WorldWideScience

Sample records for converging signals synergistically

  1. Synergistic convergence and split pons in horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis in two sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic convergence is an ocular motor anomaly where on attempted abduction or on attempted horizontal gaze, both the eyes converge. It has been related to peripheral causes such as congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM, congenital cranial dysinnervation syndrome, ocular misinnervation or rarely central causes like horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, brain stem dysplasia. We hereby report the occurrence of synergistic convergence in two sisters. Both of them also had kyphoscoliosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain and spine in both the patients showed signs of brain stem dysplasia (split pons sign differing in degree (younger sister had more marked changes.

  2. Bilateral familial vertical Duane Syndrome with synergistic convergence, aberrant trigeminal innervation, and facial hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvika Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old girl presented with bilateral familial vertical  Duane retraction syndrome with alternating esotropia, elevation deficit, Marcus gunn phenomenon, and facial hypoplasia. Abnormal adducting downshoots on attempting abduction suggestive of a synergistic convergence were noted. Hypothesis suggests aberrant innervations or peripheral anatomic connections between inferior and medial recti.

  3. Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-09-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and

  4. Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-01-01

    .p {padding-bottom:6px} Call for Papers: Convergence Guest Editors: Thomas E. Darcie, University of Victoria Robert Doverspike, AT&T Martin Zirngibl, Lucent Technologies Coordinating Associate Editor: Steven K. Korotky, Lucent Technologies The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and

  5. Converging, Synergistic Actions of Multiple Stress Hormones Mediate Enduring Memory Impairments after Acute Simultaneous Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuncai; Molet, Jenny; Lauterborn, Julie C; Trieu, Brian H; Bolton, Jessica L; Patterson, Katelin P; Gall, Christine M; Lynch, Gary; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-11-02

    Stress influences memory, an adaptive process crucial for survival. During stress, hippocampal synapses are bathed in a mixture of stress-released molecules, yet it is unknown whether or how these interact to mediate the effects of stress on memory. Here, we demonstrate novel synergistic actions of corticosterone and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on synaptic physiology and dendritic spine structure that mediate the profound effects of acute concurrent stresses on memory. Spatial memory in mice was impaired enduringly after acute concurrent stresses resulting from loss of synaptic potentiation associated with disrupted structure of synapse-bearing dendritic spines. Combined application of the stress hormones corticosterone and CRH recapitulated the physiological and structural defects provoked by acute stresses. Mechanistically, corticosterone and CRH, via their cognate receptors, acted synergistically on the spine-actin regulator RhoA, promoting its deactivation and degradation, respectively, and destabilizing spines. Accordingly, blocking the receptors of both hormones, but not each alone, rescued memory. Therefore, the synergistic actions of corticosterone and CRH at hippocampal synapses underlie memory impairments after concurrent and perhaps also single, severe acute stresses, with potential implications to spatial memory dysfunction in, for example, posttraumatic stress disorder. Stress influences memory, an adaptive process crucial for survival. During stress, adrenal corticosterone and hippocampal corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) permeate memory-forming hippocampal synapses, yet it is unknown whether (and how) these hormones interact to mediate effects of stress. Here, we demonstrate novel synergistic actions of corticosterone and CRH on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spine structure that mediate the memory-disrupting effects of stress. Combined application of both hormones provoked synaptic function collapse and spine disruption

  6. Signal amplification and Pierce's instability in convergent particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnavi, G.; Gratton, F.T.

    1988-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams flowing between cylindrical and spherical electrodes (or solid angles sections of electrodes with these geometries) are studied. The beams are focused through the axis in the cylindrical case or through the center when spherical electrodes are considered. It is assumed that the external electrode is part of a device which accelerates the particles, the inner electrode is passive and removes the beams from the system. Electrons move by inertia in the interelectrode space, neutralized by an ion background. Properties of radial, small amplitude, perturbations are analyzed theoretically. Previous analyses of counterstreaming beams indicated that convergence modifies considerably the oscillations spectrum. Here, results on the amplification of signals when a beam is modulated at the external electrode are reported. Then, conditions for the instability of a beam when it flows through grounded electrodes (Pierce's instability of only one beam) are examined

  7. Converged wireline and wireless signal transport over optical fibre access links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Prince, Kamau; Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews emerging trends in converged optical-wireless communication systems and outline the role that photonic technologies are playing in making the vision of a wireline-wireless converged signal transport network a reality.......This article reviews emerging trends in converged optical-wireless communication systems and outline the role that photonic technologies are playing in making the vision of a wireline-wireless converged signal transport network a reality....

  8. Disorder in convergent floral nanostructures enhances signalling to bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyroud, Edwige; Wenzel, Tobias; Middleton, Rox; Rudall, Paula J.; Banks, Hannah; Reed, Alison; Mellers, Greg; Killoran, Patrick; Westwood, M. Murphy; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia; Glover, Beverley J.

    2017-10-01

    Diverse forms of nanoscale architecture generate structural colour and perform signalling functions within and between species. Structural colour is the result of the interference of light from approximately regular periodic structures; some structural disorder is, however, inevitable in biological organisms. Is this disorder functional and subject to evolutionary selection, or is it simply an unavoidable outcome of biological developmental processes? Here we show that disordered nanostructures enable flowers to produce visual signals that are salient to bees. These disordered nanostructures (identified in most major lineages of angiosperms) have distinct anatomies but convergent optical properties; they all produce angle-dependent scattered light, predominantly at short wavelengths (ultraviolet and blue). We manufactured artificial flowers with nanoscale structures that possessed tailored levels of disorder in order to investigate how foraging bumblebees respond to this optical effect. We conclude that floral nanostructures have evolved, on multiple independent occasions, an effective degree of relative spatial disorder that generates a photonic signature that is highly salient to insect pollinators.

  9. Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Brun; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Convergence trends between the WAN Internet area, characterized by best effort service provision, and the real time LAN domain, with requirements for guaranteed services, are identified and discussed. A bilateral evolution is identified, where typical bulk service applications from WAN, such as m......Convergence trends between the WAN Internet area, characterized by best effort service provision, and the real time LAN domain, with requirements for guaranteed services, are identified and discussed. A bilateral evolution is identified, where typical bulk service applications from WAN...... with the emergence of remote service provision, such as supervision and control of decentralized heating facilities and wind based electrical power production. The reliability issue is addressed from a structural viewpoint, where the concept of Structural QoS (SQoS) is defined to support reliability modelling...

  10. Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the main conclusions which can be drawn from the discussions on Future Communication Systems and lessons on Unpredictable Future of Wireless Communication Systems. Future systems beyond the third generation are already under discussions in international bodies, such as ITU, WW...... and R&D programmes worldwide. The incoming era is characterized by the convergence of networks and access technology and the divergence of applications. Future mobile communication systems should bring something more than only faster data or wireless internet access....

  11. A performance based evaluation of SIP signalling across converged networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oredope, A.; Liotta, A.

    2007-01-01

    As wireless networks evolves towards the 3G and 4G architectures the mobile core networks provides a platform for all-IP convergence of mobile and fixed networks allowing for better integration of the Internet and cellular networks, providing better quality of service, charging mechanisms and

  12. An analysis of mobile signalling in converged networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oredope, A.; Exarchakos, G.; Menkovski, V.; Liotta, A.

    2009-01-01

    Converged networks are viewed as a multi-access platform on which fixed and mobile communications can be easily merged into a unified system thus enabling the deployment of rich and personalized services. In this paper, we provide the outcomes of our research into the challenges introduced by

  13. Autonomous rexinoid death signaling is suppressed by converging signaling pathways in immature leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, G R; Flexor, M; Besançon, F; Altucci, L; Rossin, A; Hillion, J; Balajthy, Z; Legres, L; Ségal-Bendirdjian, E; Gronemeyer, H; Lanotte, M

    2001-07-01

    On their own, retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective ligands (rexinoids) are silent in retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-RXR heterodimers, and no selective rexinoid program has been described as yet in cellular systems. We report here on the rexinoid signaling capacity that triggers apoptosis of immature promyelocytic NB4 cells as a default pathway in the absence of survival factors. Rexinoid-induced apoptosis displays all features of bona fide programmed cell death and is inhibited by RXR, but not RAR antagonists. Several types of survival signals block rexinoid-induced apoptosis. RARalpha agonists switch the cellular response toward differentiation and induce the expression of antiapoptosis factors. Activation of the protein kinase A pathway in the presence of rexinoid agonists induces maturation and blocks immature cell apoptosis. Addition of nonretinoid serum factors also blocks cell death but does not induce cell differentiation. Rexinoid-induced apoptosis is linked to neither the presence nor stability of the promyelocytic leukemia-RARalpha fusion protein and operates also in non-acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Together our results support a model according to which rexinoids activate in certain leukemia cells a default death pathway onto which several other signaling paradigms converge. This pathway is entirely distinct from that triggered by RAR agonists, which control cell maturation and postmaturation apoptosis.

  14. Converged wireline and wireless signal distribution in optical fiber access networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau

    This thesis presents results obtained during the course of my doctoral studies into the transport of fixed and wireless signaling over a converged otpical access infrastructure. In the formulation, development and assessment of a converged paradigma for multiple-services delivery via optical access...... networking infrastructure, I have demonstrated increased functionalities with existing optical technologies and commercially available optoelectronic devices. I have developed novel systems for extending the range of optical access systems, and have demonstrated the repurposing of standard digital devices...

  15. Investigating Multi-Array Antenna Signal Convergence using Wavelet Transform and Krylov Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahmed Sikander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present world, wireless communication is becoming immensely popular for plethora of applications. Technology has been advancing at an accelerated rate leading to make communication reliable. Still, there are issues need to be address to minimize errors in the transmission. This research study expounds on the rapid convergence of the signal. Convergence is considered to be an important aspect in wireless communication. For rapid convergence, two ambiguities should be addressed; Eigenvalue spread and sparse identification or sparsity of the signal. Eigen value spread is defining as the ratio of minimum to maximum Eigenvalue, whereas sparsity is defining as the loosely bounded system. In this research, two of these attributes are investigated for MAA (Multi-Array Antenna signal using the cascading of Wavelet and Krylov processes. Specifically, the MAA signal is applied in the research because nowadays there are many physical hindrances in the communication path. These hurdles weaken the signal strength which in turn effects the quality of the reception. WT (Wavelet Transform is used to address the Eigenvalue problem and the Krylov sequence is used to attempt the sparse identification of the MAA signal. The results show that the convergence of the MMA signal is improved by applying Wavelet transform and Krylov Subspace.

  16. Investigating multi-array antenna signal convergence using wavelet transform and krylov sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikander, M.A.; Hussain, R.; Hussain, R.

    2018-01-01

    In the present world, wireless communication is becoming immensely popular for plethora of applications. Technology has been advancing at an accelerated rate leading to make communication reliable. Still, there are issues need to be address to minimize errors in the transmission. This research study expounds on the rapid convergence of the signal. Convergence is considered to be an important aspect in wireless communication. For rapid convergence, two ambiguities should be addressed; Eigenvalue spread and sparse identification or sparsity of the signal. Eigen value spread is defining as the ratio of minimum to maximum Eigenvalue, whereas sparsity is defining as the loosely bounded system. In this research, two of these attributes are investigated for MAA (Multi-Array Antenna) signal using the cascading of Wavelet and Krylov processes. Specifically, the MAA signal is applied in the research because nowadays there are many physical hindrances in the communication path. These hurdles weaken the signal strength which in turn effects the quality of the reception. WT (Wavelet Transform) is used to address the Eigenvalue problem and the Krylov sequence is used to attempt the sparse identification of the MAA signal. The results show that the convergence of the MMA signal is improved by applying Wavelet transform and Krylov Subspace. (author)

  17. Towards convergence of wireless and wireline signal transport in broadband access networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Prince, Kamau; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid optical wireless access networks are to play an important role in the realization of the vision of delivery of broadband services to the end-user any time, anywhere and at affordable costs. We present results of experiments conducted over a field deployed optical fibre links we successfull...... demonstrated converged wireless and wireline signal transport over a common fibre infrastructure. The type of signal used in this field deployed experiments cover WiMax, Impulse-radio ultra-wideband (UWB) and coherent transmission of baseband QPSK and radio-over-fibre signals....

  18. Synergistic target combination prediction from curated signaling networks: Machine learning meets systems biology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Huey Eng; Bhowmick, Sourav S; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Given a signaling network, the target combination prediction problem aims to predict efficacious and safe target combinations for combination therapy. State-of-the-art in silico methods use Monte Carlo simulated annealing (mcsa) to modify a candidate solution stochastically, and use the Metropolis criterion to accept or reject the proposed modifications. However, such stochastic modifications ignore the impact of the choice of targets and their activities on the combination's therapeutic effect and off-target effects, which directly affect the solution quality. In this paper, we present mascot, a method that addresses this limitation by leveraging two additional heuristic criteria to minimize off-target effects and achieve synergy for candidate modification. Specifically, off-target effects measure the unintended response of a signaling network to the target combination and is often associated with toxicity. Synergy occurs when a pair of targets exerts effects that are greater than the sum of their individual effects, and is generally a beneficial strategy for maximizing effect while minimizing toxicity. mascot leverages on a machine learning-based target prioritization method which prioritizes potential targets in a given disease-associated network to select more effective targets (better therapeutic effect and/or lower off-target effects); and on Loewe additivity theory from pharmacology which assesses the non-additive effects in a combination drug treatment to select synergistic target activities. Our experimental study on two disease-related signaling networks demonstrates the superiority of mascot in comparison to existing approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Convergent and Divergent Signaling in PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Effector-Triggered Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yujun; van Wersch, Rowan; Zhang, Yuelin

    2018-04-01

    Plants use diverse immune receptors to sense pathogen attacks. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors localized on the plasma membrane leads to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Detection of pathogen effectors by intracellular or plasma membrane-localized immune receptors results in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Despite the large variations in the magnitude and duration of immune responses triggered by different PAMPs or pathogen effectors during PTI and ETI, plasma membrane-localized immune receptors activate similar downstream molecular events such as mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, oxidative burst, ion influx, and increased biosynthesis of plant defense hormones, indicating that defense signals initiated at the plasma membrane converge at later points. On the other hand, activation of ETI by immune receptors localized to the nucleus appears to be more directly associated with transcriptional regulation of defense gene expression. Here, we review recent progress in signal transductions downstream of different groups of plant immune receptors, highlighting the converging and diverging molecular events.

  20. Convergence of BMI1 and CHD7 on ERK Signaling in Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Badodi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We describe molecular convergence between BMI1 and CHD7 in the initiation of medulloblastoma. Identified in a functional genomic screen in mouse models, a BMI1High;CHD7Low expression signature within medulloblastoma characterizes patients with poor overall survival. We show that BMI1-mediated repression of the ERK1/2 pathway leads to increased proliferation and tumor burden in primary human MB cells and in a xenograft model, respectively. We provide evidence that repression of the ERK inhibitor DUSP4 by BMI1 is dependent on a more accessible chromatin configuration in G4 MB cells with low CHD7 expression. These findings extend current knowledge of the role of BMI1 and CHD7 in medulloblastoma pathogenesis, and they raise the possibility that pharmacological targeting of BMI1 or ERK may be particularly indicated in a subgroup of MB with low expression levels of CHD7. : Badodi et al. find convergence of the chromatin modifiers BMI1 and CHD7 in medulloblastoma pathogenesis, and they show that this pathway regulates tumor proliferation and growth via ERK signaling. Keywords: BMI1, CHD7, DUSP4, ERK, medulloblastoma, PcG genes, mouse models, epigenetics, chromatin

  1. Crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin and estrogen receptor signaling synergistically promotes osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Gao

    Full Text Available Osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs are initiated and regulated by a cascade of signaling events. Either Wnt/β-catenin or estrogen signaling pathway has been shown to play an important role in regulating skeletal development and maintaining adult tissue homeostasis. Here, we investigate the potential crosstalk and synergy of these two signaling pathways in regulating osteogenic differentiation of MPCs. We find that the activation of estrogen receptor (ER signaling by estradiol (E2 or exogenously expressed ERα in MPCs synergistically enhances Wnt3A-induced early and late osteogenic markers, as well as matrix mineralization. The E2 or ERα-mediated synergy can be effectively blocked by ERα antagonist tamoxifen. E2 stimulation can enhance endochondral ossification of Wnt3A-transduced mouse fetal limb explants. Furthermore, exogenously expressed ERα significantly enhances the maturity and mineralization of Wnt3A-induced subcutaneous and intramuscular ectopic bone formation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that E2 does not exert any detectable effect on β-catenin/Tcf reporter activity. However, ERα expression is up-regulated within the first 48h in AdWnt3A-transduced MPCs, whereas ERβ expression is significantly inhibited within 24h. Moreover, the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of estrogens aromatase is modulated by Wnt3A in a biphasic manner, up-regulated at 24h but reduced after 48h. Our results demonstrate that, while ER signaling acts synergistically with Wnt3A in promoting osteogenic differentiation, Wnt3A may crosstalk with ER signaling by up-regulating ERα expression and down-regulating ERβ expression in MPCs. Thus, the signaling crosstalk and synergy between these two pathways should be further explored as a potential therapeutic approach to combating bone and skeletal disorders, such as fracture healing and osteoporosis.

  2. The berry constituents quercetin, kaempferol, and pterostilbene synergistically attenuate reactive oxygen species: involvement of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Constance Lay Lay; Guo, Yue; Yang, Anne Yuqing; Paredes-Gonzalez, Ximena; Ramirez, Christina; Pung, Douglas; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2014-10-01

    Quercetin, kaempferol, and pterostilbene are abundant in berries. The anti-oxidative properties of these constituents may contribute to cancer chemoprevention. However, their precise mechanisms of action and their combinatorial effects are not completely understood. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) regulates anti-oxidative stress enzymes and Phase II drug metabolizing/detoxifying enzymes by binding to antioxidant response element (ARE). This study aimed to investigate the anti-oxidative stress activities of quercetin, kaempferol, and pterostilbene individually and in combination, as well as the involvement of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. Quercetin, kaempferol, and pterostilbene all exhibited strong free-radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay. The MTS assay revealed that low concentration combinations we tested were relatively non-toxic to HepG2-C8 cells. The results of the DCFH-DA assay and combination index (CI) indicated that quercetin, kaempferol, and pterostilbene attenuated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels when pretreated individually and had synergistic effects when used in combination. In addition, the combination treatment significantly induced ARE and increased the mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2-regulated genes. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the berry constituents quercetin, kaempferol, and pterostilbene activated the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway and exhibited synergistic anti-oxidative stress activity at appropriate concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bruton's tyrosine kinase mediates the synergistic signalling between TLR9 and the B cell receptor by regulating calcium and calmodulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine F Kenny

    Full Text Available B cells signal through both the B cell receptor (BCR which binds antigens and Toll-like receptors (TLRs including TLR9 which recognises CpG DNA. Activation of TLR9 synergises with BCR signalling when the BCR and TLR9 co-localise within an auto-phagosome-like compartment. Here we report that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK is required for synergistic IL6 production and up-regulation of surface expression of MHC-class-II, CD69 and CD86 in primary murine and human B cells. We show that BTK is essential for co-localisation of the BCR and TLR9 within a potential auto-phagosome-like compartment in the Namalwa human B cell line. Downstream of BTK we find that calcium acting via calmodulin is required for this process. These data provide new insights into the role of BTK, an important target for autoimmune diseases, in B cell activation.

  4. Synergistic electron transfer effect-based signal amplification strategy for the ultrasensitive detection of dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiujun; Chen, Xiaogen; Liu, Dan; Wu, Cuiyan; Liu, Meiling; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2018-05-15

    The selective and sensitive detection of dopamine (DA) is of great significance for the identification of schizophrenia, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease from the perspective of molecular diagnostics. So far, most of DA fluorescence sensors are based on the electron transfer from the fluorescence nanomaterials to DA-quinone. However, the limited electron transfer ability of the DA-quinone affects the level of detection sensitivity of these sensors. In this work, based on the DA can reduce Ag + into AgNPs followed by oxidized to DA-quinone, we developed a novel silicon nanoparticles-based electron transfer fluorescent sensor for the detection of DA. As electron transfer acceptor, the AgNPs and DA-quinone can quench the fluorescence of silicon nanoparticles effectively through the synergistic electron transfer effect. Compared with traditional fluorescence DA sensors, the proposed synergistic electron transfer-based sensor improves the detection sensitivity to a great extent (at least 10-fold improvement). The proposed sensor shows a low detection limit of DA, which is as low as 0.1 nM under the optimal conditions. This sensor has potential applicability for the detection of DA in practical sample. This work has been demonstrated to contribute to a substantial improvement in the sensitivity of the sensors. It also gives new insight into design electron transfer-based sensors. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Synergistic Radioprotection by Gamma-Tocotrienol and Pentoxifylline: Role of cAMP Signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Shilpa; Chakraborty, Kushal; Kumar, K. Sree; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Ghosh, Sanchita P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study was designed to determine the efficacy and mechanisms of radioprotection by the combination of gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) and pentoxifylline (PTX) against acute radiation injury. Materials and Methods. Post-irradiation survival was monitored to determine the most efficacious dose and time of administration of PTX. Dose reduction factor (DRF) was calculated to compare the radioprotective efficacy of the combination. To determine the mechanism of synergistic radioprotection by the combination, mevalonate or calmodulin were coadministered with the GT3-PTX combination. Mevalonate was used to reverse the inhibitory effect of GT3 on 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), and calmodulin was used to reverse the inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) by PTX. Results. The combination was most effective when 200 mg/kg of PTX was administered 15 min before irradiation along with 200 mg/kg of GT3 (−24 h) and resulted in a DRF of 1.5. White blood cells and neutrophil counts showed accelerated recovery in GT3-PTX-treated groups compared to GT3. Mevalonate had no effect on the radioprotection of GT3-PTX; calmodulin abrogated the synergistic radioprotection by GT3-PTX. Conclusion. The mechanism of radioprotection by GT3-PTX may involve PDE inhibition

  6. Signal-enhanced electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on synergistic catalysis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride and silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangjie; Jin, Feng; Dai, Nan; Zhong, Zhaoyang; Qing, Yi; Li, Mengxia; Yuan, Ruo; Wang, Dong

    2012-03-01

    A new metal-organic nanocomposite with synergistic catalysis function was prepared and developed to construct an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of tumor biomarker CA125. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH) that can participate and catalyze the ECL reaction of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) were employed as the metal component and the organic component to synthesize the metal-organic nanocomposite of NADH-AgNPs (NA). The novel ECL immunosensor was assembled via Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-doped silica nanoparticles (Ru-SiO(2)) modified electrode with the NA as immune labels. First, the chitosan-suspended Ru-SiO(2) nanoparticles were cast on the gold electrode surface to immobilize the ECL probes of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) and link gold nanoparticles. Then, the primary antibodies were loaded onto the modified electrode via the gold sulfhydryl covalent binding. After immunobinding the analytes of antigen, NA-attached secondary antibodies could be captured as a sandwich type on the electrode. Finally, based on the circularly synergistic catalysis by the silver and NADH for the solid-phase ECL of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+), the proposed immunosensor sensed the concentration of antigen. The synergistic ECL catalysis of metal-organic nanocomposite amplified response signal and pushed the detection limit down to 0.03 U ml(-1), which initiated a new ECL labeling field and has great significance for ECL immunoassays. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Convergent Evolution of Pathogen Effectors toward Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Networks in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwa, Nam-Soo; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2017-01-01

    Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants. The perception of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors leads to the rapid and strong production of ROS through activation of NADPH oxidase Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOHs) as well as peroxidases. Specific pathogen effectors directly or indirectly interact with plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors to induce ROS production and the hypersensitive response in plant cells. By contrast, virulent pathogens possess effectors capable of suppressing plant ROS bursts in different ways during infection. PAMP-triggered ROS bursts are suppressed by pathogen effectors that target mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Moreover, pathogen effectors target vesicle trafficking or metabolic priming, leading to the suppression of ROS production. Secreted pathogen effectors block the metabolic coenzyme NADP-malic enzyme, inhibiting the transfer of electrons to the NADPH oxidases (RBOHs) responsible for ROS generation. Collectively, pathogen effectors may have evolved to converge on a common host protein network to suppress the common plant immune system, including the ROS burst and cell death response in plants.

  8. Convergent Evolution of Pathogen Effectors toward Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Networks in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Soo Jwa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants. The perception of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors leads to the rapid and strong production of ROS through activation of NADPH oxidase Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOHs as well as peroxidases. Specific pathogen effectors directly or indirectly interact with plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors to induce ROS production and the hypersensitive response in plant cells. By contrast, virulent pathogens possess effectors capable of suppressing plant ROS bursts in different ways during infection. PAMP-triggered ROS bursts are suppressed by pathogen effectors that target mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Moreover, pathogen effectors target vesicle trafficking or metabolic priming, leading to the suppression of ROS production. Secreted pathogen effectors block the metabolic coenzyme NADP-malic enzyme, inhibiting the transfer of electrons to the NADPH oxidases (RBOHs responsible for ROS generation. Collectively, pathogen effectors may have evolved to converge on a common host protein network to suppress the common plant immune system, including the ROS burst and cell death response in plants.

  9. Germline signaling mediates the synergistically prolonged longevity produced by double mutations in daf-2 and rsks-1 in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Li, Patrick Wai-Lun; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Cai, Waijiao; Thomas, Emma Lynn; Chen, Fen; Hubbard, Alan E; Melov, Simon; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2013-12-26

    Inhibition of DAF-2 (insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1] receptor) or RSKS-1 (S6K), key molecules in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) and target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways, respectively, extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, it has not been clear how and in which tissues they interact with each other to modulate longevity. Here, we demonstrate that a combination of mutations in daf-2 and rsks-1 produces a nearly 5-fold increase in longevity that is much greater than the sum of single mutations. This synergistic lifespan extension requires positive feedback regulation of DAF-16 (FOXO) via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) complex. Furthermore, we identify germline as the key tissue for this synergistic longevity. Moreover, germline-specific inhibition of rsks-1 activates DAF-16 in the intestine. Together, our findings highlight the importance of the germline in the significantly increased longevity produced by daf-2 rsks-1, which has important implications for interactions between the two major conserved longevity pathways in more complex organisms. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. PI 3-kinase signalling in platelets: the significance of synergistic, autocrine stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selheim, F; Holmsen, H; Vassbotn, F S

    2000-03-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI 3Ks) play a key role in regulation of intracellular signalling and cellular function, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, chemotaxis, membrane trafficking and platelet activation. The PI 3Ks are grouped into three classes on the basis on their structure and in vitro substrate specificity. Class I are activated by a variety of agonists which mediate their effect through tyrosine kinase-linked or G-protein-linked receptors. In vivo class I PI 3Ks seem to preferentially phosphorylate the D3 hydroxyls of the inositol moiety of PtdIns(4,5)P2 to produce PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. However, class II PI 3Ks preferentially phosphorylate the D3 hydroxyl of PtdIns and PtdIns(4)P to produce PtdIns(3)P and PtdIns(3,4)P2, respectively. The late accumulation of PtdIns(3,4)P2 has been suggested to play an important role in irreversible platelet aggregation. In human platelets the class II PI 3K isoform HsC2-PI 3K is activated in an integrin alpha IIb beta 3 + fibrinogen-dependent manner. Class III PI 3Ks phosphorylate PtdIns to produce PtdIns(3)P, which play a crucial role in vesicular trafficking. Recent work has suggested that crosstalk between individual receptors and their downstream signal pathways play a central role in PI 3K signalling responses. In this review, we will concentrate on recent advances regarding the regulation of platelet PI 3Ks.

  11. Antioxidant proteins TSA and PAG interact synergistically with Presenilin to modulate Notch signaling in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangler, Michael F; Reiter, Lawrence T; Zimm, Georgianna; Trimble-Morgan, Jennifer; Wu, Jane; Bier, Ethan

    2011-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis is characterized by senile plaques in the brain and evidence of oxidative damage. Oxidative stress may precede plaque formation in AD; however, the link between oxidative damage and plaque formation remains unknown. Presenilins are transmembrane proteins in which mutations lead to accelerated plaque formation and early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Presenilins physically interact with two antioxidant enzymes thiol-specific antioxidant (TSA) and proliferation-associated gene (PAG) of the peroxiredoxin family. The functional consequences of these interactions are unclear. In the current study we expressed a presenilin transgene in Drosophila wing and sensory organ precursors of the fly. This caused phenotypes typical of Notch signaling loss-of-function mutations. We found that while expression of TSA or PAG alone produced no phenotype, co-expression of TSA and PAG with presenilin led to an enhanced Notch loss-of-function phenotype. This phenotype was more severe and more penetrant than that caused by the expression of Psn alone. In order to determine whether these phenotypes were indeed affecting Notch signaling, this experiment was performed in a genetic background carrying an activated Notch (Abruptex) allele. The phenotypes were almost completely rescued by this activated Notch allele. These results link peroxiredoxins with the in vivo function of Presenilin, which ultimately connects two key pathogenetic mechanisms in AD, namely, antioxidant activity and plaque formation, and raises the possibility of a role for peroxiredoxin family members in Alzheimer's pathogenesis.

  12. SUMO-, MAPK- and resistance protein-signaling converge at transcription complexes that regulate plant innate immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den H.A.; Takken, F.L.W.

    2010-01-01

    Upon pathogen perception plant innate immune receptors activate various signaling pathways that trigger host defenses. PAMP-triggered defense signaling requires mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which modulate the activity of transcription factors through phosphorylation. Here, we

  13. SUMO-, MAPK-, and resistance protein-signaling converge at transcription complexes that regulate plant innate immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Burg, H.A.; Takken, F.L.W.

    2010-01-01

    Upon pathogen perception plant innate immune receptors activate various signaling pathways that trigger host defenses. PAMP-triggered defense signaling requires mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which modulate the activity of transcription factors through phosphorylation. Here, we

  14. Convergent RANK- and c-Met-mediated signaling components predict survival of patients with prostate cancer: an interracial comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peizhen; Chung, Leland W K; Berel, Dror; Frierson, Henry F; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Ruoxiang; Li, Qinlong; Rogatko, Andre; Zhau, Haiyen E

    2013-01-01

    We reported (PLoS One 6 (12):e28670, 2011) that the activation of c-Met signaling in RANKL-overexpressing bone metastatic LNCaP cell and xenograft models increased expression of RANK, RANKL, c-Met, and phosphorylated c-Met, and mediated downstream signaling. We confirmed the significance of the RANK-mediated signaling network in castration resistant clinical human prostate cancer (PC) tissues. In this report, we used a multispectral quantum dot labeling technique to label six RANK and c-Met convergent signaling pathway mediators simultaneously in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens, quantify the intensity of each expression at the sub-cellular level, and investigated their potential utility as predictors of patient survival in Caucasian-American, African-American and Chinese men. We found that RANKL and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) expression predicts survival of Caucasian-Americans with PC. A Gleason score ≥ 8 combined with nuclear p-c-Met expression predicts survival in African-American PC patients. Neuropilin-1, p-NF-κB p65 and VEGF are predictors for the overall survival of Chinese men with PC. These results collectively support interracial differences in cell signaling networks that can predict the survival of PC patients.

  15. Convergent RANK- and c-Met-mediated signaling components predict survival of patients with prostate cancer: an interracial comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhen Hu

    Full Text Available We reported (PLoS One 6 (12:e28670, 2011 that the activation of c-Met signaling in RANKL-overexpressing bone metastatic LNCaP cell and xenograft models increased expression of RANK, RANKL, c-Met, and phosphorylated c-Met, and mediated downstream signaling. We confirmed the significance of the RANK-mediated signaling network in castration resistant clinical human prostate cancer (PC tissues. In this report, we used a multispectral quantum dot labeling technique to label six RANK and c-Met convergent signaling pathway mediators simultaneously in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissue specimens, quantify the intensity of each expression at the sub-cellular level, and investigated their potential utility as predictors of patient survival in Caucasian-American, African-American and Chinese men. We found that RANKL and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1 expression predicts survival of Caucasian-Americans with PC. A Gleason score ≥ 8 combined with nuclear p-c-Met expression predicts survival in African-American PC patients. Neuropilin-1, p-NF-κB p65 and VEGF are predictors for the overall survival of Chinese men with PC. These results collectively support interracial differences in cell signaling networks that can predict the survival of PC patients.

  16. Convergence of PASTA kinase and two-component signaling in response to cell wall stress in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Stephanie L; Kristich, Christopher J

    2018-04-09

    convergence of IreK and the sensor kinase CroS to enhance signaling through CroS/R and increase antimicrobial resistance in E. faecalis This newly described example of eSTK/TCS convergence adds to our understanding of the signaling networks mediating antimicrobial resistance in E. faecalis . Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Osteogenic Transcription Regulated by Exaggerated Stretch Loading via Convergent Wnt Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, Cassandra M.; Blaber, Elizabeth A.; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Cell and animal studies conducted onboard the International Space Station and formerly the Shuttle flights have provided data illuminating the deleterious biological response of bone to mechanical unloading. Down regulation of proliferative mechanisms within stem cell populations of the osteogenic niche is a suggested mechanism for loss of bone mass. However the intercellular communicative cues from osteoblasts and osteocytes in managing stem cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation are largely unknown. In this investigation, MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells, are co-culture under dynamic tensile conditions and evaluated for phenotypic expression of biochemical signaling proteins influential in driving stem cell differentiation. MLO-Y4 and MC3T3-E1 were co-cultured on polyethersulfone membrane with a 0.45m porosity to permit soluble factor transfer and direct cell-cell gap junction signaling. Cyclic tensile stimulation was applied for 48 h at a frequency of 0.1Hz and strain of 0.1. Total Live cell counts indicate mechanical activation of MC3T3-E1s inhibits proliferation while MLO-Y4s increase in number. However, the percent of live MLO-Y4s within the population is low (46.3 total count, *p0.05, n4) suggesting a potential apoptotic signaling cascade. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that stimulation of co-cultures elicits increased gap junction communication. Previously reported PCR evaluation of osteogenic markers further corroborate that the co-cultured populations communicative networks play a role in translating mechanical signals to molecular messaging. These findings suggest that an osteocyte-osteoblast signaling feedback mechanism may regulate mechanotransduction of an apoptotic cascade within osteocytes and transcription of cytokine signaling proteins responsible for stem cell niche recruitment much more directly than previously believed.

  18. Convergent processing of both positive and negative motivational signals by the VTA dopamine neuronal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong V Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA have been traditionally studied for their roles in reward-related motivation or drug addiction. Here we study how the VTA dopamine neuron population may process fearful and negative experiences as well as reward information in freely behaving mice. Using multi-tetrode recording, we find that up to 89% of the putative dopamine neurons in the VTA exhibit significant activation in response to the conditioned tone that predict food reward, while the same dopamine neuron population also respond to the fearful experiences such as free fall and shake events. The majority of these VTA putative dopamine neurons exhibit suppression and offset-rebound excitation, whereas ∼25% of the recorded putative dopamine neurons show excitation by the fearful events. Importantly, VTA putative dopamine neurons exhibit parametric encoding properties: their firing change durations are proportional to the fearful event durations. In addition, we demonstrate that the contextual information is crucial for these neurons to respectively elicit positive or negative motivational responses by the same conditioned tone. Taken together, our findings suggest that VTA dopamine neurons may employ the convergent encoding strategy for processing both positive and negative experiences, intimately integrating with cues and environmental context.

  19. Convergence of bone morphogenetic protein and laminin-1 signaling pathways promotes proliferation and colony formation by fetal mouse pancreatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Fangxu; Harrison, Leonard C.

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor superfamily, together with the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin-1 (Ln-1), promote proliferation of fetal pancreatic cells and formation of colonies containing peripheral insulin-positive cells. Here, we further investigate the cross-talk between BMP and Ln-1 signals. By RT-PCR, receptors for BMP (BMPR) (excepting BMPR-1B) and Ln-1 were expressed in the fetal pancreas between E13.5 and E17.5. Specific blocking antibodies to BMP-4 and -6 and selective BMP antagonists partially inhibited colony formation by fetal pancreas cells. Colony formation induced by BMP-6 and Ln-1 was completely abolished in a dose-dependent manner by blocking Ln-1 binding to its α 6 integrin and α-dystroglycan receptors or by blocking the Ln-1 signaling molecules, phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (P13K) and MAP kinase kinase-1. These results demonstrate a convergence of BMP and Ln-1 signaling through P13K and MAP kinase pathways to induce proliferation and colony formation in E15.5 fetal mouse pancreatic cells

  20. Maturation and integration of adult born hippocampal neurons: signal convergence onto small Rho GTPases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna eVadodaria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis, restricted to specific regions in the mammalian brain, represents one of the most interesting forms of plasticity in the mature nervous system. Adult-born hippocampal neurons play important roles in certain forms of learning and memory, and altered hippocampal neurogenesis has been associated with a number of neuropsychiatric diseases such as major depression and epilepsy. Newborn neurons go through distinct developmental steps from a dividing neurogenic precursor to a synaptically integrated mature neuron. Previous studies have uncovered several molecular signaling pathways involved in distinct steps of this maturational process. In this context, the small Rho GTPases, Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA have recently been shown to regulate the morphological and synaptic maturation of adult-born dentate granule cells in vivo. Distinct upstream regulators, including several growth factors that modulate maturation and integration of newborn neurons have been shown to also recruit the small Rho GTPases. Here we review recent findings and highlight the possibility that small Rho GTPases may act as central assimilators, downstream of critical input onto adult-born hippocampal neurons contributing to their maturation and integration into the existing dentate gyrus circuitry.

  1. A synergistic antiproliferation effect of curcumin and docosahexaenoic acid in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells: unique signaling not explained by the effects of either compound alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenburg, Jeffrey D; Bieberich, Andrew A; Terry, Colin; Harvey, Kevin A; VanHorn, Justin F; Xu, Zhidong; Jo Davisson, V; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is a collection of diseases in which molecular phenotypes can act as both indicators and mediators of therapeutic strategy. Therefore, candidate therapeutics must be assessed in the context of multiple cell lines with known molecular phenotypes. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and curcumin (CCM) are dietary compounds known to antagonize breast cancer cell proliferation. We report that these compounds in combination exert a variable antiproliferative effect across multiple breast cell lines, which is synergistic in SK-BR-3 cells and triggers cell signaling events not predicted by the activity of either compound alone. Dose response curves for CCM and DHA were generated for five breast cell lines. Effects of the DHA+ CCM combination on cell proliferation were evaluated using varying concentrations, at a fixed ratio, of CCM and DHA based on their individual ED 50 . Detection of synergy was performed using nonlinear regression of a sigmoid dose response model and Combination Index approaches. Cell molecular network responses were investigated through whole genome microarray analysis of transcript level changes. Gene expression results were validated by RT-PCR, and western blot analysis was performed for potential signaling mediators. Cellular curcumin uptake, with and without DHA, was analyzed via flow cytometry and HPLC. CCM+DHA had an antiproliferative effect in SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, MCF7 and MCF10AT cells. The effect was synergistic for SK-BR-3 (ER - PR - Her2 + ) relative to the two compounds individually. A whole genome microarray approach was used to investigate changes in gene expression for the synergistic effects of CCM+DHA in SK-BR-3 cells lines. CCM+DHA triggered transcript-level responses, in disease-relevant functional categories, that were largely non-overlapping with changes caused by CCM or DHA individually. Genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, inhibition of metastasis, and cell adhesion were upregulated, whereas genes

  2. Ascorbic Acid-Induced Cardiac Differentiation of Murine Pluripotent Stem Cells: Transcriptional Profiling and Effect of a Small Molecule Synergist of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Ivanyuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproducible and efficient differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs to cardiomyocytes (CMs is essential for their use in regenerative medicine, drug testing and disease modeling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some previously reported cardiogenic substances on cardiac differentiation of mouse PSCs. Methods: Differentiation was performed by embryoid body (EB-based method using three different murine PSC lines. The differentiation efficiency was monitored by RT-qPCR, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, and the effect mechanistically evaluated by transcriptome analysis of treated EBs. Results: Among the five tested compounds (ascorbic acid, dorsomorphin, cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate, cardiogenol C, cyclosporin A only ascorbic acid (AA exerted a strong and reproducible cardiogenic effect in CGR8 cells which was less consistent in other two PSC lines. AA induced only minor changes in transcriptome of CGR8 cells after administration during the initial two days of differentiation. Cardiospecific genes and transcripts involved in angiogenesis, erythropoiesis and hematopoiesis were up-regulated on day 5 but not on days 2 or 3 of differentiation. The cardiac differentiation efficiency was improved when QS11, a small-molecule synergist of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, was added to cultures after AA-treatment. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that only minor transcriptional changes are sufficient for enhancement of cardiogenesis of murine PSCs by AA and that AA and QS11 exhibit synergistic effects and enhance the efficiency of CM differentiation of murine PSCs.

  3. Involvement of Ca2+ Signaling in the Synergistic Effects between Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists and β2-Adrenoceptor Agonists in Airway Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Fukunaga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs and short-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (SABAs play important roles in remedy for COPD. To propel a translational research for development of bronchodilator therapy, synergistic effects between SABAs with LAMAs were examined focused on Ca2+ signaling using simultaneous records of isometric tension and F340/F380 in fura-2-loaded tracheal smooth muscle. Glycopyrronium (3 nM, a LAMA, modestly reduced methacholine (1 μM-induced contraction. When procaterol, salbutamol and SABAs were applied in the presence of glycopyrronium, relaxant effects of these SABAs are markedly enhanced, and percent inhibition of tension was much greater than the sum of those for each agent and those expected from the BI theory. In contrast, percent inhibition of F340/F380 was not greater than those values. Bisindolylmaleimide, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC, significantly increased the relaxant effect of LAMA without reducing F340/F380. Iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa channels, significantly suppressed the effects of these combined agents with reducing F340/F380. In conclusion, combination of SABAs with LAMAs synergistically enhances inhibition of muscarinic contraction via decreasing both Ca2+ sensitization mediated by PKC and Ca2+ dynamics mediated by KCa channels. PKC and KCa channels may be molecular targets for cross talk between β2-adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors.

  4. Wnt/β-catenin and LIF-Stat3 signaling pathways converge on Sp5 to promote mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shoudong; Zhang, Dongming; Cheng, Fei; Wilson, Daniel; Mackay, Jeffrey; He, Kan; Ban, Qian; Lv, Feng; Huang, Saifei; Liu, Dahai; Ying, Qi-Long

    2016-01-15

    Activation of leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF)-Stat3 or Wnt/β-catenin signaling promotes mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) self-renewal. A myriad of downstream targets have been identified in the individual signal pathways, but their common targets remain largely elusive. In this study, we found that the LIF-Stat3 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways converge on Sp5 to promote mESC self-renewal. Forced Sp5 expression can reproduce partial effects of Wnt/β-catenin signaling but mimics most features of LIF-Stat3 signaling to maintain undifferentiated mESCs. Moreover, Sp5 is able to convert mouse epiblast stem cells into a naïve pluripotent state. Thus, Sp5 is an important component of the regulatory network governing mESC naïve pluripotency. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Direct and indirect inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase by salicylic acid and anthocyanidins reactivates intercellular ROS signaling and allows for synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Salicylic acid and anthocyanidins are known as plant-derived antioxidants, but also can provoke paradoxically seeming prooxidant effects in vitro. These prooxidant effects are connected to the potential of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins to induce apoptosis selectively in tumor cells in vitro and to inhibit tumor growth in animal models. Several epidemiological studies have shown that salicylic acid and its prodrug acetylsalicylic acid are tumor-preventive for humans. The mechanism of salicylic acid- and anthocyanidin-dependent antitumor effects has remained enigmatic so far. Extracellular apoptosis-inducing reactive oxygen species signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite and the HOCl signaling pathway specifically induces apoptosis in transformed cells. Tumor cells have acquired resistance against intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Here, we show that salicylic acid and anthocyanidins inactivate tumor cell protective catalase and thus reactive apoptosis-inducing intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling of tumor cells and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis Salicylic acid inhibits catalase directly through its potential to transform compound I of catalase into the inactive compound II. In contrast, anthocyanidins provoke a complex mechanism for catalase inactivation that is initiated by anthocyanidin-mediated inhibition of NO dioxygenase. This allows the formation of extracellular singlet oxygen through the reaction between H(2)O(2) and peroxynitrite, amplification through a caspase8-dependent step and subsequent singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of catalase. The combination of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins allows for a remarkable synergistic effect in apoptosis induction. This effect may be potentially useful to elaborate novel therapeutic approaches and crucial for the interpretation of epidemiological results related to the antitumor effects of secondary plant compounds. © The

  6. Glycyrrhetic acid synergistically enhances β₂-adrenergic receptor-Gs signaling by changing the location of Gαs in lipid rafts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Shi

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhetic acid (GA exerts synergistic anti-asthmatic effects via a β₂-adrenergic receptor (β₂AR-mediated pathway. Cholesterol is an important component of the structure and function of lipid rafts, which play critical roles in the β₂AR-Gs-adenylate cyclase (AC-mediated signaling pathway. Owing to the structural similarities between GA and cholesterol, we investigated the possibility that GA enhances β₂AR signaling by altering cholesterol distribution. Azide-terminal GA (ATGA was synthesized and applied to human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells expressing fusion β₂AR, and the electron spin resonance (ESR technique was utilized. GA was determined to be localized predominantly on membrane and decreased their cholesterol contents. Thus, the fluidity of the hydrophobic region increased but not the polar surface of the cell membrane. The conformations of membrane proteins were also changed. GA further changed the localization of Gαs from lipid rafts to non-raft regions, resulting the binding of β₂AR and Gαs, as well as in reduced β₂AR internalization. Co-localization of β₂AR, Gαs, and AC increased isoproterenol-induced cAMP production and cholesterol reloading attenuated this effect. A speculation wherein GA enhances beta-adrenergic activity by increasing the functional linkage between the subcomponents of the membrane β₂AR-protein kinase A (PKA signaling pathway was proposed. The enhanced efficacy of β₂AR agonists by this novel mechanism could prevent tachyphylaxis.

  7. Synergistic effect of baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A mixture: multistep inhibition of the NF-κB signalling pathway contributes to an anti-inflammatory effect of Scutellaria root flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tomofumi; Shibuya, Nobuhiko; Narukawa, Yuji; Oshima, Naohiro; Hada, Noriyasu; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki

    2018-01-01

    Scutellaria root, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, is a crude drug used for inflammatory diseases. In our previous report, the combination of flavonoids contained in Scutellaria root have been found to inhibit PGE 2 production more strongly than individual flavonoids. Here, to investigate the mechanism of the synergistic effect, we examined the effects of an equimolar mixture (F-mix) of baicalein (1), wogonin (2) and oroxylin A (3) on the production of PGE 2 in LPS-treated J774.1 cells. Although 1 and 3 inhibited COX-2 activity, the F-mix showed no synergistic effect on COX-2 inhibition. Therefore, we investigated the steps leading to the activation of COX-2 protein. Compounds 1-3 and F-mix inhibited the expression of COX-2 protein. However, only 2 inhibited the expression of COX-2 mRNA among the flavonoids, and the F-mix showed no synergistic effect. Only 1 inhibited NF-κB translocation into the nucleus, and the F-mix showed no synergistic effect. Although 2 did not affect NF-κB translocation, it strongly inhibited NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity, and the F-mix inhibited the activity slightly more than 2. Compounds 1-3 also inhibited NO production, and the F-mix showed a synergistic effect. However, the effects of each flavonoid on the expression of iNOS mRNA were not consistent with those on COX-2 mRNA. Because the flavonoids inhibit different steps in the production of PGE 2 and NO, and their mixture did not show apparent synergistic effects in each step, we conclude that the synergistic effect of the flavonoid mixture reflects the total effect of the flavonoids inhibiting different steps in the NF-κB signalling pathway.

  8. Synergistic Effect of Radiation and Interleukin-6 on Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation in Liver Through STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.H.; Chen, P.-J.; Jeng, Y.-M.; Cheng, A.-L.; Huang, L.-R.; Cheng, J.C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation can occur after radiotherapy (RT) for hepatobiliary malignancies. Our previous in vitro culture study identified interleukin-6 (IL-6) as the main bystander mediator of RT-induced HBV replication. We attempted to examine the molecular mechanism in HBV-transgenic mice. Methods and materials: HBV transgenic mice were treated with whole liver RT (4 Gy daily for 5 days) with or without administration of IL-6 (400 ng twice daily for 15 days). The serum level of HBV DNA was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the IL-6 concentration was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The intensity of immunostaining with antibodies to HBV core protein and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 in the mouse liver was qualitatively analyzed. HepG2.2.15 cells (a human hepatoblastoma cell line that persistently produces HBV DNA) were used to investigate the molecular role of IL-6 plus RT in HBV reactivation. Results: HBV reactivation was induced in vivo with IL-6 plus RT (5.58-fold) compared with RT alone (1.31-fold, p = .005), IL-6 alone (1.31-fold, p = .005), or sham treatment (1.22-fold, p = .004). HBV core protein staining confirmed augmentation of intrahepatic HBV replication. IL-6 plus RT-induced HBV DNA replication in HepG2.2.15 cells was suppressed by the STAT3 inhibitor AG490 and by transfection with dominant-negative STAT3 plasmid. Phosphorylated STAT3 staining was strongest in liver tissue from mice treated with IL-6 plus RT. The mobility shift assay demonstrated that reactivation was mediated through the interaction of phosphorylated STAT3/hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 complex with HBV enhancer 1. Conclusion: RT to the liver and longer sustained IL-6 induced HBV reactivation through the STAT3 signal transduction pathway.

  9. Network Convergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Network Convergence. User is interested in application and content - not technical means of distribution. Boundaries between distribution channels fade out. Network convergence leads to seamless application and content solutions.

  10. Convergence of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and GR signaling in response to fluoxetine treatment in chronically stressed female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitic, Milos; Brkic, Zeljka; Lukic, Iva; Adzic, Miroslav

    2017-08-30

    Accumulating evidence strongly suggest that impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling is involved in stress-related mood disorders, and nominate GR as a potential target for antidepressants (ADs). It is known that different classes of ADs affects the GR action via modifying its phosphorylation, while the mechanism through which ADs alter GR phosphorylation targeted by GSK3β, a kinase modulated via serotonin neurotransmission, are unclear. On this basis, we investigated whether GSK3β-GR signaling could be a convergence point of fluoxetine action on brain function and behavior, by examining its effect on GSK3β targeted-GR phosphorylation on threonine 171 (pGR171), and expression of GR-regulated genes in the hippocampus of female and male rats exposed to chronic isolation stress. Stress induced sex-specific GSK3β-targeted phosphorylation of pGR171 in the nucleus of the hippocampus of stressed animals. Namely, while in females stress triggered coupled action of GSK3β-pGR171 signaling, in males changes in pGR171 levels did not correspond to GSK3β activity. On the other hand, fluoxetine managed to up-regulate this pathway in sex-unbiased manner. Furthermore, fluoxetine reverted stress-induced changes in most of the analyzed genes in males, CRH, 5-HT1a and p11, while in females its effect was limited to CRH. These data further suggest that pGR171 signaling affects cellular localization of GR in response to chronic stress and fluoxetine in both sexes. Collectively, our results describe a novel convergence point between GR signaling and GSK3β pathway in rat hippocampus in response to stress and fluoxetine in both sexes and its involvement in fluoxetine-regulated brain function in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Converging Light, Energy and Hormonal Signaling Control Meristem Activity, Leaf Initiation, and Growth1[CC-BY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Binish; Bilooei, Sara Farahi; Grove, Elliot; Railo, Saana; Palme, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The development of leaf primordia is subject to light control of meristematic activity. Light regulates the expression of thousands of genes with roles in cell proliferation, organ development, and differentiation of photosynthetic cells. Previous work has highlighted roles for hormone homeostasis and the energy-dependent Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase in meristematic activity, yet a picture of how these two regulatory mechanisms depend on light perception and interact with each other has yet to emerge. Their relevance beyond leaf initiation also is unclear. Here, we report the discovery that the dark-arrested meristematic region of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) experiences a local energy deprivation state and confirm previous findings that the PIN1 auxin transporter is diffusely localized in the dark. Light triggers a rapid removal of the starvation state and the establishment of PIN1 polar membrane localization consistent with auxin export, both preceding the induction of cell cycle- and cytoplasmic growth-associated genes. We demonstrate that shoot meristematic activity can occur in the dark through the manipulation of auxin and cytokinin activity as well as through the activation of energy signaling, both targets of photomorphogenesis action, but the organ developmental outcomes differ: while TOR-dependent energy signals alone stimulate cell proliferation, the development of a normal leaf lamina requires photomorphogenesis-like hormonal responses. We further show that energy signaling adjusts the extent of cell cycle activity and growth of young leaves non-cellautonomously to available photosynthates and leads to organs constituted of a greater number of cells developing under higher irradiance. This makes energy signaling perhaps the most important biomass growth determinant under natural, unstressed conditions. PMID:29284741

  12. Convergence Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is also found to be weak. If both accommodation and convergence are weak, reading glasses, sometimes with prism added, may be a great option for these patients. It is very difficult to improve accommodation with exercises. Updated 7/2017 Eye Terms & Conditions ...

  13. Dose-dependent folic acid and memantine treatments promote synergistic or additive protection against Aβ(25-35) peptide-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells mediated by mitochondria stress-associated death signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ta-Fu; Tang, Ming-Chi; Chou, Chia-Hui; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Huang, R-F S

    2013-12-01

    Increased dietary folic acid (FA) is associated with reduced risks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The AD drug memantine (Mn) has had limited therapeutic effects for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe AD. This study investigated whether and the underlying mechanisms by which the combination of Mn and FA may have synergistic or additive effects in protecting against amyloid-β(25-35) peptide (Aβ)-induced neurocytotoxicity. Aβ treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells significantly induced a 6-fold increase of apoptotic cells compared with the Aβ-untreated group. Preincubation of Aβ-exposed cells with FA (500 μM) or Mn (20 μM) caused a 22% and 10% reduction of apoptotic cells, respectively, whereas the combo-treatments at such doses synergistically alleviated Aβ-induced apoptosis by 60% (P<0.05). The apoptotic protection by the combo-treatments coincided with attenuating Aβ-elicited mitochondrial (mt) membrane depolarization and abolishing Aβ-induced mt cytochrome c release to the cytosol. Increased levels of FA at 1000 μM in combination with 20 μM Mn exerted an additive protection against Aβ(25-35)-induced-apoptosis as compared to the isolate Mn group (P<0.05). The combo-treatments reversed Aβ-elicited mt membrane depolarization, attenuated Aβ-elicited mt cytochrome c release to the cytosol, and diminished Aβ-promoted superoxide generation. The apoptotic-protection by such combo-treatments was partially abolished by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (mt membrane potential uncoupler) and sodium azide (mt cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor). Taken together, the data demonstrated that dose-dependent FA and Mn synergistically or additively protected SH-SY5Y cells against Aβ-induced apoptosis, which was partially, if not completely, mediated by mt stress-associated death signals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. KiDS-450: cosmological constraints from weak lensing peak statistics - I. Inference from analytical prediction of high signal-to-noise ratio convergence peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, HuanYuan; Liu, Xiangkun; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Pan, Chuzhong; Martinet, Nicolas; Fan, Zuhui; Schneider, Peter; Asgari, Marika; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Hoekstra, Henk; Wright, Angus; Dietrich, Jörg P.; Erben, Thomas; Getman, Fedor; Grado, Aniello; Heymans, Catherine; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Merten, Julian; Puddu, Emanuella; Radovich, Mario; Wang, Qiao

    2018-02-01

    This paper is the first of a series of papers constraining cosmological parameters with weak lensing peak statistics using ˜ 450 deg2 of imaging data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS-450). We measure high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR: ν) weak lensing convergence peaks in the range of 3 < ν < 5, and employ theoretical models to derive expected values. These models are validated using a suite of simulations. We take into account two major systematic effects, the boost factor and the effect of baryons on the mass-concentration relation of dark matter haloes. In addition, we investigate the impacts of other potential astrophysical systematics including the projection effects of large-scale structures, intrinsic galaxy alignments, as well as residual measurement uncertainties in the shear and redshift calibration. Assuming a flat Λ cold dark matter model, we find constraints for S_8=σ _8(Ω _m/0.3)^{0.5}=0.746^{+0.046}_{-0.107} according to the degeneracy direction of the cosmic shear analysis and Σ _8=σ _8(Ω _m/0.3)^{0.38}=0.696^{+0.048}_{-0.050} based on the derived degeneracy direction of our high-SNR peak statistics. The difference between the power index of S8 and in Σ8 indicates that combining cosmic shear with peak statistics has the potential to break the degeneracy in σ8 and Ωm. Our results are consistent with the cosmic shear tomographic correlation analysis of the same data set and ˜2σ lower than the Planck 2016 results.

  15. Arsenic trioxide synergistically enhances radiation response in human cervical cancer cells through ROS-dependent p38 MAPK and JNK signalling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young-Hee; Park, Seung-Moo; Kim, Min-Jeong [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-07-01

    Many factors affect susceptibility of tumor cells to ionizing radiation. Among them intrinsic apoptosis sensitivity or resistancy seems to play an important role. The use of chemical modifiers as radiosensitizers in combination with low-dose irradiation may increase the therapeutic efficacy by overcoming a high apoptotic threshold. Several recent studies demonstrated additive effects of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} with conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, adriamycin, and etoposide, but no synergism. Previously, we have shown for the first time that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} sensitize human cervical cancer cells to ionizing radiation. Treatment of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} in combination of ionizing radiation has synergistic effects in decreasing clonogenic survival and in the regression of tumor growth in xenografts. We also have shown that the combination treatment enhanced apoptotic cell death through a reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway in human cervical cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanism of ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic cell death induced by combination treatment with As{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ionizing radiation in human cervical cancer cells.

  16. Do convergent developmental mechanisms underlie convergent phenotypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Convergence is a pervasive evolutionary process, affecting many aspects of phenotype and even genotype. Relatively little is known about convergence in developmental processes, however, nor about the degree to which convergence in development underlies convergence in anatomy. A switch in the ecology of sea urchins from feeding to nonfeeding larvae illustrates how convergence in development can be associated with convergence in anatomy. Comparisons to more distantly related taxa, however, suggest that this association may be limited to relatively close phylogenetic comparisons. Similarities in gene expression during development provide another window into the association between convergence in developmental processes and convergence in anatomy. Several well-studied transcription factors exhibit likely cases of convergent gene expression in distantly related animal phyla. Convergence in regulatory gene expression domains is probably more common than generally acknowledged, and can arise for several different reasons. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Wired and wireless convergent extended-reach optical access network using direct-detection of all-optical OFDM super-channel signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C W; Yeh, C H; Sung, J Y; Hsu, C W

    2014-12-15

    We propose and demonstrate the feasibility of using all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (AO-OFDM) for the convergent optical wired and wireless access networks. AO-OFDM relies on all-optically generated orthogonal subcarriers; hence, high data rate (> 100 Gb/s) can be easily achieved without hitting the speed limit of electronic digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters (DAC/ADC). A proof-of-concept convergent access network using AO-OFDM super-channel (SC) is demonstrated supporting 40 - 100 Gb/s wired and gigabit/s 100 GHz millimeter-wave (MMW) ROF transmissions.

  18. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Physical Oceanography Component: Soundscapes Under Sea Ice: Can We Listen for Open Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Physical Oceanography Component: Soundscapes Under Sea Ice: Can we listen for... Soundscapes Under Sea Ice: Can we listen for open water? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...the source. These different sounds can be described as “ soundscapes ”, and graphically represented by comparing two or more features of the sound

  19. Convergence in Multispecies Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Bittleston, Leonora Sophia; Pierce, Naomi E.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Pringle, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of convergent evolution and community convergence highlight how selective pressures can shape unrelated organisms or communities in similar ways. We propose a related concept, convergent interactions, to describe the independent evolution of multispecies interactions with similar physiological or ecological functions. A focus on convergent interactions clarifies how natural selection repeatedly favors particular kinds of associations among species. Characterizing convergent inter...

  20. Synergistic role of 5-azacytidine and ascorbic acid in directing cardiosphere derived cells to cardiomyocytes in vitro by downregulating Wnt signaling pathway via phosphorylation of β-catenin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sailaja Mundre

    Full Text Available Cardiosphere derived cells (CDCs represent a valuable source in stem cell based therapy for cardiovascular diseases, yet poor differentiation rate hinders the transplantation efficiency. The aim of this study is to check the ability of 5-Azacytidine (Aza alone and in combination with ascorbic acid (Aza+AA in delineating CDCs to cardiomyogenesis and the underlying Wnt signaling mechanism in induced differentiation.CDCs were treated with Aza and Aza+AA for a period of 14 days to examine the expression of cardiac specific markers and Wnt downstream regulators by immunofluorescence, real time PCR and western blot.Results revealed that Aza+AA induced efficient commitment of CDCs to cardiomyogenic lineage. Immunofluorescence analysis showed significant augment for Nkx 2.5, GATA 4 and α-Sarcomeric actinin markers in Aza+AA group than control group (p = 0.0118, p = 0.009 and p = 0.0091, respectively. Relative upregulation of cardiac markers, Nkx 2.5 (p = 0.0156, GATA 4 (p = 0.0087 and down regulation of Wnt markers, β-catenin (p = 0.0107 and Cyclin D1 (p = 0. 0116 in Aza+AA group was revealed by RNA expression analysis. Moreover, the Aza+AA induced prominent expression of GATA 4, α-Sarcomeric actinin and phospho β-catenin while non phospho β-catenin and Cyclin D1 expression was significantly suppressed as displayed in protein expression analysis. Generation of spontaneous beating in Aza+AA treated CDCs further reinforced that Aza+AA accelerates the cardiomyogenic potential of CDCs.Combined treatment of Aza along with AA implicit in inducing cardiomyogenic potential of CDCs and is associated with down regulating Wnt signaling pathway. Altogether, CDCs represent a valuable tool for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders.

  1. Converging Information and Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øst, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    in the future to have - significant importance to the process and consequences of the convergence. The project focuses on the appliances, i.e. the TV sets, the computers and their peripheral equipment. It also takes into account the infrastructure and signals, which contain and deliver the information...

  2. Root Extract of Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc. Ameliorates DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis by Affecting NF-kappaB Signaling Pathway in a Mouse Model via Synergistic Effects of Polydatin, Resveratrol, and Emodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohai Liu

    2018-04-01

    and NF-κB signaling related molecules than any one of the three ingredients with same concentration treatment.Conclusion: Oral administration of PCSE suppressed NF-κB signaling pathway and exerts its anti-colitis effects via synergistic effects of polydatin, resveratrol or emodin.

  3. The Ste20 Family Kinases MAP4K4, MINK1, and TNIK Converge to Regulate Stress-Induced JNK Signaling in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larhammar, Martin; Huntwork-Rodriguez, Sarah; Rudhard, York; Sengupta-Ghosh, Arundhati; Lewcock, Joseph W

    2017-11-15

    The c-Jun- N -terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway regulates nervous system development, axon regeneration, and neuronal degeneration after acute injury or in chronic neurodegenerative disease. Dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) is required for stress-induced JNK signaling in neurons, yet the factors that initiate DLK/JNK pathway activity remain poorly defined. In the present study, we identify the Ste20 kinases MAP4K4, misshapen-like kinase 1 (MINK1 or MAP4K6) and TNIK Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK or MAP4K7), as upstream regulators of DLK/JNK signaling in neurons. Using a trophic factor withdrawal-based model of neurodegeneration in both male and female embryonic mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, we show that MAP4K4, MINK1, and TNIK act redundantly to regulate DLK activation and downstream JNK-dependent phosphorylation of c-Jun in response to stress. Targeting MAP4K4, MINK1, and TNIK, but not any of these kinases individually, is sufficient to protect neurons potently from degeneration. Pharmacological inhibition of MAP4Ks blocks stabilization and phosphorylation of DLK within axons and subsequent retrograde translocation of the JNK signaling complex to the nucleus. These results position MAP4Ks as important regulators of the DLK/JNK signaling pathway. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuronal degeneration occurs in disparate circumstances: during development to refine neuronal connections, after injury to clear damaged neurons, or pathologically during disease. The dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK)/c-Jun- N -terminal kinase (JNK) pathway represents a conserved regulator of neuronal injury signaling that drives both neurodegeneration and axon regeneration, yet little is known about the factors that initiate DLK activity. Here, we uncover a novel role for a subfamily of MAP4 kinases consisting of MAP4K4, Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK or MAP4K7), and misshapen-like kinase 1 (MINK1 or MAP4K6) in regulating DLK/JNK signaling in neurons. Inhibition of

  4. Convergence of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1- and glycogen synthase kinase 3-β-signaling pathways regulates the innate inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huizhi; Brown, Jonathan; Gu, Zhen; Garcia, Carlos A; Liang, Ruqiang; Alard, Pascale; Beurel, Eléonore; Jope, Richard S; Greenway, Terrance; Martin, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The PI3K pathway and its regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) play pivotal roles in controlling inflammation. In this article, we show that mTORC1 and GSK3-β converge and that the capacity of mTORC1 to affect the inflammatory response is due to the inactivation of GSK3-β. Inhibition of mTORC1 attenuated GSK3 phosphorylation and increased its kinase activity. Immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase assays demonstrated that GSK3-β associated with a downstream target of mTORC1, p85S6K, and phosphorylated GSK3-β. Inhibition of S6K1 abrogated the phosphorylation of GSK3-β while increasing and decreasing the levels of IL-12 and IL-10, respectively, in LPS-stimulated monocytes. In contrast, the direct inhibition of GSK3 attenuated the capacity of S6K1 inhibition to influence the levels of IL-10 and IL-12 produced by LPS-stimulated cells. At the transcriptional level, mTORC1 inhibition reduced the DNA binding of CREB and this effect was reversed by GSK3 inhibition. As a result, mTORC1 inhibition increased the levels of NF-κB p65 associated with CREB-binding protein. Inhibition of NF-κB p65 attenuated rapamycin's ability to influence the levels of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine production in monocytes stimulated with LPS. These studies identify the molecular mechanism by which mTORC1 affects GSK3 and show that mTORC1 inhibition regulates pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production via its capacity to inactivate GSK3.

  5. Convergence of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1- and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3-β–Signaling Pathways Regulates the Innate Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huizhi; Brown, Jonathan; Gu, Zhen; Garcia, Carlos A.; Liang, Ruqiang; Alard, Pascale; Beurel, Eléonore; Jope, Richard S.; Greenway, Terrance; Martin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The PI3K pathway and its regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) play pivotal roles in controlling inflammation. In this article, we show that mTORC1 and GSK3-β converge and that the capacity of mTORC1 to affect the inflammatory response is due to the inactivation of GSK3-β. Inhibition of mTORC1 attenuated GSK3 phosphorylation and increased its kinase activity. Immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase assays demonstrated that GSK3-β associated with a downstream target of mTORC1, p85S6K, and phosphorylated GSK3-β. Inhibition of S6K1 abrogated the phosphorylation of GSK3-β while increasing and decreasing the levels of IL-12 and IL-10, respectively, in LPS-stimulated monocytes. In contrast, the direct inhibition of GSK3 attenuated the capacity of S6K1 inhibition to influence the levels of IL-10 and IL-12 produced by LPS-stimulated cells. At the transcriptional level, mTORC1 inhibition reduced the DNA binding of CREB and this effect was reversed by GSK3 inhibition. As a result, mTORC1 inhibition increased the levels of NF-κB p65 associated with CREB-binding protein. Inhibition of NF-κB p65 attenuated rapamycin’s ability to influence the levels of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine production in monocytes stimulated with LPS. These studies identify the molecular mechanism by which mTORC1 affects GSK3 and show that mTORC1 inhibition regulates pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production via its capacity to inactivate GSK3. PMID:21422248

  6. Synergistic effect of signaling from receptors of soluble platelet agonists and outside-in signaling in formation of a stable fibrinogen-integrin αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Ivan; Shenkman, Boris; Savion, Naphtali

    2015-01-01

    Thrombus formation in the injured vessel wall is a highly complex process involving various blood-born components that go through specific temporal and spatial changes as observed by intravital videomicroscopy. Platelets bind transiently to the developing thrombus and may either become stably incorporated into or disengage from the thrombus. The aim of the present study was to reveal the processes involved in the formation of a stable thrombus. Platelet-rich plasma and washed platelets were studied by the aggregometer. The aggregate stability was challenged by eptifibatide. Platelet Triton-insoluble fraction was prepared and the actin and αIIb content in the cytoskeleton was analyzed by western blot. Maximal actin polymerization is achieved 1min after platelet activation while maximal αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton association requires 5 to 10min of activation and fibrinogen-mediated platelet-to-platelet bridging. Thus, actin polymerization is dependent on platelet activation and requires neither αIIbβ3 integrin occupation nor platelet aggregation. Formation of a stable aggregate requires platelet activation for more than 1min, complete increase in actin cytoskeleton fraction and partial association of αIIbβ3 with the actin cytoskeleton. However, direct αIIbβ3 activation is not sufficient for cytoskeleton complex formation. Thus, stable αIIbβ3-fibrinogen interaction, representing stable aggregate, is achieved after more than 1min agonist activation, involving inside-out and outside-in signaling but not after direct integrin activation, involving only outside-in signaling. Formation of a stable fibrinogen-αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex is the result of the combined effect of platelet stimulation by soluble agonists, activation of αIIbβ3, fibrinogen binding and platelet-to-platelet bridging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Convergence in Multispecies Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittleston, Leonora S; Pierce, Naomi E; Ellison, Aaron M; Pringle, Anne

    2016-04-01

    The concepts of convergent evolution and community convergence highlight how selective pressures can shape unrelated organisms or communities in similar ways. We propose a related concept, convergent interactions, to describe the independent evolution of multispecies interactions with similar physiological or ecological functions. A focus on convergent interactions clarifies how natural selection repeatedly favors particular kinds of associations among species. Characterizing convergent interactions in a comparative context is likely to facilitate prediction of the ecological roles of organisms (including microbes) in multispecies interactions and selective pressures acting in poorly understood or newly discovered multispecies systems. We illustrate the concept of convergent interactions with examples: vertebrates and their gut bacteria; ectomycorrhizae; insect-fungal-bacterial interactions; pitcher-plant food webs; and ants and ant-plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Converged Registries Solution (CRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Converged Registries platform is a hardware and software architecture designed to host individual patient registries and eliminate duplicative development effort...

  9. Noncell- and cell-autonomous G-protein-signaling converges with Ca2+/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling to regulate str-2 receptor gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Lans (Hannes); G. Jansen (Gert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn the sensory system of C. elegans, the candidate odorant receptor gene str-2 is strongly expressed in one of the two AWC neurons and weakly in both ASI neurons. Asymmetric AWC expression results from suppression of str-2 expression by a Ca2+/MAPK signaling pathway in one of the AWC

  10. Convergence of mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydges, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The tree graph bound of Battle and Federbush is extended and used to provide a simple criterion for the convergence of (iterated) Mayer expansions. As an application estimates on the radius of convergence of the Mayer expansion for the two-dimensional Yukawa gas (nonstable interaction) are obtained

  11. Almost convergence of triple sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Ayhan Esi; M.Necdet Catalbas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and study the concepts of almost convergence and almost Cauchy for triple sequences. Weshow that the set of almost convergent triple sequences of 0's and 1's is of the first category and also almost everytriple sequence of 0's and 1's is not almost convergent.Keywords: almost convergence, P-convergent, triple sequence.

  12. Convergence of Nelson diffusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Antonio, G.; Posilicano, A.

    1991-01-01

    Let ψ t , ψ t n , n≥1, be solutions of Schroedinger equations with potentials form-bounded by -1/2 Δ and initial data in H 1 (R d ). Let P, P n , n≥1, be the probability measures on the path space Ω=C(R + , R d ) given by the corresponding Nelson diffusions. We show that if {ψ t n } n≥1 converges to ψ t in H 2 (R d ), uniformly in t over compact intervals, then {P n } n≥1 converges to P in total variation. Moreover, if the potentials are in the Kato class K d , we show that the above result follows from H 1 -convergence of initial data, and K d -convergence of potentials. (orig.)

  13. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  14. IT-BT convergence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This book explains IT-BT convergence technology as the future technology, which includes a prolog, easy IT-BT convergence technology that has infinite potentials for new value, policy of IT-BT convergence technology showing the potential of smart Korea, IT-BT convergence opening happy future, for the new future of IT powerful nation Korea with IT-BT convergence technology and an epilogue. This book reveals the conception, policy, performance and future of IT-BT convergence technology.

  15. Convergence from divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Ovidiu; Dunne, Gerald V.

    2018-01-01

    We show how to convert divergent series, which typically occur in many applications in physics, into rapidly convergent inverse factorial series. This can be interpreted physically as a novel resummation of perturbative series. Being convergent, these new series allow rigorous extrapolation from an asymptotic region with a large parameter, to the opposite region where the parameter is small. We illustrate the method with various physical examples, and discuss how these convergent series relate to standard methods such as Borel summation, and also how they incorporate the physical Stokes phenomenon. We comment on the relation of these results to Dyson’s physical argument for the divergence of perturbation theory. This approach also leads naturally to a wide class of relations between bosonic and fermionic partition functions, and Klein-Gordon and Dirac determinants.

  16. On the Fuzzy Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hameed Q. A. Al-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the fuzzy neighborhood, the limit fuzzy number, the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence on the base which is adopted by Abdul Hameed (every real number r is replaced by a fuzzy number r¯ (either triangular fuzzy number or singleton fuzzy set (fuzzy point. And then, we will consider that some results respect effect of the upper sequence on the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence.

  17. Convergence of Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Ruggieri, Marina

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the revolutionary changes that could characterise the future of networks. Those changes involve many aspects in the conceivement and exploitation of networks: architecture, services, technologies and modeling. The convergence of wired and wireless technologies along...... with the integration of system componennts and the convergence of services (e.g. communications and navigation) are only some of the elements that shape the perpsected mosaic. Authors delineate this vision, highlighting the presence of the space and stratospheric components and the related services as building block...

  18. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  19. Converging or Diverging Lens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)

  20. Language Convergence Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim); J.M. Fernandes; R. Lämmel (Ralf); J.M.W. Visser (Joost); J. Saraiva

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe process of grammar convergence involves grammar extraction and transformation for structural equivalence and contains a range of technical challenges. These need to be addressed in order for the method to deliver useful results. The paper describes a DSL and the infrastructure behind

  1. The Convergence Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…

  2. Summable series and convergence factors

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Charles N

    1938-01-01

    Fairly early in the development of the theory of summability of divergent series, the concept of convergence factors was recognized as of fundamental importance in the subject. One of the pioneers in this field was C. N. Moore, the author of the book under review.... Moore classifies convergence factors into two types. In type I he places the factors which have only the property that they preserve convergence for a convergent series or produce convergence for a summable series. In type II he places the factors which not only maintain or produce convergence but have the additional property that

  3. The Convergent Learning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher

    networks are still more prominently expected by students. Against this backdrop, an action research project has worked with the definition and testing of the hypothesized constituents of the Convergent Learning Space and how it challenges our traditional conceptions of learning spaces. The article...... describes this pilot study involving teachers in conscious, documented reflection on methods, approaches, and procedures conducive to learning processes in this new learning space. As a perspective, the article briefly outlines an intervention study aimed at investigating how students benefit from......The concept of the Convergent Learning Space has been hypothesized and explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College, where classrooms are technology rich and students bring their own devices. The changes...

  4. The Convergent Learning Space:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Asmussen, Jørgen Bering

    is described as well as the theoretical construct and hypotheses surrounding the emergence of the concept in technology-rich classrooms, where students bring their own devices and involve their personal learning spaces and networks. The need for new ways of approaching concepts like choice, learning resources......This paper describes the concept of “The Convergent Learning Space” as it is being explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College. The background nature, design, and beginning of this work in progress......, trajectories of participation etc. calls for new action and new pedagogies by teachers in order to secure alignment between students’ worlds and expectations and aims and plans of the teacher. Action research methods are being used to define and test the constituents and variables of the convergent learning...

  5. Regulating ICT convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Seamus

    2015-01-01

    The Broadcasting, Information Technology and Telecommunications sectors have in recent years been the subject of notable transformation, one important feature of which is their coming closer together in a number of ways - it is now commonplace to speak of a new hybrid sector, Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs). This convergence is of considerable interest to policy-makers in industry and government at the national and international level, as well as the academic community and,...

  6. Convergence semigroup categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Richardson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the category consisting of all objects of the form (X, S, λ are investigated, where X is a convergence space, S is a commutative semigroup, and λ: X × S → X is a continuous action. A “generalized quotient” of each object is defined without making the usual assumption that for each fixed g ∈ S, λ(., g : X  → X is an injection.

  7. Multiplier convergent series and uniform convergence of mapping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 14 April 2011; revised 17 November 2012. Abstract. In this paper, we introduce the frame property of complex sequence sets and study the uniform convergence of nonlinear mapping series in β-dual of spaces consisting of multiplier convergent series. Keywords. Multiplier convergent series; mapping series. 1.

  8. Convergence semigroup actions: generalized quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Boustique

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous actions of a convergence semigroup are investigated in the category of convergence spaces. Invariance properties of actions as well as properties of a generalized quotient space are presented

  9. IT Convergence and Security 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Kyung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings approaches the subject matter with problems in technical convergence and convergences of security technology. This approach is new because we look at new issues that arise from techniques converging. The general scope of the proceedings content is convergence security and the latest information technology. The intended readership are societies, enterprises, and research institutes, and intended content level is mid- to highly educated personals. The most important features and benefits of the proceedings are the introduction of the most recent information technology and its related ideas, applications and problems related to technology convergence, and its case studies and finally an introduction of converging existing security techniques through convergence security. Overall, through the proceedings, authors will be able to understand the most state of the art information strategies and technologies of convergence security.

  10. Convergent functional genomics of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, Alexander B

    2013-10-01

    Genetic and gene expression studies, in humans and animal models of psychiatric and other medical disorders, are becoming increasingly integrated. Particularly for genomics, the convergence and integration of data across species, experimental modalities and technical platforms is providing a fit-to-disease way of extracting reproducible and biologically important signal, in contrast to the fit-to-cohort effect and limited reproducibility of human genetic analyses alone. With the advent of whole-genome sequencing and the realization that a major portion of the non-coding genome may contain regulatory variants, Convergent Functional Genomics (CFG) approaches are going to be essential to identify disease-relevant signal from the tremendous polymorphic variation present in the general population. Such work in psychiatry can provide an example of how to address other genetically complex disorders, and in turn will benefit by incorporating concepts from other areas, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cultura da Convergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Christofoletti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three ideas would suffice for the reading of “Cultura da Convergência” (Culture of Convergence by Henry Jenkins to be of interest to journalists and researchers in the area: media convergence as a cultural process; the strengthening of an emotional economy which guides consumers of symbolic goods and media creators; the expansion of trans-media narrative forms.

  12. Cultura da Convergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Christofoletti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Three ideas would suffice for the reading of “Cultura da Convergência” (Culture of Convergence by Henry Jenkins to be of interest to journalists and researchers in the area: media convergence as a cultural process; the strengthening of an emotional economy which guides consumers of symbolic goods and media creators; the expansion of trans-media narrative forms.

  13. Overview of synergistic aging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigelmann, W.; Farber, M.

    1982-01-01

    Proper, technically defensible qualification of materials and equipment for nuclear power facilities requires that the effects of combined environment exposures be addressed. The full significance of synergistic effects resulting from combined stresses still remains largely an unknown to be provided for by use of conservatisms, allowing a sizeable margin in test programs and analyses to account for possible combined effects. However, these margins, when applied to sequential aging tests, may under- or over-estimate the qualified life of the material or equipment. Experimentation with radiation dose-rate effects, simultaneous vs. sequential ordered exposures, and other combined environment testing are highlighted in this paper to provide an overview of the current state-of-knowledge concerning synergistic effects and their significance to qualification programs

  14. Local Convergence and Radius of Convergence for Modified Newton Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Măruşter Ştefan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the local convergence of modified Newton method, i.e., the classical Newton method in which the derivative is periodically re-evaluated. Based on the convergence properties of Picard iteration for demicontractive mappings, we give an algorithm to estimate the local radius of convergence for considered method. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm gives estimated radii which are very close to or even equal with the best ones.

  15. Medialogy - convergence and transdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Art and design have many qualities which intuitively by society are appreciated. But on daily basis they are also assessed and evaluated. Some communities also share common understandings that norms, standards, conventions evolve, both from artistic desire as well as from more physical needs...... for changes in society, developments in taste etc.  However, it certainly seems fair to say, that available technology makes a great difference to the development of any art form or practice. With the up rise of new educations such as Medialogy, new aspects of convergence and different forms...... of interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity is a pre-requisite for both researchers and students. In this talk we will demonstrate our approach through concrete examples of student productions and projects. We will also display the pedagogical method (problem based learning), that enables students to bridge gaps...

  16. The EU's Convergence Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notermans Ton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely

  17. Sex-specific responses to vocal convergence and divergence of contact calls in orange-fronted conures (Aratinga canicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balsby, Thorsten J S; Scarl, Judith C

    2008-01-01

    , the similarity between the contact calls of different individuals may either increase (converge) or decrease (diverge). We conducted a playback experiment on wild-caught captive birds in which we simulated convergent, divergent and no-change interaction series with male and female contact calls. OFCs responded...... differently to convergent and divergent series of contact calls, but only when we considered the sex of the test birds. Males called most in response to convergent series, whereas females demonstrated high calling rates in response to both convergent and divergent interactions. Both sexes responded most...... function. The stronger overall response to convergent series suggests that convergence of contact calls is an affiliative signal....

  18. Modelling of Amperometric Biosensor Used for Synergistic Substrates Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Simelevicius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the operation of an amperometric biosensor producing a chemically amplified signal is modelled numerically. The chemical amplification is achieved by using synergistic substrates. The model is based on non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves three layers (compartments: a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on the electrode surface, a dialysis membrane covering the enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer which is modelled by the Nernst approach. The equation system is solved numerically by using the finite difference technique. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by altering the model parameters influencing the enzyme kinetics as well as the mass transport by diffusion. The biosensor action was analyzed with a special emphasis to the effect of the chemical amplification. The simulation results qualitatively explain and confirm the experimentally observed effect of the synergistic substrates conversion on the biosensor response.

  19. Convergent systems vs. incremental stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rüffer, B.S.; Wouw, van de N.; Mueller, M.

    2013-01-01

    Two similar stability notions are considered; one is the long established notion of convergent systems, the other is the younger notion of incremental stability. Both notions require that any two solutions of a system converge to each other. Yet these stability concepts are different, in the sense

  20. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givnish Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  1. Determining lower threshold concentrations for synergistic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Kretschmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    which proven synergists cease to act as synergists towards the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna. To do this, we compared several approaches and test-setups to evaluate which approach gives the most conservative estimate for the lower threshold for synergy for three known azole synergists. We focus...... on synergistic interactions between the pyrethroid insecticide, alpha-cypermethrin, and one of the three azole fungicides prochloraz, propiconazole or epoxiconazole measured on Daphnia magna immobilization. Three different experimental setups were applied: A standard 48h acute toxicity test, an adapted 48h test...... of immobile organisms increased more than two-fold above what was predicted by independent action (vertical assessment). All three tests confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of a lower azole threshold concentration below which no synergistic interaction was observed. The lower threshold concentration...

  2. CONVERGENCE OF TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Siriram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Technology is a catalyst for competitive advantage. However, it is how technology is used that leads to a firm’s improved performance. In this article, an investigative framework is constructed to understand better what strategically drives new technology adoption. The strategic drivers include technology and business strategy alignment, better technology planning and selection of new technologies, the effects on a firm’s culture and climate, links to a firm’s organisational and environmental evolution, and benefits through convergence and collaboration. Using an investigative framework, it is shown how the strategic drivers link to improve a firm’s performance, producing competitive advantage. The investigative framework is tested using structural equation modelling. Various hypotheses are formed, and recommendations for further research are made.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnologie is ‘n katalisator vir mededingende voordeel. Dit is egter hoe tegnologie aangewend word wat aanleiding gee tot ‘n onderneming se verbeterde prestasie. In hierdie artikel word ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk gekonstrueer om insig te kry in dit wat die aanvaarding van nuwe tegnologie strategies dryf. Die strategiese dryfvere sluit in die belyning van tegnologie en ondernemingstrategie, beter tegnologiebeplanning en seleksie van nuwe tegnologieë, die effek op ‘n onderneming se kultuur en klimaat, koppeling na ‘n onderneming se organisatoriese en omgewingsevolusie, en voordele verkry deur konvergensie en samewerking. Deur ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk te gebruik, word daar getoon dat die strategiese dryfvere koppel om ‘n onderneming se prestasie te verbeter en sodoende ‘n mededingende voordeel te skep. Die raamwerk word getoets en hipoteses geformuleer waarna aanbevelings oor verdere navorsing aan die hand gedoen word.

  3. Value Creation Through Integrated Networks and Convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martini, Paul; Taft, Jeffrey D.

    2015-04-01

    Customer adoption of distributed energy resources and public policies are driving changes in the uses of the distribution system. A system originally designed and built for one-way energy flows from central generating facilities to end-use customers is now experiencing injections of energy from customers anywhere on the grid and frequent reversals in the direction of energy flow. In response, regulators and utilities are re-thinking the design and operations of the grid to create more open and transactive electric networks. This evolution has the opportunity to unlock significant value for customers and utilities. Alternatively, failure to seize this potential may instead lead to an erosion of value if customers seek to defect and disconnect from the system. This paper will discuss how current grid modernization investments may be leveraged to create open networks that increase value through the interaction of intelligent devices on the grid and prosumerization of customers. Moreover, even greater value can be realized through the synergistic effects of convergence of multiple networks. This paper will highlight examples of the emerging nexus of non-electric networks with electricity.

  4. The Convergence in Spatial Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir P. Kulagin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the problem of convergence of direct and inverse problems in Earth Sciences, describes the features and application of these problems, discloses analytical features of direct and inverse problems. The convergence criteria and conditions for convergence were presented. This work is supported by the Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation for support of scientific research, implemented under the supervision of leading scientists in Russian institutions of higher education in the field "Space Research and Technologies" in 2011–2013.

  5. Ecomorphological convergence in planktivorous surgeonfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Friedman, S. T.; Price, S. A.; Hoey, Andrew; Wainwright, P. C.

    2016-01-01

    two diet regimes: zooplanktivores and nonzooplanktivorous grazers. Accounting for phylogenetic relationships, the best-fitting model indicates that zooplanktivorous species are converging on a separate adaptive peak from their grazing relatives

  6. Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.

  7. Cultura da Convergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Christofoletti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Três idéias já seriam suficientes para que a leitura de “Culturada Convergência”, de Henry Jenkins, interessasse a jornalistas epesquisadores da área: a convergência midiática como um processo cultural; o fortalecimento de uma economia afetiva que orienta consumidores de bens simbólicos e criadores midiáticos; a expansão de formas narrativas transmidiáticas.

  8. Silica ecosystem for synergistic biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Baris R.; Sakkos, Jonathan K.; Yeom, Sujin; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2016-06-01

    Synergistical bacterial species can perform more varied and complex transformations of chemical substances than either species alone, but this is rarely used commercially because of technical difficulties in maintaining mixed cultures. Typical problems with mixed cultures on scale are unrestrained growth of one bacterium, which leads to suboptimal population ratios, and lack of control over bacterial spatial distribution, which leads to inefficient substrate transport. To address these issues, we designed and produced a synthetic ecosystem by co-encapsulation in a silica gel matrix, which enabled precise control of the microbial populations and their microenvironment. As a case study, two greatly different microorganisms: Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 were encapsulated. NCIB 9816 can aerobically biotransform over 100 aromatic hydrocarbons, a feat useful for synthesis of higher value commodity chemicals or environmental remediation. In our system, NCIB 9816 was used for biotransformation of naphthalene (a model substrate) into CO2 and the cyanobacterium PCC 7942 was used to provide the necessary oxygen for the biotransformation reactions via photosynthesis. A mathematical model was constructed to determine the critical cell density parameter to maximize oxygen production, and was then used to maximize the biotransformation rate of the system.

  9. Fatal consequences of synergistic anticoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen P

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs are increasingly being preferred by clinicians (and patients because they have a wide therapeutic window and therefore do not require monitoring of anticoagulant effect. Herein, we describe the unfortunate case of a patient who had fatal consequences as a result of switching from warfarin to rivaroxaban. Case Summary: A 90-year-old Caucasian woman, with atrial fibrillation on chronic anticoagulation with warfarin, was admitted to the hospital for pneumonia. She was treated with levofloxacin. In the same admission, her warfarin was switched to rivaroxaban. On Day 3 after the switch, her INR was found to be 6, and she developed a cervical epidural hematoma from C2 to C7. She ultimately developed respiratory arrest, was put on comfort care and died. Discussion: Rivaroxaban and warfarin are known to have a synergistic anticoagulant effect, usually seen shortly after switching. Antibiotics also increase the effects of warfarin by the inhibition of metabolizing isoenzymes. It is hypothesized that these two effects led to the fatal cervical spinal hematoma. Conclusion: The convenience of a wide therapeutic window and no requirement of laboratory monitoring makes the NOACs a desirable option for anticoagulation. However, there is lack of data and recommendations on how to transition patients from Warfarin to NOACs or even how to transition from one NOAC to another. Care should be taken to ensure continuous monitoring of anticoagulation when stopping, interrupting or switching between NOACS to avoid the possibility of fatal bleeding and strokes.

  10. Globalization and Contemporary Fertility Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Arun S

    2017-09-01

    The rise of the global network of nation-states has precipitated social transformations throughout the world. This article examines the role of political and economic globalization in driving fertility convergence across countries between 1965 and 2009. While past research has typically conceptualized fertility change as a country-level process, this study instead employs a theoretical and methodological framework that examines differences in fertility between pairs of countries over time. Convergence in fertility between pairs of countries is hypothesized to result from increased cross-country connectedness and cross-national transmission of fertility-related schemas. I investigate the impact of various cross-country ties, including ties through bilateral trade, intergovernmental organizations, and regional trade blocs, on fertility convergence. I find that globalization acts as a form of social interaction to produce fertility convergence. There is significant heterogeneity in the effects of different cross-country ties. In particular, trade with rich model countries, joint participation in the UN and UNESCO, and joining a free trade agreement all contribute to fertility convergence between countries. Whereas the prevailing focus in fertility research has been on factors producing fertility declines, this analysis highlights specific mechanisms-trade and connectedness through organizations-leading to greater similarity in fertility across countries. Globalization is a process that propels the spread of culturally laden goods and schemas impinging on fertility, which in turn produces fertility convergence.

  11. Applying Convergent Immunity to Innovative Vaccines Targeting Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Michael R.; Filler, Scott G.; Schmidt, Clint S.; Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Edwards, John E.; Hennessey, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent perspectives forecast a new paradigm for future “third generation” vaccines based on commonalities found in diverse pathogens or convergent immune defenses to such pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus, recurring infections and a limited success of vaccines containing S. aureus antigens imply that native antigens induce immune responses insufficient for optimal efficacy. These perspectives exemplify the need to apply novel vaccine strategies to high-priority pathogens. One such approach can be termed convergent immunity, where antigens from non-target organisms that contain epitope homologs found in the target organism are applied in vaccines. This approach aims to evoke atypical immune defenses via synergistic processes that (1) afford protective efficacy; (2) target an epitope from one organism that contributes to protective immunity against another; (3) cross-protect against multiple pathogens occupying a common anatomic or immunological niche; and/or (4) overcome immune subversion or avoidance strategies of target pathogens. Thus, convergent immunity has a potential to promote protective efficacy not usually elicited by native antigens from a target pathogen. Variations of this concept have been mainstays in the history of viral and bacterial vaccine development. A more far-reaching example is the pre-clinical evidence that specific fungal antigens can induce cross-kingdom protection against bacterial pathogens. This trans-kingdom protection has been demonstrated in pre-clinical studies of the recombinant Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (rAls3) where it was shown that a vaccine containing rAls3 provides homologous protection against C. albicans, heterologous protection against several other Candida species, and convergent protection against several strains of S. aureus. Convergent immunity reflects an intriguing new approach to designing and developing vaccine antigens and is considered here in the context of vaccines to target S

  12. Applying Convergent Immunity to Innovative Vaccines Targeting Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Yeaman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent perspectives forecast a new paradigm for future 3rd generation vaccines based on commonalities found in diverse pathogens or convergent immune defenses to such pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus, recurring infections and a limited success of vaccines containing S. aureus antigens imply that native antigens induce immune responses insufficient for optimal efficacy. These perspectives exemplify the need to apply novel vaccine strategies to high priority pathogens. One such approach can be termed convergent immunity, where antigens from non-target organisms that contain epitope homologues found in the target organism are applied in vaccines. This approach aims to evoke atypical immune defenses via synergistic processes that 1 afford protective efficacy; 2 target an epitope from one organism that contributes to protective immunity against another; 3 cross-protect against multiple pathogens occupying a common anatomic or immunologic niche; and/or 4 overcome immune subversion or avoidance strategies of target pathogens. Thus, convergent immunity has a potential to promote protective efficacy not usually elicited by native antigens from a target pathogen. Variations of this concept have been mainstays in the history of viral and bacterial vaccine development. A more far-reaching example is the pre–clinical evidence that specific fungal antigens can induce cross-kingdom protection against bacterial pathogens. This trans-kingdom protection has been demonstrated in preclinical studies of the recombinant Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (rAls3 where it was shown that a vaccine containing rAls3 provides homologous protection against C. albicans, heterologous protection against several other Candida species, and convergent protection against several strains of S. aureus. Convergent immunity reflects an intriguing new approach to designing and developing vaccine antigens and is considered here in the context of vaccines to target

  13. Using synergistic exogenous phytohormones to enhance somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Eucalyptus spp. has been limited to germinated seeds, flowers, lignotubers or zygotic embryos. ... explants could be enhanced through pairing of synergistic exogenous plant growth regulators, ...

  14. Synergistic Man: Outcome Model for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseve, Ronald J.

    1973-01-01

    Drawing on the insights of Ruth Benedict and Abraham Maslow in their search for an ethical gauge by which to rate personal-social health, this article proposes synergistic man'' as the desired outcome model for counselors. (Author)

  15. Statistical metamodeling for revealing synergistic antimicrobial interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Chia Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Many bacterial pathogens are becoming drug resistant faster than we can develop new antimicrobials. To address this threat in public health, a metamodel antimicrobial cocktail optimization (MACO scheme is demonstrated for rapid screening of potent antibiotic cocktails using uropathogenic clinical isolates as model systems. With the MACO scheme, only 18 parallel trials were required to determine a potent antimicrobial cocktail out of hundreds of possible combinations. In particular, trimethoprim and gentamicin were identified to work synergistically for inhibiting the bacterial growth. Sensitivity analysis indicated gentamicin functions as a synergist for trimethoprim, and reduces its minimum inhibitory concentration for 40-fold. Validation study also confirmed that the trimethoprim-gentamicin synergistic cocktail effectively inhibited the growths of multiple strains of uropathogenic clinical isolates. With its effectiveness and simplicity, the MACO scheme possesses the potential to serve as a generic platform for identifying synergistic antimicrobial cocktails toward management of bacterial infection in the future.

  16. Trophic convergence drives morphological convergence in marine tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Marine tetrapod clades (e.g. seals, whales) independently adapted to marine life through the Mesozoic and Caenozoic, and provide iconic examples of convergent evolution. Apparent morphological convergence is often explained as the result of adaptation to similar ecological niches. However, quantitative tests of this hypothesis are uncommon. We use dietary data to classify the feeding ecology of extant marine tetrapods and identify patterns in skull and tooth morphology that discriminate trophic groups across clades. Mapping these patterns onto phylogeny reveals coordinated evolutionary shifts in diet and morphology in different marine tetrapod lineages. Similarities in morphology between species with similar diets-even across large phylogenetic distances-are consistent with previous hypotheses that shared functional constraints drive convergent evolution in marine tetrapods.

  17. Digital Convergence and Content Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Starks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps are evident too, with broadcasters providing online and on-demand services and newspapers developing electronic versions. Does this mean that media regulation policies must converge too?My argument is that they should, though only where historically different communications are now fulfilling a similar function, e.g. broadcaster online services and electronic versions of newspapers. Convergence requires a degree of harmonisation and, to this end, I advocate a review of UK broadcasting's 'due impartiality' requirement and of the UK's application of the public service concept. I also argue for independent self-regulation (rather than state-based regulation of non-public-service broadcasting journalism.

  18. Cultura da Convergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Christofoletti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Três idéias já seriam suficientes para que a leitura de “Cultura da Convergência”, de Henry Jenkins, interessasse a jornalistas e pesquisadores da área: a convergência midiática como um processo cultural; o fortalecimento de uma economia afetiva que orienta consumidores de bens simbólicos e criadores midiáticos; a expansão de formas narrativas transmidiáticas.

  19. Synergistic effects of irradiation of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodbridge, D.D.; Cooper, P.C.; Vandenburg, A.J.; Musselman, H.D.; Lowe, H.N.; Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne; Army Facilities Engineering Support Agency, Fort Belvoir, Va.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations of the use of high level radiation in the treatment of waste water have failed to consider the effects of the hydrated electron and the potential of possible synergistic effects of combining chlorine, oxygen, and irradiation. An extensive testing program at the University Center for Pollution Research of Florida Institute of Technology over the past four years has shown that irradiation of waste water samples immersed in an aqueous environment provide bacterial kill and reduction in organic pollution far greater than that obtained from theoretical considerations of G values and earlier experiments where the waste samples were not immersed in an aqueous environment. These testing programs have investigated the synergistic effects of combining oxygen and irradiation. Each of these combined treatments resulted in an increased bacterial kill factor. Tests on Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and fecal streptococcus bacteria indicate that the synergistic effects observed for fecal coliform bacteria also apply to the pathogenic bacteria. A statistical analysis of the data obtained shows the interrelationships between the various effects on the bacteria. A definite shielding factor due to the turbidity of the waste water has been shown to exist. Synergistic effects have been shown to significantly offset the shielding effects. Optimization of these synergistic effects can greatly increase the effectiveness of irradiation in the treatment of waste water. (orig.) [de

  20. Convergence accommodation to convergence CA/C ratio: convergence versus divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Joshua M; Firth, Alison Y

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio during divergence with base-in (BI) prisms is of a similar or different magnitude to that measured during convergence with base-out (BO) prisms. Eighteen participants with normal binocular single vision were recruited. The participants viewed a pseudo-Gaussian target, which consisted of a light emitting diode (LED) behind a diffusing screen at 40 cm. After 5 minutes of dark adaptation, the refractive status of the eye was measured without any prism using a Shin-Nippon SRW-5000 autorefractor. The participant held the selected prism (5Δ or 10Δ BO or BI, counterbalanced) in front of their right eye and obtained a single, fused image of the target while refractive measures were taken with each. A 30-second rest period was given between measurements. The mean age of the participants was 20.6±3.22 years. The mean CA/C ratios for the 5Δ BO, 10Δ BO, 5Δ BI, and 10Δ BI were 0.108 (±0.074) D/Δ, 0.110 (±0.056) D/Δ, 0.100 (±0.090) D/Δ, and 0.089 (±0.055) D/Δ, respectively. A 2-factor repeated measures ANOVA found that the CA/C ratio did not significantly change with differing levels of prism-induced convergence and divergence (p=0.649). Change in accommodation induced by manipulating vergence is similar whether convergence or divergence are induced. The CA/C ratio did not show any change with differing levels of prism-induced convergence and divergence.

  1. Design of convergent switched systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den R.A.; Pogromsky, A.Y.; Leonov, G.A.; Rooda, J.E.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Gravdahl, J.T.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the problem of rendering hybrid/nonlinear systems into convergent closed-loop systems by means of a feedback law or switching rules. We illustrate our approach to this problem by means of two examples: the anti-windup design for a marginally stable system with input

  2. Convergence Patterns in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos

    characteristics, and external shocks in the region. I study three important phases, following Thorp (1998): from 1900 to 1930, the exporting phase, from 1931 to 1974, the industrialization phase, and from 1975 to 2007, the globalization phase. During the last two phases, I find strong evidence of convergence...

  3. Convergence of a Catalan Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the convergence of the infinite series of the reciprocals of the Catalan numbers. We extract the sum of the series as well as some related ones, illustrating the power of the calculus in the study of the Catalan numbers.

  4. Digital Convergence and Content Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starks, Michael John

    2014-01-01

    abstractBroadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps

  5. Convergence and migration among provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, J F

    1996-04-01

    "Have regional disparities in Canada changed over the past thirty years? This paper assesses the robustness of earlier findings of convergence in the levels and growth rates of provincial per capita GDP, and then estimates the extent to which interprovincial and international migration is being influenced by regional differences in incomes and employment." excerpt

  6. Revisiting convergence: A research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rob

    2015-09-01

    A number of recent studies show that income inequality is declining between countries. In this research note, I question the significance of this trend by examining the role of initial conditions in producing convergence. An important (but neglected) property of inequality dynamics is the tendency for extreme distributions to become more moderate. When income disparities are large, the subsequent trend is biased toward convergence. Conversely, when initial conditions approach parity, divergence becomes the more likely long-term outcome. I apply this principle to trends in GDP PC across 127 countries during the 1980-2010 period. Using counterfactual analysis, I manipulate the initial level of inequality in GDP PC while holding constant each country's observed growth rate during the sample period. I find that the growth dynamics of GDP PC produce either convergence or divergence based simply on the initial distribution of income. The point of transition occurs at a moderate level of inequality, whether using population weights (Gini=.365) or not (Gini=.377). I conclude that the recent convergence observed in GDP PC is primarily a function of large income gaps between countries and would not have materialized at more moderate levels of initial inequality. By contrast, an examination of the pre-1950 period reveals divergent growth patterns that are not sensitive to initial conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Industrial Evolution Through Complementary Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev Christensen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article addresses the dynamics through which product markets become derailed from early product life cycle (PLC)-tracks and engaged in complementary convergence with other product markets or industries. We compare and contrast the theories that can explain, respectively, the PLC...

  8. Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van M.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and

  9. Evolution and convergence in telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radicella, S; Grilli, D [Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

    2002-12-15

    These lectures throw a spotlight on different aspects of the evolution of telecommunications networks, namely on the various facets of service and network convergence. The last years progress in data and telecommunications technologies, such as P-based networks, and the enormous potential of mobile communication systems and users' demands for comprehensive and network-independent have led to a convergence of data and telecommunications infrastructures in many aspects. In order to help the reader to an easier understanding of the phenomenon convergence, in the first two parts of this volume the evolution of the basic technologies is described one by one. This is done briefly and is focused on the principle topics, just to build a basis for the third part devoted to problems of convergence in telecommunications. These notes are addressed to those readers, who in a quick overview want to be informed on the future service and network landscape. The notes are equally suited for professionals with the desire to extend their horizon as well as for students looking for an introduction into telecommunications under more general aspects. The authors clearly understand the difficulties in writing a book devoted to the evolution in telecommunications. Today, telecom landscape varies at very high speed. Every few months new network technologies, new products and new services are developed. Attempts to present them in time can be accessible only for magazine publications or contributions to conferences. Therefore, in a number of areas, such as Voice over IP and new switching technologies not much more than the starting point of new paradigms is described. However, the content is up-to-date to a degree, that the phenomenon convergence can be fully understood. Partially, these notes are based on a number of lecture courses that were delivered during recent ICTP winter schools devoted to multimedia and digital communications.

  10. Evolution and convergence in telecommunications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicella, S.; Grilli, D.

    2002-01-01

    These lectures throw a spotlight on different aspects of the evolution of telecommunications networks, namely on the various facets of service and network convergence. The last years progress in data and telecommunications technologies, such as P-based networks, and the enormous potential of mobile communication systems and users' demands for comprehensive and network-independent have led to a convergence of data and telecommunications infrastructures in many aspects. In order to help the reader to an easier understanding of the phenomenon convergence, in the first two parts of this volume the evolution of the basic technologies is described one by one. This is done briefly and is focused on the principle topics, just to build a basis for the third part devoted to problems of convergence in telecommunications. These notes are addressed to those readers, who in a quick overview want to be informed on the future service and network landscape. The notes are equally suited for professionals with the desire to extend their horizon as well as for students looking for an introduction into telecommunications under more general aspects. The authors clearly understand the difficulties in writing a book devoted to the evolution in telecommunications. Today, telecom landscape varies at very high speed. Every few months new network technologies, new products and new services are developed. Attempts to present them in time can be accessible only for magazine publications or contributions to conferences. Therefore, in a number of areas, such as Voice over IP and new switching technologies not much more than the starting point of new paradigms is described. However, the content is up-to-date to a degree, that the phenomenon convergence can be fully understood. Partially, these notes are based on a number of lecture courses that were delivered during recent ICTP winter schools devoted to multimedia and digital communications

  11. Statistical convergence of a non-positive approximation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agratini, Octavian

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A general class of approximation processes is introduced. → The A-statistical convergence is studied. → Applications in quantum calculus are delivered. - Abstract: Starting from a general sequence of linear and positive operators of discrete type, we associate its r-th order generalization. This construction involves high order derivatives of a signal and it looses the positivity property. Considering that the initial approximation process is A-statistically uniform convergent, we prove that the property is inherited by the new sequence. Also, our result includes information about the uniform convergence. Two applications in q-Calculus are presented. We study q-analogues both of Meyer-Koenig and Zeller operators and Stancu operators.

  12. Cooperative target convergence using multiple agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    This work considers the problem of causing multiple (100''s) autonomous mobile robots to converge to a target and provides a follow-the-leader approach to the problem. Each robot has only a limited-range sensor for sending the target and also larger but also limited-range robot-to-robot communication capability. Because of the small amount of information available to the robots, a practical approach to improve convergence to the target is to have a robot follow the robot with the best quality of information. Specifically, each robot emits a signal that informs in-range robots what its status is. A robot has a status value of 0 if it is itself in range of the target. A robot has a status of 1 if it is not in range of the target but is in communication range of a robot that is in range of the target. A robot has a status of 2 if it is not in range of the target but is within range of another robot that has status 1, and so on. Of all the mobile robots that any given robot is in range of, it follows the one with the best status. The emergent behavior is the ant-like trails of robots following each other toward the target. If the robot is not in range of another robot that is either in range of the target or following another robot, the robot will assign-1 to its quality-of-information, and will execute an exhaustive search. The exhaustive search will continue until it encounters either the target or another robot with a nonnegative quality-of-information. The quality of information approach was extended to the case where each robot only has two-bit signals informing it of distance to in-range robots

  13. Cooperative target convergence using multiple agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-10-01

    This work considers the problem of causing multiple (100`s) autonomous mobile robots to converge to a target and provides a follow-the-leader approach to the problem. Each robot has only a limited-range sensor for sending the target and also larger but also limited-range robot-to-robot communication capability. Because of the small amount of information available to the robots, a practical approach to improve convergence to the target is to have a robot follow the robot with the best quality of information. Specifically, each robot emits a signal that informs in-range robots what its status is. A robot has a status value of 0 if it is itself in range of the target. A robot has a status of 1 if it is not in range of the target but is in communication range of a robot that is in range of the target. A robot has a status of 2 if it is not in range of the target but is within range of another robot that has status 1, and so on. Of all the mobile robots that any given robot is in range of, it follows the one with the best status. The emergent behavior is the ant-like trails of robots following each other toward the target. If the robot is not in range of another robot that is either in range of the target or following another robot, the robot will assign-1 to its quality-of-information, and will execute an exhaustive search. The exhaustive search will continue until it encounters either the target or another robot with a nonnegative quality-of-information. The quality of information approach was extended to the case where each robot only has two-bit signals informing it of distance to in-range robots.

  14. Convergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glashow, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    These are scattered remarks concerning what is happening to (not in) elementary particle physics. New developments are unfolding with unprecedented speed, so that one does not even attempt to give a comprehensive review at this time. Mostly charm is discussed, both its phenomenology and its impact on belief in quarks, chromodynamics, and unified theories. Beneath the newsworthy experimental discoveries of the last two years lies a quieter and more profound theoretical development: the emergence of a theory of particle physics

  15. Quantifying convergence in the sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lumbreras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional epistemological models classify knowledge into separate disciplines with different objects of study and specific techniques, with some frameworks even proposing hierarchies (such as Comte’s. According to thinkers such as John Holland or Teilhard de Chardin, the advancement of science involves the convergence of disciplines. This proposed convergence can be studied in a number of ways, such as how works impact research outside a specific area (citation networks or how authors collaborate with other researchers in different fields (collaboration networks. While these studies are delivering significant new insights, they cannot easily show the convergence of different topics within a body of knowledge. This paper attempts to address this question in a quantitative manner, searching for evidence that supports the idea of convergence in the content of the sciences themselves (that is, whether the sciences are dealing with increasingly the same topics. We use Latent Dirichlet Analysis (LDA, a technique that is able to analyze texts and estimate the relative contributions of the topics that were used to generate them. We apply this tool to the corpus of the Santa Fe Institute (SFI working papers, which spans research on Complexity Science from 1989 to 2015. We then analyze the relatedness of the different research areas, the rise and demise of these sub-disciplines over time and, more broadly, the convergence of the research body as a whole. Combining the topic structure obtained from the collected publication history of the SFI community with techniques to infer hierarchy and clustering, we reconstruct a picture of a dynamic community which experiences trends, periodically recurring topics, and shifts in the closeness of scholarship over time. We find that there is support for convergence, and that the application of quantitative methods such as LDA to the study of knowledge can provide valuable insights that can help

  16. Synergistic Effects of PPARγ Ligands and Retinoids in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Shimizu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The activation of PPARs by their specific ligands is regarded as one of the promising strategies to inhibit cancer cell growth. However, recent clinical trials targeting several common cancers showed no beneficial effect when PPAR ligands are used as a monotherapy. Retinoid X receptors (RXRs, which play a critical role in normal cell proliferation as a master regulator for nuclear receptors, preferentially form heterodimers with PPARs. A malfunction of RXRα due to phosphorylation by the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway is associated with the development of certain types of human malignancies. The activation of PPARγ/RXR heterodimer by their respective ligands synergistically inhibits cell growth, while inducing apoptosis in human colon cancer cells when the phosphorylation of RXRα was inhibited. We herein review the synergistic antitumor effects produced by the combination of the PPAR, especially PPARγ, ligands plus other agents, especially retinoids, in a variety of human cancers. We also focus on the phosphorylation of RXRα because the inhibition of RXRα phosphorylation and the restoration of its physiological function may activate PPAR/RXR heterodimer and, therefore, be a potentially effective and critical strategy for the inhibition of cancer cell growth.

  17. Economic convergence and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciscar, J.C.; Soria, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the relevance of the economic convergence hypotheses between the developing and the developed world in international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions negotiations. The results are based on a two-region (the OECD and the rest of the world, ROW) neo-classical growth model with exogenous technical progress, different technological diffusion patterns, and a set of geophysical relationships that consider an environmental externality linked to GHG emissions. A game framework is taken into account in the model to capture the strategic interactions between agents. The outcome of the negotiations seems indeed to depend on the economic convergence hypotheses. Faster economic growth of the ROW countries would encourage them to further mitigate carbon emissions. (Author)

  18. Converging-barrel plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, T.O.

    1971-01-01

    The invention comprises a device for generating and accelerating plasma to extremely high velocity, while focusing the plasma to a decreasing cross section for attaining a very dense high-velocity plasma burst capable of causing nuclear fusion reactions. A converging coaxial accelerator-electrode configuration is employed with ''high-pressure'' gas injection in controlled amounts to achieve acceleration by deflagration and focusing by the shaped electromagnetic fields. (U.S.)

  19. Surface meshing with curvature convergence

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin; Zeng, Wei; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Chen, Liming; Gu, Xianfengdavid

    2014-01-01

    Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.

  20. Surface meshing with curvature convergence

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2014-06-01

    Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. Natural gas and electricity convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calger, C.

    1998-01-01

    Convergence between the gas and electricity industries was described as a means for creating an increasingly more efficient energy market where prices and fundamental relationships exist between gas and electricity. Convergence creates new opportunities for producers and consumers. Convergence will likely lead to the disaggregation of the electricity and gas industry into segments such as: (1) power generation and production, (2) transmission wires and pipelines, (3) wholesale merchants, (4) distribution wires and pipelines, and (5) retail marketing, services and administration. The de-integration of integrated utilities has already begun in the U.S. energy markets and retail open access is accelerating. This retail competition will create very demanding customers and the changing risk profile will create new issues for stakeholders. The pace of reform for the telecommunications, airlines, natural gas and electricity industries was graphically illustrated to serve as an example of what to expect. The different paths that the industry might take to deregulation (aggressively embrace reform, or defensively blocking it), and the likely consequences of each reaction were also described. A map indicating where U.S. electric and natural gas utility merger and acquisition activities have taken place between 1994-1997, was included. Another map showing the physical asset positions of the Enron grid, one of the largest independent oil and gas companies in the U.S., with increasing international operations, including an electric power transmission and distribution arm, was also provided as an illustration of a fully integrated energy market company of the future. 9 figs

  2. Modelling synergistic effects of appetite regulating hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Ritz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We briefly reviewed one definition of dose addition, which is applicable within the framework of generalized linear models. We established how this definition of dose addition corresponds to effect addition in case only two doses per compound are considered for evaluating synergistic effects. The....... The link between definitions was exemplified for an appetite study where two appetite hormones were studied....

  3. SYNERGISTIC ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF STEM BARK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. The study was aimed at screening the stem bark extracts of Faidherbia albida and Psidium guajava for synergistic antibacterial effect against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The powdered plant materials were extracted with methanol using cold maceration technique and the extracts were ...

  4. Synergistic effect of Glomus fasciculatum and Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants treated with both fungus and mycorrhizal (F+M) treatment showed the maximum uptake of metals and thus the synergistic effect of these fungi can be exploited in decontamination of metals from tannery sludge. Key words: Phytoextraction, tannery sludge, heavy metals, resistant rhizosphere fungi, Arbuscular ...

  5. Synergistic Antimicrobial Activities Of Phytoestrogens In Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extracts of both leaves were studied for their in-vitro synergistic antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative micro-organisms, and Yeast using Agar diffusion method. The GC-MS phytochemical screening of methanolic extract showed that the major compounds in ...

  6. MODELLING SYNERGISTIC EYE MOVEMENTS IN THE VISUAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARITZ Mihaela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Some theoretical and practical considerations about eye movements in visual field are presented in the first part of this paper. These movements are developed into human body to be synergistic and are allowed to obtain the visual perception in 3D space. The theoretical background of the eye movements’ analysis is founded on the establishment of movement equations of the eyeball, as they consider it a solid body with a fixed point. The exterior actions, the order and execution of the movements are ensured by the neural and muscular external system and thus the position, stability and movements of the eye can be quantified through the method of reverse kinematic. The purpose of these researches is the development of a simulation model of human binocular visual system, an acquisition methodology and an experimental setup for data processing and recording regarding the eye movements, presented in the second part of the paper. The modeling system of ocular movements aims to establish the binocular synergy and limits of visual field changes in condition of ocular motor dysfunctions. By biomechanical movements of eyeball is established a modeling strategy for different sort of processes parameters like convergence, fixation and eye lens accommodation to obtain responses from binocular balance. The results of modelling processes and the positions of eye ball and axis in visual field are presented in the final part of the paper.

  7. a globally convergent hyperpl onvergent hyperplane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Bayero Journal of Pure and App. ISSN 2006 – 6996 ... Globally Convergent Hyper plane-BFGS method for solving nonline. The attractive ... Numerical performance on some b rates there liability ..... convergence of a class of quasi methods on ...

  8. Density by Moduli and Lacunary Statistical Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K. Bhardwaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have introduced and studied a new concept of f-lacunary statistical convergence, where f is an unbounded modulus. It is shown that, under certain conditions on a modulus f, the concepts of lacunary strong convergence with respect to a modulus f and f-lacunary statistical convergence are equivalent on bounded sequences. We further characterize those θ for which Sθf=Sf, where Sθf and Sf denote the sets of all f-lacunary statistically convergent sequences and f-statistically convergent sequences, respectively. A general description of inclusion between two arbitrary lacunary methods of f-statistical convergence is given. Finally, we give an Sθf-analog of the Cauchy criterion for convergence and a Tauberian theorem for Sθf-convergence is also proved.

  9. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  10. Technology assessment using NBIC convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaseashta, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Notwithstanding progress in the areas of nanotechnology/nanoscience, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive sciences (NBIC), the synergy arising from convergence of these disciplines offers great potential for transformational, revolutionary, and embryonic opportunities with many technological applications. In addition, advances in synthesis and characterization methods have provided the means to study, understand, control, or even manipulate the transitional characteristics between isolated atoms and bulk material. In recent years, newly developed architectures in nanostructures and nanosystems with improved functionality, and ensuing unique characteristics have been developed with applications in chemical and biological sensors, nanobiotechnology, nanophotonics, and analysis of cellular processes. Novel convergence methodologies will integrate and advance next generation solutions to current and future technical challenges. Convergence in research methodologies transform the way research is conducted by overcoming specific barriers or filling existing knowledge gaps. NBIC Convergence and associated research methodologies has exceptionally high potential for transforming the manner in which state-of-the-art information is gathered, analyzed, and leveraged to enable future advances and applications. Examples of synergy of these disciplines include: label free, highly multiplexed over broad dynamic range, and decentralized nanotechnology based sensor platform for detection of biological and chemical agents; nucleic acid layers in conjunction with nanomaterials-based electrochemical or optical transducers as DNA Biosensor; potential targets for the next generation of vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics to enhance human performance; basis for 'Gene Ontology' to provides an important link between gene function and systems biology to understand a global picture of host-microbe interactions - to name a few. Since the idea of 'Converging

  11. Statistical convergence on intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakus, S.; Demirci, K.; Duman, O.

    2008-01-01

    Saadati and Park [Saadati R, Park JH, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;27:331-44] has recently introduced the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy normed space. In this paper, we study the concept of statistical convergence on intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces. Then we give a useful characterization for statistically convergent sequences. Furthermore, we display an example such that our method of convergence is stronger than the usual convergence on intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces

  12. Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Kosinka, Jiří

    2016-02-12

    We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.

  13. Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Kosinka, Jiří ; Barton, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.

  14. Semantic Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameel, Eef; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert; Van Assche, Fons

    2009-01-01

    Bilinguals' lexical mappings for their two languages have been found to converge toward a common naming pattern. The present paper investigates in more detail how semantic convergence is manifested in bilingual lexical knowledge. We examined how semantic convergence affects the centers and boundaries of lexical categories for common household…

  15. "Nanoselves": NBIC and the Culture of Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Priya

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this essay is NBIC convergence (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science convergence). NBIC convergence is a recurring trope that is dominated by the paradigm of integration of the sciences. It is largely influenced by the considerations of social and economic impact, and it assumes positivism in…

  16. The convergence of radiation and immunogenic cell death signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, Encouse B.; Pellicciotta, Ilenia; Demaria, Sandra; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary H.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) triggers programmed cell death in tumor cells through a variety of highly regulated processes. Radiation-induced tumor cell death has been studied extensively in vitro and is widely attributed to multiple distinct mechanisms, including apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic catastrophe (MC), autophagy, and senescence, which may occur concurrently. When considering tumor cell death in the context of an organism, an emerging body of evidence suggests there is a reciprocal relationship in which radiation stimulates the immune system, which in turn contributes to tumor cell kill. As a result, traditional measurements of radiation-induced tumor cell death, in vitro, fail to represent the extent of clinically observed responses, including reductions in loco-regional failure rates and improvements in metastases free and overall survival. Hence, understanding the immunological responses to the type of radiation-induced cell death is critical. In this review, the mechanisms of radiation-induced tumor cell death are described, with particular focus on immunogenic cell death (ICD). Strategies combining radiotherapy with specific chemotherapies or immunotherapies capable of inducing a repertoire of cancer specific immunogens might potentiate tumor control not only by enhancing cell kill but also through the induction of a successful anti-tumor vaccination that improves patient survival.

  17. Ecomorphological convergence in planktivorous surgeonfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Friedman, S. T.

    2016-01-26

    © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Morphological convergence plays a central role in the study of evolution. Often induced by shared ecological specialization, homoplasy hints at underlying selective pressures and adaptive constraints that deterministically shape the diversification of life. Although midwater zooplanktivory has arisen in adult surgeonfishes (family Acanthuridae) at least four independent times, it represents a clearly specialized state, requiring the capacity to swiftly swim in midwater locating and sucking small prey items. Whereas this diet has commonly been associated with specific functional adaptations in fishes, acanthurids present an interesting case study as all nonplanktivorous species feed by grazing on benthic algae and detritus, requiring a vastly different functional morphology that emphasizes biting behaviours. We examined the feeding morphology in 30 acanthurid species and, combined with a pre-existing phylogenetic tree, compared the fit of evolutionary models across two diet regimes: zooplanktivores and nonzooplanktivorous grazers. Accounting for phylogenetic relationships, the best-fitting model indicates that zooplanktivorous species are converging on a separate adaptive peak from their grazing relatives. Driving this bimodal landscape, zooplanktivorous acanthurids tend to develop a slender body, reduced facial features, smaller teeth and weakened jaw adductor muscles. However, despite these phenotypic changes, model fitting suggests that lineages have not yet reached the adaptive peak associated with plankton feeding even though some transitions appear to be over 10 million years old. These findings demonstrate that the selective demands of pelagic feeding promote repeated - albeit very gradual - ecomorphological convergence within surgeonfishes, while allowing local divergences between closely related species, contributing to the overall diversity of the clade. Journal of Evolutionary Biology

  18. Ecomorphological convergence in planktivorous surgeonfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S T; Price, S A; Hoey, A S; Wainwright, P C

    2016-05-01

    Morphological convergence plays a central role in the study of evolution. Often induced by shared ecological specialization, homoplasy hints at underlying selective pressures and adaptive constraints that deterministically shape the diversification of life. Although midwater zooplanktivory has arisen in adult surgeonfishes (family Acanthuridae) at least four independent times, it represents a clearly specialized state, requiring the capacity to swiftly swim in midwater locating and sucking small prey items. Whereas this diet has commonly been associated with specific functional adaptations in fishes, acanthurids present an interesting case study as all nonplanktivorous species feed by grazing on benthic algae and detritus, requiring a vastly different functional morphology that emphasizes biting behaviours. We examined the feeding morphology in 30 acanthurid species and, combined with a pre-existing phylogenetic tree, compared the fit of evolutionary models across two diet regimes: zooplanktivores and nonzooplanktivorous grazers. Accounting for phylogenetic relationships, the best-fitting model indicates that zooplanktivorous species are converging on a separate adaptive peak from their grazing relatives. Driving this bimodal landscape, zooplanktivorous acanthurids tend to develop a slender body, reduced facial features, smaller teeth and weakened jaw adductor muscles. However, despite these phenotypic changes, model fitting suggests that lineages have not yet reached the adaptive peak associated with plankton feeding even though some transitions appear to be over 10 million years old. These findings demonstrate that the selective demands of pelagic feeding promote repeated - albeit very gradual - ecomorphological convergence within surgeonfishes, while allowing local divergences between closely related species, contributing to the overall diversity of the clade. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European

  19. Convergence estimates in approximation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The study of linear positive operators is an area of mathematical studies with significant relevance to studies of computer-aided geometric design, numerical analysis, and differential equations. This book focuses on the convergence of linear positive operators in real and complex domains. The theoretical aspects of these operators have been an active area of research over the past few decades. In this volume, authors Gupta and Agarwal explore new and more efficient methods of applying this research to studies in Optimization and Analysis. The text will be of interest to upper-level students seeking an introduction to the field and to researchers developing innovative approaches.

  20. SCORE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY: THE CONVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Explores the role of digital scorewriters in today's culture, education, and music industry and media environment. The main principle of the development of software is not only publishing innovation (relating to the sheet music, and integration into the area of composition, arrangement, education, creative process for works based on digital technology (films, television and radio broadcasting, Internet, audio and video art. Therefore the own convergence of musically-computer technology is a total phenomenon: notation program combined with means MIDI-sequencer, audio and video editor. The article contains the unique interview with the creator of music notation processors.

  1. At the Eve of Convergence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Zimmer, Annette; Smith, Steven Rathgeb

    . Specifically, we will investigate whether and to what extent social services and health care in these three countries are affected by current changes. With a special focus on nonprofit organizations, we will particularly address the question whether a trend towards convergence of the very different welfare......Due to severe societal, economic and political changes, of which the financial crisis counts prominently, welfare states all over the world are under stress. In our comparative analysis, we will concentrate on specific segments of welfare state activity in Denmark, Germany, and the United States...

  2. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M. C.

    2005-01-01

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco and Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships.After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R and D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R and D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance

  3. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, M. C.

    2005-06-01

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco & Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships. After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R&D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R&D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance.

  4. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, M. C. [National Science Foundation (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2005-06-15

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco and Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships.After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R and D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R and D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance.

  5. Synergistic effects in mixed Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Holler, B.M.; Molin, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms, often composed of multiple species and genetically distinct strains, develop under complex influences of cell-cell interactions. Although detailed knowledge about the mechanisms underlying formation of single-species laboratory biofilms has emerged, little is known about...... the pathways governing development of more complex heterogeneous communities. In this study, we established a laboratory model where biofilm-stimulating effects due to interactions between genetically diverse strains of Escherichia coli were monitored. Synergistic induction of biofilm formation resulting from...... the cocultivation of 403 undomesticated E. coli strains with a characterized E. coli K-12 strain was detected at a significant frequency. The survey suggests that different mechanisms underlie the observed stimulation, yet synergistic development of biofilm within the subset of E. coli isolates (n = 56) exhibiting...

  6. Pointwise convergence of Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Arias de Reyna, Juan

    2002-01-01

    This book contains a detailed exposition of Carleson-Hunt theorem following the proof of Carleson: to this day this is the only one giving better bounds. It points out the motivation of every step in the proof. Thus the Carleson-Hunt theorem becomes accessible to any analyst.The book also contains the first detailed exposition of the fine results of Hunt, Sjölin, Soria, etc on the convergence of Fourier Series. Its final chapters present original material. With both Fefferman's proof and the recent one of Lacey and Thiele in print, it becomes more important than ever to understand and compare these two related proofs with that of Carleson and Hunt. These alternative proofs do not yield all the results of the Carleson-Hunt proof. The intention of this monograph is to make Carleson's proof accessible to a wider audience, and to explain its consequences for the pointwise convergence of Fourier series for functions in spaces near $äcal Lü^1$, filling a well-known gap in the literature.

  7. Synergistic effects in threshold models on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Jonas S.; Porter, Mason A.

    2018-01-01

    Network structure can have a significant impact on the propagation of diseases, memes, and information on social networks. Different types of spreading processes (and other dynamical processes) are affected by network architecture in different ways, and it is important to develop tractable models of spreading processes on networks to explore such issues. In this paper, we incorporate the idea of synergy into a two-state ("active" or "passive") threshold model of social influence on networks. Our model's update rule is deterministic, and the influence of each meme-carrying (i.e., active) neighbor can—depending on a parameter—either be enhanced or inhibited by an amount that depends on the number of active neighbors of a node. Such a synergistic system models social behavior in which the willingness to adopt either accelerates or saturates in a way that depends on the number of neighbors who have adopted that behavior. We illustrate that our model's synergy parameter has a crucial effect on system dynamics, as it determines whether degree-k nodes are possible or impossible to activate. We simulate synergistic meme spreading on both random-graph models and networks constructed from empirical data. Using a heterogeneous mean-field approximation, which we derive under the assumption that a network is locally tree-like, we are able to determine which synergy-parameter values allow degree-k nodes to be activated for many networks and for a broad family of synergistic models.

  8. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  9. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications. PMID:25022769

  10. Exponential convergence rate (the spectral convergence) of the fast Pade transform for exact quantification in magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkic, Dzevad

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with the most challenging numerical aspect for solving the quantification problem in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The primary goal is to investigate whether it could be feasible to carry out a rigorous computation within finite arithmetics to reconstruct exactly all the machine accurate input spectral parameters of every resonance from a synthesized noiseless time signal. We also consider simulated time signals embedded in random Gaussian distributed noise of the level comparable to the weakest resonances in the corresponding spectrum. The present choice for this high-resolution task in MRS is the fast Pade transform (FPT). All the sought spectral parameters (complex frequencies and amplitudes) can unequivocally be reconstructed from a given input time signal by using the FPT. Moreover, the present computations demonstrate that the FPT can achieve the spectral convergence, which represents the exponential convergence rate as a function of the signal length for a fixed bandwidth. Such an extraordinary feature equips the FPT with the exemplary high-resolution capabilities that are, in fact, theoretically unlimited. This is illustrated in the present study by the exact reconstruction (within machine accuracy) of all the spectral parameters from an input time signal comprised of 25 harmonics, i.e. complex damped exponentials, including those for tightly overlapped and nearly degenerate resonances whose chemical shifts differ by an exceedingly small fraction of only 10 -11 ppm. Moreover, without exhausting even a quarter of the full signal length, the FPT is shown to retrieve exactly all the input spectral parameters defined with 12 digits of accuracy. Specifically, we demonstrate that when the FPT is close to the convergence region, an unprecedented phase transition occurs, since literally a few additional signal points are sufficient to reach the full 12 digit accuracy with the exponentially fast rate of convergence. This is the critical

  11. Convergence of the gas and electricity market - Implications for the traditional players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waffel, H. Dieter

    1999-01-01

    This presentation begins with an overview of PreussenElektra, a company that generates electricity from a variety of energy sources, including gas. It then describes developments in the European electricity market and finds striking similarities between that market and the electricity market of the USA as of 1992. Then issues concerning convergence of gas and electricity are considered. Experience from the USA shows that experience gained during gas deregulation could be used in electricity deregulation. Many natural synergies exist between the electric and gas markets, which could speed convergence. One of the first signals of convergence will be the formation of strategic alliances between gas and electricity companies. There are many open questions to consider as deregulation is implemented and convergence occurs. Convergence in Europe promises to be a near-term growth opportunity for advocates and consultants. Market dynamics promise that there will be winners and losers. Incumbency is an advantage, not an assurance of success

  12. Convergence of the gas and electricity market - Implications for the traditional players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffel, H. Dieter

    1999-07-01

    This presentation begins with an overview of PreussenElektra, a company that generates electricity from a variety of energy sources, including gas. It then describes developments in the European electricity market and finds striking similarities between that market and the electricity market of the USA as of 1992. Then issues concerning convergence of gas and electricity are considered. Experience from the USA shows that experience gained during gas deregulation could be used in electricity deregulation. Many natural synergies exist between the electric and gas markets, which could speed convergence. One of the first signals of convergence will be the formation of strategic alliances between gas and electricity companies. There are many open questions to consider as deregulation is implemented and convergence occurs. Convergence in Europe promises to be a near-term growth opportunity for advocates and consultants. Market dynamics promise that there will be winners and losers. Incumbency is an advantage, not an assurance of success.

  13. Convergence of the gas and electricity markets - Implications for the traditional players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffel, H. Dieter

    1999-07-01

    This presentation begins with an overview of PreussenElektra, a company that generates electricity from a variety of energy sources, including gas. It then describes developments in the European electricity market and finds striking similarities between that market and the electricity market of the USA as of 1992. Then issues concerning convergence of gas and electricity are considered. Experience from the USA shows that experience gained during gas deregulation could be used in electricity deregulation. Many natural synergies exist between the electric and gas markets, which could speed convergence. One of the first signals of convergence will be the formation of strategic alliances between gas and electricity companies. There are many open questions to consider as deregulation is implemented and convergence occurs. Convergence in Europe promises to be a near-term growth opportunity for advocates and consultants. Market dynamics promise that there will be winners and losers. Incumbency is an advantage, not an assurance of success.

  14. Convergent Validity of the PUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cathérine Brandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Severity of premonitory urges can be assessed with the Premonitory Urge for Tic Disorders Scale (PUTS. However, convergent validity of the measure has been difficult to assess due to the lack of other urge measures.We investigated the relationship between average real-time urge intensity assessed by an in-house developed real-time urge monitor, measuring urge intensity continuously for 5mins on a visual analogue scale, and general urge intensity assessed by the PUTS in 22 adult Tourette patients (mean age 29.8+/- 10.3; 19 male. Additionally, underlying factors of premonitory urges assessed by the PUTS were investigated in the adult sample using factor analysis and were replicated in 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (mean age 12.05 +/- 2.83 SD, 31 male.Cronbach’s alpha for the PUTS10 was acceptable (α = .79 in the adult sample. Convergent validity between average real-time urge intensity scores (as assessed with the real-time urge monitor and the 10-item version of the PUTS (r = .64 and the 9-item version of the PUTS (r = .66 was good. A factor analysis including the 10 items of the PUTS and average real-time urge intensity scores revealed three factors. One factor included the average real-time urge intensity score and appeared to measure urge intensity, while the other two factors can be assumed to reflect the (sensory quality of urges and subjective control, respectively. The factor structure of the 10 PUTS items alone was replicated in a sample of children and adolescents.The results indicate that convergent validity between the PUTS and the real-time urge assessment monitor is good. Furthermore, the results suggest that the PUTS might assess more than one dimension of urges and it may be worthwhile developing different sub-scales of the PUTS assessing premonitory urges in terms of intensity and quality, as well as subjectively

  15. Professional convergence in forensic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J

    2001-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.

  16. Mosaic convergence of rodent dentitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Lazzari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible

  17. Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Convergence in Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Isabella; de Vreede, Gert-Jan; Maier, Ronald; Weber, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Collaborative brainstorming is often followed by a convergence activity where teams extract the most promising ideas on a useful level of detail from the brainstorming results. Contrary to the wealth of research on electronic brainstorming, there is a dearth of research on convergence. We used experimental methods for an in-depth exploration of two facilitation-based interventions in a convergence activity: attention guidance (focusing participants on procedures to execute a convergence task) and discussion encouragement (engaging participants in conversations to combine knowledge on ideas). Our findings show that both attention guidance and discussion encouragement are correlated with higher convergence quality. We argue that attention guidance’s contribution is in its support of coordination, information processing, and goal specification. Similar, we argue that discussion encouragement’s contribution is in its stimulation of idea clarification and idea combination. Contrary to past research, our findings further show that satisfaction was higher after convergence than after brainstorming. PMID:29399005

  18. Vadose zone flow convergence test suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-05

    Performance Assessment (PA) simulations for engineered disposal systems at the Savannah River Site involve highly contrasting materials and moisture conditions at and near saturation. These conditions cause severe convergence difficulties that typically result in unacceptable convergence or long simulation times or excessive analyst effort. Adequate convergence is usually achieved in a trial-anderror manner by applying under-relaxation to the Saturation or Pressure variable, in a series of everdecreasing RELAxation values. SRNL would like a more efficient scheme implemented inside PORFLOW to achieve flow convergence in a more reliable and efficient manner. To this end, a suite of test problems that illustrate these convergence problems is provided to facilitate diagnosis and development of an improved convergence strategy. The attached files are being transmitted to you describing the test problem and proposed resolution.

  19. Regional Convergence and Sustainable Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the convergence theory of economic growth, this paper extends this concept to the human development index and carries out an empirical analysis of regional development in China between 1997 and 2006. Our research shows that the conditional convergence has been identified. Investment in fixed assets, government expenditure on education, health and infrastructure construction have positive effects on regional convergence of social development. Population weighted analysis of human development index provides support for weak convergence amongst provinces. Analysis of dynamics of regional distribution reveals the club convergence, which indicate two different convergence states. Central China is in the shade and lags behind, giving rise to the so-called “central downfall”. To solve this problem, the “Rise of Central China” Plan is necessary to promote the connection between coastal and inland regions of China and reduce the regional development gap.

  20. convergent methods for calculating thermodynamic Green functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, S. P.; Williams, C. D.; Mancini, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    A convergent method of approximating thermodynamic Green functions is outlined briefly. The method constructs a sequence of approximants which converges independently of the strength of the Hamiltonian's coupling constants. Two new concepts associated with the approximants are introduced: the resolving power of the approximation, and conditional creation (annihilation) operators. These ideas are illustrated on an exactly soluble model and a numerical example. A convergent expression for the s...

  1. On statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the notion of statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences in Pringsheim's sense has been introduced. We prove the decompostion theorems for  statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences and some theorems related to that concept have been established using the four dimensional matrix transformations. We provided some examples, where the results of acceleration convergence fails to hold for the statistical cases.

  2. Spermidine and resveratrol induce autophagy by distinct pathways converging on the acetylproteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Mariño, Guillermo; Bennetzen, Martin V; Eisenberg, Tobias; Megalou, Evgenia; Schroeder, Sabrina; Cabrera, Sandra; Bénit, Paule; Rustin, Pierre; Criollo, Alfredo; Kepp, Oliver; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Shen, Shensi; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Horio, Yoshiyuki; López-Otín, Carlos; Andersen, Jens S; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2011-02-21

    Autophagy protects organelles, cells, and organisms against several stress conditions. Induction of autophagy by resveratrol requires the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). In this paper, we show that the acetylase inhibitor spermidine stimulates autophagy independent of SIRT1 in human and yeast cells as well as in nematodes. Although resveratrol and spermidine ignite autophagy through distinct mechanisms, these compounds stimulate convergent pathways that culminate in concordant modifications of the acetylproteome. Both agents favor convergent deacetylation and acetylation reactions in the cytosol and in the nucleus, respectively. Both resveratrol and spermidine were able to induce autophagy in cytoplasts (enucleated cells). Moreover, a cytoplasm-restricted mutant of SIRT1 could stimulate autophagy, suggesting that cytoplasmic deacetylation reactions dictate the autophagic cascade. At doses at which neither resveratrol nor spermidine stimulated autophagy alone, these agents synergistically induced autophagy. Altogether, these data underscore the importance of an autophagy regulatory network of antagonistic deacetylases and acetylases that can be pharmacologically manipulated.

  3. Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....

  4. Convergence as conditionant for Media Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othon Jambeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Convergence comprises a combination of interlinked and interdependent transformations, of technological, industrial, commercial, cultural and social nature, which affect communication regulation. Customers, at their time, turned also convergent, involved in an intense participative culture, which is too, from the point of view of its social and geographical range, thanks to convergence, more and more extense. Instead of passive consumers of media and information and communication services, we have now active and socially connected consumers, no more readers/spectators/listeners, but noisy activists and publishers. To understand this phenomenon is essential to discern a regulatory frame suitable for it. This paper tries to define convergence and to discuss its consequences.

  5. Quadratically convergent MCSCF scheme using Fock operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, G.

    1981-01-01

    A quadratically convergent formulation of the MCSCF method using Fock operators is presented. Among its advantages the present formulation is quadratically convergent unlike the earlier ones based on Fock operators. In contrast to other quadratically convergent schemes as well as the one based on generalized Brillouin's theorem, this method leads easily to a hybrid scheme where the weakly coupled orbitals (such as the core) are handled purely by Fock equations, while the rest of the orbitals are treated by a quadratically convergent approach with a truncated virtual space obtained by the use of the corresponding Fock equations

  6. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate

  7. White piedra: further evidence of a synergistic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youker, Summer R; Andreozzi, Robert J; Appelbaum, Peter C; Credito, Kim; Miller, Jeffrey J

    2003-10-01

    White piedra is a fungal infection of the hair shaft caused by Trichosporon beigelii. A synergistic coryneform bacterial infection is often present with T beigelii. White piedra, although not commonly reported to infect scalp hair in North America, is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of scalp hair concretions. We report a case of white piedra of scalp hair with synergistic coryneform bacterial infection in two sisters, both US natives. Culture and light and electronmicroscopic evidence of the synergistic infection are presented.

  8. Temporal Convergence for Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillip Martin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Time and knowledge have tended to be conceptualised in conventional knowledge management systems as either ‘timeless’ recordings of procedures, or time-stamped records of past events and states. The concept of temporal convergence was previously developed to help apply knowledge-management theory to complex military processes such as commander’s intent, shared situation awareness, and self-synchronisation. This paper clarifies the concept and introduces several others in forming a framework to assist discussion and exploration of the types of knowledge required for complex endeavours, such as warfighting, characterised by opposition and uncertainty. The approach is grounded in a pragmatist philosophy and constructivist epistemology. Argument proceeds along mathematical lines from a basis that the types of knowledge most valuable to goal-directed agents in uncertain environments can be modelled as directed graph topologies. The framework is shown to be useful in describing and reasoning about the knowledge requirements and prerequisites for distributed decision-making through the sharing of situational knowledge and common intentions, with practical application to the planning and execution of operations. To the designers of knowledge management systems seeking to address this space, it presents a challenge that cannot be addressed merely by construction, storage, search and retrieval of documents and records pertaining to the past.

  9. Escalated convergent artificial bee colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Shimpi Singh; Bansal, Jagdish Chand; Tiwari, Ritu

    2016-03-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) optimisation algorithm is a recent, fast and easy-to-implement population-based meta heuristic for optimisation. ABC has been proved a rival algorithm with some popular swarm intelligence-based algorithms such as particle swarm optimisation, firefly algorithm and ant colony optimisation. The solution search equation of ABC is influenced by a random quantity which helps its search process in exploration at the cost of exploitation. In order to find a fast convergent behaviour of ABC while exploitation capability is maintained, in this paper basic ABC is modified in two ways. First, to improve exploitation capability, two local search strategies, namely classical unidimensional local search and levy flight random walk-based local search are incorporated with ABC. Furthermore, a new solution search strategy, namely stochastic diffusion scout search is proposed and incorporated into the scout bee phase to provide more chance to abandon solution to improve itself. Efficiency of the proposed algorithm is tested on 20 benchmark test functions of different complexities and characteristics. Results are very promising and they prove it to be a competitive algorithm in the field of swarm intelligence-based algorithms.

  10. Europe of energy: convergencies - complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, J.M. and others

    2001-01-01

    This issue of 'Economies et Societes' journal comprises 16 articles dealing with the evolution of European energy markets: the security of European petroleum supplies (P.R. Bauquis); the security of European natural gas supplies (J.M. Dauger); an empirical analysis of the power prices convergence in the European union (J.A. Vega-Cervera, A. Jurado-Malaga); the integration of European power markets, from the juxtaposition of national market to the establishment of a regional market (D. Finon); the fusions-acquisitions in the energy sector and the globalization impact (C.A. Michalet); the reorganization of power economics and the share of right (M.A. Frison-Roche); the European industry facing the new economy (J.M. Chevalier); the confidence stake of the traditional power operators (Y. Benamour, A. Bonanni); status and prospects of gas prices in continental Europe (G. Bellec); the gas and power transport challenges and the access charges fixing (L. David, J. Percebois); the strategic challenges of underground storage in the new European gas context (B. Esnault); stranded costs and deregulation of power networks: some questions raised by the US experience (J. Bezzina); natural gas in Europe and the emergence of spot markets and trading hubs (G. Heyvaert); the competitiveness of the power exchange market of the Netherlands (F. Boisseleau); setting up and de-regulated trades in European markets (H. Geman); the Californian power market (P.L. Joskow). (J.S.)

  11. Synergistic effects of retinoic acid and tamoxifen on human breast cancer cells: Proteomic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; He Qingyu; Chen Hongming; Chiu Jenfu

    2007-01-01

    The anti-estrogen tamoxifen and vitamin A-related compound, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), in combination act synergistically to inhibit the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In the present study, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomic approach to globally analyze this synergistic effect of RA and tamoxifen. Proteomic study revealed that multiple clusters of proteins were involved in RA and tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, including post-transcriptional and splicing factors, proteins related to cellular proliferation or differentiation, and proteins related to energy production and internal degradation systems. The negative growth factor-transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) was secreted by RA and/or tamoxifen treatment and was studies as a potential mediator of the synergistic effects of RA and tamoxifen in apoptosis. By comparing protein alterations in treatments of RA and tamoxifen alone or in combination to those of TGFβ treatment, or co-treatment with TGFβ inhibitor SB 431542, proteomic results showed that a number of proteins were involved in TGFβ signaling pathway. These results provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of RA and tamoxifen-induced TGFβ signaling pathway in breast cancer cells

  12. The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tameling, Klaske; Broersma, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    KLASKE TAMELING & MARCEL BROERSMA The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia Since the end of the twentieth century, convergence and cross-media journalism are concepts that are widely used to guide the future of journalism world wide. This study

  13. Frequency response functions for nonlinear convergent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, A.V.; Wouw, van de N.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2007-01-01

    Convergent systems constitute a practically important class of nonlinear systems that extends the class of asymptotically stable linear time-invariant systems. In this note, we extend frequency response functions defined for linear systems to nonlinear convergent systems. Such nonlinear frequency

  14. Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Convergence in Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeber, Isabella; de Vreede, Gert-Jan; Maier, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative brainstorming is often followed by a convergence activity where teams extract the most promising ideas on a useful level of detail from the brainstorming results. Contrary to the wealth of research on electronic brainstorming, there is a dearth of research on convergence. We used...

  15. Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    of conditional convergence helps to both better describe and explain the phenomenon. By applying error correction models, we examine conditional convergence of various types of social expenditure in 21 OECD countries between 1980 and 2005. Our empirical findings go beyond the existing literature in two respects...

  16. New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Qingchuan [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.

  17. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods—cultural neuroscience (CN)—is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings. PMID:20083533

  18. Synergistic Enhancement of Enzyme Performance and Resilience via Orthogonal Peptide-Protein Chemistry Enabled Multilayer Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Sun, Jiaxing; Su, Chao; Yang, Shuguang; Zhang, Wen-Bin

    2018-05-16

    Protein immobilization is critical to utilize their unique functions in diverse applications. Herein, we report that orthogonal peptide-protein chemistry enabled multilayer construction can facilitate the incorporation of various folded structural domains, including calmodulin in different states, affibody and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). An extended conformation is found to be the most advantageous for steady film growth. The resulting protein thin films exhibit sensitive and selective responsive behaviors to bio-signals (Ca2+, TFP, NADPH, etc.) and fully maintain the catalytic activity of DHFR. The approach is applicable to different substrates such as hydrophobic gold and hydrophilic silica microparticles. The DHFR enzyme can be immobilized onto silica microparticles with tunable amounts. The multi-layer set-up exhibits a synergistic enhancement of DHFR activity with increasing number of bilayers and also makes the embedded DHFR more resilient to lyophilization. Therefore, this is a convenient and versatile method for protein immobilization with potential benefits of synergistic enhancement in enzyme performance and resilience.

  19. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  20. On the convergence of finite state mean-field games through Γ-convergence

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita C.; Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we consider the long-term convergence (trend toward an equilibrium) of finite state mean-field games using Γ-convergence. Our techniques are based on the observation that an important class of mean-field games can be viewed as the Euler-Lagrange equation of a suitable functional. Therefore, using a scaling argument, one can convert a long-term convergence problem into a Γ-convergence problem. Our results generalize previous results related to long-term convergence for finite state problems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  1. On the convergence of finite state mean-field games through Γ-convergence

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita C.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we consider the long-term convergence (trend toward an equilibrium) of finite state mean-field games using Γ-convergence. Our techniques are based on the observation that an important class of mean-field games can be viewed as the Euler-Lagrange equation of a suitable functional. Therefore, using a scaling argument, one can convert a long-term convergence problem into a Γ-convergence problem. Our results generalize previous results related to long-term convergence for finite state problems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Media Convergence: the Culture Dimensions of Thinking%Media Convergence:the Culture Dimensions of Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Diao; Lan Ju

    2017-01-01

    In the process of meida Convergence,many researchers paid excessive attention to media technology,industry and management,and ignored the culture dimensions of media convergence.Therefore,to transcend media convergence technology,industrial thinking and more to the particularity attach importance to cultural media,it is a right way to achieve media convergence.But in the context of China's culture,media convergence should value the cultural uniqueness and the imbalance of the realistic problems,to reach innovation and breakthrough.

  3. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Nacev

    Full Text Available Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA, an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50 dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  4. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacev, Benjamin A; Liu, Jun O

    2011-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50) dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  5. Character combinations, convergence and diversification in ectoparasitic arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Robert

    2009-08-01

    Different lineages of organisms diversify over time at different rates, in part as a consequence of the characteristics of the species in these lineages. Certain suites of traits possessed by species within a clade may determine rates of diversification, with some particular combinations of characters acting synergistically to either limit or promote diversification; the most successful combinations may also emerge repeatedly in different clades via convergent evolution. Here, the association between species characters and diversification is investigated amongst 21 independent lineages of arthropods ectoparasitic on vertebrate hosts. Using nine characters (each with two to four states) that capture general life history strategy, transmission mode and host-parasite interaction, each lineage was described by the set of character states it possesses. The results show, firstly, that most possible pair-wise combinations of character states have been adopted at least once, sometimes several times independently by different lineages; thus, ectoparasitic arthropods have explored most of the life history character space available to them. Secondly, lineages possessing commonly observed combinations of character states are not necessarily the ones that have experienced the highest rates of diversification (measured as a clade's species-per-genus ratio). Thirdly, some specific traits are associated with higher rates of diversification. Using more than one host per generation, laying eggs away from the host and intermediate levels of fecundity are features that appear to have promoted diversification. These findings indicate that particular species characters may be evolutionary drivers of diversity, whose effects could also apply in other taxa.

  6. Improving Convergence of Iterative Feedback Tuning using Optimal External Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Hjalmarsson, Håkon; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    Iterative feedback tuning constitutes an attractive control loop tuning method for processes in the absence of sufficient process insight. It is a purely data driven approach to optimization of the loop performance. The standard formulation ensures an unbiased estimate of the loop performance cost...... function gradient, which is used in a search algorithm. A slow rate of convergence of the tuning method is often experienced when tuning for disturbance rejection. This is due to a poor signal to noise ratio in the process data. A method is proposed for increasing the information content in data...

  7. Evolving the Convergence of Telecommunication and TV Services over NGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Al-Hezmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of telecommunication, cable TV, and broadcast networks towards the Internet technology will enable the provision of emerging multimedia services as well as the integration of rich communication capabilities with TV services. However, enabling efficient delivery of interactive personalized multimedia services with mobility support requires an advanced overlay control framework. The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS offers the basic functions to manage multimedia sessions over different access networks. This paper outlines current standardization activities that address the provisioning of TV services over IP networks—known as IPTV—and proposes a novel end-to-end overall architecture based on IMS that enables the delivery of converged multimedia services. Furthermore, the paper presents the FOKUS Media Interoperability Lab as a reference implementation of this framework which covers a widespread spectrum of converged interactive scenarios. The final section gives an impression of the system performance by providing the end-to-end signaling delay of a session setup for live TV service delivered over unicast transmission mode.

  8. Neutron gain for converging guide tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildner, D.F.R.

    1982-01-01

    The method of acceptance diagrams is used to obtain analytical expressions for the neutron gain of a one-dimensional converging guide tube. It is found that the results are more easily expressed by analyzing the acceptance diagram at the exit of the funnel. The results are compared with those for the straight guide. When both guides have the same dimensions at the guide exit, the converging guide has higher transmitted intensity but with greater divergence of the beam. This analytical method is useful to assess the performance of a converging guide, though numerical computations may be required for detailed analysis of a guide system. (orig.)

  9. Convergence analysis of canonical genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, G

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the convergence properties of the canonical genetic algorithm (CGA) with mutation, crossover and proportional reproduction applied to static optimization problems. It is proved by means of homogeneous finite Markov chain analysis that a CGA will never converge to the global optimum regardless of the initialization, crossover, operator and objective function. But variants of CGA's that always maintain the best solution in the population, either before or after selection, are shown to converge to the global optimum due to the irreducibility property of the underlying original nonconvergent CGA. These results are discussed with respect to the schema theorem.

  10. Strategic business transformation through technology convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Nivedita; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    -time intelligence. This paper presents the case of General Electric (GE) and studies the various transitional phases and transformation dimensions that GE is experiencing, to manage this technology convergence. The evaluation of GE's experience indicates that convergence-related business transformation is nonlinear......Technology adoption is crucial for an organisation to remain competitive in the marketplace. Traditionally, two technologies - operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) - have operated independently from one another; however, technological advancements that businesses...... are experiencing have increased the overlap and convergence of these two areas. Industrial organisations are investing heavily in the integration and alignment of these technologies and expect to benefit in several ways from this convergence, such as through increased productivity, reduction in cost, and real...

  11. Convergent Validity of Four Innovativeness Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    Four scales of innovativeness were administered to two samples of undergraduate students: the Open Processing Scale, Innovativeness Scale, innovation subscale of the Jackson Personality Inventory, and Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory. Intercorrelations indicated the scales generally exhibited convergent validity. (GDC)

  12. A class of convergent neural network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Bernold; Gedeon, Tomáš

    1998-01-01

    We consider a class of systems of differential equations in Rn which exhibits convergent dynamics. We find a Lyapunov function and show that every bounded trajectory converges to the set of equilibria. Our result generalizes the results of Cohen and Grossberg (1983) for convergent neural networks. It replaces the symmetry assumption on the matrix of weights by the assumption on the structure of the connections in the neural network. We prove the convergence result also for a large class of Lotka-Volterra systems. These are naturally defined on the closed positive orthant. We show that there are no heteroclinic cycles on the boundary of the positive orthant for the systems in this class.

  13. Divergence and convergence in nutrition science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, Bart; Spruit, Shannon L.; Sikkema, Jan; Maat, Jan; Schuurbiers, Daan

    2015-01-01

    Nutrigenomics diverged from mainstream nutrition science, ideologically, instrumentally and culturally, due to the establishment of a protective niche. That protection is fading. This article chronicles a case in which convergence between nutrigenomics and nutrition science is pursued. Here we

  14. Advances and Challenges in Convergent Communication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toral-Cruz, Homero; Mihovska, Albena

    2017-01-01

    Welcome to this special issue of Wireless Personal Communications on Advances and Challenges in Convergent Communication Networks. The main purpose of this special issue is to present new progresses and challenges in convergent networks. Communication networks play an important role in our daily...... life because they allow communicating and sharing contents between heterogeneous nodes around the globe. The emergence of multiple network architectures and emerging technologies have resulted in new applications and services over a heterogeneous network. This heterogeneous network has undergone...... significant challenges in recent years, such as the evolution to a converged network with the capability to support multiple services, while maintaining a satisfactory level of QoE/QoS, security, efficiency and trust. The special issue on Advances and Challenges in Convergent Communication Networks...

  15. Testing the Conditional Convergence Hypothesis for Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmad Jan (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates for the existence or non-existence of conditional convergence across the provinces of Pakistan. The annual output data from 1973 to 2000 is pooled for the four Pakistani provinces. The cross-sectional specific effects, the time specific effects, the manufacturing output, and the structural variable for aggregate supply or production shocks are used to control the different steady state levels of per capita incomes of thedifferent provinces. The equation for conditional convergence is estimated through generalized least squares (GLS method, after controlling for the different steady states of the provinces. The result shows that the provinces of Pakistan converge to their own respective steady states with a convergence speed of 11% per annum. At the same time manufacturing output is also statistically significant and positively affects the economic growth in the provinces. However the structural variable is not statistically significant.

  16. Convergence of Corporate and Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    Syed; Rahman, M.; Donahue, Shannon E.

    2010-01-01

    As physical and information security boundaries have become increasingly blurry many organizations are experiencing challenges with how to effectively and efficiently manage security within the corporate. There is no current standard or best practice offered by the security community regarding convergence; however many organizations such as the Alliance for Enterprise Security Risk Management (AESRM) offer some excellent suggestions for integrating a converged security program. This paper rep...

  17. Convergence in Global Food Demand and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Anita; Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Unnevehr, Laurian J.

    2008-01-01

    Using food expenditures and food sales data over 1990-2004, this report examines whether food consumption and delivery trends are converging across 47 high- and middle-income countries. Middle-income countries, such as China and Mexico, appear to be following trends in high-income countries, measured across several dimensions of food system growth and change. Convergence is apparent in most important food expenditure categories and in indicators of food system modernization such as supermarke...

  18. Convergence Science in a Nano World

    OpenAIRE

    Cady, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Convergence is a new paradigm that brings together critical advances in the life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. Going beyond traditional “interdisciplinary” studies, “convergence” describes the culmination of truly integrated research and development, yielding revolutionary advances in both scientific research and new technologies. At its core, nanotechnology embodies these elements of convergence science by bringing together multiple disciplines with the goal of creating innova...

  19. Global Convergence of a Modified LS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu JinKui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The LS method is one of the effective conjugate gradient methods in solving the unconstrained optimization problems. The paper presents a modified LS method on the basis of the famous LS method and proves the strong global convergence for the uniformly convex functions and the global convergence for general functions under the strong Wolfe line search. The numerical experiments show that the modified LS method is very effective in practice.

  20. International Convergence on Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arctur, D. K.; Cox, S.; Jackson, I.; Nativi, S.; Wyborn, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    There is growing international consensus on addressing the challenges to cyber(e)-infrastructure for the geosciences. These challenges include: Creating common standards and protocols; Engaging the vast number of distributed data resources; Establishing practices for recognition of and respect for intellectual property; Developing simple data and resource discovery and access systems; Building mechanisms to encourage development of web service tools and workflows for data analysis; Brokering the diverse disciplinary service buses; Creating sustainable business models for maintenance and evolution of information resources; Integrating the data management life-cycle into the practice of science. Efforts around the world are converging towards de facto creation of an integrated global digital data network for the geosciences based on common standards and protocols for data discovery and access, and a shared vision of distributed, web-based, open source interoperable data access and integration. Commonalities include use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO specifications and standardized data interchange mechanisms. For multidisciplinarity, mediation, adaptation, and profiling services have been successfully introduced to leverage the geosciences standards which are commonly used by the different geoscience communities -introducing a brokering approach which extends the basic SOA archetype. Principal challenges are less technical than cultural, social, and organizational. Before we can make data interoperable, we must make people interoperable. These challenges are being met by increased coordination of development activities (technical, organizational, social) among leaders and practitioners in national and international efforts across the geosciences to foster commonalities across disparate networks. In doing so, we will 1) leverage and share resources, and developments, 2) facilitate and enhance emerging technical and structural advances, 3) promote

  1. ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENCE WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION SIGMA AND BETA CONVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begu Liviu-Stelian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Real convergence study began with the development of neoclassical models of growth and especially with the passage of econometric applications of these models. In this paper we present applications of indicators and patterns of convergence on the example of European Union member countries and some current economic impact assessments on European convergence process. This analysis is based on the estimated a- and b convergence and on Markov chains. The study deals with the economic convergence of the European countries and especially the convergence of the EU countries, including Romania. In the end of the study presents several economic scenarios for a faster and easier exit from the current crisis in Romania.

  2. Otolith-Canal Convergence In Vestibular Nuclei Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, J. David; Si, Xiao-Hong

    2002-01-01

    The current final report covers the period from June 1, 1999 to May 31, 2002. The primary objective of the investigation was to determine how information regarding head movements and head position relative to gravity is received and processed by central vestibular nuclei neurons in the brainstem. Specialized receptors in the vestibular labyrinths of the inner ear function to detect angular and linear accelerations of the head, with receptors located in the semicircular canals transducing rotational head movements and receptors located in the otolith organs transducing changes in head position relative to gravity or linear accelerations of the head. The information from these different receptors is then transmitted to central vestibular nuclei neurons which process the input signals, then project the appropriate output information to the eye, head, and body musculature motor neurons to control compensatory reflexes. Although a number of studies have reported on the responsiveness of vestibular nuclei neurons, it has not yet been possible to determine precisely how these cells combine the information from the different angular and linear acceleration receptors into a correct neural output signal. In the present project, rotational and linear motion stimuli were separately delivered while recording responses from vestibular nuclei neurons that were characterized according to direct input from the labyrinth and eye movement sensitivity. Responses from neurons receiving convergent input from the semicircular canals and otolith organs were quantified and compared to non-convergent neurons.

  3. Convergent optical wired and wireless long-reach access network using high spectral-efficient modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C W; Lin, Y H

    2012-04-09

    To provide broadband services in a single and low cost perform, the convergent optical wired and wireless access network is promising. Here, we propose and demonstrate a convergent optical wired and wireless long-reach access networks based on orthogonal wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). Both the baseband signal and the radio-over-fiber (ROF) signal are multiplexed and de-multiplexed in optical domain, hence it is simple and the operation speed is not limited by the electronic bottleneck caused by the digital signal processing (DSP). Error-free de-multiplexing and down-conversion can be achieved for all the signals after 60 km (long-reach) fiber transmission. The scalability of the system for higher bit-rate (60 GHz) is also simulated and discussed.

  4. Digital Inverter Amine Sensing via Synergistic Responses by n and p Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Noah J; Jung, Byung Jun; Breysse, Patrick; Katz, Howard E

    2011-11-22

    Chemiresistors and sensitive OFETs have been substantially developed as cheap, scalable, and versatile sensing platforms. While new materials are expanding OFET sensing capabilities, the device architectures have changed little. Here we report higher order logic circuits utilizing OFETs sensitive to amine vapors. The circuits depend on the synergistic responses of paired p- and n-channel organic semiconductors, including an unprecedented analyte-induced current increase by the n-channel semiconductor. This represents the first step towards 'intelligent sensors' that utilize analog signal changes in sensitive OFETs to produce direct digital readouts suitable for further logic operations.

  5. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  6. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  7. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (NSF) (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2008-01-15

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  8. Synergistic neurotrophic effects of piracetam and thiotriazoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the synergy between the nootropic drug piracetam and the metabolic agent thiotriazoline that maintains energy metabolism and survival of neurons and other types of cells. Piracetam, a nootropic drug, a chemical pyrrolidone derivative, is used in neurological, psychiatric, and narcological practice. There is evidence on the positive effect of piracetam in elderly and senile patients with coronary heart disease. This drug is supposed to stimulate redox processes, to enhance glucose utilization, and to improve regional blood flow in the ischemic brain regions. Due to its action, the drug activates glycolytic processes and elevates ATP concentrations in brain tissue. Thiotriazoline is a compound that has antioxidant, anti-ischemic properties. The co-administration of piracetam and thiothriazoline is an innovation area in the treatment of stroke and other brain damages, especially in insulin resistance and high blood glucose levels. The paper considers the neurobiological properties of thiotriazoline and piracetam, which synergistically exert neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects.

  9. Synergistic Smart Fuel For Microstructure Mediated Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Steven L. Garrett; Randall A. Ali

    2013-07-01

    Advancing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants requires enhancing our basic understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The two most significant issues limiting the effectiveness and lifespan of the fuel are the loss of thermal conductivity of the fuel and the mechanical strength of both fuel and cladding. The core of a nuclear reactor presents an extremely harsh and challenging environment for both sensors and telemetry due to elevated temperatures and large fluxes of energetic and ionizing particles from radioactive decay processes. The majority of measurements are made in reactors using “radiation hardened” sensors and materials. A different approach has been pursued in this research that exploits high temperatures and materials that are robust with respect to ionizing radiation. This synergistically designed thermoacoustic sensor will be self-powered, wireless, and provide telemetry. The novel sensor will be able to provide reactor process information even if external electrical power and communication are unavailable. In addition, the form-factor for the sensor is identical to the existing fuel rods within reactors and contains no moving parts. Results from initial proof of concept experiments designed to characterize porosity, surface properties and monitor gas composition will be discussed.

  10. IS THE TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY CLUSTERING DIPOLE CONVERGENT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilicki, Maciej; Chodorowski, Michal; Jarrett, Thomas; Mamon, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long-standing controversy about the convergence of the dipole moment of the galaxy angular distribution (the so-called clustering dipole). Is the dipole convergent at all, and if so, what is the scale of the convergence? We study the growth of the clustering dipole of galaxies as a function of the limiting flux of the sample from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Contrary to some earlier claims, we find that the dipole does not converge before the completeness limit of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog, i.e., up to 13.5 mag in the near-infrared K s band (equivalent to an effective distance of 300 Mpc h -1 ). We compare the observed growth of the dipole with the theoretically expected, conditional one (i.e., given the velocity of the Local Group relative to the cosmic microwave background), for the ΛCDM power spectrum and cosmological parameters constrained by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The observed growth turns out to be within 1σ confidence level of its theoretical counterpart once the proper observational window of the 2MASS flux-limited catalog is included. For a contrast, if the adopted window is a top hat, then the predicted dipole grows significantly faster and converges (within the errors) to its final value for a distance of about 300 Mpc h -1 . By comparing the observational windows, we show that for a given flux limit and a corresponding distance limit, the 2MASS flux-weighted window passes less large-scale signal than the top-hat one. We conclude that the growth of the 2MASS dipole for effective distances greater than 200 Mpc h -1 is only apparent. On the other hand, for a distance of 80 Mpc h -1 (mean depth of the 2MASS Redshift Survey) and the ΛCDM power spectrum, the true dipole is expected to reach only ∼80% of its final value. Eventually, since for the window function of 2MASS the predicted growth is consistent with the observed one, we can compare the two to evaluate β ≡ Ω m 0.55 /b. The result is β = 0.38

  11. Gene Acquisition Convergence between Entomopoxviruses and Baculoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Thézé

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisms from diverse phylogenetic origins can thrive within the same ecological niches. They might be induced to evolve convergent adaptations in response to a similar landscape of selective pressures. Their genomes should bear the signature of this process. The study of unrelated virus lineages infecting the same host panels guarantees a clear identification of phyletically independent convergent adaptation. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of genes in the accessory genome shared by unrelated insect large dsDNA viruses: the entomopoxviruses (EPVs, Poxviridae and the baculoviruses (BVs. EPVs and BVs have overlapping ecological niches and have independently evolved similar infection processes. They are, in theory, subjected to the same selective pressures from their host’s immune responses. Their accessory genomes might, therefore, bear analogous genomic signatures of convergent adaption and could point out key genomic mechanisms of adaptation hitherto undetected in viruses. We uncovered 32 homologous, yet independent acquisitions of genes originating from insect hosts, different eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. We showed different evolutionary levels of gene acquisition convergence in these viruses, underlining a continuous evolutionary process. We found both recent and ancient gene acquisitions possibly involved to the adaptation to both specific and distantly related hosts. Multidirectional and multipartite gene exchange networks appear to constantly drive exogenous gene assimilations, bringing key adaptive innovations and shaping the life histories of large DNA viruses. This evolutionary process might lead to genome level adaptive convergence.

  12. Log-binomial models: exploring failed convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tyler; Eliasziw, Misha; Fick, Gordon Hilton

    2013-12-13

    Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a single binary outcome, as they naturally offer relative risks. However, standard statistical software may report failed convergence when attempting to fit log-binomial models in certain settings. The methods that have been proposed in the literature for dealing with failed convergence use approximate solutions to avoid the issue. This research looks directly at the log-likelihood function for the simplest log-binomial model where failed convergence has been observed, a model with a single linear predictor with three levels. The possible causes of failed convergence are explored and potential solutions are presented for some cases. Among the principal causes is a failure of the fitting algorithm to converge despite the log-likelihood function having a single finite maximum. Despite these limitations, log-binomial models are a viable option for epidemiologists wishing to describe the relationship between a set of predictors and a binary outcome where relative risk is the desired summary measure. Epidemiologists are encouraged to continue to use log-binomial models and advocate for improvements to the fitting algorithms to promote the widespread use of log-binomial models.

  13. Noise can speed convergence in Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzke, Brandon; Kosko, Bart

    2011-10-01

    A new theorem shows that noise can speed convergence to equilibrium in discrete finite-state Markov chains. The noise applies to the state density and helps the Markov chain explore improbable regions of the state space. The theorem ensures that a stochastic-resonance noise benefit exists for states that obey a vector-norm inequality. Such noise leads to faster convergence because the noise reduces the norm components. A corollary shows that a noise benefit still occurs if the system states obey an alternate norm inequality. This leads to a noise-benefit algorithm that requires knowledge of the steady state. An alternative blind algorithm uses only past state information to achieve a weaker noise benefit. Simulations illustrate the predicted noise benefits in three well-known Markov models. The first model is a two-parameter Ehrenfest diffusion model that shows how noise benefits can occur in the class of birth-death processes. The second model is a Wright-Fisher model of genotype drift in population genetics. The third model is a chemical reaction network of zeolite crystallization. A fourth simulation shows a convergence rate increase of 64% for states that satisfy the theorem and an increase of 53% for states that satisfy the corollary. A final simulation shows that even suboptimal noise can speed convergence if the noise applies over successive time cycles. Noise benefits tend to be sharpest in Markov models that do not converge quickly and that do not have strong absorbing states.

  14. Sectoral Energy, and Labour, Productivity Convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, P.; De Groot, H.L.F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the development of cross-country differences in energy- and labour productivity. The analysis is performed at a detailed sectoral level for 14 OECD countries, covering the period 1970-1997. A ρ-convergence analysis reveals that the development over time of the cross-country variation in productivity performance differs across sectors as well as across different levels of aggregation. Both patterns of convergence as well as divergence are found. Cross-country variation of productivity levels is typically larger for energy than for labour. A β-convergence analysis provides support for the hypothesis that in most sectors lagging countries tend to catch up with technological leaders, in particular in terms of energy productivity. Moreover, the results show that convergence is conditional, meaning that productivity levels converge to country-specific steady states. Energy prices and wages are shown to positively affect energy- and labour-productivity growth, respectively. We also find evidence for the importance of economies of scale, whereas the investment share, openness and specialization play only a modest role in explaining cross-country variation in energy- and labour-productivity growth

  15. Synergistic effect of aqueous extract of Telfaria occidentalis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergistic effect of aqueous extract of Telfaria occidentalis on the biological activities of ... Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan. 2. ... development of resistance to most of the earlier drugs.

  16. Synergistic effect of Elephantopus scaber L and Sauropus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergistic effect of Elephantopus scaber L and Sauropus androgynus L ... Hematopoietic cells were isolated from bone marrow at 12 days post-infection. Prolactin ... breast milk after birth [2]. .... hosts as a natural means of protection against.

  17. Herd Clustering: A synergistic data clustering approach using collective intelligence

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Kachun; Peng, Chengbin; Li, Yue; Chan, Takming

    2014-01-01

    , this principle is used to develop a new clustering algorithm. Inspired by herd behavior, the clustering method is a synergistic approach using collective intelligence called Herd Clustering (HC). The novel part is laid in its first stage where data instances

  18. Tungstate as a synergist to phosphonate-based formulation for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Synergistic inhibition of corrosion of carbon steel in low chloride aqueous .... 200 high resolution scanning electron microscope ..... mation of a thick and less permeable protective film ..... the surface of the metal due to its very low solubility.

  19. Convergent dynamics for multistable delayed neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Chih-Wen; Tseng, Jui-Pin

    2008-01-01

    This investigation aims at developing a methodology to establish convergence of dynamics for delayed neural network systems with multiple stable equilibria. The present approach is general and can be applied to several network models. We take the Hopfield-type neural networks with both instantaneous and delayed feedbacks to illustrate the idea. We shall construct the complete dynamical scenario which comprises exactly 2 n stable equilibria and exactly (3 n − 2 n ) unstable equilibria for the n-neuron network. In addition, it is shown that every solution of the system converges to one of the equilibria as time tends to infinity. The approach is based on employing the geometrical structure of the network system. Positively invariant sets and componentwise dynamical properties are derived under the geometrical configuration. An iteration scheme is subsequently designed to confirm the convergence of dynamics for the system. Two examples with numerical simulations are arranged to illustrate the present theory

  20. Well-Tempered Metadynamics Converges Asymptotically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dama, James F.; Parrinello, Michele; Voth, Gregory A.

    2014-06-01

    Metadynamics is a versatile and capable enhanced sampling method for the computational study of soft matter materials and biomolecular systems. However, over a decade of application and several attempts to give this adaptive umbrella sampling method a firm theoretical grounding prove that a rigorous convergence analysis is elusive. This Letter describes such an analysis, demonstrating that well-tempered metadynamics converges to the final state it was designed to reach and, therefore, that the simple formulas currently used to interpret the final converged state of tempered metadynamics are correct and exact. The results do not rely on any assumption that the collective variable dynamics are effectively Brownian or any idealizations of the hill deposition function; instead, they suggest new, more permissive criteria for the method to be well behaved. The results apply to tempered metadynamics with or without adaptive Gaussians or boundary corrections and whether the bias is stored approximately on a grid or exactly.

  1. Filamentation of a converging heavy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.; Buchanan, H.L.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    A major concern in the use of heavy ion beams as igniters in pellet fusion systems is the vulnerability of the beam to the transverse flamentation instability. The undesirable consequence of this mode is the transverse heating of the beam to the extent that convergence on the pellet becomes impossible. This work considers the case of a beam injected into a gas filled reactor vessel, where finite pulse length and propagation distance play an important role in limiting growth. Two geometries are analyzed: a nonconverging case where the radius at injection is nearly equal to the desired radius at the pellet, and a converging case in which the injection radius is large and the beam is pre-focused to converge at the target. It is found that a cold beam will be severely disrupted if the product of the magnetic plasma frequency and the propagation distance is much larger than unity

  2. Multicloud: Multigrid convergence with a meshless operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Aaron; Jameson, Antony

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this work is to develop and test a new convergence acceleration technique we call multicloud. Multicloud is well-founded in the mathematical basis of multigrid, but relies on a meshless operator on coarse levels. The meshless operator enables extremely simple and automatic coarsening procedures for arbitrary meshes using arbitrary fine level discretization schemes. The performance of multicloud is compared with established multigrid techniques for structured and unstructured meshes for the Euler equations on two-dimensional test cases. Results indicate comparable convergence rates per unit work for multicloud and multigrid. However, because of its mesh and scheme transparency, multicloud may be applied to a wide array of problems with no modification of fine level schemes as is often required with agglomeration techniques. The implication is that multicloud can be implemented in a completely modular fashion, allowing researchers to develop fine level algorithms independent of the convergence accelerator for complex three-dimensional problems.

  3. Plurality or convergence in sustainability reporting standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Albu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years an increasing number of companies issued Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR or Sustainability Reports to complement their traditional financial reporting. Companies use various sustainability reporting standards or develop their own reporting frameworks starting from the existing ones. This variation of practices pointed out by empirical research raises questions about the quality and comparability of sustainability reporting, its role in the sustainable development, and also about the suitability of accepting the plurality of reporting frameworks or the need for convergence. This study aims to investigate the issues of plurality and convergence in sustainability reporting standards, by mobilizing the discourses on regulation and the case of a group of companies in the IT industry in order to shed some light on the current challenges in this area. We frame a discussion on the opportunities and pitfalls of convergence in sustainability reporting regulations and contribute to a better understanding of this issue by academics, preparers, users and standard setters

  4. International Accounting Convergences Related to EU Admitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from January 1, 2005, member countries of the European Union began the obligatory or optional application of the international standards IAS/IFRS for consolidated accounts, what means a revolution in financial reporting of the enterprises. In regards to the individual accounts (generally based on the national book-keeping standards these will converge gradually to referential international book-keeper on short and medium term. At the world level the process which dominates the accounting systems is the convergence between american and international reference system, followed immediatly more or less by the convergence between national accounting systems and the international one. Where Romania and its specialists are situated confronting this process? A reflection subject which finalises this article.

  5. Science and technology convergence: with emphasis for nanotechnology-inspired convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, William S.; Roco, Mihail C.

    2016-01-01

    Convergence offers a new universe of discovery, innovation, and application opportunities through specific theories, principles, and methods to be implemented in research, education, production, and other societal activities. Using a holistic approach with shared goals, convergence seeks to transcend existing human limitations to achieve improved conditions for work, learning, aging, physical, and cognitive wellness. This paper outlines ten key theories that offer complementary perspectives on this complex dynamic. Principles and methods are proposed to facilitate and enhance science and technology convergence. Several convergence success stories in the first part of the 21st century—including nanotechnology and other emerging technologies—are discussed in parallel with case studies focused on the future. The formulation of relevant theories, principles, and methods aims at establishing the convergence science.

  6. Science and technology convergence: with emphasis for nanotechnology-inspired convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bainbridge, William S.; Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Convergence offers a new universe of discovery, innovation, and application opportunities through specific theories, principles, and methods to be implemented in research, education, production, and other societal activities. Using a holistic approach with shared goals, convergence seeks to transcend existing human limitations to achieve improved conditions for work, learning, aging, physical, and cognitive wellness. This paper outlines ten key theories that offer complementary perspectives on this complex dynamic. Principles and methods are proposed to facilitate and enhance science and technology convergence. Several convergence success stories in the first part of the 21st century—including nanotechnology and other emerging technologies—are discussed in parallel with case studies focused on the future. The formulation of relevant theories, principles, and methods aims at establishing the convergence science.

  7. Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00173-14-1-G016 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 82-2020-17 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology NRL Grant N00173-14-l-G016 CODE 8200: Spacecraft Engineering Department...82-11-0 1: Space and Space Systems Technology General Engineering & Research, L.L.C. Technical & Administrative point of contact: Dr. Robin

  8. Convergence of the Distorted Wave Born series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMillan, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to begin to understand the idea of reaction mechanisms in nonrelativistic scattering systems. If we have a complete reaction theory of a particular scattering system, then we claim that the theory itself must contain information about important reaction mechanisms in the system. This information can be used to decide what reaction mechanisms should be included in an approximate calculation. To investigate this claim, we studied several solvable models. The primary concept employed in studying our models is the convergence of the multistep series generated by iterating the corresponding scattering integral equation. We known that the eigenvalues of the kernel of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for potential scattering determine the rate of convergence of the Born series. The Born series will converge only if these eigenvalues all life within the unit circle. We extend these results to a study of the distorted wave Born series for inelastic scattering. The convergence criterion tells us when approximations are valid. We learn how the convergence of the distorted wave series depends upon energy, coupling constants, angular momentum, and angular momentum transfer. In one of our models, we look at several possible distorting potentials to see which one gives the best convergence. We have also applied our results to several actual DWBA or coupled channel calculations in the literature. In addition to the study of models of two-body scattering systems, we have considered the case of rearrangement scattering. We have discussed the formulation of (N greater than or equal to 3)-body distorted wave equations in which the interior dynamics have been redistributed by introducing compact N-body distortion potentials

  9. Specialisation and Convergence in European Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Marelli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to analyze specialization and convergence of European countries and regions, within the framework of integration in the EU. This is important not only for long-term real convergence processes, but also for a proper functioning of the monetary union (in the line of research on the OCA's criteria, asymmetry of shocks and synchronization of business cycles. The position of new member states is particularly delicate, also considering the forthcoming adoption of the euro by some of them. As indicated by the EU Treaty, economic growth should be balanced with economic and social cohesion that includes a careful consideration of regional disparities. Our empirical investigation focuses on the regions of EU25, further broken up into other relevant groupings (EU15, EMU, and the new members' EU10 group, over the period from 1980 (or 1990 for EU10 to 2005. This paper considers a rather fine regional disaggregation (NUTS-2 level, counting 250 regions. The analysis of different indices of specialisation point to a prevalent increase of homogeneity of sector structures across European regions, although in some cases (especially in the industrial sector and in some services specialisation has increased. For convergence, a sigma convergence's analysis confirms a reduction of disparities, both at a country and regional level. However, a trade-off between fast national growth and internal distribution has emerged in the early stages of development, as in the case of new members. Moreover, beta convergence has also been established - regarding per capita income, employment and productivity - for almost all territorial aggregates (excluding the new members since 1999. The addition of structural variables, following a beta-conditional approach, indicates a positive role for services and a negative impact of agriculture. Finally, some preliminary results have been obtained by the innovative inclusion of specialisation indices within

  10. Machine intelligence and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vatsa, Mayank; Majumdar, Angshul; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on key problems in machine learning and signal processing arenas. The contents of the book are a result of a 2014 Workshop on Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing held at the Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology. Traditionally, signal processing and machine learning were considered to be separate areas of research. However in recent times the two communities are getting closer. In a very abstract fashion, signal processing is the study of operator design. The contributions of signal processing had been to device operators for restoration, compression, etc. Applied Mathematicians were more interested in operator analysis. Nowadays signal processing research is gravitating towards operator learning – instead of designing operators based on heuristics (for example wavelets), the trend is to learn these operators (for example dictionary learning). And thus, the gap between signal processing and machine learning is fast converging. The 2014 Workshop on Machine Intel...

  11. GLOBAL CONVERGENCE FOR THE XOR BOOLEAN NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Juei-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Shih and Ho have proved a global convergent theorem for boolean network: if a map from $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ to itself defines a boolean network has the conditions: (1) each column of the discrete Jacobian matrix of each element of $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ is either a unit vector or a zero vector; (2) all the boolean eigenvalues of the discrete Jacobian matrix of this map evaluated at each element of $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ are zero, then it has a unique fixed point and this boolean network is global convergent to the fi...

  12. Convergence of Hybrid Space Mapping Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Søndergaard, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    may be poor, or the method may even fail to converge to a stationary point. We consider a convex combination of the space mapping technique with a classical optimization technique. The function to be optimized has the form \\$H \\$\\backslash\\$circ f\\$ where \\$H: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m \\$\\backslash......\\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\$ is convex and \\$f: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^n \\$\\backslash\\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m\\$ is smooth. Experience indicates that the combined method maintains the initial efficiency of the space mapping technique. We prove that the global convergence property of the classical technique is also...

  13. Lacunary ideal convergence of multiple sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideal I is a family of subsets of N×N which is closed under taking finite unions and subsets of its elements. In this article, the concept of lacunary ideal convergence of double sequences has been introduced. Also the relation between lacunary ideal convergent and lacunary Cauchy double sequences has been established. Furthermore, the notions of lacunary ideal limit point and lacunary ideal cluster points have been introduced and find the relation between these two notions. Finally, we have studied the properties such as solidity, monotonic.

  14. Nanotechnologies, technologies converging and potential biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capuano, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    The applications of nanotechnology to biology and medicine appear really promising far diagnostics, for various therapeutic approaches and in medical instrumentations. The growing synergism among nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences, their convergence (NBIC) from the nano scale, could involve on next decades great changes in medicine, from a reactive to a predictive and preventive approach. It is expected that NBIC converging technologies could achieve tremendous improvements in human abilities and enhance societal achievements. It appears therefore necessary a careful assessment of related social and ethical implications, in the framework of a constant dialogue between science and society [it

  15. Convergence between power and gas industries: evolution and perspectives in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Rueda, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Convergence between power and gas industries in spain has already become very important, and it will be even more in the future, as the installed capacity in combined cycles will increase as expected, and tariff distortions, that have blocked commercialization development, could be eliminated. Convergence of both businesses signals the necessity to approach a series of key questions for an efficient operation of both markets that guarantees a reasonable level of competition to assure a fair treatment among gas and power operators that will also produce more added value for clients. (Author)

  16. Wireless and wireline service convergence in next generation optical access networks - the FP7 WISCON project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Pang, Xiaodan; Lebedev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of information technology demands both high capacity and mobility for applications such as high speed wireless access capable of supporting broadband services. The transport of wireless and wireline signals is converging into a common telecommunication infrastructure....... In this paper, we will present the Marie Curie Framework Program 7 project “Wireless and wireline service convergence in next generation optical access networks” (WISCON), which focuses on the conception and study of novel architectures for wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical multi-modulation format...

  17. A Rapid Convergent Low Complexity Interference Alignment Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interference alignment (IA is a novel technique that can effectively eliminate the interference and approach the sum capacity of wireless sensor networks (WSNs when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is high, by casting the desired signal and interference into different signal subspaces. The traditional alternating minimization interference leakage (AMIL algorithm for IA shows good performance in high SNR regimes, however, the complexity of the AMIL algorithm increases dramatically as the number of users and antennas increases, posing limits to its applications in the practical systems. In this paper, a novel IA algorithm, called directional quartic optimal (DQO algorithm, is proposed to minimize the interference leakage with rapid convergence and low complexity. The properties of the AMIL algorithm are investigated, and it is discovered that the difference between the two consecutive iteration results of the AMIL algorithm will approximately point to the convergence solution when the precoding and decoding matrices obtained from the intermediate iterations are sufficiently close to their convergence values. Based on this important property, the proposed DQO algorithm employs the line search procedure so that it can converge to the destination directly. In addition, the optimal step size can be determined analytically by optimizing a quartic function. Numerical results show that the proposed DQO algorithm can suppress the interference leakage more rapidly than the traditional AMIL algorithm, and can achieve the same level of sum rate as that of AMIL algorithm with far less iterations and execution time.

  18. A Rapid Convergent Low Complexity Interference Alignment Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lihui; Wu, Zhilu; Ren, Guanghui; Wang, Gangyi; Zhao, Nan

    2015-07-29

    Interference alignment (IA) is a novel technique that can effectively eliminate the interference and approach the sum capacity of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is high, by casting the desired signal and interference into different signal subspaces. The traditional alternating minimization interference leakage (AMIL) algorithm for IA shows good performance in high SNR regimes, however, the complexity of the AMIL algorithm increases dramatically as the number of users and antennas increases, posing limits to its applications in the practical systems. In this paper, a novel IA algorithm, called directional quartic optimal (DQO) algorithm, is proposed to minimize the interference leakage with rapid convergence and low complexity. The properties of the AMIL algorithm are investigated, and it is discovered that the difference between the two consecutive iteration results of the AMIL algorithm will approximately point to the convergence solution when the precoding and decoding matrices obtained from the intermediate iterations are sufficiently close to their convergence values. Based on this important property, the proposed DQO algorithm employs the line search procedure so that it can converge to the destination directly. In addition, the optimal step size can be determined analytically by optimizing a quartic function. Numerical results show that the proposed DQO algorithm can suppress the interference leakage more rapidly than the traditional AMIL algorithm, and can achieve the same level of sum rate as that of AMIL algorithm with far less iterations and execution time.

  19. Syndecans: synergistic activators of cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    1998-01-01

    Cell-surface proteoglycans participate in cell adhesion, growth-factor signalling, lipase activity and anticoagulation. Until recently, only the roles of the glycosaminoglycan chains were investigated. Now, with molecular characterization of several core proteins, the roles of each individual...... molecules modulating integrin-based adhesion....

  20. Orexin/Hypocretin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Jyrki P

    Orexin/hypocretin peptide (orexin-A and orexin-B) signaling is believed to take place via the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), named OX 1 and OX 2 orexin receptors, as described in the previous chapters. Signaling of orexin peptides has been investigated in diverse endogenously orexin receptor-expressing cells - mainly neurons but also other types of cells - and in recombinant cells expressing the receptors in a heterologous manner. Findings in the different systems are partially convergent but also indicate cellular background-specific signaling. The general picture suggests an inherently high degree of diversity in orexin receptor signaling.In the current chapter, I present orexin signaling on the cellular and molecular levels. Discussion of the connection to (potential) physiological orexin responses is only brief since these are in focus of other chapters in this book. The same goes for the post-synaptic signaling mechanisms, which are dealt with in Burdakov: Postsynaptic actions of orexin. The current chapter is organized according to the tissue type, starting from the central nervous system. Finally, receptor signaling pathways are discussed across tissues, cell types, and even species.

  1. Professional Communication and Translation in Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnecci, Marusca; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe

    2008-01-01

    As translation of technical documents becomes commonplace, and as translation becomes more automated, the roles of translator and technical communicator appear to be converging. This paper examines the trend revealed from recent surveys, and it suggests further research to determine if the trend...... is likely to continue. The  paper also provides recommendations for academic programs interested in adjusting to the trend....

  2. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  3. Convergent acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convergent acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants amongst the Enterobacteriaceae isolates of the Mhlathuze River, KwaZulu-Natal (RSA) ... The possibility of transmission of resistant genes between bacteria (especially pathogenic) which invade human and animal populations within this river poses a health risk ...

  4. Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2010-01-01

    Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…

  5. Evolutionary convergence and biologically embodied cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, Franciscus

    2017-01-01

    The study of evolutionary patterns of cognitive convergence would be greatly helped by a clear demarcation of cognition. Cognition is often used as an equivalent of mind, making it difficult to pin down empirically or to apply it confidently beyond the human condition. Recent developments in

  6. Convergence properties of the effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, P.J.; Engeland, T.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Holt, A.; Osnes, E.

    1994-01-01

    The convergence properties of two perturbative schemes to sum the so-called folded diagrams are critically reviewed in this work, with an emphasis on the intruder state problem. The methods we study are the approaches of Kuo and co-workers and Lee and Suzuki. The suitability of the two schemes for shell-model calculations is discussed. ((orig.))

  7. RNA polymerase II collision interrupts convergent transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobson, David J; Wei, Wu; Steinmetz, Lars M

    2012-01-01

    Antisense noncoding transcripts, genes-within-genes, and convergent gene pairs are prevalent among eukaryotes. The existence of such transcription units raises the question of what happens when RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) molecules collide head-to-head. Here we use a combination of biochemical...

  8. Professional Communication and Translation in Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnecci, Marusca; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe

    2008-01-01

    As translation of technical documents becomes commonplace, and as translation becomes more automated, the roles of translator and technical communicator appear to be converging. This paper examines the trend revealed from recent surveys, and it suggests further research to determine if the trend...

  9. Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.

  10. Convergence properties of the effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, P.J.; Engeland, T.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Holt, A.; Osnes, E.

    1993-10-01

    The convergence properties of two perturbative schemes to sum the so called folded diagrams are critically reviewed with an emphasis on the intruder state problem. The methods studied are the approaches of Kuo and co-workers and Lee and Suzuki. The suitability of the two schemes for shell-model calculations is discussed. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Another Perspective: A Response to "Toward Convergence"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This response by Thomas A. Regelski was solicited to complement the lead article in this issue, "Toward Convergence: Adapting Music Education to Contemporary Society and Participatory Culture" by Evan S. Tobias. The author notes that many interesting and vital questions and alternatives that are often studiously ignored, overlooked, or taken for…

  12. Convergence Science in a Nano World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Convergence is a new paradigm that brings together critical advances in the life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. Going beyond traditional “interdisciplinary” studies, “convergence” describes the culmination of truly integrated research and development, yielding revolutionary advances in both scientific research and new technologies. At its core, nanotechnology embodies these elements of convergence science by bringing together multiple disciplines with the goal of creating innovative and groundbreaking technologies. In the biological and biomedical sciences, nanotechnology research has resulted in dramatic improvements in sensors, diagnostics, imaging, and even therapeutics. In particular, there is a current push to examine the interface between the biological world and micro/nano-scale systems. For example, my laboratory is developing novel strategies for spatial patterning of biomolecules, electrical and optical biosensing, nanomaterial delivery systems, cellular patterning techniques, and the study of cellular interactions with nano-structured surfaces. In this seminar, I will give examples of how convergent research is being applied to three major areas of biological research &endash; cancer diagnostics, microbiology, and DNA-based biosensing. These topics will be presented as case studies, showing the benefits (and challenges) of multi-disciplinary, convergent research and development.

  13. Summability of alterations of convergent series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Keagy

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of splitting, rearrangement, and grouping series alterations on the summability of a convergent series by ℓ−ℓ and cs−cs matrix methods is studied. Conditions are determined that guarantee the existence of alterations that are transformed into divergent series and into series with preassigned sums.

  14. International convergence of capital market interest rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fase, M.M.G.; Vlaar, P.J.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article investigates the extent of capital market interest rate convergence among six EU countries on the one hand, and a group of four countries with floating exchange rates - US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland - on the other. We conclude that interest rate changes within the EU have been and

  15. World health inequality: convergence, divergence, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rob

    2011-02-01

    Recent studies characterize the last half of the twentieth century as an era of cross-national health convergence, with some attributing welfare gains in the developing world to economic growth. In this study, I examine the extent to which welfare outcomes have actually converged and the extent to which economic development is responsible for the observed trends. Drawing from estimates covering 195 nations during the 1955-2005 period, I find that life expectancy averages converged during this time, but that infant mortality rates continuously diverged. I develop a narrative that implicates economic development in these contrasting trends, suggesting that health outcomes follow a "welfare Kuznets curve." Among poor countries, economic development improves life expectancy more than it reduces infant mortality, whereas the situation is reversed among wealthier nations. In this way, development has contributed to both convergence in life expectancy and divergence in infant mortality. Drawing from 674 observations across 163 countries during the 1980-2005 period, I find that the positive effect of GDP PC on life expectancy attenuates at higher levels of development, while the negative effect of GDP PC on infant mortality grows stronger. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2017-01-01

    Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical conditions...

  17. On Investigating GMRES Convergence using Unitary Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Meurant, G.; Sadok, H.; Strakoš, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 450, 1 June (2014), s. 83-107 ISSN 0024-3795 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100301201; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1202 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : GMRES convergence * unitary matrices * unitary spectra * normal matrices * Krylov residual subspace * Schur parameters Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  18. Exponential rate of convergence in current reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    De Masi, Anna; Presutti, Errico; Tsagkarogiannis, Dimitrios; Vares, Maria Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a family of interacting particle systems on $[-N,N]$ that arises as a natural model for current reservoirs and Fick's law. We study the exponential rate of convergence to the stationary measure, which we prove to be of the order $N^{-2}$.

  19. Uniform Statistical Convergence on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Altin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We will introduce the concept of m- and (λ,m-uniform density of a set and m- and (λ,m-uniform statistical convergence on an arbitrary time scale. However, we will define m-uniform Cauchy function on a time scale. Furthermore, some relations about these new notions are also obtained.

  20. Impact of fixed-mobile convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pachnicke, Stephan; Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Autenrieth, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) is a very trendy concept as it promises integration of the previously separated fixed access network and the mobile network. From this novel approach telecommunication operators expect significant cost savings and performance improvements. FMC can be separated...

  1. Converging technologies: shaping the future of medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj nabipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The miniaturization and virtualization processes drive converging technologies from interactions between the NBIC (Nano, Bio, Info, and Cogno technologies. The converging technologies stimulate innovation, promote research and development in different fields and produce revolutionary progresses in medicine. These technologies enable us to create contacts between brains and machines, the growth in molecular nanotechnology, the construction of respirocytes, chromallocytes, clottocytes, nanorobotic phagocytes, and nanobots. Nanobots would enter the nucleus of a cell and extract all of the genetic material and replace it with a synthetically produced copy of the original that has been manufactured in a laboratory to contain only non-defective base-pairs. It is predicted that “the regenerative medicine”, as a megatrend, will have an enormous effect on medical technologies and clinical sciences. Regenerative medicine is an application field of converging technologies in translational medicine. It attempts to translate the results of tissue engineering to construct 3D tissues and organs. Regenerative medicine is also an exciting field for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC and promises to bring about a paradigm shift to health care. Accumulating evidence indicates that converging technologies will offer great potentials for regenerative medicine to create innovative treatments for diseases that the traditional therapies have not been effective yet.

  2. Convergent Akt activation drives acquired EGFR inhibitor resistance in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirstine; Bertran-Alamillo, Jordi; Molina, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations typically benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. However, virtually all patients succumb to acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance that occurs via diverse mechanisms....... The diversity and unpredictability of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance mechanisms presents a challenge for developing new treatments to overcome EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. Here, we show that Akt activation is a convergent feature of acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance......, across a spectrum of diverse, established upstream resistance mechanisms. Combined treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and Akt inhibitor causes apoptosis and synergistic growth inhibition in multiple EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer models. Moreover...

  3. Convergence of a strengths perspective and youth development: Toward youth promotion practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Woong Cheon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increased attention has been paid to the development and application of the strengths perspective and positive youth development. This paper develops youth promotion practice as a convergence of a strengths perspective and youth development principles. Historical and contemporary contexts of a problem-focused perspective in social work with adolescents are reviewed and a critique developed with emphasis on the evolution of strengths-focused practices. The importance and possibility of combining the strengths perspective and youth development toward youth promotion practice are addressed. Youth promotion is defined as a process of enhancing youth strengths and resources to promote positive outcomes and help young people be healthy adults. Complementary aspects of the two perspectives are expected to support and supplement the strengths and weaknesses of each perspective in synergistic ways. Several advantages of youth promotion practice are discussed as well as its implications for improved social work practices with adolescents.

  4. CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCE IN EUROPEAN UNION: EVIDENCE FOR BETA CONVERGENCE AMONG NEW EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sorina Mihuț

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Convergence may be considered a central issue of the current economic literature, and not only, concentrating upon income distribution within different economies, but also focusing on different aspects of polarity and inequality that characterize especially the emerging economies. Testing convergence within economies may serve as a useful instrument for the validation of the economic growth models. While convergence was considered a defining element of the neoclassical growth models, the majority of the new endogenous growth models argue in favour of divergence across different economies. Testing convergence among European Union is even more challenging due to the high degree of heterogeneity that characterizes these economies. The recent accessions with ten new countries in 2004 and with another two in 2007 were considered only the first step towards assuring a sustainable convergence and finally adopting a common currency-the euro. A series of empirical studies concentrated upon testing convergence among EU, using as benchmark the real convergence quantified by the level of GDP/capita as an indicator for the living standards of every economy. The most popular approach rely on Beta and Sigma convergence, the first one being and indicator of the GDP/capita dispersion between different economies, and the later one being an estimator of the reverse relationship between GDP/capita and its initial level. The main purpose of this paper is to test Beta converge among the new EU member states, in order to obtained more information about the fact whether the poor countries are trying to catch-up with the more developed one. Also Beta convergence indicator embodies useful information about conditional and un-conditional convergence, two leading hypothesis within the neoclassical and endogenous growth models. For Beta convergence hypothesis to be valid it should be taken into consideration a ”catch-up” mechanism over a longer period of time

  5. Convergence of broadband optical and wireless access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Gee-Kung; Jia, Zhensheng; Chien, Hung-Chang; Chowdhury, Arshad; Hsueh, Yu-Ting; Yu, Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes convergence of optical and wireless access networks for delivering high-bandwidth integrated services over optical fiber and air links. Several key system technologies are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. We report here, for the first ever, a campus-wide field trial demonstration of radio-over-fiber (RoF) system transmitting uncompressed standard-definition (SD) high-definition (HD) real-time video contents, carried by 2.4-GHz radio and 60- GHz millimeter-wave signals, respectively, over 2.5-km standard single mode fiber (SMF-28) through the campus fiber network at Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). In addition, subsystem technologies of Base Station and wireless tranceivers operated at 60 GHz for real-time video distribution have been developed and tested.

  6. A convergent overlapping domain decomposition method for total variation minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Fornasier, Massimo

    2010-06-22

    In this paper we are concerned with the analysis of convergent sequential and parallel overlapping domain decomposition methods for the minimization of functionals formed by a discrepancy term with respect to the data and a total variation constraint. To our knowledge, this is the first successful attempt of addressing such a strategy for the nonlinear, nonadditive, and nonsmooth problem of total variation minimization. We provide several numerical experiments, showing the successful application of the algorithm for the restoration of 1D signals and 2D images in interpolation/inpainting problems, respectively, and in a compressed sensing problem, for recovering piecewise constant medical-type images from partial Fourier ensembles. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  7. On Generalized Fractional Differentiator Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By employing the generalized fractional differential operator, we introduce a system of fractional order derivative for a uniformly sampled polynomial signal. The calculation of the bring in signal depends on the additive combination of the weighted bring-in of N cascaded digital differentiators. The weights are imposed in a closed formula containing the Stirling numbers of the first kind. The approach taken in this work is to consider that signal function in terms of Newton series. The convergence of the system to a fractional time differentiator is discussed.

  8. Testing Convergent Evolution in Auditory Processing Genes between Echolocating Mammals and the Aye-Aye, a Percussive-Foraging Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Richard J; Jerjos, Michael; Hohman, Baily; Lauterbur, M Elise; Kistler, Logan; Perry, George H

    2017-07-01

    Several taxonomically distinct mammalian groups-certain microbats and cetaceans (e.g., dolphins)-share both morphological adaptations related to echolocation behavior and strong signatures of convergent evolution at the amino acid level across seven genes related to auditory processing. Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) are nocturnal lemurs with a specialized auditory processing system. Aye-ayes tap rapidly along the surfaces of trees, listening to reverberations to identify the mines of wood-boring insect larvae; this behavior has been hypothesized to functionally mimic echolocation. Here we investigated whether there are signals of convergence in auditory processing genes between aye-ayes and known mammalian echolocators. We developed a computational pipeline (Basic Exon Assembly Tool) that produces consensus sequences for regions of interest from shotgun genomic sequencing data for nonmodel organisms without requiring de novo genome assembly. We reconstructed complete coding region sequences for the seven convergent echolocating bat-dolphin genes for aye-ayes and another lemur. We compared sequences from these two lemurs in a phylogenetic framework with those of bat and dolphin echolocators and appropriate nonecholocating outgroups. Our analysis reaffirms the existence of amino acid convergence at these loci among echolocating bats and dolphins; some methods also detected signals of convergence between echolocating bats and both mice and elephants. However, we observed no significant signal of amino acid convergence between aye-ayes and echolocating bats and dolphins, suggesting that aye-aye tap-foraging auditory adaptations represent distinct evolutionary innovations. These results are also consistent with a developing consensus that convergent behavioral ecology does not reliably predict convergent molecular evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. The synergistic induction of bone formation by the osteogenic proteins of the TGF-β supergene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Ugo; Parak, Ruqayya; Klar, Roland M; Dickens, Caroline; Dix-Peek, Thérèse; Duarte, Raquel

    2016-10-01

    The momentum to compose this Leading Opinion on the synergistic induction of bone formation suddenly arose when a simple question was formulated during a discussion session on how to boost the often limited induction of bone formation seen in clinical contexts. Re-examination of morphological and molecular data available on the rapid induction of bone formation by the recombinant human transforming growth factor-β3 (hTGF-β3) shows that hTGF-β3 replicates the synergistic induction of bone formation as invocated by binary applications of hOP-1:hTGF-β1 at 20:1 by weight when implanted in heterotopic sites of the rectus abdominis muscle of the Chacma baboon, Papio ursinus. The rapid induction of bone formation in primates by hTGF-β3 may stem from bursts of cladistic evolution, now redundant in lower animal species but still activated in primates by relatively high doses of hTGF-β3. Contrary to rodents, lagomorphs and canines, the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms induce rapid and substantial bone formation when implanted in heterotopic rectus abdominis muscle sites of P. ursinus, with unprecedented regeneration of full thickness mandibular defects with rapid mineralization and corticalization. Provocatively, thus providing potential molecular and biological rationales for the apparent redundancy of osteogenic molecular signals in primates, binary applications of recombinant human osteogenic protein-1 (hOP-1) with low doses of hTGF-β1 and -β3, synergize to induce massive ossicles in heterotopic rectus abdominis, orthotopic calvarial and mandibular sites of P. ursinus. The synergistic binary application of homologous but molecularly different soluble molecular signals has indicated that per force several secreted molecular signals are required singly, synchronously and synergistically to induce optimal osteogenesis. The morphological hallmark of the synergistic induction of bone formation is the rapid differentiation of large osteoid seams enveloping

  10. Mathematical description of synergistic interaction between radon and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Kyu Kim; Petin, V.G.; Belkina, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Background: A certain level of background exposure to ionizing radiation and natural or man-made chemicals is always present in the environment. Radon and its short-lived decay products are considered as important sources of public exposure to the natural radioactivity. It is well known from epidemiological and toxicological studies that synergistic interaction between smoking and radon occurs, which is especially important for high natural background areas. Objective: This study has been done to suggest a mathematical model to describe the synergistic interaction of radon with tobacco smoking, and to demonstrate the ability of the model to describe carcinogenic effects of the combined action. Methods: A simple mathematical model was formulated to describe and predict the synergistic interaction of radon with smoking. The model postulates that the occurrence of synergism is to be expected as a result of additional carcinogenic damage arisen from the interaction of sublesions induced by the two factors under consideration. Results: The predictions of the model were verified by comparison with experimental data published by other researchers. The model appears to be appropriate and the predictions are valid. Conclusions: : The suggested mathematical model predicts the greatest level of synergistic effect and condition under which the maximum synergy is attained. The synergistic effect appeared to decline with any deviation from the optimal value of the ratio of carcinogenic effective damages produced by each agent alone.

  11. Co-delivery of chemotherapeutics and proteins for synergistic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chaoliang; Tang, Zhaohui; Tian, Huayu; Chen, Xuesi

    2016-03-01

    Combination therapy with chemotherapeutics and protein therapeutics, typically cytokines and antibodies, has been a type of crucial approaches for synergistic cancer treatment. However, conventional approaches by simultaneous administration of free chemotherapeutic drugs and proteins lead to limitations for further optimizing the synergistic effects, due to the distinct in vivo pharmacokinetics and distribution of small drugs and proteins, insufficient tumor selectivity and tumor accumulation, unpredictable drug/protein ratios at tumor sites, short half-lives, and serious systemic adverse effects. Consequently, to obtain optimal synergistic anti-tumor efficacy, considerable efforts have been devoted to develop the co-delivery systems for co-incorporating chemotherapeutics and proteins into a single carrier system and subsequently releasing the dual or multiple payloads at desired target sites in a more controllable manner. The co-delivery systems result in markedly enhanced blood stability and in vivo half-lives of the small drugs and proteins, elevated tumor accumulation, as well as the capability of delivering the multiple agents to the same target sites with rational drug/protein ratios, which may facilitate maximizing the synergistic effects and therefore lead to optimal antitumor efficacy. This review emphasizes the recent advances in the co-delivery systems for chemotherapeutics and proteins, typically cytokines and antibodies, for systemic or localized synergistic cancer treatment. Moreover, the proposed mechanisms responsible for the synergy of chemotherapeutic drugs and proteins are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fast convergent frequency-domain MIMO equalizer for few-mode fiber communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuan; Weng, Yi; Wang, Junyi; Pan, Z.

    2018-02-01

    Space division multiplexing using few-mode fibers has been extensively explored to sustain the continuous traffic growth. In few-mode fiber optical systems, both spatial and polarization modes are exploited to transmit parallel channels, thus increasing the overall capacity. However, signals on spatial channels inevitably suffer from the intrinsic inter-modal coupling and large accumulated differential mode group delay (DMGD), which causes spatial modes de-multiplex even harder. Many research articles have demonstrated that frequency domain adaptive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) equalizer can effectively compensate the DMGD and demultiplex the spatial channels with digital signal processing (DSP). However, the large accumulated DMGD usually requires a large number of training blocks for the initial convergence of adaptive MIMO equalizers, which will decrease the overall system efficiency and even degrade the equalizer performance in fast-changing optical channels. Least mean square (LMS) algorithm is always used in MIMO equalization to dynamically demultiplex the spatial signals. We have proposed to use signal power spectral density (PSD) dependent method and noise PSD directed method to improve the convergence speed of adaptive frequency domain LMS algorithm. We also proposed frequency domain recursive least square (RLS) algorithm to further increase the convergence speed of MIMO equalizer at cost of greater hardware complexity. In this paper, we will compare the hardware complexity and convergence speed of signal PSD dependent and noise power directed algorithms against the conventional frequency domain LMS algorithm. In our numerical study of a three-mode 112 Gbit/s PDM-QPSK optical system with 3000 km transmission, the noise PSD directed and signal PSD dependent methods could improve the convergence speed by 48.3% and 36.1% respectively, at cost of 17.2% and 10.7% higher hardware complexity. We will also compare the frequency domain RLS algorithm against

  13. DOES THE MAASTRICHT CONVERGENCE CRITERIA WORK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsai Zoltán-Krisztián

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During its 13 year history, the euro area experienced the most severe economic downturn in the late 2000s as a result of the 2007 financial-economic crisis stemming from the US banking sector. The crisis in the monetary union, besides posting a significant economic and social cost, revealed several weaknesses not just of the currency block as a whole, but also of its constituting members, which were masked by the prosperous economic environment characteristic for the 2000s. These conditions have put to the test the solidarity among the euro zone members, or in other words the existence of the currency block. One important problem of the currency block is the lack of harmony between the fiscal and economic policies of the member states, creating several and occasionally very divergent parts of the currency block. The aim of this research is to enhance the Maastricht convergence criteria’s and the Stability and Growth Pact’s role as a monitoring mechanism, allowing them to become more informative tools for the policy makers. For this, based on the relevant literature, we propose new potential explanatory variables which could enhance the role of the Maastricht convergence criteria and the Stability and Growth Pact. Some of the studied variables, like indebtedness of the private sector, capital flow compared to the size of the economy, government revenue compared to total public debt and current account balance help in enforcing the nominal convergence, while others (real labour productivity contribute to the real convergence. The explanatory power of the proposed variables are investigated in the case of France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain for the period comprised between 2000Q1-2011Q4. Results of the research show that with the exception of government revenue compared to total public debt, all proposed variables have significant explanatory power regarding the evolution of the state of the economy in all

  14. On convergence of nuclear and correlation operators in Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubrusly, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    The convergence of sequences of nuclear operators on a separable Hilbert space is studied. Emphasis is given to trace-norm convergence, which is a basic property in stochastic systems theory. Obviously trace-norm convergence implies uniform convergence. The central theme of the paper focus the opposite way, by investigating when convergence in a weaker topology turns out to imply convergence in a stronger topology. The analysis carried out here is exhaustive in the following sense. All possible implications within a selected set of asymptotic properties for sequences of nuclear operators are established. The special case of correlation operators is also considered in detail. (Author) [pt

  15. Computed tomography findings in convergent strabismus fixus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Michitaka; Iwashige, Hiroyasu; Hayashi, Takao; Maruo, Toshio

    1995-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) of the eyeball and orbit revealed the cause of eye movement disorder in convergent strabismus fixus. The findings suggest that the disease can be diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Twelve cases of progressive esotropia with high myopia and 20 cases with normal visual acuity served as subjects in this study. The CT slice was parallel to the German horizontal plane, and the lens and medial and lateral rectus muscles were scanned. The average axial length of the affected eyes was significantly longer than in normal eyes. In progressive esotropia, the characteristic CT findings are an elongated eyeball, mechanical contact between the eyeball and lateral wall of the orbit, and a downward displacement of the lateral rectus muscle. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that eye movement disorder in convergent strabismus fixus results from weakness of the lateral rectus muscle which has been displaced downward due to compression of the eyeball against the orbital wall. (author)

  16. Generalized functions, convergence structures, and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pap, Endre; Pilipović, Stevan; Vladimirov, Vasilij; International Conference "Generalized functions, convergence structures and their applications" (GFCA-87)

    1988-01-01

    This Proceedings consists of a collection of papers presented at the International Conference "Generalized functions, convergence structures and their applications" held from June 23-27, 1987 in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia (GFCA-87): 71 participants from 21 countr~es from allover the world took part in the Conference. Proceedings reflects the work of the Conference. Plenary lectures of J. Burzyk, J. F. Colombeau, W. Gahler, H. Keiter, H. Komatsu, B. Stankovic, H. G. Tillman, V. S. Vladimirov provide an up-to-date account of the cur­ rent state of the subject. All these lectures, except H. G. Tillman's, are published in this volume. The published communications give the contemporary problems and achievements in the theory of generalized functions, in the theory of convergence structures and in their applications, specially in the theory of partial differential equations and in the mathematical physics. New approaches to the theory of generalized functions are presented, moti­ vated by concrete problems of applicat...

  17. Molecular mechanisms involved in convergent crop domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenser, Teresa; Theißen, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Domestication has helped to understand evolution. We argue that, vice versa, novel insights into evolutionary principles could provide deeper insights into domestication. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that convergent phenotypic evolution is often based on molecular changes in orthologous genes or pathways. Recent studies have revealed that during plant domestication the causal mutations for convergent changes in key traits are likely to be located in particular genes. These insights may contribute to defining candidate genes for genetic improvement during the domestication of new plant species. Such efforts may help to increase the range of arable crops available, thus increasing crop biodiversity and food security to help meet the predicted demands of the continually growing global population under rapidly changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flow over convergent and divergent wall riblets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeltzsch, K.; Dinkelacker, A.; Grundmann, R. [Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 36460 Merkers (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Fast swimming sharks have small riblets on their skin, which are assumed to improve the swimming performance of the fish. Fluid dynamic experiments in water as well as in air confirm this assumption. With riblet surfaces as compared to smooth surfaces, drag reductions up to about 10% were measured. The overall riblet pattern on sharks shows parallel riblets directed from head to tail, but besides this overall pattern fast swimming sharks have also small areas with converging riblets and others with diverging riblets. In the present study the velocity field over convergent and divergent riblet patterns is investigated by hot-wire measurements in turbulent pipe flow. Significant changes in the near wall velocity field were found. (orig.)

  19. Service Creation and Deployment in Converged Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, José

    for these experiences is the transition of telecommunication (telephony) networks from circuit switched based systems towards packet based ones. The text of this monograph proceeds, unaltered for the most, from the author’s PhD thesis “Framework for Deployment of Advanced Telecommunication Services in Current......This monograph (Early Experiences related to Service Creation & Deployment in Converged Networks) presents different experiences related to architectures and mechanisms for deployment of telephony services, understood as especial features complementing the basic voice service. The context...... and Future Converged Networks”, carried out at the Technical University of Denmark in the period [April 2002-April 2005]. Even though the technologies presented in the text have evolved from that period until now, the presented scenarios and setups are still valid as interesting initial steps in the realm....

  20. Stochastic convergence of persistence landscapes and silhouettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Chazal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Persistent homology is a widely used tool in Topological Data Analysis that encodes multi-scale topological information as a multiset of points in the plane called a persistence diagram. It is difficult to apply statistical theory directly to a random sample of diagrams. Instead, we summarize persistent homology with a persistence landscape, introduced by Bubenik, which converts a diagram into a well-behaved real-valued function. We investigate the statistical properties of landscapes, such as weak convergence of the average landscapes and convergence of the bootstrap. In addition, we introduce an alternate functional summary of persistent homology, which we call the silhouette, and derive an analogous statistical theory.

  1. Emotional convergence between people over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cameron; Keltner, Dacher; John, Oliver P

    2003-05-01

    The authors propose that people in relationships become emotionally similar over time--as this similarity would help coordinate the thoughts and behaviors of the relationship partners, increase their mutual understanding, and foster their social cohesion. Using laboratory procedures to induce and assess emotional response, the authors found that dating partners (Study 1) and college roommates (Studies 2 and 3) became more similar in their emotional responses over the course of a year. Further, relationship partners with less power made more of the change necessary for convergence to occur. Consistent with the proposed benefits of emotional similarity, relationships whose partners were more emotionally similar were more cohesive and less likely to dissolve. Discussion focuses on implications of emotional convergence and on potential mechanisms.

  2. Electricity wholesale market prices in Europe: Convergence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachmann, Georg

    2008-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that the ongoing restructuring process in the European electricity sector has led to a common European market for electricity. Based on a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of wholesale electricity prices in 2002-2006, we reject the assumption of full market integration. For several pairs of countries, the weaker hypothesis of (bilateral) convergence is accepted based on unit root tests (KPSS and ADF) and a convergence test based on filtered pairwise price relations. This indicates that the efforts to develop a single European market for electricity were so far only partially successful. We show that the daily auction prices of scarce cross-border transmission capacities are insufficient to explain the persistence of international price differentials. Empirically, our findings confirm the insufficiency of explicit capacity auctions as stated in the theoretical literature. (author)

  3. Phenomenological theory of synergistic effects in plasma-wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, N.; Hasebe, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A phenomenological theory for synergistic effects under multi-species particle bombardement has been developed. The theory is based on a model in which two free-energy minima are assumed to be overcome under actions of radiation for a process to be completed. The synergistic factor, the ratio of the yield of the process under irradiation with two species of particles to the summation of the yields of the process under irradiation with each of two component species, is obtained as a function of the beam flux for several parameters relevant to thermodynamic and radiation-enhanced processes. The criterion for the synergistic effect is obtained. The theory has been shown to be able to explain the yield-flux relation obtained by Haasz et al. for hydrogen-induced methane formation from graphite. (orig.)

  4. Convergence of carbon dioxide emissions in different sectors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Juan; Zhang, Kezhong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze differences in per capita carbon dioxide emissions from 1996 to 2010 in six sectors across 28 provinces in China and examine the σ-convergence, stochastic convergence and β-convergence of these emissions. We also investigate the factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector. The results show that per capita carbon dioxide emissions in all sectors converged across provinces from 1996 to 2010. Factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector vary: GDP (gross domestic product) per capita, industrialization process and population density impact convergence in the Industry sector, while GDP per capita and population density impact convergence in the Transportation, Storage, Postal, and Telecommunications Services sector. Aside from GDP per capita and population density, trade openness also impacts convergence in the Wholesale, Retail, Trade, and Catering Service sector. Population density is the only factor that impacts convergence in the Residential Consumption sector. - Highlights: • Analyze differences in CO 2 emissions in six sectors among 28 provinces in China. • Examine the convergence of CO 2 emissions in six sectors. • Investigate factors impact on convergence of CO 2 emissions in each sector. • Factors impact on convergence of per capita CO 2 emissions in each sector vary

  5. Numerical convergence for a sewage disposal problem

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Vázquez, L.J.; Martínez, A.; Rodríguez, C.; Vázquez-Méndez, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of sewage disposal and the design of wastewater treatment systems can be formulated as a constrained pointwise optimal control problem. In this paper we study the convergence of the numerical resolution for the corresponding state system by means of a characteristics Galerkin method. The main difficulty of the problem is due to the existence of Radon measures in the right-hand side of the state system. Finally, we present numerical results for a realistic problem posed in a ria...

  6. COMPARATIVE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. CONVERGENCE VERSUS DIVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ECOBICI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I compared the Romanian financial statements with the US GAAP financial statements in terms of two criteria: first the reference period and secondly the shape, structure and content of financial statements. Nowadays the two accounting systems, the French and Anglo-Saxon, tend to harmonize. I will present the convergences and the divergences between the financial statements of Romania, subject to OMFP 3055/2009, in parallel with the Anglo-Saxon accounting system.

  7. Convolutional Dictionary Learning: Acceleration and Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Il Yong; Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    2018-04-01

    Convolutional dictionary learning (CDL or sparsifying CDL) has many applications in image processing and computer vision. There has been growing interest in developing efficient algorithms for CDL, mostly relying on the augmented Lagrangian (AL) method or the variant alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). When their parameters are properly tuned, AL methods have shown fast convergence in CDL. However, the parameter tuning process is not trivial due to its data dependence and, in practice, the convergence of AL methods depends on the AL parameters for nonconvex CDL problems. To moderate these problems, this paper proposes a new practically feasible and convergent Block Proximal Gradient method using a Majorizer (BPG-M) for CDL. The BPG-M-based CDL is investigated with different block updating schemes and majorization matrix designs, and further accelerated by incorporating some momentum coefficient formulas and restarting techniques. All of the methods investigated incorporate a boundary artifacts removal (or, more generally, sampling) operator in the learning model. Numerical experiments show that, without needing any parameter tuning process, the proposed BPG-M approach converges more stably to desirable solutions of lower objective values than the existing state-of-the-art ADMM algorithm and its memory-efficient variant do. Compared to the ADMM approaches, the BPG-M method using a multi-block updating scheme is particularly useful in single-threaded CDL algorithm handling large datasets, due to its lower memory requirement and no polynomial computational complexity. Image denoising experiments show that, for relatively strong additive white Gaussian noise, the filters learned by BPG-M-based CDL outperform those trained by the ADMM approach.

  8. Isotropy analyses of the Planck convergence map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G. A.; Novaes, C. P.; Bernui, A.; Ferreira, I. S.

    2018-01-01

    The presence of matter in the path of relic photons causes distortions in the angular pattern of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations, modifying their properties in a slight but measurable way. Recently, the Planck Collaboration released the estimated convergence map, an integrated measure of the large-scale matter distribution that produced the weak gravitational lensing (WL) phenomenon observed in Planck CMB data. We perform exhaustive analyses of this convergence map calculating the variance in small and large regions of the sky, but excluding the area masked due to Galactic contaminations, and compare them with the features expected in the set of simulated convergence maps, also released by the Planck Collaboration. Our goal is to search for sky directions or regions where the WL imprints anomalous signatures to the variance estimator revealed through a χ2 analyses at a statistically significant level. In the local analysis of the Planck convergence map, we identified eight patches of the sky in disagreement, in more than 2σ, with what is observed in the average of the simulations. In contrast, in the large regions analysis we found no statistically significant discrepancies, but, interestingly, the regions with the highest χ2 values are surrounding the ecliptic poles. Thus, our results show a good agreement with the features expected by the Λ cold dark matter concordance model, as given by the simulations. Yet, the outliers regions found here could suggest that the data still contain residual contamination, like noise, due to over- or underestimation of systematic effects in the simulation data set.

  9. Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson R.E.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The NIF convergent ablation tuning effort is underway. In the early experiments, we have discovered that the design code simulations over-predict the capsule implosion velocity and shock flash ρr, but under-predict the hohlraum x-ray flux measurements. The apparent inconsistency between the x-ray flux and radiography data implies that there are important unexplained aspects of the hohlraum and/or capsule behavior.

  10. Arieti and Bowlby: convergence and direct influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciagaluppi, Marco

    2015-09-01

    Arieti was a great specialist of schizophrenia and Bowlby was the initiator of attachment theory. Working independently on the two sides of the Atlantic, they converged on a range of topics, such as evolutionary theory, mourning, trauma, violence, and therapy as art and science. Later, Bowlby exerted a direct influence on Arieti, which Arieti acknowledged in his Love Can Be Found. Finally, the two authors cooperated in the second edition of the American Handbook of Psychiatry.

  11. ON STATISTICALLY CONVERGENT IN FINITE DIMENSIONAL SPACES

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNCAN, Ayşe Nur

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, the notion of statistical convergence, which was introduced by Steinhaus (1951), was studied in Rm ; and some concepts and theorems, whose statistical correspondence for the real number sequences were given, were carried to Rm . In addition, the concepts of the statistical limit point and the statistical cluster point were given and it was mentioned that these two concepts were'nt equal in Fridy's study in 1993. These concepts were given in Rm and the i...

  12. Innovation diffusion, technological convergence and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    R. Andergassen; F. Nardini; M. Ricottilli

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the mechanics through which novel technological principles are developed and diffused throughout an economy consisting of a technologically heterogeneous ensemble of firms. In the model entrepreneurs invest in the discovery and in the diffusion of a technological principle and their profit flow depends on how many firms adopt the innovation and on how long it takes other entrepreneurs to improve it. We show that technological convergence emerges from the competition amo...

  13. Guaranteed convergence of the Hough transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Menashe; Kiryati, Nahum

    1995-01-01

    The straight-line Hough Transform using normal parameterization with a continuous voting kernel is considered. It transforms the colinearity detection problem to a problem of finding the global maximum of a two dimensional function above a domain in the parameter space. The principle is similar to robust regression using fixed scale M-estimation. Unlike standard M-estimation procedures the Hough Transform does not rely on a good initial estimate of the line parameters: The global optimization problem is approached by exhaustive search on a grid that is usually as fine as computationally feasible. The global maximum of a general function above a bounded domain cannot be found by a finite number of function evaluations. Only if sufficient a-priori knowledge about the smoothness of the objective function is available, convergence to the global maximum can be guaranteed. The extraction of a-priori information and its efficient use are the main challenges in real global optimization problems. The global optimization problem in the Hough Transform is essentially how fine should the parameter space quantization be in order not to miss the true maximum. More than thirty years after Hough patented the basic algorithm, the problem is still essentially open. In this paper an attempt is made to identify a-priori information on the smoothness of the objective (Hough) function and to introduce sufficient conditions for the convergence of the Hough Transform to the global maximum. An image model with several application dependent parameters is defined. Edge point location errors as well as background noise are accounted for. Minimal parameter space quantization intervals that guarantee convergence are obtained. Focusing policies for multi-resolution Hough algorithms are developed. Theoretical support for bottom- up processing is provided. Due to the randomness of errors and noise, convergence guarantees are probabilistic.

  14. Convergence theorems for quasi-contractive mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    It is proved that each of two well known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly, without any compactness assumption on the domain of the map, to the unique fixed point of a quasi-contractive map in real Banach spacers with property (U, α, m+1, m). These Banach spaces include the L p (or l p ) spaces, p ≥ 2. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 29 refs

  15. On the convergence in female participation rates

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    Large regional differences exist in female participation across regions within Japan. This paper uses two datasets to show that a significant convergence in female participation took place from 1940 to 2010. Historically, urban areas have had low participation, whereas non-urban areas have had high participation. The participation rate rose steadily and significantly in urban areas and, to a lesser extent in non-urban areas, and as a result, regional differences shrank over time. The microdat...

  16. Gas-Electricity Convergence and foreclosure market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquin Gil, J.

    2007-01-01

    Gas-electricity convergence is a relatively recent industrial trend. It can significantly increase energy sector efficiency. However, it also raises the possibility on anti-competitive behaviours. One of these problems is the so-called input foreclosure. It happens when a natural gas dominant firm restricts its access to its electricity sector competitors. This paper intends to briefly introduce the issue, with special focus in aspects relevant for the Spanish case. (Author)

  17. Testing Convergence Versus History: Convergence Dominates Phenotypic Evolution for over 150 Million Years in Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Daniel S; Morlon, Hélène; Wiens, John J

    2016-01-01

    Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning ~160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of

  18. Real Convergence, Steps from Adherence to Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Busu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The macroeconomic model Solow-Swan shows that the marginal rates of capital, technology and labor force, with positive values, have the capacity to stimulate the economic growth of the emergent economies, as in the case of Romania, for the 2005-2014 period, facilitating the determination of specific correlations between macroeconomic indicators to analyze the convergence towards the average European Union (EU. The economic theory, highlighted in particular by the Solow-Swan model, was applied in the current paper, to determine the potential of real convergence. Moreover, the statistics for the period 2005-2014 facilitated the analysis of the growth and recession factors specific to economies of Central and Eastern Europe and placed Romania amongst the EU countries with emergent economies and potential of economic growth. The European Commission’s reports regarding the macroeconomic imbalance procedure draw attention on the same indicators presented in the article to address proper recommendations and support corrective measures. Making a step from nominal to real convergence, the latter derives naturally from the need to recoup the gaps in comparison with developed economies amongst countries of the Euro Area.

  19. Particle Acceleration in Two Converging Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Na; Shan, Hao [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Giacalone, Joe [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Yan, Yihua [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing 100012 (China); Ding, Mingde, E-mail: wangxin@xao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics (Nanjing University) Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-06-20

    Observations by spacecraft such as ACE , STEREO , and others show that there are proton spectral “breaks” with energy E {sub br} at 1–10 MeV in some large CME-driven shocks. Generally, a single shock with the diffusive acceleration mechanism would not predict the “broken” energy spectrum. The present paper focuses on two converging shocks to identify this energy spectral feature. In this case, the converging shocks comprise one forward CME-driven shock on 2006 December 13 and another backward Earth bow shock. We simulate the detailed particle acceleration processes in the region of the converging shocks using the Monte Carlo method. As a result, we not only obtain an extended energy spectrum with an energy “tail” up to a few 10 MeV higher than that in previous single shock model, but also we find an energy spectral “break” occurring on ∼5.5 MeV. The predicted energy spectral shape is consistent with observations from multiple spacecraft. The spectral “break,” then, in this case is caused by the interaction between the CME shock and Earth’s bow shock, and otherwise would not be present if Earth were not in the path of the CME.

  20. Carbon dioxide and nisin act synergistically on Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lilian; Chen, Y.H.; Chikindas, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the synergistic action of carbon dioxide and nisin on Listeria monocytogenes Scott A wild-type and nisin-resistant (Nis(r)) cells grown in broth at 4 degrees C. Carbon dioxide extended the lag phase and decreased the specific growth rate of both strains, but to a greater degree...... for cultures in CO2. This synergism between nisin and CO2 was examined mechanistically by following the leakage of carboxyfluorescein (CF) from listerial liposomes. Carbon dioxide enhanced nisin-induced CF leakage, indicating that the synergistic action of CO2 and nisin occurs at the cytoplasmic membrane...

  1. Ultrastrong Bioinspired Graphene-Based Fibers via Synergistic Toughening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yuchen; Ming, Peng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Tianxi; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-04-13

    Ultrastrong bioinspired graphene-based fibers are designed and prepared via synergistic toughening of ionic and covalent bonding. The tensile strength reaches up to 842.6 MPa and is superior to all other reported graphene-based fibers. In addition, its electrical conductivity is as high as 292.4 S cm(-1). This bioinspired synergistic toughening strategy supplies new insight toward the construction of integrated high-performance graphene-based fibers in the near future. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. New Yellow Synergist for Stable Pigment Dispersion of Inkjet Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gihyun; Lee, Hayoon; Jung, Hyocheol; Kang, Seokwoo; Park, Jongwook

    2018-02-01

    Minimizing ink droplet and self-dispersed pigment mixture are becoming hot issues for high resolution of inkjet printing. New synergist including sulfonic acid group of PY-74 was suggested and synthesized. Pigment itself did not show water solubility but new synergist, SY-11 exhibited good solubility in water and organic solvents such as DMSO and DMF. When aqueous pigment ink was prepared with SY-11, storage stability of the ink has been remained for 7 days under periodically repeated heating and cooling conditions. Particle size of formulated ink was around 150 nm.

  3. Synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Masao

    2007-01-01

    Because primary energies such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy are limited in quantity of supply, it is necessary to use available energies effectively for the increase of energy demand that is inevitable this century while keeping environment in good condition. For this purpose, an efficient synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels together converted to energy carriers such are electricity, hydrogen, and synthetic fuels seems to be effective. Synergistic energy conversion processes containing nuclear energy were surveyed and effects of these processes on resource saving and the CO 2 emission reduction were discussed. (T.T.)

  4. Occupational safety and health, green chemistry, and sustainability: a review of areas of convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul A; McKernan, Lauralynn T; Heidel, Donna S; Okun, Andrea H; Dotson, Gary Scott; Lentz, Thomas J; Geraci, Charles L; Heckel, Pamela E; Branche, Christine M

    2013-04-15

    With increasing numbers and quantities of chemicals in commerce and use, scientific attention continues to focus on the environmental and public health consequences of chemical production processes and exposures. Concerns about environmental stewardship have been gaining broader traction through emphases on sustainability and "green chemistry" principles. Occupational safety and health has not been fully promoted as a component of environmental sustainability. However, there is a natural convergence of green chemistry/sustainability and occupational safety and health efforts. Addressing both together can have a synergistic effect. Failure to promote this convergence could lead to increasing worker hazards and lack of support for sustainability efforts. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has made a concerted effort involving multiple stakeholders to anticipate and identify potential hazards associated with sustainable practices and green jobs for workers. Examples of potential hazards are presented in case studies with suggested solutions such as implementing the hierarchy of controls and prevention through design principles in green chemistry and green building practices. Practical considerations and strategies for green chemistry, and environmental stewardship could benefit from the incorporation of occupational safety and health concepts which in turn protect affected workers.

  5. The Mackey convergence condition for spaces with webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Gilsdorf

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available If each sequence converging to 0 in a locally convex space is also Mackey convergent to 0, that space is said to satisfy the Mackey convergence condition. The problem of characterizing those locally convex spaces with this property is still open. In this paper, spaces with compatible webs are used to construct both a necessary and a sufficient condition for a locally convex space to satisfy the Mackey convergence condition.

  6. Convergence Analysis for the Multiplicative Schwarz Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu

    2016-10-26

    The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm, based on decomposition by field type rather than by subdomain, was recently introduced to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities. This paper provides a convergence analysis of the MSPIN algorithm. Under reasonable assumptions, it is shown that MSPIN is locally convergent, and desired superlinear or even quadratic convergence can be obtained when the forcing terms are picked suitably.

  7. Convergence Analysis for the Multiplicative Schwarz Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu; Keyes, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm, based on decomposition by field type rather than by subdomain, was recently introduced to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities. This paper provides a convergence analysis of the MSPIN algorithm. Under reasonable assumptions, it is shown that MSPIN is locally convergent, and desired superlinear or even quadratic convergence can be obtained when the forcing terms are picked suitably.

  8. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  9. The convergence of lattice solutions of linearised Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.W.; Williams, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Sequences of configurations of linearised Regge calculus converging to plane wave solutions are constructed to illustrate an earlier result on convergence. It is shown that, for these examples, the convergence criterion filters out the solutions which do not satisfy Einstein's equations from those which do. (author)

  10. Rates of convergence of Brezier net over triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuyu.

    1986-12-01

    It is well known (Farin, 1979) that the sequence of Bezier nets f-circumflex n (x) associated with Bernstein-Bezier surface over a triangle converges to the surface uniformly as n goes to infinity. In this paper the precise rates of convergence are given. The pointwise convergence result and saturation theorem are presented. (author). 7 refs

  11. Convergent and Divergent Thinking in the Context of Narrative Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, William G.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    This project demonstrates how narrative mysteries provide a context in which readers engage in creative cognition. Drawing on the concepts of convergent and divergent thinking, we wrote stories that had either convergent or divergent outcomes. For example, one story had a character give his girlfriend a ring (a convergent outcome), whereas the…

  12. Modelling Convergence of Finite Element Analysis of Cantilever Beam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convergence studies are carried out by investigating the convergence of numerical results as the number of elements is increased. If convergence is not obtained, the engineer using the finite element method has absolutely no indication whether the results are indicative of a meaningful approximation to the correct solution ...

  13. An Ensemble Approach in Converging Contents of LMS and KMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitha, A. Sai; Mehrotra, Deepti; Bansal, Abhay

    2017-01-01

    Currently the challenges in e-Learning are converging the learning content from various sources and managing them within e-learning practices. Data mining learning algorithms can be used and the contents can be converged based on the Metadata of the objects. Ensemble methods use multiple learning algorithms and it can be used to converge the…

  14. A synergistic method for vibration suppression of an elevator mechatronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Bojan Z.; Blanusa, Branko; Marcetic, Darko P.

    2017-10-01

    Modern elevators are complex mechatronic systems which have to satisfy high performance in precision, safety and ride comfort. Each elevator mechatronic system (EMS) contains a mechanical subsystem which is characterized by its resonant frequency. In order to achieve high performance of the whole system, the control part of the EMS inevitably excites resonant circuits causing the occurrence of vibration. This paper proposes a synergistic solution based on the jerk control and the upgrade of the speed controller with a band-stop filter to restore lost ride comfort and speed control caused by vibration. The band-stop filter eliminates the resonant component from the speed controller spectra and jerk control provides operating of the speed controller in a linear mode as well as increased ride comfort. The original method for band-stop filter tuning based on Goertzel algorithm and Kiefer search algorithm is proposed in this paper. In order to generate the speed reference trajectory which can be defined by different shapes and amplitudes of jerk, a unique generalized model is proposed. The proposed algorithm is integrated in the power drive control algorithm and implemented on the digital signal processor. Through experimental verifications on a scale down prototype of the EMS it has been verified that only synergistic effect of controlling jerk and filtrating the reference torque can completely eliminate vibrations.

  15. Convergence analysis of household expenditures using the absolute β-convergence method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Domazet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the convergence of household expenditures, in terms of a possible usage of the standardized, rather than consumer-tailored marketing, mainly on a regional level. Objectives: The main goal of this research is to study the existence of consumption expenditure convergence in the EU-27 countries, in the period between 2000 and 2007. Methods/Approach: The analysis used the absolute β-convergence method, in order to investigate the existence of a negative correlation between the growth over time in the overall consumption expenditure in EU member- countries for each individual product and service category and the initial expenditure level. Results: According to the obtained results, in the period between 2000 and 2007, the EU-27 countries reached a high level of consumer expenditure convergence, which provides a basis for developing a regional concept of the standardized international marketing for these countries’ markets. Conclusions: The results provide an empirical contribution to claims on consumer convergence in the countries included into economic integrations. Also, the obtained results can be used to create a basis for defining and applying the regional marketing concept for companies focusing on the EU-27 countries’ market.

  16. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronteltap, Amber; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Tobi, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate societal response. This paper systematically reviews the current state of convergence in societal response research by first sketching the predominant approaches to previous new technologies, followed by an analysis of current research into societal response to nanotechnology. A set of 107 papers on previous new technologies shows that rational actor models have played an important role in the study of societal response to technology, in particular in the field of information technology and the geographic region of Asia. Biotechnology and nuclear power have, in contrast, more often been investigated through risk perception and other affective determinants, particularly in Europe and the USA. A set of 42 papers on societal response to nanotechnology shows similarities to research in biotechnology, as it also builds on affective variables such as risk perception. Although there is a tendency to extend the rational models with affective variables, convergence in social science approaches to response to new technologies still has a long way to go. The challenge for researchers of societal response to technologies is to converge to some shared principles by taking up the best parts from the rational actor models dominant in information technology, whilst integrating non-rational constructs from biotechnology research. The introduction of nanotechnology gives a unique opportunity to do so.

  17. Convergent microRNA actions coordinate neocortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca-Mayo, Olga; De Pietri Tonelli, Davide

    2014-08-01

    Neocortical development is a complex process that, at the cellular level, involves tight control of self-renewal, cell fate commitment, survival, differentiation and delamination/migration. These processes require, at the molecular level, the precise regulation of intrinsic signaling pathways and extrinsic factors with coordinated action in a spatially and temporally specific manner. Transcriptional regulation plays an important role during corticogenesis; however, microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as important post-transcriptional regulators of various aspects of central nervous system development. miRNAs are a class of small, single-stranded noncoding RNA molecules that control the expression of the majority of protein coding genes (i.e., targets). How do different miRNAs achieve precise control of gene networks during neocortical development? Here, we critically review all the miRNA-target interactions validated in vivo, with relevance to the generation and migration of pyramidal-projection glutamatergic neurons, and for the initial formation of cortical layers in the embryonic development of rodent neocortex. In particular, we focus on convergent miRNA actions, which are still a poorly understood layer of complexity in miRNA signaling, but potentially one of the keys to disclosing how miRNAs achieve the precise coordination of complex biological processes such as neocortical development.

  18. SREBP-regulated lipid metabolism: convergent physiology - divergent pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimano, Hitoshi; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2017-12-01

    Cellular lipid metabolism and homeostasis are controlled by sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs). In addition to performing canonical functions in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the biosynthesis and uptake of lipids, genome-wide system analyses have revealed that these versatile transcription factors act as important nodes of convergence and divergence within biological signalling networks. Thus, they are involved in myriad physiological and pathophysiological processes, highlighting the importance of lipid metabolism in biology. Changes in cell metabolism and growth are reciprocally linked through SREBPs. Anabolic and growth signalling pathways branch off and connect to multiple steps of SREBP activation and form complex regulatory networks. In addition, SREBPs are implicated in numerous pathogenic processes such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, autophagy and apoptosis, and in this way, they contribute to obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. This Review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of SREBPs in physiology and pathophysiology at the cell, organ and organism levels.

  19. Synergistic effect of Murraya koenigii and Telfairia occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larger zones of inhibition were observed for M. Koenigii extract than T. occidentalis extract, and larger zones of inhibition were observed by their synergy than on their separate use. Synergistic antibacterial activity of the extract ranged from 0 mm to 20.0 ± 0.03 mm, zone of inhibition of M. koenigii extract ranged from 0 mm ...

  20. Contrast-induced nephrotoxicity: possible synergistic effect of stress hyperglycemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2010-07-01

    Oxidative stress on the renal tubules has been implicated as a mechanism of injury in both stress hyperglycemia and contrast-induced nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combination of these effects has a synergistic effect on accentuating renal tubular apoptosis and therefore increasing the risk of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity.

  1. Spontaneous occurrence of synergistic bacterial gangrene following external pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husseinzadeh, N.; Nahhas, W.A.; Manders, E.K.; Whitney, C.W.; Mortel, R.

    1984-01-01

    A case of spontaneous synergistic bacterial gangrene occurring after external pelvic irradiation is presented in a 25-year-old woman with invasive cervical cancer. Treatment consisted of aggressive antibiotic therapy and extensive excision and debridement followed by split-thickness skin grafting. Both recovery and cosmetic results were satisfactory. The pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and treatment modalities are presented

  2. Synergistic therapy of enalapril and Cordyceps sinensis in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) still remains an important factor that affects the long-term survival of renal recipients. The aim of the study was to investigate synergistic effect of enalapril (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ACEI) and Cordyceps sinensis (Bailing capsule, fermented agent of C. sinensis) on ...

  3. Inhibitive and Synergistic Properties of Ethanolic Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also noted that only KCl was synergistic to the ethanol extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus, while other halides tested were antagonistic. All the data acquired reveal that the ethanolic extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus act as an inhibitor in the acid environment due to the phytochemicals: saponin, tannins, flavonoid, ...

  4. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic activities of tea polyphenols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial resistance to antibiotics has become an increasing global problem and there is a need to find out novel potent antimicrobial agents with alternative modes of action as accessories to antibiotic therapy. This study investigated the antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic properties of tea polyphenols. The tea ...

  5. Effects of immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... 1Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan 030032, China. 2Modern ... Two-month-old piglets were fed with 1, 1.5 and 2% immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs together with ..... saponins that are capable of activating immune system.

  6. Synergistic In Vitro Antimalarial Activity of Omeprazole and Quinine

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner-Adams, T.; Davis, T. M. E.

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole has antimalarial activity in vitro. The interactions of omeprazole with commonly used antimalarial drugs were assessed in vitro. Omeprazole and quinine combinations were synergistic; however, chloroquine and omeprazole combinations were antagonistic. Artemisinin drugs had additive antimalarial activities with omeprazole.

  7. Synergistic interaction between two linear inhibitors on a single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). vanadate (Van) and L-phenylalanine (L-phe) were studied using a modification of the common Yonetani-Theorell procedure proposed for studying synergistic inhibition. The modes of inhibition of ALP by Van and L-phe as analysed using the ...

  8. Two millennia of Mesoamerican monsoon variability driven by Pacific and Atlantic synergistic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachniet, Matthew S.; Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor; Bernal, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The drivers of Mesoamerican monsoon variability over the last two millennia remain poorly known because of a lack of precisely-dated and climate-calibrated proxy records. Here, we present a new high resolution (∼2 yrs) and precisely-dated (± 4 yr) wet season hydroclimate reconstruction for the Mesoamerican sector of the North American Monsoon over the past 2250 years based on two aragonite stalagmites from southwestern Mexico which replicate oxygen isotope variations over the 950-1950 CE interval. The reconstruction is quantitatively calibrated to instrumental rainfall variations in the Basin of Mexico. Comparisons to proxy indices of ocean-atmosphere circulation show a synergistic forcing by the North Atlantic and El Niño/Southern Oscillations, whereby monsoon strengthening coincided with a La Niña-like mode and a negative North Atlantic Oscillation, and vice versa for droughts. Our data suggest that weak monsoon intervals are associated with a strong North Atlantic subtropical high pressure system and a weak Intertropical convergence zone in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Population expansions at three major highland Mexico civilization of Teotihuacan, Tula, and Aztec Tenochtitlan were all associated with drought to pluvial transitions, suggesting that urban population growth was favored by increasing freshwater availability in the semi-arid Mexican highlands, and that this hydroclimatic change was controlled by Pacific and Atlantic Ocean forcing.

  9. Signal interaction of Hedgehog/GLI and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in cancer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberl, M.

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this PhD thesis is based on the cooperation of Hedgehog (HH)/GLI with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling synergistically promoting oncogenic transformation and cancer growth. In previous studies we have demonstrated that the HH/GLI and EGFR signaling pathways interact synergistically resulting not only in selective induction of HH/GLI-EGFR target genes, but also in the onset of oncogenic transformation and tumor formation (Kasper, Schnidar et al. 2006; Schnidar, Eberl et al. 2009). However, the molecular key mediators acting downstream of HH/GLI and EGFR signal cooperation were largely unknown and the in vivo evidence for the therapeutic relevance of HH/GLI and EGFR signal cooperation in HH-associated cancers was lacking. During my PhD thesis I could demonstrate that the integration of EGFR and HH/GLI signaling involves activation of RAS/MEK/ERK and JUN/AP1 signaling in response to EGFR activation. Furthermore I succeeded in identifying genes, including stem cell- (SOX2, SOX9), tumor growth- (JUN, TGFA, FGF19) and metastasis-associated genes (SPP1/osteopontin, CXCR4) that showed synergistic transcriptional activation by HH/GLI-EGFR signal integration. Importantly, I could demonstrate that these genes arrange themselves within a stable interdependent signaling network, which is required for in vivo growth of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and tumor-initiating pancreatic cancer cells. These data validate EGFR signaling as additional drug target in HH/GLI driven cancers and provide new therapeutic strategies based on combined targeting of cooperative HH/GLI-EGFR signaling and selected downstream target genes (Eberl, Klingler et al. 2012). (author) [de

  10. Is the environmental performance of industrialized countries converging? A 'SURE' approach to testing for convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarero, Mariam; Picazo-Tadeo, Andres J.; Tamarit, Cecilio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we test for convergence in the environmental performance of a sample of OECD countries, with data ranging from 1971 to 2002. First, we use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to compute two environmental performance indicators (EPIs) in the production theory framework. Second, we propose the use of a sequential multivariate approach to test for convergence in environmental performance. These tests allow us to reconcile the time series literature with the cross-sectional dimension, which is basic when testing for convergence in regional blocs. The SURE technique is used, which allows for the existence of correlations across the series without imposing a common speed of mean reversion. The empirical results show that the group of countries as a whole, as well as the majority of countries considered on an individual basis (results for some countries vary between EPIs), are catching-up with Switzerland (the benchmark country). (author)

  11. Convergence of knowledge, technology and society beyond convergence of nano-bio-info-cognitive technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bainbridge, William; Tonn, Bruce; Whitesides, George

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of knowledge and technology for the benefit of society (CKTS) is the core opportunity for progress in the 21st century, based on five principles: (1) the interdependence of all components of nature and society, (2) enhancement of creativity and innovation through evolutionary processes of convergence that combine existing principles, and divergence that generates new ones, (3) decision analysis for research and development based on system-logic deduction, (4) higher-level cross-domain languages to generate new solutions and support transfer of new knowledge, and (5) vision-inspired basic research embodied in grand challenges. Solutions are outlined for key societal challenges, including creating new industries and jobs, improving lifelong wellness and human potential, achieving personalized and integrated healthcare and education, and securing a sustainable quality of life for all. This report provides a ten-year “NBIC2” vision within a longer-term framework for converging technology and human...

  12. A Globally Convergent Matrix-Free Method for Constrained Equations and Its Linear Convergence Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A matrix-free method for constrained equations is proposed, which is a combination of the well-known PRP (Polak-Ribière-Polyak conjugate gradient method and the famous hyperplane projection method. The new method is not only derivative-free, but also completely matrix-free, and consequently, it can be applied to solve large-scale constrained equations. We obtain global convergence of the new method without any differentiability requirement on the constrained equations. Compared with the existing gradient methods for solving such problem, the new method possesses linear convergence rate under standard conditions, and a relax factor γ is attached in the update step to accelerate convergence. Preliminary numerical results show that it is promising in practice.

  13. Prioritization of epilepsy associated candidate genes by convergent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peilin; Ewers, Jeffrey M; Zhao, Zhongming

    2011-02-24

    Epilepsy is a severe neurological disorder affecting a large number of individuals, yet the underlying genetic risk factors for epilepsy remain unclear. Recent studies have revealed several recurrent copy number variations (CNVs) that are more likely to be associated with epilepsy. The responsible gene(s) within these regions have yet to be definitively linked to the disorder, and the implications of their interactions are not fully understood. Identification of these genes may contribute to a better pathological understanding of epilepsy, and serve to implicate novel therapeutic targets for further research. In this study, we examined genes within heterozygous deletion regions identified in a recent large-scale study, encompassing a diverse spectrum of epileptic syndromes. By integrating additional protein-protein interaction data, we constructed subnetworks for these CNV-region genes and also those previously studied for epilepsy. We observed 20 genes common to both networks, primarily concentrated within a small molecular network populated by GABA receptor, BDNF/MAPK signaling, and estrogen receptor genes. From among the hundreds of genes in the initial networks, these were designated by convergent evidence for their likely association with epilepsy. Importantly, the identified molecular network was found to contain complex interrelationships, providing further insight into epilepsy's underlying pathology. We further performed pathway enrichment and crosstalk analysis and revealed a functional map which indicates the significant enrichment of closely related neurological, immune, and kinase regulatory pathways. The convergent framework we proposed here provides a unique and powerful approach to screening and identifying promising disease genes out of typically hundreds to thousands of genes in disease-related CNV-regions. Our network and pathway analysis provides important implications for the underlying molecular mechanisms for epilepsy. The strategy can be

  14. Prioritization of epilepsy associated candidate genes by convergent analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilin Jia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a severe neurological disorder affecting a large number of individuals, yet the underlying genetic risk factors for epilepsy remain unclear. Recent studies have revealed several recurrent copy number variations (CNVs that are more likely to be associated with epilepsy. The responsible gene(s within these regions have yet to be definitively linked to the disorder, and the implications of their interactions are not fully understood. Identification of these genes may contribute to a better pathological understanding of epilepsy, and serve to implicate novel therapeutic targets for further research.In this study, we examined genes within heterozygous deletion regions identified in a recent large-scale study, encompassing a diverse spectrum of epileptic syndromes. By integrating additional protein-protein interaction data, we constructed subnetworks for these CNV-region genes and also those previously studied for epilepsy. We observed 20 genes common to both networks, primarily concentrated within a small molecular network populated by GABA receptor, BDNF/MAPK signaling, and estrogen receptor genes. From among the hundreds of genes in the initial networks, these were designated by convergent evidence for their likely association with epilepsy. Importantly, the identified molecular network was found to contain complex interrelationships, providing further insight into epilepsy's underlying pathology. We further performed pathway enrichment and crosstalk analysis and revealed a functional map which indicates the significant enrichment of closely related neurological, immune, and kinase regulatory pathways.The convergent framework we proposed here provides a unique and powerful approach to screening and identifying promising disease genes out of typically hundreds to thousands of genes in disease-related CNV-regions. Our network and pathway analysis provides important implications for the underlying molecular mechanisms for epilepsy. The

  15. Convergence criteria for systems of nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with convergence criteria for a special system of nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations. A fixed-point algorithm is used, which iteratively solves one linearized elliptic partial differential equation at a time. Conditions are established that help foresee the convergence of the algorithm. Under reasonable hypotheses it is proved that the algorithm converges for such nonlinear elliptic systems. Extensive experimental results are reported and they show the algorithm converges in a wide variety of cases and the convergence is well correlated with the theoretical conditions introduced in this thesis

  16. Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınok, Hıfsı; Et, Mikail; Işık, Mahmut

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce the concepts of Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α and lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-convergence of order α. We establish some connections between lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-convergence of order α and Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α. It is shown that if a sequence is lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-summable of order α then it is Δim-lacunary statistically convergent of order α.

  17. Convergence in energy consumption per capita among ASEAN countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vinod; Smyth, Russell

    2014-01-01

    We test for convergence in energy consumption per capita among ASEAN countries over the period 1971 to 2011 using the panel KPSS stationarity test and panel Lagrange multiplier (LM) unit root test. The results for the panel stationarity and unit root tests with structural breaks find support for energy convergence in ASEAN. - Highlights: • We test for convergence in energy consumption per capita among the ASEAN nations. • Univariate conventional unit root tests provide mixed evidence of convergence. • Panel unit root tests with structural breaks support convergence hypothesis

  18. Convergence theorems for Banach space valued integrable multifunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we generalize a result of Kato on the pointwise behavior of a weakly convergent sequence in the Lebesgue-Bochner spaces LXP(Ω (1≤p≤∞. Then we use that result to prove Fatou's type lemmata and dominated convergence theorems for the Aumann integral of Banach space valued measurable multifunctions. Analogous convergence results are also proved for the sets of integrable selectors of those multifunctions. In the process of proving those convergence theorems we make some useful observations concerning the Kuratowski-Mosco convergence of sets.

  19. Weak convergence and uniform normalization in infinitary rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    the starkly surprising result that for any orthogonal system with finitely many rules, the system is weakly normalizing under weak convergence if{f} it is strongly normalizing under weak convergence if{f} it is weakly normalizing under strong convergence if{f} it is strongly normalizing under strong...... convergence. As further corollaries, we derive a number of new results for weakly convergent rewriting: Systems with finitely many rules enjoy unique normal forms, and acyclic orthogonal systems are confluent. Our results suggest that it may be possible to recover some of the positive results for strongly...

  20. A Quadratically Convergent O(square root of nL-Iteration Algorithm for Linear Programming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye, Y; Gueler, O; Tapia, Richard A; Zhang, Y

    1991-01-01

    ...)-iteration complexity while exhibiting superlinear convergence of the duality gap to zero under the assumption that the iteration sequence converges, and quadratic convergence of the duality gap...

  1. The convergent LEP and SPS control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaber, J.

    1987-01-01

    The major design contraint of the control system for LEP is the compatibility with the existing SPS control system. The first reason for this compatibility is to allow a long term convergence of the SPS control system towards the LEP one. The second reason is to operate both LEP and SPS machines from a unique main control room. The distributed architecture of LEP and the existing SPS control systems are described. The design of the equipment interface for both machines is explained. Finally, the infrastructure of the common main control room for LEP and SPS is described

  2. Towards a convergence of world gas markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, E.

    2002-01-01

    This 7. summit of the world natural gas industry leaders was jointly organized by Petrostrategies, IFP-ENSPM (French institute of petroleum and national upper school of petroleum and engines), and SPTEC consulting. Three themes were debated: the natural gas market in Europe at the eve of the second directive (while the first directive has not been fully enforced), the world development of LNG market, the gas-electric power convergence and the effects of a growing up interdependence between both energy sources. (J.S.)

  3. Convergence as Organization: Blockupy against the ECB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Yannick Nehemiah Antonio; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    2016-01-01

    of organization: the Blockupy coalition, the participating formal and informal organizations, and the activist subject. This narrative explicates the mode of organization as a “convergence space” (cf. Routledge, 2003), with different “roots” and “routes” of organization (cf. Davies, 2012). Originality....../value – Thus, through an analysis of the modes of organization constituting this mass protest event, this paper restates the relevance of the concept of organization, which have recently been ignored or understated in favour of master-narratives of networks or the dichotomy of horizontalism and verticality...

  4. The converged Sn algorithm for nuclear criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B. D.; Hadad, K.

    2009-01-01

    A new discrete ordinates algorithm to determine the multiplication factor of a 1D nuclear reactor, based on Bengt Carlson's S n method, is presented. The algorithm applies the Romberg and Wynn-epsilon accelerators to accelerate a 1D, one-group S n solution to its asymptotic limit. We demonstrate the feasibility of the Converged Sn (CSn) solution on several one-group criticality benchmark compilations. The new formulation is especially convenient since it enables highly accurate critical fluxes and eigenvalues using the most fundamental transport algorithm. (authors)

  5. Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the

  6. Multimedia reviews: multimedia convergence for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taintor, Zebulon

    2003-12-01

    Introduction by the column editor: In this final column of the year, Dr. Taintor provides an overview of exciting technological developments via his report on the 2003 annual meeting of the American Association for Technology in Psychiatry (AATP). Advances-and convergences-in technology are providing clinicians with increasingly useful tools to enhance the effectiveness of their treatments, increase access to care, reduce errors, and save time. As Dr. Taintor notes, AATP's meeting is traditionally held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association (APA). I hope that his report will encourage APA's members to attend some of next year's informative sessions.

  7. Can evolutionary convergence be tested on Europa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chela-Flores, Julian [Instituto de Estudios Avanzados, Caracas (Venezuela); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: chelaf@ictp.trieste.it

    2002-09-01

    A major objective in solar system exploration has to be the insertion of appropriate biology-oriented experiments in future missions. We discuss various reasons for suggesting that this type of research be considered a high priority for feasibility studies and, subsequently, for technological development of appropriate melters and submersibles. With the assumption that Darwin's theory is valid for the evolution of life anywhere in the universe, various degrees of convergent phenomena argue in favor of the conjecture that universal evolution of intelligent behavior is just a matter of time and preservation of steady planetary conditions. A preliminary test of this conjecture is feasible with experiments involving evolutionary biosignatures on Europa. (author)

  8. Exponentially Convergent Algorithms for Abstract Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilyuk, Ivan; Vasylyk, Vitalii

    2011-01-01

    This book presents new accurate and efficient exponentially convergent methods for abstract differential equations with unbounded operator coefficients in Banach space. These methods are highly relevant for the practical scientific computing since the equations under consideration can be seen as the meta-models of systems of ordinary differential equations (ODE) as well as the partial differential equations (PDEs) describing various applied problems. The framework of functional analysis allows one to obtain very general but at the same time transparent algorithms and mathematical results which

  9. Is the 2MASS dipole convergent?

    OpenAIRE

    Chodorowski, Michał; Bilicki, Maciej; Mamon, Gary A.; Jarrett, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We study the growth of the clustering dipole of galaxies from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). We find that the dipole does not converge before the completeness limit of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog, i.e. up to about 300 Mpc/h. We compare the observed growth of the dipole with the theoretically expected, conditional growth for the LambdaCDM power spectrum and cosmological parameters constrained by WMAP. The observed growth turns out to be within 1-sigma confidence level of the theo...

  10. Reble, a radially converging electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.J.; Prestwich, K.R.

    1976-01-01

    The Reble accelerator at Sandia Laboratories is described. This accelerator was developed to provide an experimental source for studying the relevant diode physics, beam propagation, beam energy deposition in a gas using a radially converging e-beam. The nominal parameters for Reble are 1 MV, 200 kA, 20 ns e-beam pulse. The anode and cathode are concentric cylinders with the anode as the inner cylinder. The radial beam can be propagated through the thin foil anode into the laser gas volume. The design and performance of the various components of the accelerator are presented

  11. Cubature on Wiener Space: Pathwise Convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Christian; Friz, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Cubature on Wiener space (Lyons and Victoir in Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 460(2041):169–198, 2004) provides a powerful alternative to Monte Carlo simulation for the integration of certain functionals on Wiener space. More specifically, and in the language of mathematical finance, cubature allows for fast computation of European option prices in generic diffusion models.We give a random walk interpretation of cubature and similar (e.g. the Ninomiya–Victoir) weak approximation schemes. By using rough path analysis, we are able to establish weak convergence for general path-dependent option prices.

  12. Synergistic effects of irradiation of waste-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodbridge, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    Water is an absolute necessity for all forms of animal and plant life. As man's requirements for water increase, the need for better methods of purification also increase. Technology has been slow to develop new methods of water treatment for the direct utilization of waste-water. Many new construction projects are at a standstill because waste-water treatment methods have not been developed to handle adequately the ever-increasing flow of sewage. Theoretical considerations of the use of high-level radiation in the treatment of waste-water have failed to consider the effects of the hydrated electron, and the potential of the possible synergistic effects of combining chlorine, oxygen and irradiation. An extensive testing programme at the University Center for Pollution Research of the Florida Institute of Technology over the past four years has shown that irradiation of waste-water samples immersed in an aqueous environment provide bacterial kill and reduction in organic pollution far greater than that obtained from theoretical considerations of G values and earlier experiments where the waste samples were not immersed in an aqueous environment. These testing programmes have investigated the synergistic effects of combining oxygen and irradiation. Each of these combined treatments resulted in an increased bacterial kill factor. Tests on Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and faecal streptococcus bacteria indicate that the synergistic effects observed for faecal coliform bacteria also apply to the pathogenic bacteria. A statistical analysis of the data obtained shows the relationships between the various effects on the bacteria. A definite shielding factor from the turbidity of the waste-water has been shown to exist. Synergistic effects have been shown to offset significantly the shielding effects. Optimization of these synergistic effects can greatly increase the effectiveness of irradiation in the treatment of waste-water. (author)

  13. Are a healthy diet and physical activity synergistically associated with cognitive functioning in older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, W.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, M.; Van der Schans, C. P.; Hobbelen, J. S. M.

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being

  14. Are a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Synergistically Associated with Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, W; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, M; van der Schans, C P; Hobbelen, J S M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and

  15. Are a healthy diet and physical activity synergistically associated with cognitive functioning in older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Willemke; Jager, Harriët; Visser, M.; van der Schans, Cees; Hobbelen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and

  16. Morphological convergence in ‘river dolphin’ skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte E. Page

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Convergent evolution can provide insights into the predictability of, and constraints on, the evolution of biodiversity. One striking example of convergence is seen in the ‘river dolphins’. The four dolphin genera that make up the ‘river dolphins’ (Inia geoffrensis, Pontoporia blainvillei, Platanista gangetica and Lipotes vexillifer do not represent a single monophyletic group, despite being very similar in morphology. This has led many to using the ‘river dolphins’ as an example of convergent evolution. We investigate whether the skulls of the four ‘river dolphin’ genera are convergent when compared to other toothed dolphin taxa in addition to identifying convergent cranial and mandibular features. We use geometric morphometrics to uncover shape variation in the skulls of the ‘river dolphins’ and then apply a number of phylogenetic techniques to test for convergence. We find significant convergence in the skull morphology of the ‘river dolphins’. The four genera seem to have evolved similar skull shapes, leading to a convergent morphotype characterised by elongation of skull features. The cause of this morphological convergence remains unclear. However, the features we uncover as convergent, in particular elongation of the rostrum, support hypotheses of shared feeding mode or diet and thus provide the foundation for future work into convergence within the Odontoceti.

  17. OpenMC In Situ Source Convergence Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Garrett Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Dutta, Soumya [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Woodring, Jonathan Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-07

    We designed and implemented an in situ version of particle source convergence for the OpenMC particle transport simulator. OpenMC is a Monte Carlo based-particle simulator for neutron criticality calculations. For the transport simulation to be accurate, source particles must converge on a spatial distribution. Typically, convergence is obtained by iterating the simulation by a user-settable, fixed number of steps, and it is assumed that convergence is achieved. We instead implement a method to detect convergence, using the stochastic oscillator for identifying convergence of source particles based on their accumulated Shannon Entropy. Using our in situ convergence detection, we are able to detect and begin tallying results for the full simulation once the proper source distribution has been confirmed. Our method ensures that the simulation is not started too early, by a user setting too optimistic parameters, or too late, by setting too conservative a parameter.

  18. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.

  19. Synergistic retention strategy of RGD active targeting and radiofrequency-enhanced permeability for intensified RF & chemotherapy synergistic tumor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Pei; He, Yaping; Bo, Xiaowan; Li, Xiaolong; Li, Dandan; Chen, Hangrong; Xu, Huixiong

    2016-08-01

    Despite gaining increasing attention, chelation of multiple active targeting ligands greatly increase the formation probability of protein corona, disabling active targeting. To overcome it, a synergistic retention strategy of RGD-mediated active targeting and radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field-enhanced permeability has been proposed here. It is validated that such a special synergistic retention strategy can promote more poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based capsules encapsulating camptothecin (CPT) and solid DL-menthol (DLM) to enter and retain in tumor in vitro and in vivo upon exposure to RF irradiation, receiving an above 8 fold enhancement in HeLa retention. Moreover, the PLGA-based capsules can respond RF field to trigger the entrapped DLM to generate solid-liquid-gas (SLG) tri-phase transformation for enhancing RF ablation and CPT release. Therefore, depending on the enhanced RF ablation and released CPT and the validated synergistic retention effect, the inhibitory outcome for tumor growth has gained an over 10-fold improvement, realizing RF ablation & chemotherapy synergistic treatment against HeLa solid tumor, which indicates a significant promise in clinical RF ablation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Abdominal and internal intercostal motoneurones are strong synergists for expiration but are not synergists for Group I monosynaptic afferent inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, Tim W; Meehan, Claire Francesca; Kirkwood, Peter

    2014-01-01

    , 9 being in Group B Dist motoneurones. The complete absence of heteronymous monosynaptic Group I reflex excitation between muscles that are synergistically activated in expiration leads us to conclude that such connections from muscle spindle afferents of the thoracic nerves have little role...... in controlling expiratory movements but, where present, support other motor acts....

  1. Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Based on Synergistical Innerconnect Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanowires/Wrinkled Graphene Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijie; Liu, Nishuang; Yue, Yang; Rao, Jiangyu; Cheng, Feng; Su, Jun; Liu, Zhitian; Gao, Yihua

    2018-04-01

    Piezoresistive sensor is a promising pressure sensor due to its attractive advantages including uncomplicated signal collection, simple manufacture, economical and practical characteristics. Here, a flexible and highly sensitive pressure sensor based on wrinkled graphene film (WGF)/innerconnected polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanowires/interdigital electrodes is fabricated. Due to the synergistic effect between WGF and innerconnected PVA nanowires, the as-prepared pressure sensor realizes a high sensitivity of 28.34 kPa -1 . In addition, the device is able to discern lightweight rice about 22.4 mg (≈2.24 Pa) and shows excellent durability and reliability after 6000 repeated loading and unloading cycles. What is more, the device can detect subtle pulse beat and monitor various human movement behaviors in real-time. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Converging social classes through humanized urban edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuan, M. V.; Galingan, Z. D.

    2017-10-01

    Urban open spaces are created to be used by people. It is a place of convergence and social activity. However, these places have transformed into places of divergence. When spaces become dehumanized, it separates social classes. As a result, underused spaces contribute to urban decay. Particularly an urban edge, the JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is the center of this paper. The JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is a waterfront development situated along the banks of one of Metro Manila’s major water thoroughfare --- Pasig River. The park and its physical form, urban design and landscape tend to deteriorate over time --- creating a further division of social convergence. Social hostility, crime, negligent maintenance and poor urban design are contributing factors to this sprawling decay in what used to be spaces of bringing people together. Amidst attempts to beautify and renew this portion of Makati City’s edge, the urban area still remains misspent.This paper attempts to re-humanize the waterfront development. It uses the responsive environment design principles to be able to achieve this goal.

  3. CONVERGENCE IN THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Iovitu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed a series of strategies that aim to limit the consequences of non-employment (due to the continuing crisis. These strategies aim by the objectives and mechanisms specific to the eco-social area, to improve the access to employment, social services, professional education and a more efficient European fund management. All this are subordinated to the coupling policy public-private in terms of partnerships both at a national level and European level. The problem is related to differences manifested between the social objectives at the national level and those imposed by the European context. The differences come from different degrees of economic development of the member states, economic development which is reflected on the living standards. The convergence between the social policies is based on the economic convergence, which represents the only way to ameliorate the discrepancies between the united nations of Europe. Social Europe dream or certainty? The answer can be found in the words of Jean Monnet: “we are not bringing together states, we are uniting people”. The efforts to define the four types of actions regarding the free movement of labor force and the correlation of the social security schemes, ensuring equal opportunities, respecting labor rights and the fight against discrimination can be found in the results obtained on these priorities.

  4. Convergences in the diversification of bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock FENTON

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five characters or suites of characters from bats are considered in light of changes in bat classification. The characters include some associated with flower-visiting (two, echolocation (12, roosting (six, reproduction (two and three are of unknown adaptive function. In both the 1998 and 2006 classifications of bats into suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera versus Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, respectively, some convergences between suborders are the same (e.g., foliage roosting, tent building, but others associated with echolocation differ substantially. In the 1998 phylogeny convergences associated with echolocation (high duty cycle echolocation, nasal emission of echolocation calls occurred among the Microchiroptera. In the 2006 phylogeny, they occur between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera. While some traits apparently arose independently in two suborders (e.g., foliage-roosting, tent building, low intensity echolocation calls, noseleafs, nasal emission of echolocation calls, high duty cycle echolocation behaviour, others appear to have been ancestral (roosting in narrow spaces, laryngeal echolocation, stylohyal-tympanic contact, oral emission of echolocation calls, and small litter size. A narrow profile through the chest is typical of bats reflecting the thoracic skeleton. This feature suggests that the ancestors of bats spent the day in small crevices. Features associated with laryngeal echolocation appear to be ancestral, suggesting that echolocation evolved early in bats but was subsequently lost in one yinpterochiropteran lineage [Current Zoology 56 (4: 454–468, 2010].

  5. Regional Convergence of Income: Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ivanovna Ivanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia has a huge territory and a strong interregional heterogeneity, so we can assume that geographical factors have a significant impact on the pace of economic growth in Russian regions. Therefore the article is focused on the following issues: 1 correlation between comparative advantages of geographical location and differences in growth rates; 2 impact of more developed regions on their neighbors and 3 correlation between economic growth of regions and their spatial interaction. The article is devoted to the empirical analysis of regional per capita incomes from 1996 to 2012 and explores the dynamics of the spatial autocorrelation of regional development indicator. It is shown that there is a problem of measuring the intensity of spatial dependence: factor value of Moran’s index varies greatly depending on the choice of the matrix of distances. In addition, with the help of spatial econometrics the author tests the following hypotheses: 1 there is convergence between regions for a specified period; 2 the process of beta convergence is explained by the spatial arrangement of regions and 3 there is positive impact of market size on regional growth. The author empirically confirmed all three hypotheses

  6. The convergence theory for vitiligo: A reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Roopal V; Mhlaba, Julia M; Rangel, Stephanie M; Le Poole, I Caroline

    2018-04-28

    Vitiligo is characterized by progressive loss of skin pigmentation. The search for etiologic factors has led to the biochemical, the neurologic and the autoimmune theory. The convergence theory was then proposed several years ago to incorporate existing theories of vitiligo development into a single overview of vitiligo etiology. The viewpoint that vitiligo is not caused only by predisposing mutations, or only by melanocytes responding to chemical/radiation exposure, or only by hyperreactive T cells, but rather results from a combination of etiologic factors that impact melanocyte viability, has certainly stood the test of time. New findings have since informed the description of progressive depigmentation. Understanding the relative importance of such etiologic factors combined with a careful selection of the most targetable pathways will continue to drive the next phase in vitiligo research: the development of effective therapeutics. In that arena it is likewise important to acknowledge that pathways affected in some patients may not be altered in others. Taken together, the convergence theory continues to provide a comprehensive viewpoint of vitiligo etiology. The theory serves to intertwine etiologic pathways and will help to define pathways amenable to disease intervention in individual patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Symbolic convergence and the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Brossmann, Brent

    2010-01-01

    This article documents that the hydrogen economy continues to attract significant attention among politicians, the media, and some academics. We believe that an explanation lies in the way that the hydrogen economy fulfills psychological and cultural needs related to a future world where energy is abundant, cheap, and pollution-free, a 'fantasy' that manifests itself with the idea that society can continue to operate without limits imposed by population growth and the destruction of the environment. The article begins by explaining its research methodology consisting of two literature reviews, research interviews of energy experts, and the application of symbolic convergence theory, a general communications theory about the construction of rhetorical fantasies. We then identify a host of socio-technical challenges to explain why the creation of a hydrogen economy would present immense (and possibly intractable) obstacles, an argument supplemented by our research interviews. Next, we employ symbolic convergence theory to identify five prevalent fantasy themes and rhetorical visions-independence, patriotism, progress, democratization, and inevitability-in academic and public discussions in favor of the hydrogen economy. We conclude by offering implications for scholarship relating to energy policy more broadly.

  8. Convergence almost everywhere of multidimensional vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Berdan, Kassem; Zeineddine, Hassan

    2000-01-01

    Let X be a reflexive Banach space, Ω a measure space, T 1 ,...,T d be linear not commuting operators on L 1 (Ω,X)=L 1 (X) which are strictly contracting in L 1 (X) (i.e. there exist αjbelong to ]0,1[ such that ||T j f||≤αj||f|| for all j=1....,d and f belong to L 1 (X), and contracting in L ∞ (X). We prove a maximal equality for the averages: A n (T 1 ,...,T d )f= n d /1 i1=0 Σ n-1 ... id=0 Σ n-1 T 1 i1 ...T d id f and the convergence almost everywhere of it for all f in L 1 (X). This result generalizes Chacon's theorem (Chacon 19620 to the multidimensional case for this operators class. Finally, we give two operators which are strictly contracting in L 1 (X) and contracting in L ∞ (X) such that the convergence of the averages is not trivial. (author)

  9. Convergent evolution in European and Rroma populations reveals pressure exerted by plague on Toll-like receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laayouni, H.; Oosting, M.; Luisi, P.; Ioana, M.; Alonso, S.; Ricano-Ponce, I.; Trynka, G.; Zhernakova, A.; Plantinga, T.S.; Cheng, S.C.; Meer, J.W. van der; Popp, R.; Sood, A.; Thelma, B.K.; Wijmenga, C.; Joosten, L.A.; Bertranpetit, J.; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent historical periods in Europe have been characterized by severe epidemic events such as plague, smallpox, or influenza that shaped the immune system of modern populations. This study aims to identify signals of convergent evolution of the immune system, based on the peculiar demographic

  10. A Synergistic Approach to Interpreting Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Natasha E.

    We will soon have the technological capability to measure the atmospheric composition of temperate Earth-sized planets orbiting nearby stars. Interpreting these atmospheric signals poses a new challenge to planetary science. In contrast to jovian-like atmospheres, whose bulk compositions consist of hydrogen and helium, terrestrial planet atmospheres are likely comprised of high mean molecular weight secondary atmospheres, which have gone through a high degree of evolution. For example, present-day Mars has a frozen surface with a thin tenuous atmosphere, but 4 billion years ago it may have been warmed by a thick greenhouse atmosphere. Several processes contribute to a planet's atmospheric evolution: stellar evolution, geological processes, atmospheric escape, biology, etc. Each of these individual processes affects the planetary system as a whole and therefore they all must be considered in the modeling of terrestrial planets. In order to demonstrate the intricacies in modeling terrestrial planets, I use early Mars as a case study. I leverage a combination of one-dimensional climate, photochemical and energy balance models in order to create one self-consistent model that closely matches currently available climate data. One-dimensional models can address several processes: the influence of greenhouse gases on heating, the effect of the planet's geological processes (i.e. volcanoes and the carbonatesilicate cycle) on the atmosphere, the effect of rainfall on atmospheric composition and the stellar irradiance. After demonstrating the number of assumptions required to build a model, I look towards what exactly we can learn from remote observations of temperate Earths and Super Earths. However, unlike in-situ observations from our own solar system, remote sensing techniques need to be developed and understood in order to accurately characterize exo-atmospheres. I describe the models used to create synthetic transit transmission observations, which includes models of

  11. Surface electromyographic amplitude does not identify differences in neural drive to synergistic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Valdes, Eduardo; Negro, Francesco; Falla, Deborah; De Nunzio, Alessandro Marco; Farina, Dario

    2018-04-01

    Surface electromyographic (EMG) signal amplitude is typically used to compare the neural drive to muscles. We experimentally investigated this association by studying the motor unit (MU) behavior and action potentials in the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles. Eighteen participants performed isometric knee extensions at four target torques [10, 30, 50, and 70% of the maximum torque (MVC)] while high-density EMG signals were recorded from the VM and VL. The absolute EMG amplitude was greater for VM than VL ( P differences in EMG amplitude can be due to both differences in the neural drive and in the size of the MU action potentials, we indirectly inferred the neural drives received by the two muscles by estimating the synaptic inputs received by the corresponding motor neuron pools. For this purpose, we analyzed the increase in discharge rate from recruitment to target torque for motor units matched by recruitment threshold in the two muscles. This analysis indicated that the two muscles received similar levels of neural drive. Nonetheless, the size of the MU action potentials was greater for VM than VL ( P difference explained most of the differences in EMG amplitude between the two muscles (~63% of explained variance). These results indicate that EMG amplitude, even following normalization, does not reflect the neural drive to synergistic muscles. Moreover, absolute EMG amplitude is mainly explained by the size of MU action potentials. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Electromyographic (EMG) amplitude is widely used to compare indirectly the strength of neural drive received by synergistic muscles. However, there are no studies validating this approach with motor unit data. Here, we compared between-muscles differences in surface EMG amplitude and motor unit behavior. The results clarify the limitations of surface EMG to interpret differences in neural drive between muscles.

  12. Electricity and gas : market and price convergence : fundamentals of restructuring and convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, H.; Spragins, R.

    2000-07-01

    One of the results of the transition from regulation to competition in the Canadian and American natural gas and electricity industries is convergence of the two industries. Convergence is occurring in the areas of corporate structuring activities (mergers and acquisitions), natural gas and electricity prices, products and services, and on a geographic basis. This study examines the restructuring and convergence from the perspective of industry stakeholders, consumers, competitors and regulators. The trend to deregulate to establish competitive markets has been driven by the assumption that lower prices and more choices will result. Deregulation has been made easier by technological developments and innovations in the area of conventional generation, distributed generation, information management and analysis, as well as mass communication channels such as the Internet. These changes have made it possible to measure and monitor energy use in real-time. Technological changes will continue to influence the energy industry. The use of different restructuring rules and regulations in jurisdictions that are implementing change may be one of the primary factors that could limit the extent of convergence. Successful competition by energy service providers in converged retail energy markets will depend on several factors, the first of which is the ability to control the customer interface through retail cycle services such as metering and billing. The second is the successful branding of corporate identities, products and services. These will ensure customer loyalty and facilitate the marketing of new products. Another factor would be the effective management of information regarding natural gas and electricity consumption patterns and the establishment of low cost operations through the use of conventional generation technologies. The final factor for successful competition is the effective use of low cost communication technologies such as the Internet. The transition

  13. Reduced vergence adaptation is associated with a prolonged output of convergence accommodation in convergence insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R

    2014-07-01

    Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a developmental visual anomaly defined clinically by a reduced near point of convergence, a reduced capacity to view through base-out prisms (fusional convergence); coupled with asthenopic symptoms typically blur and diplopia. Experimental studies show reduced vergence parameters and tonic adaptation. Based upon current models of accommodation and vergence, we hypothesize that the reduced vergence adaptation in CI leads to excessive amounts of convergence accommodation (CA). Eleven CI participants (mean age=17.4±2.3 years) were recruited with reduced capacity to view through increasing magnitudes of base out (BO) prisms (mean fusional convergence at 40 cm=12±0.9Δ). Testing followed our previous experimental design for (n=11) binocularly normal adults. Binocular fixation of a difference of Gaussian (DoG) target (0.2 cpd) elicited CA responses during vergence adaptation to a 12Δ BO. Vergence and CA responses were obtained at 3 min intervals over a 15 min period and time course were quantified using exponential decay functions. Results were compared to previously published data on eleven binocular normals. Eight participants completed the study. CI's showed significantly reduced magnitude of vergence adaptation (CI: 2.9Δ vs. normals: 6.6Δ; p=0.01) and CA reduction (CI=0.21 D, Normals=0.55 D; p=0.03). However, the decay time constants for adaptation and CA responses were not significantly different. CA changes were not confounded by changes in tonic accommodation (Change in TA=0.01±0.2D; p=0.8). The reduced magnitude of vergence adaptation found in CI patients resulting in higher levels of CA may potentially explain their clinical findings of reduced positive fusional vergence (PFV) and the common symptom of blur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electricity and gas : market and price convergence : fundamentals of restructuring and convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, H.; Spragins, R.

    2000-01-01

    One of the results of the transition from regulation to competition in the Canadian and American natural gas and electricity industries is convergence of the two industries. Convergence is occurring in the areas of corporate structuring activities (mergers and acquisitions), natural gas and electricity prices, products and services, and on a geographic basis. This study examines the restructuring and convergence from the perspective of industry stakeholders, consumers, competitors and regulators. The trend to deregulate to establish competitive markets has been driven by the assumption that lower prices and more choices will result. Deregulation has been made easier by technological developments and innovations in the area of conventional generation, distributed generation, information management and analysis, as well as mass communication channels such as the Internet. These changes have made it possible to measure and monitor energy use in real-time. Technological changes will continue to influence the energy industry. The use of different restructuring rules and regulations in jurisdictions that are implementing change may be one of the primary factors that could limit the extent of convergence. Successful competition by energy service providers in converged retail energy markets will depend on several factors, the first of which is the ability to control the customer interface through retail cycle services such as metering and billing. The second is the successful branding of corporate identities, products and services. These will ensure customer loyalty and facilitate the marketing of new products. Another factor would be the effective management of information regarding natural gas and electricity consumption patterns and the establishment of low cost operations through the use of conventional generation technologies. The final factor for successful competition is the effective use of low cost communication technologies such as the Internet. The transition

  15. Synergistic action between inhibition of P2Y12/P2Y1 and P2Y12/thrombin in ADP- and thrombin-induced human platelet activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Sven; Mattsson, Christer; Ramström, Sofia; Lindahl, Tomas L

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a synergistic effect of a combination of P2Y12 and P2Y1 inhibition and P2Y12 and thrombin inhibition, on ADP- and thrombin-induced platelet activation, respectively. The rationale being that these combinations will cause a concurrent inhibition of both Gαq and Gαi signalling.Blood from healthy volunteers was preincubated with AR-C69931MX, a reversible P2Y12 antagonist; MRS2179, a reversible P2Y1 antagonist; or melagatran, a direct reversible thrombin inhibitor; alone or in various combinations prior to activation with ADP or thrombin. Platelet function in whole blood was assessed by flow cytometry using the antibody PAC-1 to estimate the expression of active αIIbβ3 (the fibrinogen receptor GPIIb/IIIa). A synergistic effect was evaluated by comparing the concentrations in the different combinations with those of corresponding equipotent concentrations of each single inhibitor alone. The equipotent single concentrations were experimentally obtained from concentration response curves performed in parallel.A synergistic effect regarding inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation (10 μM) was obtained with different combinations of AR-C69931MX and MRS2179.Inhibition of thrombin-induced platelet activation (2 nM) with combinations of AR-C69931MX and the thrombin inhibitor melagatran did also result in a strong synergistic effect.To our knowledge, this is the first time that data supporting a synergistic effect has been published for the inhibitor combinations described.Whether this synergistic effect in vitro also results in an improved antithrombotic effect in vivo with or without an increased risk of bleeding remains to be studied in well-conducted clinical studies. PMID:15265806

  16. Real Economic Convergence in Western Europe from 1995 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzenita Siljak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the economic convergence of real per capita GDP in the Western European countries with two types of measurement methodology. The first is sigma convergence, based on the coefficient of variation of real per capita GDP. The second is beta convergence, absolute/unconditional and conditional, including economic and socio-political variables, based on the neoclassical growth theory. The hypothesis of the paper is that there has been real economic convergence in Western Europe in at least one analyzed sub-period. The relationships between selected macroeconomic variables and the rate of economic growth are econometrically tested. Both sigma and beta convergence are estimated for the period 1995-2013 and four sub-periods: 1995-2003, 2004-2013, pre-crisis sub-period 2004-2008 and the crisis sub-period 2009-2013. The empirical findings support the hypothesis of economic convergence, i.e. that the poorer countries tend to grow faster than the rich ones in per capita terms, for some periods. However, the countries had a tendency to diverge, confiriming the negative effects of the crisis on per capita GDP growth. Sigma convergence is consistent with beta convergence. According to the results, the half-life of real convergence may take from 12 to 1078 years. Significant dissimilarities between the growth patterns among individual countries show the considerable heterogeneity of growth, i.e. the convergence clubs.

  17. Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A López; Lombardini, M; Hill, D J

    2011-11-01

    We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=e(s)(I(1))+e(h)(ρ,ς), where e(s) accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and e(h) represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., e(h)=e(h)(ρ), with a power-law dependence e(h) is proportional to ρ(α), shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M is proportional to [log(1/R)](α), independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M is proportional to R(-(s-1)) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part e(h) is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M is proportional to R(-(s-1)/n(γ)) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the

  18. Celecoxib and octreotide synergistically ameliorate portal hypertension via inhibition of angiogenesis in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jin-Hang; Wen, Shi-Lei; Feng, Shi; Yang, Wen-Juan; Lu, Yao-Yao; Tong, Huan; Liu, Rui; Tang, Shi-Hang; Huang, Zhi-Yin; Tang, Ying-Mei; Yang, Jin-Hui; Xie, Hui-Qi; Tang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis is critical for portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Except for etiological treatment, no efficient medication or regime has been explored to treat the early stage of cirrhosis when angiogenesis is initiated or overwhelming. In this study, we explored an anti-angiogenesis effort through non-cytotoxic drugs octreotide and celecoxib to treat early stage of cirrhotic portal hypertension in an animal model. Peritoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA) was employed to induce liver cirrhosis in rats. A combination treatment of celecoxib and octreotide was found to relieve liver fibrosis, portal venous pressure, micro-hepatic arterioportal fistulas, intrahepatic and splanchnic angiogenesis. Celecoxib and octreotide exerted their anti-angiogenesis effect via an axis of cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2/EP-2/somatostatin receptor-2, which consequently down-regulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) integrated signaling pathways. In conclusions, combination of celecoxib and octreotide synergistically ameliorated liver fibrosis and portal hypertension of the cirrhotic rats induced by TAA via the inhibition of intrahepatic and extrahepatic angiogenesis. The potential mechanisms behind the regimen may due to the inactivation of p-ERK-HIF-1α-VEGF signaling pathway.

  19. Synergistic Use of Spacecraft Telecom Links for Collection of Planetary Radar Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, S.; Bell, D. J.; Chahat, N. E.; Decrossas, E.; Dobreva, T.; Duncan, C.; Ellliot, H.; Jin, C.; Lazio, J.; Miller, J.; Preston, R.

    2017-12-01

    On multiple solar system missions, radar instruments have been used to probe subsurface geomorphology and to infer chemical composition based on the dielectric signature derived from the reflected signal. Example spacecraft radar instruments are the 90 MHz CONSERT radar used to probe the interior of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko to a depth of 760m, the 20 MHz SHARAD instrument used to investigate Mars subsurface ice features from Mars orbit at depths of 300 to 3000 meters and the upcoming RIMFAX 150 MHz to 1200 MHz ground penetrating radar that will ride on the Mars 2020 rover investigating to a depth of 10m below the rover. In all of these applications, the radar frequency and signal structures were chosen to match science goals of desired depth of penetration and spatial resolution combined with the expected subsurface materials and structures below the surface. Recently, JPL investigators have proposed a new radar science paradigm, synergistic use of the telecom hardware and telecom links to collect bistatic or monostatic radar signatures. All JPL spacecraft employ telecom hardware that operates at UHF (400 MHz and 900 MHz), X-band (8 GHz) or Ka-band (32 GHz). Using existing open-loop record functions in these radios, the telecom hardware can be used to capture opportunistic radar signatures from telecom signals penetrating the surface and reflecting off of subsurface structures. This paper reports on telecom strategies, radar science applications and recent laboratory and field tests to demonstrate the effectiveness of telecom link based radar data collection.

  20. Signalling and obfuscation for congestion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareček, Jakub; Shorten, Robert; Yu, Jia Yuan

    2015-10-01

    We aim to reduce the social cost of congestion in many smart city applications. In our model of congestion, agents interact over limited resources after receiving signals from a central agent that observes the state of congestion in real time. Under natural models of agent populations, we develop new signalling schemes and show that by introducing a non-trivial amount of uncertainty in the signals, we reduce the social cost of congestion, i.e., improve social welfare. The signalling schemes are efficient in terms of both communication and computation, and are consistent with past observations of the congestion. Moreover, the resulting population dynamics converge under reasonable assumptions.

  1. Comprehension of synergistic mechanisms for uranium extraction from phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecheur, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Uranium VI is commonly extracted from phosphoric ores by a well-known process exploiting the synergistic mixture of two extractant molecules: HDEHP and TOPO. In the field of liquid-liquid extraction, synergistic combinations are common but the mechanisms at the origin of the synergy are not well understood. A multi-scale approach has been used to describe these mechanisms, combining two different descriptions: the molecular scale focuses on the ion point of view, while the supramolecular scale focuses on extractants' aggregation. These two approaches have been rationalized by molecular dynamics computations. The results allow describing the synergy through the structure of the complexes and aggregates. With the same approach, some bifunctional compounds, combining the two extracting sites in one molecule, have been studied and compared to the HDEHP/TOPO system in order to identify the origin of their increased capacities in extraction and selectivity. (author) [fr

  2. Synergistic cytotoxic action of vitamin C and vitamin K3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Negoro, T; Satoh, K; Jiang, Y; Hashimoto, K; Kikuchi, H; Nishikawa, H; Miyata, T; Yamamoto, Y; Nakano, K; Yasumoto, E; Nakayachi, T; Mineno, K; Satoh, T; Sakagami, H

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the combination effect of sodium ascorbate (vitamin C) and menadione (vitamin K3) on the viability of various cultured cells. Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2, HSC-3) and human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells were more sensitive to these vitamins as compared to normal cells (human gingival fibroblast HGF, human periodontal ligament fibroblast HPLF, human pulp cell HPC). The combination of vitamin C and vitamin K3 produced synergistic cytotoxicity against all these 6 cell lines. Treatment with vitamin C or vitamin K3, or their combination, induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation only in HL-60 cells, but not in the oral tumor cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSG). ESR spectroscopy showed that vitamins C and K3 produce radicals under alkaline conditions and that the combination of these two vitamins synergistically enhanced their respective radical intensities.

  3. The synergistic effect between coal macerals during hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Q.; Li, W.; Chen, H.; Li, B. [CAS, Taiyuan (China)

    2007-01-15

    Using TGA technology, the volatile matter yields during hydropyrolysis of Chinese Shenmu coal and its derived high purity macerals under different heating rates and pressures were investigated. The {Delta}W, calculated by the difference between the volatile matter yield of parent coal and that of macerals, is used to evaluate the synergistic effect of macerals during hydropyrolysis. The results showed that with increasing pressure and decreasing heating rate, the Delta W increases. At temperature of 500{sup o}C and pressure of 3 MPa, the difference of volatile matter yield between parent coal and vitrinite reaches the maximum and the {Delta} W also occurs the highest value of 14.1%, suggesting the existence of the synergistic effect between macerals during hydropyrolysis. Based on the structural characteristics of macerals and the basic knowledge of hydropyrolysis, the possible explanation for the synergism are proposed.

  4. Biomedical engineering frontier research and converging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, Ho-Wook; Shin, Jennifer; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with an integrative overview of the latest research and developments in the broad field of biomedical engineering. Each of the chapters offers a timely review written by leading biomedical engineers and aims at showing how the convergence of scientific and engineering fields with medicine has created a new basis for practically solving problems concerning human health, wellbeing and disease. While some of the latest frontiers of biomedicine, such as neuroscience and regenerative medicine, are becoming increasingly dependent on new ideas and tools from other disciplines, the paradigm shift caused by technological innovations in the fields of information science, nanotechnology, and robotics is opening new opportunities in healthcare, besides dramatically changing the ways we actually practice science. At the same time, a new generation of engineers, fluent in many different scientific “languages,” is creating entirely new fields of research that approach the “old” questions f...

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE AND THE NEW JOURNALIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Renault

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in the 1990s, Brazilian means of communication have experienced a (still ongoing transformation process in the treadmill of technological advances, which have allowed for broad media convergence and for a single journalistic group to offer diverse products across various digital platforms. These transformations have impacted profoundly the routines of journalistic newsrooms and their professionals, from whom more and more agility is expected in order to meet the demands of the new era. This study seeks to demonstrate how the new reality affects the routines of newsrooms and journalists at the Brasilia offices of four of the most prominent newspaper groups in the country: O Estado de S. Paulo, Folha de S. Paulo, Valor Econômico and O Globo.

  6. Converging intracranial markers of conscious access.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Gaillard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared conscious and nonconscious processing of briefly flashed words using a visual masking procedure while recording intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG in ten patients. Nonconscious processing of masked words was observed in multiple cortical areas, mostly within an early time window (<300 ms, accompanied by induced gamma-band activity, but without coherent long-distance neural activity, suggesting a quickly dissipating feedforward wave. In contrast, conscious processing of unmasked words was characterized by the convergence of four distinct neurophysiological markers: sustained voltage changes, particularly in prefrontal cortex, large increases in spectral power in the gamma band, increases in long-distance phase synchrony in the beta range, and increases in long-range Granger causality. We argue that all of those measures provide distinct windows into the same distributed state of conscious processing. These results have a direct impact on current theoretical discussions concerning the neural correlates of conscious access.

  7. Exploring Media Convergence: Evidence from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Bettiga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of media and devices is enabling the ubiquitous and multi-device access to media and information, so that a media mutual contamination is in play. New forms of user interactions with media, in which different devices are used simultaneously in different contexts, have emerged. These new interactions are significantly impacting on users’ attitudes towards the media and their way of searching and generating content. Such a change, called “media convergence”, has a strong potential impact on marketing and communication processes, but as yet has not been deeply analysed in the literature. This paper presents the outcomes of several studies aimed at exploring media convergence on the demand-side to advance possible implications for marketers and managers.

  8. Cylindrically converging blast waves in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1981-07-01

    Cylindrically converging shock waves are produced by utilizing the detonation of cylindrical explosive shells. The production and the propagation of shock waves are observed by framing and streak camera photographs, and the trajectory of shock propagations is determined by using an electrical ionization probing system. The effect of the quantity of explosives on the stability, or the axial symmetry, of shock fronts and on the strength of shocks produced is investigated. It has been shown that, for practical purposes, the approximation of shock trajectories by Guderley's formulas would be sufficiently acceptable in an unexpectedly wide region near the implosion center, and that the axial symmetry of the shock front is improved by increasing the quantity of explosives, and thus, strong shocks are produced by merely increasing the quantity of explosives. The reflected diverging shock seems to be very stable. Piezoelectric elements have also been used to detect reflected diverging waves.

  9. Bricolage and Parody in Convergence culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier MORAL MARTÍN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Convergence culture, collaborative practices have been commonly understood as exercises located between the amateur and the professional. This characterization involves an implicit underestimation of amateurism because, in a single organization hierarchy, is considered as a preliminary step to the professional world and, therefore, a more imperfect activity. However, if we draw on the categories of bricolage analyzed by Levi Strauss, amateurism and professionalism are constituted as elements of a semantic axis. This shift in the analysis perspective has important consequences: on the one hand, it makes it possible to assess how many of these practices can alter the productive and textual dynamics of professional audiovisual practices and, on the other hand, it helps to better understand the textual specificity of collaborative practices, especially the great dialogical category of parody, an essential genre in the bottom-up dynamics which exist in our audiovisual universe.

  10. Current neutralization of converging ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.

    1978-01-01

    It is desired to consider the problem of current neutralization of heavy ion beams traversing gas backgrounds in which the conductivity changes due to beam heating and beam convergence. The procedure is to determine Green's-function solutions to the magnetic-diffusion equation derived from Maxwell's equations and an assumed scaler-plasma conductivity sigma for the background-electron current density j/sub e/. The present calculation is more general than some previously carried out in that arbitrary time variations for the beam current j/sub b/ and conductivity are allowed and the calculation is valid for both weak and strong neutralization. Results presented here must be combined with an appropriate energy-balance equation for the heated background in order to obtain the neutralization self-consistently

  11. Rapidly converging path integral formalism. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, I.; Gromes, D.; Marquard, U.

    1990-01-01

    The action to be used in the path integral formalism is expanded in a systematic way in powers of the time spacing ε in order to optimize the convergence to the continuum limit. This modifies and extends the usual formalism in a transparent way. The path integral approximation to the Green function obtained by this method approaches the continuum Green function with a higher power of ε than the usual one. The general theoretical derivations are exemplified analytically for the harmonic oscillator and by Monte Carlo methods for the anharmonic oscillator. We also show how curvilinear coordinates and curved spaces can naturally be treated within this formalism. Work on field theory is in progress. (orig.)

  12. Divergence and Convergence in Education and Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of institutions the central issue concerns the relation between learning environments. What is the coherence between school-based education and learning in the work-place, and how can they connect? Finally at the third level of the learners and their identities the focus is on the role of vocational educational......Are the educational systems in Europe becoming more similar or more different? This book deals with the issue ofdivergence and convergence in relation to systems, learning environments, and learners in vocational educational training (VET). 18 VET researchers from eight countries contribute...... training in the formation of biographies and identities.The book thus covers the central issues on the agenda in relation to future vocational education....

  13. Convergence and fluctuations of Regularized Tyler estimators

    KAUST Repository

    Kammoun, Abla; Couillet, Romain; Pascal, Frederic; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the behavior of regularized Tyler estimators (RTEs) of scatter matrices. The key advantages of these estimators are twofold. First, they guarantee by construction a good conditioning of the estimate and second, being a derivative of robust Tyler estimators, they inherit their robustness properties, notably their resilience to the presence of outliers. Nevertheless, one major problem that poses the use of RTEs in practice is represented by the question of setting the regularization parameter p. While a high value of p is likely to push all the eigenvalues away from zero, it comes at the cost of a larger bias with respect to the population covariance matrix. A deep understanding of the statistics of RTEs is essential to come up with appropriate choices for the regularization parameter. This is not an easy task and might be out of reach, unless one considers asymptotic regimes wherein the number of observations n and/or their size N increase together. First asymptotic results have recently been obtained under the assumption that N and n are large and commensurable. Interestingly, no results concerning the regime of n going to infinity with N fixed exist, even though the investigation of this assumption has usually predated the analysis of the most difficult N and n large case. This motivates our work. In particular, we prove in the present paper that the RTEs converge to a deterministic matrix when n → ∞ with N fixed, which is expressed as a function of the theoretical covariance matrix. We also derive the fluctuations of the RTEs around this deterministic matrix and establish that these fluctuations converge in distribution to a multivariate Gaussian distribution with zero mean and a covariance depending on the population covariance and the parameter.

  14. Convergence and fluctuations of Regularized Tyler estimators

    KAUST Repository

    Kammoun, Abla

    2015-10-26

    This article studies the behavior of regularized Tyler estimators (RTEs) of scatter matrices. The key advantages of these estimators are twofold. First, they guarantee by construction a good conditioning of the estimate and second, being a derivative of robust Tyler estimators, they inherit their robustness properties, notably their resilience to the presence of outliers. Nevertheless, one major problem that poses the use of RTEs in practice is represented by the question of setting the regularization parameter p. While a high value of p is likely to push all the eigenvalues away from zero, it comes at the cost of a larger bias with respect to the population covariance matrix. A deep understanding of the statistics of RTEs is essential to come up with appropriate choices for the regularization parameter. This is not an easy task and might be out of reach, unless one considers asymptotic regimes wherein the number of observations n and/or their size N increase together. First asymptotic results have recently been obtained under the assumption that N and n are large and commensurable. Interestingly, no results concerning the regime of n going to infinity with N fixed exist, even though the investigation of this assumption has usually predated the analysis of the most difficult N and n large case. This motivates our work. In particular, we prove in the present paper that the RTEs converge to a deterministic matrix when n → ∞ with N fixed, which is expressed as a function of the theoretical covariance matrix. We also derive the fluctuations of the RTEs around this deterministic matrix and establish that these fluctuations converge in distribution to a multivariate Gaussian distribution with zero mean and a covariance depending on the population covariance and the parameter.

  15. Origins of saline fluids at convergent margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Kastner, Miriam; Egeberg, Per Kr.

    The compositions of pore and venting fluids at convergent margins differ from seawater values, reflecting mixing and diagenesis. Most significantly, the concentration of Cl-, assumed to be a conservative ion, differs from its seawater value. Chloride concentrations could be elevated by four processes, although two, the formation of gas hydrate and ion filtration by clay membranes, are insignificant in forming saline fluids at convergent margins. During the formation of gas hydrate, the resulting Cl--rich fluids, estimated to contain an average excess of ˜140 mM Cl- over seawater value, probably would be flushed from the sediment when the pore fluids vent to seawater. Ion filtration by clay membranes requires compaction pressures typical of >2 km burial depths. Even at these depths, the efficiency of ion filtration will be negligible because (1) fluids will flow through fractures, thereby bypassing clay membranes, (2) concentrations of clay minerals are diluted by other phases, and (3) during burial, smectite converts to illite, which has little capacity for ion filtration. A third process, mixing with subaerially evaporated seawater, elevates Cl- concentrations to 1043 mM in forearc basins along the Peru margin. Evaporation of seawater, however, will be important only in limited geographic regions that are characterized by enclosed basins, arid climates, and permeable sediments. At the New Hebrides and Izu-Bonin margins, Cl- concentrations are elevated to a maximum of 1241 mM. The process responsible for this increase is the alteration of volcanic ash to hydrous clay and zeolite minerals. Mass balance calculations, based on the decrease in δ18O values to -9.5‰ (SMOW), suggest that the Cl- concentrations could increase solely from the formation of smectite in a closed system. The diagenesis of volcanic ash also alters the concentrations of most dissolved species in addition to Cl-. Depending on the volume of this altered fluid, it could influence seawater

  16. A Synergistic Approach towards Autonomic Event Management in Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Oberhauser, Roy

    2009-01-01

    The increasing reliance on SCs, coupled with increasing complexity, dynamism and heightened quality expectations, are necessarily reflected in the SCMS and implicitly in the need for improved SCEM to limit disruptions and achieve self-X qualitites. A novel synergistic approach to SCEM, as presented in this chapter (SASCEM), leverages the computing paradigms of granular, semantic web, service-oriented, space-based, event-based, context-

  17. Robust, synergistic regulation of human gene expression using TALE activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Morgan L; Linder, Samantha J; Reyon, Deepak; Angstman, James F; Fu, Yanfang; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2013-03-01

    Artificial activators designed using transcription activator-like effector (TALE) technology have broad utility, but previous studies suggest that these monomeric proteins often exhibit low activities. Here we demonstrate that TALE activators can robustly function individually or in synergistic combinations to increase expression of endogenous human genes over wide dynamic ranges. These findings will encourage applications of TALE activators for research and therapy, and guide design of monomeric TALE-based fusion proteins.

  18. Albumin nanoparticles with synergistic antitumor efficacy against metastatic lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bomi; Seo, Bohyung; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Changkyu; Kim, Jong Oh; Oh, Kyung Taek; Lee, Eun Seong; Choi, Han-Gon; Youn, Yu Seok

    2017-10-01

    Albumin nanoparticles are well-known as effective drug carriers used to deliver hydrophobic chemotherapeutic agents. Albumin nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin and doxorubicin were fabricated using slightly modified nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab™) technology, and the synergistic effects of these two drugs were examined. Albumin nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin, doxorubicin, and both curcumin and doxorubicin were prepared using a high pressure homogenizer. The sizes of albumin nanoparticles were ∼130nm, which was considered to be suitable for the EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) effect. Albumin nanoparticles gradually released drugs over a period of 24h without burst effect. To confirm the synergistic effect of two drugs, in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed using B16F10 melanoma cells. The cytotoxic effect on B16F10 melanoma cells was highest when co-treated with both curcumin and doxorubicin compared to single treatment of either curcumin and doxorubicin. The combined index calculated by medium-effect equation was 0.6069, indicating a synergistic effect. Results of confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting corresponded to results from an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, indicating synergistic cytotoxicity induced by both drugs. A C57BL/6 mouse model induced by B16F10 lung metastasis was used to study in vivo therapeutic effects. When curcumin and doxorubicin were simultaneously treated, the metastatic melanoma mass in the lungs macroscopically decreased compared to curcumin or doxorubicin alone. Albumin nanoparticles encapsulating two anticancer drugs were shown to have an effective therapeutic result and would be an excellent way to treat resistant lung cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. ATP signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas......The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas...

  20. Statistical convergence of double sequences in intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mursaleen, M.; Mohiuddine, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces was introduced by Saadati and Park [Saadati R, Park JH. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;27:331-44]. Karakus et al. [Karakus S, Demirci K, Duman O. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2008;35:763-69] have quite recently studied the notion of statistical convergence for single sequences in intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces. In this paper, we study the concept of statistically convergent and statistically Cauchy double sequences in intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces. Furthermore, we construct an example of a double sequence to show that in IFNS statistical convergence does not imply convergence and our method of convergence even for double sequences is stronger than the usual convergence in intuitionistic fuzzy normed space.

  1. Convergence testing for MCNP5 Monte Carlo eigenvalue calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, F.; Nease, B.; Cheatham, J.

    2007-01-01

    Determining convergence of Monte Carlo criticality problems is complicated by the statistical noise inherent in the random, walks of the neutrons in each generation. The latest version of MCNP5 incorporates an important new tool for assessing convergence: the Shannon entropy of the fission source distribution, H src . Shannon entropy is a well-known concept from information theory and provides a single number for each iteration to help characterize convergence trends for the fission source distribution. MCNP5 computes H src for each iteration, and these values may be plotted to examine convergence trends. Convergence testing should include both k eff and H src , since the fission distribution will converge more slowly than k eff , especially when the dominance ratio is close to 1.0. (authors)

  2. Fourier convergence analysis applied to neutron diffusion Eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man; Joo, Hyung Kook

    2004-01-01

    Fourier error analysis has been a standard technique for the stability and convergence analysis of linear and nonlinear iterative methods. Though the methods can be applied to Eigenvalue problems too, all the Fourier convergence analyses have been performed only for fixed source problems and a Fourier convergence analysis for Eigenvalue problem has never been reported. Lee et al proposed new 2-D/1-D coupling methods and they showed that the new ones are unconditionally stable while one of the two existing ones is unstable at a small mesh size and that the new ones are better than the existing ones in terms of the convergence rate. In this paper the convergence of method A in reference 4 for the diffusion Eigenvalue problem was analyzed by the Fourier analysis. The Fourier convergence analysis presented in this paper is the first one applied to a neutronics eigenvalue problem to the best of our knowledge

  3. Praziquantel synergistically enhances paclitaxel efficacy to inhibit cancer cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Hua Wu

    Full Text Available The major challenges we are facing in cancer therapy with paclitaxel (PTX are the drug resistance and severe side effects. Massive efforts have been made to overcome these clinical challenges by combining PTX with other drugs. In this study, we reported the first preclinical data that praziquantel (PZQ, an anti-parasite agent, could greatly enhance the anticancer efficacy of PTX in various cancer cell lines, including PTX-resistant cell lines. Based on the combination index value, we demonstrated that PZQ synergistically enhanced PTX-induced cell growth inhibition. The co-treatment of PZQ and PTX also induced significant mitotic arrest and activated the apoptotic cascade. Moreover, PZQ combined with PTX resulted in a more pronounced inhibition of tumor growth compared with either drug alone in a mouse xenograft model. We tried to investigate the possible mechanisms of this synergistic efficacy induced by PZQ and PTX, and we found that the co-treatment of the two drugs could markedly decrease expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP, an anti-apoptotic protein. Our data further demonstrated that down-regulation of XIAP was required for the synergistic interaction between PZQ and PTX. Together, this study suggested that the combination of PZQ and PTX may represent a novel and effective anticancer strategy for optimizing PTX therapy.

  4. Fatigue Resistant Bioinspired Composite from Synergistic Two-Dimensional Nanocomponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Sijie; Zhang, Qi; Zhou, Xiaohang; Li, Dechang; Ji, Baohua; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2017-07-25

    Portable and wearable electronics require much more flexible graphene-based electrode with high fatigue life, which could repeatedly bend, fold, or stretch without sacrificing its mechanical properties and electrical conductivity. Herein, a kind of ultrahigh fatigue resistant graphene-based nanocomposite via tungsten disulfide (WS 2 ) nanosheets is synthesized by introducing a synergistic effect with covalently cross-linking inspired by the orderly layered structure and abundant interfacial interactions of nacre. The fatigue life of resultant graphene-based nanocomposites is more than one million times at the stress level of 270 MPa, and the electrical conductivity can be kept as high as 197.1 S/cm after 1.0 × 10 5 tensile testing cycles. These outstanding properties are attributed to the synergistic effect from lubrication of WS 2 nanosheets for deflecting crack propagation, and covalent bonding between adjacent GO nanosheets for bridging crack, which is verified by the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The WS 2 induced synergistic effect with covalent bonding offers a guidance for constructing graphene-based nanocomposites with high fatigue life, which have great potential for applications in flexible and wearable electronic devices, etc.

  5. Synergistic effect of casein glycomacropeptide on sodium caseinate foaming properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, R; Martinez, M J; Pilosof, A M R

    2017-11-01

    Several strategies to improve the interfacial properties and foaming properties of proteins may be developed; among them, the use of mixtures of biopolymers that exhibit synergistic interactions. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) on foaming and surface properties of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and to establish the role of protein interactions in the aqueous phase. To this end particles size, interfacial and foaming properties of CMP, NaCas and NaCas-CMP mixtures at pH 5.5 and 7 were determined. At both pH, the interaction between CMP and NaCas induced a decrease in the aggregation state of NaCas. Single CMP foams showed the highest and NaCas the lowest foam overrun (FO) and the mixture exhibited intermediate values. CMP foam quickly drained. The drainage profile of mixed foams was closer to NaCas foams; at pH 5.5, mixed foams drained even slower than NaCas foam, exhibiting a synergistic performance. Additionally, a strong synergism was observed on the collapse of mixed foams at pH 5.5. Finally, a model to explain the synergistic effect observed on foaming properties in CMP-NaCas mixtures has been proposed; the reduced aggregation state of NaCas in the presence of CMP, made it more efficient for foam stabilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Tribulus terrestris and Bitter Almond Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abtahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial effects of the extracts of different kinds of plants have been demonstrated in several studies. However, no study has been conducted so far on the synergistic effects of two herbal extracts on their germicidal effects. In this study, in addition to antibacterial effects of the aqueous, methanol or ethanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris and bitter almond on some bacteria, the synergistic effects of the extracts of these two plants were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, water, methanol and ethanol extracts of seeds were screened against some bacterial strains. Seeds were extracted by percolation method. Aliquots of the extracts at variable concentrations were then incubated with different bacterial strains, and the antimicrobial activities of the extracts from seeds were determined by MIC. Three antibiotics were used as reference compounds for antibacterial activities. Seeds extract inhibited significantly the growth of the tested bacterial strains. Results: The greatest synergistic effect of T. terrestris and bitter almond extracts is detected in methanol and aqueous extracts. Among the bacterial strains tested, Staphylococcus aureus was most susceptibility. Conclusion: The results showed the highest antibacterial effect in the combination of methanol extract of T. terrestris and the aqueous extract of the bitter almond.

  7. Synergistic effects of targeted PI3K signaling inhibition and chemotherapy in liposarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Guo

    Full Text Available While liposarcoma is the second most common soft tissue malignant tumor, the molecular pathogenesis in this malignancy is poorly understood. Our goal was therefore to expand the understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive liposarcoma and identify therapeutically-susceptible genetic alterations. We studied a cohort of high-grade liposarcomas and benign lipomas across multiple disease sites, as well as two liposarcoma cell lines, using multiplexed mutational analysis. Nucleic acids extracted from diagnostic patient tissue were simultaneously interrogated for 150 common mutations across 15 essential cancer genes using a clinically-validated platform for cancer genotyping. Western blot analysis was implemented to detect activation of downstream pathways. Liposarcoma cell lines were used to determine the effects of PI3K targeted drug treatment with or without chemotherapy. We identified mutations in the PIK3CA gene in 4 of 18 human liposarcoma patients (22%. No PIK3CA mutations were identified in benign lipomas. Western blot analysis confirmed downstream activation of AKT in both PIK3CA mutant and non-mutant liposarcoma samples. PI-103, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, effectively inhibited the activation of the PI3K/AKT in liposarcoma cell lines and induced apoptosis. Importantly, combination with PI-103 treatment strongly synergized the growth-inhibitory effects of the chemotherapy drugs doxorubicin and cisplatin in liposarcoma cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway is an important cancer mechanism in liposarcoma. Targeting the PI3K/AKT/pathway with small molecule inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy could be exploited as a novel strategy in the treatment of liposarcoma.

  8. Research proposal: Industry convergence - Driving forces, factors and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Industry convergence – the merger of hitherto separate industries – is a phenomenon that has had a profound effect on several industries and received considerable interest among practitioners and business press over the past decades. Despite this, industry con- vergence has only received limited attention from the academic management field, al- though an emergent discussion on convergence can be identified. Prior research is limited by a lack of coherent theoretical definitions of convergence...

  9. Disparity and convergence: Chinese provincial government health expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Wang, Peng; Qin, Xuezheng; Zhang, Shufang

    2013-01-01

    The huge regional disparity in government health expenditures (GHE) is a major policy concern in China. This paper addresses whether provincial GHE converges in China from 1997 to 2009 using the economic convergence framework based on neoclassical economic growth theory. Our empirical investigation provides compelling evidence of long-term convergence in provincial GHE within China, but not in short-term. Policy implications of these empirical results are discussed.

  10. Disparity and convergence: Chinese provincial government health expenditures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Pan

    Full Text Available The huge regional disparity in government health expenditures (GHE is a major policy concern in China. This paper addresses whether provincial GHE converges in China from 1997 to 2009 using the economic convergence framework based on neoclassical economic growth theory. Our empirical investigation provides compelling evidence of long-term convergence in provincial GHE within China, but not in short-term. Policy implications of these empirical results are discussed.

  11. Monetary policy rules for convergence to the Euro

    OpenAIRE

    Orlowski, Lucjan T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to devise a monetary policy instrument rule that is suitable for open economies undergoing monetary convergence to a common currency area. The open-economy convergence-consistent Taylor rule is forward-looking, consistent with monetary framework based on inflation targeting, containing input variables that are relative to the corresponding variables in the common currency area. The policy rule is tested empirically for three inflation targeting countries converging to the euro...

  12. Geometric convergence of some two-point Pade approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, G.

    1983-01-01

    The geometric convergences of some two-point Pade approximations are investigated on the real positive axis and on certain infinite sets of the complex plane. Some theorems concerning the geometric convergence of Pade approximations are proved, and bounds on geometric convergence rates are given. The results may be interesting considering the applications both in numerical computations and in approximation theory. As a specific case, the numerical calculations connected with the plasma dispersion function may be performed. (D.Gy.)

  13. Growth Convergence and Spending Efficiency among Filipino Households

    OpenAIRE

    Erniel B. Barrios

    2007-01-01

    A growth model is used in the context of Sala-i-Martin’s definition of conditional convergence to assess the household income dynamics in segmented groups at the provincial level in the Philippines. There is a direct relationship between spending efficiency and income growth convergence across income groups. The lower income convergence rate among low income households can be attributed to their relatively less efficient access to the factors of production. The study provides tools in identif...

  14. Convergencia de sistemas de comunicación ópticos e inalámbricos (Converged wireless and optical communication systems)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Users of tele-information services are demanding instant access, everywhere and anytime. Wireless communication systems offers mobility and flexibility while optical fiber based systems offer large bandwidth, secure and lower power consumption for transport of tele-communication signals. None...... of the two technologies separately can satisfy the demands of user for ubiquitous and affordable access to information services. Converged optical and wireless systems offer a solution that combines the best of both technologies. This article review the trends in converged optical-wireless communication...... systems and outline the role that photonic technologies is playing in making the vision of a converged network a reality....

  15. Convergence of the innate and adaptive immunity during human aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branca Isabel Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with profound changes in the human immune system, a phenomenon referred to as immunosenescence. This complex immune remodeling affects the adaptive immune system and the CD8+ T cell compartment in particular, leading to the accumulation of terminally differentiated T cells, which can rapidly exert their effector functions at the expenses of a limited proliferative potential. In this review we will discuss evidence suggesting that senescent αβCD8+ T cells acquire the hallmarks of innate-like T cells and use recently acquired NK cell receptors as an alternative mechanism to mediate rapid effector functions. These cells concomitantly lose expression of co-stimulatory receptors and exhibit decreased TCR signaling suggesting a functional shift away from antigen specific activation. The convergence of innate and adaptive features in senescent T cells challenges the classic division between innate and adaptive immune systems. Innate-like T cells are particularly important for stress and tumor surveillance and we propose a new role for these cells in aging, where the acquisition of innate-like functions may represent a beneficial adaptation to an increased burden of malignancy with age, although it may also pose a higher risk of autoimmune disorders.

  16. On the convergence of nonconvex minimization methods for image recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Ng, Michael Kwok-Po; Yang, Yu-Fei

    2015-05-01

    Nonconvex nonsmooth regularization method has been shown to be effective for restoring images with neat edges. Fast alternating minimization schemes have also been proposed and developed to solve the nonconvex nonsmooth minimization problem. The main contribution of this paper is to show the convergence of these alternating minimization schemes, based on the Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property. In particular, we show that the iterates generated by the alternating minimization scheme, converges to a critical point of this nonconvex nonsmooth objective function. We also extend the analysis to nonconvex nonsmooth regularization model with box constraints, and obtain similar convergence results of the related minimization algorithm. Numerical examples are given to illustrate our convergence analysis.

  17. Institutional and Socio-Economic Convergence in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi López-Tamayo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze convergence in institutional, social, and macroeconomic conditions between EU member states. Our analysis covers the period 1995-2013 and considers the potential impact of the Great Recession. With this aim, we use a composite indicator that combines information from 51 hard and soft indicators, and we estimate convergence equations for the composite indicator and its seven dimensions considering different country groups. The obtained results show evidence of conditional convergence among EU member states but limited evidence of unconditional convergence over the considered period.

  18. Text experiments of disk chopper with supermirror converging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, K.; Soyama, K.; Matsubayashi, M.; Suzuki, J.; Watanabe, N.

    2001-01-01

    We measured transportation property of neutron pulsed by disk chopper with three kinds of setting of supermirror guide at JRR-3M, JAERI. We confirmed a gain of supermirror converging system to narrow straight supermirror system. The gain is approximately same as the ratio of entrance width of converging guide to width of narrow straight guide. On the other hand, we did not get a gain of supermirror converging system to wide straight supermirror system which has a same width to entrance width of converging guide and we will plan more precisely experiment. (author)

  19. Convergence Performance of Adaptive Algorithms of L-Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hudec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with convergence parameters determination of adaptive algorithms, which are used in adaptive L-filters design. Firstly the stability of adaptation process, convergence rate or adaptation time, and behaviour of convergence curve belong among basic properties of adaptive algorithms. L-filters with variety of adaptive algorithms were used to their determination. Convergence performances finding of adaptive filters is important mainly for their hardware applications, where filtration in real time or adaptation of coefficient filter with low capacity of input data are required.

  20. Fractal aspects and convergence of Newton`s method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexler, M. [Oxford Univ. Computing Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Newton`s Method is a widely established iterative algorithm for solving non-linear systems. Its appeal lies in its great simplicity, easy generalization to multiple dimensions and a quadratic local convergence rate. Despite these features, little is known about its global behavior. In this paper, we will explain a seemingly random global convergence pattern using fractal concepts and show that the behavior of the residual is entirely explicable. We will also establish quantitative results for the convergence rates. Knowing the mechanism of fractal generation, we present a stabilization to the orthodox Newton method that remedies the fractal behavior and improves convergence.

  1. Strong convergence and convergence rates of approximating solutions for algebraic Riccati equations in Hilbert spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazufumi

    1987-01-01

    The linear quadratic optimal control problem on infinite time interval for linear time-invariant systems defined on Hilbert spaces is considered. The optimal control is given by a feedback form in terms of solution pi to the associated algebraic Riccati equation (ARE). A Ritz type approximation is used to obtain a sequence pi sup N of finite dimensional approximations of the solution to ARE. A sufficient condition that shows pi sup N converges strongly to pi is obtained. Under this condition, a formula is derived which can be used to obtain a rate of convergence of pi sup N to pi. The results of the Galerkin approximation is demonstrated and applied for parabolic systems and the averaging approximation for hereditary differential systems.

  2. Organization of signal flow in directed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bányai, M; Bazsó, F; Négyessy, L

    2011-01-01

    Confining an answer to the question of whether and how the coherent operation of network elements is determined by the network structure is the topic of our work. We map the structure of signal flow in directed networks by analysing the degree of edge convergence and the overlap between the in- and output sets of an edge. Definitions of convergence degree and overlap are based on the shortest paths, thus they encapsulate global network properties. Using the defining notions of convergence degree and overlapping set we clarify the meaning of network causality and demonstrate the crucial role of chordless circles. In real-world networks the flow representation distinguishes nodes according to their signal transmitting, processing and control properties. The analysis of real-world networks in terms of flow representation was in accordance with the known functional properties of the network nodes. It is shown that nodes with different signal processing, transmitting and control properties are randomly connected at the global scale, while local connectivity patterns depart from randomness. The grouping of network nodes according to their signal flow properties was unrelated to the network's community structure. We present evidence that the signal flow properties of small-world-like, real-world networks cannot be reconstructed by algorithms used to generate small-world networks. Convergence degree values were calculated for regular oriented trees, and the probability density function for networks grown with the preferential attachment mechanism. For Erdos–Rényi graphs we calculated the probability density function of both convergence degrees and overlaps

  3. Study of the Convergence in State Estimators for LTI Systems with Event Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Posada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods frequently used to estimate the state of an LTI system require that the precise value of the output variable is known at all times, or at equidistant sampling times. In LTI systems, in which the output signal is measured through binary sensors (detectors, the traditional way of state observers design is not applicable even though the system has a complete observability matrix. This type of state observers design is known as passive. It is necessary, then, to introduce a new state estimation technique, which allows reckoning the state from the information of the variable’s crossing through a detector’s action threshold (switch. This paper seeks, therefore, to study the convergence in this type of estimators in finite time, allowing establishing, theoretically, whether some family of the proposed models can be estimated in a convergent way through the use of the estimation technique based on events.

  4. Characterization of thoracic spinal neurons with noxious convergent inputs from heart and lower airways in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Foreman, Robert D; Farber, Jay P

    2007-04-13

    Respiratory symptoms experienced in some patients with cardiac diseases may be due to convergence of noxious cardiac and pulmonary inputs onto neurons of the central nervous system. For example, convergence of cardiac and respiratory inputs onto single solitary tract neurons may be in part responsible for integration of regulatory and defensive reflex control. However, it is unknown whether inputs from the lungs and heart converge onto single neurons of the spinal cord. The present aim was to characterize upper thoracic spinal neurons responding to both noxious stimuli of the heart and lungs in rats. Extracellular potentials of single thoracic (T3) spinal neurons were recorded in pentobarbital anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated male rats. A catheter was placed in the pericardial sac to administer bradykinin (BK, 10 microg/ml, 0.2 ml, 1 min) as a noxious cardiac stimulus. The lung irritant, ammonia, obtained as vapor over a 30% solution of NH(4)OH was injected into the inspiratory line of the ventilator (0.5-1.0 ml over 20 s). Intrapericardial bradykinin (IB) altered activity of 58/65 (89%) spinal neurons that responded to inhaled ammonia (IA). Among those cardiopulmonary convergent neurons, 81% (47/58) were excited by both IA and IB, and the remainder had complex response patterns. Bilateral cervical vagotomy revealed that vagal afferents modulated but did not eliminate responses of individual spinal neurons to IB and IA. The convergence of pulmonary and cardiac nociceptive signaling in the spinal cord may be relevant to situations where a disease process in one organ influences the behavior of the other.

  5. Convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio in patients with intermittent exotropia and decompensated exophoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Fumitaka; Hasebe, Satoshi; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio in strabismic patients and to clarify its clinical implications. Seventy-eight consecutive patients (mean age: 12.9 +/- 6.0 years) with intermittent exotropia and decompensated exophoria who showed binocular fusion at least at near viewing were recruited. The CA/C ratio was estimated by measuring accommodative responses induced by horizontal prisms with different magnitudes under accommodation feedback open-loop conditions. The CA/C ratios were compared with accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios and other clinical parameters. A linear regression analysis indicated that the mean (+/-SD) CA/C ratio was 0.080 +/- 0.043 D/prism diopter or 0.48 +/- 0.26 D/meter angle. There was no inverse or reciprocal relationship between CA/C and AC/A ratios. The patients with lower CA/C ratios tended to have smaller tonic accommodation under binocular viewing conditions and larger exodeviation at near viewing. The CA/C ratio, like the AC/A ratio, is an independent parameter that characterizes clinical features. A lower CA/C may be beneficial for the vergence control system to compensate for ocular misalignment with minimum degradation of accommodation accuracy.

  6. Synergistic activation of NF-κB by nontypeable H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae is mediated by CK2, IKKβ-IκBα, and p38 MAPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Soo-Mi; Wang, Beinan; Rixter, Davida; Lim, Jae Hyang; Koga, Tomoaki; Ishinaga, Hajime; Chen, L.-F.; Jono, Hirofumi; Xu Haidong; Li, J.-D.

    2006-01-01

    In review of the past studies on NF-κB regulation, most of them have focused on investigating how NF-κB is activated by a single inducer at a time. Given the fact that, in mixed bacterial infections in vivo, multiple inflammation inducers, including both nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, are present simultaneously, a key issue that has yet to be addressed is whether NTHi and S. pneumoniae simultaneously activate NF-κB and the subsequent inflammatory response in a synergistic manner. Here, we show that NTHi and S. pneumoniae synergistically induce NF-κB-dependent inflammatory response via activation of multiple signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. The classical IKKβ-IκBα and p38 MAPK pathways are involved in synergistic activation of NF-κB via two distinct mechanisms, p65 nuclear translocation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Moreover, casein kinase 2 (CK2) is involved in synergistic induction of NF-κB via a mechanism dependent on phosphorylation of p65 at both Ser536 and Ser276 sites. These studies bring new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the NF-κB-dependent inflammatory response in polymicrobial infections and may lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies for modulating inflammation in mixed infections for patients with otitis media and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

  7. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ 0 /p 0 ) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ 0 is the permeability, and p 0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field

  8. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Pullin, D. I.

    2014-09-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R = √μ0/p0 I/(2π) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then

  9. A convergent reformulation of perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.J.G.

    2000-10-01

    We present and explore a new formulation of perturbative QCD based not on the renormalised coupling but on the dimensional transmutation parameter of the theory and the property of asymptotic scaling. The approach yields a continued function, the iterated function being that involved in the solution of the two-loop β-function equation. In the so-called large-b limit the continued function reduces to a continued fraction and the successive approximants are diagonal Pade approximants. We investigate numerically the convergence of successive approximants using the leading-b approximation, motivated by renormalons, to model the all-orders result. We consider the Adler D-function of vacuum polarisation, the Polarised Bjorken and Gross-LIewellyn Smith sum rules, the (unpolarised) Bjorken sum rule, and the Minkowskian quantities R τ and the R-ratio of e + e - annihilation. In contrast to diagonal Pade approximants the truncated continued function method gives remarkably stable large-order approximants in cases where infrared renormalon effects are important. We also use the new approach to determine the QCD fundamental parameters from the R τ and the R-ratio measurements, where we find Λ-tilde (3)/MS = 516 ± 48 MeV (which yields α s (μ = m τ ) = 0.360 -0.020 +0.021 ), and Λ-tilde (5)/MS = 299 -7 +6 MeV (which yields α s (μ = m z 0 ) = 0.1218 ± 0.0004), respectively. The evolution of the former value to the m z 0 energy results in α s (μ = m z 0 ) = 0.123 ± 0.002. These values are in line with other determinations available in the literature. We implement the Complete Renormalisation Group Improvement (CORGI) scheme throughout all the calculations. We report on how the mathematical concept of Stieltjes series can be used to assess the convergence of Pade approximants of perturbative series. We find that the combinations of UV renormalons which occur in perturbative QCD may or may not be Stieltjes series depending on the renormalisation scheme used. (author)

  10. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R = √μ0/p0 I/(2π) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then

  11. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullin, D. I. [Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V. [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Samtaney, R. [Mechanical Engineering, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-15

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ{sub 0}/p{sub 0}) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ{sub 0} is the permeability, and p{sub 0} is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The

  12. Synergistic growth inhibition by sorafenib and vitamin K2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafei; Zhang, Bicheng; Zhang, Anran; Zhao, Yong; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Jian; Gao, Jianfei; Fang, Dianchun; Rao, Zhiguo

    2012-09-01

    Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that has been proven effective as a single-agent therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma, and there is a strong rationale for investigating its use in combination with other agents. Vitamin K2 is nearly non-toxic to humans and has been shown to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a combination of sorafenib and vitamin K2 on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) and nude mouse xenograft assays were used to examine the effects of sorafenib and vitamin K2 on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Western blotting was used to elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. Assays for 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) revealed a strong synergistic growth-inhibitory effect between sorafenib and vitamin K2. Flow cytometry showed an increase in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis after treatment with a combination of these two drugs at low concentrations. Sorafenib-mediated inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation was promoted by vitamin K2, and downregulation of Mcl-1, which is required for sorafenib-induced apoptosis, was observed after combined treatment. Vitamin K2 also attenuated the downregulation of p21 expression induced by sorafenib, which may represent the mechanism by which vitamin K2 promotes the inhibitory effects of sorafenib on cell proliferation. Moreover, the combination of sorafenib and vitamin K2 significantly inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Our results determined that combined treatment with sorafenib and vitamin K2 can work synergistically to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. This finding raises the possibility that this combined treatment strategy might be promising as a new therapy against hepatocellular carcinoma, especially for patients

  13. Convergence analysis in near-field imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Gang; Li, Peijun

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the mathematical analysis of the direct and inverse modeling of the diffraction by a perfectly conducting grating surface in the near-field regime. It is motivated by our effort to analyze recent significant numerical results, in order to solve a class of inverse rough surface scattering problems in near-field imaging. In a model problem, the diffractive grating surface is assumed to be a small and smooth deformation of a plane surface. On the basis of the variational method, the direct problem is shown to have a unique weak solution. An analytical solution is introduced as a convergent power series in the deformation parameter by using the transformed field and Fourier series expansions. A local uniqueness result is proved for the inverse problem where only a single incident field is needed. On the basis of the analytic solution of the direct problem, an explicit reconstruction formula is presented for recovering the grating surface function with resolution beyond the Rayleigh criterion. Error estimates for the reconstructed grating surface are established with fully revealed dependence on such quantities as the surface deformation parameter, measurement distance, noise level of the scattering data, and regularity of the exact grating surface function. (paper)

  14. 5G: The Convergence of Wireless Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santiago, Raúl; Szydełko, Michał; Kliks, Adrian; Foukalas, Fotis; Haddad, Yoram; Nolan, Keith E; Kelly, Mark Y; Masonta, Moshe T; Balasingham, Ilangko

    As the rollout of 4G mobile communication networks takes place, representatives of industry and academia have started to look into the technological developments toward the next generation (5G). Several research projects involving key international mobile network operators, infrastructure manufacturers, and academic institutions, have been launched recently to set the technological foundations of 5G. However, the architecture of future 5G systems, their performance, and mobile services to be provided have not been clearly defined. In this paper, we put forth the vision for 5G as the convergence of evolved versions of current cellular networks with other complementary radio access technologies. Therefore, 5G may not be a single radio access interface but rather a "network of networks". Evidently, the seamless integration of a variety of air interfaces, protocols, and frequency bands, requires paradigm shifts in the way networks cooperate and complement each other to deliver data rates of several Gigabits per second with end-to-end latency of a few milliseconds. We provide an overview of the key radio technologies that will play a key role in the realization of this vision for the next generation of mobile communication networks. We also introduce some of the research challenges that need to be addressed.

  15. Convergence of Corporate and Public Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Hirigoyen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the differences between the corporate and public governance, theoretical and empirical research seems to indicate that the two domains of governance are far too different to share any common aspect. However, in this particular research, it has been argued that public governance is an application of corporate governance. Thus, the research question entails the description and analysis of this possible convergence of the two. Extensive research from literature on corporate governance has been undertaken to establish a relationship between the boards process and the roles that acts as a framework to bridge the gap separating corporate governance from public governance. Corporate governance, at a global level, exists in the for-profit as well as nonprofit organizations. Thus, the definition of this concept needs to be viewed from “an innovative” eye, considering the relationship between the process of the board and roles as characteristic of the public organization and private ones. As the private as well as public organizations are an application of corporate governance, the difference between the two gets narrowed. For the purpose of this research, the case of the French hospitals’ board has been taken into consideration. The members of the public board have been considered for the board process to perform their roles.

  16. East Asian Capital Markets: Integration and Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the interdependence of East Asian stock and bond markets. Hierarchical cluster analysis of bond markets of ten regional countries shows that the most similar ones are the following: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore. In 2006-2009 Thailand also belonged with this group, however, since 2010 it is a separate cluster. The second cluster includes Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea and China, the third one - Japan, the fourth one - Vietnam. As for regional equity markets, the study shows that regional stock indices respond to the dynamics of American ones to a greater extent than to the dynamics of each other. In addition, Asian indices’ interconnection is chiefly negative. To assess stock indices’ convergence the author employs cluster analysis which divides 16 studied stock exchanges in 7 different groups. According to the obtained results, the author concludes that integration of regional capital markets is the long-term goal. Besides, markets’ integration will be easier and faster within clusters; inter-cluster mergers will be the next step. The basic problem here arises from the Japanese market, which, in the case of forced or ill-conceived program of events, will absorb all other markets or end up outside the integration processes

  17. Conformal mapping and convergence of Krylov iterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, T.A.; Trefethen, L.N. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Connections between conformal mapping and matrix iterations have been known for many years. The idea underlying these connections is as follows. Suppose the spectrum of a matrix or operator A is contained in a Jordan region E in the complex plane with 0 not an element of E. Let {phi}(z) denote a conformal map of the exterior of E onto the exterior of the unit disk, with {phi}{infinity} = {infinity}. Then 1/{vert_bar}{phi}(0){vert_bar} is an upper bound for the optimal asymptotic convergence factor of any Krylov subspace iteration. This idea can be made precise in various ways, depending on the matrix iterations, on whether A is finite or infinite dimensional, and on what bounds are assumed on the non-normality of A. This paper explores these connections for a variety of matrix examples, making use of a new MATLAB Schwarz-Christoffel Mapping Toolbox developed by the first author. Unlike the earlier Fortran Schwarz-Christoffel package SCPACK, the new toolbox computes exterior as well as interior Schwarz-Christoffel maps, making it easy to experiment with spectra that are not necessarily symmetric about an axis.

  18. Converging from branching to linear metrics on Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacci, Giorgio; Bacci, Giovanni; Larsen, Kim G.

    2017-01-01

    -approximant is computable in polynomial time in the size of the MC. The upper-approximants are bisimilarity-like pseudometrics (hence, branching-time distances) that converge point-wise to the linear-time metrics. This convergence is interesting in itself, because it reveals a nontrivial relation between branching...

  19. Converging from Branching to Linear Metrics on Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacci, Giorgio; Bacci, Giovanni; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    time in the size of the MC. The upper-approximants are Kantorovich-like pseudometrics, i.e. branching-time distances, that converge point-wise to the linear-time metrics. This convergence is interesting in itself, since it reveals a nontrivial relation between branching and linear-time metric...

  20. On the convergence of linear passive complementarity systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camlibel, M. Kanat; Wouw, Nathan van de

    2007-01-01

    The notion of convergent systems is a powerful tool both in the analysis and synthesis of nonlinear systems. Sufficient conditions for convergence have been under investigation for smooth systems and for classes of non-smooth switching systems in the literature. In this paper, we look at a very

  1. Confidence building on euro convergence : Evidence from currency options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Perotti, E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of investor confidence in 1992–1998 over the chance of individual currencies to converge to the Euro, using data on currency option prices. Convergence risk, which may reflect uncertainty over policy commitment as well as exogenous fundamentals, induces a level of implied

  2. Confidence building on Euro convergence: evidence from currency options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.; Perotti, E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of investor confidence in 1992-1998 over the chance of individual currencies to converge to the Euro, using data on currency option prices. Convergence risk, which may reflect uncertainty over policy commitment as well as exogenous fundamentals, induces a level of implied

  3. Presentation of Topic 1: Economic Convergence and Poverty ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    4 nov. 2010 ... Please find below in PDF format all submitted presentations during the first session on Tuesday 8 December : Economic Convergence and Poverty ReductionNote de cadrage (Scope of study):1 - Economic Convergence and Poverty Reduction – M. Diery SECK, Director of CREPOLScientific ...

  4. Thermal and mechanical modelling of convergent plate margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beukel, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis, the thermal and mechanical structure of convergent plate margins will be investigated by means of numerical modelling. In addition, we will discuss the implications of modelling results for geological processes such as metamorphism or the break-up of a plate at a convergent plate

  5. Measuring Convergence using Dynamic Equilibrium Models: Evidence from Chinese Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Lei; Posch, Olaf; van der Wel, Michel

    We propose a model to study economic convergence in the tradition of neoclassical growth theory. We employ a novel stochastic set-up of the Solow (1956) model with shocks to both capital and labor. Our novel approach identifies the speed of convergence directly from estimating the parameters which...

  6. Note: interpreting iterative methods convergence with diffusion point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Dohy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explain the convergence speed of different iteration schemes with the fluid diffusion view when solving a linear fixed point problem. This interpretation allows one to better understand why power iteration or Jacobi iteration may converge faster or slower than Gauss-Seidel iteration.

  7. A survey of Strong Convergent Schemes for the Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We considered strong convergent stochastic schemes for the simulation of stochastic differential equations. The stochastic Taylor's expansion, which is the main tool used for the derivation of strong convergent schemes; the Euler Maruyama, Milstein scheme, stochastic multistep schemes, Implicit and Explicit schemes were ...

  8. Moment Convergence Rates in the Law of the Logarithm for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 3. Moment Convergence Rates in the Law of the Logarithm for Dependent Sequences. Ke-Ang Fu Xiao-Rong Yang ... Keywords. The law of the logarithm; Chung-type law of the logarithm; negative association; moment convergence; tail probability.

  9. Exponential convergence on a continuous Monte Carlo transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    For more than a decade, it has been known that exponential convergence on discrete transport problems was possible using adaptive Monte Carlo techniques. An adaptive Monte Carlo method that empirically produces exponential convergence on a simple continuous transport problem is described

  10. Some New Lacunary Strong Convergent Vector-Valued Sequence Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mursaleen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce some vector-valued sequence spaces defined by a Musielak-Orlicz function and the concepts of lacunary convergence and strong (A-convergence, where A=(aik is an infinite matrix of complex numbers. We also make an effort to study some topological properties and some inclusion relations between these spaces.

  11. Some New Lacunary Strong Convergent Vector-Valued Sequence Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Mursaleen, M.; Alotaibi, A.; Sharma, Sunil K.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce some vector-valued sequence spaces defined by a Musielak-Orlicz function and the concepts of lacunary convergence and strong ( $A$ )-convergence, where $A=({a}_{ik})$ is an infinite matrix of complex numbers. We also make an effort to study some topological properties and some inclusion relations between these spaces.

  12. Development of the Scale for "Convergence Thinking" in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to define the concept of "convergence thinking" as a trading zone for knowledge fusion in the engineering field, and develops its measuring scale. Design/ Methodology/Approach: Based on results from literature review, this study clarifies a theoretical ground for "convergence thinking."…

  13. Sigma-convergence of stationary Navier-Stokes type equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nguetseng

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of homogenization theory, the Sigma-convergence method is carried out on stationary Navier-Stokes type equations on a fixed domain. Our main tools are the two-scale convergence concept and the so-called homogenization algebras.

  14. Ideal Convergence of k-Positive Linear Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Gadjiev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study some ideal convergence results of k-positive linear operators defined on an appropriate subspace of the space of all analytic functions on a bounded simply connected domain in the complex plane. We also show that our approximation results with respect to ideal convergence are more general than the classical ones.

  15. Convergence of p-series revisited with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elom K. Abalo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct two adjacent sequences that converge to the sum of a given convergent p-series. In case of a divergent p-series, lower and upper bounds of the (knth partial sum are constructed. In either case, we extend the results obtained by Hansheng and Lu (2005 to any integer k≥2. Some numerical examples are given.

  16. On the premature convergence of particle swarm optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rie B.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Lassen, Benny

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses convergence issues of the basic particle swarm optimization algorithm for different pa- rameters. For the one-dimensional case, it is shown that, for a specific range of parameters, the particles will converge prematurely, i.e. away from the actual minimum of the objective...

  17. Convergence of Crowdsourcing Ideas: A Cognitive Load perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Shixuan; de Vreede, Gert-Jan; Cheng, Xusen

    2017-01-01

    and satisfaction with the convergence process and outcomes. We propose an experimental study that adopts Cognitive Load Theory as its theoretical lens to investigate the effects of task complexity, idea presentation, and instructional guidance on convergence quality and satisfaction. This study has the potential...

  18. Vector-valued almost convergence and classical properties in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    So, Banach limits are legitimate extensions of the limit function on c. In. [14], Lorentz made use of the concept of Banach limit to introduce the notion of 'almost convergence'. DEFINITION 1.2 [14]. A bounded sequence (xn)n∈N ∈ l∞ is called almost convergent exactly when there exists a number y ∈ R (called the almost ...

  19. Strategic Vision on Convergence of Wired and Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Saarnio, Juha

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of how convergence will play an important role in future generation networks. We discuss how the technology today will eventually converge towards an all-IP based platform, while the commonly used layered software structure, will eventually merge into a layer ...... aspect, namely security and privacy issues within future generationnetworks....

  20. Are codes fostering convergence in corporate governance? An institutional perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Rasheed, A.A.; Yoshikawa, T.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of corporate governance codes in the context of pressures for corporate governance convergence across countries. We show that there is a diverging convergence as corporate governance practices continually evolve. Further, given that codes are non-mandatory in most

  1. Convergent evolution as natural experiment: the tape of life reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Russell; Mariscal, Carlos

    2015-12-06

    Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the 'tape of life' would result in radically different evolutionary outcomes. Recently, biologists and philosophers of science have paid increasing attention to the theoretical importance of convergent evolution-the independent origination of similar biological forms and functions-which many interpret as evidence against Gould's thesis. In this paper, we examine the evidentiary relevance of convergent evolution for the radical contingency debate. We show that under the right conditions, episodes of convergent evolution can constitute valid natural experiments that support inferences regarding the deep counterfactual stability of macroevolutionary outcomes. However, we argue that proponents of convergence have problematically lumped causally heterogeneous phenomena into a single evidentiary basket, in effect treating all convergent events as if they are of equivalent theoretical import. As a result, the 'critique from convergent evolution' fails to engage with key claims of the radical contingency thesis. To remedy this, we develop ways to break down the heterogeneous set of convergent events based on the nature of the generalizations they support. Adopting this more nuanced approach to convergent evolution allows us to differentiate iterated evolutionary outcomes that are probably common among alternative evolutionary histories and subject to law-like generalizations, from those that do little to undermine and may even support, the Gouldian view of life.

  2. Productivity convergence and spatial dependence among Spanish regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dall'erba, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper estimates the evolution of labor productivity disparities among 48 Spanish regions over 1980-1996 according to the concepts of β- and σ-convergence. The results of β-convergence emphasize the importance of including the impact of neighboring locations' productivity and a disaggregate

  3. The antitumor natural product tanshinone IIA inhibits protein kinase C and acts synergistically with 17-AAG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chao; Zeng, Hua-Wu; Wang, Jin-Xin; Yuan, Xing; Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Ting; Yang, Pei-Ming; Wu, Tong; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2018-02-07

    Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), the primary bioactive compound derived from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been reported to possess antitumor activity. However, its antitumor mechanisms are not fully understood. To resolve the potential antitumor mechanism(s) of Tan IIA, its gene expression profiles from our database was analyzed by connectivity map (CMAP) and the CMAP-based mechanistic predictions were confirmed/validated in further studies. Specifically, Tan IIA inhibited total protein kinase C (PKC) activity and selectively suppressed the expression of cytosolic and plasma membrane PKC isoforms ζ and ε. The Ras/MAPK pathway that is closely regulated by the PKC signaling is also inhibited by Tan IIA. While Tan IIA did not inhibit heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), it synergistically enhanced the antitumor efficacy of the Hsp90 inhibitors 17-AAG and ganetespib in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In addition, Tan IIA significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, and induced both cell cycle arrest and autophagy. Collectively, these studies provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms responsible for antitumor activity of Tan IIA.

  4. Synergistic attenuation of myocardial fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats by joint treatment with benazepril and candesartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guoliang; Wu, Feng; Yang, Liyun; Zhu, Hongyan; Gu, Jinhua; He, Min; Xu, Jiliang

    2009-07-01

    Benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and candesartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, are common drugs for treating hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the enhanced attenuation of myocardial fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) possibly induced by joint treatment with benazepril and candesartan and the possible involvement of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1)-Smad signaling pathway. SHRs were treated with benazepril at 10 mg.kg.d, candesartan at 4 mg.kg.d, and a combination of 2 drugs at half dose, respectively, for 12 weeks. Echocardiography and histology indicated that joint treatment with 2 drugs more significantly inhibited myocardial fibrosis in SHRs than either monotherapy, as evidenced by the changes in cardiac structural parameters, ultrasonic integrated backscatters, collagen volume fraction, and perivascular collagen area. The collagen analyses further revealed that significant decreases in total collagen concentration, the ratio of collagen type I to type III, and collagen cross-linking were found after the enhanced attenuation of myocardial fibrosis. Western blot analysis showed that the protein expression of TGF-beta1 and Smad3 was significantly decreased after joint treatment with 2 drugs. We conclude that synergistic attenuation of myocardial fibrosis in SHRs is produced by combined use of benazepril and candesartan possibly through the modulation of TGF-beta/Smad signaling proteins.

  5. Thalamic synaptic transmission of sensory information modulated by synergistic interaction of adenosine and serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Chin; Hu, Chun-Chang; Huang, Chen-Syuan; Chou, Pei-Yu

    2014-03-01

    The thalamic synapses relay peripheral sensory information to the cortex, and constitute an important part of the thalamocortical network that generates oscillatory activities responsible for different vigilance (sleep and wakefulness) states. However, the modulation of thalamic synaptic transmission by potential sleep regulators, especially by combination of regulators in physiological scenarios, is not fully characterized. We found that somnogen adenosine itself acts similar to wake-promoting serotonin, both decreasing synaptic strength as well as short-term depression, at the retinothalamic synapse. We then combined the two modulators considering the coexistence of them in the hypnagogic (sleep-onset) state. Adenosine plus serotonin results in robust synergistic inhibition of synaptic strength and dramatic transformation of short-term synaptic depression to facilitation. These synaptic effects are not achievable with a single modulator, and are consistent with a high signal-to-noise ratio but a low level of signal transmission through the thalamus appropriate for slow-wave sleep. This study for the first time demonstrates that the sleep-regulatory modulators may work differently when present in combination than present singly in terms of shaping information flow in the thalamocortical network. The major synaptic characters such as the strength and short-term plasticity can be profoundly altered by combination of modulators based on physiological considerations. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Signaling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DRIVERS OF LONG-TERM CONVERGENCE. FOCUS ON ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA UNGURU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With initial low levels of income per capita, a declining population and relatively modest economic growth rates, there are little prospects of diminishing the gap between Romania and the EU countries. Nevertheless, in the long term, convergence is expected. The question then arises, “What are the drivers and their likely potential to boost economic growth and the catching-up process?”. This paper presents shortly the theoretical background of economic convergence and then focuses on the assessment of possible paths of Romania’s convergence towards the EU. Based on the existing long-term macroeconomic projections and the assessment of the possible future developments of the drivers of economic growth, we have built three scenarios of economic convergence, highlighting the possible timespan of convergence. We have employed growth accounting methods to decompose output growth rate into production factors’ contributions (capital and labour and total factor productivity.

  8. On the Convergence of Iterative Receiver Algorithms Utilizing Hard Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen F. Rößler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of receivers performing iterative hard decision interference cancellation (IHDIC is analyzed in a general framework for ASK, PSK, and QAM constellations. We first give an overview of IHDIC algorithms known from the literature applied to linear modulation and DS-CDMA-based transmission systems and show the relation to Hopfield neural network theory. It is proven analytically that IHDIC with serial update scheme always converges to a stable state in the estimated values in course of iterations and that IHDIC with parallel update scheme converges to cycles of length 2. Additionally, we visualize the convergence behavior with the aid of convergence charts. Doing so, we give insight into possible errors occurring in IHDIC which turn out to be caused by locked error situations. The derived results can directly be applied to those iterative soft decision interference cancellation (ISDIC receivers whose soft decision functions approach hard decision functions in course of the iterations.

  9. Convergence of Romanian accounting regulations with IFRS. A longitudinal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana PĂLĂRIE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the evolution in the level of convergence of the Romanian accounting regulations with IFRS in the last decade. We focus our study on the accounting topics covered by IAS16, IAS17, IAS 41 and SIC15. We find that in 2005 the regulations exhibit a good level of convergence for property, plant and equipment, a medium level of convergence for lease accounting and divergence for accounting for the agricultural activity. The overall convergence level improved over time for all the topics analysed. These results indicate that the companies with dual reporting may incur lower costs in applying IFRS. Moreover, the national regulations offer the opportunity for a higher level of comparability in Romania of the financial statements prepared under IFRS with those prepared under national regulations. However, we underline that the institutional factors (such as the tax influence over accounting might negatively affect the convergence of practices.

  10. Convergence of Wachspress coordinates: from polygons to curved domains

    KAUST Repository

    Kosinka, Jiří

    2014-08-08

    Given a smooth, strictly convex planar domain, we investigate point-wise convergence of the sequence of Wachspress coordinates defined over finer and finer inscribed polygonal approximations of the domain. Based on a relation between the discrete Wachspress case and the limit smooth case given by the Wachspress kernel defined by Warren et al., we show that the corresponding sequences of Wachspress interpolants and mappings converge as 𝓞(h2) for a sampling step size h of the boundary curve of the domain as h → 0. Several examples are shown to numerically validate the results and to visualise the behaviour of discrete interpolants and mappings as they converge to their smooth counterparts. Empirically, the same convergence order is observed also for mean value coordinates. Moreover, our numerical tests suggest that the convergence of interpolants and mappings is uniform both in the Wachspress and mean value cases. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  11. Convergence of Wachspress coordinates: from polygons to curved domains

    KAUST Repository

    Kosinka, Jiří ; Barton, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Given a smooth, strictly convex planar domain, we investigate point-wise convergence of the sequence of Wachspress coordinates defined over finer and finer inscribed polygonal approximations of the domain. Based on a relation between the discrete Wachspress case and the limit smooth case given by the Wachspress kernel defined by Warren et al., we show that the corresponding sequences of Wachspress interpolants and mappings converge as 𝓞(h2) for a sampling step size h of the boundary curve of the domain as h → 0. Several examples are shown to numerically validate the results and to visualise the behaviour of discrete interpolants and mappings as they converge to their smooth counterparts. Empirically, the same convergence order is observed also for mean value coordinates. Moreover, our numerical tests suggest that the convergence of interpolants and mappings is uniform both in the Wachspress and mean value cases. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  12. Design of permanent block stopping to resist strata convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, R.E.

    1985-11-01

    Conventional concrete block plastered with a cementitious coating is the most common material used in the construction of permanent stoppings to direct airflow in underground mines in the US. All mines experience various degrees of strata convergence depending on depth of overburden, geological conditions, and type of roof support employed. Strata convergence will cause cracks and joint openings in masonry stoppings, resulting in significant air leakage losses. Where strata convergence is severe, complete structural failure of the stopping can ultimately occur. Reconstruction of damaged or destroyed stoppings adds expensive overheads to mining operations, and even greater expenses are incurred from the additional fan horsepower required to overcome leakage losses. Ideally, a stopping should maintain high resistance to airflow while yielding to strata convergence. By properly incorporating a polyisocyanurate rigid foam material within the masonry block structure, stopping service life can be increased in mines experiencing strata convergence problems such as floor heave, roof loading, and lateral rib movement.

  13. Segment-Specific Adhesion as a Driver of Convergent Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroomans, Renske M. A.; Hogeweg, Paulien; ten Tusscher, Kirsten H. W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Convergent extension, the simultaneous extension and narrowing of tissues, is a crucial event in the formation of the main body axis during embryonic development. It involves processes on multiple scales: the sub-cellular, cellular and tissue level, which interact via explicit or intrinsic feedback mechanisms. Computational modelling studies play an important role in unravelling the multiscale feedbacks underlying convergent extension. Convergent extension usually operates in tissue which has been patterned or is currently being patterned into distinct domains of gene expression. How such tissue patterns are maintained during the large scale tissue movements of convergent extension has thus far not been investigated. Intriguingly, experimental data indicate that in certain cases these tissue patterns may drive convergent extension rather than requiring safeguarding against convergent extension. Here we use a 2D Cellular Potts Model (CPM) of a tissue prepatterned into segments, to show that convergent extension tends to disrupt this pre-existing segmental pattern. However, when cells preferentially adhere to cells of the same segment type, segment integrity is maintained without any reduction in tissue extension. Strikingly, we demonstrate that this segment-specific adhesion is by itself sufficient to drive convergent extension. Convergent extension is enhanced when we endow our in silico cells with persistence of motion, which in vivo would naturally follow from cytoskeletal dynamics. Finally, we extend our model to confirm the generality of our results. We demonstrate a similar effect of differential adhesion on convergent extension in tissues that can only extend in a single direction (as often occurs due to the inertia of the head region of the embryo), and in tissues prepatterned into a sequence of domains resulting in two opposing adhesive gradients, rather than alternating segments. PMID:25706823

  14. Cosmological information in Gaussianized weak lensing signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimi, B.; Taylor, A. N.; Kiessling, A.

    2011-11-01

    Gaussianizing the one-point distribution of the weak gravitational lensing convergence has recently been shown to increase the signal-to-noise ratio contained in two-point statistics. We investigate the information on cosmology that can be extracted from the transformed convergence fields. Employing Box-Cox transformations to determine optimal transformations to Gaussianity, we develop analytical models for the transformed power spectrum, including effects of noise and smoothing. We find that optimized Box-Cox transformations perform substantially better than an offset logarithmic transformation in Gaussianizing the convergence, but both yield very similar results for the signal-to-noise ratio. None of the transformations is capable of eliminating correlations of the power spectra between different angular frequencies, which we demonstrate to have a significant impact on the errors in cosmology. Analytic models of the Gaussianized power spectrum yield good fits to the simulations and produce unbiased parameter estimates in the majority of cases, where the exceptions can be traced back to the limitations in modelling the higher order correlations of the original convergence. In the ideal case, without galaxy shape noise, we find an increase in the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.6 for angular frequencies up to ℓ= 1500, and a decrease in the area of the confidence region in the Ωm-σ8 plane, measured in terms of q-values, by a factor of 4.4 for the best performing transformation. When adding a realistic level of shape noise, all transformations perform poorly with little decorrelation of angular frequencies, a maximum increase in signal-to-noise ratio of 34 per cent, and even slightly degraded errors on cosmological parameters. We argue that to find Gaussianizing transformations of practical use, it will be necessary to go beyond transformations of the one-point distribution of the convergence, extend the analysis deeper into the non

  15. Ionic Liquids: The Synergistic Catalytic Effect in the Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora T.T. Ng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the synergistic effect in the catalytic system of ionic liquids (ILs for the synthesis of cyclic carbonate from carbon dioxide and epoxide. The emphasis of this review is on three aspects: the catalytic system of metal-based ionic liquids, the catalytic system of hydrogen bond-promoted ionic liquids and supported ionic liquids. Metal and ionic liquids show a synergistic effect on the cycloaddition reactions of epoxides. The cations and anions of ionic liquids show a synergistic effect on the cycloaddition reactions. The functional groups in cations or supports combined with the anions have a synergistic effect on the cycloaddition reactions. Synergistic catalytic effects of ILs play an important role of promoting the cycloaddition reactions of epoxides. The design of catalytic system of ionic liquids will be possible if the synergistic effect on a molecular level is understood.

  16. BRICS: Evolution and Convergence of Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatanyar Saidovich Yagya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting of foreign policy solely by means of classical diplomacy today seems inefficient. States are supposed to use additional set of tools that have traditionally been at the confluence of soft and hard powers. Convergence of these concepts launched the emergence of such strategies, as smart power and hybrid power that we analyze as a system in relation to such a phenomenon, as BRICS. In the first part of paper we contemplate the concept of power and further expand it to the theoretical ground of each of these strategies along with the existing experience and prospects of their implementation in the BRICS countries. Systematic analysis is taken as the basis of the methodology of this paper, which allowed us to explore this theme separately for each of the BRICS countries and collectively as a system. Feasibility of a number of our provisions is confirmed by relevant case studies and analyses of the most relevant Russian and foreign literature, which results in our main conclusions. Current trends indicate that the BRICS countries are actively expanding its presence in all the key sectors of the global economy and politics. BRICS is at an early stage of implementation of own formats and tools of smart and hybrid powers, the role of which will steadily increase in the international activities of the group, adding value to its arsenal of traditional diplomacy. The potential capacity of soft, smart and hybrid powers of BRICS aims at helping countries to achieve a new level of integration and attractiveness in the eyes of the international community, and will also allow countries to strengthen their positions.

  17. Signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholomier, M.

    1985-01-01

    In a scanning electron microscope, whatever is the measured signal, the same set is found: incident beam, sample, signal detection, signal amplification. The resulting signal is used to control the spot luminosity with the observer cathodoscope. This is synchronized with the beam scanning on the sample; on the cathodoscope, the image in secondary electrons, backscattered electrons,... of the sample surface is reconstituted. The best compromise must be found between a register time low enough to remove eventual variations (under the incident beam) of the nature of the observed phenomenon, and a good spatial resolution of the image and a signal-to-noise ratio high enough. The noise is one of the basic limitations of the scanning electron microscope performance. The whose measurement line must be optimized to reduce it [fr

  18. A Design Algorithm using External Perturbation to Improve Iterative Feedback Tuning Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Hjalmarsson, Håkan; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2011-01-01

    Iterative Feedback Tuning constitutes an attractive control loop tuning method for processes in the absence of process insight. It is a purely data driven approach for optimization of the loop performance. The standard formulation ensures an unbiased estimate of the loop performance cost function...... gradient, which is used in a search algorithm for minimizing the performance cost. A slow rate of convergence of the tuning method is often experienced when tuning for disturbance rejection. This is due to a poor signal to noise ratio in the process data. A method is proposed for increasing the data...

  19. Study of the convergence behavior of the complex kernel least mean square algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Thomas K; Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2013-09-01

    The complex kernel least mean square (CKLMS) algorithm is recently derived and allows for online kernel adaptive learning for complex data. Kernel adaptive methods can be used in finding solutions for neural network and machine learning applications. The derivation of CKLMS involved the development of a modified Wirtinger calculus for Hilbert spaces to obtain the cost function gradient. We analyze the convergence of the CKLMS with different kernel forms for complex data. The expressions obtained enable us to generate theory-predicted mean-square error curves considering the circularity of the complex input signals and their effect on nonlinear learning. Simulations are used for verifying the analysis results.

  20. Convergent integration of animal model and human studies of bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Niculescu, Helen; Patel, Sagar D; Niculescu, Alexander B

    2010-10-01

    Animal models and human studies of bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders are becoming increasingly integrated, prompted by recent successes. Particularly for genomics, the convergence and integration of data across species, experimental modalities and technical platforms is providing a fit-to-disease way of extracting reproducible and biologically important signal, in sharp contrast to the fit-to-cohort effect, disappointing findings to date, and limited reproducibility of human genetic analyses alone. Such work in psychiatry can provide an example of how to address other genetically complex disorders, and in turn will benefit by incorporating concepts from other areas, such as cancer biology and diabetes. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.