranium refining industry effluents. The equations described the evolution in time of the radionuclides activities in the uranium fuel cycle, from mining and milling, through the yellowcake, till the conversion effluents. Some radionuclides that are not usually monitored in conversion effluents (e.g. Pa-231 and Ac-227) were found to be potentially relevant from the radiological point of view in conversion facilities, and are certainly relevant in mining and milling industry, at least in a few waste streams. (author) [pt

  5. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    and in regards to rehabilitation efforts. In the context of prisons UDI is inspired by the complexity approach (Stacey 2005). We seek to facilitate freely flowing conversations between inmates, staff and managers – pushing the boundaries of existing norms, roles and beliefs. In the end however we rely...... relations by changing conversations. Through the theoretical framework of the complexity approach, we discuss how this may lead to organizational change. Finally we suggest that inviting inmates to take part in conversations about core organizational development may be a fundamental strategy in trying...

  6. Overcoming difficult conversations in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Christine King,1 Tanya Edlington,21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Franskton, VIC, 2The Conversation Clinic Pty Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Clinical supervisors are responsible for managing many facets of clinical learning and face a range of challenges when the need for "difficult" conversations arises, including the need to manage conflict and relationships. Methods: Spotlight on Conversations Workshop was developed to improve the capacity of clinical supervisors to engage in difficult conversations. They were designed to challenge the mindset of clinical supervisors about difficult conversations with students, the consequences of avoiding difficult conversations, and to offer activities for practicing difficult conversations. Preworkshop, postworkshop, and 4-month follow-up evaluations assessed improvements in knowledge, intent to improve, and confidence along with workshop satisfaction. Results: Nine workshops were delivered in a range of locations across Victoria, Australia, involving a total of 117 clinical supervisors. Preworkshop evaluations illustrated that more than half of the participants had avoided up to two difficult conversations in the last month in their workplace. Postworkshop evaluation at 4 months showed very high levels of satisfaction with the workshop's relevancy, content, and training, as well as participants' intention to apply knowledge and skills. Also shown were significant changes in participants' confidence to have difficult conversations not only with students but also with other peers and colleagues. In follow-up in-depth interviews with 20 of the 117 participants, 75% said they had made definite changes in their practice because of what they learned in the workshop and another 10% said they would make changes to their practice, but had not had the opportunity yet to do so. Conclusion: We conclude that the Spotlight on

  7. Mining Conversational Social Video

    OpenAIRE

    Biel, Joan-Isaac

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity of social media in our daily life, the intense user participation, and the explo- sion of multimedia content have generated an extraordinary interest from computer and social scientists to investigate the traces left by users to understand human behavior online. From this perspective, YouTube can be seen as the largest collection of audiovisual human behavioral data, among which conversational video blogs (vlogs) are one of the basic formats. Conversational vlogs have evolved fro...

  8. Persuasion detection in conversation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Henry T.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In this thesis, we present a system for annotating persuasion in conversation based on a social-psychological model. We augmented the social model developed by James Cialdini with some of our own categories for annotators to label. The conversations consisted of 37 hostage negotiation transcripts from private and public sources, with all personal information removed from the private source transcripts. We evaluated the level of agre...

  9. Perspective on direct conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1963-10-15

    The objective of direct conversion is high electrical output for minimum total cost, and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment, and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy, and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (auth)

  10. Corrosion resistance of multilayered magnesium phosphate/magnesium hydroxide film formed on magnesium alloy using steam-curing assisted chemical conversion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Kudo, Ruriko; Omi, Takeshi; Teshima, Katsuya; Sonoda, Tsutomu; Shigematsu, Ichinori; Sakamoto, Michiru

    2012-01-01

    Anticorrosive multilayered films were successfully prepared on magnesium alloy AZ31 by chemical conversion treatment, followed by steam curing treatment. The crystal structures, chemical composition, surface morphologies, chemical bonding states of the film was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) measurements. All the films had thicknesses of ranging from 24 to 32 μm. The film had two layers that were composed of crystalline NH 4 MgPO 4 ·H 2 O, Mg 2 PO 4 OH·3H 2 O, Mg(OH) 2 and amorphous MgO. The outer layers include magnesium, oxygen, and phosphorous, and the inner layers include magnesium and oxygen. The corrosion resistant performances of the multilayered films in 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution were investigated by electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. The potentiodynamic polarization curves revealed that the corrosion current density (j corr ) of all the film coated magnesium alloys decreased by more than four orders of magnitude as compared to that of the bare magnesium alloy, indicating that all the films had an inhibiting effect of corrosion reaction. Gravimetric measurements showed that the average corrosion rates obtained from the weight loss rates were estimated to be in the ranges of ca. 0.085–0.129 mm/y. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test revealed that the adhesion of our anticorrosive multilayered film to the magnesium alloy surface was very good.

  11. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  12. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  13. Application of a space-time CE/SE (Conversation Element/Solution Element) method to the numerical solution of chromatographic separation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    including convection-difmsion-reaction PDEs are numerically solved using the two methods on the same spatial grid. Even though the CE/SE method uses a simple stencil structure and is developed on a simple mathematical basis (i.e., Gauss' divergence theorem), accurate and computationally-efficient solutions...

  14. Psychosocial Factors in Children and Adolescents with Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, I.; Giri, D.; Dutta, Anna; Mazumder, P.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: In view of the limited studies on the psychosocial environment of children presenting with conversion disorders, the present study was carried out to study the psychosocial factors in children with conversion disorders. Method: 40 patients of Conversion Disorder, who presented with "pseudo seizures" and were diagnosed…

  15. Feedback on composition: a case study of a remedial sixth-grader Feedback on composition: a case study of a remedial sixth-grader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda C. Cavalcanti

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study conducted in Brazil, aimed at investigating the relationship between what a Portuguese native-language teacher provided as feedback on compositions in a remedial sixth-grade class and what the students thought about and did with that feedback. The study called for the teacher to fill out a questionnaire and to provide verbal report protocol data while making comments on the composition of a selected student. The student also provided a verbal report protocol concerning his reactions to the feedback, and all the students in the class filled out a questionnaire about their handling of the feedback. This paper reports on a case study conducted in Brazil, aimed at investigating the relationship between what a Portuguese native-language teacher provided as feedback on compositions in a remedial sixth-grade class and what the students thought about and did with that feedback. The study called for the teacher to fill out a questionnaire and to provide verbal report protocol data while making comments on the composition of a selected student. The student also provided a verbal report protocol concerning his reactions to the feedback, and all the students in the class filled out a questionnaire about their handling of the feedback.

  16. A Quantitative Study on the Correlation between Grade Span Configuration of Sixth Grade Students in Private Florida Schools and Academic Achievement on Standardized Achievement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantin, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The applied dissertation was designed to investigate the three models of grade span configurations of sixth grade and the effects grade span configuration has on results of the standardized achievement scores of sixth grade students in private, Florida schools. Studies that have been conducted on sixth grade students and grade span configuration…

  17. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  18. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  19. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  20. The impact of reflectivity correction and conversion methods to improve precipitation estimation by weather radar for an extreme low-land Mesoscale Convective System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Pieter; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Between 25 and 27 August 2010 a long-duration mesoscale convective system was observed above the Netherlands. For most of the country this led to over 15 hours of near-continuous precipitation, which resulted in total event accumulations exceeding 150 mm in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Such accumulations belong to the largest sums ever recorded in this country and gave rise to local flooding. Measuring precipitation by weather radar within such mesoscale convective systems is known to be a challenge, since measurements are affected by multiple sources of error. For the current event the operational weather radar rainfall product only estimated about 30% of the actual amount of precipitation as measured by rain gauges. In the current presentation we will try to identify what gave rise to such large underestimations. In general weather radar measurement errors can be subdivided into two different groups: 1) errors affecting the volumetric reflectivity measurements taken, and 2) errors related to the conversion of reflectivity values in rainfall intensity and attenuation estimates. To correct for the first group of errors, the quality of the weather radar reflectivity data was improved by successively correcting for 1) clutter and anomalous propagation, 2) radar calibration, 3) wet radome attenuation, 4) signal attenuation and 5) the vertical profile of reflectivity. Such consistent corrections are generally not performed by operational meteorological services. Results show a large improvement in the quality of the precipitation data, however still only ~65% of the actual observed accumulations was estimated. To further improve the quality of the precipitation estimates, the second group of errors are corrected for by making use of disdrometer measurements taken in close vicinity of the radar. Based on these data the parameters of a normalized drop size distribution are estimated for the total event as well as for each precipitation type separately (convective

  1. Reactor Physics Methods and Preconceptual Core Design Analyses for Conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor to Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg; Sean R. Morrell

    2012-09-01

    several obsolete components of the current analytical tool set used for ATR neutronics support. This aggressive computational and experimental campaign will have a broad strategic impact on the operation of the ATR, both in terms of improved computational efficiency and accuracy for support of ongoing DOE programs as well as in terms of national and international recognition of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). It will also greatly facilitate the LEU conversion effort, since the upgraded computational capabilities are now at a stage where they can be, and in fact have been, used for the required physics analysis from the beginning. In this context, extensive scoping neutronics analyses were completed for six preconceptual candidate LEU fuel element designs for the ATR (and for its companion critical facility, ATRC). Of these, four exhibited neutronics performance in what is believed to be an acceptable range. However, there are currently some concerns with regard to fabricability and mechanical performance that have emerged for one of the four latter concepts. Thus three concepts have been selected for more comprehensive conceptual design analysis during the upcoming fiscal year.

  2. Persuasive Conversational Agent with Persuasion Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Yasuhiko

    Persuasive conversational agents persuade people to change their attitudes or behaviors through conversation, and are expected to be applied as virtual sales clerks in e-shopping sites. As an approach to create such an agent, we have developed a learning agent with the Wizard of Oz method in which a person called Wizard talks to the user pretending to be the agent. The agent observes the conversations between the Wizard and the user, and learns how to persuade people. In this method, the Wizard has to reply to most of the user's inputs at the beginning, but the burden gradually falls because the agent learns how to reply as the conversation model grows.

  3. A digital input class-D audio amplifier with sixth-order PWM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shumeng; Li Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    A digital input class-D audio amplifier with a sixth-order pulse-width modulation (PWM) modulator is presented. This modulator moves the PWM generator into the closed sigma—delta modulator loop. The noise and distortions generated at the PWM generator module are suppressed by the high gain of the forward loop of the sigma—delta modulator. Therefore, at the output of the modulator, a very clean PWM signal is acquired for driving the power stage of the class-D amplifier. A sixth-order modulator is designed to balance the performance and the system clock speed. Fabricated in standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology, this class-D amplifier achieves 110 dB dynamic range, 100 dB signal-to-noise rate, and 0.0056% total harmonic distortion plus noise. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. Proceedings of the Sixth General Meeting of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Dirk (Editor); Baver, Karen D. (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the sixth General Meeting of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), held in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, February 7-13, 2010. The contents of this volume also appear on the IVS Web site at http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/gm2010. The keynote of the sixth GM was the new perspectives of the next generation VLBI system under the theme "VLBI2010: From Vision to Reality". The goal of the meeting was to provide an interesting and informative program for a wide cross-section of IVS members, including station operators, program managers, and analysts. This volume contains 88 papers. All papers were edited by the editors for usage of the English language, form, and minor content-related issues.

  5. Equation of state at finite net-baryon density using Taylor coefficients up to sixth order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huovinen, Pasi; Petreczky, Péter; Schmidt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We employ the lattice QCD data on Taylor expansion coefficients up to sixth order to construct an equation of state at finite net-baryon density. When we take into account how hadron masses depend on lattice spacing and quark mass, the coefficients evaluated using the p4 action are equal to those of hadron resonance gas at low temperature. Thus the parametrised equation of state can be smoothly connected to the hadron resonance gas equation of state. We see that the equation of state using Taylor coefficients up to second order is realistic only at low densities, and that at densities corresponding to s/n B ≳40, the expansion converges by the sixth order term

  6. Modulation method for a multiple drive system based on a two-stage direct power conversion topology with reduced input current ripple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    operation. This is a cost effective topology compared to a standard matrix converter because the multiple three-phase loads share the cost of the controlled rectification stage. A new method to reduce the high frequency ripple from the input current is also proposed based on interleaving the switching...

  7. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Volume 1. Plenary sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia, April 9-11, 1980. The papers in this volume involved presentation of the research and development programs of the US (US DOE, TVA, EPRI and US EPA), United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and the People's Republic of China. Eight papers from Vol. 1 (Plenary Sessions) of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  8. Simultaneous involvement of third and sixth cranial nerve in a patient with Lyme disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, M.; Schmid, A.; Tomandl, B.F. [Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054, Erlangen (Germany); Stemper, B.; Maihoefner, C.; Heckmann, J.G. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054, Erlangen (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    We report a 57-year-old woman with neuroborreliosis presenting with headache, shoulder muscle pain and double vision. MRI demonstrated enhancement of the right third and sixth cranial nerves. A 3D MP-RAGE sequence was used to perform multiplanar reformations to show this more graphically. The patient was free of symptoms 1 month after completion of therapy, when thickening and contrast enhancement of the nerves were less pronounced. (orig.)

  9. Symmetries and conservation laws for a sixth-order Boussinesq equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recio, E.; Gandarias, M.L.; Bruzón, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers a generalization depending on an arbitrary function f(u) of a sixth-order Boussinesq equation which arises in shallow water waves theory. Interestingly, this equation admits a Hamiltonian formulation when written as a system. A classification of point symmetries and conservation laws in terms of the function f(u) is presented for both, the generalized Boussinesq equation and the equivalent Hamiltonian system.

  10. Abstracts of the sixth international conference on modern problems of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuldashev, B.; Fazylov, M.; Ibragimova, E.; Salikhbaev, U.

    2006-09-01

    The Sixth International Conference on modern problems of nuclear physics was held on 19-22 September, 2006 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of both fundamental and applied nuclear physics. About 275 talks were presented in the meetingof on the following subjects: particle physics, relativistic nuclear physics and physics of atomic nuclei; radiation physics of condenced matter; nuclear applications in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture; nuclear and radiation safety, non prolifaration issues. (K.M.)

  11. Sixth NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Control and Diagnostics (PCD) Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S. (Compiler)

    2018-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center hosted the Sixth Propulsion Control and Diagnostics Workshop on August 22-24, 2017. The objectives of this workshop were to disseminate information about research being performed in support of NASA Aeronautics programs; get feedback from peers on the research; and identify opportunities for collaboration. There were presentations and posters by NASA researchers, Department of Defense representatives, and engine manufacturers on aspects of turbine engine modeling, control, and diagnostics.

  12. Sixth Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations Held in Bangkok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>With the theme of "Opportunities and Challenges of China-ASEAN Friendly Cooperation", the Sixth Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations organized by the Thai-Chinese Friendship Association was held in Bangkok August 18 and 19. A delegation of China-ASEAN Association led by its president Gu Xiulian joined about 200 representatives from friendship-with-China organizations in 10 ASEAN countries.

  13. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume III. Technical sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Forty-five papers from Vol. III of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Two papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  14. Accelerated modern human?induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Garc?a, Andr?s; Pringle, Robert M.; Palmer, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The oft-repeated claim that Earth?s biota is entering a sixth ?mass extinction? depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the ?background? rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we...

  15. Sixth research coordination meeting on the measurement and evaluation of transactinium isotope nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1983-11-01

    Proceedings of the sixth meeting of the participants in the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme to measure and evaluate the required nuclear decay data of heavy element radionuclides, convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section on 21-24 June 1983 at Idaho Falls, USA. The meeting participants reviewed the data requirements, updated and extended the recommended list of half-lives, and continued to review the status of alpha and gamma radiation spectra emitted in the decay of transactinium isotopes

  16. Some Properties of Solutions for the Sixth-Order Cahn-Hilliard-Type Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the initial boundary value problem for a sixth-order Cahn-Hilliard-type equation which describes the separation properties of oil-water mixtures, when a substance enforcing the mixing of the phases is added. We show that the solutions might not be classical globally. In other words, in some cases, the classical solutions exist globally, while in some other cases, such solutions blow up at a finite time. We also discuss the existence of global attractor.

  17. Propagation of perturbations for a sixth-order thin film equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbang Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider an initial-boundary problem for a sixth-order thin film equation, which arises in the industrial application of the isolation oxidation of silicon. Relying on some necessary uniform estimates of the approximate solutions, we prove the existence of radial symmetric solutions to this problem in the two-dimensional space. The nonnegativity and the finite speed of propagation of perturbations of solutions are also discussed.

  18. An unusual case of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishampayan, Sanjeev; Borde, Priyanka

    2012-08-15

    Cranial nerve involvement is not common in leprosy. The fifth and seventh cranial nerves are the most commonly affected in leprosy. Herein we present a patient with Hansen disease (BL) with type I reaction who developed isolated involvement of the sixth cranial nerve leading to lateral rectus muscle palsy. He responded to timely anti-reactional therapy and it produced a good response. Careful observation of patients with lepra reaction is needed to avoid damage to important organs.

  19. Simultaneous involvement of third and sixth cranial nerve in a patient with Lyme disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, M.; Schmid, A.; Tomandl, B.F.; Stemper, B.; Maihoefner, C.; Heckmann, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We report a 57-year-old woman with neuroborreliosis presenting with headache, shoulder muscle pain and double vision. MRI demonstrated enhancement of the right third and sixth cranial nerves. A 3D MP-RAGE sequence was used to perform multiplanar reformations to show this more graphically. The patient was free of symptoms 1 month after completion of therapy, when thickening and contrast enhancement of the nerves were less pronounced. (orig.)

  20. Abstracts of the sixth international conference on modern problems of nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuldashev, B; Fazylov, M; Ibragimova, E; Salikhbaev, U [eds.

    2006-09-15

    The Sixth International Conference on modern problems of nuclear physics was held on 19-22 September, 2006 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of both fundamental and applied nuclear physics. About 275 talks were presented in the meetingof on the following subjects: particle physics, relativistic nuclear physics and physics of atomic nuclei; radiation physics of condenced matter; nuclear applications in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture; nuclear and radiation safety, non prolifaration issues. (K.M.)

  1. Review of the presented papers for the sixth international conference on radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Nobuo; Yamaji, Akio; Ueki, Kotaro

    1984-01-01

    Detailed review has been carried out on technical papers which were presented to the Sixth International Conference on Radiation Shielding, held in Tokyo, from May 16 to 20, 1983. We took into account 131 papers of which preprints were available during the Conference. The results of the review are described for each paper, including its originality, essential features, conclusions obtained and its applicability to shielding design, etc. Summary for each session are also included. (author)

  2. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  3. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically have rather...... with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  4. Sixth national outdoor action conference on aquifer restoration, ground water monitoring and geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Outdoor Action Conference was comprised of three days of technical presentations, workshops, demonstrations, and an exhibition. The sessions were devoted to the following topics: Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology; Ground Water Monitoring Technology; Ground Water Sampling Technology; Soil and Ground Water Remediation; and Surface and Borehole Geophysics. The meeting was sponsored by the National Ground Water Association. These papers were published exactly as submitted, without technical and grammatical editing or peer review

  5. Study of mosaic glasses from the Alpha Basilica (sixth century of Nikopolis in Epirus, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Fiori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After collecting the essential historical, archaeological, and artistic information relative to the ancient town of Nikopolis in Epirus and its Alpha (or Doumetios Basilica, built in the sixth century A.D., glass tesserae belonging to degraded and lost parts of the mosaic floors of the basilica were analysed, determining their chemical composition and the possible presence of crystalline phases. As in all glasses produced in the Mediterranean area in that epoch, they are soda-lime silicate glasses, in part with lead, obtained using natron as a flux. The typology of the glass corresponds to that of Roman glasses, of the first centuries A.D., and is the same as that employed for the basilicas of Ravenna in the fifth and sixth centuries; in particular, a comparison was made with the glass tesserae of the St Vitale Basilica. The technological base for producing coloured glasses is also practically the same as that of the mosaic glasses of Ravenna. In particular, antimony was used as an opacifying element and a fusion was carried out under reducing conditions to obtain red glass with microparticles of metallic copper. Thus, it can be supposed there was a common source of production of the mosaic glasses used in Nikopolis and Ravenna in the sixth century and that this source was in the Near Orient.

  6. A High-Coverage Yersinia pestis Genome from a Sixth-Century Justinianic Plague Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Michal; Harbeck, Michaela; Keller, Marcel; Spyrou, Maria A; Rott, Andreas; Trautmann, Bernd; Scholz, Holger C; Päffgen, Bernd; Peters, Joris; McCormick, Michael; Bos, Kirsten; Herbig, Alexander; Krause, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    The Justinianic Plague, which started in the sixth century and lasted to the mid eighth century, is thought to be the first of three historically documented plague pandemics causing massive casualties. Historical accounts and molecular data suggest the bacterium Yersinia pestis as its etiological agent. Here we present a new high-coverage (17.9-fold) Y. pestis genome obtained from a sixth-century skeleton recovered from a southern German burial site close to Munich. The reconstructed genome enabled the detection of 30 unique substitutions as well as structural differences that have not been previously described. We report indels affecting a lacl family transcription regulator gene as well as nonsynonymous substitutions in the nrdE, fadJ, and pcp genes, that have been suggested as plague virulence determinants or have been shown to be upregulated in different models of plague infection. In addition, we identify 19 false positive substitutions in a previously published lower-coverage Y. pestis genome from another archaeological site of the same time period and geographical region that is otherwise genetically identical to the high-coverage genome sequence reported here, suggesting low-genetic diversity of the plague during the sixth century in rural southern Germany. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  8. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this book is to present a review of the basic principles and practical aspects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. The author has tried to give qualitative semiphysical arguments where possible for the benefit of the reader who is unfamiliar with plasma physics. The aim of MHD energy conversion is to apply to a specific practical goal a part of what has become a vast area of science called plasma physics. The author has attempted to note in the text where a broader view might be fruitful and to give appropriate references

  10. Novel silver tubing method for quantitative introduction of water into high temperature conversion systems for stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haiping; Groning, Manfred; Coplen, Tyler B.; Buck, Bryan; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.; Brand, Willi A.; Geilmann, Heike; Gehre, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    A new method to seal water in silver tubes for use in a TC/EA reduction unit using a semi-automated sealing apparatus can yield reproducibilities (1 standard deviation) of δ2H and &delta18O measurements of 1.0 ‰ and 0.06 ‰, respectively. These silver tubes containing reference waters may be preferred for calibration of H- and O-bearing materials analyzed with a TC/EA reduction unit. The new sealing apparatus employs a computer controlled stepping motor to produce silver tubes identical in length. The reproducibility of mass of water sealed in tubes (in a range of 200 to 400 µg) can be as good as 1 percent. Although silver tubes sealed with reference waters are robust and can be shaken or heated to 110 °C with no loss of integrity, they should not be frozen because the expansion during the phase transition of water to ice will break the cold seals and all water will be lost. They should be shipped in insulated containers. This new method eliminates air inclusions and isotopic fractionation of water associated with the loading of water into capsules using a syringe. The method is also more than an order of magnitude faster than preparing water samples in ordinary Ag capsules. Nevertheless, some laboratories may prefer loading water into silver capsules because expensive equipment is not needed, but they are cautioned to apply the necessary corrections for evaporation, back exchange with laboratory atmospheric moisture, and blank.

  11. Information-seeking strategies and science content understandings of sixth-grade students using on-line learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Joseph Loris

    1999-11-01

    This study examined the information-seeking strategies and science content understandings learners developed as a result of using on-line resources in the University of Michigan Digital Library and on the World Wide Web. Eight pairs of sixth grade students from two teachers' classrooms were observed during inquiries for astronomy, ecology, geology, and weather, and a final transfer task assessed learners' capabilities at the end of the school year. Data included video recordings of students' screen activity and conversations, journals and completed activity sheets, final artifacts, and semi-structured interviews. Learners' information-seeking strategies included activities related to asking, planning, tool usage, searching, assessing, synthesizing, writing, and creating. Analysis of data found a majority of learners posed meaningful, openended questions, used technological tools appropriately, developed pertinent search topics, were thoughtful in queries to the digital library, browsed sites purposefully to locate information, and constructed artifacts with novel formats. Students faced challenges when planning activities, assessing resources, and synthesizing information. Possible explanations were posed linking pedagogical practices with learners' growth and use of inquiry strategies. Data from classroom-lab video and teacher interviews showed varying degrees of student scaffolding: development and critique of initial questions, utilization of search tools, use of journals for reflection on activities, and requirements for final artifacts. Science content understandings included recalling information, offering explanations, articulating relationships, and extending explanations. A majority of learners constructed partial understandings limited to information recall and simple explanations, and these occasionally contained inaccurate conceptualizations. Web site design features had some influence on the construction of learners' content understandings. Analysis of

  12. 75 FR 42441 - Sixty-Sixth Report of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee to the Administrator of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Interagency Testing Committee (ITC) transmitted its Sixty-Sixth... manufacture (defined by statute to include import) and/or process TSCA-covered chemicals and you may be identified by the North American [[Page 42442

  13. Metal Nanoparticles Covered with a Metal-Organic Framework: From One-Pot Synthetic Methods to Synergistic Energy Storage and Conversion Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Mitsuka, Yuko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Hybrid materials composed of metal nanoparticles and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted much attention in many applications, such as enhanced gas storage and catalytic, magnetic, and optical properties, because of the synergetic effects between the metal nanoparticles and MOFs. In this Forum Article, we describe our recent progress on novel synthetic methods to produce metal nanoparticles covered with a MOF (metal@MOF). We first present Pd@copper(II) 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate (HKUST-1) as a novel hydrogen-storage material. The HKUST-1 coating on Pd nanocrystals results in a remarkably enhanced hydrogen-storage capacity and speed in the Pd nanocrystals, originating from charge transfer from Pd nanocrystals to HKUST-1. Another material, Pd-Au@Zn(MeIM)2 (ZIF-8, where HMeIM = 2-methylimidazole), exhibits much different catalytic activity for alcohol oxidation compared with Pd-Au nanoparticles, indicating a design guideline for the development of composite catalysts with high selectivity. A composite material composed of Cu nanoparticles and Cr3F(H2O)2O{C6H3(CO2)3}2 (MIL-100-Cr) demonstrates higher catalytic activity for CO2 reduction into methanol than Cu/γ-Al2O3. We also present novel one-pot synthetic methods to produce composite materials including Pd/ZIF-8 and Ni@Ni2(dhtp) (MOF-74, where H4dhtp = 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid).

  14. Catalytic Conversion of Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina

    This thesis describes the catalytic conversion of bioethanol into higher value chemicals. The motivation has been the unavoidable coming depletion of the fossil resources. The thesis is focused on two ways of utilising ethanol; the steam reforming of ethanol to form hydrogen and the partial oxida...

  15. Electrochemical solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerischer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of solar energy conversion in photoelectrochemical cells are briefly reviewed. Cells for the generation of electric power and for energy storage in form of electrochemical energy are described. These systems are compared with solid state photovoltaic devices, and the inherent difficulties for the operation of the electrochemical systems are analyzed. (author). 28 refs, 10 figs

  16. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...

  17. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  18. Conversation and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; Veermans, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Gordon Pask’s conversation theory was created in the 1970s. The theory encompasses a high-level framework for studying interactions between actors in artificial situations where people co-operate, have conflicts, follow rules, negotiate outcomes, invent new rules together, etc. Sadly, the theory is

  19. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  20. The Nanticoke conversion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    A study was conducted to assess the conversion of the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant to cleaner burning natural gas combined-cycle gas turbines. The Nanticoke Generating Station on Lake Erie is responsible for more than 50 per cent of Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) coal-fired electricity production. The OPG is proposing to work towards compliance with the newly signed Ozone Annex to the 1991 Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement which will require fossil-fueled power plants in southern Ontario to reduce their smog-causing nitrogen oxides emissions by about 50 per cent by 2007. This study assessed the emission reduction benefits and financial costs of conversion compared to continuing to operate Nanticoke as a coal-fired plant. The analysis includes a base case set of data on fuel prices, retrofit costs, fuel efficiencies, annual capacity factors and other parameters. It was determined that conversion would cost the average household less than $3 per month on their electricity bill. Conversion would also reduce emissions nitrogen oxide, a major smog pollutant, by 83 per cent and the particulates that form the most health-threatening portion of smog would be reduced by 100 per cent. 15 tabs., 1 fig.

  1. Leadership is a conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  2. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  3. Conversion tables. Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKerrell, H.

    1975-01-01

    Tables are presented for the conversion of standard (5568 year half-life) C-14 dates to calendar years. The major part of the data converts C-14 dates to tree-ring years: additional data are given, based on the Egyptian historical curve. (U.K.)

  4. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  5. Our Digital Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes their digital conversion initiative at Mooresville Graded School District. The project has placed a MacBook Air laptop in the hands of every 3rd through 12th grader and their teachers in the district over the past four years, with over 5,000 computers distributed. But they believe their academic successes have…

  6. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  7. Expertise in Everyday Nurse–Patient Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Macdonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of nursing activity is embedded in what is considered to be everyday conversation. These conversations are important to health professionals because communication can affect health outcomes, and they are important to patients who want to know they are being heard and cared for. How do nurses talk with patients and what are the features of effective communication in practice? In this exploratory study, two expert nurses recorded conversations with patients during domiciliary visits. Linguistic discourse analysis, informed by contextual knowledge of domiciliary nursing shows the nurses skillfully used small talk to support their clinical work. In their conversations, nurses elicit specific information, normalize unpleasant procedures, manage the flow of the interaction, and strengthen the therapeutic relationship. Small talk can be big talk in achieving nursing goals. Critically reflecting on recorded clinical interactions can be a useful method of professional development and a way of demonstrating nursing expertise.

  8. Conversion Disorder; an Unusual Etiology of Unilateral Foot Drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Saeed Bin; Matee, Sumeera; Malik, Riffat; Ahmad, Khalil

    2015-06-01

    Foot drop is generally a consequence of common peroneal or sciatic nerve injury or L5 radiculopathy but rarely, it can be a manifestation of conversion disorder. A 24-year-old male presented with a foot drop on left side that developed overnight. He had difficulty walking with a trunk tilt towards right side and numbness in left leg up to mid-thigh. The initial diagnosis by the general practitioner was common peroneal nerve injury, which was not supported by the subsequent detailed examination in the physiatry department. Routine laboratory investigations, computed tomographic scan of brain and electrophysiological evaluation were normal. In a multidisciplinary team evaluation involving a psychiatrist, he was diagnosed to be suffering from conversion disorder and was advised gait retraining, cognitive and behavioral therapy and tablet venlafaxine. By sixth day of treatment, the patient was able to walk independently with a normal gait pattern and reported complete recovery of his symptoms. In the absence of an identifiable organic cause of foot drop in a patient, conversion disorder may be considered necessitating early intervention by a psychiatrist.

  9. Real Communication through Interview and Conversation Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Therese M.; Birckbichler, Diane W.

    1975-01-01

    A method for use in foreign language teaching which involves the use of conversation cards and interview cards is described. The method is intended to improve the ability of the student to communicate in the language and allow for greater individualization of instruction. (RM)

  10. Energy contribution from non-breastmilk items in low-income Guatemalan infantsin their sixth month of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Vossenaar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the nature and energy contribution of complementary feeding in breastfed infants in their sixth month of life, and the prevalence of the use of bottles as a delivery method. Materials and methods. We recruited 156 breastfeeding infants at a health clinic in metropolitan Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. A previous-day recall was performed. Results. Sixty nine mothers (44% reported offering items other than breastmilk. The median contribution of energy from complementary foods among infants with mixed feeding (n=66 was 197 kcal/day (interquartile range [IQR] 49-353. The median energy contribution of formula or cow’s milk among consumers (n=39 was 212 kcal/day (IQR 84-394. Bottles were used on the previous day by 55 (80% of the 69 mothers not offering exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions. Premature introduction of non-breastmilk items is commonly practiced in feeding Guatemalan infants. Adherence to the internationally recognized guidelines for early infant feeding should be an intervention priority for this population.

  11. Mathematics for water and wastewater operations -- 6th ed. Sixth edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    An operator of a water or wastewater treatment plant should routinely evaluate the efficiency of the individual process units and of the plant. This manual is intended to help the operator to determine process efficiency through the use of mathematical calculations rather than trial-and-error methods. The bulk of the manual consists of sample problems of typical in-plant situations, step-by-step descriptions of what the operator might consider in solving these problems, and worksheets for use in conjunction with other manuals used in courses on water treatment and sludge technology. Sections of the manual cover calculations for basic water treatment operations, the activated sludge process, the anaerobic digestion process, filtration, and chemical feed rates. Appendices contain conversion factors, formulas, and answers to problems.

  12. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  13. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  14. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  15. Cigarette Smoking Trajectories From Sixth to Twelfth Grade: Associated Substance Use and High School Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Lacy, Beth; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Dube, Shanta R; Song, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to identify distinct trajectories of cigarette smoking from sixth to twelfth grade and to characterize these trajectories by use of other drugs and high school dropout. The diverse sample for this analysis consisted of a cohort of 611 students from Northeast Georgia who participated in the Healthy Teens Longitudinal Study (2003-2009). Students completed seven yearly assessments from sixth through twelfth grade. We used semi-parametric, group-based modeling to identify groups of students whose smoking behavior followed a similar progression over time. Current smoking (past 30 day) increased from 6.9% among sixth graders to 28.8% among twelfth graders. Four developmental trajectories of cigarette smoking were identified: Abstainers/Sporadic Users (71.5% of the sample), Late Starters (11.3%), Experimenters (9.0%), and Continuous Users (8.2%). The Abstainer/Sporadic User trajectory was composed of two distinct groups: those who never reported any tobacco use (True Abstainers) and those who reported sporadic, low-level use (Sporadic Users). The True Abstainers reported significantly less use of alcohol and other drugs and lower dropout rates than students in all other trajectories, and Sporadic Users had worse outcomes than True Abstainers. Experimenters and Continuous Users reported the highest drug use. Over one-third of Late Starters (35.8%) and almost half of Continuous Users (44.4%) dropped out of high school. Cigarette smoking was associated with behavioral and academic problems. Results support early and continuous interventions to reduce use of tobacco and other drugs and prevent high school dropout. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC and A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC and A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC and A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC and A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC and A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A

  17. Conversion rate optimization in Finnish online businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Ratia, Miramaria; Ruoho, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Conversion rate optimization (CRO) is an unfamiliar term to many online business owners even though it has become almost as important as search engine optimization is in e-commerce today. It is a method that is used to turn passive visitors into active users in order to improve a website’s performance. The main objective of this thesis was to find out what kinds of conversion rate optimization methods do Finnish small and medium-sized online businesses use. The thesis also studies what ar...

  18. Health literacy and the determinants of obesity: a population-based survey of sixth grade school children in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fang Shih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy has become an important health policy and health promotion agenda item in recent years. It had been seen as a means to reduce health disparities and a critical empowerment strategy to increase people’s control over their health. So far, most of health literacy studies mainly focus on adults with few studies investigating associations between child health literacy and health status. This study aimed to investigate the association between health literacy and body weight in Taiwan’s sixth grade school children. Methods Using a population-based survey, 162,209 sixth grade (11–12 years old school children were assessed. The response rate at school level was 83 %, with 70 % of all students completing the survey. The Taiwan child health literacy assessment tool was applied and information on sex, ethnicity, self-reported health, and health behaviors were also collected. BMI was used to classify the children as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. A multinomial logit model with robust estimation was used to explore associations between health literacy and the body weight with an adjustment for covariates. Results The sample consisted of 48.9 % girls, 3.8 % were indigenous and the mean BMI was 19.55 (SD = 3.93. About 6 % of children self-reported bad or very bad health. The mean child health literacy score was 24.03 (SD = 6.12, scale range from 0 to 32. The overall proportion of obese children was 15.2 %. Children in the highest health literacy quartile were less likely to be obese (12.4 % compared with the lowest quartile (17.4 %. After controlling for gender, ethnicity, self-rated health, and health behaviors, children with higher health literacy were less likely to be obese (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR = 0.94, p  1.10, p < 0.0001 were more likely to report being overweight or obese. Conclusions This study demonstrates strong links between health literacy and obesity, even after

  19. Sixth International Symposium on Bifurcations and Instabilities in Fluid Dynamics (BIFD2015)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bar-Yoseph, P. Z.; Brøns, Morten; Gelfgat, A.

    2016-01-01

    dynamics and remain a challenge for experimental, theoretical and computational studies. Examples of prototypical hydrodynamic instabilities are the Rayleigh–Bénard, Taylor–Couette, Bénard–Marangoni, Rayleigh–Taylor, and Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. A fundamental understanding of bifurcation patterns...... diseases, such as atherosclerotic and vulnerable plaques, abdominal aortic aneurisms, carotid artery disease, and pulmonary embolisms and implications for vascular interventions such as grafting and stenting. The collection of papers in this issue is a selection of the presentations given at the Sixth...

  20. Sixth International Conference on Precipitation: Predictability of Rainfall at the Various Scales. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-29

    This volume contains abstracts of the papers presented at the Sixth International Conference on Precipitation: Predictability of Rainfall at the various scales, held at the Mauna Lani Bay and Bungalows, Hawaii, June 29 - July 1, 1998. The main goal of the conference was to bring together meteorologists, hydrologists, mathematicians, physicists, statisticians, and all others who are interested in fundamental principles governing the physical processes of precipitation. The results of the previous conferences have been published in issues of the Journal of Geophysical Research and Journal of Applied Meteorology. A similar format is planned for papers of this conference.

  1. Sixth Graders Benefit from Educational Software when Learning about Fractions: A Controlled Classroom study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Scharnagl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the effectiveness of an educational web-based software package for teaching mathematics in schools. In all, 864 sixth graders and their teachers took part in the controlled study. Students learned the addition and subtraction of fractions with (intervention group; n = 469 or without (control group; n = 395 the support of the educational software. Compared to the controls, students who used the software showed better results in the post-test. Gains were dose dependent and particularly marked in high-ability students and students with lower scores of math anxiety.

  2. Conversion of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu. S.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion of the former defense enterprises of STS (Semipalatinsk Test Sate) started under very difficult conditions, when not only research and production activity, but all social life of Kurchatov city were conversed which was caused by a fast curtailment and restationing of Russian military units from the test site. A real risk of a complete destruction of the whole research and production structure of the city existed. From this point of view, the decision of the Republic of Kazakhstan Government to create the National Nuclear Center on the base of the test site research enterprises was actual and timely. During 1993, three research institutes of NNC RK - Institute of Atomic Energy, Institute of Geophysics Research and Institute of Radiation Safety and Environment were established. This decision, under conditions of the Ussr disintegration and liquidation of the test site military divisions, allowed to preserve the qualified personnel, to provide and follow-up the operation of nuclear dangerous facilities, to develop and start the realization of the full scale conversion program.At present time, directions and structure of basic research work in NNC RK are as follows: - liquidation of nuclear explosions consequences; - liquidation of technological infrastructure used for preparation and conduction of nuclear weapon testing; - creation of technology, equipment and places for acceptance and storage of radioactive wastes; - working out of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan; - study of reactor core melt behavior under severe accidents in NPP; - development of methods and means of nuclear testing detection, continuous monitoring of nuclear explosions; - experimental work on a study of structure materials behavior of ITER thermonuclear reactor; - creation of industries requiring a lage implementation of science

  3. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  4. Nuclear spin conversion in formaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Chapovsky, Pavel L.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical model of the nuclear spin conversion in formaldehyde (H2CO) has been developed. The conversion is governed by the intramolecular spin-rotation mixing of molecular ortho and para states. The rate of conversion has been found equal 1.4*10^{-4}~1/s*Torr. Temperature dependence of the spin conversion has been predicted to be weak in the wide temperature range T=200-900 K.

  5. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  6. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  7. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  8. Impact of episiotomy on pelvic floor disorders and their influence on women's wellness after the sixth month postpartum: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calcagno Angelo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of episiotomy as a protective factor against pelvic floor disorders postpartum has been debated for many years, but its routine use has been hitherto discouraged in the literature. Comparisons between restrictive and routine use of episiotomy in existent literature, however, fail to include any consideration relating to quality of life. The aim of this study, therefore, is to state the role of episiotomy in preserving the perineum from damage, in order to prevent the influence of pelvic floor disorders on women's psycho-physical wellness after the sixth month postpartum. Methods A follow-up telephone interview was performed among 377 primiparous and secondiparous Caucasian women who had a child by spontaneous or operative vaginal delivery in 2006 using a self-created questionnaire and King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ. Results The mean age at delivery was 35.26 (±4.68 years and episiotomy was performed in 59.2% of women. Multivariate linear regression shows episiotomy associated to higher quality of life after the sixth month postpartum by correlating with inferior values of King's Health Questionnaire (p Conclusions Episiotomy appears to be a protective factor for women's wellness. Women who had episiotomy and who experienced perineal symptoms have a better psycho-physical health status in the 12.79 months (±3.3 follow-up.

  9. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of two self-etching adhesives (sixth and seventh generation on dentin of primary and permanent teeth: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to compare and evaluate shear bond strength of two self-etching adhesives (sixth and seventh generation on dentin of primary and permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Flat dentin surface of 64 human anterior teeth (32 primary and 32 permanent divided into four groups of 16 each. Groups A and C were treated with Contax (sixth generation, while groups B and D were treated with Clearfil S3 (seventh generation. A teflon mold was used to build the composite (Filtek Z-350 cylinders on the dentinal surface of all the specimens. Shear bond strength was tested for all the specimens with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA for multiple group comparison, followed by student′s unpaired ′t′ test for group-wise comparison. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in shear bond strength among the study groups except that primary teeth bonded with Contax exhibited significantly lesser shear bond strength than permanent teeth bonded with Clearfil S3. Conclusion: This study revealed that Clearfil S3 could be of greater advantage in pediatric dentistry than Contax because of its fewer steps and better shear bond strength in dentin of both primary and permanent teeth.

  10. PREFACE: Sixth International Conference on Dissociative Recombination: Theory, Experiments and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Andreas; Lammich, Lutz; Schmelcher, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Dissociative recombination between electrons and molecular ions is an elementary reaction in electron-induced chemistry attracting strong attention across discipline boundaries, from fundamental questions of intramolecular dynamics to astrophysics, plasma science, as well as atmospheric and planetary physics. The process is explored on the level of atomic quantum dynamics both experimentally and theoretically, employing cold collisions at temperatures down to 10 Kelvin involving small molecules or also very large systems ranging up to biomolecules. Dissociative recombination (DR) and related processes, such as dissociative excitation, collisional cooling of vibrations and rotations, photodissociation via high-lying electronic states, resonant electron attachment, and electron-induced processes in large molecules and clusters, are studied by a variety of experimental methods, including stored and trapped molecular ions, plasma techniques such as stationary and flowing afterglow, and laser spectroscopic diagnostic of molecular excitations. The Sixth International Conference on Dissociative Recombination: Theory, Experiments and Applications (DR2004) was organized by the Research Group on Atomic and Molecular Physics with Stored Ions at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany, and held near Heidelberg in the town of Mosbach in July 2004. It was attended by about 90 scientists working in atomic and molecular physics, astrophysics, plasma- and biophysics. International Conferences on Dissociative Recombination and related processes were held before at Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada (1988), Saint Jacut, Brittany, France (1992), Ein Gedi, Israel (1995), Nässlingen, Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden (1999), and last within a symposium at the American Chemical Society meeting in Chicago, USA (2001). The presentations of this conference document a strong development of theoretical ideas towards the understanding of DR in particular in polyatomic

  11. Primary vs Conversion Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Garwin; Wright, David J.; Snir, Nimrod; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Increasing hip fracture incidence in the United States is leading to higher occurrences of conversion total hip arthroplasty (THA) for failed surgical treatment of the hip. In spite of studies showing higher complication rates in conversion THA, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services currently bundles conversion and primary THA under the same diagnosis-related group. We examined the cost of treatment of conversion THA compared with primary THA. Our hypothesis is that conversion THA will have higher cost and resource use than primary THA. Methods Fifty-one consecutive conversion THA patients (Current Procedure Terminology code 27132) and 105 matched primary THA patients (Current Procedure Terminology code 27130) were included in this study. The natural log-transformed costs for conversion and primary THA were compared using regression analysis. Age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologist, Charlson comorbidity score, and smoker status were controlled in the analysis. Conversion THA subgroups formed based on etiology were compared using analysis of variance analysis. Results Conversion and primary THAs were determined to be significantly different (P conversion THA has significantly greater cost and resource use than primary THA. In order to prevent disincentives for treating these complex surgical patients, reclassification of conversion THA is needed, as they do not fit together with primary THA. PMID:26387923

  12. The FLIC conversion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basher, J.C.

    1965-05-01

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  13. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  14. The FLIC conversion codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, J C [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1965-05-15

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  15. Moodle 20 Course Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Ian

    2011-01-01

    With clear instructions and plenty of screenshots, this book provides all the support and guidance you will need as you begin to convert your teaching to Moodle. Step-by-step tutorials use real-world examples to show you how to convert to Moodle in the most efficient and effective ways possible. Moodle Course Conversion carefully illustrates how Moodle can be used to teach content and ideas and clearly demonstrates the advantages of doing so. This book is for teachers, tutors, and lecturers who already have a large body of teaching material and want to use Moodle to enhance their course, rathe

  16. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  17. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  18. The solution of the sixth Hilbert problem: the ultimate Galilean revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2018-04-01

    I argue for a full mathematization of the physical theory, including its axioms, which must contain no physical primitives. In provocative words: `physics from no physics'. Although this may seem an oxymoron, it is the royal road to keep complete logical coherence, hence falsifiability of the theory. For such a purely mathematical theory the physical connotation must pertain only the interpretation of the mathematics, ranging from the axioms to the final theorems. On the contrary, the postulates of the two current major physical theories either do not have physical interpretation (as for von Neumann's axioms for quantum theory), or contain physical primitives as `clock', `rigid rod', `force', `inertial mass' (as for special relativity and mechanics). A purely mathematical theory as proposed here, though with limited (but relentlessly growing) domain of applicability, will have the eternal validity of mathematical truth. It will be a theory on which natural sciences can firmly rely. Such kind of theory is what I consider to be the solution of the sixth Hilbert problem. I argue that a prototype example of such a mathematical theory is provided by the novel algorithmic paradigm for physics, as in the recent information-theoretical derivation of quantum theory and free quantum field theory. This article is part of the theme issue `Hilbert's sixth problem'.

  19. Compensating Hand Function in Chronic Stroke Patients Through the Robotic Sixth Finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvietti, Gionata; Hussain, Irfan; Cioncoloni, David; Taddei, Sabrina; Rossi, Simone; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2017-02-01

    A novel solution to compensate hand grasping abilities is proposed for chronic stroke patients. The goal is to provide the patients with a wearable robotic extra-finger that can be worn on the paretic forearm by means of an elastic band. The proposed prototype, the Robotic Sixth Finger, is a modular articulated device that can adapt its structure to the grasped object shape. The extra-finger and the paretic hand act like the two parts of a gripper cooperatively holding an object. We evaluated the feasibility of the approach with four chronic stroke patients performing a qualitative test, the Frenchay Arm Test. In this proof of concept study, the use of the Robotic Sixth Finger has increased the total score of the patients by two points in a five points scale. The subjects were able to perform the two grasping tasks included in the test that were not possible without the robotic extra-finger. Adding a robotic opposing finger is a very promising approach that can significantly improve the functional compensation of the chronic stroke patient during everyday life activities.

  20. Sixth- and eighth-order Hermite integrator for N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitadori, Keigo; Makino, Junichiro

    2008-10-01

    We present sixth- and eighth-order Hermite integrators for astrophysical N-body simulations, which use the derivatives of accelerations up to second-order ( snap) and third-order ( crackle). These schemes do not require previous values for the corrector, and require only one previous value to construct the predictor. Thus, they are fairly easy to implement. The additional cost of the calculation of the higher-order derivatives is not very high. Even for the eighth-order scheme, the number of floating-point operations for force calculation is only about two times larger than that for traditional fourth-order Hermite scheme. The sixth-order scheme is better than the traditional fourth-order scheme for most cases. When the required accuracy is very high, the eighth-order one is the best. These high-order schemes have several practical advantages. For example, they allow a larger number of particles to be integrated in parallel than the fourth-order scheme does, resulting in higher execution efficiency in both general-purpose parallel computers and GRAPE systems.

  1. Self-Concept and Sport Participation in Sixth Grade Basic School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Virag

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine self-concept in relation to sport participation among basic school children. The sample included 109 sixth grade students of different Slovenian basic schools. The participants completed the Slovenian version of the SelfPerception Profile for Children – SPPC. The results show significant gender differences in some specific components of self-concept. Boys exhibited higher scores in perceived physical appearance and athletic competence, whereas girls exhibited higher levels in perceived behavioural conduct. Mean values show that students, engaged in organized sport practice, reported higher scores in all self-concept subscales than their inactive peers, although significant differences between these two groups were found in perceived scholastic competence and athletic competence. The study offers a detailed insight into the multidimensional self-perceptions of sixth grade basic school students. The results highlight the importance of physical/sports activity in the self-concept development and can be useful in promoting an active lifestyle among youth.

  2. The solution of the sixth Hilbert problem: the ultimate Galilean revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2018-04-28

    I argue for a full mathematization of the physical theory, including its axioms, which must contain no physical primitives. In provocative words: 'physics from no physics'. Although this may seem an oxymoron, it is the royal road to keep complete logical coherence, hence falsifiability of the theory. For such a purely mathematical theory the physical connotation must pertain only the interpretation of the mathematics, ranging from the axioms to the final theorems. On the contrary, the postulates of the two current major physical theories either do not have physical interpretation (as for von Neumann's axioms for quantum theory), or contain physical primitives as 'clock', 'rigid rod', 'force', 'inertial mass' (as for special relativity and mechanics). A purely mathematical theory as proposed here, though with limited (but relentlessly growing) domain of applicability, will have the eternal validity of mathematical truth. It will be a theory on which natural sciences can firmly rely. Such kind of theory is what I consider to be the solution of the sixth Hilbert problem. I argue that a prototype example of such a mathematical theory is provided by the novel algorithmic paradigm for physics, as in the recent information-theoretical derivation of quantum theory and free quantum field theory.This article is part of the theme issue 'Hilbert's sixth problem'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. Suicidal behavior on Axis VI: clinical data supporting a sixth Axis for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Witte, Tracy K; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Oquendo and colleagues (Oquendo, Baca-García, Mann, & Giner, 2008; Oquendo & Currier, 2009) recommend that DSM-V emphasize suicide risk assessment on a sixth axis, thereby increasing regularity of suicide risk assessments. We propose that evidence of nonredundancy with Axis V - Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is one piece of data that can serve as a starting point for a line of research establishing incremental predictive utility for a separate suicide risk assessment in the DSM framework. A standardized suicide risk assessment protocol, measures of depressive, anxious, and eating disordered symptomatology, as well as an index of comorbidity were administered to a sample of 412 adult outpatients. Our data indicate that data from standardized suicide risk assessments are associated with indices of symptomatology severity as well as comorbidity, controlling for GAF. These results support the nonredundancy of the assessments and suggest the utility of longitudinal investigations of the predictive utility of a sixth DSM axis in the assessment of suicide risk.

  4. Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2017-07-25

    The population extinction pulse we describe here shows, from a quantitative viewpoint, that Earth's sixth mass extinction is more severe than perceived when looking exclusively at species extinctions. Therefore, humanity needs to address anthropogenic population extirpation and decimation immediately. That conclusion is based on analyses of the numbers and degrees of range contraction (indicative of population shrinkage and/or population extinctions according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature) using a sample of 27,600 vertebrate species, and on a more detailed analysis documenting the population extinctions between 1900 and 2015 in 177 mammal species. We find that the rate of population loss in terrestrial vertebrates is extremely high-even in "species of low concern." In our sample, comprising nearly half of known vertebrate species, 32% (8,851/27,600) are decreasing; that is, they have decreased in population size and range. In the 177 mammals for which we have detailed data, all have lost 30% or more of their geographic ranges and more than 40% of the species have experienced severe population declines (>80% range shrinkage). Our data indicate that beyond global species extinctions Earth is experiencing a huge episode of population declines and extirpations, which will have negative cascading consequences on ecosystem functioning and services vital to sustaining civilization. We describe this as a "biological annihilation" to highlight the current magnitude of Earth's ongoing sixth major extinction event.

  5. UCSF partnership to enrich science teaching for sixth graders in San Francisco's schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, H J

    1999-04-01

    Increasing the diversity of students entering the health professions is a challenging goal for medical schools. One approach to this goal is to share the enthusiasm and energy of medical students with younger students, who may pursue medical education in the future. The MedTeach program, established in 1989 and coordinated by the Science & Health Education Partnership of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), does so by partnering volunteer medical students from UCSF with sixth-grade classes studying the human body. In 1997-98, around 350 sixth-graders in the San Francisco Schools benefitted from the program. Each team of medical student's visits its class ten to 12 times a year to present engaging, hands-on lessons on body systems and health. The medical students are also role models for the middle-school students. In addition, the diverse student population of San Francisco public schools provides a rich environment for the medical students to improve their communication and teaching skills.

  6. Sexuality education in fifth and sixth grades in U.S. public schools, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, D J; Singh, S; Darroch, J E

    2000-01-01

    While policymakers, educators and parents recognize the need for family life and sexuality education during children's formative years and before adolescence, there is little nationally representative information on the timing and content of such instruction in elementary schools. In 1999, data were gathered from 1, 789 fifth- and sixth-grade teachers as part of a nationally representative survey of 5,543 public school teachers in grades 5-12. Based on the responses of 617 fifth- and sixth-grade teachers who said they teach sexuality education, analyses were carried out on the topics and skills sexuality education teachers taught, the grades in which they taught them, their teaching approaches, the pressures they experienced, whether they received support from parents, the community and school administrators, and their needs. Seventy-two percent of fifth- and sixth-grade teachers report that sexuality education is taught in their schools at one or both grades. Fifty-six percent of teachers say that the subject is taught in grade five and 64% in grade six. More than 75% of teachers who teach sexuality education in these grades cover puberty, HIV and AIDS transmission and issues such as how alcohol and drugs affect behavior and how to stick with a decision. However, when schools that do not provide sexuality education are taken into account, even most of these topics are taught in only a little more than half of fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms. All other topics are much less likely to be covered. Teaching of all topics is less prevalent at these grades than teachers think it should be. Gaps between what teachers say they are teaching and teachers' recommendations for what should be taught and by what grade are especially large for such topics as sexual abuse, sexual orientation, abortion, birth control and condom use for STD prevention. A substantial proportion of teachers recommend that these topics be taught at grade six or earlier. More than half (57%) of fifth

  7. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  8. Microbial conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, P. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Bioconversion and Sustainable Development

    2006-07-01

    Microbes are a biomass and an valuable resource. This presentation discussed microbial conversion technologies along with background information on microbial cells, their characteristics and microbial diversity. Untapped opportunities for microbial conversion were identified. Metagenomic and genome mining approaches were also discussed, as they can provide access to uncultivated or unculturable microorganisms in communal populations and are an unlimited resource for biocatalysts, novel genes and metabolites. Genome mining was seen as an economical approach. The presentation also emphasized that the development of microbial biorefineries would require significant insights into the relevant microorganisms and that biocatalysts were the ultimate in sustainability. In addition, the presentation discussed the natural fibres initiative for biochemicals and biomaterials. Anticipated outputs were identified and work in progress of a new enzyme-retting cocktail to provide diversity and/or consistency in fibre characteristics for various applications were also presented. It was concluded that it is necessary to leverage understanding of biological processes to produce bioproducts in a clean and sustainable manner. tabs., figs.

  9. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  10. CALVIN'S SUDDEN CONVERSION (SUBITA CONVERSIO) AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    his conversion, it could be fruitful to consider it from both historical and theological perspectives. ... logical positions of the interpreters. For example, a ..... God, but as the true method of worshipping was altogether unknown to me, I stumbled at ...

  11. Operant procedures applied to a conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, P.F.M.; Heijden, H.P. van der; Hoogduin, K.A.L.; Schaap, C.P.D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Conversion symptoms, as identified by the existing classification systems, do not form a single unitary class. It is therefore difficult to find an adequate treatment that closely connects to the basic characteristics of the disease. Instead, we designed a treatment method that closely relates to

  12. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorri, J., E-mail: juha.m.t.sorri@jyu.fi [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Cox, D.M. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Herzberg, R.-D. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-11

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of {sup 154}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 166}Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  13. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D.M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G.

    2016-01-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of "1"5"4Sm, "1"5"2Sm and "1"6"6Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  14. Supported Conversation for hospital staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Hysse B; Løvholt, Annelise P.; Mathiesen, Lone Lundbak

    in communication and interaction, Supported Conversation for Adults with Aphasia (SCA) was adapted and implemented in a large neurological department at Rigshospitalet-Glostrup in Copenhagen. Method 152 staff members representing different health professionals were assigned to one of eleven courses during a six...... month period. Each course had 10-12 participants and lasted 6 hours, including instruction in the SCA principles, video analysis, interdisciplinary group work, and practice sessions with PWAs. Self-assessed learning outcomes were evaluated with a brief questionnaire filled out by staff members...... in communication, also showed significant improvements across all staff groups. After the course, more time to spend with patients was perceived as the most important factor to further increase communication success with PWA. Conclusion The results show that interdisciplinary SCA-courses successfully increase...

  15. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    Over the past decade STS scholars have been engaged in a continuous dialogue about the performativity of their methods and the interventions of their research practices. A frequently posed question is how STS can make a difference to its fields of study, what John Law has called its different...... 'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... the map is brought along as an ethnographic device on a piece of fieldwork, in my second example it serves as the central collaborative object in a participatory design project, and in my third example the map becomes the object of contestation as it finds itself centre stage in the controversy...

  16. Intelligent Online Marketing : Predicting Conversion Rate Of New Keywords

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    This thesis looks at the problem of predicting conversion rate of keywords in Google Adwords where little or no data for the keyword is available. Several methods are investigated and tested on data belonging to three different real world clients. The methods try to predict the conversion rate only given the keyword text. All methods are compared, using two different evaluation methods, with results showing good potential. Finally further improvements are suggested that could have a big impac...

  17. Conversation with Meir Sternberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pianzola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Below are the videos of the interview recorded the 21st May 2011 in Fribourg (CH, in occasion of the first RRN conference. Conversation with Meir Sternberg. Part 1 of 8 - Narratology: classical and postclassical studies. Part 2 of 8 - The development of an original theoretical framework. Part 3 of 8 - Sternberg and Genette: different ways for the same problems. Part 4 of 8 - «There are no forms except in terms of functions». Part 5 of 8 - A life writing articles: so many papers and just four books. Part 6 of 8 - Two arguments against mimetical approaches to narrative. Part 7 of 8 - «Narrative is not given, it is a construct». Part 8 of 8 - The proteus principle. the many-to-many correspondence between forms and functions.

  18. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  19. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B.; Huntingford, S.; Halberg, N.

    1993-03-01

    The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas Plant. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of plant nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas plants distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas plant. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion plant administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)

  20. Power conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  1. Political Conversation in Everyday Communicative Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at forms of interaction and communicative exchanges in discussion groups composed of beneficiaries of a Brazilian income transfer program (Bolsa-Família Program and at how these forms contribute to the deliberative process. Discussion groups are used as a method for showing how everyday conversation and political discussion are interrelated. Our interest is not to analyze this program, but rather represents an attempt to capture and research moments in which group participants establish their own position relative to one another. At such moments, conversations on everyday subjects and personal dramas shift towards attitudes that include taking the risk of expressing dissonant opinions, explaining background assumptions, and producing counter-narratives. Eight discussion groups were established in two Brazilian cities in the Southeastern region: four in Belo Horizonte (MG and four in Campinas (SP. Keywords: everyday conversation; political discussion; deliberative process; discussion groups; poor women.

  2. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  3. Study on carbon dioxide conversion by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Geun Il; Cho, Il Hoon; Choi, Sang Do; Hong, Kwang Hee; Lee, Chang Woo

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the synergistic effects on the CO 2 conversion by the application of semiconductor in the field of gamma-ray. Gamma-ray irradiation was performed to examine the effects of semiconductor application on CO 2 conversion in water and the formation of organic material from carbonate solution. From experimental results it is clear that the supplication of semiconductor in the field of gamma-ray increases the efficiency for CO 2 conversion to organic matter. Based on the obtained experimental results it is obvious that the synergistic effects of semiconductor materials in the gamma-ray field leads to increase of the CO 2 conversion yield to organic matter up to 50 percent compared to the gamma-ray irradiation. The way of achieving higher activity is due to the catalytic action of semiconductor by gamma-ray irradiation. Zr-doped TiO 2 catalyst prepared by sol-gel method exhibits the higher efficiency for CO 2 conversion in aqueous solution and carbonate containing solution. This effect of Zr-doping can be explained by the formation of additional defects in surface of TiO 2 film. (author)

  4. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word ''policy'' connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification

  5. Supporting students' strategic competence: a case of a sixth-grade mathematics classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, İ. Elif Yetkin; Pape, Stephen J.

    2012-06-01

    Mathematics education research has documented several classroom practices that might influence student self-regulation. We know little, however, about the ways these classroom practices could be structured in real classroom settings. In this exploratory case study, we purposefully selected a sixth-grade mathematics teacher who had participated in a professional development program focussed on NCTM standards and SRL in the mathematics classroom for extensive classroom observation. The purpose was to explore how and to what extend she structured classroom practices to support strategic competence in her students. Four features of classroom practices were found as evidence for how strategic competence was potentially supported in this classroom: (a) allowing autonomy and shared responsibility during the early stages of learning, (b) focusing on student understanding, (c) creating contexts for students to learn about strategic learning and to exercise strategic behaviour, and (d) helping students to personalise strategies by recognising their ideas and strategic behaviours.

  6. High Temperature Materials Laboratory sixth annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1993-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its sixth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the User Program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions executing user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 172 nonproprietary agreements (88 university and 84 industry) and 35 proprietary agreements, (2 university, 33 industry) are now in effect. Six other government facilities have also participated in the User Program. Thirty-eight states are represented by these interactions. Ninety-four nonproprietary research proposals (44 from universities, 47 from industry, and 3 from other government facilities) and three proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Nonproprietary research projects active in FY 1993 are summarized.

  7. Proceedings of the sixth IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Tanaka, Satoru [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Ishitsuka, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2004-03-01

    This report is the Proceedings of the Sixth International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on December 2-5, 2003, at SEAGAIA in Miyazaki City, Japan with 69 participants who attended from Europe, the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, China, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into nine sessions; Status of beryllium study, Plasma and tritium interactions, ITER oriented issues, Neutron irradiation effects, Beryllide application, Disposal and recycling, Molten salt, Health and safety issues and Panel discussion. In the Panel discussion, the international collaboration for three topics, i.e., Neutron irradiation effects, Beryllide application, Recycling and Disposal, were discussed, and necessary items for the international collaboration were proposed. The 46 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Proceedings of the fifty sixth congress of Indian Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics: souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, V.H.

    2011-01-01

    The fifty sixth congress of Indian Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics had been organized from December 19-21, 2011. Mathematics has been playing a key role in the development of society right from the use of geometry in land measurement to satellite launching. The appropriate mathematical tools are right answers to real world problems which has increase many fold because of the advancement in various branches of applied sciences, engineering and technologies with the advanced development of high speed super digital computers. The topics such as wireless communication, health systems, financing, budgeting, planning, management and decision making which plays important role in day to day lives have been covered in this meet. Papers relevant to INIS have been indexed separately

  9. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume II. Technical sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The papers covered recent developments in atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, especially the design, operation and control of pilot and demonstration plants. The cleanup of combustion products and the erosion, corrosion and fouling of gas turbines was emphasized also. Fifty-five papers from Volume 2 of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  10. Geometric description of a discrete power function associated with the sixth Painlevé equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nalini; Kajiwara, Kenji; Masuda, Tetsu; Nakazono, Nobutaka; Shi, Yang

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the discrete power function associated with the sixth Painlevé equation. This function is a special solution of the so-called cross-ratio equation with a similarity constraint. We show in this paper that this system is embedded in a cubic lattice with [Formula: see text] symmetry. By constructing the action of [Formula: see text] as a subgroup of [Formula: see text], i.e. the symmetry group of P VI , we show how to relate [Formula: see text] to the symmetry group of the lattice. Moreover, by using translations in [Formula: see text], we explain the odd-even structure appearing in previously known explicit formulae in terms of the τ function.

  11. Sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan. Planning to the future of ENRESA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo Hernandez, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The Government approved last June 23''rd the Sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan that presents the activities to be carried out by ENRESA in all its field of responsibility to the year 2070. The document considers as one of the principal changes that ENRESA will be restructured to corporate public entity assigned to the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade as well as the need of a Centralised Temporary Storage for the spent fuel and the high level radioactive wastes generated in Spain. Nevertheless, information is provided on the plans for the full decommissioning of the nuclear power plants to complete their operational life and also the economic and financial aspects related to the activities contemplated in the Plan. (Author) 13 refs

  12. Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Kopjar, N.; Miljanic, S.

    2005-01-01

    Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) organised symposium with international participation. Co-organisers (Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia and Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia) show importance of this symposium, which was under the auspices of several ministries (Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia) and State Institute of Radiation Protection, State Office for Standardization and Metrology and APO Ltd. - Hazardous Waste Management Agency. All topics are of great interest for Croatia. They present recent researches in Croatia and in other almost same oriented countries in Europe.The distribution of topics at the Sixth symposium shows same parts with articles from radiation dosimetry and instrumentation, biological effects of radiation, public exposure, radiation protection in medicine, as well as radioecology. Also, non-ionising radiations take their share as very interesting topics at present. (S.P.)

  13. Mathematical Simulation of High-Conversion Binary Copolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangWei; QinJiguang

    2005-01-01

    A new model for mathematical simulation of high-conversion binary copolymerization was established by combination of the concept of the three stage polymerization model (TSPM) proposed by Qin et al. for bulk free radical homopolymerization with the North equation to describe high-conversion copolymerization reaction exhibiting a strong gel effect, and the mathematical expressions of this new model were derived. Like TSPM, the new model also assmnes that the whole course of binary copolymerization can be divided into three different stages: low conversion, gel effect and glass effect stages. In addition, the reaction rate constants and the initiator efficiency at each copolymerization stage do not vary with conversion. Based on the expressions derived, a plot method for determining the overall rate constants and critical conversions was proposed. The literature data on conversion history for styrene (St)-methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA)-MMA copolymerizations were treated to examine the model, which shows that the model is satisfactory.

  14. Paradoxical therapy in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    ATAOĞLU, Ahmet

    1998-01-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour, such as performing complusive ritual or bringing on a conversion attack. In this study paradoxical intention (PI) was used with to half of the patients with conversion disorders, while the other half were treated with diazepam in order to examine the efficiency of the PI versus diazepam in conversion disorder. Patients treated with PI appeared to have a greater improvement r...

  15. Accelerated modern human–induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Barnosky, Anthony D.; García, Andrés; Pringle, Robert M.; Palmer, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The oft-repeated claim that Earth’s biota is entering a sixth “mass extinction” depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the “background” rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 100 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing. PMID:26601195

  16. Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Barnosky, Anthony D; García, Andrés; Pringle, Robert M; Palmer, Todd M

    2015-06-01

    The oft-repeated claim that Earth's biota is entering a sixth "mass extinction" depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the "background" rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 100 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing.

  17. Latent profile analysis of sixth graders based on teacher ratings: Association with school dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Peters, Jaclyn Wetherington; Colman, Laura; Bandalos, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to identify meaningful groups of sixth graders with common characteristics based on teacher ratings of assets and maladaptive behaviors, describe dropout rates for each group, and examine the validity of these groups using students' self-reports. The sample consisted of racially diverse students (n = 675) attending sixth grade in public schools in Northeast Georgia. The majority of the sample was randomly selected; a smaller group was identified by teachers as high risk for aggression. Based on teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic skills, leadership, and social assets, latent profile analysis yielded 7 classes that can be displayed along a continuum: Well-Adapted, Average, Average-Social Skills Deficit, Internalizing, Externalizing, Disruptive Behavior with School Problems, and Severe Problems. Dropout rate was lowest for the Well-adapted class (4%) and highest for the Severe Problems class (58%). However, students in the Average-Social Skills Deficit class did not follow the continuum, with a large proportion of students who abandoned high school (29%). The proportion of students identified by teachers as high in aggression consistently increased across the continuum from none in the Well-Adapted class to 84% in the Severe Problems class. Students' self-reports were generally consistent with the latent profile classes. Students in the Well-Adapted class reported low aggression, drug use, and delinquency, and high life satisfaction; self-reports went in the opposite direction for the Disruptive Behaviors with School Problems class. Results highlight the importance of early interventions to improve academic performance, reduce externalizing behaviors, and enhance social assets. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Retrospective Conversion of Card catalogue at the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, the article describes the conversion methods employed, procedures followed, and pre-conversion preparations made by the library to automate its card catalogue and to assign barcode labels to the collection. Finally it concludes by highlighting problems encountered throughout the project and by giving statistical ...

  19. Photon - axion conversion cross sections in an electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Van Soa; Ha Huy Bang

    1999-12-01

    Photon - axion conversions in static magnetic fields and in a periodic field with frequency equal to the axion mass are reconsidered in detail by Feynman methods. The differential cross sections are presented and numerical evaluations are given. It is shown that there is a resonant conversion for the considered process. Some estimates for experiments are given from our results. (author)

  20. Conversation therapy for aphasia: a qualitative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Savage, Meghan C; Worrall, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A diverse literature addresses elements of conversation therapy in aphasia including intervention rooted in conversation analysis, partner training, group therapy and behavioural intervention. Currently there is no resource for clinicians or researchers that defines and organizes this information into a coherent synopsis describing various conversation therapy practices. To organize information from varied sources into a descriptive overview of conversation therapy for aphasia. Academic search engines were employed to identify research articles published between 1950 and September 2013 reporting on conversation therapy for aphasia. Thirty articles met criteria for review and were identified as primary sources for the qualitative review. Using qualitative methodology, relevant data were extracted from articles and categories were identified to create a descriptive taxonomy of conversation therapy for aphasia. Conversation interventions were divided into descriptive categories including: treatment participants (person with aphasia, partner, dyad), primary guiding orientation (conversation analysis, social model, behavioural, relationship centred), service delivery (individual, group), focus of intervention (generic/individualized; problem/solution oriented; compensatory), training methods (explicit/implicit; external/embedded), activities or tasks, and outcomes measured. Finally, articles were categorized by research design. There was marked variation in conversation therapy approaches and outcome measures reported and a notable gap in information about one-on-one conversation therapy for individuals with aphasia. This review provides a description of various conversation therapy approaches and identified gaps in the existing literature. Valid measures of natural conversation, research on one-on-one conversation approaches for individuals with aphasia, and a systematic body of evidence consisting of high quality research are needed. © 2014 Royal College of Speech

  1. Inventory Methods in a Conversion Plant; Methodes d'Inventaire dans un Etablissement de Transformation; Metody inventarizatsij na predpriyatii po pererabotke yadernykh materialov; Metodos de Inventario en una Planta de Transformacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billy, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France)

    1966-02-15

    The main purposes of the inventories are: to safeguard the interests of the Commissariat, to evaluate losses, and to check the measures taken for waste storage. On stocktaking the investigator can either carry out a physical inventory, participate in the inventory, or check the inventory. The latter method gives the best results. The stocktaking operations, preceded by a preparatory meeting to determine the methods to be applied, are carried out in two stages: the weight inventory check and the physical auditing check. Some questions arising in connection with the inventory are disputes between consignors and consignees regarding weight and content; choice of weighing equipment, waste, and evaluation of losses. Inventory methods should not differ greatly from one country to another. It would appear desirable to stress the difficulties which arise during operation and to consider jointly ways of surmounting them. (author) [French] Les inventaires ont notamment pour but de sauvegarder les interets du Commissariat, evaluer le montant des pertes, et controler les mesures prises pour le stockage des dechets. Pour le recensement, l'enqueteur peut effectuer materiellement l'inventaire, V participer, ou le verifier. Cettedernieremethodedonneles meilleurs resultats. Les operations de recensement, precedees d'une reunion preparatoire pour definir les modalites a appliquer, ont lieu en deux temps: la verification de l'inventaire ponderal, et la verification de la comptabilite physique. Les questions qui peuvent etre soulevees en cours d'inventaire sont des contestations sur le poids et les teneurs entre expediteurs et destinataires, le choix du materiel de pesee, les dechets et l'evaluation des pertes. Les methodes d'inventaire ne doivent guere differer d'un pays a l'autre. U semble preferable de souligner les difficultes qui se presentent en cours d'operation et d'etudier, en commun, les moyens qui permettent de les surmonter. (author) [Spanish] La finalidad principal de los

  2. Skills Methods to Prevent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven Paul; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking with sixth-grade students from two schools. Skills conditions subjects learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention…

  3. Sixth-order Douglas-Kroll: two-component reference data for one-electron ions from 1s12 through 4f72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuellen, Christoph van

    2005-01-01

    Quasirelativistic Douglas-Kroll calculations including spin-orbit interaction have been performed for hydrogen-like (one-electron) ions. The Douglas-Kroll operators have been implemented up to the sixth order, and a huge even-tempered basis set has been applied that gives results to microhartree accuracy for the energy levels 1s 12 through 4f 72 for all ions with nuclear charge from Z=1 up to Z=100. Besides providing reference data for other implementations, these results can be used to analyse the performance of the Douglas-Kroll method. Such an analysis is presented for the 1s energy levels and the spin-orbit splitting of the 2p shell. The leading order of the error of the Douglas-Kroll result is different for 2s and 2p 12 although these levels are degenerate both at nonrelativistic and Dirac level

  4. The possibilities of application of programmed instruction in the sixth grade of the second cycle of education in accordance with standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the work is to determine the possibilities of application of programmed instruction in the teaching of geography in the case of the sixth grade students of the second cycle of education. On the basis of an experimental research the rationale for the use of this form of acquiring knowledge during the classes of processing new material is presented. The primary task of the research functioning is to determine the degree of benefits of programmed instruction when adopting new geographical teaching contents and what is the extent of applicability of this method of learning with the aim of improving teaching. The second task of the work is the application of the experiment in two classes, the control (C and experimental (E, based on which it is established which vision of learning, programmed or conventional, achieves the best results in processing geographical contents in primary school.

  5. Nanomaterials for photovoltaic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Ltaief, A.; Barlier, V.; Boiteux, G.; Bouazizi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A promising route for photovoltaic conversion has emerged from the combination of electroactive nanomaterials and small bandgap polymers. The formation of bulk heterojunctions resulting from the extended interfaces leads to efficient dissociation of the charge pairs generated under sunlight shown by the rapid extinction of the polymer photoluminescence for increasing contents of fullerenes or TiO 2 nanoparticles in MEH-PPV or PVK. Unconventional elaboration routes of the blends have been developed to increase the nanofiller dispersion and inhibit phase separation at high concentration. The size reduction of the acceptor domains led to a complete quenching of the radiative recombinations, obtained by specific solvent processing of MEH-PPV / C 60 nanocomposites or sol gel elaboration of TiO 2 nanoparticles in a PVK film. A simultaneous increase of the photocurrents could be achieved by the dispersion and size optimisation of the nanofillers. In situ generation of silver particles in MEH-PPV provides an example of enhanced charge separation induced by the plasmon resonance at the metal/polymer interface. The strong influence of the molecular morphology on the nanocomposite properties emphasizes the large improvements which can still be gained on the performances of organic solar cells

  6. Overview of fuel conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The conversion of solid fuels to cleaner-burning and more user-friendly solid liquid or gaseous fuels spans many technologies. In this paper, the authors consider coal, residual oil, oil shale, tar sends tires, municipal oil waste and biomass as feedstocks and examine the processes which can be used in the production of synthetic fuels for the transportation sector. The products of mechanical processing to potentially usable fuels include coal slurries, micronized coal, solvent refined coal, vegetable oil and powdered biomall. The thermochemical and biochemical processes considered include high temperature carbide production, liquefaction, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis-fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The products include syngas, synthetic natural gas, methanol, ethanol and other hydrocarbon oxygenates synthetic gasoline and diesel and jet engine oils. The authors discuss technical and economic aspects of synthetic fuel production giving particular attention and literature references to technologies not discussed in the five chapters which follow. Finally the authors discuss economic energy, and environmental aspects of synthetic fuels and their relationship to the price of imported oil

  7. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  8. Impact of Hidden Curriculum on Ethical and Aesthetic Values of Sixth Graders in Tafila Directorate of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al.qomoul, Mohammad; Al.roud, Atallah

    2017-01-01

    The present research attempts to investigate the impact of the hidden curriculum on ethical and aesthetic values of sixth graders in Tafila Directorate of education. It also, aims at counting the means and differences between the grades of the positive effects and the grades of the negative effects of both ethical and aesthetic values of the…

  9. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Developing the Sixth Grade Students Decision-Making Skill and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Intisar K.; Al Hawi, Asma M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooperative learning on developing the sixth graders' decision making skill and their academic achievement. The study sample, which was selected randomly, consisted of (46) students and divided into two groups: the experimental group that taught using the cooperative learning strategy and the control…

  10. The Declining Significance of Homohysteria for Male Students in Three Sixth Forms in the South of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, M.

    2011-01-01

    English schools have traditionally been institutions with high levels of homophobia. This is attributed to the need that heterosexual boys have to maintain a heteromasculine identity. However, by drawing on 44 in-depth interviews and 12 months of participant observation across three sixth forms, I detail the ways in which homophobia holds little…

  11. Workshops of the Sixth International Brain–Computer Interface Meeting : brain–computer interfaces past, present, and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huggins, Jane E.; Guger, Christoph; Ziat, Mounia; Zander, Thorsten O.; Taylor, Denise; Tangermann, Michael; Soria-Frisch, Aureli; Simeral, John; Scherer, Reinhold; Rupp, Rüdiger; Ruffini, Giulio; Robinson, Douglas K.R.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Nijholt, Anton; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.; McFarland, Dennis J.; Mattia, Donatella; Lance, Brent J.; Kindermans, Pieter-Jan; Iturrate, Iñaki; Herff, Christian; Gupta, Disha; Do, An H.; Collinger, Jennifer L.; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Chasey, Steven M.; Bleichner, Martin G.; Batista, Aaron; Anderson, Charles W.; Aarnoutse, Erik J.

    2017-01-01

    The Sixth International Brain–Computer Interface (BCI) Meeting was held 30 May–3 June 2016 at the Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove, California, USA. The conference included 28 workshops covering topics in BCI and brain–machine interface research. Topics included BCI for specific

  12. Gender and Racial Differences: Development of Sixth Grade Students' Geometric Spatial Visualization within an Earth/Space Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christa; Wilhelm, Jennifer Anne; Lamar, Mary; Cole, Merryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sixth-grade middle-level students' geometric spatial development by gender and race within and between control and experimental groups at two middle schools as they participated in an Earth/Space unit. The control group utilized a regular Earth/Space curriculum and the experimental group used a National Aeronautics and…

  13. Combining Self-Monitoring and an Interdependent Group Contingency to Improve the Behavior of Sixth Graders with EBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denune, Hilary; Hawkins, Renee; Donovan, Lauren; Mccoy, Dacia; Hall, Lyndsie; Moeder, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A withdrawal design was used to examine the influence of a self-monitoring procedure on the overall effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency intervention implemented in a sixth-grade classroom in an alternative school serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Dependent variables included student on-task, off-task,…

  14. Advancing Integrated STEM Learning through Engineering Design: Sixth-Grade Students' Design and Construction of Earthquake Resistant Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna; Smeed, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    As part of a 3-year longitudinal study, 136 sixth-grade students completed an engineering-based problem on earthquakes involving integrated STEM learning. Students employed engineering design processes and STEM disciplinary knowledge to plan, sketch, then construct a building designed to withstand earthquake damage, taking into account a number of…

  15. The Use of Textbooks for Advanced-Level GCE Courses in Physics, Chemistry and Biology by Sixth-Form Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of sixth-form students to determine the level of A-level textbook use in physics, chemistry, and biology in English schools found that texts are used primarily after the lesson, at the student's discretion, and with great variations between students. Biology texts were used most, and physics texts used least. (MBR)

  16. RNA/DNA co-analysis from human skin and contact traces – results of a sixth collaborative EDNAP exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, C; Hanson, E; Banemann, R

    2015-01-01

    The European DNA profiling group (EDNAP) organized a sixth collaborative exercise on RNA/DNA co-analysis for body fluid/tissue identification and STR profiling. The task was to identify skin samples/contact traces using specific RNA biomarkers and test three housekeeping genes for their suitabili...

  17. Cognitive Processing and Mathematical Achievement: A Study with Schoolchildren between Fourth and Sixth Grade of Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Sarmiento, Valentin; Deano, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the relation between cognitive functioning and mathematical achievement in 114 students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. Differences in cognitive performance were studied concurrently in three selected achievement groups: mathematical learning disability group (MLD), low achieving group (LA), and typically achieving…

  18. Voces de Olympo (Echoes from Mount Olympus). A Humanistic Approach to Latin for Children in the Sixth Grade: Teachers' Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

    This curriculum guide, developed for use in a sixth-grade FLES (foreign language in elementary school) program, embraces a visual-audiolingual approach to the teaching of Latin while providing a source of materials for the teaching of the culture of ancient Rome. The course is organized around eight major units on: (1) Jupiter and His Siblings,…

  19. Personal, societal, and ecological values of wilderness: Sixth World Wilderness Congress proceedings on research, management, and allocation, Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; Greg H. Aplet; John C. Hendee

    1998-01-01

    The papers contained in Volume I of these Proceedings were originally scheduled for presentation at the Sixth World Wilderness Congress in Bangalore, India, in 1997. Due to a delay of the Congress until 1998, these 27 papers were compiled for publication prior to presentation. Volumes I and II contain papers covering seven topics: protected area systems: challenges,...

  20. Effects of Math Anxiety and Perfectionism on Timed versus Untimed Math Testing in Mathematically Gifted Sixth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Joanne M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on math performance, under timed testing conditions, among mathematically gifted sixth graders. We found that participants had worse math performance during timed versus untimed testing, but this difference was statistically significant only when the timed condition…

  1. An Analysis of the Role and Responsibilities of Chairs of Further Education College and Sixth-Form College Governing Bodies in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ron; James, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This article reports research into the role and responsibilities of the chairs of governing bodies of further education colleges and sixth-form colleges in England. Further education colleges and sixth-form colleges represent a significant part of post-16 educational provision in England. Every college in the sector has a governing body, which has…

  2. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  3. Career conversations in vocational schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittendorff, K.M.; Brok, den P.J.; Beijaard, D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine career conversations between teachers and students in competence-based vocational education in the Netherlands. A total of 32 career conversations were observed and analysed with respect to four elements: content, teacher activities, student activities and

  4. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  5. Phase conversion for fusion lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, T.; Castle, W.; Sampat, N.; Skupsky, S.; Smith, D.; Swales, S.

    1988-01-01

    An essential requirement for direct drive laser fusion is the uniform irradiation of spherical targets that are located in the quasi-far field of a laser system. A major impediment to irradiation uniformity with high-power solid-state laser systems is the presence of a hot-spot structure at the target plane. The hot-spot intensity nonuniformities are caused by spatial variations in the near-field phase front of each laser beam. Although for many tabletop applications diffraction-limited laser performance can be obtained through static phase correction, adaptive optics, or phase conjugation, such approaches are either excessively expensive, difficult to implement, or not yet available for large-aperture, high-peak-power laser beams. An alternative to phase correcting a wavefront involves modifying the laser beam's coherence properties thereby changing its focusing characteristics. The method of induced spatial incoherence (ISI) involves a reduction in both spatial and temporal coherence. Other methods are based on modifications of only the spatial coherence of a laser beam. A phase conversion technology which incorporates a distribution of near-field phases to either perform static phase correction or induce spatial incoherence offers a route toward increasingly higher levels of irradiation uniformity

  6. Adaptive format conversion for scalable video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wade K.; Lim, Jae S.

    2001-12-01

    The enhancement layer in many scalable coding algorithms is composed of residual coding information. There is another type of information that can be transmitted instead of (or in addition to) residual coding. Since the encoder has access to the original sequence, it can utilize adaptive format conversion (AFC) to generate the enhancement layer and transmit the different format conversion methods as enhancement data. This paper investigates the use of adaptive format conversion information as enhancement data in scalable video coding. Experimental results are shown for a wide range of base layer qualities and enhancement bitrates to determine when AFC can improve video scalability. Since the parameters needed for AFC are small compared to residual coding, AFC can provide video scalability at low enhancement layer bitrates that are not possible with residual coding. In addition, AFC can also be used in addition to residual coding to improve video scalability at higher enhancement layer bitrates. Adaptive format conversion has not been studied in detail, but many scalable applications may benefit from it. An example of an application that AFC is well-suited for is the migration path for digital television where AFC can provide immediate video scalability as well as assist future migrations.

  7. Biomass thermo-conversion. Research trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Machin, Lizet; Perez Bermudez, Raul; Quintana Perez, Candido Enrique; Ocanna Guevara, Victor Samuel; Duffus Scott, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper is studied the state of the art in order to identify the main trends of the processes of thermo conversion of biomass into fuels and other chemicals. In Cuba, from total supply of biomass, wood is the 19% and sugar cane bagasse and straw the 80%, is why research in the country, should be directed primarily toward these. The methods for energy production from biomass can be group into two classes: thermo-chemical and biological conversion routes. The technology of thermo-chemical conversion includes three subclasses: pyrolysis, gasification, and direct liquefaction. Although pyrolysis is still under development, in the current energy scenario, has received special attention, because can convert directly biomass into solid, liquid and gaseous by thermal decomposition in absence of oxygen. The gasification of biomass is a thermal treatment, where great quantities of gaseous products and small quantities of char and ash are produced. In Cuba, studies of biomass thermo-conversion studies are limited to slow pyrolysis and gasification; but gas fuels, by biomass, are mainly obtained by digestion (biogas). (author)

  8. Problematic topic transitions in dysarthric conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Steven; Saldert, Charlotta; Ferm, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of topic transition problems associated with acquired progressive dysarthric speech in the everyday conversation of people with motor neurone disease. Using conversation analytic methods, a video collection of five naturally occurring problematic topic transitions was identified, transcribed and analysed. These were extracted from a main collection of over 200 other-initiated repair sequences and a sub-set of 15 problematic topic transition sequences. The sequences were analysed with reference to how the participants both identified and resolved the problems. Analysis revealed that topic transition by people with dysarthria can prove problematic. Conversation partners may find transitions problematic not only because of speech intelligibility but also because of a sequential disjuncture between the dysarthric speech turn and whatever topic has come prior. In addition the treatment of problematic topic transition as a complaint reveals the potential vulnerability of people with dysarthria to judgements of competence. These findings have implications for how dysarthria is conceptualized and how specific actions in conversation, such as topic transition, might be suitable targets for clinical intervention.

  9. Conversion of homothallic yeast to heterothallism trough HO gene disruption

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, WH

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple method was developed for the conversion of homothallic Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeaststrains to heterothallism through HO gene disruption. An integrative ho:: neo disrupted allele was constructed by cloning a dominant selectable marker...

  10. Thermal Conversion of Methane to Acetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincke, James Russell; Anderson, Raymond Paul; Hyde, Timothy Allen; Wright, Randy Ben; Bewley, Randy Lee; Haggard, Delon C; Swank, William David

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the experimental demonstration of a process for the direct thermal conversion of methane to acetylene. The process utilizes a thermal plasma heat source to dissociation products react to form a mixture of acetylene and hydrogen. The use of a supersonic expansion of the hot gas is investigated as a method of rapidly cooling (quenching) the product stream to prevent further reaction or thermal decomposition of the acetylene which can lower the overall efficiency of the process.

  11. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  12. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D- 3 He reaction and the p- 11 B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger βB 2 0 to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high β values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D- 3 He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D 3 He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D 3 He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion or liquid metal MHD conversion (LMMHD). For a D

  13. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  14. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  15. 5 CFR 317.302 - Conversion procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion. (2) Pay. Upon conversion to the Senior Executive Service, an employee's SES rate will be... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion procedures. 317.302 Section... IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.302 Conversion...

  16. Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ronalds W.

    2011-12-01

    and supply chain models specifically for biomass to bioenergy production. The study suggest that this species can be profitably managed for biomass production with rotation length of 11 to 12 years and with a stand tree density of 1,200 trees per acre. Optimum rotation length is greatly affected by seedlings costs and biomass productivity. In the fourth study, a evaluation of seven different feedstocks (loblolly pine, natural mixed hardwood, Eucalyptus, switchgrass, miscanthus, corn stover and sweet sorghum) is made in terms of supply chain, biomass delivered costs, dollar per ton of carbohydrate and dollar per million BTU delivered to a biorefinery. Forest feedstocks present better advantages in terms of a well established supply chain, year round supply and no need for biomass storage. In the same context biomass delivered costs, as well as cost to delivered one ton of carbohydrate and one million BTU is lower in forest feedstocks. In the fifth study, conversion costs, profitability and sensitivity analysis for a novel pretreatment process, green liquor, are modeled for ethanol production with loblolly pine, natural mixed hardwood and Eucalyptus as feedstocks, evaluated in two investment scenarios: green field and repurposing of an old kraft pulp mill. Better financial returns are perceived in the natural hardwood - repurposing scenario, mainly due to lower CAPEX and lower enzyme charge and cost. In the sixth study, conversion cost, CAPEX, ethanol yield and profitability for the thermochemical process (indirect gasification and production of mixed alcohol) is simulated for loblolly pine, natural hardwood, eucalyptus, corn stover and switchgrass. Higher ethanol yield with forest feedstock (due to higher content of %C and %H) result in better economic performance, when compare to agriculture biomass. This research indicates that forest feedstock outperform agriculture biomass in terms of delivered costs, supply chain, ethanol yield and process profitability. Loblolly

  17. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  18. Unlikely culprit: congenital middle aortic syndrome diagnosed in the sixth decade of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Sajawal; Tchernodrinski, Stefan; Mohananey, Divyanshu; Ali, Ahya Sajawal

    2016-08-16

    A 58-year-old woman was admitted with acute heart failure. She had a long history of resistant hypertension, with an unremarkable work up for secondary causes in the past. Her brachial blood pressure was 210/70 mm Hg, with ankle blood pressure of 100/70 mm Hg. CT angiogram revealed marked narrowing of the descending thoracic aorta between the left subclavian artery and the diaphragm, consistent with middle aortic syndrome (MAS). She was initially managed with diuretics and antihypertensives. Subsequently thoracotomy revealed a severely hypoplastic segment of the descending aorta. The diseased segment was resected and aortic reconstruction performed. Histopathology showed fragmentation of the medial elastic fibres and fibrosis of the medial and intimal layers. These findings along with gross aortic hypoplasia and absence of features of Takayasu's arteritis, suggest that our patient had congenital MAS. The patient has done well since her surgery. We believe this is the first case of congenital MAS reported in the sixth decade of life. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Effect of Child Gender and Psychosocial Factors on Physical Activity From Fifth to Sixth Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthofer, Melinda; Dowda, Marsha; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Addy, Cheryl L; McDonald, Samantha; Reid, Lauren; Pate, Russell R

    2017-12-01

    Gender differences in physical activity (PA) trajectories during adolescence are well documented, yet little research has examined whether the determinants of these trajectories vary by child's gender. This study is one of few prospective examinations of gender differences in the influences of psychosocial and socioenvironmental factors on changes in objectively measured PA. Students and parents from elementary and middle schools located in 2 school districts in South Carolina were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of changes in children's PA from elementary to middle school. Measures included children's and/or parents' ratings of various psychosocial and socioenvironmental factors as well as objectively measured PA, children's anthropometric characteristics, and neighborhood factors at fifth and sixth grades. Parents' reports of children's sport and class participation, parent-reported support for PA, and neighborhood resources for PA were protective against declines in PA for both boys and girls. The effects of 2 factors-children's self-efficacy and parents' leisure-time PA-on changes in PA over time were moderated by the child's gender. A better understanding of these dynamics may inform the development of interventions.

  20. Where students turn into teachers: the sixth Inverted CERN School of Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    François Fluckiger, CSC Director

    2013-01-01

    For the sixth time since 2005, the CERN School of Commuting has scheduled its inverted school for February. iCSCs are part of the CSC series of events, together with the main summer school to be held this year in Cyprus and the thematic school in Split next June.   The inverted CSC, iCSC2013, will take place at CERN on 25 and 26 February, in Room 513-1-024. The inverted CSCs stem from the observation that at regular CSCs it is common to find someone in the room who knows more on a particular (usually advanced) topic than the lecturer. So why not try and exploit this and turn the students into teachers? CSC2012 students made proposals via an electronic discussion forum, from which a programme was designed. This year’s programme focuses on timely, challenging and innovative topics, inlcuding: GPU computing in High Energy Physics, Computer vision, Testing in large scale distributed systems and Grid Interpretation by LHC experiments. Attendanc...