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Sample records for conventional seismic standards

  1. Topical opinion paper - Apparent Discrepancies Between Nuclear and Conventional Seismic Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, John; Smith, Ian

    2003-01-01

    The differences between nuclear and conventional seismic standards are considered and their potential significance discussed. The approach to the design of nuclear facilities is appropriately both more rigorous and conservative than that required by conventional seismic standards and codes. For nuclear seismic design the requirements can be presented as assessment principles, e.g., NII SAPs or a safety guide e.g. IAEA; Seismic Design and Qualification for Nuclear Power Plants. The adoption of novel methods or designs are required to be supported by appropriate research and development with the ability to cite a precedent within the industry being a powerful endorsement. The method adopted must reliably predict the seismic response of the item to be qualified, including the seismic response of attached or supported Structures, Systems and Components. (SSC's) The traditional method adopted for seismic qualification by analysis has been based on linear elastic analyses. This is justified on the basis that the response is reliably predicted and realistic, provided that the elements remain elastic. In contrast the benefit of ductile behaviour of conventional structures within the design envelope has long been recognised and used as the basis to justify significant reductions in the seismic demand. Provided the acceptance criteria are met, the SAPs do not preclude and the IAEA safety guide specifically permits non linear behaviour within the design envelope for category 1 items. Both the current nuclear practice and the current conventional seismic standards can be classified as 'force based'. The displacement based approach, also referred to as performance based engineering (PBE), has been developed as a powerful tool in the evaluation and seismic retrofit of existing structures. This approach could be equally valid to the design of new structures and can be used to represent elastic or non linear behaviour although the full benefit will only be realised in the latter

  2. Differences in safety margins between nuclear and conventional design standards with regards to seismic hazard definition and design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgohary, M.; Saudy, A.; Orbovic, N.; Dejan, D.

    2006-01-01

    With the surging interest in new build nuclear all over the world and a permanent interest in earthquake resistance of nuclear plants, there is a need to quantify the safety margins in nuclear buildings design in comparison to conventional buildings in order to increase the public confidence in the safety of nuclear power plants. Nuclear (CAN3-N289 series) and conventional (NBCC 2005) seismic standards have different approaches regarding the design of civil structures. The origin of the differences lays in the safety philosophy behind the seismic nuclear and conventional standards. Conventional seismic codes contain the minimal requirement destined primarily to safeguard against major structural failure and loss of life. It doesn't limit damage to a certain acceptable degree or maintain function. Nuclear seismic code requires that structures, systems and components important to safety, withstand the effects of earthquakes. The requirement states that for equipment important to safety, both integrity and functionality should be ascertained. The seismic hazard is generally defined on the basis of the annual probability of exceedence (return period). There is a major difference on the return period and the confidence level for design earthquakes between the conventional and the nuclear seismic standards. The seismic design criteria of conventional structures are based on the use of Force Modification Factors to take into account the energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain and the reserve of strength. The use of such factors to lower intentionally the seismic input is consistent with the safety philosophy of the conventional seismic standard which is the 'non collapse' rather than the integrity and/or the operability of the structures or components. Nuclear seismic standard requires that the structure remain in the elastic domain; energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain is not allowed for design basis earthquake conditions. This is

  3. Differences in Approach between Nuclear and Conventional Seismic Standards with regard to Hazard Definition - CSNI Integrity And Ageing Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaoudi, Ali; Labbe, Pierre; Murphy, Andrew; Kitada, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    The Committee on the safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) of the OECD-NEA co-ordinates the NEA activities related to maintaining and advancing the scientific and technological knowledge base of the safety of nuclear installations. The Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures Working Group of the CSNI is responsible for work related to the development and use of methods, data and information to assess the behaviour of materials and structures. It has three sub-groups, dealing with the integrity of metal components and structures, ageing of concrete structures, and the seismic behaviour of structures. The CSNI, at its meeting in June 2003, agreed to initiate an activity aimed to identify any difference between nuclear and non-nuclear conventional standards and their potential significance with regard to seismic hazards and design methods. There was a perception, mainly in some of the European countries that nuclear seismic hazard and design standards may be lagging behind developments in similar standards for conventional facilities. Adequate answer to such perception, need the examination of the following aspects and their significance on the seismic assessment of structures and components: - The safety philosophy behind the seismic nuclear and conventional standards. - The differences in approach regarding the seismic hazard definition. - The difference in approach regarding the design and the methods of analysis. These topics are examined in this report. Appendices A to H of this report contain a brief description of the conventional and the nuclear approaches in the NEA member countries: Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Spain,and USA. The following general conclusions can be drawn: - The approach adopted by the nuclear seismic standards is more conservative and more reliable (in particular for meeting the continued operation criteria) than the recommended by the currently applicable force based conventional seismic codes

  4. Seismic design standardization of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) of Nuclear Facilities have to be designed for normal operating loads such as dead weight, pressure, temperature etc., and accidental loads such as earthquakes, floods, extreme, wind air craft impact, explosions etc. Man made accidents such as aircraft impact, explosions etc., some times may be considered as design basis event and some times taken care by providing administrative controls. This will not be possible in the case of natural events such as earthquakes, flooding, extreme winds etc. Among natural events earthquakes are considered as most devastating and need to be considered as design basis event. It is generally felt design of SSCs for earthquake loads is very time consuming and expensive. Conventional seismic design approaches demands for large number of supports for systems and components. This results in large space occupation and in turn creates difficulties for maintenance and in service inspection of systems and components. In addition, complete exercise of design need to be repeated for plants being located at different sites due to different seismic demands. However, advanced seismic response control methods will help to standardize the seismic design meeting the safety and economy. These methods adopt passive, semi active and active devices, and base isolators to control the seismic response. In nuclear industry, it is advisable to go for passive devices to control the seismic responses. Ideally speaking, these methods will make the designs made for normal loads can also satisfy the seismic demand without calling for change in material, geometry, layout etc. in the SSCs. This paper explain the basic ideas of seismic response control methods, demonstrate the effectiveness of control methods through case studies and eventually give the procedure to be adopted for seismic design standardization of nuclear facilities

  5. Identifying Conventionally Sub-Seismic Faults in Polygonal Fault Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C.; Dix, J.

    2017-12-01

    Polygonal Fault Systems (PFS) are prevalent in hydrocarbon basins globally and represent potential fluid pathways. However the characterization of these pathways is subject to the limitations of conventional 3D seismic imaging; only capable of resolving features on a decametre scale horizontally and metres scale vertically. While outcrop and core examples can identify smaller features, they are limited by the extent of the exposures. The disparity between these scales can allow for smaller faults to be lost in a resolution gap which could mean potential pathways are left unseen. Here the focus is upon PFS from within the London Clay, a common bedrock that is tunnelled into and bears construction foundations for much of London. It is a continuation of the Ieper Clay where PFS were first identified and is found to approach the seafloor within the Outer Thames Estuary. This allows for the direct analysis of PFS surface expressions, via the use of high resolution 1m bathymetric imaging in combination with high resolution seismic imaging. Through use of these datasets surface expressions of over 1500 faults within the London Clay have been identified, with the smallest fault measuring 12m and the largest at 612m in length. The displacements over these faults established from both bathymetric and seismic imaging ranges from 30cm to a couple of metres, scales that would typically be sub-seismic for conventional basin seismic imaging. The orientations and dimensions of the faults within this network have been directly compared to 3D seismic data of the Ieper Clay from the offshore Dutch sector where it exists approximately 1km below the seafloor. These have typical PFS attributes with lengths of hundreds of metres to kilometres and throws of tens of metres, a magnitude larger than those identified in the Outer Thames Estuary. The similar orientations and polygonal patterns within both locations indicates that the smaller faults exist within typical PFS structure but are

  6. Seismic reflection imaging with conventional and unconventional sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros Ugalde, Diego Alonso

    This manuscript reports the results of research using both conventional and unconventional energy sources as well as conventional and unconventional analysis to image crustal structure using reflected seismic waves. The work presented here includes the use of explosions to investigate the Taiwanese lithosphere, the use of 'noise' from railroads to investigate the shallow subsurface of the Rio Grande rift, and the use of microearthquakes to image subsurface structure near an active fault zone within the Appalachian mountains. Chapter 1 uses recordings from the land refraction and wide-angle reflection component of the Taiwan Integrated Geodynamic Research (TAIGER) project. The most prominent reflection feature imaged by these surveys is an anomalously strong reflector found in northeastern Taiwan. The goal of this chapter is to analyze the TAIGER recordings and to place the reflector into a geologic framework that fits with the modern tectonic kinematics of the region. Chapter 2 uses railroad traffic as a source for reflection profiling within the Rio Grande rift. Here the railroad recordings are treated in an analogous way to Vibroseis recordings. These results suggest that railroad noise in general can be a valuable new tool in imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface in environmental and geotechnical studies. In chapters 3 and 4, earthquakes serve as the seismic imaging source. In these studies the methodology of Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) is borrowed from the oil and gas industry to develop reflection images. In chapter 3, a single earthquake is used to probe a small area beneath Waterboro, Maine. In chapter 4, the same method is applied to multiple earthquakes to take advantage of the increased redundancy that results from multiple events illuminating the same structure. The latter study demonstrates how dense arrays can be a powerful new tool for delineating, and monitoring temporal changes of deep structure in areas characterized by significant

  7. Adapting standards to the site. Example of Seismic Base Isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viallet, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Emmanuel Viallet, Civil Design Manager at EDF engineering center SEPTEN, concluded the morning's lectures with a presentation on how to adapt a standard design to site characteristics. He presented the example of the seismic isolation of the Cruas NPP for which the standard 900 MW design was indeed built on 'anti-seismic pads' to withstand local seismic load

  8. Russian seismic standards and demands for equipment and their conformity with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaznovsky, S.; Ostretsov, I.

    1993-01-01

    The principle regulations of standard documents concerning seismic safety of NPPs and demands for reactor equipment conformity with international standards are presented in this report. General state of NPP safety standards is reviewed, with a special emphasis on the state of seismic design standards for NPP equipment and piping. Russian standards documents on seismic resistance of NPPs and requirements are compared to international ones

  9. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanam, Lakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hurkmans, Coen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brame, Scott; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Galvin, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, LaJolla, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter, E-mail: wbosch@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Advanced Technology Consortium, Image-guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  10. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  11. Standardizing naming conventions in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were satisfactorily identified using this

  12. Optimizing Seismic Monitoring Networks for EGS and Conventional Geothermal Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Toni; Herrmann, Marcus; Bethmann, Falko; Stefan, Wiemer

    2013-04-01

    In the past several years, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential for the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquakes at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. We have developed an optimization algorithm for seismic monitoring networks in urban areas that allows to design and evaluate seismic network geometries for arbitrary geotechnical operation layouts. The algorithm is based on the D-optimal experimental design that aims to minimize the error ellipsoid of the linearized

  13. Development of Canadian seismic design approach and overview of seismic standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usmani, A. [Amec Foster Wheeler, Toronto, ON (Canada); Aziz, T. [TSAziz Consulting Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Historically the Canadian seismic design approaches have evolved for CANDU® nuclear power plants to ensure that they are designed to withstand a design basis earthquake (DBE) and have margins to meet the safety requirements of beyond DBE (BDBE). While the Canadian approach differs from others, it is comparable and in some cases more conservative. The seismic requirements are captured in five CSA nuclear standards which are kept up to date and incorporate lessons learnt from recent seismic events. This paper describes the evolution of Canadian approach, comparison with others and provides an overview and salient features of CSA seismic standards. (author)

  14. Towards a systematic format for (seismic) equipment qualification standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 1), a systematic format for seismic equipment qualification (EQ) was initiated. This format consists of thirty issues associated with seismic EQ. Each issue was considered as a Category of Possible Seismic EQ Requirements and Criteria. That is, seismic EQ standards might be (but presently are not formulated in terms of requirements and criteria that address each of the thirty issues. Each of the thirty issues was ranked and a minimum set identified. The current requirements in existing NRC and national standards were also evaluated against this common set of issues, and they were estimated to score 60 out of 100 overall. It is believed that the systematic format exhibited in this paper can be of assistance in obtaining a broader and more complete perspective on seismic EQ issues. This format (but especially the technique) may also be of interest in non-seismic EQ since many of the issues are common

  15. Views on seismic design standardization of structures, systems and components of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) of nuclear facilities have to be designed for normal operating loads such as dead weight, pressure, temperature etc., and accidental loads such as earthquakes, floods, extreme, wind air craft impact, explosions etc. Manmade accidents such as aircraft impact, explosions etc., sometimes may be considered as design basis event and sometimes taken care by providing administrative controls. This will not be possible in the case of natural events such as earthquakes, flooding, extreme winds etc. Among natural events earthquakes are considered as most devastating and need to be considered as design basis event which has certain annual frequency specified in design codes. For example nuclear power plants are designed for a seismic event has 10000 year return period. It is generally felt that design of SSCs for earthquake loads is very time consuming and expensive. Conventional seismic design approaches demands for large number of supports for systems and components. This results in large space occupation and in turn creates difficulties for maintenance and in service inspection of systems and components. In addition, complete exercise of design need to be repeated for plants being located at different sites due to different seismic demands. However, advanced seismic response control methods will help to standardize the seismic design meeting the safety and economy. These methods adopt passive, semi active and active devices, and base isolators to control the seismic response. In nuclear industry, it is advisable to go for passive devices to control the seismic responses. Ideally speaking, these methods will make the designs made for normal loads can also satisfy the seismic demand without calling for change in material, geometry, layout etc. in the SSCs. This paper explain the basic ideas of seismic response control methods, demonstrate the effectiveness of control methods through case studies and eventually give the procedure to

  16. Guidelines for drafting national and international seismic standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podrouzek, J.

    1989-01-01

    The main principles of engineering reliability are discussed in relation to the formation of seismic standards. The basic recommendations of the International Association of Earthquake Engineering in the field of inspection and earthquake resistance evaluation of engineering structures and systems are characterized. Attention is also paid to efforts aimed at a unification of standards and regulations, based on the fact that quasistatic and response spectra methods are largely common to the standards amd regulations. However, as the potential of computer techniques increases, more complex computer programs appear and the amount of tenuous input data increases, and this can affect the quality of seismic inspections. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 ref

  17. German seismic regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, Ruediger

    2002-01-01

    Rules and regulations for seismic design in Germany cover the following: seismic design of conventional buildings; and seismic design of nuclear facilities. Safety criteria for NPPs, accident guidelines, and guidelines for PWRs as well as safety standards are cited. Safety standards concerned with NPPs seismic design include basic principles, soil analysis, design of building structures, design of mechanical and electrical components, seismic instrumentation, and measures to be undertaken after the earthquake

  18. Seismic reflection response from cross-correlations of ambient vibrations on non-conventional hidrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, F. V.; Granados, I.; Aguirre, J.; Carrera, R. Á.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, in hydrocarbon industry, there is a need to optimize and reduce exploration costs in the different types of reservoirs, motivating the community specialized in the search and development of alternative exploration geophysical methods. This study show the reflection response obtained from a shale gas / oil deposit through the method of seismic interferometry of ambient vibrations in combination with Wavelet analysis and conventional seismic reflection techniques (CMP & NMO). The method is to generate seismic responses from virtual sources through the process of cross-correlation of records of Ambient Seismic Vibrations (ASV), collected in different receivers. The seismic response obtained is interpreted as the response that would be measured in one of the receivers considering a virtual source in the other. The acquisition of ASV records was performed in northern of Mexico through semi-rectangular arrays of multi-component geophones with instrumental response of 10 Hz. The in-line distance between geophones was 40 m while in cross-line was 280 m, the sampling used during the data collection was 2 ms and the total duration of the records was 6 hours. The results show the reflection response of two lines in the in-line direction and two in the cross-line direction for which the continuity of coherent events have been identified and interpreted as reflectors. There is certainty that the events identified correspond to reflections because the time-frequency analysis performed with the Wavelet Transform has allowed to identify the frequency band in which there are body waves. On the other hand, the CMP and NMO techniques have allowed to emphasize and correct the reflection response obtained during the correlation processes in the frequency band of interest. The results of the processing and analysis of ASV records through the seismic interferometry method have allowed us to see interesting results in light of the cross-correlation process in combination with

  19. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-01-01

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL's analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described

  20. Methodology to evaluate the site standard seismic motion for a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, W.A.

    1983-03-01

    An overall view of the subjects involved in the determination of the site standard seismic motion to a nuclear facility is presented. The main topics discussed are: basic priciples of seismic instrumentation; dynamic and spectral concepts; design earthquakes definitions; fundamentals of seismology; empirical curves developed from prior seismic data; avalable methodologies and recommended procedures to evaluate the site standard seismic motion. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation's (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs

  2. Elements of seismic imaging and velocity analysis – Forward modeling and diffraction analysis of conventional seismic data from the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Mahboubeh

    2018-01-01

    comprises important oil and gas reservoirs. By application of well-established conventional velocity analysis methods and high-quality diffraction imaging techniques, this study aims to increase the resolution and the image quality of the seismic data. In order to analyze seismic wave propagation......-outs and salt delineations, which can be extracted from the diffractions. The potential of diffraction imaging techniques was studied for 2D seismic stacked data from the North Sea. In this approach, the applied plane-wave destruction method was successful in order to suppress the reflections from the stacked....... This improved seismic imaging is demonstrated for a salt structure as well as for Overpressured Shale structures and the Top Chalk of the North Sea....

  3. Global seismic inversion as the next standard step in the processing sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maver, Kim G.; Hansen, Lars S.; Jepsen, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Klaus B.

    1998-12-31

    Seismic inversion of post stack seismic data has until recently been regarded as a reservoir oriented method since the standard inversion techniques rely on extensive well control and a detailed user derived input model. Most seismic inversion techniques further requires a stable wavelet. As a consequence seismic inversion is mainly utilised in mature areas focusing of specific zones only after the seismic data has been interpreted and is well understood. By using an advanced 3-D global technique, seismic inversion is presented as the next standard step in the processing sequence. The technique is robust towards noise within the seismic data, utilizes a time variant wavelet, and derives a low frequency model utilizing the stacking velocities and only limited well control. 4 figs.

  4. Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollogoub, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    This lecture deals with: qualification methods for seismic testing; objectives of seismic testing; seismic testing standards including examples; main content of standard; testing means; and some important elements of seismic testing

  5. Methodology to evaluate the site standard seismic motion to a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    For the seismic design of nuclear facilities, the input motion is normally defined by the predicted maximum ground horizontal acceleration and the free field ground response spectrum. This spectrum is computed on the basis of records of strong motion earthquakes. The pair maximum acceleration-response spectrum is called the site standard seismic motion. An overall view of the subjects involved in the determination of the site standard seismic motion to a nuclear facility is presented. The main topics discussed are: basic principles of seismic instrumentation; dynamic and spectral concepts; design earthquakes definitions; fundamentals of seismology; empirical curves developed from prior seismic data; available methodologies and recommended procedures to evaluate the site standard seismic motion. (Author) [pt

  6. A seismic analysis of Korean standard PWR fuels under transition core conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeong Koo; Park, Nam Kyu; Jang, Young Ki; Kim, Jae Ik; Kim, Kyu Tae

    2005-01-01

    The PLUS7 fuel is developed to achieve higher thermal performance, burnup and more safety margin than the conventional fuel used in the Korean Standard Nuclear Plants (KSNPs) and to sustain structural integrity under increased seismic requirement in Korea. In this study, a series of seismic analysis have been performed in order to evaluate the structural integrity of fuel assemblies associated with seismic loads in the KSNPs under transition core conditions replacing the Guardian fuel, which is a resident fuel in the KSNP reactors, with the PLUS7 fuel. For the analysis, transition core seismic models have been developed, based on the possible fuel loading patterns. And the maximum impact forces on the spacer grid and various stresses acting on the fuel components have been evaluated and compared with the through-grid strength of spacer grids and the stress criteria specified in the ASME code for each fuel component, respectively. Then three noticeable parameters regarding as important parameters governing fuel assembly dynamic behavior are evaluated to clarify their effects on the fuel impact and stress response. As a result of the study, it has been confirmed that both the PLUS7 and the Guardian fuel sustain their structural integrity under the transition core condition. And when the damping ratio is constant, increasing the natural frequency of fuel assembly results in a decrease in impact force. The fuel assembly flexural stiffness has an effect increasing the stress of fuel assembly, but not the impact force. And the spacer grid stiffness is directly related with the impact force response. (author)

  7. Studies on the Needs of Seismic Base Isolation Concept and its Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hae

    2015-01-01

    seismic protection of the structures of nuclear facility rather than to solely depend on seismic resistance design alone. This can also bring cost reduction effects both in early construction and in disaster control aftermath. Domestically, various types of devices are used for seismic base isolation systems in bridge projects. The 2005 revised edition of 'the highway bridge design standard' includes seismic base isolation standards under seismic resistance design for the first time in history; however, no efforts have been made to implement this technology in other fields. Therefore, KEPIC is developing seismic base isolation technology standards for the electrical industry

  8. Studies on the Needs of Seismic Base Isolation Concept and its Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hae [Korea Electric Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    seismic protection of the structures of nuclear facility rather than to solely depend on seismic resistance design alone. This can also bring cost reduction effects both in early construction and in disaster control aftermath. Domestically, various types of devices are used for seismic base isolation systems in bridge projects. The 2005 revised edition of 'the highway bridge design standard' includes seismic base isolation standards under seismic resistance design for the first time in history; however, no efforts have been made to implement this technology in other fields. Therefore, KEPIC is developing seismic base isolation technology standards for the electrical industry.

  9. A basis for standardized seismic design (SSD) for nuclear power plants/critical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P.; Bellini, F.X.

    1991-01-01

    US Nuclear Power Plants (NPP's) are designed, engineered and constructed to stringent standards. Their seismic adequacy is assured by compliance with regulatory standards and demonstrated by both probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and seismic margin studies. However, present seismic siting criteria requires improvement. Proposed changes to siting criteria discussed here will provide a predictable licensing process and a stable regulatory environment. Two recent state-of-the-art studies evaluate the seismic design for all eastern US (EUS) NPP'S: a Lawrence Livermore National Labs study (LLNL, 1989) funded by the NRC and similar research by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, 1989) supported by the utilities. Both confirm that Appendix A 10CFR Part 100 has not provided consistent seismic design levels for all sites. Standardized Seismic Design (SSD) uses a probabilistic framework to accommodate alternative deterministic interpretations. It uses seismic hazard input from EPRI or LLNL to produce consistent bases for future seismic design. SSD combines deterministic and probabilistic insights to provide a comprehensive approach for determining a future site's acceptable seismic design basis

  10. Organic or Conventional Palm Oil. Mainstream sustainability standards vs. organic standards

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo, Jessenia

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are requesting more information about the nutritious characteristics, social and, environmental responsibility around the products they are purchasing; but instead of facing an organic mainstream movement, new conventional standards are in the market. This document presents the main differences in the field implementation between the RSPO and the organic certification.

  11. Latest standards on seismic resistance related to research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasova, Emilia

    2002-01-01

    The paper discus few basic approaches applied in final drafts of prEN 1990 and prEN 1998-1. It is pointed out on design working life, loads combinations and the range of behaviour factors for concrete, steel and masonry buildings. The procedure and main results of large masonry model seismic tests are presented. As far as the masonry walls create the part of many NPP structures obtained results could be utilised also for the increase of their seismic resistance

  12. Update of bridge design standards in Alabama for AASHTO LRFD seismic design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) has been required to update their bridge design to the LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. This transition has resulted in changes to the seismic design standards of bridges in the state. Multiple bridg...

  13. 41 CFR 128-1.8005 - Seismic safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the model building codes that the Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction (ICSSC...) Uniform Building Code (UBC); (2) The 1992 Supplement to the Building Officials and Code Administrators International (BOCA) National Building Code (NBC); and (3) The 1992 Amendments to the Southern Building Code...

  14. Suggestions and comments about preliminary plans of ABNT 20:04.002-001 standard 'Seismic actions for nuclear facilities project'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of preliminary plans of standard 'seismic actions for nuclear facilities project'. This document presents since seismic event characterization up to details of structural project of nuclear facilities construction. (C.M.)

  15. Multicomponent Seismic Imaging of the Cheyenne Belt: Data Improvement Through Non-Conventional Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. A.; Shoshitaishvili, E.; Sorenson, L. S.

    2001-12-01

    The Cheyenne Belt in southeastern Wyoming separates Archean Wyoming Craton from accreted juvenile Proterozoic crust making it one of the fundamental sutures in the Proterozoic assemblage of western North America. As one of the multidisciplinary components of the Continental Dynamics - Rocky Mountains Transect project (CDROM), reflection seismic data were acquired from south-central Wyoming to central Colorado to characterize crustal structure associated with this boundary and younger Proterozoic shear zones to the south. In addition to acquisition of more conventional vertical-component data, 3-component data were acquired to better constrain rock properties and reflection directionality, providing information that tends to be lost with one-component recording. In order to achieve the highest possible signal-to-noise ratios in the processed data, considerable work was focused on removal of noise caused by private vehicles driving on forest roads during active recording and, perhaps more problematical, harmonic noise generated from power-line and other electrical-equipment interference. Noise generated from these sources was successfully attenuated using 1) short-window 2D FFT filtering to remove irregular, high-amplitude vehicular noise, and 2) harmonic-noise-subtraction algorithms developed at the University of Arizona to remove harmonic electrical-induction noise. This latter filtering procedure used a time-domain-based method of automatic estimation of noise frequencies and their amplitudes, followed by subtraction of these estimated anomalous harmonics from the data. Since the technique estimates the best fit of noise for the entire trace, subtraction of the noise avoids many of the deleterious effects of simple notch filtering. After noise removal, it was possible to pick both P-wave and S-wave first arrivals and model shallow subsurface rock properties. This model provides a link between deeper events and the surface geology.

  16. A strategy for implementation of experience based seismic equipment qualification in IEEE and ASME industry standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the past 20 years, extensive data on the performance of mechanical and electric equipment during actual strong motion earthquakes and seismic qualification tests has been accumulated. Recognizing that an experience based approach provides a technically sound and cost effective method for the seismic qualification of some or certain equipment, the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee and the ASME Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment established a Special Working Group to investigate the incorporation of experienced based methods into the industry consensus codes and standards currently used in the seismic qualification of Seismic Category Nuclear Power Plant equipment. This paper presents the strategy (course of action) which was developed by the Special Working Group for meeting this objective of incorporation of experience based seismic qualification standards used in the design and seismic qualification of seismic category nuclear power plant equipment. This strategy was recommended to both chartering organizations, the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee and the ASME Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment for their consideration and implementation. The status of the review and implementation of the Special Working Group's recommended strategy by the sponsoring organization is also discussed

  17. Seismic Performance Comparison of a High-Content SDA Frame and Standard RC Frame

    OpenAIRE

    van de Lindt, John W.; Rechan, R. Karthik

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the method and results of an experiment to study the seismic behavior of a concrete portal frame with fifty percent of its cement content replaced with a spray dryer ash (SDA). Based on multiple-shake-table tests, the high content SDA frame was found to perform as well as the standard concrete frame for two earthquakes exceeding design-level intensity earthquakes. Hence, from a purely seismic/structural standpoint, it may be possible to replace approximately fifty percen...

  18. IEEE C37.98-1978: IEEE standard seismic testing of relays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard specifies the procedures to be used in the seismic testing of relays used in power system facilities. The standard is concerned with the determination of the seismic fragility level of relays and also gives recommendations for proof testing. The purpose of this standard is to establish procedures for determining the seismic capabilities of protective and auxiliary relays. These procedures employ what has been called fragility testing in ANSI/IEEE Std 344-1975, Recommended Practices for Seismic Qualification of Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations. In order to define the conditions for fragility testing of relays, parameters in three separate areas must be specified. In general they are: (1) the electrical settings and inputs to the relay, and other information to define its conditions during the test; (2) the change in state, deviation in operating characteristics or tolerances, or other change of performance of the relay which constitutes failure; (3) the seismic vibration environment to be imposed during the test. Since it is not possible to define the conditions for every conceivable application for all relays, those parameters, which in practice encompass the majority of applications, have been specified in this standard. When the application of the relay is other than as specified under any of (1), (2), and (3), or if it is not practical to apply existing results of fragility tests to that new case

  19. Characterization of gas hydrate distribution using conventional 3D seismic data in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Qiang, Jin; Collett, Timothy S.; Shi, Hesheng; Yang, Shengxiong; Yan, Chengzhi; Li, Yuanping; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Duanxin

    2016-01-01

    A new 3D seismic reflection data volume acquired in 2012 has allowed for the detailed mapping and characterization of gas hydrate distribution in the Pearl River Mouth Basin in the South China Sea. Previous studies of core and logging data showed that gas hydrate occurrence at high concentrations is controlled by the presence of relatively coarse-grained sediment and the upward migration of thermogenic gas from the deeper sediment section into the overlying gas hydrate stability zone (BGHSZ); however, the spatial distribution of the gas hydrate remains poorly defined. We used a constrained sparse spike inversion technique to generate acoustic-impedance images of the hydrate-bearing sedimentary section from the newly acquired 3D seismic data volume. High-amplitude reflections just above the bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) were interpreted to be associated with the accumulation of gas hydrate with elevated saturations. Enhanced seismic reflections below the BSRs were interpreted to indicate the presence of free gas. The base of the BGHSZ was established using the occurrence of BSRs. In areas absent of well-developed BSRs, the BGHSZ was calculated from a model using the inverted P-wave velocity and subsurface temperature data. Seismic attributes were also extracted along the BGHSZ that indicate variations reservoir properties and inferred hydrocarbon accumulations at each site. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the inversion of acoustic impedance of conventional 3D seismic data, along with well-log-derived rock-physics models were also used to estimate gas hydrate saturations. Our analysis determined that the gas hydrate petroleum system varies significantly across the Pearl River Mouth Basin and that variability in sedimentary properties as a product of depositional processes and the upward migration of gas from deeper thermogenic sources control the distribution of gas hydrates in this basin.

  20. Analysis of nuclear piping system seismic tests with conventional and energy absorbing supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; DeGrassi, G.; Hofmayer, C.; Bezler, P.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-01-01

    Large-scale models of main steam and feedwater piping systems were tested on the shaking table by the Nuclear Power Engineering Cooperation (NUPEC) of Japan, as part of the Seismic Proving Test Program. This paper describes the linear and nonlinear analyses performed by NRC/BNL and compares the results to the test data

  1. 76 FR 59173 - Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Conventional Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2008-0302] Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Conventional Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide..., ``Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Conventional Uranium Mills.'' DG- 3024 was a...

  2. IEEE C37.98-1987: IEEE standard seismic testing of relays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard specifies the procedures to be used in the seismic testing of relays used in power system facilities. The standard is concerned with the determination of the seismic fragility level of relays and also gives recommendations for proof testing. The purpose of this standard is to establish procedures for determining the seismic capabilities of protective and auxiliary relays. These procedures employ what has been called fragility testing in IEEE Std 344-1987. To define the conditions for fragility testing of relays, parameters in three separate areas must be specified. In general, they are (1) the electrical settings and inputs to the relay, and other information to define its conditions during the test; (2) the change in state, deviation in operating characteristics or tolerances, or other change of performance of the relay that constitutes failure; (3) the seismic vibration environment to be imposed during the test. Since it is not possible to define the conditions for every conceivable application for all relays, those parameters, which in practice encompass the majority of applications, have been specified in this standard. When the application of the relay is other than as specified under any of (1), (2), and (3), or if it is not practical to apply existing results of fragility tests to that new application, then proof testing must be performed for that new case

  3. Seismic Performance Comparison of a High-Content SDA Frame and Standard RC Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. van de Lindt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the method and results of an experiment to study the seismic behavior of a concrete portal frame with fifty percent of its cement content replaced with a spray dryer ash (SDA. Based on multiple-shake-table tests, the high content SDA frame was found to perform as well as the standard concrete frame for two earthquakes exceeding design-level intensity earthquakes. Hence, from a purely seismic/structural standpoint, it may be possible to replace approximately fifty percent of cement in a concrete mix with SDA for the construction of structural members in high seismic zones. This would help significantly redirect spray dryer ash away from landfills, thus, providing a sustainable greener alternative to concrete that uses only Portland cement, or only a small percentage of SDA or fly ash.

  4. The Relationship between Students' Performance on Conventional Standardized Mathematics Assessments and Complex Mathematical Modeling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…

  5. Comparison of Size Modulation Standard Automated Perimetry and Conventional Standard Automated Perimetry with a 10-2 Test Program in Glaucoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Kazunori; Takahashi, Natsumi; Satou, Tsukasa; Kasahara, Masayuki; Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Shoji, Nobuyuki

    2017-08-01

    This prospective observational study compared the performance of size modulation standard automated perimetry with the Octopus 600 10-2 test program, with stimulus size modulation during testing, based on stimulus intensity and conventional standard automated perimetry, with that of the Humphrey 10-2 test program in glaucoma patients. Eighty-seven eyes of 87 glaucoma patients underwent size modulation standard automated perimetry with Dynamic strategy and conventional standard automated perimetry using the SITA standard strategy. The main outcome measures were global indices, point-wise threshold, visual defect size and depth, reliability indices, and test duration; these were compared between size modulation standard automated perimetry and conventional standard automated perimetry. Global indices and point-wise threshold values between size modulation standard automated perimetry and conventional standard automated perimetry were moderately to strongly correlated (p 33.40, p modulation standard automated perimetry than with conventional standard automated perimetry, but the visual-field defect size was smaller (p modulation-standard automated perimetry than on conventional standard automated perimetry. The reliability indices, particularly the false-negative response, of size modulation standard automated perimetry were worse than those of conventional standard automated perimetry (p modulation standard automated perimetry than with conventional standard automated perimetry (p = 0.02). Global indices and the point-wise threshold value of the two testing modalities correlated well. However, the potential of a large stimulus presented at an area with a decreased sensitivity with size modulation standard automated perimetry could underestimate the actual threshold in the 10-2 test protocol, as compared with conventional standard automated perimetry.

  6. Seismic PSA implementation standards by AESJ and the utilization of the advanced safety examination guideline for seismic design for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsumi; Hibino, Kenta

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Safety Examination Guideline for Seismic Design for Nuclear Power Plant (the advanced safety examination guideline) was worked out on September 19, 2006. In this paper, a summary of the method of probability theory in the advanced safety examination guideline and the Seismic PSA Implementation Standards is stated. On utilization of the probability theory for the advanced safety examination guideline, the uncertainty resulting from the process of the decision of the basic design earthquake ground motion (Ss) is stated to be considered using the proper method. The references of the extra probability for evaluation of earthquake hazard and combination of the working load and the earthquake load are stated. Definition, evaluation method and effort to lower the 'residual risks', and relation between the residual risks and the extra probability of Ss are described. A summary of the earthquake-resistant design for nuclear power facilities is explained by the old guideline. (S.Y.)

  7. Clarifying atomic weights: A 2016 four-figure table of standard and conventional atomic weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Meyers, Fabienne; Holden, Norman E.

    2017-01-01

    To indicate that atomic weights of many elements are not constants of nature, in 2009 and 2011 the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW) of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) replaced single-value standard atomic weight values with atomic weight intervals for 12 elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, bromine, and thallium); for example, the standard atomic weight of nitrogen became the interval [14.00643, 14.00728]. CIAAW recognized that some users of atomic weight data only need representative values for these 12 elements, such as for trade and commerce. For this purpose, CIAAW provided conventional atomic weight values, such as 14.007 for nitrogen, and these values can serve in education when a single representative value is needed, such as for molecular weight calculations. Because atomic weight values abridged to four figures are preferred by many educational users and are no longer provided by CIAAW as of 2015, we provide a table containing both standard atomic weight values and conventional atomic weight values abridged to four figures for the chemical elements. A retrospective review of changes in four-digit atomic weights since 1961 indicates that changes in these values are due to more accurate measurements over time or to the recognition of the impact of natural isotopic fractionation in normal terrestrial materials upon atomic weight values of many elements. Use of the unit “u” (unified atomic mass unit on the carbon mass scale) with atomic weight is incorrect because the quantity atomic weight is dimensionless, and the unit “amu” (atomic mass unit on the oxygen scale) is an obsolete term: Both should be avoided.

  8. Evaluation of pressed powders and thin section standards for multi-elemental analysis by conventional and micro-PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma-Takeda, Shino; Iso, Hiroyuki; Ito, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    For multi-elemental analysis, various standards are used to quantify the elements consists of environmental and biological samples. In this paper two different configuration standards, pressed powders and thin section standards, were assessed for their purpose as standards by conventional and micro-PIXE analysis. Homogeneity of manganese, iron, zinc (Zn), copper and yttrium added to pressed powder standard materials were validated and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the X-ray intensity of the standards was 2 area and the metal concentration was acceptable. (author)

  9. Effectiveness of two conventional methods for seismic retrofit of steel and RC moment resisting frames based on damage control criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti Aval, Seyed Bahram; Kouhestani, Hamed Sadegh; Mottaghi, Lida

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the efficiency of two types of rehabilitation methods based on economic justification that can lead to logical decision making between the retrofitting schemes. Among various rehabilitation methods, concentric chevron bracing (CCB) and cylindrical friction damper (CFD) were selected. The performance assessment procedure of the frames is divided into two distinct phases. First, the limit state probabilities of the structures before and after rehabilitation are investigated. In the second phase, the seismic risk of structures in terms of life safety and financial losses (decision variables) using the recently published FEMA P58 methodology is evaluated. The results show that the proposed retrofitting methods improve the serviceability and life safety performance levels of steel and RC structures at different rates when subjected to earthquake loads. Moreover, these procedures reveal that financial losses are greatly decreased, and were more tangible by the application of CFD rather than using CCB. Although using both retrofitting methods reduced damage state probabilities, incorporation of a site-specific seismic hazard curve to evaluate mean annual occurrence frequency at the collapse prevention limit state caused unexpected results to be obtained. Contrary to CFD, the collapse probability of the structures retrofitted with CCB increased when compared with the primary structures.

  10. Comparison and Analysis of IEEE 344 and IEC 60980 standards for harmonization of seismic qualification of safety-related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ok; Kim, Jong Seog; Seo, Jeong Ho; Kim, Myung Jun

    2011-01-01

    The seismic qualification of safety related equipment in nuclear power plants should demonstrate an equipment's ability to perform its safety function during/or after the time it is subjected to the forces resulting from one SSE. In addition, the equipment must withstand the effects of a number of OBEs, preceding the SSE. IEEE 344 and IEC 60980 present the criteria for establishing procedures demonstrating that the Class 1E equipment can meet its performance requirement during seismic events. Currently, IEEE 344 is used for regulation of nuclear power plant in the United State whereas IEC 60980 is mainly used in Europe. In particular, NPPs of France and China apply with RCC-E and GB that are domestic standards, respectively. Equipment supplier and Utility have difficulties because of different applicable standards. Equipment supplier to export S/R components/equipment to other standard area performs additional seismic qualification. For example, equipment are qualifies according to IEC 60980, RCC-E, GB although they have been qualified in accordance with IEEE 344. Also, utility to attempt power up-rate, life extension of NPP constructed under rules of RCC-E such as Ulchin NPP 1 and 2 has similar difficulties. RCC-E endorses IEC 60980 and GB is almost same as IEC 60980 except minor difference of earthquake environment definition. Therefore this paper surveys the similarities and differences between IEEE 344 and IEC 60980. In addition, this paper considers how the two sets of standards may be used in a complementary fashion to be possible using one or the other standard area

  11. Seismic Isolation Studies and Applications for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choun, Young Sun

    2005-01-01

    Seismic isolation, which is being used worldwide for buildings, is a well-known technology to protect structures from destructive earthquakes. In spite of the many potential advantages of a seismic isolation, however, the applications of a seismic isolation to nuclear facilities have been very limited because of a lack of sufficient knowledge about the isolation practices. The most important advantage of seismic isolation applications in nuclear power plants is that the safety and reliability of the plants can be remarkably improved through the standardization of the structures and equipment regardless of the seismic conditions of the sites. The standardization of structures and equipment will reduce the capital cost and design/construction schedule for future plants. Also, a seismic isolation can facilitate decoupling of the design and development for equipment, piping, and components due to the use of the generic in-structure response spectra associated with the standardized plant. Moreover, a seismic isolation will improve the plant safety margin against the design basis earthquake (DBE) as well as a beyond design basis seismic event due to its superior seismic performance. A number of seismic isolation systems have been developed and tested since 1970s, and some of them have been applied to conventional structures in several countries of high seismicity. In the nuclear field, there have been many studies on the applicability of such seismic isolation systems, but the application of a seismic isolation is very limited. Currently, there are some discussions on the application of seismic isolation systems to nuclear facilities between the nuclear industries and the regulatory agencies in the U.S.. In the future, a seismic isolation for nuclear facilities will be one of the important issues in the nuclear industry. This paper summarizes the past studies and applications of a seismic isolation in the nuclear industry

  12. The Language of Seafaring: Standardized Conventions and Discursive Features in Speech Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bocanegra Valle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper portrays how English language is constructed and displayed by shipboard crews and shore-based personnel when communicating through radiotelephony. Based on internationally-recognized recommendations for implementation when ships communicate with each other or with shore-based stations as well as on examples of current practice contained in marine communication manuals, this paper explores the message patterns, the standardized conventions, and the general and discursive practices governing speech communications at sea. Firstly, marine communications are defined and the role of Maritime English in the shipping industry for ensuring a safe and efficient passage discussed. Then, the standardized language of the sea is explained. Next, a move-step model to the analysis of the stages making up communicative exchanges at sea is applied and the main general and discursive features that prevail in such exchanges described. Finally, two examples help to illustrate the model and features presented and discussed.El presente trabajo aborda el uso de la lengua inglesa por parte de los buques y el personal marítimo de tierra al comunicarse a través de radiotelefonía. Partiendo de recomendaciones internacionales de obligado cumplimiento así como de ejemplos prácticos recogidos en los manuales de comunicaciones marítimas, examinamos los modelos de mensaje, las convenciones normalizadas y las fórmulas discursivas generales y específicas por las que se rigen las comunicaciones orales en el ámbito marítimo. En primer lugar se definen las comunicaciones marítimas y se estudia el papel que juega la lengua inglesa en la navegación. Seguidamente se describe el lenguaje normalizado del mar. A continuación, y mediante un modelo de movimientos y pasos se analizan las fases que conforman un evento comunicativo marítimo y se describen las características generales y discursivas principales que predominan en dichos eventos. Por último, se incluyen

  13. Interspinous process device versus standard conventional surgical decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Moojen (Wouter); M.P. Arts (Mark); W.C.H. Jacobs (Wilco); E.W. van Zwet (Erik); M.E. van den Akker-van Marle (Elske); B.W. Koes (Bart); C.L.A.M. Vleggeert-Lankamp (Carmen); W.C. Peul (Wilco)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Objective To assess whether interspinous process device implantation is more effective in the short term than conventional surgical decompression for patients with intermittent neurogenic claudication due to lumbar spinal stenosis. Design Randomized controlled

  14. Performance Based Plastic Design of Concentrically Braced Frame attuned with Indian Standard code and its Seismic Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejal Purvang Dalal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Performance Based Plastic design method, the failure is predetermined; making it famous throughout the world. But due to lack of proper guidelines and simple stepwise methodology, it is not quite popular in India. In this paper, stepwise design procedure of Performance Based Plastic Design of Concentrically Braced frame attuned with the Indian Standard code has been presented. The comparative seismic performance evaluation of a six storey concentrically braced frame designed using the displacement based Performance Based Plastic Design (PBPD method and currently used force based Limit State Design (LSD method has also been carried out by nonlinear static pushover analysis and time history analysis under three different ground motions. Results show that Performance Based Plastic Design method is superior to the current design in terms of displacement and acceleration response. Also total collapse of the frame is prevented in the PBPD frame.

  15. Sensory profiles of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene; Hermansen, John E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional...... standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes `chicken', `bouillon' and `fat' scored highest and the `iron/liver' aroma lowest...... of `sweet/maize' than the standard products. The `overall liking' score was significantly higher for the `K 8' product than for the `Standard A' and `L 40' products. The `overall liking' score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of `chicken', `umami/bouillon', `iron...

  16. Seismic texture classification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, R.

    1997-12-31

    The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume) aiming at describing the reflectivity. Based on a set of reference reflectivities the seismic textures are classified. The result of the seismic texture classification is a display of seismic texture categories showing both the styles of reflectivity from the reference set and interpolations and extrapolations from these. The display is interpreted as statistical variations in the seismic data. The seismic texture classification is applied to seismic sections and volumes from the Danish North Sea representing both horizontal stratifications and salt diapers. The attribute succeeded in recognizing both general structure of successions and variations from these. Also, the seismic texture classification is not only able to display variations in prospective areas (1-7 sec. TWT) but can also be applied to deep seismic sections. The seismic texture classification is tested on a deep reflection seismic section (13-18 sec. TWT) from the Baltic Sea. Applied to this section the seismic texture classification succeeded in locating the Moho, which could not be located using conventional interpretation tools. The seismic texture classification is a seismic attribute which can display general reflectivity styles and deviations from these and enhance variations not found by conventional interpretation tools. (LN)

  17. Standardization of Berberis aristata extract through conventional and modern HPTLC techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K. Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Berberis aristata (Berberidaceae is an important medicinal plant, found in the different region of the world. It has significant medicinal value in the traditional Indian and Chinese system of medicine. The aim of the present investigation includes qualitative and quantitative analysis of Berberis aristata extract. Methods: Present study includes determination of phytochemical analysis, solubility test, heavy metal analysis, antimicrobial study and quantitative analysis by HPTLC method. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, alkaloid, protein, amino acid, saponin, tannin and flavonoid. Solubility in water and alcohal were found to be 81.90% in water and 84.52% in 50% in alcohal. Loss on drying was found to be 5.32%. Total phenol and flavonoid content were found to be 0.11% and 2.8%. Level of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium complies the standard level. E. coli and salmonella was found to be absent whereas total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit. Content of berberine was found to be 13.47% through HPTLC techniques. Conclusions: The results obtained from the present studies could be used as source of valuable information which can play an important role for the food scientists, researchers and even the consumers for its standards.

  18. Formulation of EPICS record naming conventions in J-PARC linac and RCS. Build process of unique and standardized name

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuta, Shinpei; Kawase, Masato; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Sakaki, Hironao; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2011-02-01

    J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) accelerator devices are controlled by the use of the software called EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System). The unique name called an EPICS record is given to a control signal and data acquisition, Accelerator device control is achieved using the EPICS record. The requirement for the EPICS record name is 2 points; (1) no overlap of the EPICS record name, (2) the control contents can be easily imagined from the EPICS record name. To manage the EPICS record using relational database for the information management of the accelerator device in J-PARC, the naming structure is required so that a mechanical process can be performed easily. It was necessary to standardize the EPICS record name and the EPICS record structure to achieve these requirements. Therefore, we have formulated a guideline called 'EPICS record naming conventions' to decide to an EPICS record name uniquely and standardization. The abbreviated key word list of the accelerator devices and the control signal that compose the EPICS record name is appended to the EPICS record naming conventions. (author)

  19. Alignment efficiency of standard versus tandem wire mechanics using conventional and self-ligating brackets: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Bhardwaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficiency of 0.018″/0.022″ slot self-ligating (SL bracket system (standard and tandem mechanics in terms of rate of alignment by comparing it with a 0.022″ slot conventional ligating appliance system (MBT. Settings and Sample Population: The Department of Orthodontics. Materials and Methods: The pilot study was carried out using randomized controlled trial design. Forty patients having Little's irregularity index (II of 6–15 mm, treated by all first premolars extractions, were randomly allocated to 0.022″ slot conventional ligating bracket system, 0.018″ slot SL bracket system, 0.018″ slot SL bracket system (tandem archwires, 0.022″ slot SL bracket system, and 0.022″ slot SL bracket system (tandem archwires. The rate of alignment for each bracket system was measured from the difference in the II of serial casts taken at pretreatment and at the end of alignment, divided by the number of days between the two measurements. A one-way ANOVA model with post hoc Bonferroni multiple comparison procedures was used to identify intergroup differences. Results: The mean value of alignment efficiency was not found to be statistically significant in any of the five groups using digital models (P = 0.104. Conclusions: Alignment efficiency was not different between SL versus conventional ligating group, the 0.018″ slot versus 0.022″ slot and tandem versus standard mechanics.

  20. Study of emissions and fuel economy for parallel hybrid versus conventional vehicles on real world and standard driving cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Samari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs increasing rapidly in the automobile markets. However, the benefits out of using this kind of vehicles are still concerned a lot of costumers. This work investigated the expected benefits (such as decreasing emissions and increasing fuel economy from using the parallel HEV in comparison to the conventional vehicle model of the real-world and standard driving cycles. The software Autonomie used in this study to simulate the parallel HEV and conventional models on these driving cycles.The results show that the fuel economy (FE can be improved significantly up to 68% on real-world driving cycle, which is represented mostly city activities. However, the FE improvement was limited (10% on the highway driving cycle, and this is expected since the using of brake system was infrequent. Moreover, the emissions from parallel HEV decreased about 40% on the real-world driving cycle, and decreased 11% on the highway driving cycle. Finally, the engine efficiency, improved about 12% on the real-world driving cycle, and about 7% on highway driving cycle. Keywords: Emissions, Hybrid electric vehicles, Fuel economy, Real-world driving cycle

  1. Comparison of size modulation and conventional standard automated perimetry with the 24-2 test protocol in glaucoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Masayuki; Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2016-05-01

    This prospective randomized study compared test results of size modulation standard automated perimetry (SM-SAP) performed with the Octopus 600 and conventional SAP (C-SAP) performed with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) in glaucoma patients. Eighty-eight eyes of 88 glaucoma patients underwent SM-SAP and C-SAP tests with the Octopus 600 24-2 Dynamic and HFA 24-2 SITA-Standard, respectively. Fovea threshold, mean defect, and square loss variance of SM-SAP were significantly correlated with the corresponding C-SAP indices (P < 0.001). The false-positive rate was slightly lower, and false-negative rate slightly higher, with SM-SAP than C-SAP (P = 0.002). Point-wise threshold values obtained with SM-SAP were moderately to strongly correlated with those obtained with C-SAP (P < 0.001). The correlation coefficients of the central zone were significantly lower than those of the middle to peripheral zone (P = 0.031). The size and depth of the visual field (VF) defect were smaller (P = 0.039) and greater (P = 0.043), respectively, on SM-SAP than on C-SAP. Although small differences were observed in VF sensitivity in the central zone, the defect size and depth and the reliability indices between SM-SAP and C-SAP, global indices of the two testing modalities were well correlated.

  2. What should be learned from the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake to formulate the standard seismic motion of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozu, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Although inter plate earthquake is also taken into account in the formulation of standard seismic motion of a nuclear power plant, the lessons of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake are not fully utilized in the evaluation of the strong motion record. This paper discussed the following three points. (1) During the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, sharp pulses generated from a narrow area (SPGA: strong motion pulse generation area) on the fault plane determined the maximum amplitude of the earthquake ground motion at the nuclear power plant. (2) In order to accurately calculate this pulse, the current SMGA model is insufficient. (3) The seismic motion evaluated on the assumption that the SPGA is close to a nuclear power plant can exceed the assumption made by power companies. From the studies so far, it is clear that the current SMGA model cannot accurately calculate pulse waves with a time width of 1 to 2 seconds that is technically important, and its causes are clear. For this reason, the SMGA model is not suitable as a seismic source model for establishing the standard seismic motion of a nuclear power plant. It is necessary to have a model that can reproduce the earthquake ground motion due to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, in an accuracy of SPGA model or higher. Pulse waves with a time width of 1 to 2 seconds that simultaneously bring about large accelerations and speeds are likely accompany plasticization and cause major damage. (A.O.)

  3. The IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre and IAEA safety standards for site evaluation and design of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, A.; Sollogoub, P; )

    2009-01-01

    This presentation covers the following topics: 'Lessons learned' from the occurrence of strong natural events, (tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes, etc.) The International Seismic Safety Centre as a global focal point for the nuclear engineering community in those fields. A need for international cooperation, openness and transparency – Sharing of experience

  4. Linearized inversion frameworks toward high-resolution seismic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2016-09-01

    internally multiply scattered seismic waves to obtain highly resolved images delineating vertical faults that are otherwise not easily imaged by primaries. Seismic interferometry is conventionally based on the cross-correlation and convolution of seismic traces to transform seismic data from one acquisition geometry to another. The conventional interferometric transformation yields virtual data that suffers from low temporal resolution, wavelet distortion, and correlation/convolution artifacts. I therefore incorporate a least-squares datuming technique to interferometrically transform vertical-seismic-profile surface-related multiples to surface-seismic-profile primaries. This yields redatumed data with high temporal resolution and less artifacts, which are subsequently imaged to obtain highly resolved subsurface images. Tests on synthetic examples demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed techniques, yielding highly resolved migrated sections compared with images obtained by imaging conventionally redatumed data. I further advance the recently developed cost-effective Generalized Interferometric Multiple Imaging procedure, which aims to not only image first but also higher-order multiples as well. I formulate this procedure as a linearized inversion framework and solve it as a least-squares problem. Tests of the least-squares Generalized Interferometric Multiple imaging framework on synthetic datasets and demonstrate that it could provide highly resolved migrated images and delineate vertical fault planes compared with the standard procedure. The results support the assertion that this linearized inversion framework can illuminate subsurface zones that are mainly illuminated by internally scattered energy.

  5. Seismic risk perception test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  6. Economies of using seismic experience data qualification methods at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loceff, F.; Antaki, G.; Goen, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the implementation of the seismic qualification of existing equipment using experience data techniques. The emphasis is on the economies of this approach compared with standard qualification methods of analysis and testing or replacement with qualified equipment. Seismic qualification of existing equipment using experience data is a technical necessity and is the most economically attractive of the options. Representative costs for seismic qualification at two facilities show costs are substantially lower than the costs for qualification using conventional methods. Because of the experience to date, the authors recommend that the Department of Energy continue to sponsor the Existing Facilities Program for applying qualification using experience data techniques at DOE facilities

  7. Seismic retrofitting of Apsara reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Parulekar, Y.M.; Sharma, A.; Rao, K.N.; Narasimhan, Rajiv; Srinivas, K.; Basha, S.M.; Thomas, V.S.; Soma Kumar, K.

    2006-01-01

    Seismic analysis of Apsara Reactor building was carried out and was found not meeting the current seismic requirements. Due to the building not qualifying for seismic loads, a retrofit scheme using elasto-plastic dampers is proposed. Following activities have been performed in this direction: Carried out detailed seismic analysis of Apsara reactor building structure incorporating proposed seismic retrofit. Demonstrating the capability of the retrofitted structure to with stand the earth quake level for Trombay site as per the current standards by analysis and by model studies. Implementation of seismic retrofit program. This paper presents the details of above aspects related to Seismic analysis and retrofitting of Apsara reactor building. (author)

  8. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  9. Comparison of seismic sources for shallow seismic: sledgehammer and pyrotechnics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brom Aleksander

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The pyrotechnic materials are one of the types of the explosives materials which produce thermal, luminous or sound effects, gas, smoke and their combination as a result of a self-sustaining chemical reaction. Therefore, pyrotechnics can be used as a seismic source that is designed to release accumulated energy in a form of seismic wave recorded by tremor sensors (geophones after its passage through the rock mass. The aim of this paper was to determine the utility of pyrotechnics for shallow seismic engineering. The work presented comparing the conventional method of seismic wave excitation for seismic refraction method like plate and hammer and activating of firecrackers on the surface. The energy released by various sources and frequency spectra was compared for the two types of sources. The obtained results did not determine which sources gave the better results but showed very interesting aspects of using pyrotechnics in seismic measurements for example the use of pyrotechnic materials in MASW.

  10. Identification of genus Acinetobacter: Standardization of in-house PCR and its comparison with conventional phenotypic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sughosh S; Madalgi, Radhika; Ajantha, Ganavalli S; Kulkarni, Raghavendra D

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter is grouped under nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli. It is increasingly isolated from pathological samples. The ability of this genus to acquire drug resistance and spread in the hospital settings is posing a grave problem in healthcare. Specific treatment protocols are advocated for Acinetobacter infections. Hence, rapid identification and drug susceptibility profiling are critical in the management of these infections. To standardize an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identification of genus Acinetobacter and to compare PCR with two protocols for its phenotypic identification. A total of 96 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter were included in the study. An in-house PCR for genus level identification of Acinetobacter was standardized. All the isolates were phenotypically identified by two protocols. The results of PCR and phenotypic identification protocols were compared. The in-house PCR standardized was highly sensitive and specific for the genus Acinetobacter . There was 100% agreement between the phenotypic and molecular identification of the genus. The preliminary identification tests routinely used in clinical laboratories were also in complete agreement with phenotypic and molecular identification. The in-house PCR for genus level identification is specific and sensitive. However, it may not be essential for routine identification as the preliminary phenotypic identification tests used in the clinical laboratory reliably identify the genus Acinetobacter .

  11. The benefits and problems of base seismic isolation for LMFBR reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidensticker, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of seismic isolation as an approach to aseismic design has gained increasing interest as a viable and efficient engineering solution to earthquake ground motion both within and outside of the nuclear field. Seismic isolation design is fundamentally different from conventional design practice. In the conventional approach, seismic loads are resisted by making the structures, equipment, piping, and associated supports strong enough to resist seismic loads and to provide high levels of ductility. The use of seismic isolation approaches the problem by decoupling the structure (and its contents) from the seismic input resulting from ground shaking. Because LMFBR systems operate at virtually atmospheric pressure, vessels, piping, and associated components tend to be quite thin-walled. The problem is that these thin-walled items have little inherent resistance to earthquake effects and are vulnerable to seismic load effects. As a result, earthquake loads have an even greater influence on LMR designs than they already are in LWR plants. The potential benefits of seismic isolation for an LMR plant are considerable, including minimization of high-cost commodities such as stainless steel, large reductions in internal equipment loads, increased margins of safety for beyond-design-basis loads, and enhancement of plant standardization design. There are, of course, a number of issues and concerns in the use of seismic isolation for a nuclear power plant. These issues cover a number of items such as the lack of experience in actual earthquakes, effects of long-period ground motion, effect of vertical loads, traveling waves, and other related concerns. This paper presents an evaluation of the benefits and problems in the use of seismic isolation in LMR plants. 12 refs, 7 figs

  12. Linearized inversion frameworks toward high-resolution seismic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2016-01-01

    installed along the earth surface or down boreholes. Seismic imaging is a powerful tool to map these reflected and scattered energy back to their subsurface scattering or reflection points. Seismic imaging is conventionally based on the single

  13. Microwave-assisted versus conventional decomposition procedures applied to a ceramic potsherd standard reference material by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulou, D.N.; Zachariadis, G.A.; Anthemidis, A.N.; Tsirliganis, N.C.; Stratis, J.A

    2004-03-03

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is a powerful, sensitive analytical technique with numerous applications in chemical characterization including that of ancient pottery, mainly due to its multi-element character, and the relatively short time required for the analysis. A critical step in characterization studies of ancient pottery is the selection of a suitable decomposition procedure for the ceramic matrix. The current work presents the results of a comparative study of six decomposition procedures applied on a standard ceramic potsherd reference material, SARM 69. The investigated decomposition procedures included three microwave-assisted decomposition procedures, one wet decomposition (WD) procedure by conventional heating, one combined microwave-assisted and conventional heating WD procedure, and one fusion procedure. Chemical analysis was carried out by ICP-AES. Five major (Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg), three minor (Mn, Ba, Ti) and two trace (Cu, Co) elements were determined and compared with their certified values. Quantitation was performed at two different spectral lines for each element and multi-element matrix-matched calibration standards were used. The recovery values for the six decomposition procedures ranged between 75 and 110% with a few notable exceptions. Data were processed statistically in order to evaluate the investigated decomposition procedures in terms of recovery, accuracy and precision, and eventually select the most appropriate one for ancient pottery analysis.

  14. Seismic Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    The paper is devoted to researches of influence of seismic actions for industrial and civil buildings and people. The seismic actions bring influence directly on the people (vibration actions, force shocks at earthquakes) or indirectly through various build- ings and the constructions and can be strong (be felt by people) and weak (be fixed by sensing devices). The great number of work is devoted to influence of violent seismic actions (first of all of earthquakes) on people and various constructions. This work is devoted to study weak, but long seismic actions on various buildings and people. There is a need to take into account seismic oscillations, acting on the territory, at construction of various buildings on urbanized territories. Essential influence, except for violent earthquakes, man-caused seismic actions: the explosions, seismic noise, emitted by plant facilities and moving transport, radiation from high-rise buildings and constructions under action of a wind, etc. can exert. Materials on increase of man- caused seismicity in a number of regions in Russia, which earlier were not seismic, are presented in the paper. Along with maps of seismic microzoning maps to be built indicating a variation of amplitude spectra of seismic noise within day, months, years. The presence of an information about amplitudes and frequencies of oscillations from possible earthquakes and man-caused oscillations in concrete regions allows carry- ing out soundly designing and construction of industrial and civil housing projects. The construction of buildings even in not seismically dangerous regions, which have one from resonance frequencies coincident on magnitude to frequency of oscillations, emitted in this place by man-caused objects, can end in failure of these buildings and heaviest consequences for the people. The practical examples of detail of engineering- seismological investigation of large industrial and civil housing projects of Siberia territory (hydro power

  15. Adaptive prediction applied to seismic event detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.A.; Rodgers, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    Adaptive prediction was applied to the problem of detecting small seismic events in microseismic background noise. The Widrow-Hoff LMS adaptive filter used in a prediction configuration is compared with two standard seismic filters as an onset indicator. Examples demonstrate the technique's usefulness with both synthetic and actual seismic data

  16. Adaptive prediction applied to seismic event detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Rodgers, P.W.

    1981-09-01

    Adaptive prediction was applied to the problem of detecting small seismic events in microseismic background noise. The Widrow-Hoff LMS adaptive filter used in a prediction configuration is compared with two standard seismic filters as an onset indicator. Examples demonstrate the technique's usefulness with both synthetic and actual seismic data.

  17. Seismic analysis of a reactor building with eccentric layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, T.; Deng, D.Z.F.; Lui, K.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional design for a reactor building in a high seismic area has adopted an essentially concentric layout in response to fear of excessive torsional effect due to horizontal seismic load on an eccentric plant. This concentric layout requirement generally results in an inflexible arrangement of the plant facilities and thus increases the plant volume. This study is performed to investigate the effect of eccentricity on the overall seismic structural response and to provide technical information in this regard to substantiate the volume reduction of the overall power plant. The plant layout is evolved from the Bechtel standard plan of a PWR plant by integrating the reactor building and the auxiliary building into a combined building supported on a common basemat. This plant layout is optimized for volume utilization and to reduce the length of piping systems. The mass centers at various elevations of the combined building do not coincide with the rigidity center (RC) of the respective floor and the geometric center of the basemat, thus creating an eccentric response of the building in a seismic environment. Therefore, the torsional effects of the structure have to be taken into account in the seismic analysis

  18. Study on structural seismic margin and probabilistic seismic risk. Development of a structural capacity-seismic risk diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Masato; Ohtori, Yasuki; Hirata, Kazuta

    2010-01-01

    Seismic margin is extremely important index and information when we evaluate and account seismic safety of critical structures, systems and components quantitatively. Therefore, it is required that electric power companies evaluate the seismic margin of each plant in back-check of nuclear power plants in Japan. The seismic margin of structures is usually defined as a structural capacity margin corresponding to design earthquake ground motion. However, there is little agreement as to the definition of the seismic margin and we have no knowledge about a relationship between the seismic margin and seismic risk (annual failure probability) which is obtained in PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment). The purpose of this report is to discuss a definition of structural seismic margin and to develop a diagram which can identify a relation between seismic margin and seismic risk. The main results of this paper are described as follows: (1) We develop seismic margin which is defined based on the fact that intensity of earthquake ground motion is more appropriate than the conventional definition (i.e., the response-based seismic margin) for the following reasons: -seismic margin based on earthquake ground motion is invariant where different typed structures are considered, -stakeholders can understand the seismic margin based on the earthquake ground motion better than the response-based one. (2) The developed seismic margin-risk diagram facilitates us to judge easily whether we need to perform detailed probabilistic risk analysis or only deterministic analysis, given that the reference risk level although information on the uncertainty parameter beta is not obtained. (3) We have performed numerical simulations based on the developed method for four sites in Japan. The structural capacity-risk diagram differs depending on each location because the diagram is greatly influenced by seismic hazard information for a target site. Furthermore, the required structural capacity

  19. A Comparative Study between the Conventional MCQ Scores and MCQ with the CBA Scores at the Standardized Clinical Knowledge Exam for Clinical Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ghadermarzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Partial knowledge is one of the main factors to be considered when dealing with the improvement of the administration of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ in testing. Various strategies have been proposed for this factor in the traditional testing environment. Therefore, this study proposed a Confidence Based Assessment (CBA as a pertinent solution and aims at comparing the effect of the CBA Scoring system with that of the conventional scoring systems (with and without negative score estimation as penalty on the students’ scores and estimating their partial knowledge on clinical studies.Methods: This comparative study was conducted using a standardized clinical knowledge exam for 117 clinical students. After two-step training, both the conventional MCQ and CBA examination was given in a single session simultaneously. The exam included 100 questions and the volunteers were requested to complete a questionnaire regarding their attitude and satisfaction on their first experience of the CBA after exam. A new confidence based marking system was selected for the scoring, which was a hybrid of the UCL and MUK2010 systems. The MCQ-Assistant, SPSS and Microsoft office Excel software were used for scoring and data analysis.Results: The mean age of the volunteers was 27.3±5.47, of whom 43.6% were men and 69.2% were senior medical students. Exam reliability was 0.977. The fit line of the MCQ scores without penalty estimation was R2=0.9816 and Intercept=18.125 or approximately.2 deviation in the low scores. The MCQ scoring with penalty had a fit line approximately parallel to the 45-degree line but on or above it and the CBA scoring fit line was nearer to the 45-degree line, parallel to it and a little below it. These two sets of scores had a significant p value0.037. The response percentage to the CBA is higher (p value=0.0001. The discrimination power of the MCQ and the CBA for the upper and lower 1/3 of the students was not

  20. Comparative effectiveness of a complex Ayurvedic treatment and conventional standard care in osteoarthritis of the knee – study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine uses complex treatment approaches, including manual therapies, lifestyle and nutritional advice, dietary supplements, medication, yoga, and purification techniques. Ayurvedic strategies are often used to treat osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee; however, no systematic data are available on their effectiveness in comparison with standard care. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of complex Ayurvedic treatment in comparison with conventional methods of treating OA symptoms in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods and design In a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, 150 patients between 40 and 70 years, diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee, following American College of Rheumatology criteria and an average pain intensity of ≥40 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale in the affected knee at baseline will be randomized into two groups. In the Ayurveda group, treatment will include tailored combinations of manual treatments, massages, dietary and lifestyle advice, consideration of selected foods, nutritional supplements, yoga posture advice, and knee massage. Patients in the conventional group will receive self-care advice, pain medication, weight-loss advice (if overweight), and physiotherapy following current international guidelines. Both groups will receive 15 treatment sessions over 12 weeks. Outcomes will be evaluated after 6 and 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months. The primary endpoint is a change in the score on the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measurements will use WOMAC subscales, a pain disability index, a visual analog scale for pain and sleep quality, a pain experience scale, a quality-of-life index, a profile of mood states, and Likert scales for patient satisfaction, patient diaries, and safety. Using an adapted PRECIS scale, the trial was identified as lying mainly in the middle of the efficacy

  1. Seismic Intensity Map Triggered by Observed Strong Motion Records Considering Site Amplification and its service based on Geo-spatial International Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental seismic intensity measurement is carried out at approximately 4,200 points in Japan, but the correct values at points without seismometers cannot always be provided because seismic motion depends on geologic and geomorphologic features. Quick provision of accurate information on seismic intensity distribution over wide areas is required for disaster mitigation. To estimate seismic intensity at specific points, it is important to prepare ground amplification characteristics for local areas beforehand and use an interpolation algorithm. The QuiQuake system (quick estimation system for earthquake maps triggered by using observation records from K-NET and KiK-net that have been released by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention), which uses these, was developed; it can be started up automatically using seismograms and can immediately display a seismic intensity distribution map. The calculation results are sent to IAEA and JNES in the form of strong motion evaluation maps with a mesh size of 250 x 250 m. These maps are also sent to the general public via social networking web sites. (author)

  2. Current status of ground motions evaluation in seismic design guide for nuclear power facilities. Investigation on IAEA and US.NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Masato; Ito, Hiroshi; Hirata, Kazuta

    2009-01-01

    Recently, IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and US.NRC (US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) published several standards and technical reports on seismic design and safety evaluation for nuclear power facilities. This report summarizes the current status of the international guidelines on seismic design and safety evaluation for nuclear power facilities in order to explore the future research topics. The main results obtained are as follows: 1 IAEA: (1) In the safety standard series, two levels are defined as seismic design levels, and design earthquake ground motion is determined corresponding to each seismic design level. (2) A new framework on seismic design which consists of conventional deterministic method and risk-based method is discussed in the technical report although the framework is not adopted in the safety guidelines. 2 USA: (1) US.NRC discusses a performance-based seismic design framework which has been originally developed by the private organization (American Society of Civil Engineers). (2) Design earthquakes and earthquake ground motion are mainly evaluated and determined based on probabilistic seismic hazard evaluations. 3 Future works: It should be emphasized that IAEA and US.NRC have investigated the implementation of risk-based concept into seismic design. The implementation of risk-based concept into regulation and seismic design makes it possible to consider various uncertainties and to improve accountability. Therefore, we need to develop the methods for evaluating seismic risk of structures, and to correlate seismic margin and seismic risk quantitatively. Moreover, the probabilistic method of earthquake ground motions, that is required in the risk-based design, should be applied to sites in Japan. (author)

  3. Revision of the AESJ Standard for Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Updating requirements based on the lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP Accidents (3). Fragility evaluation and outline of the updated points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Nakamura, Susumu; Mihara, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Lessons learned from Great East Japan earthquake and other new findings had been accumulated on the fragility evaluation of buildings and components. And also new analysis and evaluation method had been proposed with the advancement of recent analysis and evaluation technology. These were reflected in revision of the AESJ Standard for Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Scope of the fragility evaluation were extended to all equipment on the site, severe accident management equipment including portable equipment and earthquake concomitant incident (such as tsunami) countermeasure equipment. This article described outlines of updating points of the fragility evaluation of the AESJ Standard for Seismic PRA; (1) requirements for seismic induced other risk evaluations such as fire, inundation and tsunami, (2) simulation technology based on recent findings such as three dimensional responses of buildings / structures and its effect on equipment, (3) requirements of the fragility evaluation for various failure mode of several equipment such as severe accident management equipment, fine failure mode of buildings / structures, failures of equipment related with earthquake concomitant incidents (embankment and seawall) and spent fuel pool, and (4) requirements for the fragility evaluation of aftershocks and soil deformation due to fault displacement. (T. Tanaka)

  4. The use of hogdahl convention k0 neutron activation analysis (NAA) standardization method and atomic absortion spectroscopy (ASS) for determination of toxic elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiamadie, H.

    2008-06-01

    Copper, cadmium, tin, chromium, arsenic, antimony, vanadium and mercury contents were determined in various foodstuffs (Mussa paradisiaca (plantains), Manihot esculentus (cassavas), Vantosoma sagittifolium (cocoyam). Vantosoma sagittifolium leaves (kontomire), Lycopersicum esculentus (tomatoes), Capsicum species (peppers), Solanum melongena (garden eggs), Nbelmoschus esculentus (okro), and Colocasia esculenta (kooko or taro)) produced in the Wassa West District, Ghana. These plants are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. These elements were determined using Hogdahl convention k 0 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Standardization Method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The elements in the various foodstuffs and their concentration ranges were Cu (16.87-180.06) mg/kg, As (2.68-9.84) µg/g, Cd (0.63-5.64) µg/g, Hg (0.01-67) ng/g, Cr (0.03-3.66) µg/g, Sb (1.1- 18.6) ng/g, Sn (3.4-58.4) ng/g, and V (12-99) ng/g. The study showed that there are high levels of toxic elements in the foodstuffs grown in the mining areas as compared to that of the non-mining area (i.e., control area). This could be attributed to gold mines pollution. Compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible levels of toxic elements in foods, Cu, Cr and Hg were above the permissible levels whereas the concentrations of As, Cd. Sb, Sn and V fall within the permissible levels. (au)

  5. Seismic Data Gathering and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Three recent earthquakes in the last seven years have exceeded their design basis earthquake values (so it is implied that damage to SSC’s should have occurred). These seismic events were recorded at North Anna (August 2011, detailed information provided in [Virginia Electric and Power Company Memo]), Fukushima Daichii and Daini (March 2011 [TEPCO 1]), and Kaswazaki-Kariwa (2007, [TEPCO 2]). However, seismic walk downs at some of these plants indicate that very little damage occurred to safety class systems and components due to the seismic motion. This report presents seismic data gathered for two of the three events mentioned above and recommends a path for using that data for two purposes. One purpose is to determine what margins exist in current industry standard seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) tools. The second purpose is the use the data to validated seismic site response tools and SSI tools. The gathered data represents free field soil and in-structure acceleration time histories data. Gathered data also includes elastic and dynamic soil properties and structural drawings. Gathering data and comparing with existing models has potential to identify areas of uncertainty that should be removed from current seismic analysis and SPRA approaches. Removing uncertainty (to the extent possible) from SPRA’s will allow NPP owners to make decisions on where to reduce risk. Once a realistic understanding of seismic response is established for a nuclear power plant (NPP) then decisions on needed protective measures, such as SI, can be made.

  6. Safety review for seismic qualification on nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Qingxian

    1995-01-01

    The standards and requirements for seismic qualification of nuclear power plant's component have been fully addressed, including the scope of seismic qualification, the approach and the method of common seismic qualification, the procedure of the seismic tests, and the criteria for the seismic qualification review. The problems discovered in the safety review and the solution for these problems and some other issues are also discussed

  7. Seismic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-09-25

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground

  8. Seismic Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-01-01

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at

  9. Seismic protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, R.

    1988-01-01

    To ensure that a nuclear reactor or other damage-susceptible installation is, so far as possible, tripped and already shut down before the arrival of an earthquake shock at its location, a ring of monitoring seismic sensors is provided around it, each sensor being spaced from it by a distance (possibly several kilometres) such that (taking into account the seismic-shock propagation velocity through the intervening ground) a shock monitored by the sensor and then advancing to the installation site will arrive there later than a warning signal emitted by the sensor and received at the installation, by an interval sufficient to allow the installation to trip and shut down, or otherwise assume an optimum anti-seismic mode, in response to the warning signal. Extra sensors located in boreholes may define effectively a three-dimensional (hemispherical) sensing boundary rather than a mere two-dimensional ring. (author)

  10. Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keranen, Katie M.; Weingarten, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    The ability of fluid-generated subsurface stress changes to trigger earthquakes has long been recognized. However, the dramatic rise in the rate of human-induced earthquakes in the past decade has created abundant opportunities to study induced earthquakes and triggering processes. This review briefly summarizes early studies but focuses on results from induced earthquakes during the past 10 years related to fluid injection in petroleum fields. Study of these earthquakes has resulted in insights into physical processes and has identified knowledge gaps and future research directions. Induced earthquakes are challenging to identify using seismological methods, and faults and reefs strongly modulate spatial and temporal patterns of induced seismicity. However, the similarity of induced and natural seismicity provides an effective tool for studying earthquake processes. With continuing development of energy resources, increased interest in carbon sequestration, and construction of large dams, induced seismicity will continue to pose a hazard in coming years.

  11. seismic-py: Reading seismic data with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of seismic exploration of the Earth has changed
    dramatically over the last half a century. The Society of Exploration
    Geophysicists (SEG has worked to create standards to store the vast
    amounts of seismic data in a way that will be portable across computer
    architectures. However, it has been impossible to predict the needs of the
    immense range of seismic data acquisition systems. As a result, vendors have
    had to bend the rules to accommodate the needs of new instruments and
    experiment types. For low level access to seismic data, there is need for a
    standard open source library to allow access to a wide range of vendor data
    files that can handle all of the variations. A new seismic software package,
    seismic-py, provides an infrastructure for creating and managing drivers for
    each particular format. Drivers can be derived from one of the known formats
    and altered to handle any slight variations. Alternatively drivers can be
    developed from scratch for formats that are very different from any previously
    defined format. Python has been the key to making driver development easy
    and efficient to implement. The goal of seismic-py is to be the base system
    that will power a wide range of experimentation with seismic data and at the
    same time provide clear documentation for the historical record of seismic
    data formats.

  12. Bayesian inversion of refraction seismic traveltime data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, T.; Haberland, Ch

    2018-03-01

    We apply a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) formalism to the inversion of refraction seismic, traveltime data sets to derive 2-D velocity models below linear arrays (i.e. profiles) of sources and seismic receivers. Typical refraction data sets, especially when using the far-offset observations, are known as having experimental geometries which are very poor, highly ill-posed and far from being ideal. As a consequence, the structural resolution quickly degrades with depth. Conventional inversion techniques, based on regularization, potentially suffer from the choice of appropriate inversion parameters (i.e. number and distribution of cells, starting velocity models, damping and smoothing constraints, data noise level, etc.) and only local model space exploration. McMC techniques are used for exhaustive sampling of the model space without the need of prior knowledge (or assumptions) of inversion parameters, resulting in a large number of models fitting the observations. Statistical analysis of these models allows to derive an average (reference) solution and its standard deviation, thus providing uncertainty estimates of the inversion result. The highly non-linear character of the inversion problem, mainly caused by the experiment geometry, does not allow to derive a reference solution and error map by a simply averaging procedure. We present a modified averaging technique, which excludes parts of the prior distribution in the posterior values due to poor ray coverage, thus providing reliable estimates of inversion model properties even in those parts of the models. The model is discretized by a set of Voronoi polygons (with constant slowness cells) or a triangulated mesh (with interpolation within the triangles). Forward traveltime calculations are performed by a fast, finite-difference-based eikonal solver. The method is applied to a data set from a refraction seismic survey from Northern Namibia and compared to conventional tomography. An inversion test

  13. Seismic analysis - what goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagart, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    The seismic analysis of nuclear components is characterized today by extensive engineering computer calculations in order to satisfy both the component standard codes such as ASME III as well as federal regulations and guides. The current nuclear siesmic design procedure has envolved in a fragmented fashion and continues to change its elements as improved technology leads to changing standards and guides. The dominant trend is a monotonic increase in the overall conservation with time causing a similar trend in costs of nuclear power plants. Ironically the improvements in the state of art are feeding a process which is eroding the very incentives that attracted us to nuclear power in the first place. This paper examines the cause of this process and suggests that what is needed is a realistic goal which appropriately addresses the overall uncertainty of the seismic design process. (Auth.)

  14. Nonlinear seismic analysis of a thick-walled concrete canyon structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, B.V.; Wagenblast, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional linear seismic analyses of a thick-walled lightly reinforced concrete structure were found to grossly underestimate its seismic capacity. Reasonable estimates of the seismic capacity were obtained by performing approximate nonlinear spectrum analyses along with static collapse evaluations. A nonlinear time history analyses is planned as the final verification of seismic adequacy

  15. Co-ordinated research programme on benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants. V. 2. Generic material: Codes, standards, criteria. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Co-ordinated research programme on the benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants was initiated subsequent to the request from representatives of Member States. The conclusions adopted at the Technical Committee Meeting on Seismic Issues related to existing nuclear power plants held in Tokyo in 1991 called for the harmonization of methods and criteria used in Member States in issues related to seismic safety. The Consulltants' Meeting which followed resulted in producing a working document for CRP. It was decided that a benchmark study is the most effective way to achieve the principal objective. Two types of WWER reactors (WWER-440/213 and WWER-1000) were selected as prototypes for the benchmark exercise to be tested on a full scale using explosions and/or vibration generators. The two prototypes are Kozloduy Units 5/6 for WWER-1000 and Paks for WWER-440/213 nuclear power plants. This volume of Working material contains reports related to generic material, namely codes, standards and criteria for benchmark analysis.

  16. Co-ordinated research programme on benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants. V. 2. Generic material: Codes, standards, criteria. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Co-ordinated research programme on the benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants was initiated subsequent to the request from representatives of Member States. The conclusions adopted at the Technical Committee Meeting on Seismic Issues related to existing nuclear power plants held in Tokyo in 1991 called for the harmonization of methods and criteria used in Member States in issues related to seismic safety. The Consulltants' Meeting which followed resulted in producing a working document for CRP. It was decided that a benchmark study is the most effective way to achieve the principal objective. Two types of WWER reactors (WWER-440/213 and WWER-1000) were selected as prototypes for the benchmark exercise to be tested on a full scale using explosions and/or vibration generators. The two prototypes are Kozloduy Units 5/6 for WWER-1000 and Paks for WWER-440/213 nuclear power plants. This volume of Working material contains reports related to generic material, namely codes, standards and criteria for benchmark analysis

  17. Multichannel analysis of surface-waves and integration of downhole acoustic televiewer imaging, ultrasonic Vs and Vp, and vertical seismic profiling in an NEHRP-standard classification, South of Concordia, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raef, Abdelmoneam; Gad, Sabreen; Tucker-Kulesza, Stacey

    2015-10-01

    Seismic site characteristics, as pertaining to earthquake hazard reduction, are a function of the subsurface elastic moduli and the geologic structures. This study explores how multiscale (surface, downhole, and laboratory) datasets can be utilized to improve "constrained" average Vs30 (shear-wave velocity to a 30-meter depth). We integrate borehole, surface and laboratory measurements for a seismic site classification based on the standards of the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). The seismic shear-wave velocity (Vs30) was derived from a geophysical inversion workflow that utilized multichannel analysis of surface-waves (MASW) and downhole acoustic televiewer imaging (DATI). P-wave and S-wave velocities, based on laboratory measurements of arrival times of ultrasonic-frequency signals, supported the workflow by enabling us to calculate Poisson's ratio, which was incorporated in building an initial model for the geophysical inversion of MASW. Extraction of core samples from two boreholes provided lithology and thickness calibration of the amplitudes of the acoustic televiewer imaging for each layer. The MASW inversion, for calculating Vs sections, was constrained with both ultrasonic laboratory measurements (from first arrivals of Vs and Vp waveforms at simulated in situ overburden stress conditions) and the downhole acoustic televiewer (DATV) amplitude logs. The Vs30 calculations enabled categorizing the studied site as NEHRP-class "C" - very dense soil and soft rock. Unlike shallow fractured carbonates in the studied area, S-wave and P-wave velocities at ultrasonic frequency for the deeper intact shale core-samples from two boreholes were in better agreement with the corresponding velocities from both a zero-offset vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocity dispersion curves.

  18. Co-ordinated research programme on benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants. V. 2B. General material: codes, standards, criteria. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In August 1991, following the SMiRT-11 Conference in Tokyo, a Technical Committee Meeting was held on the 'Seismic safety issues relating to existing NPPs'. The Proceedings of this TCM was subsequently compiled in an IAEA Working Material. One of the main recommendations of this TCM, called for the harmonization of criteria and methods used in Member States in seismic reassessment and upgrading of existing NPPs. Twenty four institutions from thirteen countries participated in the CRP named 'Benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER type NPPs'. Two types of WWER reactors (WWER-1000 and WWER-440/213) selected for benchmarking. Kozloduy NPP Units 5/6 and Paks NPP represented these respectively as prototypes. Consistent with the recommendations of the TCM and the working paper prepared by the subsequent Consultants' Meeting, the focal activity of the CRP was the benchmarking exercises. A similar methodology was followed both for Paks NPP and Kozloduy NPP Unit 5. Firstly, the NPP (mainly the reactor building) was tested using a blast loading generated by a series of explosions from buried TNT charges. Records from this test were obtained at several free field locations (both downhole and surface), foundation mat, various elevations of structures as well as some tanks and the stack. Then the benchmark participants were provided with structural drawings, soil data and the free field record of the blast experiment. Their task was to make a blind prediction of the response at preselected locations. The analytical results from these participants were then compared with the results from the test. Although the benchmarking exercises constituted the focus of the CRP, there were many other interesting problems related to the seismic safety of WWER type NPPs which were addressed by the participants. These involved generic studies, i.e. codes and standards used in original WWER designs and their comparison with current international practice; seismic analysis

  19. Seismic Symphonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strinna, Elisa; Ferrari, Graziano

    2015-04-01

    The project started in 2008 as a sound installation, a collaboration between an artist, a barrel organ builder and a seismologist. The work differs from other attempts of sound transposition of seismic records. In this case seismic frequencies are not converted automatically into the "sound of the earthquake." However, it has been studied a musical translation system that, based on the organ tonal scale, generates a totally unexpected sequence of sounds which is intended to evoke the emotions aroused by the earthquake. The symphonies proposed in the project have somewhat peculiar origins: they in fact come to life from the translation of graphic tracks into a sound track. The graphic tracks in question are made up by copies of seismograms recorded during some earthquakes that have taken place around the world. Seismograms are translated into music by a sculpture-instrument, half a seismograph and half a barrel organ. The organ plays through holes practiced on paper. Adapting the documents to the instrument score, holes have been drilled on the waves' peaks. The organ covers about three tonal scales, starting from heavy and deep sounds it reaches up to high and jarring notes. The translation of the seismic records is based on a criterion that does match the highest sounds to larger amplitudes with lower ones to minors. Translating the seismogram in the organ score, the larger the amplitude of recorded waves, the more the seismogram covers the full tonal scale played by the barrel organ and the notes arouse an intense emotional response in the listener. Elisa Strinna's Seismic Symphonies installation becomes an unprecedented tool for emotional involvement, through which can be revived the memory of the greatest disasters of over a century of seismic history of the Earth. A bridge between art and science. Seismic Symphonies is also a symbolic inversion: the instrument of the organ is most commonly used in churches, and its sounds are derived from the heavens and

  20. Seismic Isolation Working Meeting Gap Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The ultimate goal in nuclear facility and nuclear power plant operations is operating safety during normal operations and maintaining core cooling capabilities during off-normal events including external hazards. Understanding the impact external hazards, such as flooding and earthquakes, have on nuclear facilities and NPPs is critical to deciding how to manage these hazards to expectable levels of risk. From a seismic risk perspective the goal is to manage seismic risk. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components (SSCs)). There are large uncertainties associated with evolving nature of the seismic hazard curves. Additionally there are requirements within DOE and potential requirements within NRC to reconsider updated seismic hazard curves every 10 years. Therefore opportunity exists for engineered solutions to manage this seismic uncertainty. One engineered solution is seismic isolation. Current seismic isolation (SI) designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed, in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 4 standard, to be released in 2014, for Light Water Reactors (LWR) facilities using commercially available technology. However, there is a lack of industry application to the nuclear industry and uncertainty with implementing the procedures outlined in ASCE-4. Opportunity exists to determine barriers associated with implementation of current ASCE-4 standard language.

  1. Dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sea dumping of radioactive waste has, since 1983, been precluded under a moratorium established by the London Dumping Convention. Pressure from the nuclear industry to allow ocean dumping of nuclear waste is reported in this article. (author)

  2. Seismic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    were presumed nuclear explosions announced by ERDA. Of the last, 11 were at the Semipalatinsk test site , 2 at the Western Kazakh test site , 2 in Novaya...which will fulfill U.S. ob- ligations that may be incurred under a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. This report includes 9 contributions...which could assume U.S. seismic-data-management responsibilities in the event that international agreement is reached on a Comprehensive Test Ban

  3. Martian seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goins, N.R.; Lazarewicz, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    During the Viking mission to Mars, the seismometer on Lander II collected approximately 0.24 Earth years of observations data, excluding periods of time dominated by wind-induced Lander vibration. The ''quiet-time'' data set contains no confirmed seismic events. A proper assessment of the significance of this fact requires quantitative estimates of the expected detection rate of the Viking seismometer. The first step is to calculate the minimum magnitude event detectable at a given distance, including the effects of geometric spreading, anelastic attenuation, seismic signal duration, seismometer frequency response, and possible poor ground coupling. Assuming various numerical quantities and a Martian seismic activity comparable to that of intraplate earthquakes, the appropriate integral gives an expected annual detection rate of 10 events, nearly all of which are local. Thus only two to three events would be expected in the observational period presently on hand and the lack of observed events is not in gross contradiction to reasonable expectations. Given the same assumptions, a seismometer 20 times more sensitive than the present instrument would be expected to detect about 120 events annually

  4. Testing, licensing, and code requirements for seismic isolation systems (for nuclear power plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidensticker, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The use of seismic isolation as an earthquake hazard mitigation strategy for nuclear reactor power plants is rapidly receiving interest throughout the world. Seismic isolation has already been used on at least two French PWR plants, was to have been used for plants to be built in Iran, and is under serious consideration for advanced LMR plants (in the US, UK, France, and Japan). In addition, there is a growing use of seismic isolation throughout the world for other critical facilities such as hospitals, emergency facilities, buildings with very high-cost equipment (e.g., computers) and as a strategy to reduce loss of life and expensive equipment in earthquakes. Such a design approach is in complete contrast to the conventional seismic design strategy in which the structure and components are provided with sufficient strength and ductility to resist the earthquake forces and to prevent structural collapses or failure. The use of seismic isolation for nuclear plants can, therefore, be expected to be a significant licensing issue. For isolation, the licensing process must shift away in large measure from the superstructure and concentrate on the behavior of the seismic isolation system. This paper is not intended to promote the advantages of seismic isolation system, but to explore in some detail those technical issues which must be satisfactorily addressed to achieve full licensability of the use of seismic isolation as a viable, attractive and economical alternative to current traditional design approaches. Special problems and topics associated with testing and codes and standards development are addressed. A positive program for approach or strategy to secure licensing is presented

  5. Testing, licensing, and code requirements for seismic isolation systems (for nuclear power plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidensticker, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The use of seismic isolation as an earthquake hazard mitigation strategy for nuclear reactor power plants is rapidly receiving interest throughout the world. Seismic isolation has already been used on at least two French PWR plants, was to have been used for plants to be built in Iran, and is under serious consideration for advanced LMR plants (in the US, UK, France, and Japan). In addition, there is a growing use of seismic isolation throughout the world for other critical facilities such as hospitals, emergency facilities, buildings with very high-cost equipment (e.g., computers) and as a strategy to reduce loss of life and expensive equipment in earthquakes. Such a design approach is in complete contrast to the conventional seismic design strategy in which the structure and components are provided with sufficient strength and ductility to resist the earthquake forces and to prevent structural collapses or failure. The use of seismic isolation for nuclear plants can, therefore, be expected to be a significant licensing issue. For isolation, the licensing process must shift away in large measure from the superstructure and concentrate on the behavior of the seismic isolation system. This paper is not intended to promote the advantages of seismic isolation system, but to explore in some detail those technical issues which must be satisfactorily addressed to achieve full licensability of the use of seismic isolation as a viable, attractive and economical alternative to current traditional design approaches. Special problems and topics associated with testing and codes and standards development are addressed. A positive program for approach or strategy to secure licensing is presented.

  6. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants - EDF's philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coladant, C.

    1989-01-01

    The elastomer bearing pads used since 1963 as supports for prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) was quickly chosen by Electricite de France (ED) to improve the capability of nuclear power plants (NPPs) to withstand strong earthquakes and to reduce the seismic loads on structures and equipment. The standardized units for 900 and 1,300 MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants have moderate seismic design loads of 0.2 and 0.15 g, respectively. These design loads were exceeded by the site dependent spectra of Cruas (France) and Koeberg (South Africa). To keep the plant design unchanged and to take the advantages of standardization, these units were put on laminated bearings with or without sliding plates. For the future French 1,500 MW(e) fast breeder reactors (FBRs), which are more sensitive to seismic loads, the base isolation is considered by EDF at the beginning of the design, even for low ground motions of 0.1 g. The buildings are placed on laminated bearings while the reactor block is supported by springs and dampers. The isolated plant has identical costs as a conventional design such as SPX1 at Creys-Malville

  7. Improving Seismic Data Accessibility and Performance Using HDF Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B. J. K.; Wang, J.; Yang, R.

    2017-12-01

    The performance of computational geophysical data processing and forward modelling relies on both computational and data. Significant efforts on developing new data formats and libraries have been made the community, such as IRIS/PASSCAL and ASDF in data, and programs and utilities such as ObsPy and SPECFEM. The National Computational Infrastructure hosts a national significant geophysical data collection that is co-located with a high performance computing facility and provides an opportunity to investigate how to improve the data formats from both a data management and a performance point of view. This paper investigates how to enhance the data usability in several perspectives: 1) propose a convention for the seismic (both active and passive) community to improve the data accessibility and interoperability; 2) recommend the convention used in the HDF container when data is made available in PH5 or ASDF formats; 3) provide tools to convert between various seismic data formats; 4) provide performance benchmark cases using ObsPy library and SPECFEM3D to demonstrate how different data organization in terms of chunking size and compression impact on the performance by comparing new data formats, such as PH5 and ASDF to traditional formats such as SEGY, SEED, SAC, etc. In this work we apply our knowledge and experience on data standards and conventions, such as CF and ACDD from the climate community to the seismology community. The generic global attributes widely used in climate community are combined with the existing convention in the seismology community, such as CMT and QuakeML, StationXML, SEGY header convention. We also extend such convention by including the provenance and benchmarking records so that the r user can learn the footprint of the data together with its baseline performance. In practise we convert the example wide angle reflection seismic data from SEGY to PH5 or ASDF by using ObsPy and pyasdf libraries. It quantitatively demonstrates how the

  8. Analysis of EAST tokamak cryostat anti-seismic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wei; Kong Xiaoling; Liu Sumei; Ni Xiaojun; Wang Zhongwei

    2014-01-01

    A 3-D finite element model for EAST tokamak cryostat is established by using ANSYS. On the basis of the modal analysis, the seismic response of the EAST tokamak cryostat structure is calculated according to an input of the design seismic response spectrum referring to code for seismic design of nuclear power plants. Calculation results show that EAST cryostat displacement and stress response is small under the action of earthquake. According to the standards, EAST tokamak cryostat structure under the action of design seismic can meet the requirements of anti-seismic design intensity, and ensure the anti-seismic safety of equipment. (authors)

  9. Seismic design practices for power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the evolution of seismic design practices in electric power systems is reviewed. In California the evolution had led to many installation practices that are directed at improving the seismic ruggedness of power system facilities, particularly high voltage substation equipment. The primary means for substantiating the seismic ruggedness of important, hard to analyze substation equipment is through vibration testing. Current activities include system evaluations, development of emergency response plans and their exercise, and review elements that impact the entire system, such as energy control centers and communication systems. From a national perspective there is a need to standardize seismic specifications, identify a seismic specialist within each utility and enhance communications among these specialists. There is a general need to incorporate good seismic design practices on a national basis emphasizing new construction

  10. Use of raster-based data layers to model spatial variation of seismotectonic data in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Mohammad R.

    2009-07-01

    Recent achievements in computer and information technology have provided the necessary tools to extend the application of probabilistic seismic hazard mapping from its traditional engineering use to many other applications. Examples for such applications are risk mitigation, disaster management, post disaster recovery planning and catastrophe loss estimation and risk management. Due to the lack of proper knowledge with regard to factors controlling seismic hazards, there are always uncertainties associated with all steps involved in developing and using seismic hazard models. While some of these uncertainties can be controlled by more accurate and reliable input data, the majority of the data and assumptions used in seismic hazard studies remain with high uncertainties that contribute to the uncertainty of the final results. In this paper a new methodology for the assessment of seismic hazard is described. The proposed approach provides practical facility for better capture of spatial variations of seismological and tectonic characteristics, which allows better treatment of their uncertainties. In the proposed approach, GIS raster-based data models are used in order to model geographical features in a cell-based system. The cell-based source model proposed in this paper provides a framework for implementing many geographically referenced seismotectonic factors into seismic hazard modelling. Examples for such components are seismic source boundaries, rupture geometry, seismic activity rate, focal depth and the choice of attenuation functions. The proposed methodology provides improvements in several aspects of the standard analytical tools currently being used for assessment and mapping of regional seismic hazard. The proposed methodology makes the best use of the recent advancements in computer technology in both software and hardware. The proposed approach is well structured to be implemented using conventional GIS tools.

  11. EMERALD: A Flexible Framework for Managing Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. D.; Fouch, M. J.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2010-12-01

    The seismological community is challenged by the vast quantity of new broadband seismic data provided by large-scale seismic arrays such as EarthScope’s USArray. While this bonanza of new data enables transformative scientific studies of the Earth’s interior, it also illuminates limitations in the methods used to prepare and preprocess those data. At a recent seismic data processing focus group workshop, many participants expressed the need for better systems to minimize the time and tedium spent on data preparation in order to increase the efficiency of scientific research. Another challenge related to data from all large-scale transportable seismic experiments is that there currently exists no system for discovering and tracking changes in station metadata. This critical information, such as station location, sensor orientation, instrument response, and clock timing data, may change over the life of an experiment and/or be subject to post-experiment correction. Yet nearly all researchers utilize metadata acquired with the downloaded data, even though subsequent metadata updates might alter or invalidate results produced with older metadata. A third long-standing issue for the seismic community is the lack of easily exchangeable seismic processing codes. This problem stems directly from the storage of seismic data as individual time series files, and the history of each researcher developing his or her preferred data file naming convention and directory organization. Because most processing codes rely on the underlying data organization structure, such codes are not easily exchanged between investigators. To address these issues, we are developing EMERALD (Explore, Manage, Edit, Reduce, & Analyze Large Datasets). The goal of the EMERALD project is to provide seismic researchers with a unified, user-friendly, extensible system for managing seismic event data, thereby increasing the efficiency of scientific enquiry. EMERALD stores seismic data and metadata in a

  12. Seismic rupture modelling, strong motion prediction and seismic hazard assessment: fundamental and applied approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge-Thierry, C.

    2007-05-01

    The defence to obtain the 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches' is a synthesis of the research work performed since the end of my Ph D. thesis in 1997. This synthesis covers the two years as post doctoral researcher at the Bureau d'Evaluation des Risques Sismiques at the Institut de Protection (BERSSIN), and the seven consecutive years as seismologist and head of the BERSSIN team. This work and the research project are presented in the framework of the seismic risk topic, and particularly with respect to the seismic hazard assessment. Seismic risk combines seismic hazard and vulnerability. Vulnerability combines the strength of building structures and the human and economical consequences in case of structural failure. Seismic hazard is usually defined in terms of plausible seismic motion (soil acceleration or velocity) in a site for a given time period. Either for the regulatory context or the structural specificity (conventional structure or high risk construction), seismic hazard assessment needs: to identify and locate the seismic sources (zones or faults), to characterize their activity, to evaluate the seismic motion to which the structure has to resist (including the site effects). I specialized in the field of numerical strong-motion prediction using high frequency seismic sources modelling and forming part of the IRSN allowed me to rapidly working on the different tasks of seismic hazard assessment. Thanks to the expertise practice and the participation to the regulation evolution (nuclear power plants, conventional and chemical structures), I have been able to work on empirical strong-motion prediction, including site effects. Specific questions related to the interface between seismologists and structural engineers are also presented, especially the quantification of uncertainties. This is part of the research work initiated to improve the selection of the input ground motion in designing or verifying the stability of structures. (author)

  13. Seismic qualification of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidebrecht, A.C.; Tso, W.K.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes the results of an investigation into the seismic qualification of equipment located in CANDU nuclear power plants. It is particularly concerned with the evaluation of current seismic qualification requirements, the development of a suitable methodology for the seismic qualification of safety systems, and the evaluation of seismic qualification analysis and testing procedures

  14. Implementation guidelines for seismic PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, Ovidiu; Samaddar, Sujit; Hibino, Kenta; )

    2014-01-01

    The presentation was devoted to development of guidelines for implementation of a seismic PSA. If successful, these guidelines can close an important gap. ASME/ANS PRA standards and the related IAEA Safety Guide (IAEA NS-G-2.13) describe capability requirements for seismic PSA in order to support risk-informed applications. However, practical guidance on how to meet these requirements is limited. Such guidelines could significantly contribute to improving risk-informed safety demonstration, safety management and decision making. Extensions of this effort to further PSA areas, particularly to PSA for other external hazards, can enhance risk-informed applications

  15. Multicomponent ensemble models to forecast induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király-Proag, E.; Gischig, V.; Zechar, J. D.; Wiemer, S.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, human-induced seismicity has become a more and more relevant topic due to its economic and social implications. Several models and approaches have been developed to explain underlying physical processes or forecast induced seismicity. They range from simple statistical models to coupled numerical models incorporating complex physics. We advocate the need for forecast testing as currently the best method for ascertaining if models are capable to reasonably accounting for key physical governing processes—or not. Moreover, operational forecast models are of great interest to help on-site decision-making in projects entailing induced earthquakes. We previously introduced a standardized framework following the guidelines of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability, the Induced Seismicity Test Bench, to test, validate, and rank induced seismicity models. In this study, we describe how to construct multicomponent ensemble models based on Bayesian weightings that deliver more accurate forecasts than individual models in the case of Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 enhanced geothermal stimulation projects. For this, we examine five calibrated variants of two significantly different model groups: (1) Shapiro and Smoothed Seismicity based on the seismogenic index, simple modified Omori-law-type seismicity decay, and temporally weighted smoothed seismicity; (2) Hydraulics and Seismicity based on numerically modelled pore pressure evolution that triggers seismicity using the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. We also demonstrate how the individual and ensemble models would perform as part of an operational Adaptive Traffic Light System. Investigating seismicity forecasts based on a range of potential injection scenarios, we use forecast periods of different durations to compute the occurrence probabilities of seismic events M ≥ 3. We show that in the case of the Basel 2006 geothermal stimulation the models forecast hazardous levels

  16. Additive Complex Ayurvedic Treatment in Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Compared to Conventional Standard Care Alone: A Nonrandomized Controlled Clinical Pilot Study (KAFA Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian S. Kessler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fibromyalgia (FMS is a challenging condition for health care systems worldwide. Only limited trial data is available for FMS for outcomes of complex treatment interventions of complementary and integrative (CIM approaches. Methods. We conducted a controlled, nonrandomized feasibility study that compared outcomes in 21 patients treated with Ayurveda with those of 11 patients treated with a conventional approach at the end of a two-week inpatient hospital stay. Primary outcome was the impact of fibromyalgia on patients as assessed by the FIQ. Secondary outcomes included scores of pain intensity, pain perception, depression, anxiety, and quality of sleep. Follow-up assessments were done after 6 months. Results. At 2 weeks, there were comparable and significant improvements in the FIQ and for most of secondary outcomes in both groups with no significant in-between-group differences. The beneficial effects for both treatment groups were partly maintained for the main outcome and a number of secondary outcomes at the 6-month followup, again with no significant in-between-group differences. Discussion. The findings of this feasibility study suggest that Ayurvedic therapy is noninferior to conventional treatment in patients with severe FMS. Since Ayurveda was only used as add-on treatment, RCTs on Ayurveda alone are warranted to increase model validity. This trial is registered with NCT01389336.

  17. Comparative study of codes for the seismic design of structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. C. Santos

    Full Text Available A general evaluation of some points of the South American seismic codes is presented herein, comparing them among themselves and with the American Standard ASCE/SEI 7/10 and with the European Standard Eurocode 8. The study is focused in design criteria for buildings. The Western border of South America is one of the most seismically active regions of the World. It corresponds to the confluence of the South American and Nazca plates. This region corresponds roughly to the vicinity of the Andes Mountains. This seismicity diminishes in the direction of the comparatively seismically quieter Eastern South American areas. The South American countries located in its Western Border possess standards for seismic design since some decades ago, being the Brazilian Standard for seismic design only recently published. This study is focused in some critical topics: definition of the recurrence periods for establishing the seismic input; definition of the seismic zonation and design ground motion values; definition of the shape of the design response spectra; consideration of soil amplification, soil liquefaction and soil-structure interaction; classification of the structures in different importance levels; definition of the seismic force-resisting systems and respective response modification coefficients; consideration of structural irregularities and definition of the allowable procedures for the seismic analyses. A simple building structure is analyzed considering the criteria of the several standards and obtained results are compared.

  18. Risk factors associated with bulk tank standard plate count, bulk tank coliform count, and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M; Richert, R; Ruegg, P L; Stiglbauer, K E; Schukken, Y H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of bulk tank milk standard plate counts, bulk tank coliform counts (CC), and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk with various management and farm characteristics on organic and conventional dairy farms throughout New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from size-matched organic farms (n=192), conventional nongrazing farms (n=64), and conventional grazing farms (n=36) were collected at a single visit for each farm. Of the 292 farms visited, 290 bulk tank milk samples were collected. Statistical models were created using data from all herds in the study, as well as exclusively for the organic subset of herds. Because of incomplete data, 267 of 290 herds were analyzed for total herd modeling, and 173 of 190 organic herds were analyzed for the organic herd modeling. Overall, more bulk tanks from organic farms had Staph. aureus cultured from them (62% of organic herds, 42% conventional nongrazing herds, and 43% of conventional grazing herds), whereas fewer organic herds had a high CC, defined as ≥50 cfu/mL, than conventional farms in the study. A high standard plate count (×1,000 cfu/mL) was associated with decreased body condition score of adult cows and decreased milk production in both models. Several variables were significant only in the model created using all herds or only in organic herds. The presence of Staph. aureus in the bulk tank milk was associated with fewer people treating mastitis, increased age of housing, and a higher percentage of cows with 3 or fewer teats in both the organic and total herd models. The Staph. aureus total herd model also showed a relationship with fewer first-lactation animals, higher hock scores, and less use of automatic takeoffs at milking. High bulk tank CC was related to feeding a total mixed ration and using natural service in nonlactating heifers in both models. Overall, attentive management and use of outside resources were useful with regard to CC

  19. Quality of Survival and Growth in Children and Young Adults in the PNET4 European Controlled Trial of Hyperfractionated Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy for Standard-Risk Medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Colin; Bull, Kim; Chevignard, Mathilde; Culliford, David; Dörr, Helmuth G.; Doz, François; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Lannering, Birgitta; Massimino, Maura; Navajas Gutiérrez, Aurora; Rutkowski, Stefan; Spoudeas, Helen A.; Calaminus, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare quality of survival in “standard-risk” medulloblastoma after hyperfractionated radiation therapy of the central nervous system with that after standard radiation therapy, combined with a chemotherapy regimen common to both treatment arms, in the PNET4 randomised controlled trial. Methods and Materials: Participants in the PNET4 trial and their parents/caregivers in 7 participating anonymized countries completed standardized questionnaires in their own language on executive function, health status, behavior, health-related quality of life, and medical, educational, employment, and social information. Pre- and postoperative neurologic status and serial heights and weights were also recorded. Results: Data were provided by 151 of 244 eligible survivors (62%) at a median age at assessment of 15.2 years and median interval from diagnosis of 5.8 years. Compared with standard radiation therapy, hyperfractionated radiation therapy was associated with lower (ie, better) z-scores for executive function in all participants (mean intergroup difference 0.48 SDs, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.81, P=.004), but health status, behavioral difficulties, and health-related quality of life z-scores were similar in the 2 treatment arms. Data on hearing impairment were equivocal. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was also associated with greater decrement in height z-scores (mean intergroup difference 0.43 SDs, 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.76, P=.011). Conclusions: Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was associated with better executive function and worse growth but without accompanying change in health status, behavior, or quality of life

  20. Quality of Survival and Growth in Children and Young Adults in the PNET4 European Controlled Trial of Hyperfractionated Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy for Standard-Risk Medulloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Colin, E-mail: crk1@soton.ac.uk [University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Bull, Kim [University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Chevignard, Mathilde [Hôpitaux de Saint Maurice, Saint Maurice (France); Neurophysiology, University of Pierre et Marie-Curie Paris 6, Paris (France); Culliford, David [University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Dörr, Helmuth G. [Kinder- und Jugendklinik der Universität Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Doz, François [Institut Curie and University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Lannering, Birgitta [Department of Pediatrics, The Sahlgren Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Massimino, Maura [Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Navajas Gutiérrez, Aurora [Hospital Universitario Cruces, Baracaldo-Vizcaya (Spain); Rutkowski, Stefan [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Spoudeas, Helen A. [Center for Pediatric Endocrinology, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Calaminus, Gabriele [Pediatric Oncology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To compare quality of survival in “standard-risk” medulloblastoma after hyperfractionated radiation therapy of the central nervous system with that after standard radiation therapy, combined with a chemotherapy regimen common to both treatment arms, in the PNET4 randomised controlled trial. Methods and Materials: Participants in the PNET4 trial and their parents/caregivers in 7 participating anonymized countries completed standardized questionnaires in their own language on executive function, health status, behavior, health-related quality of life, and medical, educational, employment, and social information. Pre- and postoperative neurologic status and serial heights and weights were also recorded. Results: Data were provided by 151 of 244 eligible survivors (62%) at a median age at assessment of 15.2 years and median interval from diagnosis of 5.8 years. Compared with standard radiation therapy, hyperfractionated radiation therapy was associated with lower (ie, better) z-scores for executive function in all participants (mean intergroup difference 0.48 SDs, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.81, P=.004), but health status, behavioral difficulties, and health-related quality of life z-scores were similar in the 2 treatment arms. Data on hearing impairment were equivocal. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was also associated with greater decrement in height z-scores (mean intergroup difference 0.43 SDs, 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.76, P=.011). Conclusions: Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was associated with better executive function and worse growth but without accompanying change in health status, behavior, or quality of life.

  1. Quality of survival and growth in children and young adults in the PNET4 European controlled trial of hyperfractionated versus conventional radiation therapy for standard-risk medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Colin; Bull, Kim; Chevignard, Mathilde; Culliford, David; Dörr, Helmuth G; Doz, François; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Lannering, Birgitta; Massimino, Maura; Navajas Gutiérrez, Aurora; Rutkowski, Stefan; Spoudeas, Helen A; Calaminus, Gabriele

    2014-02-01

    To compare quality of survival in "standard-risk" medulloblastoma after hyperfractionated radiation therapy of the central nervous system with that after standard radiation therapy, combined with a chemotherapy regimen common to both treatment arms, in the PNET4 randomised controlled trial. Participants in the PNET4 trial and their parents/caregivers in 7 participating anonymized countries completed standardized questionnaires in their own language on executive function, health status, behavior, health-related quality of life, and medical, educational, employment, and social information. Pre- and postoperative neurologic status and serial heights and weights were also recorded. Data were provided by 151 of 244 eligible survivors (62%) at a median age at assessment of 15.2 years and median interval from diagnosis of 5.8 years. Compared with standard radiation therapy, hyperfractionated radiation therapy was associated with lower (ie, better) z-scores for executive function in all participants (mean intergroup difference 0.48 SDs, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.81, P=.004), but health status, behavioral difficulties, and health-related quality of life z-scores were similar in the 2 treatment arms. Data on hearing impairment were equivocal. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was also associated with greater decrement in height z-scores (mean intergroup difference 0.43 SDs, 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.76, P=.011). Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was associated with better executive function and worse growth but without accompanying change in health status, behavior, or quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Research on performance-based seismic design criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢礼立; 马玉宏

    2002-01-01

    The seismic design criterion adopted in the existing seismic design codes is reviewed. It is pointed out that the presently used seismic design criterion is not satisfied with the requirements of nowadays social and economic development. A new performance-based seismic design criterion that is composed of three components is presented in this paper. It can not only effectively control the economic losses and casualty, but also ensure the building(s function in proper operation during earthquakes. The three components are: classification of seismic design for buildings, determination of seismic design intensity and/or seismic design ground motion for controlling seismic economic losses and casualties, and determination of the importance factors in terms of service periods of buildings. For controlling the seismic human losses, the idea of socially acceptable casualty level is presented and the (Optimal Economic Decision Model( and (Optimal Safe Decision Model( are established. Finally, a new method is recommended for calculating the importance factors of structures by adjusting structures service period on the base of more important structure with longer service period than the conventional ones. Therefore, the more important structure with longer service periods will be designed for higher seismic loads, in case the exceedance probability of seismic hazard in different service period is same.

  3. Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA nuclear safety standards publications address the site evaluation and the design of new nuclear power plants (NPPs), including seismic hazard assessment and safe seismic design, at the level of the Safety Requirements as well as at the level of dedicated Safety Guides. It rapidly became apparent that the existing nuclear safety standards documents were not adequate for handling specific issues in the seismic evaluation of existing NPPs, and that a dedicated document was necessary. This is the purpose of this Safety Report, which is written in the spirit of the nuclear safety standards and can be regarded as guidance for the interpretation of their intent. Worldwide experience shows that an assessment of the seismic capacity of an existing operating facility can be prompted for the following: (a) Evidence of a greater seismic hazard at the site than expected before, owing to new or additional data and/or to new methods; (b) Regulatory requirements, such as periodic safety reviews, to ensure that the plant has adequate margins for seismic loads; (c) Lack of anti-seismic design or poor anti-seismic design; (d) New technical finding such as vulnerability of some structures (masonry walls) or equipment (relays), other feedback and new experience from real earthquakes. Post-construction evaluation programmes evaluate the current capability of the plant to withstand the seismic concern and identify any necessary upgrades or changes in operating procedures. Seismic qualification is distinguished from seismic evaluation primarily in that seismic qualification is intended to be performed at the design stage of a plant, whereas seismic evaluation is intended to be applied after a plant has been constructed. Although some guidelines do exist for the evaluation of existing NPPs, these are not established at the level of a regulatory guide or its equivalent. Nevertheless, a number of existing NPPs throughout the world have been and are being subjected to review of their

  4. Conventional magnets. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, N.

    1994-01-01

    The design and construction of conventional, steel-cored, direct-current magnets are discussed. Laplace's equation and the associated cylindrical harmonic solutions in two dimensions are established. The equations are used to define the ideal pole shapes and required excitation for dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets. Standard magnet geometries are then considered and criteria determining the coil design are presented. The use of codes for predicting flux density distributions and the iterative techniques used for pole face design are then discussed. This includes a description of the use of two-dimensional codes to generate suitable magnet end geometries. Finally, standard constructional techniques for cores and coils are described. (orig.)

  5. Seismic image watermarking using optimized wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mufti, M.

    2010-01-01

    Geotechnical processes and technologies are becoming more and more sophisticated by the use of computer and information technology. This has made the availability, authenticity and security of geo technical data even more important. One of the most common methods of storing and sharing seismic data images is through standardized SEG- Y file format.. Geo technical industry is now primarily data centric. The analytic and detection capability of seismic processing tool is heavily dependent on the correctness of the contents of the SEG-Y data file. This paper describes a method through an optimized wavelet transform technique which prevents unauthorized alteration and/or use of seismic data. (author)

  6. Civil Works Seismic Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. This rule defines: - the parameters characterizing the design seismic motions - the calculation methods - the mathematical schematization principles on which calculations are based - the use of the seismic response for the structure checking - the content of the documents to be presented

  7. Comparison of the novel Partec rapid malaria test to the conventional Giemsa stain and the gold standard real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Agyekum, Alex; Acquah, Samuel E K; May, Jürgen; Tannich, Egbert; Brattig, Norbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; von Thien, Heidrun; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

    2010-08-01

    Malaria remains the single most frequent cause of death in Africa, killing one child every 30 s, but treatment decisions are often made only on clinical diagnosis, as laboratory techniques to confirm the clinical suspicion are labor intensive and costly. In this study, we evaluated the recently developed Partec rapid malaria test (PM) for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in human blood from patients in an area where malaria is endemic and compared the results with those of thick blood film Giemsa stain (GS) in terms of its performance and operational characteristics, using real-time (RT) PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivities of the PM and the GS were 62.2% (95% CI, 56.3 to 67.8) and 61.8% (95% CI, 55.9 to 67.4), respectively, while the specificities were 96.0% (95% CI, 92.3 to 98.3) and 98% (95% CI, 95.0 to 99.5), respectively. There was an excellent agreement between the results for the PM and those of the GS (k [level of agreement] = 0.96; P < 0.001). The results for the PM were obtained more quickly and at less cost than those for the GS. The performance characteristics of the PM were almost equal to those of the GS, but the operational characteristics were better, and the PM can therefore be considered as an alternative method for GS.

  8. Comparison of the Novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test to the Conventional Giemsa Stain and the Gold Standard Real-Time PCR ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Agyekum, Alex; Acquah, Samuel E. K.; May, Jürgen; Tannich, Egbert; Brattig, Norbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; von Thien, Heidrun; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Malaria remains the single most frequent cause of death in Africa, killing one child every 30 s, but treatment decisions are often made only on clinical diagnosis, as laboratory techniques to confirm the clinical suspicion are labor intensive and costly. In this study, we evaluated the recently developed Partec rapid malaria test (PM) for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in human blood from patients in an area where malaria is endemic and compared the results with those of thick blood film Giemsa stain (GS) in terms of its performance and operational characteristics, using real-time (RT) PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivities of the PM and the GS were 62.2% (95% CI, 56.3 to 67.8) and 61.8% (95% CI, 55.9 to 67.4), respectively, while the specificities were 96.0% (95% CI, 92.3 to 98.3) and 98% (95% CI, 95.0 to 99.5), respectively. There was an excellent agreement between the results for the PM and those of the GS (k [level of agreement] = 0.96; P < 0.001). The results for the PM were obtained more quickly and at less cost than those for the GS. The performance characteristics of the PM were almost equal to those of the GS, but the operational characteristics were better, and the PM can therefore be considered as an alternative method for GS. PMID:20554822

  9. Seismic analysis of piping with nonlinear supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barta, D.A.; Huang, S.N.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    The modeling and results of nonlinear time-history seismic analyses for three sizes of pipelines restrained by mechanical snubbes are presented. Numerous parametric analyses were conducted to obtain sensitivity information which identifies relative importance of the model and analysis ingredients. Special considerations for modeling the pipe clamps and the mechanical snubbers based on experimental characterization data are discussed. Comparisions are also given of seismic responses, loads and pipe stresses predicted by standard response spectra methods and the nonlinear time-history methods

  10. Seismic intrusion detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  11. National Seismic Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, P.A.

    1982-06-01

    The National Seismic Station was developed to meet the needs of regional or worldwide seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions to verify compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty. The Station acquires broadband seismic data and transmits it via satellite to a data center. It is capable of unattended operation for periods of at least a year, and will detect any tampering that could result in the transmission of unauthentic seismic data

  12. Using fMRI to Detect Activation of the Cortical and Subcortical Auditory Centers: Development of a Standard Protocol for a Conventional 1.5-T MRI Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sam Soo; Lee, Kang Uk; Lee, Seung Hwan; Nam, Eui Cheol; Choi, Hyun Kyung

    2009-01-01

    We wanted to develop a standard protocol for auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for detecting blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses at the cortical and subcortical auditory centers with using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. Fourteen normal volunteers were enrolled in the study. The subjects were stimulated by four repetitions of 32 sec each with broadband white noise and silent period blocks as a run (34 echo planar images [EPIs]). Multiple regression analysis for the individual analysis and one-sample t-tests for the group analysis were applied (FDR, p <0.05). The auditory cortex was activated in most of the volunteers (left 100% and right 92.9% at an uncorrected p value <0.05, and left 92.9% and right 92.9% at an uncorreced p value <0.01). The cochlear nuclei (100%, 85.7%), inferior colliculi (71.4%, 64.3%), medial geniculate bodies (64.3%, 35.7%) and superior olivary complexes (35.7%, 35.7%) showed significant BOLD responses at uncorrected p values of <0.05 and p <0.01, respectively. On the group analysis, the cortical and subcortical auditory centers showed significant BOLD responses (FDR, p <0.05), except for the superior olivary complex. The signal intensity time courses of the auditory centers showed biphasic wave forms. We successfully visualized BOLD responses at the cortical and subcortical auditory centers using appropriate sound stimuli and an image acquisition method with a 1.5-T MRI scanner

  13. Quantitative Seismic Amplitude Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Seismic Value Chain quantifies the cyclic interaction between seismic acquisition, imaging and reservoir characterization. Modern seismic innovation to address the global imbalance in hydrocarbon supply and demand requires such cyclic interaction of both feed-forward and feed-back processes.

  14. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  15. Seismic evaluation of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel

    1997-01-01

    Some considerations regarding extreme external events, natural or man-induce, such as earthquakes, floods, air crashes, etc, shall be done for nuclear facilities to minimizing the potential impact of the installation on the public and the environment. In this paper the main aspects of the seismic evaluation of nuclear facilities (except the nuclear power reactors) will be presented based on different codes and standards. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  16. France's seismic zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  17. Seismic changes industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the growth in the seismic industry as a result of the recent increases in the foreign market. With the decline of communism and the opening of Latin America to exploration, seismic teams have moved out into these areas in support of the oil and gas industry. The paper goes on to discuss the improved technology available for seismic resolution and the subsequent use of computers to field-proof the data while the seismic team is still on-site. It also discusses the effects of new computer technology on reducing the amount of support staff that is required to both conduct and interpret seismic information

  18. Aspects of the Iea-R1 research reactor seismic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel

    1996-01-01

    Codes and standards for the seismic evaluation of the research reactor IEA-R1 are presented. An approach to define the design basis earthquake based on the local seismic map and on simplified analysis methods is proposed. The site seismic evaluation indicates that the design earthquake intensity is IV MM. Therefore, according to the used codes and standards, no buildings, systems, and components seismic analysis are required. (author)

  19. 6C polarization analysis - seismic direction finding in coherent noise, automated event identification, and wavefield separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzbach, C.; Sollberger, D.; Greenhalgh, S.; Van Renterghem, C.; Robertsson, J. O. A.

    2017-12-01

    Polarization analysis of standard three-component (3C) seismic data is an established tool to determine the propagation directions of seismic waves recorded by a single station. A major limitation of seismic direction finding methods using 3C recordings, however, is that a correct propagation-direction determination is only possible if the wave mode is known. Furthermore, 3C polarization analysis techniques break down in the presence of coherent noise (i.e., when more than one event is present in the analysis time window). Recent advances in sensor technology (e.g., fibre-optical, magnetohydrodynamic angular rate sensors, and ring laser gyroscopes) have made it possible to accurately measure all three components of rotational ground motion exhibited by seismic waves, in addition to the conventionally recorded three components of translational motion. Here, we present an extension of the theory of single station 3C polarization analysis to six-component (6C) recordings of collocated translational and rotational ground motions. We demonstrate that the information contained in rotation measurements can help to overcome some of the main limitations of standard 3C seismic direction finding, such as handling multiple arrivals simultaneously. We show that the 6C polarisation of elastic waves measured at the Earth's free surface does not only depend on the seismic wave type and propagation direction, but also on the local P- and S-wave velocities just beneath the recording station. Using an adaptation of the multiple signal classification algorithm (MUSIC), we demonstrate how seismic events can univocally be identified and characterized in terms of their wave type. Furthermore, we show how the local velocities can be inferred from single-station 6C data, in addition to the direction angles (inclination and azimuth) of seismic arrivals. A major benefit of our proposed 6C method is that it also allows the accurate recovery of the wave type, propagation directions, and phase

  20. Seismic stops for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloud, R.L.; Leung, J.S.M.; Anderson, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the regulated world of nuclear power, the need to have analytical proof of performance in hypothetical design-basis events such as earth quakes has placed a premium on design configurations that are mathematically tractable and easily analyzed. This is particularly true for the piping design. Depending on how the piping analyses are organized and on how old the plant is, there may be from 200 to 1000 separate piping runs to be designed, analyzed, and qualified. In this situation, the development of snubbers seemed like the answer to a piping engineer's prayer. At any place where seismic support was required but thermal motion had to be accommodated, a snubber could be specified. But, as experience has now shown, the program was solved only on paper. This article presents an alternative to conventional snubbers. These new devices, termed Seismic Stops are designed to replace snubbers directly and look like snubbers on the outside. But their design is based on a completely different principle. The original concept has adapted from early seismic-resistant pipe support designs used on fossil power plants in California. The fundamental idea is to provide a space envelope in which the pipe can expand freely between the hot and cold positions, but cannot move outside the envelope. Seismic Stops are designed to transmit any possible impact load, as would occur in an earthquake, away from the pipe itself to the Seismic Stop. The Seismic Stop pipe support is shown

  1. Detailed geological characterisation from seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Hatherly; Binzhong Zhou; Troy Peters; Milovan Urosevic [CRC Mining (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    The use of seismic reflection surveying continues to grow within Australia's underground coal mining regions of the Sydney and Bowen Basins. For this project, the potential for acoustic impedance inversion to complement the information available from conventional seismic surveys was investigated. Acoustic impedance is defined by the product of seismic P-wave velocity and rock density. The methods of seismic inversion have been developed mainly for the investigation of petroleum reservoirs. Commercial software packages are available and for this project we utilised the Hampson and Russell software available at Curtin University of Technology. For the true amplitude processing of the seismic data, the Promax software operated at Velseis Processing was used. Inversions were undertaken for three 3D seismic surveys and two 2D surveys. The sites were at Grasstree and North Goonyella Mines in the Bowen Basin and at West Cliff and Dendrobium Collieries in the Sydney Basin. An empirical relationship was derived between acoustic impedance and the newly developed Geophysical Strata Rating (GSR). This allows impedance values to be converted into GSR values that have more meaning in geotechnical assessment. To obtain satisfactory inversions, we used the model based approach.

  2. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbritter, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plants require exceptional safety guarantees which are reflected in a rigorous control of the employed materials, advanced construction technology, sophisticated methods of analysis and consideration of non conventional load cases such as the earthquake loading. In this paper, the current procedures used in the seismic analysis of Nuclear Power Plants are presented. The seismic analysis of the structures has two objectives: the determination of forces in the structure in order to design it against earthquakes and the generation of floor response spectra to be used in the design of mechanical and electrical components and piping systems. (Author) [pt

  3. Seismic characterization of the NPP Krsko site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obreza, J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of NPP Krsko PSA Project Update was the inclusion of plant changes (i.e. configuration/operational related) through the period January 1, 1993 till the OUTAGE99 (April 1999) into the integrated Internal/External Level 1/Level 2 NPP Krsko PSA RISK SPECTRUM model. NPP Krsko is located on seismotectonic plate. Highest earthquake was recorded in 1917 with magnitude 5.8 at a distance of 7-9 km. Site (founded) on Pliocene sediments which are as deep as several hundred meters. No surface faulting at the Krsko site has been observed and thus it is not to be expected. NPP Krsko is equipped with seismic instrumentation, which allows it to complete OBE (SSE). The seismic PSA successfully showed high seismic margin at Krsko plant. NPP Krsko seismic design is based on US regulations and standards

  4. Statistical analysis of seismicity and hazard estimation for Italy (mixed approach). Statistical parameters of main shocks and aftershocks in the Italian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchan, G.M.; Kronrod, T.L.; Dmitrieva, O.E.

    1995-03-01

    The catalog of earthquakes of Italy (1900-1993) is analyzed in the present work. The following problems have been considered: 1) a choice of the operating magnitude, 2) an analysis of data completeness, and 3) a grouping (in time and in space). The catalog has been separated into main shocks and aftershocks. Statistical estimations of seismicity parameters (a,b) are performed for the seismogenetic zones defined by GNDT. The non-standard elements of the analysis performed are: (a) statistical estimation and comparison of seismicity parameters under the condition of arbitrary data grouping in magnitude, time and space; (b) use of a not conventional statistical method for the aftershock identification; the method is based on the idea of optimizing two kinds of errors in the aftershock identification process; (c) use of the aftershock zones to reveal seismically- interrelated seismogenic zones. This procedure contributes to the stability of the estimation of the ''b-value'' Refs, 25 figs, tabs

  5. Angola Seismicity MAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

  6. Dataset on the mean, standard deviation, broad-sense heritability and stability of wheat quality bred in three different ways and grown under organic and low-input conventional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakszegi, Marianna; Löschenberger, Franziska; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Vida, Gyula; Mikó, Péter

    2016-06-01

    An assessment was previously made of the effects of organic and low-input field management systems on the physical, grain compositional and processing quality of wheat and on the performance of varieties developed using different breeding methods ("Comparison of quality parameters of wheat varieties with different breeding origin under organic and low-input conventional conditions" [1]). Here, accompanying data are provided on the performance and stability analysis of the genotypes using the coefficient of variation and the 'ranking' and 'which-won-where' plots of GGE biplot analysis for the most important quality traits. Broad-sense heritability was also evaluated and is given for the most important physical and quality properties of the seed in organic and low-input management systems, while mean values and standard deviation of the studied properties are presented separately for organic and low-input fields.

  7. Seismic Noise Analysis and Reduction through Utilization of Collocated Seismic and Atmospheric Sensors at the GRO Chile Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M. E.; Russo, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The installation of Earthscope Transportable Array-style geophysical observatories in Chile expands open data seismic recording capabilities in the southern hemisphere by nearly 30%, and has nearly tripled the number of seismic stations providing freely-available data in southern South America. Through the use of collocated seismic and atmospheric sensors at these stations we are able to analyze how local atmospheric conditions generate seismic noise, which can degrade data in seismic frequency bands at stations in the ';roaring forties' (S latitudes). Seismic vaults that are climate-controlled and insulated from the local environment are now employed throughout the world in an attempt to isolate seismometers from as many noise sources as possible. However, this is an expensive solution that is neither practical nor possible for all seismic deployments; and also, the increasing number and scope of temporary seismic deployments has resulted in the collection and archiving of terabytes of seismic data that is affected to some degree by natural seismic noise sources such as wind and atmospheric pressure changes. Changing air pressure can result in a depression and subsequent rebound of Earth's surface - which generates low frequency noise in seismic frequency bands - and even moderate winds can apply enough force to ground-coupled structures or to the surface above the seismometers themselves, resulting in significant noise. The 10 stations of the permanent Geophysical Reporting Observatories (GRO Chile), jointly installed during 2011-12 by IRIS and the Chilean Servicio Sismológico, include instrumentation in addition to the standard three seismic components. These stations, spaced approximately 300 km apart along the length of the country, continuously record a variety of atmospheric data including infrasound, air pressure, wind speed, and wind direction. The collocated seismic and atmospheric sensors at each station allow us to analyze both datasets together, to

  8. Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

    1999-01-01

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration

  9. Multiscale Phase Inversion of Seismic Data

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Lei

    2017-12-02

    We present a scheme for multiscale phase inversion (MPI) of seismic data that is less sensitive to the unmodeled physics of wave propagation and a poor starting model than standard full waveform inversion (FWI). To avoid cycle-skipping, the multiscale strategy temporally integrates the traces several times, i.e. high-order integration, to produce low-boost seismograms that are used as input data for the initial iterations of MPI. As the iterations proceed, higher frequencies in the data are boosted by using integrated traces of lower order as the input data. The input data are also filtered into different narrow frequency bands for the MPI implementation. At low frequencies, we show that MPI with windowed reflections approximates wave equation inversion of the reflection traveltimes, except no traveltime picking is needed. Numerical results with synthetic acoustic data show that MPI is more robust than conventional multiscale FWI when the initial model is far from the true model. Results from synthetic viscoacoustic and elastic data show that MPI is less sensitive than FWI to some of the unmodeled physics. Inversion of marine data shows that MPI is more robust and produces modestly more accurate results than FWI for this data set.

  10. Geomorphology and seismic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Mario

    1991-07-01

    The author analyses the contributions provided by geomorphology in studies suited to the assessment of seismic risk: this is defined as function of the seismic hazard, of the seismic susceptibility, and of the vulnerability. The geomorphological studies applicable to seismic risk assessment can be divided into two sectors: (a) morpho-neotectonic investigations conducted to identify active tectonic structures; (b) geomorphological and morphometric analyses aimed at identifying the particular situations that amplify or reduce seismic susceptibility. The morpho-neotectonic studies lead to the identification, selection and classification of the lineaments that can be linked with active tectonic structures. The most important geomorphological situations that can condition seismic susceptibility are: slope angle, debris, morphology, degradational slopes, paleo-landslides and underground cavities.

  11. Pliocene paleoenvironment evolution as interpreted from 3D-seismic data in the southern North Sea, Dutch offshore sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, G.; Wong, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    A high-resolution 3D-seismic survey from the Dutch offshore sector has been interpreted and subsequently correlated with existing regional seismo-stratigraphic concepts derived from conventional 2D-seismic data sets. The interpreted 13 seismic units have been related to a newly established

  12. Reduction of seismic response in breeder plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajirian, F.F.; Somes, N.F.; Todeschini, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Thin-walled vessels to be used in the Nuclear Steam Supply Systems (NSSS) of future LMFBR's will be more sensitive to seismic excitation than their equivalents used in conventional LWR plants. Optimization studies of building arrangement have indicated that embedment of future plants may be one feasible strategy for reducing seismic response. This paper presents the results of a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction analysis using the computer program SASSI. Two types of embedded buildings are considered: full embedment of the nuclear island, and embedment of the reactor cavity alone. A comparison, between the response of the embedded structure with that of a plant supported on the surface, indicates that the seismic response at the reactor vessel support ledge can be lowered by embedment of either the entire nuclear island or the reactor cavity alone. This reduction is larger when the plant is embedded in a softer site due to the increased effect of soil-structure interaction

  13. Safety design guides for seismic requirements for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    This safety design guide for seismic requirements for CANDU 9 describes the seismic design philosophy, defines the applicable earthquakes and identifies the structures and systems requiring seismic qualification to ensure that the essential safety function can be adequately satisfied following earthquake. The detailed requirements for structures, systems and components which must be seismically qualified are specified in the Appendix. The change status of the regulatory requirements, code and standards should be traced and this safety design guide shall be updated accordingly. 1 fig., (Author) .new

  14. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory seismic yield determination for the NPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recorded seismic signals from the Non-Proliferation experiment at the Nevada Test Site on September 22, 1993, at seismic stations near Mina, Nevada; Kanab Utah; Landers, California; and Elko, Nevada. Yields were calculated from these recorded seismic amplitudes at the stations using statistical amplitude- yield regression curves from earlier nuclear experiments performed near the Non-Proliferation experiment. The weighted seismic yield average using these amplitudes is 1.9 kt with a standard deviation of 19%. The calibrating experiments were nuclear, so this yield is equivalent to a 1.9-kt nuclear experiment.

  15. Seismic isolation of buildings using composite foundations based on metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casablanca, O.; Ventura, G.; Garescı, F.; Azzerboni, B.; Chiaia, B.; Chiappini, M.; Finocchio, G.

    2018-05-01

    Metamaterials can be engineered to interact with waves in entirely new ways, finding application on the nanoscale in various fields such as optics and acoustics. In addition, acoustic metamaterials can be used in large-scale experiments for filtering and manipulating seismic waves (seismic metamaterials). Here, we propose seismic isolation based on a device that combines some properties of seismic metamaterials (e.g., periodic mass-in-mass systems) with that of a standard foundation positioned right below the building for isolation purposes. The concepts on which this solution is based are the local resonance and a dual-stiffness structure that preserves large (small) rigidity for compression (shear) effects. In other words, this paper introduces a different approach to seismic isolation by using certain principles of seismic metamaterials. The experimental demonstrator tested on the laboratory scale exhibits a spectral bandgap that begins at 4.5 Hz. Within the bandgap, it filters more than 50% of the seismic energy via an internal dissipation process. Our results open a path toward the seismic resilience of buildings and a critical infrastructure to shear seismic waves, achieving higher efficiency compared to traditional seismic insulators and passive energy-dissipation systems.

  16. Why Earthquake Effects are to be Reduced Conventional seismic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 11. Learning Earthquake Design and Construction – 24. How to Reduce Earthquake Effects on Buildings? C V R Murty. Classroom Volume 10 Issue 11 November 2005 pp 89-92 ...

  17. Seismic qualification of civil engineering structures - Temelin NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schererova, K.; Holub, I.; Stepan, J.; Maly, J.

    2004-01-01

    Basic information is presented about the input data and methodology used for evaluation of Temelin NPP civil structures. The existing conditions as listed in POSAR report for the two reactor units are considered. The original design of the power plant assumed a lower level of locality seismic hazard, as followed from seismological surveys that where then available. Later the seismic assessment was updated while fully respecting IAEA recommendations and using a minimum value of acceleration in the horizontal direction PGAHOR = 0.1 g at free field level for SL-2. In relation to the new seismic project, new qualification of the structures, components and systems classed as seismic resistance category 1 was carried out. Since the Czech Republic has no specific technical standards for seismic resistance evaluation of nuclear power plants, a detailed methodology was elaborated, comprising principles of seismic resistance evaluation based on IAEA guides and on common practice in countries with advanced nuclear power engineering. (P.A.)

  18. Seismic qualification for water chillers of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunming

    2005-01-01

    Water chillers are important components of the electric building chilled water system of Nuclear Power Plant. In this article, we describe the seismic qualification methodology. A united method of seismic analysis and experiment testing were applied. Since the seismic classification of the evaporator, condenser and oil separator is 1F, the chillers must satisfy the function criteria. The functional and performance of the control panel were qualified by seismic test. In order to get the seismic time histories of the base of the motor, compressor and control panel, we did time histories analysis for the whole chillers using the seismic acceleration time history of the building floor on which the water chillers was located. Then, these curves were translated into required response spectrum (RRS), which were used by the seismic test of water chillers compressor sets. All passive components, such as evaporator, condenser, oil separator and support, were qualified by seismic stress analysis method. These components were verified to satisfy the standard when they were subjected to the seismic, gravitational, operational pressure and nozzle loads. The Chillers' components were qualified to the specification and the standard. The motor-compressor set and control panel were qualified to the functional and performance criteria. The applied of this methodology qualified the function of the water chillers compressor sets effectively, especially after the aging test. (author)

  19. Burar seismic station: evaluation of seismic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghica, Daniela; Popa, Mihaela

    2005-01-01

    A new seismic monitoring system, the Bucovina Seismic Array (BURAR), has been established since July 2002, in the Northern part of Romania, in a joint effort of the Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA, and the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP), Romania. The small-aperture array consists of 10 seismic sensors (9 vertical short-period and one three-component broad band) located in boreholes and distributed in a 5 x 5 km 2 area. At present, the seismic data are continuously recorded by the BURAR and transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Center in Bucharest and National Data Center of the USA, in Florida. Based on the BURAR seismic information gathered at the National Data Center, NIEP (ROM N DC), in the August 2002 - December 2004 time interval, analysis and statistical assessments were performed. Following the preliminary processing of the data, several observations on the global performance of the BURAR system were emphasized. Data investigation showed an excellent efficiency of the BURAR system particularly in detecting teleseismic and regional events. Also, a statistical analysis for the BURAR detection capability of the local Vrancea events was performed in terms of depth and magnitude for the year 2004. The high signal detection capability of the BURAR resulted, generally, in improving the location solutions for the Vrancea seismic events. The location solution accuracy is enhanced when adding BURAR recordings, especially in the case of low magnitude events (recorded by few stations). The location accuracy is increased, both in terms of constraining hypocenter depth and epicentral coordinates. Our analysis certifies the importance of the BURAR system in NIEP efforts to elaborate seismic bulletins. Furthermore, the specific procedures for array data processing (beam forming, f-k analysis) increase significantly the signal-to-noise ratio by summing up the coherent signals from the array components, and ensure a better accuracy

  20. Seismic review of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, P.I.; Mayes, R.L.; Jones, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    Because of developments in the fields of earthquake and structural engineering over the last two decades, the codes, standards and design criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and other critical structures have changed substantially. As a result, plants designed only a few years ago do not satisfy the requirements for new plants. Accordingly, the Regulatory Agencies are requiring owners of older Nuclear Power Plants to re-qualify the plants seismically, using codes, standards, analytical techniques and knowledge developed in recent years. Seismic review consists of three major phases: establishing the design and performance criteria, re-qualifying the structures, and re-qualifying the equipment. The authors of the paper have been recently involved in the seismic review of existing nuclear power plants in the United States. This paper is a brief summary of their experiences

  1. Processing grounded-wire TEM signal in time-frequency-pseudo-seismic domain: A new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Y.; Xue, G. Q.; Chen, W.; Huasen, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Grounded-wire TEM has received great attention in mineral, hydrocarbon and hydrogeological investigations for the last several years. Conventionally, TEM soundings have been presented as apparent resistivity curves as function of time. With development of sophisticated computational algorithms, it became possible to extract more realistic geoelectric information by applying inversion programs to 1-D & 3-D problems. Here, we analyze grounded-wire TEM data by carrying out analysis in time, frequency and pseudo-seismic domain supported by borehole information. At first, H, K, A & Q type geoelectric models are processed using a proven inversion program (1-D Occam inversion). Second, time-to-frequency transformation is conducted from TEM ρa(t) curves to magneto telluric MT ρa(f) curves for the same models based on all-time apparent resistivity curves. Third, 1-D Bostick's algorithm was applied to the transformed resistivity. Finally, EM diffusion field is transformed into propagating wave field obeying the standard wave equation using wavelet transformation technique and constructed pseudo-seismic section. The transformed seismic-like wave indicates that some reflection and refraction phenomena appear when the EM wave field interacts with geoelectric interface at different depth intervals due to contrast in resistivity. The resolution of the transformed TEM data is significantly improved in comparison to apparent resistivity plots. A case study illustrates the successful hydrogeophysical application of proposed approach in recovering water-filled mined-out area in a coal field located in Ye county, Henan province, China. The results support the introduction of pseudo-seismic imaging technology in short-offset version of TEM which can also be an useful aid if integrated with seismic reflection technique to explore possibilities for high resolution EM imaging in future.

  2. Earthquake experience suggests new approach to seismic criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, R.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in seismic qualification of nuclear power plants as reviewed at the 4th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference in Vancouver, September 1983, is discussed. The lack of experience of earthquakes in existing nuclear plants can be compensated by the growing experience of actual earthquake effects in conventional power plants and similar installations. A survey of the effects on four power stations, with a total of twenty generating units, in the area strongly shaken by the San Fernando earthquake in California in 1971 is reported. The Canadian approach to seismic qualification, international criteria, Canadian/Korean experience, safety related equipment, the Tadotsu test facility and seismic tests are discussed. (U.K.)

  3. IAEA establishes International Seismic Safety Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA today officially inaugurated an international centre to coordinate efforts for protecting nuclear installations against the effects of earthquakes. The International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC), which has been established within the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, will serve as a focal point on seismic safety for nuclear installations worldwide. ISSC will assist countries on the assessment of seismic hazards of nuclear facilities to mitigate the consequences of strong earthquakes. 'With safety as our first priority, it is vital that we pool all expert knowledge available worldwide to assist nuclear operators and regulators to be well prepared for coping with major seismic events,' said Antonio Godoy, Acting Head of the IAEA's Engineering Safety Section and leader of the ISSC. 'The creation of the ISSC represents the culmination of three decades of the IAEA's active and recognized involvement in this matter through the development of an updated set of safety standards and the assistance to Member States for their application.' To further seismic safety at nuclear installations worldwide, the ISSC will: - Promote knowledge sharing among the international community in order to avoid or mitigate the consequences of extreme seismic events on nuclear installations; - Support countries through advisory services and training courses; and - Enhance seismic safety by utilizing experience gained from previous seismic events in member states. The centre is supported by a scientific committee of high-level experts from academic, industrial and nuclear safety authorities that will advise the ISSC on implementation of its programme. Experts have been nominated from seven specialized areas, including geology and tectonics, seismology, seismic hazard, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, equipment, and seismic risk. Japan and the United States have both contributed initial funds for creation of the centre, which will be based at

  4. Current USAEC seismic requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    The principal seismic and geologic considerations which guide the USAEC in its evaluation of the suitability of proposed sites for nuclear power plants and plant design bases are set forth as design criteria in the AEC regulatory guides. The basic requirements of seismic design and analysis for seismic Category I structures, components, and systems important to public safety have been established in the USAEC regulatory guides and Code of Federal Regulations. It is pointed out that the current state-of-art techniques, best available technology, and additional studies in the field of earthquake engineering can be utilized to resolve seismic concerns. The seismic design requirements for nuclear plants to withstand postulated earthquakes can be standardized and this will be a significant milestone in the continuation of the Nuclear Standardization Program. (author)

  5. Proceedings of the OECD/NEA workshop on the relations between seismological data and seismic engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    sessions had been tailored so as to cover topics on which a strong co-operation among seismologists and designers was expected to be fruitful, such as on-going studies aiming to link damage to seismological parameters, description of seismic input motion, innovative design approaches (i.e. displacement based approaches and performance based design) and current changes in regulations in the area of seismic input motions. Special interest was paid to near-field earthquakes and soft soils issues. The sessions were as follows: - Topic 1: Damaging capacity of seismic motions - Topic 2: Seismic input motion for design purpose - Topic 3: Regulatory aspects - Final session: Formulation of conclusions and recommendations In the area of the seismic behaviour of structures, the CSNI is currently preparing among others a workshop on the New Relation between Geology, Seismology and Engineering for Seismic Input in Japan in 2004. This workshop would complement the Istanbul workshop by investigating further the link between the 3 areas mentioned above. A report on differences in approach between nuclear and conventional seismic standards with regard to hazard definition is under preparation. The IAGE WG also started a study on NPPs and other nuclear facilities that have experienced an earthquake

  6. Seismic Design Guidelines For Port Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Bernal, Alberto; Blazquez, Rafael

    In order to mitigate hazards and losses due to earthquakes, seismic design methodologies have been developed and implemented in design practice in many regions since the early twentieth century, often in the form of codes and standards. Most of these methodologies are based on a force-balance app...

  7. Engineering Seismic Base Layer for Defining Design Earthquake Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Nozomu

    2008-01-01

    Engineer's common sense that incident wave is common in a widespread area at the engineering seismic base layer is shown not to be correct. An exhibiting example is first shown, which indicates that earthquake motion at the ground surface evaluated by the analysis considering the ground from a seismic bedrock to a ground surface simultaneously (continuous analysis) is different from the one by the analysis in which the ground is separated at the engineering seismic base layer and analyzed separately (separate analysis). The reason is investigated by several approaches. Investigation based on eigen value problem indicates that the first predominant period in the continuous analysis cannot be found in the separate analysis, and predominant period at higher order does not match in the upper and lower ground in the separate analysis. The earthquake response analysis indicates that reflected wave at the engineering seismic base layer is not zero, which indicates that conventional engineering seismic base layer does not work as expected by the term ''base''. All these results indicate that wave that goes down to the deep depths after reflecting in the surface layer and again reflects at the seismic bedrock cannot be neglected in evaluating the response at the ground surface. In other words, interaction between the surface layer and/or layers between seismic bedrock and engineering seismic base layer cannot be neglected in evaluating the earthquake motion at the ground surface

  8. Earthquake Protection of Existing Structures with Limited Seismic Joint: Base Isolation with Supplemental Damping versus Rotational Inertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario De Domenico

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing civil engineering structures having strategic importance, such as hospitals, fire stations, and power plants, often do not comply with seismic standards in force today, as they were designed and built based on past structural guidelines. On the other hand, due to their special importance, structural integrity of such buildings is of vital importance during and after earthquakes, which puts demands on strategies for their seismic protection. In this regard, seismic base isolation has been widely employed; however, the existing limited seismic joint between adjacent buildings may hamper this application because of the large displacements concentrated at the isolation floor. In this paper, we compare two possible remedies: the former is to provide supplemental damping in conventional base isolation systems and the latter consists in a combination of base isolation with supplemental rotational inertia. For the second strategy, a mechanical device, called inerter, is arranged in series with spring and dashpot elements to form the so-called tuned-mass-damper-inerter (TMDI directly connected to an isolation floor. Several advantages of this second system as compared to the first one are outlined, especially with regard to the limitation of floor accelerations and interstory drifts, which may be an issue for nonstructural elements and equipment, in addition to disturbing occupants. Once the optimal design of the TMDI is established, possible implementation of this system into existing structures is discussed.

  9. Using Seismic Interferometry to Investigate Seismic Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, E.; Morency, C.; Templeton, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity provides a direct means of measuring the physical characteristics of active tectonic features such as fault zones. Hundreds of small earthquakes often occur along a fault during a seismic swarm. This seismicity helps define the tectonically active region. When processed using novel geophysical techniques, we can isolate the energy sensitive to the fault, itself. Here we focus on two methods of seismic interferometry, ambient noise correlation (ANC) and the virtual seismometer method (VSM). ANC is based on the observation that the Earth's background noise includes coherent energy, which can be recovered by observing over long time periods and allowing the incoherent energy to cancel out. The cross correlation of ambient noise between a pair of stations results in a waveform that is identical to the seismogram that would result if an impulsive source located at one of the stations was recorded at the other, the Green function (GF). The calculation of the GF is often stable after a few weeks of continuous data correlation, any perturbations to the GF after that point are directly related to changes in the subsurface and can be used for 4D monitoring.VSM is a style of seismic interferometry that provides fast, precise, high frequency estimates of the Green's function (GF) between earthquakes. VSM illuminates the subsurface precisely where the pressures are changing and has the potential to image the evolution of seismicity over time, including changes in the style of faulting. With hundreds of earthquakes, we can calculate thousands of waveforms. At the same time, VSM collapses the computational domain, often by 2-3 orders of magnitude. This allows us to do high frequency 3D modeling in the fault region. Using data from a swarm of earthquakes near the Salton Sea, we demonstrate the power of these techniques, illustrating our ability to scale from the far field, where sources are well separated, to the near field where their locations fall within each other

  10. The Seismic Analyzer: Interpreting and Illustrating 2D Seismic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seism...

  11. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-01-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those Plants, against the action of earthquakes is described. The instrumentation described is based on the nuclear standards in force. The minimum amount of sensors and other components used, as well as their general localization, is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The various devices used are not covered in detail, except for the accelerometer, which is the seismic instrumentation basic component. (Author) [pt

  12. Model Solutions for Performance-Based Seismic Analysis of an Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Wall

    OpenAIRE

    C. J. W. Habets; D. J. Peters; J. G. de Gijt; A. V. Metrikine; S. N. Jonkman

    2016-01-01

    Conventional seismic designs of quay walls in ports are mostly based on pseudo-static analysis. A more advanced alternative is the Performance-Based Design (PBD) method, which evaluates permanent deformations and amounts of (repairable) damage under seismic loading. The aim of this study is to investigate the suitability of this method for anchored sheet pile quay walls that were not purposely designed for seismic loads. A research methodology is developed in which pseudo-static, permanent-di...

  13. Tools for educational access to seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J. J.; Welti, R.; Bravo, T. K.; Hubenthal, M.; Frechette, K.

    2017-12-01

    Student engagement can be increased both by providing easy access to real data, and by addressing newsworthy events such as recent large earthquakes. IRIS EPO has a suite of access and visualization tools that can be used for such engagement, including a set of three tools that allow students to explore global seismicity, use seismic data to determine Earth structure, and view and analyze near-real-time ground motion data in the classroom. These tools are linked to online lessons that are designed for use in middle school through introductory undergraduate classes. The IRIS Earthquake Browser allows discovery of key aspects of plate tectonics, earthquake locations (in pseudo 3D) and seismicity rates and patterns. IEB quickly displays up to 20,000 seismic events over up to 30 years, making it one of the most responsive, practical ways to visualize historical seismicity in a browser. Maps are bookmarkable and preserve state, meaning IEB map links can be shared or worked into a lesson plan. The Global Seismogram Plotter automatically creates visually clear seismic record sections from selected large earthquakes that are tablet-friendly and can also to be printed for use in a classroom without computers. The plots are designed to be appropriate for use with no parameters to set, but users can also modify the plots, such as including a recording station near a chosen location. A guided exercise is provided where students use the record section to discover the diameter of Earth's outer core. Students can pick and compare phase arrival times onscreen which is key to performing the exercise. A companion station map shows station locations and further information and is linked to the record section. jAmaSeis displays seismic data in real-time from either a local instrument and/or from remote seismic stations that stream data using standard seismic data protocols, and can be used in the classroom or as a public display. Users can filter data, fit a seismogram to travel time

  14. A SEISMIC DESIGN OF NUCLEAR REACTOR BUILDING STRUCTURES APPLYING SEISMIC ISOLATION SYSTEM IN A HIGH SEISMICITY REGION –A FEASIBILITY CASE STUDY IN JAPAN-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETSUO KUBO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility study on the seismic design of nuclear reactor buildings with application of a seismic isolation system is introduced. After the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake in Japan of 1995, seismic isolation technologies have been widely employed for commercial buildings. Having become a mature technology, seismic isolation systems can be applied to NPP facilities in areas of high seismicity. Two reactor buildings are discussed, representing the PWR and BWR buildings in Japan, and the application of seismic isolation systems is discussed. The isolation system employing rubber bearings with a lead plug positioned (LRB is examined. Through a series of seismic response analyses using the so-named standard design earthquake motions covering the design basis earthquake motions obtained for NPP sites in Japan, the responses of the seismic isolated reactor buildings are evaluated. It is revealed that for the building structures examined herein: (1 the responses of both isolated buildings and isolating LRBs fulfill the specified design criteria; (2 the responses obtained for the isolating LRBs first reach the ultimate condition when intensity of motion is 2.0 to 2.5 times as large as that of the design-basis; and (3 the responses of isolated reactor building fall below the range of the prescribed criteria.

  15. A seismic design of nuclear reactor building structures applying seismic isolation system in a seismicity region-a feasibility case study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Tetsuo [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Tomofumi; Sato, Kunihiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Jimbo, Masakazu [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama (Japan); Imaoka, Tetsuo [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Umeki, Yoshito [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    A feasibility study on the seismic design of nuclear reactor buildings with application of a seismic isolation system is introduced. After the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake in Japan of 1995, seismic isolation technologies have been widely employed for commercial buildings. Having become a mature technology, seismic isolation systems can be applied to NPP facilities in areas of high seismicity. Two reactor buildings are discussed, representing the PWR and BWR buildings in Japan, and the application of seismic isolation systems is discussed. The isolation system employing rubber bearings with a lead plug positioned (LRB) is examined. Through a series of seismic response analyses using the so-named standard design earthquake motions covering the design basis earthquake motions obtained for NPP sites in Japan, the responses of the seismic isolated reactor buildings are evaluated. It is revealed that for the building structures examined herein: (1) the responses of both isolated buildings and isolating LRBs fulfill the specified design criteria; (2) the responses obtained for the isolating LRBs first reach the ultimate condition when intensity of motion is 2.0 to 2.5 times as large as that of the design-basis; and (3) the responses of isolated reactor building fall below the range of the prescribed criteria.

  16. Seismic migration in generalized coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, C.; Duque, L. F.

    2017-06-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is a technique widely used nowadays to obtain images of the earth’s sub-surface, using artificially produced seismic waves. This technique has been developed for zones with flat surface and when applied to zones with rugged topography some corrections must be introduced in order to adapt it. This can produce defects in the final image called artifacts. We introduce a simple mathematical map that transforms a scenario with rugged topography into a flat one. The three steps of the RTM can be applied in a way similar to the conventional ones just by changing the Laplacian in the acoustic wave equation for a generalized one. We present a test of this technique using the Canadian foothills SEG velocity model.

  17. Seismic migration in generalized coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, C.; Duque, L. F.

    2017-01-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is a technique widely used nowadays to obtain images of the earth’s sub-surface, using artificially produced seismic waves. This technique has been developed for zones with flat surface and when applied to zones with rugged topography some corrections must be introduced in order to adapt it. This can produce defects in the final image called artifacts. We introduce a simple mathematical map that transforms a scenario with rugged topography into a flat one. The three steps of the RTM can be applied in a way similar to the conventional ones just by changing the Laplacian in the acoustic wave equation for a generalized one. We present a test of this technique using the Canadian foothills SEG velocity model. (paper)

  18. Seismic sequences in the Sombrero Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, J.; Huerfano, V. A.; ten Brink, U.; von Hillebrandt, C.

    2007-05-01

    The northeastern Caribbean, in the vicinity of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, has a long and well-documented history of devastating earthquakes and tsunamis, including major events in 1670, 1787, 1867, 1916, 1918, and 1943. Recently, seismicity has been concentrated to the north and west of the British Virgin Islands, in the region referred to as the Sombrero Seismic Zone by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN). In the combined seismicity catalog maintained by the PRSN, several hundred small to moderate magnitude events can be found in this region prior to 2006. However, beginning in 2006 and continuing to the present, the rate of seismicity in the Sombrero suddenly increased, and a new locus of activity developed to the east of the previous location. Accurate estimates of seismic hazard, and the tsunamigenic potential of seismic events, depend on an accurate and comprehensive understanding of how strain is being accommodated in this corner region. Are faults locked and accumulating strain for release in a major event? Or is strain being released via slip over a diffuse system of faults? A careful analysis of seismicity patterns in the Sombrero region has the potential to both identify faults and modes of failure, provided the aggregation scheme is tuned to properly identify related events. To this end, we experimented with a scheme to identify seismic sequences based on physical and temporal proximity, under the assumptions that (a) events occur on related fault systems as stress is refocused by immediately previous events and (b) such 'stress waves' die out with time, so that two events that occur on the same system within a relatively short time window can be said to have a similar 'trigger' in ways that two nearby events that occurred years apart cannot. Patterns that emerge from the identification, temporal sequence, and refined locations of such sequences of events carry information about stress accommodation that is obscured by large clouds of

  19. Preliminary consideration on the seismic actions recorded during the 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Nigro, Antonella; Nigro, Domenico S.; Iacovino, Chiara

    2017-04-01

    After the Mw 6.0 mainshock of August 24, 2016 at 03.36 a.m. (local time), with the epicenter located between the towns of Accumoli (province of Rieti), Amatrice (province of Rieti) and Arquata del Tronto (province of Ascoli Piceno), several activities were started in order to perform some preliminary evaluations on the characteristics of the recent seismic sequence in the areas affected by the earthquake. Ambient vibration acquisitions have been performed using two three-directional velocimetric synchronized stations, with a natural frequency equal to 0.5Hz and a digitizer resolution of equal to 24bit. The activities are continuing after the events of the seismic sequence of October 26 and October 30, 2016. In this paper, in order to compare recorded and code provision values in terms of peak (PGA, PGV and PGD), spectral and integral (Housner Intensity) seismic parameters, several preliminary analyses have been performed on accelerometric time-histories acquired by three near fault station of the RAN (Italian Accelerometric Network): Amatrice station (station code AMT), Norcia station (station code NRC) and Castelsantangelo sul Nera station (station code CNE). Several comparisons between the elastic response spectra derived from accelerometric recordings and the elastic demand spectra provided by the Italian seismic code (NTC 2008) have been performed. Preliminary results retrieved from these analyses highlight several apparent difference between experimental data and conventional code provision. Then, the ongoing seismic sequence appears compatible with the historical seismicity in terms of integral parameters, but not in terms of peak and spectral values. It seems appropriate to reconsider the necessity to revise the simplified design approach based on the conventional spectral values. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Department of Civil Protection within the project DPC-RELUIS 2016 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and

  20. Seismic Creep, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seismic creep is the constant or periodic movement on a fault as contrasted with the sudden rupture associated with an earthquake. It is a usually slow deformation...

  1. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  2. Seismic data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.; Nadre, V.N.; Rao, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Details of seismic data acquisition systems developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay are reported. The seismic signals acquired belong to different signal bandwidths in the band from 0.02 Hz to 250 Hz. All these acquisition systems are built around a unique technique of recording multichannel data on to a single track of an audio tape and in digital form. Techniques of how these signals in different bands of frequencies were acquired and recorded are described. Method of detecting seismic signals and its performance is also discussed. Seismic signals acquired in different set-ups are illustrated. Time indexing systems for different set-ups and multichannel waveform display systems which form essential part of the data acquisition systems are also discussed. (author). 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. PSMG switchgear seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehster, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    LOFT primary coolant system motor generator (PSMG) switchgear boxes were analyzed for sliding and overturning during a seismic event. Boxes are located in TAN-650, Room B-239, with the PSMG generators. Both boxes are sufficiently anchored to the floor

  4. Seismic facies; Facies sismicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johann, Paulo Roberto Schroeder [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao Corporativo. Gerencia de Reservas e Reservatorios]. E-mail: johann@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    The method presented herein describes the seismic facies as representations of curves and vertical matrixes of the lithotypes proportions. The seismic facies are greatly interested in capturing the spatial distributions (3D) of regionalized variables, as for example, lithotypes, sedimentary facies groups and/ or porosity and/or other properties of the reservoirs and integrate them into the 3D geological modeling (Johann, 1997). Thus when interpreted as curves or vertical matrixes of proportions, seismic facies allow us to build a very important tool for structural analysis of regionalized variables. The matrixes have an important application in geostatistical modeling. In addition, this approach provides results about the depth and scale of the wells profiles, that is, seismic data is integrated to the characterization of reservoirs in depth maps and in high resolution maps. The link between the different necessary technical phases involved in the classification of the segments of seismic traces is described herein in groups of predefined traces of two approaches: a) not supervised and b) supervised by the geological knowledge available on the studied reservoir. The multivariate statistical methods used to obtain the maps of the seismic facies units are interesting tools to be used to provide a lithostratigraphic and petrophysical understanding of a petroleum reservoir. In the case studied these seismic facies units are interpreted as representative of the depositional system as a part of the Namorado Turbiditic System, Namorado Field, Campos Basin.Within the scope of PRAVAP 19 (Programa Estrategico de Recuperacao Avancada de Petroleo - Strategic Program of Advanced Petroleum Recovery) some research work on algorithms is underway to select new optimized attributes to apply seismic facies. One example is the extraction of attributes based on the wavelet transformation and on the time-frequency analysis methodology. PRAVAP is also carrying out research work on an

  5. Salvo: Seismic imaging software for complex geologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OBER,CURTIS C.; GJERTSEN,ROB; WOMBLE,DAVID E.

    2000-03-01

    This report describes Salvo, a three-dimensional seismic-imaging software for complex geologies. Regions of complex geology, such as overthrusts and salt structures, can cause difficulties for many seismic-imaging algorithms used in production today. The paraxial wave equation and finite-difference methods used within Salvo can produce high-quality seismic images in these difficult regions. However this approach comes with higher computational costs which have been too expensive for standard production. Salvo uses improved numerical algorithms and methods, along with parallel computing, to produce high-quality images and to reduce the computational and the data input/output (I/O) costs. This report documents the numerical algorithms implemented for the paraxial wave equation, including absorbing boundary conditions, phase corrections, imaging conditions, phase encoding, and reduced-source migration. This report also describes I/O algorithms for large seismic data sets and images and parallelization methods used to obtain high efficiencies for both the computations and the I/O of seismic data sets. Finally, this report describes the required steps to compile, port and optimize the Salvo software, and describes the validation data sets used to help verify a working copy of Salvo.

  6. Model Solutions for Performance-Based Seismic Analysis of an Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, C.J.W.; Peters, D.J.; de Gijt, J.G.; Metrikine, A.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional seismic designs of quay walls in ports are mostly based on pseudo-static analysis. A more advanced alternative is the Performance-Based Design (PBD) method, which evaluates permanent deformations and amounts of (repairable) damage under seismic loading. The aim of this study is to

  7. Conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, M.; Lindbichler, F.; Sinzig, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To briefly describe basic conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology. Method: The state of the art performance of standard imaging techniques (intravenous urography (IVU), voiding cystourethrography (VCU), and ultrasound (US)) is described, with emphasis on technical aspects, indications, and patient preparation such as adequate hydration. Only basic applications as used in routine clinical work are included. Result and conclusion: Conventional imaging methods are irreplaceable. They cover the majority of daily clinical routine queries, with consecutive indication of more sophisticated modalities in those patients who need additional imaging for establishing the final diagnosis or outlining therapeutic options

  8. Conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, M. E-mail: michael.riccabona@kfunigraz.ac.at; Lindbichler, F.; Sinzig, M

    2002-08-01

    Objective: To briefly describe basic conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology. Method: The state of the art performance of standard imaging techniques (intravenous urography (IVU), voiding cystourethrography (VCU), and ultrasound (US)) is described, with emphasis on technical aspects, indications, and patient preparation such as adequate hydration. Only basic applications as used in routine clinical work are included. Result and conclusion: Conventional imaging methods are irreplaceable. They cover the majority of daily clinical routine queries, with consecutive indication of more sophisticated modalities in those patients who need additional imaging for establishing the final diagnosis or outlining therapeutic options.

  9. The European Convention on bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1993-03-01

    Benefiting from a widely recognised experience of the field of bioethics, the Council of Europe which represents all the democratic countries of Europe, has embarked on the ambitious task of drafting a European Convention on bioethics. The purpose of this text is to set out fundamental values, such as respect for human dignity, free informed consent and non-commercialisation of the human body. In addition to this task, protocols will provide specific standards for the different fields concerned with the application of biomedical sciences. The convention and the first two protocols (human experiments and organ transplants) are due to be ready for signature by mid 1994.

  10. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274])

  11. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  12. Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability of Reinforced Concrete Frame buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Cherifi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismic activity remains strong in the north of Algeria since no less than 30 earthquakes per month are recorded. The large number of structures built before the introduction of the seismic standards represents a high seismic risk. Analysis of damage suffered during the last earthquakes highlighted the vulnerability of the existing structures. In this study the seismic behavior of the existing buildings in Tizi-Ouzou city, located in the north of Algeria, is investigated. To make this assessment, a database was created following a building inventory based on a set of technical folders and field visits. The listed buildings have been classified into different typologies. Only reinforced concrete frame buildings are considered in this paper. The approach adopted to estimate structures damage is based on four main steps: 1 construction of capacity curves using static nonlinear method “push-over”, 2 estimate of seismic hazard, 3 determination of performance points, and finally 4 deduction of damage levels.

  13. Design experience on seismically isolated buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the practical problems associated with the structural design of seismically isolated buildings now under construction in Ancona, Italy. These structures are the first seismically isolated buildings in Italy. The Ancona region is in zone 2 of the Italian Seismic Code. It has a design acceleration of 0.07 g which corresponds to a ground surface acceleration of 0.25 g. The last significant earthquake was recorded on June 14, 1972, having a single shock-type wave with a peak acceleration of 0.53 g. Taking into account the aforesaid earthquake, the structural design of these new buildings was performed according to an acceleration spectrum which was different from the zone 2 seismic code and which provided protection for stronger ground motions. To minimize the cost of the structure, the buildings used ribbed plate decks, thus reducing the amount of material and the mass of the structures to be isolated. The design requirements, dynamic analysis performed, structural design, and practical engineering employed are reported in this paper. A comparison between the costs of a conventionally designed and a base-isolated structure is also reported. It shows a net savings of 7% for the base-isolated structure. The tests undertaken for certifying the mechanical properties of the isolators for both static and dynamic loads are also described, as is the full-scale dynamic test which is scheduled for next year (1990) for one of the completed buildings. (orig.)

  14. Design experience on seismically isolated buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the practical problems associated with the structural design of a group of seismically isolated buildings now under construction in Ancona, Italy. These structures are the first seismically isolated buildings in Italy. Taking into account previous earthquakes, the structural design of these new buildings was performed according to an acceleration spectrum which was different from its Zone 2 seismic code and which provided protection for stronger ground motions. To minimize the cost of the structure, the buildings used ribbed plate decks, thus reducing the amount of material and the mass of the structures to be isolated. The design requirements, dynamic analysis performed, structural design, and practical engineering employed are reported in this paper. A comparison between the costs of a conventionally designed and a base-isolated structure is also reported. The tests undertaken for certifying the mechanical properties of the isolators for both static and dynamic loads are also described, as is the full-scale dynamic test which is scheduled for next year (1990) for one of the completed buildings. Lessons learned in this design effort are potentially applicable to seismic base isolation for nuclear power plants

  15. Seismic-Proof Buildings in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Laghi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of “ductile seismic frames,” whose proper seismic behavior largely depends upon construction details and specific design rules, may do not always lead to effective seismic resistant structures, as dramatically denounced by the famous Chinese artist Ai Weiwei in his artwork Straight. The artwork (96 t of undulating metal bars that were salvaged from schools destroyed by the 2008 Sichuan, China earthquake, where over 5,000 students were killed is a clear denounce against the corruption yielding to shoddy construction methods. The issue of safe constructions against natural hazards appears even more important in developing countries where, in most cases, building structures are realized by non-expert workers, or even by simple “people from the street,” who does not have any technical knowledge on construction techniques and seismic engineering. In this paper, a brief history from the first frame structures to the more efficient wall-based structures is provided within Earthquake Engineering perspectives. The superior structural properties of box-type wall structures with respect to conventional frame structures envisage a change of paradigm from actual “ductility-based” Earthquake Engineering (centered on frame structures toward 100% safe buildings through a “strength-based” design exploiting the use of box-type wall-based structures.

  16. Micro-seismic imaging using a source function independent full waveform inversion method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hanchen; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2018-01-01

    hand, the conventional micro-seismic source locating methods require, in many cases manual picking of traveltime arrivals, which do not only lead to manual effort and human interaction, but also prone to errors. Using full waveform inversion (FWI

  17. Chemical Weapons Convention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    On April 29, 1997, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC...

  18. Seismic Load Rating Procedure for Welded Steel Frames Oligo-cyclic Fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratiu, Mircea D.; Moisidis, Nicolae T.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic load rating approach for seismic qualification of cold-formed steel welded frames is presented. Allowable seismic loads are developed from cyclic and monotonic tests of standard cold-formed steel components commonly used for piping and electrical raceway supports. The method permits simplified qualification of all connections of frame components through a single load comparison. Test input consists of rotation/cycles-to-failure data and monotonic moment/rotation data. Cyclic data are statistically evaluated to determine an acceptable maximum seismic rotation for the connection. The allowable seismic load is determined from the corresponding static rotation. Application to seismic qualification procedures is discussed. (authors)

  19. Seismic effects on technological equipment and systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.; Pecinka, L.; Podrouzek, J.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is given of problems related to the construction of nuclear power plants with regard to seismic resistance. Sei--smic resistance of technological equipment is evaluated by experimental trials, calculation or the combination of both. Existing and future standards are given for the given field. The Czechoslovak situation is discussed as related to the construction of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. Procedures for testing seismic resistance, types of tests and methods of simulating seismic excitation are described. Antiseismic measures together with structural elements for limiting the seismic effects on technological equipment and nuclear power plant systems are summed up on the basis of foreign experience. (E.F.)

  20. Seismic design criteria and their application to major hazard plant within the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.A.H.G.

    1982-12-01

    The nature of seismic motions and the implications are briefly described and the development of seismic design criteria for nuclear power plants in various countries is described including possible future developments. The seismicity of the United Kingdom is briefly reviewed leading to the present position on seismic design criteria for nuclear power plants within the United Kingdom. Damage from past destructive earthquakes is reviewed and the existing codes of practice and standards are described. Finally the effect of earthquakes on major hazard plant is discussed in general terms including the seismic analysis of a typical plant item. (author)

  1. A reversible transform for seismic data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, William A; Ferguson, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    We use the nonstationary equivalent of the Fourier shift theorem to derive a general one-dimensional integral transform for the application and removal of certain seismic data processing steps. This transform comes from the observation that many seismic data processing steps can be viewed as nonstationary shifts. The continuous form of the transform is exactly reversible, and the discrete form provides a general framework for unitary and pseudounitary imaging operators. Any processing step which can be viewed as a nonstationary shift in any domain is a special case of this transform. Nonstationary shifts generally produce coordinate distortions between input and output domains, and those that preserve amplitudes do not conserve the energy of the input signal. The nonstationary frequency distortions, time distortions and nonphysical energy changes inherent to such operations are predicted and quantified by this transform. Processing steps of this type are conventionally implemented using interpolation operators to map discrete data values between input and output coordinate frames. Although not explicitly derived to perform interpolation, the transform here assumes the Fourier basis to predict values of the input signal between sampling locations. We demonstrate how interpolants commonly used in seismic data processing and imaging approximate the proposed method. We find that our transform is equivalent to the conventional sinc interpolant with no truncation. Once the transform is developed, we demonstrate its numerical implementation by matrix–vector multiplication. As an example, we use our transform to apply and remove normal moveout

  2. Seismic analysis for translational failure of landfills with retaining walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Gao, Li-Ya

    2010-11-01

    In the seismic impact zone, seismic force can be a major triggering mechanism for translational failures of landfills. The scope of this paper is to develop a three-part wedge method for seismic analysis of translational failures of landfills with retaining walls. The approximate solution of the factor of safety can be calculated. Unlike previous conventional limit equilibrium methods, the new method is capable of revealing the effects of both the solid waste shear strength and the retaining wall on the translational failures of landfills during earthquake. Parameter studies of the developed method show that the factor of safety decreases with the increase of the seismic coefficient, while it increases quickly with the increase of the minimum friction angle beneath waste mass for various horizontal seismic coefficients. Increasing the minimum friction angle beneath the waste mass appears to be more effective than any other parameters for increasing the factor of safety under the considered condition. Thus, selecting liner materials with higher friction angle will considerably reduce the potential for translational failures of landfills during earthquake. The factor of safety gradually increases with the increase of the height of retaining wall for various horizontal seismic coefficients. A higher retaining wall is beneficial to the seismic stability of the landfill. Simply ignoring the retaining wall will lead to serious underestimation of the factor of safety. Besides, the approximate solution of the yield acceleration coefficient of the landfill is also presented based on the calculated method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  4. Improving fault image by determination of optimum seismic survey parameters using ray-based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarzadeh, Sadegh; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Hasani, Hossein; Talebi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-06-01

    In complex structures such as faults, salt domes and reefs, specifying the survey parameters is more challenging and critical owing to the complicated wave field behavior involved in such structures. In the petroleum industry, detecting faults has become crucial for reservoir potential where faults can act as traps for hydrocarbon. In this regard, seismic survey modeling is employed to construct a model close to the real structure, and obtain very realistic synthetic seismic data. Seismic modeling software, the velocity model and parameters pre-determined by conventional methods enable a seismic survey designer to run a shot-by-shot virtual survey operation. A reliable velocity model of structures can be constructed by integrating the 2D seismic data, geological reports and the well information. The effects of various survey designs can be investigated by the analysis of illumination maps and flower plots. Also, seismic processing of the synthetic data output can describe the target image using different survey parameters. Therefore, seismic modeling is one of the most economical ways to establish and test the optimum acquisition parameters to obtain the best image when dealing with complex geological structures. The primary objective of this study is to design a proper 3D seismic survey orientation to achieve fault zone structures through ray-tracing seismic modeling. The results prove that a seismic survey designer can enhance the image of fault planes in a seismic section by utilizing the proposed modeling and processing approach.

  5. Community Seismic Network (CSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Cheng, M.; Guy, R.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.; Bunn, J.; Olson, M.; Faulkner, M.; Liu, A.; Strand, L.

    2012-12-01

    We report on developments in sensor connectivity, architecture, and data fusion algorithms executed in Cloud computing systems in the Community Seismic Network (CSN), a network of low-cost sensors housed in homes and offices by volunteers in the Pasadena, CA area. The network has over 200 sensors continuously reporting anomalies in local acceleration through the Internet to a Cloud computing service (the Google App Engine) that continually fuses sensor data to rapidly detect shaking from earthquakes. The Cloud computing system consists of data centers geographically distributed across the continent and is likely to be resilient even during earthquakes and other local disasters. The region of Southern California is partitioned in a multi-grid style into sets of telescoping cells called geocells. Data streams from sensors within a geocell are fused to detect anomalous shaking across the geocell. Temporal spatial patterns across geocells are used to detect anomalies across regions. The challenge is to detect earthquakes rapidly with an extremely low false positive rate. We report on two data fusion algorithms, one that tessellates the surface so as to fuse data from a large region around Pasadena and the other, which uses a standard tessellation of equal-sized cells. Since September 2011, the network has successfully detected earthquakes of magnitude 2.5 or higher within 40 Km of Pasadena. In addition to the standard USB device, which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or wifi. This bypasses security concerns that some companies have with the USB-connected devices, and allows for 24/7 monitoring at sites that would otherwise shut down their computers after working hours. In buildings we use the sensors to model the behavior of the structures during weak events in order to understand how they will perform during strong events. Visualization models of instrumented buildings ranging

  6. Seismic isolation - efficient procedure for seismic response assessement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamfir, M. A.; Androne, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this analysis is to reduce the dynamic response of a structure. The seismic isolation solution must take into consideration the specific site ground motion. In this paper will be presented results obtained by applying the seismic isolation method. Based on the obtained results, important conclusions can be outlined: the seismic isolation device has the ability to reduce seismic acceleration of the seismic isolated structure to values that no longer present a danger to people and environment; the seismic isolation solution is limiting devices deformations to safety values for ensuring structural integrity and stability of the entire system; the effective seismic energy dissipation and with no side effects both for the seismic isolated building and for the devices used, and the return to the initial position before earthquake occurence are obtained with acceptable permanent displacement. (authors)

  7. Delineation of seismic source zones based on seismicity parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    these source zones were evaluated and were used in the hazard evaluation. ... seismic sources, linear and areal, were considered in the present study to model the seismic sources in the ..... taken as an authentic reference manual for iden-.

  8. Seismic fragility analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Marin

    2000-01-01

    In the last two decades there is increasing number of probabilistic seismic risk assessments performed. The basic ideas of the procedure for performing a Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of critical structures (NUREG/CR-2300, 1983) could be used also for normal industrial and residential buildings, dams or other structures. The general formulation of the risk assessment procedure applied in this investigation is presented in Franzini, et al., 1984. The probability of failure of a structure for an expected lifetime (for example 50 years) can be obtained from the annual frequency of failure, β E determined by the relation: β E ∫[d[β(x)]/dx]P(flx)dx. β(x) is the annual frequency of exceedance of load level x (for example, the variable x may be peak ground acceleration), P(fI x) is the conditional probability of structure failure at a given seismic load level x. The problem leads to the assessment of the seismic hazard β(x) and the fragility P(fl x). The seismic hazard curves are obtained by the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. The fragility curves are obtained after the response of the structure is defined as probabilistic and its capacity and the associated uncertainties are assessed. Finally the fragility curves are combined with the seismic loading to estimate the frequency of failure for each critical scenario. The frequency of failure due to seismic event is presented by the scenario with the highest frequency. The tools usually applied for probabilistic safety analyses of critical structures could relatively easily be adopted to ordinary structures. The key problems are the seismic hazard definitions and the fragility analyses. The fragility could be derived either based on scaling procedures or on the base of generation. Both approaches have been presented in the paper. After the seismic risk (in terms of failure probability) is assessed there are several approaches for risk reduction. Generally the methods could be classified in two groups. The

  9. Seismic risk analysis for the Babcock and Wilcox facility, Leechburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The results of a detailed seismic risk analysis of the Babcock and Wilcox Plutonium Fuel Fabrication facility at Leechburg, Pennsylvania are presented. This report focuses on earthquakes; the other natural hazards, being addressed in separate reports, are severe weather (strong winds and tornados) and floods. The calculational method used is based on Cornell's work (1968); it has been previously applied to safety evaluations of major projects. The historical seismic record was established after a review of available literature, consultation with operators of local seismic arrays and examination of appropriate seismic data bases. Because of the aseismicity of the region around the site, an analysis different from the conventional closest approach in a tectonic province was adapted. Earthquakes as far from the site as 1,000 km were included, as were the possibility of earthquakes at the site. In addition, various uncertainties in the input were explicitly considered in the analysis. The results of the risk analysis, which include a Bayesian estimate of the uncertainties, are presented, expressed as return period accelerations. The best estimate curve indicates that the Babcock and Wilcox facility will experience 0.05 g every 220 years and 0.10 g every 1400 years. The bounding curves roughly represent the one standard deviation confidence limits about the best estimate, reflecting the uncertainty in certain of the input. Detailed examination of the results show that the accelerations are very insensitive to the details of the source region geometries or the historical earthquake statistics in each region and that each of the source regions contributes almost equally to the cumulative risk at the site. If required for structural analysis, acceleration response spectra for the site can be constructed by scaling the mean response spectrum for alluvium in WASH 1255 by these peak accelerations

  10. Seismic forecast using geostatistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecu, Valeriu; Mateiciuc, Doru

    2007-01-01

    The main idea of this research direction consists in the special way of constructing a new type of mathematical function as being a correlation between a computed statistical quantity and another physical quantity. This type of function called 'position function' was taken over by the authors of this study in the field of seismology with the hope of solving - at least partially - the difficult problem of seismic forecast. The geostatistic method of analysis focuses on the process of energy accumulation in a given seismic area, completing this analysis by a so-called loading function. This function - in fact a temporal function - describes the process of energy accumulation during a seismic cycle from a given seismic area. It was possible to discover a law of evolution of the seismic cycles that was materialized in a so-called characteristic function. This special function will help us to forecast the magnitude and the occurrence moment of the largest earthquake in the analysed area. Since 2000, the authors have been evolving to a new stage of testing: real - time analysis, in order to verify the quality of the method. There were five large earthquakes forecasts. (authors)

  11. Pickering seismic safety margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobarah, A.; Heidebrecht, A.C.; Tso, W.K.

    1992-06-01

    A study was conducted to recommend a methodology for the seismic safety margin review of existing Canadian CANDU nuclear generating stations such as Pickering A. The purpose of the seismic safety margin review is to determine whether the nuclear plant has sufficient seismic safety margin over its design basis to assure plant safety. In this review process, it is possible to identify the weak links which might limit the seismic performance of critical structures, systems and components. The proposed methodology is a modification the EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) approach. The methodology includes: the characterization of the site margin earthquake, the definition of the performance criteria for the elements of a success path, and the determination of the seismic withstand capacity. It is proposed that the margin earthquake be established on the basis of using historical records and the regional seismo-tectonic and site specific evaluations. The ability of the components and systems to withstand the margin earthquake is determined by database comparisons, inspection, analysis or testing. An implementation plan for the application of the methodology to the Pickering A NGS is prepared

  12. Seismicity and seismic monitoring in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, D.; Gommlich, G.; Hente, B.

    1987-01-01

    Seismicity analyses are made in order to assess the safety of candidate sites for ultimate disposal of hazardous wastes. The report in hand reviews the seismicity history of the Asse salt mine and presents recent results of a measuring campaign made in the area. The monitoring network installed at the site supplies data and information on the regional seismicity, on seismic amplitudes under ground and above ground, and on microseismic activities. (DG) [de

  13. Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L.; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Rueter, Horst; Stump, Brian; Segall, Paul; Zoback, Mark; Nelson, Jim; Frohlich, Cliff; Rutledge, Jim; Gritto, Roland; Baria, Roy; Hickman, Steve; McGarr, Art; Ellsworth, Bill; Lockner, Dave; Oppenheimer, David; Henning, Peter; Rosca, Anca; Hornby, Brian; Wang, Herb; Beeler, Nick; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Walters, Mark; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Dracos, Peter; Fehler, Mike; Abou-Sayed, Ahmed; Ake, Jon; Vorobiev, Oleg; Julian, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, and enhanced oil and gas recovery have a clear role in U.S. energy policy, both in securing cost-effective energy and reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} accumulations. Recent publicity surrounding induced seismicity at several geothermal and oil and gas sites points out the need to develop improved standards and practices to avoid issues that may unduly inhibit or stop the above technologies from fulfilling their full potential. It is critical that policy makers and the general community be assured that EGS, CO{sub 2} sequestration, enhanced oil/gas recovery, and other technologies relying on fluid injections, will be designed to reduce induced seismicity to an acceptable level, and be developed in a safe and cost-effective manner. Induced seismicity is not new - it has occurred as part of many different energy and industrial applications (reservoir impoundment, mining, oil recovery, construction, waste disposal, conventional geothermal). With proper study/research and engineering controls, induced seismicity should eventually allow safe and cost-effective implementation of any of these technologies. In addition, microseismicity is now being used as a remote sensing tool for understanding and measuring the success of injecting fluid into the subsurface in a variety of applications, including the enhancement of formation permeability through fracture creation/reactivation, tracking fluid migration and storage, and physics associated with stress redistribution. This potential problem was envisaged in 2004 following observed seismicity at several EGS sites, a study was implemented by DOE to produce a white paper and a protocol (Majer et al 2008) to help potential investors. Recently, however, there have been a significant number of adverse comments by the press regarding induced seismicity which could adversely affect the development of the energy sector in the USA. Therefore, in order to identify critical technology and research

  14. 7 CFR 58.316 - Conventional churns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conventional churns. 58.316 Section 58.316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....316 Conventional churns. Churns shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless steel or equally corrosion...

  15. Delineation of seismic source zones based on seismicity parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to delineate seismic source zones in the study area (south India) based on the seismicity parameters. Seismicity parameters and the maximum probable earthquake for these source zones were evaluated and were used in the hazard evaluation. The probabilistic evaluation of ...

  16. Seismic Microzonation for Refinement of Seismic Load Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savich, A. I.; Bugaevskii, A. G., E-mail: office@geodyn.ru, E-mail: bugaevskiy@geodyn.ru [Center of the Office of Geodynamic Observations in the Power Sector, an affiliate of JSC “Institut Gidroproekt” (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Functional dependencies are established for the characteristics of seismic transients recorded at various points of a studied site, which are used to propose a new approach to seismic microzonation (SMZ) that enables the creation of new SMZ maps of strong seismic motion, with due regard for dynamic parameters of recorded transients during weak earthquakes.

  17. Induced seismicity. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segall, P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of seismicity associated with energy production. Earthquakes are known to be associated with oil, gas, and geothermal energy production. The intent is to develop physical models that predict when seismicity is likely to occur, and to determine to what extent these earthquakes can be used to infer conditions within energy reservoirs. Early work focused on earthquakes induced by oil and gas extraction. Just completed research has addressed earthquakes within geothermal fields, such as The Geysers in northern California, as well as the interactions of dilatancy, friction, and shear heating, on the generation of earthquakes. The former has involved modeling thermo- and poro-elastic effects of geothermal production and water injection. Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are used to measure deformation associated with geothermal activity, and these measurements along with seismic data are used to test and constrain thermo-mechanical models

  18. Design and analysis of fractional order seismic transducer for displacement and acceleration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraian, Parthasarathi; Gandhi, Uma; Mangalanathan, Umapathy

    2018-04-01

    Seismic transducers are widely used for measurement of displacement, velocity, and acceleration. This paper presents the design of seismic transducer in the fractional domain for the measurement of displacement and acceleration. The fractional order transfer function for seismic displacement and acceleration transducer are derived using Grünwald-Letnikov derivative. Frequency response analysis of fractional order seismic displacement transducer (FOSDT) and fractional order seismic acceleration transducer (FOSAT) are carried out for different damping ratio with the different fractional order, and the maximum dynamic measurement range is identified. The results demonstrate that fractional order seismic transducer has increased dynamic measurement range and less phase distortion as compared to the conventional seismic transducer even with a lower damping ratio. Time response of FOSDT and FOSAT are derived analytically in terms of Mittag-Leffler function, the effect of fractional behavior in the time domain is evaluated from the impulse and step response. The fractional order system is found to have significantly reduced overshoot as compared to the conventional transducer. The fractional order seismic transducer design proposed in this paper is illustrated with a design example for FOSDT and FOSAT. Finally, an electrical equivalent of FOSDT and FOSAT is considered, and its frequency response is found to be in close agreement with the proposed fractional order seismic transducer.

  19. Seismic design criteria for special isotope separation plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrona, M.W.; Wuthrich, S.J.; Rose, D.L.; Starkey, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the seismic criteria for the design of the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) production plant. These criteria are derived from the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) orders, references and proposed standards. The SIS processing plant consistent of Load Center Building (LCB), Dye Pump Building (DPB), Laser Support Building (LSB) and Plutonium Processing Building (PPB). The facility-use category for each of the SIS building structures is identified and the applicable seismic design criteria and parameters are selected

  20. Quake warnings, seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Huggins, Tom; Miles, Scott; Otegui, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Since 1990, nearly one million people have died from the impacts of earthquakes. Reducing those impacts requires building a local seismic culture in which residents are aware of earthquake risks and value efforts to mitigate harm. Such efforts include earthquake early warning (EEW) systems that provide seconds to minutes notice of pending shaking. Recent events in Mexico provide an opportunity to assess performance and perception of an EEW system and highlight areas for further improvement. We have learned that EEW systems, even imperfect ones, can help people prepare for earthquakes and build local seismic culture, both beneficial in reducing earthquake-related losses.

  1. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  2. Seismic microzonation of Bangalore, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evaluation of seismic hazards and microzonation of cities enable us to characterize the potential seismic areas which have similar exposures to haz- ards of earthquakes, and these results can be used for designing new structures or retrofitting the existing ones. Study of seismic hazard and preparation of microzonation ...

  3. Seismic and dynamic qualification methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on seismic effects on nuclear power plants. Topics considered at the conference included seismic qualification of equipment, multifrequency test methodologies, damping in piping systems, the amplification factor, thermal insulation, welded joints, and response factors for seismic risk analysis of piping

  4. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by

  5. Applications of seismic damage hazard analysis for the qualification of existing nuclear and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzurro, P.; Manfredini, G.M.; Diaz Molina, I.

    1995-01-01

    The Seismic Damage Hazard Analysis (SDHA) is a methodology which couples conventional Seismic Hazard Analysis (SHA) and non-linear response analysis to seismic loadings. This is a powerful tool in the retrofit process: SDHA permits the direct computation of the probability of occurrence of damage and, eventually, collapse of existing and upgraded structural systems. The SDHA methodology is a significant step towards a better understanding and quantification of structural seismic risk. SDHA incorporates and explicitly accounts for seismic load variability, seismic damage potential variability and structural resistance uncertainty. In addition, SDHA makes available a sound strategy to perform non-linear dynamic analyses. A limited number of non-linear dynamic analyses is sufficient to obtain estimates of damage and its probability of occurrence. The basic concepts of the SDHA methodology are briefly reviewed. Illustrative examples are presented, regarding a power house structure, a tubular structure and seabed slope stability problem. (author)

  6. Signal-to-noise ratio application to seismic marker analysis and fracture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui-Qun; Gui, Zhi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Seismic data with high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are useful in reservoir exploration. To obtain high SNR seismic data, significant effort is required to achieve noise attenuation in seismic data processing, which is costly in materials, and human and financial resources. We introduce a method for improving the SNR of seismic data. The SNR is calculated by using the frequency domain method. Furthermore, we optimize and discuss the critical parameters and calculation procedure. We applied the proposed method on real data and found that the SNR is high in the seismic marker and low in the fracture zone. Consequently, this can be used to extract detailed information about fracture zones that are inferred by structural analysis but not observed in conventional seismic data.

  7. An experimental study on developing seismic damage indicator appearing OBE exceedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D. S.; Kwon, K. J.; Lee, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    Immediate measurement should be taken depending on the level of seismic damage to nuclear power plants when an earthquake exceeds Operating Base Earthquake by NRC regulatory guide. An earthquake at nuclear plant site is felt with seismic instrument and analyzed by seismic monitoring systems. However, if operators of insufficient knowledge to earthquake can recognize the intensity of the earthquake with a subsidiary indicating model, more immediate response can be conducted. This subsidiary indicating model is called seismic damage indicator. In this regard, an experimental study using shaking table was conducted to develop the seismic damage indicator by CAV and OBE compatible with NRC standard response spectrum. In this test result, stacked acrylic cylinders were manufactured to behave consistently for each direction of seismic load. If the developed SDI is installed in nuclear power plants, it is seemed to be useful in easily determining OBE exceedance easily, and counteracting by plant operator along with the existing seismic monitoring systems

  8. Homogenization of Electromagnetic and Seismic Wavefields for Joint Inverse Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, G. A.; Commer, M.; Petrov, P.; Um, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    A significant obstacle in developing a robust joint imaging technology exploiting seismic and electromagnetic (EM) wave fields is the resolution at which these different geophysical measurements sense the subsurface. Imaging of seismic reflection data is an order of magnitude finer in resolution and scale compared to images produced with EM data. A consistent joint image of the subsurface geophysical attributes (velocity, electrical conductivity) requires/demands the different geophysical data types be similar in their resolution of the subsurface. The superior resolution of seismic data results from the fact that the energy propagates as a wave, while propagation of EM energy is diffusive and attenuates with distance. On the other hand, the complexity of the seismic wave field can be a significant problem due to high reflectivity of the subsurface and the generation of multiple scattering events. While seismic wave fields have been very useful in mapping the subsurface for energy resources, too much scattering and too many reflections can lead to difficulties in imaging and interpreting seismic data. To overcome these obstacles a formulation for joint imaging of seismic and EM wave fields is introduced, where each data type is matched in resolution. In order to accomplish this, seismic data are first transformed into the Laplace-Fourier Domain, which changes the modeling of the seismic wave field from wave propagation to diffusion. Though high frequency information (reflectivity) is lost with this transformation, several benefits follow: (1) seismic and EM data can be easily matched in resolution, governed by the same physics of diffusion, (2) standard least squares inversion works well with diffusive type problems including both transformed seismic and EM, (3) joint imaging of seismic and EM data may produce better starting velocity models critical for successful reverse time migration or full waveform imaging of seismic data (non transformed) and (4

  9. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-07-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those plants, against the action of earth quarks is described. The instrumentation is based on the nuclear standards and other components used, as well as their general localization is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The accelerometer is described in detail. (Author) [pt

  10. Historical seismicity in France. Its role in the assessment of seismic risk on French nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levret, A.

    1987-11-01

    Since 1975 in order to be in conformity with the requirements of the French nuclear program, a review of historical seismicity was undertaken in France. The assessment of seismic hazard for the safety of nuclear plants is in fact based upon a seismotectonic approach which needs to take into account the seismic activity over as long a period of time as possible. The method adopted for reviewing historical earthquakes entails a systematic consultation of the original sources and a critical analysis there of in the light of the historical, geographical and political contexts of the time. The same standards apply where the acquisition of new elements of information is involved. Each item of information is assigned a degree of reliability, then compiled in a computer file, up-dated annually; this file currently contains more than 4.500 events covering a period of time of about a millenary

  11. The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters.

  12. Seismic data processing for domestic seismic survey over the continental shelf of Korea using the Geobit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jin Yong [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The `Geobit`, a new seismic data processing software introduced by the Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials recently, is the token of the achievement for the development of technology in the oil exploration over the Korean continental shelf. In comparison with the foreign seismic data processing systems previously used in Korea, the Geobit system has some advanced facilities; it provides an interactive mode which makes the seismic processing easier and has the user-friendly programs which allow the construction of a job control file simpler. Most of all, the Geobit can be run with many computer hardware systems, from PC to supercomputer. The current version of the Geobit can take care of the two-dimensional multi-channel seismic data and is open to the public for an education tool and a research purpose. To demonstrate the ability of the Geobit, a multi-channel field data acquired in the domestic continental shelf over the Yellow Sea in 1970 has been selected and processed with standard seismic data processing techniques. In this report, the Geobit job files and the corresponding results for the construction of a stack are provided. (author). 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Research items regarding seismic residual risk evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    After learning the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP severe accidents in 2011, the government investigation committee proposed the effective use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and now it is required to establish new safety rules reflecting the results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and proposed severe accident measures. Since the Seismic Design Guide has been revised on September 19, 2006, JNES has been discussing seismic PRA (Levels 1-3) methods to review licensees' residual risk assessment while preparing seismic PRA models. Meanwhile, new safety standards for light water reactors are to be issued and enforced on July 2013, which require the residual risk of tsunami, in addition to earthquakes, should be lowered as much as possible. The Fukushima accidents raised the problems related to risk assessment, e.g. approaches based on multi-hazard (earthquake and tsunami), multi-unit, multi-site, and equipment's common cause failure. This fiscal year, while performing seismic and/or tsunami PRA to work on these problems, JNES picked up the equipment whose failure greatly contribute to core damage, surveyed accident management measures on those equipment as well as effectiveness to reduce core damage probability. (author)

  14. Relays undergo seismic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Utilities are required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to document that seismic vibration will not adversely affect critical electrical equipment. Seismic testing should be designed to determine the malfunction level (fragility testing). Input possibilities include a continuous sine, a decaying sine, a sine beat, random vibrations, and combinations of random vibrations and sine beat. The sine beat most accurately simulates a seismic event. Test frequencies have a broad range in order to accommodate a variety of relay types and cabinet mounting. Simulation of motion along three axes offers several options, but is best achieved by three in-phase single-axis vibration machines that are less likely to induce testing fatigue failure. Consensus on what constitutes relay failure favors a maximum two microsecond discontinuity. Performance tests should be conducted for at least two of the following: (1) nonoperating modes, (2) operating modes, or (3) the transition above the two modes, with the monitoring mode documented for all three. Results should specify a capability curve of maximum safe seismic acceleration and a graph plotting acceleration with sine-beat frequency

  15. Mobile seismic exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dräbenstedt, A., E-mail: a.draebenstedt@polytec.de, E-mail: rembe@iei.tu-clausthal.de, E-mail: ulrich.polom@liag-hannover.de; Seyfried, V. [Research & Development, Polytec GmbH, Waldbronn (Germany); Cao, X.; Rembe, C., E-mail: a.draebenstedt@polytec.de, E-mail: rembe@iei.tu-clausthal.de, E-mail: ulrich.polom@liag-hannover.de [Institute of Electrical Information Technology, TU Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Polom, U., E-mail: a.draebenstedt@polytec.de, E-mail: rembe@iei.tu-clausthal.de, E-mail: ulrich.polom@liag-hannover.de [Leibniz Institute of Applied Geophysics, Hannover (Germany); Pätzold, F.; Hecker, P. [Institute of Flight Guidance, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Zeller, T. [Clausthaler Umwelttechnik Institut CUTEC, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2016-06-28

    Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry (LDV) is an established technique to measure vibrations in technical systems with picometer vibration-amplitude resolution. Especially good sensitivity and resolution can be achieved at an infrared wavelength of 1550 nm. High-resolution vibration measurements are possible over more than 100 m distance. This advancement of the LDV technique enables new applications. The detection of seismic waves is an application which has not been investigated so far because seismic waves outside laboratory scales are usually analyzed at low frequencies between approximately 1 Hz and 250 Hz and require velocity resolutions in the range below 1 nm/s/√Hz. Thermal displacements and air turbulence have critical influences to LDV measurements at this low-frequency range leading to noise levels of several 100 nm/√Hz. Commonly seismic waves are measured with highly sensitive inertial sensors (geophones or Micro Electro-Mechanical Sensors (MEMS)). Approaching a laser geophone based on LDV technique is the topic of this paper. We have assembled an actively vibration-isolated optical table in a minivan which provides a hole in its underbody. The laser-beam of an infrared LDV assembled on the optical table impinges the ground below the car through the hole. A reference geophone has detected remaining vibrations on the table. We present the results from the first successful experimental demonstration of contactless detection of seismic waves from a movable vehicle with a LDV as laser geophone.

  16. Understanding induced seismicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsworth, Derek; Spiers, Christopher J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829323; Niemeijer, Andre R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370832132

    2016-01-01

    Fluid injection–induced seismicity has become increasingly widespread in oil- and gas-producing areas of the United States (1–3) and western Canada. It has shelved deep geothermal energy projects in Switzerland and the United States (4), and its effects are especially acute in Oklahoma, where

  17. Seismic Search Engine: A distributed database for mining large scale seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Vaidya, S.; Kuzma, H. A.

    2009-12-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO collects terabytes worth of seismic measurements from many receiver stations situated around the earth with the goal of detecting underground nuclear testing events and distinguishing them from other benign, but more common events such as earthquakes and mine blasts. The International Data Center (IDC) processes and analyzes these measurements, as they are collected by the IMS, to summarize event detections in daily bulletins. Thereafter, the data measurements are archived into a large format database. Our proposed Seismic Search Engine (SSE) will facilitate a framework for data exploration of the seismic database as well as the development of seismic data mining algorithms. Analogous to GenBank, the annotated genetic sequence database maintained by NIH, through SSE, we intend to provide public access to seismic data and a set of processing and analysis tools, along with community-generated annotations and statistical models to help interpret the data. SSE will implement queries as user-defined functions composed from standard tools and models. Each query is compiled and executed over the database internally before reporting results back to the user. Since queries are expressed with standard tools and models, users can easily reproduce published results within this framework for peer-review and making metric comparisons. As an illustration, an example query is “what are the best receiver stations in East Asia for detecting events in the Middle East?” Evaluating this query involves listing all receiver stations in East Asia, characterizing known seismic events in that region, and constructing a profile for each receiver station to determine how effective its measurements are at predicting each event. The results of this query can be used to help prioritize how data is collected, identify defective instruments, and guide future sensor placements.

  18. Processing Approaches for DAS-Enabled Continuous Seismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S.; Wood, T.; Freifeld, B. M.; Robertson, M.; McDonald, S.; Pevzner, R.; Lindsey, N.; Gelvin, A.; Saari, S.; Morales, A.; Ekblaw, I.; Wagner, A. M.; Ulrich, C.; Daley, T. M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) is creating a "field as laboratory" capability for seismic monitoring of subsurface changes. By providing unprecedented spatial and temporal sampling at a relatively low cost, DAS enables field-scale seismic monitoring to have durations and temporal resolutions that are comparable to those of laboratory experiments. Here we report on seismic processing approaches developed during data analyses of three case studies all using DAS-enabled seismic monitoring with applications ranging from shallow permafrost to deep reservoirs: (1) 10-hour downhole monitoring of cement curing at Otway, Australia; (2) 2-month surface monitoring of controlled permafrost thaw at Fairbanks, Alaska; (3) multi-month downhole and surface monitoring of carbon sequestration at Decatur, Illinois. We emphasize the data management and processing components relevant to DAS-based seismic monitoring, which include scalable approaches to data management, pre-processing, denoising, filtering, and wavefield decomposition. DAS has dramatically increased the data volume to the extent that terabyte-per-day data loads are now typical, straining conventional approaches to data storage and processing. To achieve more efficient use of disk space and network bandwidth, we explore improved file structures and data compression schemes. Because noise floor of DAS measurements is higher than that of conventional sensors, optimal processing workflow involving advanced denoising, deconvolution (of the source signatures), and stacking approaches are being established to maximize signal content of DAS data. The resulting workflow of data management and processing could accelerate the broader adaption of DAS for continuous monitoring of critical processes.

  19. Fragility analysis of a seismically-isolated emergency diesel generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil; Ohtori, Yasuki

    2005-01-01

    The seismic capacity of an Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) in nuclear power plants influences the seismic safety of the plants significantly. A recent study showed that the increase of the seismic capacity of the EDG could reduce the core damage frequency (CDF) remarkably. It is known that the major failure mode of the EDG is a concrete coning failure due to the pulling out of the anchor bolts. The use of base isolators instead of anchor bolts can increase the seismic capacity of the EDG without any major problems. The fragility curves for a base-isolated EDG should be different from those for a conventional type because the major failure mode of the base-isolated EDG will not be a concrete coning one any more. The governing failure mode of the base-isolated EDG must be the damage of the isolators. This study introduces a fragility evaluation method for an isolated EDG, and evaluates the fragilities for the isolated EDG and compares them with those for the conventional one. Evaluation of the ground motion index is also carried out to determine the governing parameter suitable for representing the seismic responses of the base isolator

  20. Methodological approach for the seismic backfitting of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, P.; Muzzi, F.; Ruggieri, G.; Zola, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the frame of the assessment of the seismic adequacy of the operating Nuclear Power Plants in East Europe, the main problem to match with is the difficulty to work about already existing plants. Moreover consolidated standards and procedures for seismic design, verification and qualification exist for new structures and equipment, then the extension to operating plants requires a lot of engineering judgement. The paper highlights the importance of: identification of seismic safety related systems and components; site specific seismic input definition in agreement with international standards; computation of seismic loads accounting for soil-structure interaction and appropriate structural modelling; overall stability verification of the plant (soil bearing capacity, soil liquefaction, sliding, overturning); ductility effects in evaluation of seismic protection; engineering process for the qualification of components and systems and walkdown procedures and identification of remedial measures (easy fixes and complex fixes). Some examples are reported referred to the more recent ISMES activities in the field

  1. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  2. Romanian seismic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Rizescu, Mihaela; Popa, Mihaela; Grigore, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    The research in the field of seismology in Romania is mainly carried out by the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP). The NIEP activities are mainly concerned with the fundamental research financed by research contracts from public sources and the maintenance and operation of the Romanian seismic network. A three stage seismic network is now operating under NIEP, designed mainly to monitor the Vrancea seismic region in a magnitude range from microearthquakes to strong events: - network of 18 short-period seismometers (S13); - Teledyne Geotech Instruments (Texas); - network of 7 stations with local digital recording (PCM-5000) on magnetic tape, made up of, S13 geophone (T=2 s) on vertical component and SH1 geophone (T=5 s) on horizontal components; - network of 28 SMA-1 accelerometers and 30 digital accelerometers (Kinemetrics - K2) installed in the free field conditions in the framework of the joint German-Romanian cooperation program (CRC); the K2 instruments cover a magnitude range from 1.4 to 8.0. Since 1994, MLR (Muntele Rosu) station has become part of the GEOFON network and was provided with high performance broad band instruments. At Bucharest and Timisoara data centers, an automated and networked seismological system performs the on-line digital acquisition and processing of the telemetered data. Automatic processing includes discrimination between local and distant seismic events, earthquake location and magnitude computation, and source parameter determination for local earthquakes. The results are rapidly distributed via Internet, to several seismological services in Europe and USA, to be used in the association/confirmation procedures. Plans for new developments of the network include the upgrade from analog to digital telemetry and new stations for monitoring local seismicity. (authors)

  3. Advances in crosshole seismic instrumentation for dam safety monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderlini, G.; Anderlini, C. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Taylor, R. [RST Instruments Ltd., Coquitlam, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Since 1996, crosshole shear wave velocity measurements have been performed annually at the WAC Bennett Dam in order to monitor the performance of the dam core and integrity of the 1997 sinkhole repairs. As the testing showed to be responsive to embankment conditions and capable of detecting subtle changes, the testing program was expanded to include the development of an electrical shear wave source capable of carrying out crosshole seismic testing in Mica and Revelstoke Dams over distances of 100 metres and depths of 250 metres. This paper discussed the development and capabilities of the crosshole seismic instrumentation and presented preliminary results obtained during initial testing. Specific topics that were discussed included conventional crosshole seismic equipment; design basics; description of new crosshole seismic equipment; and automated in-situ crosshole seismic system (ACSS) system description and operation. It was concluded that the ACSS and accompanying electrical shear wave source, developed as part of the project, has advanced and improved on traditional crosshole seismic equipment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Design and development of digital seismic amplifier recorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsidar, Siti Alaa; Afuar, Waldy; Handayani, Gunawan, E-mail: gunawanhandayani@gmail.com [Department of Physics, ITB (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    A digital seismic recording is a recording technique of seismic data in digital systems. This method is more convenient because it is more accurate than other methods of seismic recorders. To improve the quality of the results of seismic measurements, the signal needs to be amplified to obtain better subsurface images. The purpose of this study is to improve the accuracy of measurement by amplifying the input signal. We use seismic sensors/geophones with a frequency of 4.5 Hz. The signal is amplified by means of 12 units of non-inverting amplifier. The non-inverting amplifier using IC 741 with the resistor values 1KΩ and 1MΩ. The amplification results were 1,000 times. The results of signal amplification converted into digital by using the Analog Digital Converter (ADC). Quantitative analysis in this study was performed using the software Lab VIEW 8.6. The Lab VIEW 8.6 program was used to control the ADC. The results of qualitative analysis showed that the seismic conditioning can produce a large output, so that the data obtained is better than conventional data. This application can be used for geophysical methods that have low input voltage such as microtremor application.

  5. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we

  6. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into

  7. Validation of seismic probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.

    1994-01-01

    A seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear plant requires identification and information regarding the seismic hazard at the plant site, dominant accident sequences leading to core damage, and structure and equipment fragilities. Uncertainties are associated with each of these ingredients of a PRA. Sources of uncertainty due to seismic hazard and assumptions underlying the component fragility modeling may be significant contributors to uncertainty in estimates of core damage probability. Design and construction errors also may be important in some instances. When these uncertainties are propagated through the PRA, the frequency distribution of core damage probability may span three orders of magnitude or more. This large variability brings into question the credibility of PRA methods and the usefulness of insights to be gained from a PRA. The sensitivity of accident sequence probabilities and high-confidence, low probability of failure (HCLPF) plant fragilities to seismic hazard and fragility modeling assumptions was examined for three nuclear power plants. Mean accident sequence probabilities were found to be relatively insensitive (by a factor of two or less) to: uncertainty in the coefficient of variation (logarithmic standard deviation) describing inherent randomness in component fragility; truncation of lower tail of fragility; uncertainty in random (non-seismic) equipment failures (e.g., diesel generators); correlation between component capacities; and functional form of fragility family. On the other hand, the accident sequence probabilities, expressed in the form of a frequency distribution, are affected significantly by the seismic hazard modeling, including slopes of seismic hazard curves and likelihoods assigned to those curves

  8. Background noise model development for seismic stations of KMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Youngsoo

    2010-05-01

    The background noise recorded at seismometer is exist at any seismic signal due to the natural phenomena of the medium which the signal passed through. Reducing the seismic noise is very important to improve the data quality in seismic studies. But, the most important aspect of reducing seismic noise is to find the appropriate place before installing the seismometer. For this reason, NIMR(National Institution of Meteorological Researches) starts to develop a model of standard background noise for the broadband seismic stations of the KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) using a continuous data set obtained from 13 broadband stations during the period of 2007 and 2008. We also developed the model using short period seismic data from 10 stations at the year of 2009. The method of Mcmara and Buland(2004) is applied to analyse background noise of Korean Peninsula. The fact that borehole seismometer records show low noise level at frequency range greater than 1 Hz compared with that of records at the surface indicate that the cultural noise of inland Korean Peninsula should be considered to process the seismic data set. Reducing Double Frequency peak also should be regarded because the Korean Peninsula surrounded by the seas from eastern, western and southern part. The development of KMA background model shows that the Peterson model(1993) is not applicable to fit the background noise signal generated from Korean Peninsula.

  9. Studies of the Correlation Between Ionospheric Anomalies and Seismic Activities in the Indian Subcontinent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasmal, S.; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The VLF (Very Low Frequency) signals are long thought to give away important information about the Lithosphere-Ionosphere coupling. It is recently established that the ionosphere may be perturbed due to seismic activities. The effects of this perturbation can be detected through the VLF wave amplitude. There are several methods to find this correlations and these methods can be used for the prediction of these seismic events. In this paper, first we present a brief history of the use of VLF propagation method for the study of seismo-ionospheric correlations. Then we present different methods proposed by us to find out the seismo-ionospheric correlations. At the Indian Centre for Space Physics, Kolkata we have been monitoring the VTX station at Vijayanarayanam from 2002. In the initial stage, we received 17 kHz signal and latter we received 18.2 kHz signal. In this paper, first we present the results for the 17 kHz signal during Sumatra earthquake in 2004 obtained from the terminator time analysis method. Then we present much detailed and statistical analysis using some new methods and present the results for 18.2 kHz signal. In order to establish the correlation between the ionospheric activities and the earthquakes, we need to understand what are the reference signals throughout the year. We present the result of the sunrise and sunset terminators for the 18.2 kHz signal as a function of the day of the year for a period of four years, viz, 2005 to 2008 when the solar activity was very low. In this case, the signal would primarily be affected by the Sun due to normal sunrise and sunset effects. Any deviation from this standardized calibration curve would point to influences by terrestrial (such as earthquakes) and extra-terrestrial (such as solar activities and other high energy phenomena). We present examples of deviations which occur in a period of sixteen months and show that the correlations with seismic events is significant and typically the highest deviation

  10. A new seismic station in Romania the Bucovina seismic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigore, Adrian; Grecu, Bogdan; Ionescu, Constantin; Ghica, Daniela; Popa, Mihaela; Rizescu, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a new seismic monitoring station, the Bucovina Seismic Array, has been established in the northern part of Romania, in a joint effort of the Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA, and the National Institute for Earth Physics, Romania. The array consists of 10 seismic sensors (9 short-period and one broad band) located in boreholes and distributed in a 5 x 5 km area. On July 24, 2002 the official Opening Ceremony of Bucovina Seismic Array took place in the area near the city of Campulung Moldovenesc in the presence of Romanian Prime Minister, Adrian Nastase. Starting with this date, the new seismic monitoring system became fully operational by continuous recording and transmitting data in real-time to the National Data Center of Romania, in Bucharest and to the National Data Center of USA, in Florida. Bucovina Seismic Array, added to the present Seismic Network, will provide much better seismic monitoring coverage of Romania's territory, on-scale recording for weak-to-strong events, and will contribute to advanced seismological studies on seismic hazard and risk, local effects and microzonation, seismic source physics, Earth structure. (authors)

  11. Quasisymmetry equations for conventional stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    1994-11-01

    General quasisymmetry condition, which demands the independence of B 2 on one of the angular Boozer coordinates, is reduced to two equations containing only geometrical characteristics and helical field of a stellarator. The analysis is performed for conventional stellarators with a planar circular axis using standard stellarator expansion. As a basis, the invariant quasisymmetry condition is used. The quasisymmetry equations for stellarators are obtained from this condition also in an invariant form. Simplified analogs of these equations are given for the case when averaged magnetic surfaces are circular shifted torii. It is shown that quasisymmetry condition can be satisfied, in principle, in a conventional stellarator by a proper choice of two satellite harmonics of the helical field in addition to the main harmonic. Besides, there appears a restriction on the shift of magnetic surfaces. Thus, in general, the problem is closely related with that of self-consistent description of a configuration. (author)

  12. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi

    2002-01-29

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along `phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines.

  13. Seismic data enhancement with Common Reflection Surface (CRS) stack method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baykulov, M.; Brink, H.J.; Gajewski, D.; Yoon, Mi-Kyung [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik

    2008-10-23

    We present the results of partial stacking of prestack seismic reflection data based on the kinematic wavefield attributes computed during the automatic CRS stack. The resulting CRS supergathers are more regularised and have better signal to noise ratio compared to original CMP gathers. The improved data can be used in any conventional processing tool instead of the original data, providing enhanced images of better quality. The CRS supergather method is especially suited for low fold seismic reflection data. Application of the new method to synthetic and real low fold data shows a clear improvement of seismograms as well as time and depth-migrated sections. (orig.)

  14. Effects of Irregular Bridge Columns and Feasibility of Seismic Regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Abey E.

    2018-05-01

    Bridges with unequal column height is one of the main irregularities in bridge design particularly while negotiating steep valleys, making the bridges vulnerable to seismic action. The desirable behaviour of bridge columns towards seismic loading is that, they should perform in a regular fashion, i.e. the capacity of each column should be utilized evenly. But, this type of behaviour is often missing when the column heights are unequal along the length of the bridge, allowing short columns to bear the maximum lateral load. In the present study, the effects of unequal column height on the global seismic performance of bridges are studied using pushover analysis. Codes such as CalTrans (Engineering service center, earthquake engineering branch, 2013) and EC-8 (EN 1998-2: design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part 2: bridges, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, 2005) suggests seismic regularity criterion for achieving regular seismic performance level at all the bridge columns. The feasibility of adopting these seismic regularity criterions along with those mentioned in literatures will be assessed for bridges designed as per the Indian Standards in the present study.

  15. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety was adopted on 17 June 1994 by Diplomatic Conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency at its Headquarters from 14 to 17 June 1994. The Convention will enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit with the Depository (the Agency's Director General) of the twenty-second instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, including the instruments of seventeen States, having each at leas one nuclear installation which has achieved criticality in a reactor core. The text of the Convention as adopted is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  16. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Northeast India Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranjit; Sharma, M. L.; Wason, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    Northeast India bounded by latitudes 20°-30°N and longitudes 87°-98°E is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. This region has experienced several moderate-to-large-sized earthquakes, including the 12 June, 1897 Shillong earthquake ( M w 8.1) and the 15 August, 1950 Assam earthquake ( M w 8.7) which caused loss of human lives and significant damages to buildings highlighting the importance of seismic hazard assessment for the region. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the region has been carried out using a unified moment magnitude catalog prepared by an improved General Orthogonal Regression methodology (Geophys J Int, 190:1091-1096, 2012; Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Northeast India region, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 2013) with events compiled from various databases (ISC, NEIC,GCMT, IMD) and other available catalogs. The study area has been subdivided into nine seismogenic source zones to account for local variation in tectonics and seismicity characteristics. The seismicity parameters are estimated for each of these source zones, which are input variables into seismic hazard estimation of a region. The seismic hazard analysis of the study region has been performed by dividing the area into grids of size 0.1° × 0.1°. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration ( S a) values (for periods of 0.2 and 1 s) have been evaluated at bedrock level corresponding to probability of exceedance (PE) of 50, 20, 10, 2 and 0.5 % in 50 years. These exceedance values correspond to return periods of 100, 225, 475, 2475, and 10,000 years, respectively. The seismic hazard maps have been prepared at the bedrock level, and it is observed that the seismic hazard estimates show a significant local variation in contrast to the uniform hazard value suggested by the Indian standard seismic code [Indian standard, criteria for earthquake-resistant design of structures, fifth edition, Part

  17. Seismic design of nuclear power plants - an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.E.; Ibanez, P.; Smith, C.B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a review and evaluation of the design standards and the analytical and experimental methods used in the seismic design of nuclear power plants with emphasis on United States practice. Three major areas were investigated: (a) soils, siting, and seismic ground motion specification; (b) soil-structure interaction; and (c) the response of major nuclear power plant structures and components. The purpose of this review and evaluation program was to prepare an independent assessment of the state-of-the-art of the seismic design of nuclear power plants and to identify seismic analysis and design research areas meriting support by the various organizations comprising the 'nuclear power industry'. Criteria used for evaluating the relative importance of alternative research areas included the potential research impact on nuclear power plant siting, design, construction, cost, safety, licensing, and regulation. (Auth.)

  18. A report on seismic re-evaluation of Cirus systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Veto; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2003-06-01

    Cirus was initiated way back in 1955 and its design was made with the methods prevailing at that time. The design codes and safety standards have changed since then, particularly with respect to seismic design criteria. As the structure is an important safety related structure it is mandatory to meet the present statutory requirement. This report contains the seismic qualification for some of the Cirus systems. The report has four parts. Part I gives the analytical studies performed in the containment building, Part II describes of experimental studies carried out to validate the analytical studies for containment builaing, Part III explains the seismic retrofitting of Battery bank, and Part IV summarizes the seismic qualification of inlet and exhaust damper of Cirus. (author)

  19. Advanced virtual monochromatic reconstruction of dual-energy unenhanced brain computed tomography in children: comparison of image quality against standard mono-energetic images and conventional polychromatic computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Juil [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Hun [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In-One [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pak, Seong Yong [Siemens Healthineers, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Krauss, Bernhard [Siemens Healthineers, Forchheim (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Advanced virtual monochromatic reconstruction from dual-energy brain CT has not been evaluated in children. To determine the most effective advanced virtual monochromatic imaging energy level for maximizing pediatric brain parenchymal image quality in dual-energy unenhanced brain CT and to compare this technique with conventional monochromatic reconstruction and polychromatic scanning. Using both conventional (Mono) and advanced monochromatic reconstruction (Mono+) techniques, we retrospectively reconstructed 13 virtual monochromatic imaging energy levels from 40 keV to 100 keV in 5-keV increments from dual-source, dual-energy unenhanced brain CT scans obtained in 23 children. We analyzed gray and white matter noise ratios, signal-to-noise ratios and contrast-to-noise ratio, and posterior fossa artifact. We chose the optimal mono-energetic levels and compared them with conventional CT. For Mono+maximum optima were observed at 60 keV, and minimum posterior fossa artifact at 70 keV. For Mono, optima were at 65-70 keV, with minimum posterior fossa artifact at 75 keV. Mono+ was superior to Mono and to polychromatic CT for image-quality measures. Subjective analysis rated Mono+superior to other image sets. Optimal virtual monochromatic imaging using Mono+ algorithm demonstrated better image quality for gray-white matter differentiation and reduction of the artifact in the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  20. Toward uniform probabilistic seismic hazard assessments for Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. H.; Wang, Y.; Shi, X.; Ornthammarath, T.; Warnitchai, P.; Kosuwan, S.; Thant, M.; Nguyen, P. H.; Nguyen, L. M.; Solidum, R., Jr.; Irsyam, M.; Hidayati, S.; Sieh, K.

    2017-12-01

    Although most Southeast Asian countries have seismic hazard maps, various methodologies and quality result in appreciable mismatches at national boundaries. We aim to conduct a uniform assessment across the region by through standardized earthquake and fault databases, ground-shaking scenarios, and regional hazard maps. Our earthquake database contains earthquake parameters obtained from global and national seismic networks, harmonized by removal of duplicate events and the use of moment magnitude. Our active-fault database includes fault parameters from previous studies and from the databases implemented for national seismic hazard maps. Another crucial input for seismic hazard assessment is proper evaluation of ground-shaking attenuation. Since few ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) have used local observations from this region, we evaluated attenuation by comparison of instrumental observations and felt intensities for recent earthquakes with predicted ground shaking from published GMPEs. We then utilize the best-fitting GMPEs and site conditions into our seismic hazard assessments. Based on the database and proper GMPEs, we have constructed regional probabilistic seismic hazard maps. The assessment shows highest seismic hazard levels near those faults with high slip rates, including the Sagaing Fault in central Myanmar, the Sumatran Fault in Sumatra, the Palu-Koro, Matano and Lawanopo Faults in Sulawesi, and the Philippine Fault across several islands of the Philippines. In addition, our assessment demonstrates the important fact that regions with low earthquake probability may well have a higher aggregate probability of future earthquakes, since they encompass much larger areas than the areas of high probability. The significant irony then is that in areas of low to moderate probability, where building codes are usually to provide less seismic resilience, seismic risk is likely to be greater. Infrastructural damage in East Malaysia during the 2015

  1. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  2. Sensitivity of seismically isolated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politopoulos, I.; Hoan, Khac Pham

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the sensitivity of seismically isolated structures to a small variability of the earthquake excitation and of some structural properties with respect to the probability of failure and floor spectra. In particular, the influence of the nonlinear behaviour of the isolated superstructure on the vulnerability and on the floor spectra is investigated by means of a series of Monte Carlo simulations of simple two degrees-of-freedom systems. Several types of passive and active isolation systems are examined and three different idealized nonlinear constitutive laws are considered for the superstructure. It is found that, in general, the probability of failure does not depend on the specific cyclic behaviour of the assumed constitutive law and general trends regarding the impact of different isolation devices on vulnerability are established. As for the floor spectra, the influence of moderate nonlinear behaviour of isolated Superstructures, with the exception of the case of a non-dissipative elastic nonlinear law is negligible, contrary to the case of conventional Structures. (authors)

  3. Sensitivity of seismically isolated structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Politopoulos, I. [CEA Saclay, DEN DANS DM2S, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Hoan, Khac Pham

    2009-07-15

    In this paper we study the sensitivity of seismically isolated structures to a small variability of the earthquake excitation and of some structural properties with respect to the probability of failure and floor spectra. In particular, the influence of the nonlinear behaviour of the isolated superstructure on the vulnerability and on the floor spectra is investigated by means of a series of Monte Carlo simulations of simple two degrees-of-freedom systems. Several types of passive and active isolation systems are examined and three different idealized nonlinear constitutive laws are considered for the superstructure. It is found that, in general, the probability of failure does not depend on the specific cyclic behaviour of the assumed constitutive law and general trends regarding the impact of different isolation devices on vulnerability are established. As for the floor spectra, the influence of moderate nonlinear behaviour of isolated Superstructures, with the exception of the case of a non-dissipative elastic nonlinear law is negligible, contrary to the case of conventional Structures. (authors)

  4. Seismic detection of tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatom, F. B.

    1993-01-01

    Tornadoes represent the most violent of all forms of atmospheric storms, each year resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in property damage and approximately one hundred fatalities. In recent years, considerable success has been achieved in detecting tornadic storms by means of Doppler radar. However, radar systems cannot determine when a tornado is actually in contact with the ground, expect possibly at extremely close range. At the present time, human observation is the only truly reliable way of knowing that a tornado is actually on the ground. However, considerable evidence exists indicating that a tornado in contact with the ground produces a significant seismic signal. If such signals are generated, the seismic detection and warning of an imminent tornado can become a distinct possibility. 

  5. Seismic Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagling, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Seismic Safety Guide provides facilities managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. Most facilities managers, unfamiliar with earthquake engineering, tend to look for answers in techniques more sophisticated than required to solve the actual problems in earthquake safety. Often the approach to solutions to these problems is so academic, legalistic, and financially overwhelming that mitigation of actual seismic hazards simply does not get done in a timely, cost-effective way. The objective of the Guide is to provide practical advice about earthquake safety so that managers and engineers can get the job done without falling into common pitfalls, prolonged diagnosis, and unnecessary costs. It is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, non-structural elements, life lines, and risk management. 5 references

  6. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Source of seismic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankovskii, B.A.; Khor' yakov, K.A.

    1980-08-30

    Patented is a source of seismic signals consisting of a shock generator with a basic low-voltage and auxillary high-voltage stator coils, a capacitive transformer and control switches. To increase the amplitude of signal excitation a condensor battery and auxillary commutator are introduced into the device, which are connected in parallel and serially into the circuit of the main low-voltage stator coil.

  8. Stutter seismic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumma, W. H.; Hughes, D. R.; Zimmerman, N. S.

    1980-08-12

    An improved seismic prospecting system comprising the use of a closely spaced sequence of source initiations at essentially the same location to provide shorter objective-level wavelets than are obtainable with a single pulse. In a preferred form, three dynamite charges are detonated in the same or three closely spaced shot holes to generate a downward traveling wavelet having increased high frequency content and reduced content at a peak frequency determined by initial testing.

  9. Long Period Seismic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    Geoffsica, TPHM. No. 5 , p. 161. Vargas, Freddy (To he published in 1976) 1 .-DTSCRP1TNACTON DE EVENTO«; NATHDALE«; Y ARTTFTCT ALES. 2.- CALCULO DEL...seismic risk, bv de - fininn relative weiqht of maximum MM intensity at a pivon distance ponulation density, area feolupy and attenuation of intensity wit...Population densitv, area peolopv and attenuation of intensitv with distance, is presented topether with a map anplvinp theorv to Bo- livia. ^«^a

  10. Oklahoma seismic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr.; Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK

    1993-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established rigorous guidelines that must be adhered to before a permit to construct a nuclear-power plant is granted to an applicant. Local as well as regional seismicity and structural relationships play an integral role in the final design criteria for nuclear power plants. The existing historical record of seismicity is inadequate in a number of areas of the Midcontinent region because of the lack of instrumentation and (or) the sensitivity of the instruments deployed to monitor earthquake events. The Nemaha Uplift/Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly is one of five principal areas east of the Rocky Mountain front that has a moderately high seismic-risk classification. The Nemaha uplift, which is common to the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, is approximately 415 miles long and 12-14 miles wide. The Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly extends southward from Minnesota across Iowa and the southeastern corner of Nebraska and probably terminates in central Kansas. A number of moderate-sized earthquakes--magnitude 5 or greater--have occurred along or west of the Nemaha uplift. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, in cooperation with the geological surveys of Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, conducted a 5-year investigation of the seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and associated geologic features in the Midcontinent. This investigation was intended to provide data to be used to design nuclear-power plants. However, the information is also being used to design better large-scale structures, such as dams and high-use buildings, and to provide the necessary data to evaluate earthquake-insurance rates in the Midcontinent

  11. Seismic contracts and agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, N.M.; Krause, V.

    1999-01-01

    Some points to consider regarding management of seismic projects within the Canadian petroleum industry were reviewed. Seismic projects involve the integration of many services. This paper focused on user-provider relationships, the project planning process, competitive bid considerations, the types of agreement used for seismic and their implications, and the impact that certain points of control may have on a company: (1) initial estimate versus actual cost, (2) liability, (3) safety and operational performance, and (4) quality of deliverables. The objective is to drive home the point that in today's environment where companies are forming, merging, or collapsing on a weekly basis , chain of command and accountability are issues that can no longer be dealt with casually. Companies must form business relationships with service providers with a full knowledge of benefits and liabilities of the style of relationship they choose. Diligent and proactive management tends to optimize cost, safety and liability issues, all of which have a bearing on the points of control available to the company

  12. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented

  13. Seismic risks at Elsie Lake Main Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCammon, N.R.; Momenzadeh, M.; Hawson, H.H.; Nielsen, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Elsie Lake dams are located on Vancouver Island in an area of high seismic risk. A safety review in 1986 indicated potential deficiencies in the earthfill main dam with respect to modern earthquake design standards. A detailed field investigation program comprising drilling and penetration tests was carried out and the results used in an assessment of seismic stability. A 0.8 m thick less dense layer in the granular shell of the dam, possibly caused by wet construction conditions, would likely liquefy in a major earthquake but sufficient residual strength would likely remain to prevent catastrophic failure. The dam shell might undergo some distortion, and an assessment was initiated to determine the requirements for reservoir drawdown following an extreme earthquake to ensure the timely lowering of the reservoir for inspection and repair. It was suggested that an adequate evacuation capability would be 25% and 50% drawdown in not more than 30 and 50 days, respectively. 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  14. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Towse, D.

    1979-01-01

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures

  15. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Towse, D.

    1979-04-26

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures.

  16. Seismic fragility capacity of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toru; Abe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is an available method to evaluate residual risks of nuclear plants that are designed on definitive seismic conditions. From our preliminary seismic PSA analysis, horizontal shaft pumps are important components that have significant influences on the core damage frequency (CDF). An actual horizontal shaft pump and some kinds of elements were tested to evaluate realistic fragility capacities. Our test results showed that the realistic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump would be at least four times as high as a current value, 1.6 x 9.8 m/s 2 , used for our seismic PSA. We are going to incorporate the fragility capacity data that were obtained from those tests into our seismic PSA analysis, and we expect that the reliability of seismic PSA should increase. (author)

  17. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

  18. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; hide

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  19. Seismic capacity of a reinforced concrete frame structure without seismic detailing and limited ductility seismic design in moderate seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Kim, I. H.

    1999-01-01

    A four-story reinforced concrete frame building model is designed for the gravity loads only. Static nonlinear pushover analyses are performed in two orthogonal horizontal directions. The overall capacity curves are converted into ADRS spectra and compared with demand spectra. At several points the deformed shape, moment and shear distribution are calculated. Based on these results limited ductility seismic design concept is proposed as an alternative seismic design approach in moderate seismicity resign

  20. Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear power plants and other facilities V. 2. Proceedings of the technical committee meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this TCM are: to review the IAEA Safety Report on Seismic Evaluation of Existing Nuclear Power Plants in order to achieve a consensus among Member States on this matter and to discuss the outlines of an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on specific topics related to this subject. This volume includes presentations of the member states describing the practical approach to evaluation of seismic equipment of the existing NPPs, validation of innovative systems for earthquake protection; seismic re-evaluation of the NPPs, seismic regulations and safety standards; and other activities related to seismic safety in Member States

  1. Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear power plants and other facilities V. 2. Proceedings of the technical committee meeting. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this TCM are: to review the IAEA Safety Report on Seismic Evaluation of Existing Nuclear Power Plants in order to achieve a consensus among Member States on this matter and to discuss the outlines of an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on specific topics related to this subject. This volume includes presentations of the member states describing the practical approach to evaluation of seismic equipment of the existing NPPs, validation of innovative systems for earthquake protection; seismic re-evaluation of the NPPs, seismic regulations and safety standards; and other activities related to seismic safety in Member States.

  2. Standards, criteria, comparative study. Final report 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this report is to compare standards and criteria used for the design of seismic resistant Nuclear Power plants in former USSR and Eastern Europe to the actual practice in Western Europe and USA. A review of USSR and Czech-Slovak standards for design of WWER-1000 NPPs is included. Comparative study deals involves a general comparison of standards and the comparison of seismic loads according to Eastern standards with the to-day practices. According to these comparisons it can be theoretically concluded that despite some differences the structural seismic forces calculated according to Soviet-Russian standards are in good agreement with the ones resulting from Western Standards

  3. NSR&D Program Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 Call for Proposals Mitigation of Seismic Risk at Nuclear Facilities using Seismic Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Seismic isolation (SI) has the potential to drastically reduce seismic response of structures, systems, or components (SSCs) and therefore the risk associated with large seismic events (large seismic event could be defined as the design basis earthquake (DBE) and/or the beyond design basis earthquake (BDBE) depending on the site location). This would correspond to a potential increase in nuclear safety by minimizing the structural response and thus minimizing the risk of material release during large seismic events that have uncertainty associated with their magnitude and frequency. The national consensus standard America Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standard 4, Seismic Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Structures recently incorporated language and commentary for seismically isolating a large light water reactor or similar large nuclear structure. Some potential benefits of SI are: 1) substantially decoupling the SSC from the earthquake hazard thus decreasing risk of material release during large earthquakes, 2) cost savings for the facility and/or equipment, and 3) applicability to both nuclear (current and next generation) and high hazard non-nuclear facilities. Issue: To date no one has evaluated how the benefit of seismic risk reduction reduces cost to construct a nuclear facility. Objective: Use seismic probabilistic risk assessment (SPRA) to evaluate the reduction in seismic risk and estimate potential cost savings of seismic isolation of a generic nuclear facility. This project would leverage ongoing Idaho National Laboratory (INL) activities that are developing advanced (SPRA) methods using Nonlinear Soil-Structure Interaction (NLSSI) analysis. Technical Approach: The proposed study is intended to obtain an estimate on the reduction in seismic risk and construction cost that might be achieved by seismically isolating a nuclear facility. The nuclear facility is a representative pressurized water reactor building nuclear power plant (NPP) structure

  4. 3. General principles of assessing seismic resistance of technological equipment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of the seismic resistance of technological equipment is performed by computation, experimental trial, possibly by combining both methods. Existing and prepared standards in the field of seismic resistance of nuclear power plants are mentioned. Accelerograms and response spectra of design-basis earhtquake and maximum credible earthquake serve as the basic data for evaluating seismic resistance. The nuclear power plant in Mochovce will be the first Czechoslovak nuclear power plant with so-called partially seismic design. The problem of dynamic interaction of technological equipment and nuclear power plant systems with a bearing structure is discussed. (E.F.)

  5. Seismic response analysis and upgrading design of pump houses of Kozloduy NPP units 5 and 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, M.; Marinov, M.; Krutzik, N.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the presented project was to perform a feasibility study for seismic/structural evaluation of the safety related structures at Kozloduy NPP Units 5 and 6 for the new site seismicity and determine if they satisfy current international safety standards. The evaluation of the Pump House 3 (PH3) building is addressed in this paper, which was carried out by applying appropriate modeling techniques combined with failure mode and seismic margin analyses. The scope of the work defined was to present the required enhancement of the seismic capacity of the Pump House structures.(author)

  6. Seismic safety research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This document presents a plan for seismic research to be performed by the Structural and Seismic Engineering Branch in the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The plan describes the regulatory needs and related research necessary to address the following issues: uncertainties in seismic hazard, earthquakes larger than the design basis, seismic vulnerabilities, shifts in building frequency, piping design, and the adequacy of current criteria and methods. In addition to presenting current and proposed research within the NRC, the plan discusses research sponsored by other domestic and foreign sources

  7. Seismic modelling of shallow coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.C. (University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics.)

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to determine whether reflection seismic surveys can be used to map stratigraphic and structural detail of shallow Plains-type coal deposits. Two coalfields in central Alberta were used to examine and determine optimum acquisition parameters for reflection seismic surveys in such settings. The study was based on 1-D and 2-D numerical seismic modelling using sonic and density well logs to formulate a layered earth model. Additional objectives were to interpret the reflection seismic data in terms of geologic features in the study area, and to investigate the relationship between vertical resolution and field acquisition geometry. 27 refs., 41 figs.

  8. Risk based seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2) What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the safe-shutdown-earthquake (SSE) ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented. (orig.)

  9. Climate change convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.

    1992-01-01

    Principles that guide Canada's Green Plan with respect to global warming are outlined. These include respect for nature, meeting environmental goals in an economically beneficial manner, efficient use of resources, shared responsibilities, federal leadership, and informed decision making. The policy side of the international Framework Convention on Climate Change is then discussed and related to the Green Plan. The Convention has been signed by 154 nations and has the long-term objective of stabilizing anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at levels that prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. Some of the Convention's commitments toward achieving that objective are only applicable to the developed countries. Five general areas of commitment are emissions reductions, assistance to developing countries, reporting requirements, scientific and socioeconomic research, and education. The most controversial area is that of limiting emissions. The Convention has strong measures for public accountability and is open to future revisions. Canada's Green Plan represents one country's response to the Convention commitments, including a national goal to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at the 1990 level by the year 2000

  10. Marine Gas Hydrates - An Untapped Non-conventional Energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Marine Gas Hydrates - An Untapped Non-conventional Energy Resource · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Gas Hydrate Stability Zone · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Exploration of gas hydrates (seismic) · Characteristics of BSR · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Distribution of Gas Hydrates in KG ...

  11. The influence of backfill on seismicity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hemp, DA

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available , that the seismicity has been reduced in areas where backfill had been placed. A factor complicating the evaluation of backfill on seismicity is the effect of geological structures on seismicity....

  12. The development of the operational program for seismic monitoring system of Uljin Unit 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.R.; Heo, T.Y.; Cho, B.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, T.G.; Kim, H.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Oh, S.M.; Kang, Y.S. [Korea Electric Power Data Network Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Due to aging of the imported seismic monitoring system of Uljin of t 1 and 2 units it is difficult for this system to provide enough functions needed for the security of seismic safety and the evaluation of the earthquake data from the seismic instrumentation. For this reason, it is necessary to replace the seismic monitoring system of Uljin 1 and 2 units with a new system which has the localized and upgraded hardware and corresponding software. In the part of standardization of existing seismic monitoring system, furthermore, it is necessary to develop the seismic wave analysis system which incorporate newly developed software and can real-timely analyze the seismic wave. This report is the finial product of research project ``The development of the operational program for seismic monitoring system of Uljin Unit 1 and 2`` which have been performed from June 1996 to June 1997 by KEPRI and KDN. Main accomplishments - Review of regulatory criteria for seismic monitoring system -Analysis and upgrade of hardware system -Analysis and upgrade of software system - Development of seismic wave analysis system. (author). 17 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Synchrosqueezing-based Transform and its Application in Seismic Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Gholtashi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Seismic waves are non-stationary due to its propagation through the earth. Time-frequency transforms are suitable tools for analyzing non-stationary seismic signals. Spectral decomposition can reveal the non-stationary characteristics which cannot be easily observed in the time or frequency representation alone. Various types of spectral decomposition methods have been introduced by some researchers. Conventional spectral decompositions have some restrictions such as Heisenberg uncertainty principle and cross-terms which limit their applications in signal analysis. In this paper, synchrosqueezingbased transforms were used to overcome the mentioned restrictions; also, as an application of this new high resolution time-frequency analysis method, it was applied to random noise removal and the detection of low-frequency shadows in seismic data. The efficiency of this method is evaluated by applying it to both synthetic and real seismic data. The results show that the mentioned transform is a proper tool for seismic data processing and interpretation.

  14. Overview of seismic resistant design of Indian Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G.K.; Hawaldar, R.V.K.P.; Vinod Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Safe operation of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is of utmost importance. NPPs consist of various Structure, System and Equipment (SS and E) that are designed to resist the forces generated due to a natural phenomenon like earthquake. An earthquake causes severe oscillatory ground motion of short duration. Seismic resistant design of SS and E calls for evaluation of effect of severe ground shaking for assuring the structural integrity and operability during and after the occurrence of earthquake event. Overall exercise is a multi-disciplinary approach. First of standardized 220 MWe design reactor is Narora Atomic Power Station. Seismic design was carried out as per state of art then, for the first time. The twelve 220 MWe reactors and two 540 MWe reactors designed since 1975 have been seismically qualified for the earthquake loads expected in the region. Seismic design of 700 MWe reactor is under advanced stage of finalization. Seismic re-evaluation of six numbers of old plants has been completed as per latest state of art. Over the years, expertise have been developed at Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, prominent educational institutes, research laboratories and engineering consultants in the country in the area of seismic design, analysis and shake table testing. (author)

  15. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Bayesian seismic AVO inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buland, Arild

    2002-07-01

    A new linearized AVO inversion technique is developed in a Bayesian framework. The objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. Distributions for other elastic parameters can also be assessed, for example acoustic impedance, shear impedance and P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio. The inversion algorithm is based on the convolutional model and a linearized weak contrast approximation of the Zoeppritz equation. The solution is represented by a Gaussian posterior distribution with explicit expressions for the posterior expectation and covariance, hence exact prediction intervals for the inverted parameters can be computed under the specified model. The explicit analytical form of the posterior distribution provides a computationally fast inversion method. Tests on synthetic data show that all inverted parameters were almost perfectly retrieved when the noise approached zero. With realistic noise levels, acoustic impedance was the best determined parameter, while the inversion provided practically no information about the density. The inversion algorithm has also been tested on a real 3-D dataset from the Sleipner Field. The results show good agreement with well logs but the uncertainty is high. The stochastic model includes uncertainties of both the elastic parameters, the wavelet and the seismic and well log data. The posterior distribution is explored by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation using the Gibbs sampler algorithm. The inversion algorithm has been tested on a seismic line from the Heidrun Field with two wells located on the line. The uncertainty of the estimated wavelet is low. In the Heidrun examples the effect of including uncertainty of the wavelet and the noise level was marginal with respect to the AVO inversion results. We have developed a 3-D linearized AVO inversion method with spatially coupled model parameters where the objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S

  17. Guidelines for seismic qualification by experience in ALWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The methodologies and acceptance criteria for seismic qualification of equipment are provided in IEEE Std. 344 endorsed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the Standard Review Plan. The IEEE Standard allows seismic qualification by use of the similarity analysis method. Data available from past earthquake events or vibration tests can be used in this regard. The nuclear industry has collected a vast amount of earthquake experience and test data in the last decade, and is planning to use it for seismic qualification of equipment in advanced light water reactor (ALWR) plants. This paper discusses the existing data bases including their limitations and describes the ways these data bases can be used for equipment qualification in ALWR plants

  18. Guidelines for seismic qualification by experience in ALWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.

    1994-01-01

    The methodologies and acceptance criteria for seismic qualification of equipment are provided in IEEE Std. 344 endorsed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the Standard Review Plan. The IEEE Standard allows seismic qualification by use of the similarity analysis method. Data available from past earthquake events or vibration tests can be used in this regard. The nuclear industry has collected a vast amount of earthquake experience and test data in the last decade, and is planning to use it for seismic qualification of equipment in advanced light water reactor (ALWR) plants. This paper discusses the existing data bases including their limitations and describes the ways these data bases can be used for equipment qualification in ALWR plants

  19. Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD): Seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit using phased array sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Rüdiger; Kopf, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    In the case of drilling for deep reservoirs previous exploration is indispensable. In recent years the focus shifted more on geological structures like small layers or hydrothermal fault systems. Beside 2D- or 3D-seismics from the surface and seismic measurements like Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) or Seismic While Drilling (SWD) within a borehole these methods cannot always resolute this structures. The resolution is worsen the deeper and smaller the sought-after structures are. So, potential horizons like small layers in oil exploration or fault zones usable for geothermal energy production could be failed or not identified while drilling. The application of a device to explore the geology with a high resolution ahead of the drill bit in direction of drilling would be of high importance. Such a device would allow adjusting the drilling path according to the real geology and would minimize the risk of discovery and hence the costs for drilling. Within the project SPWD a device for seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit will be developed. This device should allow the seismic exploration to predict areas about 50 to 100 meters ahead of the drill bit with a resolution of one meter. At the GFZ a first prototype consisting of different units for seismic sources, receivers and data loggers has been designed and manufactured. As seismic sources four standard magnetostrictive actuators and as receivers four 3-component-geophones are used. Every unit, actuator or geophone, can be rotated in steps of 15° around the longitudinal axis of the prototype to test different measurement configurations. The SPWD prototype emits signal frequencies of about 500 up to 5000 Hz which are significant higher than in VSP and SWD. An increased radiation of seismic wave energy in the direction of the borehole axis allows the view in areas to be drilled. Therefore, every actuator must be controlled independently of each other regarding to amplitude and phase of the source signal to

  20. 30 CFR 75.206 - Conventional roof support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.206 Conventional roof support. (a) Except in anthracite mines using non-mechanized mining systems, when conventional roof support... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conventional roof support. 75.206 Section 75...

  1. Seismic Level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirksen, Gerben; Pellissetti, Manuel; Duncan-Whiteman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    For most external events, the calculation of the core damage frequency (CDF) in Level 1 PSA is sufficient to be able to show that the contribution of the event to the plant risk is negligible. However, it is not sufficient to compare the CDF due to the external event to the total plant CDF; instead the Level 1 PSA result for the event should be compared to the large early release frequency (LERF), or alternatively arguments should be given why the CDF from the external event will not contribute mostly to LERF. For seismic events in particular, it can often not be easily excluded that sequences leading to core damage would not also result in LERF. Since the confinement function is one of the most essential functions for Level 2 PSA, special care must be taken of the containment penetrations. For example systems with containment penetrations that are normally closed during operation or are designed to withstand more than the maximum containment pressure are normally screened out in the Level 2 PSA for the containment isolation function, however the possibility of LOCA in such systems due to an earthquake may nevertheless lead to containment bypass. Additionally, the functionality of passive features may be compromised in case of a beyond design earthquake. In the present paper, we present crucial ingredients of a methodology for a Level 2 seismic PSA. This methodology consists of the following steps: Extension of the seismic equipment list (SEL) to include Level 2 PSA relevant systems (e.g. containment isolation system, features for core melt stabilization, hydrogen mitigation systems), Determination of the systems within the existing SEL with increased demands in case of severe accidents, Determination of essential components for which a dedicated fragility analysis needs to be performed. (author)

  2. A proposal for seismic evaluation index of mid-rise existing RC buildings in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqi, Ahmad; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    Mid-rise RC buildings gradually rise in Kabul and entire Afghanistan since 2001 due to rapid increase of population. To protect the safety of resident, Afghan Structure Code was issued in 2012. But the building constructed before 2012 failed to conform the code requirements. In Japan, new sets of rules and law for seismic design of buildings had been issued in 1981 and severe earthquake damage was disclosed for the buildings designed before 1981. Hence, the Standard for Seismic Evaluation of RC Building published in 1977 has been widely used in Japan to evaluate the seismic capacity of existing buildings designed before 1981. Currently similar problem existed in Afghanistan, therefore, this research examined the seismic capacity of six RC buildings which were built before 2012 in Kabul by applying the seismic screening procedure presented by Japanese standard. Among three screening procedures with different capability, the less detailed screening procedure, the first level of screening, is applied. The study founds an average seismic index (IS-average=0.21) of target buildings. Then, the results were compared with those of more accurate seismic evaluation procedures of Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM) and Time History Analysis (THA). The results for CSM and THA show poor seismic performance of target buildings not able to satisfy the safety design limit (1/100) of the maximum story drift. The target buildings are then improved by installing RC shear walls. The seismic indices of these retrofitted buildings were recalculated and the maximum story drifts were analyzed by CSM and THA. The seismic indices and CSM and THA results are compared and found that building with seismic index larger than (IS-average =0.4) are able to satisfy the safety design limit. Finally, to screen and minimize the earthquake damage over the existing buildings, the judgement seismic index (IS-Judgment=0.5) for the first level of screening is proposed.

  3. Alternate seismic support for pipeline systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthumani, K.; Gopalakrishnan, N.; Sathish Kumar, K.; Sreekala, R.; Rama Rao, G.V.; Reddy, G.R.; Parulekar, Y.M.

    2008-01-01

    Failure free design of supporting systems for pipe lines carrying highly toxic or radioactive liquids at very high temperature is an important issue in the safety aspect for a nuclear power plant installation which is a key topic for researchers all around the world. Generally, these pipeline systems are designed to be held rigid by conventional snubber supports for protection from earthquakes. The piping design must balance seismic deformations and other deformations due to thermal effect. A rigid pipeline system using conventional snubber supports always leads to an increase in thermal stresses; hence a rational seismic design for pipeline supporting systems becomes essential. Contrary to this rigid design, it is possible to design a flexible pipeline system and to decrease the seismic response by increasing the damping through the use of passive energy absorbing elements, which dissipate vibration energy. This paper presents the experimental and analytical studies carried out on modeling yielding type elasto-plastic passive energy-absorbing elements to be used in a passive energy-dissipating device for the control of large seismic deformations of pipelines subjected to earthquake loading. (author)

  4. Seismic wave generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaure, Bernard.

    1982-01-01

    This invention concerns a device for simulating earth tremors. This device includes a seismic wave generator formed of a cylinder, one end of which is closed by one of the walls of a cell containing a soil, the other end being closed by a wall on which are fixed pyrotechnic devices generating shock waves inside the cylinder. These waves are transmitted from the cylinder to the cell through openings made in the cell wall. This device also includes a mechanical device acting as low-pass filter, located inside the cylinder and close to the cell wall [fr

  5. Seismic alarm system for Ignalina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, M.; Griesser, L.; Austin, G.E.; Tiurin, S.; Kuendig, C.

    2001-01-01

    A seismic alarm system will be installed at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. There are two reactors, both RMBK 1500 MW units. Each reactor is a water cooled, graphite moderated, channel type reactor. INPP has the most advanced version of the RMBK reactor design series. The first and second units of INPP went into service at the end of 1983 and in August 1987 respectively. Their design lifetime is approx. 30 years. The various buildings and plant have been designed for two earthquake levels, that is the design earthquake and the maximum possible earthquake with peak ground accelerations ranging from 1.2% to 10% of the acceleration due to gravity. Certain parts of the buildings and some of the equipment of the first and second units do not comply with Western seismic standards. As seismic strengthening of the existing buildings and equipment is not feasible economically, a reactor protection system based on an earthquake early warning system was recommended. This system essentially consists of six seismic stations encircling INPP at a radial distance of approx. 30 km and a seventh station at INPP. Each station includes three seismic substations each 500 m apart. The ground motion at each station is measured continuously by three accelerometers and one seismometer. Data is transmitted via telemetry to the control centre at INPP. Early warning alarms are generated if a seismic threshold is exceeded. This paper discusses the characteristics of INPP, the seismic alarm system presently under construction and the experience with other early warning and seismic alarm systems. (author)

  6. Tritium and OSPAR convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The missions and the organisation of the OSPAR convention on protection of the NE Atlantic marine environment are given. The OSPAR strategy for the radioactive substances is stated. The results of work programme of the radioactive Substances committee are described and the consensus reached by contracting parties on the appropriate arrangements for this radionuclide is presented. (authors)

  7. Revised C++ coding conventions

    CERN Document Server

    Callot, O

    2001-01-01

    This document replaces the note LHCb 98-049 by Pavel Binko. After a few years of practice, some simplification and clarification of the rules was needed. As many more people have now some experience in writing C++ code, their opinion was also taken into account to get a commonly agreed set of conventions

  8. Global climate convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonis, U.E.

    1991-01-01

    The effort of negotiate a global convention on climate change is one of mankind's great endeavours - and a challenge to economists and development planners. The inherent linkages between climate and the habitability of the earth are increasingly well recognized, and a convention could help to ensure that conserving the environment and developing the economy in the future must go hand in hand. Due to growing environmental concern the United Nations General Assembly has set into motion an international negotiating process for a framework convention on climate change. One the major tasks in these negotiations is how to share the duties in reducing climate relevant gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), between the industrial and the developing countries. The results and proposals could be among the most far-reaching ever for socio-economic development, indeed for global security and survival itself. While the negotiations will be about climate and protection of the atmosphere, they will be on fundamental global changes in energy policies, forestry, transport, technology, and on development pathways with low greenhouse gas emissions. Some of these aspects of a climate convention, particularly the distributional options and consequences for the North-South relations, are addressed in this chapter. (orig.)

  9. Mine-induced seismicity at East-Rand proprietary mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milev, AM

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Mining results in seismic activity of varying intensity, from small micro seismic events to larger seismic events, often associated with significant seismic induced damages. This work deals with the understanding of the present seismicity...

  10. Introducing Seismic Tomography with Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, R.; Neves, M. L.; Teodoro, V.

    2011-12-01

    Learning seismic tomography principles and techniques involves advanced physical and computational knowledge. In depth learning of such computational skills is a difficult cognitive process that requires a strong background in physics, mathematics and computer programming. The corresponding learning environments and pedagogic methodologies should then involve sets of computational modelling activities with computer software systems which allow students the possibility to improve their mathematical or programming knowledge and simultaneously focus on the learning of seismic wave propagation and inverse theory. To reduce the level of cognitive opacity associated with mathematical or programming knowledge, several computer modelling systems have already been developed (Neves & Teodoro, 2010). Among such systems, Modellus is particularly well suited to achieve this goal because it is a domain general environment for explorative and expressive modelling with the following main advantages: 1) an easy and intuitive creation of mathematical models using just standard mathematical notation; 2) the simultaneous exploration of images, tables, graphs and object animations; 3) the attribution of mathematical properties expressed in the models to animated objects; and finally 4) the computation and display of mathematical quantities obtained from the analysis of images and graphs. Here we describe virtual simulations and educational exercises which enable students an easy grasp of the fundamental of seismic tomography. The simulations make the lecture more interactive and allow students the possibility to overcome their lack of advanced mathematical or programming knowledge and focus on the learning of seismological concepts and processes taking advantage of basic scientific computation methods and tools.

  11. Nonlinear seismic analysis of continuous RC bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čokić Miloš M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear static analysis, known as a pushover method (NSPA is oftenly used to study the behaviour of a bridge structure under the seismic action. It is shown that the Equivalent Linearization Method - ELM, recommended in FEMA 440, is appropriate for the response analysis of the bridge columns, with different geometric characteristics, quantity and distribution of steel reinforcement. The subject of analysis is a bridge structure with a carriageway plate - a continuous beam with three spans, with the 24 + 40 + 24 m range. Main girder is made of prestressed concrete and it has a box cross section of a constant height. It is important to study the behaviour, not only in the transverse, but also in the longitudinal direction of the bridge axis, when analysing the bridge columns exposed to horizontal seismic actions. The columns were designed according to EN1992, parts 1 and 2. Seismic action analysis is conducted according to EN 1998: 2004 standard. Response spectrum type 1, for the ground type B, was applied and the analysis also includes 20% of traffic load. The analysis includes the values of columns displacement and ductility. To describe the behaviour of elements under the earthquake action in both - longitudinal and transverse direction, pushover curves were formed.

  12. Weak localization of seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larose, E.; Margerin, L.; Tiggelen, B.A. van; Campillo, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report the observation of weak localization of seismic waves in a natural environment. It emerges as a doubling of the seismic energy around the source within a spot of the width of a wavelength, which is several tens of meters in our case. The characteristic time for its onset is the scattering mean-free time that quantifies the internal heterogeneity

  13. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY SEISMIC ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EARNEST, S.; KO, H.; DOCKERY, W.; PERNISI, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to perform a dynamic and static analysis on the Dry Transfer Facility, and to determine the response spectra seismic forces for the design basis ground motions. The resulting seismic forces and accelerations will be used in a subsequent calculation to complete preliminary design of the concrete shear walls, diaphragms, and basemat

  14. ASDF: An Adaptable Seismic Data Format with Full Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Krischer, L.; Tromp, J.; Lefebvre, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order for seismologists to maximize their knowledge of how the Earth works, they must extract the maximum amount of useful information from all recorded seismic data available for their research. This requires assimilating large sets of waveform data, keeping track of vast amounts of metadata, using validated standards for quality control, and automating the workflow in a careful and efficient manner. In addition, there is a growing gap between CPU/GPU speeds and disk access speeds that leads to an I/O bottleneck in seismic workflows. This is made even worse by existing seismic data formats that were not designed for performance and are limited to a few fixed headers for storing metadata.The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is a new data format for seismology that solves the problems with existing seismic data formats and integrates full provenance into the definition. ASDF is a self-describing format that features parallel I/O using the parallel HDF5 library. This makes it a great choice for use on HPC clusters. The format integrates the standards QuakeML for seismic sources and StationXML for receivers. ASDF is suitable for storing earthquake data sets, where all waveforms for a single earthquake are stored in a one file, ambient noise cross-correlations, and adjoint sources. The format comes with a user-friendly Python reader and writer that gives seismologists access to a full set of Python tools for seismology. There is also a faster C/Fortran library for integrating ASDF into performance-focused numerical wave solvers, such as SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. Finally, a GUI tool designed for visually exploring the format exists that provides a flexible interface for both research and educational applications. ASDF is a new seismic data format that offers seismologists high-performance parallel processing, organized and validated contents, and full provenance tracking for automated seismological workflows.

  15. Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brune, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Rotational motion is increasingly understood to be a significant part of seismic wave motion. Rotations can be important in earthquake strong motion and in Induced Seismicity Monitoring. Rotational seismic data can also enable shear selectivity and improve wavefield sampling for vertical geophones in 3D surveys, among other applications. However, sensor technology has been a limiting factor to date. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding a multi-year project that is now entering Phase 2 to develop and deploy a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. Initial focus is on induced seismicity monitoring, particularly for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with fracturing. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, improved noise floors, robustness, and repeatability. This paper presents a summary of Phase 1 results and Phase 2 status.

  16. Seismic isolation in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, R.I.; Robinson, W.H.; McVerry, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Bridges, buildings, and industrial equipment can be given increased protection from earthquake damage by limiting the earthquake attack through seismic isolation. A broad summary of the seismic responses of base-isolated structures is of considerable assistance for their preliminary design. Seismic isolation as already used in New Zealand consists of a flexible base or support combined with some form of energy-dissipating device, usually involving the hysteretic working of steel or lead. This paper presents examples of the New Zealand experience, where seismic isolation has been used for 42 bridges, 3 buildings, a tall chimney, and high-voltage capacitor banks. Additional seismic response factors, which may be important for nuclear power plants, are also discussed briefly

  17. Integrated system for seismic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the various features of the seismic module of the CARES system (computer analysis for rapid evaluation of structures). This system was developed to perform rapid evaluations of structural behavior and capability of nuclear power plant facilities. The CARES is structural in a modular format. Each module performs a specific type of analysis i.e., static or dynamic, linear or nonlinear, etc. This paper describes the features of the seismic module in particular. The development of the seismic modules of the CARES system is based on an approach which incorporates major aspects of seismic analysis currently employed by the industry into an integrated system that allows for carrying out interactively computations of structural response to seismic motions. The code operates on a PC computer system and has multi-graphics capabilities

  18. Seismic qualification tests of fans of the NPP of Laguna Verde U-1 and U-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvio C, G.; Garcia H, E. E.; Arguelles F, R.; Vela H, A.; Naranjo U, J. L.

    2013-10-01

    This work presents the results of the seismic qualification tests applied to the fans that will be installed in the control panels of the three divisions of the diesel generators of the nuclear power plant (NPP) of Laguna Verde, Unit-1 and Unit-2. This seismic qualification process of the fans was carried out using two specimens that were tested in the seismic table (vibrating) of the Engineering Institute of Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), in accordance with the requirements of the standard IEEE 344-1975, to satisfy the established requirements of seismic qualification in the technical specifications and normative documents required by the nuclear standards, in order to demonstrate its application in the diesel generators Divisions I, II and III of the NPP. The seismic qualification tests were developed on specimens that were retired of the NPP of Laguna Verde recently with a service life of 7.75 years. (Author)

  19. A seismic recording device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, R; Kind, A G; Thompson, S R

    1983-06-08

    A method and a device for noting the moment of an explosion on a seismic recording is proposed, in which the moment of the explosion is recorded as a result of a break in an electrical circuit under the effects of the explosive charge used to excite the seismic waves. The electrical circuit being broken is connected to the same energy source as the electric detonator which initiates the explosion, which is attached to a high frequency, alternating current source, where the circuit being broken is either the primary or the secondary winding of a transformer, through which the electric detonator is switched in to the source. The moment the circuit is broken is determined from the ceasation of current in the circuit or by the sharp rise in voltage in the broken sector. The method makes it possible to more precisely fix the moment of the break than the existing methods. When insulated copper wires are used the recording of the time occurs 100 microseconds after the explosion.

  20. Efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in heart failure patients with volume overload despite the standard treatment with conventional diuretics: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (QUEST study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Masunori; Hori, Masatsugu; Izumi, Tohru; Fukunami, Masatake

    2011-12-01

    Diuretics are recommended to treat volume overload with heart failure (HF), however, they may cause serum electrolyte imbalance, limiting their use. Moreover, patients with advanced HF could poorly respond to these diuretics. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of Tolvaptan, a competitive vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist developed as a new drug to treat volume overload in HF patients. A phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in treating HF patients with volume overload despite the use of conventional diuretics. One hundred and ten patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 15 mg/day tolvaptan for 7 consecutive days. Compared with placebo, tolvaptan administered for 7 days significantly reduced body weight and improved symptoms associated with volume overload. The safety profile of tolvaptan was considered acceptable for clinical use with minimal adverse effects. Tolvaptan reduced volume overload and improved congestive symptoms associated with HF by a potent water diuresis (aquaresis).

  1. Overview of seismic margin insights gained from seismic PRA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Sues, R.H.; Campbell, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted under NRC and EPRI sponsorship in which published seismic PRAs were reviewed in order to gain insight to the seismic margins inherent in existing nuclear plants. The approach taken was to examine the fragilities of those components which have been found to be dominant contributors to seismic risk at plants in low-to-moderate seismic regions (SSE levels between 0.12g and 0.25g). It is concluded that there is significant margin inherent in the capacity of most critical components above the plant design basis. For ground motions less than about 0.3g, the predominant sources of seismic risk are loss of offsite power coupled with random failure of the emergency diesels, non-recoverable circuit breaker trip due to relay chatter, unanchored equipment, unreinforced non-load bearing block walls, vertical water storage tanks, systems interactions and possibly soil liquefaction. Recommendations as to which components should be reviewed in seismic margin studies for margin earthquakes less than 0.3g, between 0.3g and 0.5g, and greater than 0.5g, developed by the NRC expert panel on the quantification of seismic margins (based on the review of past PRA data, earthquake experience data, and their own personal experience) are presented

  2. IAEA specialists' meeting on seismic isolation technology. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    design, fabrication, testing of seismic isolation elements and systems, the capabilities of analytical codes and models and status of validation. The presentations provided by the participating countries indicated that seismic isolation technology has sufficiently advanced to make it an attractive feature in advanced nuclear power stations for mitigation of severe earthquakes. Indeed, advanced reactor concept evaluation and studies in Canada, Europe, Japan and the USA include horizontal seismic isolation and in some cases a combination of horizontal and vertical seismic isolation. The development of seismic isolation elements/bearings seems to be progressing towards standardized designs. The testing programs indicate high quality and consistency in the bearing manufacturing process. Significant progress has been achieved in providing reliable bonding of elastomer layers and steel laminations that is stronger than the rubber itself. Another important aspect is the demonstrated long term durability of steel-laminated elastomer bearings under sustained loading conditions. The development of design codes and standards for seismic isolation is proceeding independently in the countries applying this technology consistent with the individual frameworks of regulations. In a future meeting it would be of interest to compare key elements of the design codes and standards in particular as they relate to safety aspects

  3. IAEA specialists' meeting on seismic isolation technology. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    design, fabrication, testing of seismic isolation elements and systems, the capabilities of analytical codes and models and status of validation. The presentations provided by the participating countries indicated that seismic isolation technology has sufficiently advanced to make it an attractive feature in advanced nuclear power stations for mitigation of severe earthquakes. Indeed, advanced reactor concept evaluation and studies in Canada, Europe, Japan and the USA include horizontal seismic isolation and in some cases a combination of horizontal and vertical seismic isolation. The development of seismic isolation elements/bearings seems to be progressing towards standardized designs. The testing programs indicate high quality and consistency in the bearing manufacturing process. Significant progress has been achieved in providing reliable bonding of elastomer layers and steel laminations that is stronger than the rubber itself. Another important aspect is the demonstrated long term durability of steel-laminated elastomer bearings under sustained loading conditions. The development of design codes and standards for seismic isolation is proceeding independently in the countries applying this technology consistent with the individual frameworks of regulations. In a future meeting it would be of interest to compare key elements of the design codes and standards in particular as they relate to safety aspects.

  4. Tests and prospects of new physics at very high energy. Beyond the standard basic principles, and beyond conventional matter and space-time. On the possible origin of Quantum Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2015-05-01

    Recent results and announcements by Planck and BICEP2 have led to important controversies in the fields of Cosmology and Particle Physics. As new ideas and alternative approaches can since then more easily emerge, the link between the Mathematical Physics aspects of theories and the interpretation of experimental results becomes more direct. This evolution is also relevant for Particle Physics experiments at very high energy, where the interpretation of data on the highest-energy cosmic rays remains a major theoretical and phenomenological challenge. Alternative particle physics and cosmology can raise fundamental questions such as that of the structure of vacuum and space-time. In particular, the simplified description of the physical vacuum contained in standard quantum field theory does not necessarily correspond to reality at a deeper level, and similarly for the relativistic space-time based on four real variables. In a more general approach, the definition itself of vacuum can be a difficult task. The spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97 automatically incorporates a local privileged space direction (PSD) for each comoving observer, possibly leading to a locally anisotropic vacuum structure. As the existence of the PSD may have been confirmed by Planck, and a possible discovery of primordial B-modes in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) may turn out to contain new evidence for the SST, we explore other possible implications of this approach to space-time. The SST structure can naturally be at the origin of Quantum Mechanics at distance scales larger than the fundamental one if standard particles are dealt with as vacuum excitations. We also discuss possible implications of our lack of knowledge of the structure of vacuum, as well as related theoretical, phenomenological and cosmological uncertainties. Pre-Big Bang scenarios and new ultimate constituents of matter (including superbradyons) are crucial open subjects

  5. Tests and prospects of new physics at very high energy. Beyond the standard basic principles, and beyond conventional matter and space-time. On the possible origin of Quantum Mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results and announcements by Planck and BICEP2 have led to important controversies in the fields of Cosmology and Particle Physics. As new ideas and alternative approaches can since then more easily emerge, the link between the Mathematical Physics aspects of theories and the interpretation of experimental results becomes more direct. This evolution is also relevant for Particle Physics experiments at very high energy, where the interpretation of data on the highest-energy cosmic rays remains a major theoretical and phenomenological challenge. Alternative particle physics and cosmology can raise fundamental questions such as that of the structure of vacuum and space-time. In particular, the simplified description of the physical vacuum contained in standard quantum field theory does not necessarily correspond to reality at a deeper level, and similarly for the relativistic space-time based on four real variables. In a more general approach, the definition itself of vacuum can be a difficult task. The spinorial space-time (SST we suggested in 1996-97 automatically incorporates a local privileged space direction (PSD for each comoving observer, possibly leading to a locally anisotropic vacuum structure. As the existence of the PSD may have been confirmed by Planck, and a possible discovery of primordial B-modes in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB may turn out to contain new evidence for the SST, we explore other possible implications of this approach to space-time. The SST structure can naturally be at the origin of Quantum Mechanics at distance scales larger than the fundamental one if standard particles are dealt with as vacuum excitations. We also discuss possible implications of our lack of knowledge of the structure of vacuum, as well as related theoretical, phenomenological and cosmological uncertainties. Pre-Big Bang scenarios and new ultimate constituents of matter (including superbradyons are

  6. ASSESSMENT OF IMPORTANT SEISMIC PROVISIONS OF EBCS 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resistant design of structures in Ethiopia have been made available since the' time of release of the three-volume. Ethiopian Standard Code of Practice (ESCP) in. 1983. The seismic provisions in this code occupied only few pages in the small volume for loading,. 'ESCP 1, and were limited to pseudo-static analysis.

  7. Passive seismic monitoring at the ketzin CCS site -Magnitude estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, B.F.; Steeghs, T.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to allow quantification of the strength of local micro-seismic events recorded at the CCS pilot site in Ketzin in terms of local magnitude, earthquake data recorded by standardized seismometers were used. Earthquakes were selected that occurred in Poland and Czech Republic and that were

  8. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...

  9. Depth geological model building: application to the 3D high resolution 'ANDRA' seismic block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, J.L.; Yven, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. 3D seismic blocks and logging data, mainly acoustic and density logs, are often used for geological model building in time. The geological model must be then converted from time to depth. Geostatistical approach for time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons is often used in many geo-modelling projects. From a geostatistical point of view, the time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons is a classical estimation problem involving one or more secondary variables. Bayesian approach [1] provides an excellent estimator which is more general than the traditional kriging with external drift(s) and fits very well to the needs for time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons. The time-to-depth conversion of the selected seismic horizons is used to compute a time-to-depth conversion model at the time sampling rate (1 ms). The 3D depth conversion model allows the computation of an interval velocity block which is compared with the acoustic impedance block to estimate a density block as QC. Non realistic density values are edited and the interval velocity block as well as the depth conversion model is updated. The proposed procedure has been applied on a 3D data set. The dataset comes from a High Resolution 3D seismic survey recorded in France at the boundary of the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments in the vicinity of the Andra Center (National radioactive waste management Agency). The 3D design is a cross spread. The active spread is composed of 12 receiver lines with 120 stations each. The source lines are perpendicular to the receiver lines. The receiver and source line spacings are respectively 80 m and 120 m. The receiver and source point spacings are 20 m. The source is a Vibroseis source generating a signal in the 14 - 140 Hz frequency bandwidth.. The bin size is 10 x 10 m 2 . The nominal fold is 60. A conventional seismic sequence was applied to the data set. It includes amplitude recovery, deconvolution and wave

  10. Seismic soil-structure interaction with consideration of spatial incoherence of seismic ground motions: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Wen S., E-mail: wen.tseng@rizzoassoc.com [Paul C. Rizzo Associates, Inc., Western Region, 2201 Broadway, Suite 400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Lilhanand, Kiat; Hamasaki, Don; Garcia, Julio A. [Paul C. Rizzo Associates, Inc., Western Region, 2201 Broadway, Suite 400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Srinivasan, Ram [AREVA, NP, Inc., 6399 San Ignacio Avenue, San Jose, CA 95119 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a case study of seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis with consideration of spatial incoherence of seismic input ground motions. The SSI analyses were performed using the SASSI computer program for the Auxiliary Control Building (ACB) structure of an existing nuclear power plant on a hard rock site located in the Center and Eastern United States (CEUS) region. The incoherent seismic input motions for the hard rock site used for the analyses were generated using the computer program INCOH that works together with SASSI. The objective of the analyses was to generate maximum seismic response parameters for assessment of potential impact of newly developed site-specific (ground motion) response spectra (SSRS) on the seismic design of the ACB and potential benefits that could be gained by considering spatial incoherence of seismic input motions. Maximum seismic response values for selected response parameters of interest were generated with both SSRS-compatible coherent and incoherent seismic input motions. Comparisons were made of the corresponding maximum response parameter values and in-structure (acceleration) response spectra (ISRS) generated for both the coherent and incoherent motion inputs. These comparisons indicate that, by incorporating incoherence of ground motions in the seismic input, the maximum response values reduces and the ISRS peak amplitudes in the high frequency range (>10 Hz) also reduce from the corresponding response values resulting from the coherent motion input. The amount of ISRS-amplitude reduction increases as the spectral frequency increases, as expected. Such reductions can be as much as 20–50%. This case study demonstrates that, for a CEUS hard rock site where relatively high high-frequency in the seismic input response spectra exist, consideration of spatial incoherence of input motions would result in substantial benefits in reducing the high-frequency seismic responses. Such benefits are especially

  11. Manado Convention Centre (Megastructures)

    OpenAIRE

    Anggianto, Rio M; Rate, Johannes Van

    2013-01-01

    Proyek Manado Convention Center ini pada dasarnya merupakan wadah atau sarana komunikasi antara dua pihak dengan penerapkan berbagai metode komunikasi langsung tatap muka baik itu dari perorangan terhadap kelompok, kelompok terhadap kelompok atau kelompok terhadap masyarakat. Dan pada era kini hal ini menjadi suatu kebutuhan yang dianganggap penting. Kota Manado seringkali menjadi tuan rumah suatu konverensi dengan jumlah peserta yang tergolong besar karena cakupannya sampai manca negara....

  12. The conventional quark picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalitz, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    For baryons, mesons and deep inelastic phenomena the ideas and the problems of the conventional quark picture are pointed out. All observed baryons fit in three SU(3)-multiplets which cluster into larger SU(6)-multiplets. No mesons are known which have quantum numbers inconsistent with belonging to a SU(3) nonet or octet. The deep inelastic phenomena are described in terms of six structure functions of the proton. (BJ) [de

  13. Rippability Assessment of Weathered Sedimentary Rock Mass using Seismic Refraction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M. A. M.; Kumar, N. S.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Madun, A.

    2018-04-01

    Rippability or ease of excavation in sedimentary rocks is a significant aspect of the preliminary work of any civil engineering project. Rippability assessment was performed in this study to select an available ripping machine to rip off earth materials using the seismic velocity chart provided by Caterpillar. The research area is located at the proposed construction site for the development of a water reservoir and related infrastructure in Kampus Pauh Putra, Universiti Malaysia Perlis. The research was aimed at obtaining seismic velocity, P-wave (Vp) using a seismic refraction method to produce a 2D tomography model. A 2D seismic model was used to delineate the layers into the velocity profile. The conventional geotechnical method of using a borehole was integrated with the seismic velocity method to provide appropriate correlation. The correlated data can be used to categorize machineries for excavation activities based on the available systematic analysis procedure to predict rock rippability. The seismic velocity profile obtained was used to interpret rock layers within the ranges labelled as rippable, marginal, and non-rippable. Based on the seismic velocity method the site can be classified into loose sand stone to moderately weathered rock. Laboratory test results shows that the site’s rock material falls between low strength and high strength. Results suggest that Caterpillar’s smallest ripper, namely, D8R, can successfully excavate materials based on the test results integration from seismic velocity method and laboratory test.

  14. GSAC - Generic Seismic Application Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, R. B.; Ammon, C. J.; Koper, K. D.

    2004-12-01

    With the success of the IRIS data management center, the use of large data sets in seismological research has become common. Such data sets, and especially the significantly larger data sets expected from EarthScope, present challenges for analysis with existing tools developed over the last 30 years. For much of the community, the primary format for data analysis is the Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) format developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Although somewhat restrictive in meta-data storage, the simplicity and stability of the format has established it as an important component of seismological research. Tools for working with SAC files fall into two categories - custom research quality processing codes and shared display - processing tools such as SAC2000, MatSeis,etc., which were developed primarily for the needs of individual seismic research groups. While the current graphics display and platform dependence of SAC2000 may be resolved if the source code is released, the code complexity and the lack of large-data set analysis or even introductory tutorials could preclude code improvements and development of expertise in its use. We believe that there is a place for new, especially open source, tools. The GSAC effort is an approach that focuses on ease of use, computational speed, transportability, rapid addition of new features and openness so that new and advanced students, researchers and instructors can quickly browse and process large data sets. We highlight several approaches toward data processing under this model. gsac - part of the Computer Programs in Seismology 3.30 distribution has much of the functionality of SAC2000 and works on UNIX/LINUX/MacOS-X/Windows (CYGWIN). This is completely programmed in C from scratch, is small, fast, and easy to maintain and extend. It is command line based and is easily included within shell processing scripts. PySAC is a set of Python functions that allow easy access to SAC files and enable efficient

  15. Seismicity and tectonics of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    Northern and eastern Bangladesh and surrounding areas belong to a seismically active zone and are associated with the subduction of the Indian plate. The seismicity and tectonics have been studied in detail and the observations have been correlated to understand the earthquake phenomenon in the region. The morphotectonic behaviour of northern Bangladesh shows that it is deeply related to the movement of the Dauki fault system and relative upliftment of the Shillong plateau. Contemporary seismicity in the Dauki fault system is relatively quiet comparing to that in the Naga-Disang-Haflong thrust belt giving rise to the probability of sudden release of energy being accumulated in the vicinity of the Dauki fault system. This observation corresponds with the predicted average return period of a large earthquake (1897 type) and the possibility of M > 8 earthquake in the vicinity of the Dauki fault within this century should not be ruled out. The seismicity in the folded belt in the east follows the general trend of Arakan-Yoma anticlinorium and represents shallow and low-angled thrust movements in conformity with the field observation. Seismotectonic behaviour in the deep basin part of Bangladesh demonstrates that an intraplate movement in the basement rock has been taking place along the deep-seated faults causing relative upliftment and subsidence in the basin. Bangladesh has been divided into three seismic zones on the basis of morphotectonic and seismic behaviour. Zone-I has been identified as the zone of high seismic risk. (author). 43 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Seismic hazard assessment: Issues and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic hazard and risk are two very important concepts in engineering design and other policy considerations. Although seismic hazard and risk have often been used inter-changeably, they are fundamentally different. Furthermore, seismic risk is more important in engineering design and other policy considerations. Seismic hazard assessment is an effort by earth scientists to quantify seismic hazard and its associated uncertainty in time and space and to provide seismic hazard estimates for seismic risk assessment and other applications. Although seismic hazard assessment is more a scientific issue, it deserves special attention because of its significant implication to society. Two approaches, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA), are commonly used for seismic hazard assessment. Although PSHA has been pro-claimed as the best approach for seismic hazard assessment, it is scientifically flawed (i.e., the physics and mathematics that PSHA is based on are not valid). Use of PSHA could lead to either unsafe or overly conservative engineering design or public policy, each of which has dire consequences to society. On the other hand, DSHA is a viable approach for seismic hazard assessment even though it has been labeled as unreliable. The biggest drawback of DSHA is that the temporal characteristics (i.e., earthquake frequency of occurrence and the associated uncertainty) are often neglected. An alternative, seismic hazard analysis (SHA), utilizes earthquake science and statistics directly and provides a seismic hazard estimate that can be readily used for seismic risk assessment and other applications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

  17. Integrated system for seismic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the various features of the Seismic Module of the CARES system (Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures). This system was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to perform rapid evaluations of structural behavior and capability of nuclear power plant facilities. The CARES is structured in a modular format. Each module performs a specific type of analysis i.e., static or dynamic, linear or nonlinear, etc. This paper describes the features of the Seismic Module in particular. The development of the Seismic Module of the CARES system is based on an approach which incorporates all major aspects of seismic analysis currently employed by the industry into an integrated system that allows for carrying out interactively computations of structural response to seismic motions. The code operates on a PC computer system and has multi-graphics capabilities. It has been designed with user friendly features and it allows for interactive manipulation of various analysis phases during the seismic design process. The capabilities of the seismic module include (a) generation of artificial time histories compatible with given design ground response spectra, (b) development of Power Spectral Density (PSD) functions associated with the seismic input, (c) deconvolution analysis using vertically propagating shear waves through a given soil profile, and (d) development of in-structure response spectra or corresponding PSD's. It should be pointed out that these types of analyses can also be performed individually by using available computer codes such as FLUSH, SAP, etc. The uniqueness of the CARES, however, lies on its ability to perform all required phases of the seismic analysis in an integrated manner. 5 refs., 6 figs

  18. Improved Seismic Acquisition System and Data Processing for the Italian National Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiali, L.; Marcocci, C.; Mele, F.; Piscini, A.

    2001-12-01

    A new system for acquiring and processing digital signals has been developed in the last few years at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). The system makes extensive use of the internet communication protocol standards such as TCP and UDP which are used as the transport highway inside the Italian network, and possibly in a near future outside, to share or redirect data among processes. The Italian National Seismic Network has been working for about 18 years equipped with vertical short period seismometers and transmitting through analog lines, to the computer center in Rome. We are now concentrating our efforts on speeding the migration towards a fully digital network based on about 150 stations equipped with either broad band or 5 seconds sensors connected to the data center partly through wired digital communication and partly through satellite digital communication. The overall process is layered through intranet and/or internet. Every layer gathers data in a simple format and provides data in a processed format, ready to be distributed towards the next layer. The lowest level acquires seismic data (raw waveforms) coming from the remote stations. It handshakes, checks and sends data in LAN or WAN according to a distribution list where other machines with their programs are waiting for. At the next level there are the picking procedures, or "pickers", on a per instrument basis, looking for phases. A picker spreads phases, again through the LAN or WAN and according to a distribution list, to one or more waiting locating machines tuned to generate a seismic event. The event locating procedure itself, the higher level in this stack, can exchange information with other similar procedures. Such a layered and distributed structure with nearby targets allows other seismic networks to join the processing and data collection of the same ongoing event, creating a virtual network larger than the original one. At present we plan to cooperate with other

  19. Canadian seismic agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Plouffe, M.; Lapointe, S.P.; Adams, J.; Drysdale, J.A.

    1990-04-01

    This is the twenty-first progress report under the agreement entitled Canadian Seismic Agreement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Canadian Commercial Corporation. Activities undertaken by the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1988 to June 30, 1989 and supported in part by the NRC agreement are described below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong motion network developments and earthquake activity. In this time period eastern Canada experienced its largest earthquake in over 50 years. This earthquake, which has been christened the Saguenay earthquake, has provided a wealth of new data pertinent to earthquake engineering studies in eastern North America and is the subject of many continuing studies, which are presently being carried out at GD and elsewhere. 41 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Artificial seismic acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Page, Morgan T.; Michael, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    In their 2013 paper, Bouchon, Durand, Marsan, Karabulut, 3 and Schmittbuhl (BDMKS) claim to see significant accelerating seismicity before M 6.5 interplate mainshocks, but not before intraplate mainshocks, reflecting a preparatory process before large events. We concur with the finding of BDMKS that their interplate dataset has significantly more fore- shocks than their intraplate dataset; however, we disagree that the foreshocks are predictive of large events in particular. Acceleration in stacked foreshock sequences has been seen before and has been explained by the cascade model, in which earthquakes occasionally trigger aftershocks larger than themselves4. In this model, the time lags between the smaller mainshocks and larger aftershocks follow the inverse power law common to all aftershock sequences, creating an apparent acceleration when stacked (see Supplementary Information).

  1. Seismics - Yesterday and today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, W.

    2014-01-01

    This article published in the Swiss Bulletin for Applied Geology takes a look at technical developments in the field of seismological exploration over the past 25 years. In particular, developments in the information technology area are discussed. Increased data-storage capacities and miniaturization of data-capture systems and sensors are examined. In spite of such developments, the quality of the seismological data acquired is quoted as not showing significantly increased quality. Alternatives to vibration-based seismic exploration are discussed. The challenges faced by near-surface seismology are looked at. Computer-based statistical correction of data and improved resolution are discussed, as is hybrid seismology. Examples are quoted and graphically illustrated. A list of relevant literature completes the article

  2. Seismic and Infrasound Location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowsmith, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Begnaud, Michael L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-19

    This presentation includes slides on Signal Propagation Through the Earth/Atmosphere Varies at Different Scales; 3D Seismic Models: RSTT; Ray Coverage (Pn); Source-Specific Station Corrections (SSSCs); RSTT Conclusions; SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos) Global 3D Earth Model for Travel Time; Comparison of IDC SSSCs to RSTT Predictions; SALSA3D; Validation and Model Comparison; DSS Lines in the Siberian Platform; DSS Line CRA-4 Comparison; Travel Time Δak135; Travel Time Prediction Uncertainty; SALSA3D Conclusions; Infrasound Data Processing: An example event; Infrasound Data Processing: An example event; Infrasound Location; How does BISL work?; BISL: Application to the 2013 DPRK Test; and BISL: Ongoing Research.

  3. Seismic design features of the ACR Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgohary, M.; Saudy, A.; Aziz, T.

    2003-01-01

    Through their worldwide operating records, CANDU Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have repeatedly demonstrated safe, reliable and competitive performance. Currently, there are fourteen CANDU 6 single unit reactors operating or under construction worldwide. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Advanced CANDU Reactor - the ACR. - is the genesis of a new generation of technologically advanced reactors founded on the CANDU reactor concept. The ACR is the next step in the evolution of the CANDU product line. The ACR products (ACR-700 and ACR-1000) are based on CANDU 6 (700 MWe class) and CANDU 9 (900 MWe class) reactors, therefore continuing AECL's successful approach of offering CANDU plants that appeal to a broad segment of the power generation market. The ACR products are based on the proven CANDU technology and incorporate advanced design technologies. The ACR NPP seismic design complies with Canadian standards that were specifically developed for nuclear seismic design and also with relevant International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Design Standards and Guides. However, since the ACR is also being offered to several markets with many potential sites and different regulatory environments, there is a need to develop a comprehensive approach for the seismic design input parameters. These input parameters are used in the design of the standard ACR product that is suitable for many sites while also maintaining its economic competitiveness. For this purpose, the ACR standard plant is conservatively qualified for a Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) with a peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.3g for a wide range of soil/rock foundation conditions and Ground Response Spectra (GRS). These input parameters also address some of the current technical issues such as high frequency content and near field effects. In this paper, the ACR seismic design philosophy and seismic design approach for meeting the safety design requirements are reviewed. Also the seismic design

  4. Structural Identification And Seismic Analysis Of An Existing Masonry Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Monte, Emanuele; Galano, Luciano; Ortolani, Barbara; Vignoli, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the diagnostic investigation and the seismic analysis performed on an ancient masonry building in Florence. The building has historical interest and is subjected to conservative restrictions. The investigation involves a preliminary phase concerning the research of the historic documents and a second phase of execution of in situ and laboratory tests to detect the mechanical characteristics of the masonry. This investigation was conceived in order to obtain the 'LC2 Knowledge Level' and to perform the non-linear pushover analysis according to the new Italian Standards for seismic upgrading of existing masonry buildings

  5. First level seismic microzonation map of Chennai city – a GIS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Ganapathy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Chennai city is the fourth largest metropolis in India, is the focus of economic, social and cultural development and it is the capital of the State of Tamil Nadu. The city has a multi-dimensional growth in development of its infrastructures and population. The area of Chennai has experienced moderate earthquakes in the historical past. Also the Bureau of Indian Standard upgraded the seismic status of Chennai from Low Seismic Hazard (Zone II to Moderate Seismic Hazard (Zone III–(BIS: 1893 (2001. In this connection, a first level seismic microzonation map of Chennai city has been produced with a GIS platform using the themes, viz, Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA, Shear wave velocity at 3 m, Geology, Ground water fluctuation and bed rock depth. The near potential seismic sources were identified from the remote-sensing study and seismo-tectonic details from published literatures. The peak ground acceleration for these seismic sources were estimated based on the attenuation relationship and the maximum PGA for Chennai is 0.176 g. The groundwater fluctuation of the city varies from 0–4 m below ground level. The depth to bedrock configuration shows trough and ridges in the bedrock topography all over the city. The seismic microzonation analysis involved grid datasets (the discrete datasets from different themes were converted to grids to compute the final seismic hazard grid through integration and weightage analysis of the source themes. The Chennai city has been classified into three broad zones, viz, High, Moderate and Low Seismic Hazard. The High seismic Hazard concentrated in a few places in the western central part of the city. The moderate hazard areas are oriented in NW-SE direction in the Western part. The southern and eastern part will have low seismic hazard. The result of the study may be used as first-hand information in selecting the appropriate earthquake resistant features in designing the forthcoming new buildings against seismic

  6. Comparison of seismic isolation concepts for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiojiri, H.; Mazda, T.; Kasai, H.; Kanda, J.N.; Kubo, T.; Madokoro, M.; Shimomura, T.; Nojima, O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper seeks to verify the reliability and effectiveness of seismic isolation for FBR. Some results of the preliminary study of the program are described. Seismic isolation concepts and corresponding seismic isolation devices were selected. Three kinds of seismically-isolated FBR plant concepts were developed by applying promising seismic isolation concepts to the non-isolated FBR plant, and by developing plant component layout plans and building structural designs. Each plant was subjected to seismic response analysis and reduction in the amount of material of components and buildings were estimated for each seismic isolation concepts. Research and development items were evaluated

  7. Seismic efficiency of meteor airbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetsov, V. V.; Artemieva, N. A.; Shuvalov, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    We present the results of numerical simulation for impacts of relatively small asteroids and ice bodies of 30-100 m in size, decelerated in the atmosphere and exploding before they reach the surface, but still producing seismic effects due to the impact wave reaching the surface. The calculated magnitudes fall within the range of 4 to 6, and average seismic efficiency of these events is 2.5 × 10-5. The results obtained allow the seismic hazard from impacts of cosmic bodies to be estimated.

  8. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.N. Lindner

    2004-12-03

    The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly

  9. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.N. Lindner

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly

  10. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  11. Digitization of conventional radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, W.; Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Blum, U.; Hauenstein, K.H.; Gufler, H.; Meyer, E.; Ruediger, K.

    1992-01-01

    The diagnostic value of a digitization system for analogue films based on a charge-coupled-device (CCD) scanner with adjustable resolution of 2.5 or 5 lp/mm was assessed. Some 110 skeletal radiographs, 50 contrast studies, including 25 of patients with Crohn's disease, and 70 abdominal plain films before and after successful lithotripsy for renal stones were digitized. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies showed improved detection of cortical and trabecular defects with contrast-optimized digitized films. Edge enhancement algorithms yielded no additional information. Inflammatory lesions of Crohn's disease were detected equally well by conventional films and digitized images. A statistically significant improvement (p [de

  12. Conventional RF system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a conventional RF system is always complex and must fit the needs of the particular machine for which it is planned. It follows that many different design criteria should be considered and analyzed, thus exceeding the narrow limits of a lecture. For this reason only the fundamental components of an RF system, including the generators, are considered in this short seminar. The most common formulas are simply presented in the text, while their derivations are shown in the appendices to facilitate, if desired, a more advanced level of understanding. (orig.)

  13. Seismic gaps and plate tectonics: seismic potential for major boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, W R; Nishenko, S P; Sykes, L R; Krause, J

    1979-01-01

    The theory of plate tectonics provides a basic framework for evaluating the potential for future great earthquakes to occur along major plate boundaries. Along most of the transform and convergent plate boundaries considered in this paper, the majority of seismic slip occurs during large earthquakes, i.e., those of magnitude 7 or greater. The concepts that rupture zones, as delineated by aftershocks, tend to abut rather than overlap, and large events occur in regions with histories of both long-and short-term seismic quiescence are used in this paper to delineate major seismic gaps. The term seismic gap is taken to refer to any region along an active plate boundary that has not experienced a large thrust or strike-slip earthquake for more than 30 years. A region of high seismic potential is a seismic gap that, for historic or tectonic reasons, is considered likely to produce a large shock during the next few decades. The seismic gap technique provides estimates of the location, size of future events and origin time to within a few tens of years at best. The accompanying map summarizes six categories of seismic potential for major plate boundaries in and around the margins of the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean, South Sandwich and Sunda (Indonesia) regions for the next few decades. These six categories are meant to be interpreted as forecasts of the location and size of future large shocks and should not be considered to be predictions in which a precise estimate of the time of occurrence is specified. The categories of potential assigned here provide a rationale for assigning priorities for instrumentation, for future studies aimed at predicting large earthquakes and for making estimates of tsunami potential.

  14. An innovative view to the seismic hazard from strong Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes: the case studies of Bucharest (Romania) and Russe (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Cioflan, C.; Marmureanu, G.; Kouteva, M.; Paskaleva, I.; Romanelli, F.

    2003-04-01

    An advanced procedure for ground motion modelling, capable of synthesizing the seismic ground motion from basic understanding of fault mechanism and seismic wave propagation, is applied to compute seismic signals at Bucharest (Romania) and Russe, NE Bulgaria, due to the seismic hazard from intermediate-depth Vrancea earthquakes. The theoretically obtained signals are successfully compared with the available observations. For both case studies site response estimates along selected geological cross sections are provided for three recent, strong and intermediate-depth, Vrancea earthquakes: August 30, 1986 and May 30 and 31, 1990. The applied ground motion modelling technique has proved that it is possible to investigate the local effects, taking into account both the seismic source and the propagation path effects. The computation of realistic seismic input, utilising the huge amount of geological, geophysical and geotechnical data, already available, goes well beyond the conventional deterministic approach and gives an economically valid scientific tool for seismic microzonation. (author)

  15. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  16. Broadband Seismic Studies at the Mallik Gas Hydrate Research Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. F.; Huang, J.; Lyons-Thomas, P.; Qian, W.; Milkereit, B.; Schmitt, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    The JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 3L-38, 4L-38 and 5L-38 scientific wells were drilled in the MacKenzie Delta, NWT, Canada in early 2002 primarily for carrying out initial tests of the feasibility of producing methane gas from the large gas hydrate deposits there [1]. As part of this study, high resolution seismic profiles, a pseudo-3D single fold seismic volume and broadband (8~180Hz) multi-offset vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were acquired at the Mallik site. Here, we provide details on the acquisition program, present the results of the 2D field profile, and discuss the potential implications of these observations for the structure of the permafrost and gas hydrate zones. These zones have long been problematic in seismic imaging due to the lateral heterogeneities. Conventional seismic data processing usually assume a stratified, weak-contrast elastic earth model. However, in permafrost and gas hydrate zones this approximation often becomes invalid. This leads to seismic wave scattering caused by multi-scale perturbation of elastic properties. A 3D viscoelastic finite difference modeling algorithm was employed to simulate wave propagation in a medium with strong contrast. Parameters in this modeling analysis are based on the borehole geophysical log data. In addition, an uncorrelated Vibroseis VSP data set was studied to investigate frequency-dependent absorption and velocity dispersion. Our results indicate that scattering and velocity dispersion are important for a better understanding of attenuation mechanisms in heterogeneous permafrost and gas hydrate zones. [1] Dallimore, S.R., Collett, T.S., Uchida, T., and Weber, M., 2005, Overview of the science program for the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program; in Scientific Results from Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate production Research Well Program, MacKenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada, (ed.) S.R. Dallimore and T.S. Collett; Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 585, in press.

  17. Local seismic monitoring east and north of Toronto - Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajer, A.A.; Doughty, M.

    1996-08-01

    Monitoring of small magnitude ('micro') earthquakes in a dense local network is one of the techniques used to delineate currently active faults and seismic sources. The conventional wisdom is that smaller, but more frequent, seismic events normally occur on active fault planes and a log linear empirical relation between frequency and magnitude can be used to estimate the magnitude and recurrence (frequency) of the larger events. A program of site-specific seismic monitoring has been supported by the AECB since 1991, to investigate the feasibility of microearthquake detection in suburban areas of east Toronto in order to assess the rate activity of local events in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants at Pickering and Darlington. For deployment of the seismic stations at the most favorable locations an extensive background noise survey was carried out. This survey involved measuring and comparing the amplitude response of the ambient vibration caused by natural phenomena (e.g. wind blow, water flow, wave action) or human activities such as farming, mining and industrial work at 25 test sites. Subsequently, a five-station seismic network, with a 30 km aperture, was selected between the Pickering and Darlington nuclear power plants on Lake Ontario, to the south, and Lake Scugog to the north. The detection threshold obtained for two of the stations allows recording of local events M L =0-2, a magnitude range which is usually not detected by regional seismic networks. An analysis of several thousand triggered signals resulted in the identification of about 120 local events, which can not be assigned to any source other than the natural release of crustal stresses. The recurrence frequency of these microearthquakes shows a linear relationship which matches that of larger events in the last two centuries in this region. The preliminary results indicate that the stress is currently accumulating and is being released within clusters of small earthquakes

  18. The 2017 Maple Creek Seismic Swarm in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, G.; Hale, J. M.; Farrell, J.; Burlacu, R.; Koper, K. D.; Smith, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) performs near-real-time monitoring of seismicity in the region around Yellowstone National Park in partnership with the United States Geological Survey and the National Park Service. UUSS operates and maintains 29 seismic stations with network code WY (short-period, strong-motion, and broadband) and records data from five other seismic networks—IW, MB, PB, TA, and US—to enhance the location capabilities in the Yellowstone region. A seismic catalog is produced using a conventional STA/LTA detector and single-event location techniques (Hypoinverse). On June 12, 2017, a seismic swarm began in Yellowstone National Park about 5 km east of Hebgen Lake. The swarm is adjacent to the source region of the 1959 MW 7.3 Hebgen Lake earthquake, in an area corresponding to positive Coulumb stress change from that event. As of Aug. 1, 2017, the swarm consists of 1481 earthquakes with 1 earthquake above magnitude 4, 8 earthquakes in the magnitude 3 range, 115 earthquakes in the magnitude 2 range, 469 earthquakes in the magnitude 1 range, 856 earthquakes in the magnitude 0 range, 22 earthquakes with negative magnitudes, and 10 earthquakes with no magnitude. Earthquake depths are mostly between 3 and 10 km and earthquake depth increases toward the northwest. Moment tensors for the 2 largest events (3.6 MW and 4.4. MW) show strike-slip faulting with T axes oriented NE-SW, consistent with the regional stress field. We are currently using waveform cross-correlation methods to measure differential travel times that are being used with the GrowClust program to generate high-accuracy relative relocations. Those locations will be used to identify structures in the seismicity and make inferences about the tectonic and magmatic processes causing the swarm.

  19. Post-seismic relaxation from geodetic and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Rodkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the aftershock sequence and the post-seismic deformation process of the Parkfield earthquake (2004, M = 6, California, USA source area using GPS data. This event was chosen because of the possibility of joint analysis of data from the rather dense local GPS network (from SOPAC Internet archive and of the availability of the rather detailed aftershock sequence data (http://www.ncedc.org/ncedc/catalog-search.html. The relaxation process of post-seismic deformation prolongs about the same 400 days as the seismic aftershock process does. Thus, the aftershock process and the relaxation process in deformation could be the different sides of the same process. It should be noted that the ratio of the released seismic energy and of the GPS obtained deformation is quite different for the main shock and for the aftershock stage. The ratio of the released seismic energy to the deformation value decreases essentially for the post-shock process. The similar change in the seismic energy/deformation value ratio is valid in a few other strong earthquakes. Thus, this decrease seems typical of aftershock sequences testifying for decrease of ratio of elastic to inelastic deformation in the process of post-shock relaxation when the source area appears to be mostly fractured after the main shock occurs, but the healing process had no yet sufficient time to develop.

  20. Seismic evaluation of safety systems at the Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.S.; Johnson, J.J.; Eder, S.J.; Monahon, T.M.; Ketcham, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    A thorough review of all safety related systems in commercial nuclear power plants was prompted by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. As a consequence of this review, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) focused its attention on the environmental and seismic qualification of the industry's electrical and mechanical equipment. In 1980, the NRC issued Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 to verify the seismic adequacy of the equipment required to safely shut down a plant and maintain a stable condition for 72 hours. After extensive research by the NRC, it became apparent that traditional analysis and testing methods would not be a feasible mechanism to address this USI A-46 issue. The costs associated with utilizing the standard analytical and testing qualification approaches were exorbitant and could not be justified. In addition, the only equipment available to be shake table testing which is similar to the item being qualified is typically the nuclear plant component itself. After 8 years of studies and data collection, the NRC issued its ''Generic Safety Evaluation Report'' approving an alternate seismic qualification approach based on the use of seismic experience data. This experience-based seismic assessment approach will be the basis for evaluating each of the 70 pre-1972 commercial nuclear power units in the United States and for an undetermined number of nuclear plants located in foreign countries. This same cost-effective developed for the commercial nuclear power industry is currently being applied to the Savannah River Production Reactors to address similar seismic adequacy issues. This paper documents the results of the Savannah River Plant seismic evaluating program. This effort marks the first complete (non-trial) application of this state-of-the-art USI A-46 resolution methodology

  1. Seismic evaluation of safety systems at the Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.S.; Johnson, J.J.; Eder, S.J.; Monahon, T.; Ketcham, D.

    1989-01-01

    A thorough review of all safety related systems in commercial nuclear power plants was prompted by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. As a consequence of this review, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) focused its attention on the environmental and seismic qualification of the industry's electrical and mechanical equipment. In 1980, the NRC issued Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 to verify the seismic adequacy of the equipment required to safely shut down a plant and maintain a stable condition for 72 hours. After extensive research by the NRC, it became apparent that traditional analysis and testing methods would not be a feasible mechanism to address this USI A-46 issue. The costs associated with utilizing the standard analytical and testing qualification approaches were exorbitant and could not be justified. In addition, the only equipment available to be shake table tested which is similar to the item being qualified is typically the nuclear plant component itself. After 8 years of studies and data collection, the NRC issued its Generic Safety Evaluation Report approving an alternate seismic qualification approach based on the use of seismic experience data. This experience-based seismic assessment approach will be the basis for evaluating each of the 70 pre-1972 commercial nuclear power units in the US and for an undetermined number of nuclear plants located in foreign countries. This same cost-effective approach developed for the commercial nuclear power industry is currently being applied to the Savannah River Production Reactors to address similar seismic adequacy issues. This paper documents the results of the Savannah River Plant seismic evaluation program. This effort marks the first complete (non-trial) application of this state-of-the-art USI A-46 resolution methodology

  2. Application of seismic isolation technology to demonstration FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Muneaki

    1994-01-01

    The Japanese demonstration FBR is loop type, the intermediate heat exchanger is installed between the reactor and the steam generator, and up to the intermediate heat exchanger is in the containment vessel, which is designed as a reinforced concrete vessel. In FBRs, the optimization in aseismatic design and high temperature structural design is important. The reactor building is buried in rock bed up to its center of gravity to minimize the amplifying earthquake response. If the seismic isolation structure for a reactor is realized, cost reduction can be expected by the rationalization of machinery and equipment and the standardization of buildings and facilities. The research on FBR seismic isolation design has been carried out by Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry and Japan Atomic Power Co. The concept of FBR seismic isolation design, the basic condition for the design evaluation, the research on safety allowance and the conceptual design analysis are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    process constrain the seismic hazard assessment. Some frequent issues .... to obtain information on the causality between .... 2004), and low frequency deep triggering. (Miyazawa .... can trigger shallow thrust fault earthquakes; Science 306.

  4. Worldwide Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a large volume of both Analog and Digital seismic reflection data. Currently only a limited number of lines are available online. Digital data include...

  5. Seismic rupture modelling, strong motion prediction and seismic hazard assessment: fundamental and applied approaches; Modelisation de la rupture sismique, prediction du mouvement fort, et evaluation de l'alea sismique: approches fondamentale et appliquee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge-Thierry, C

    2007-05-15

    The defence to obtain the 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches' is a synthesis of the research work performed since the end of my Ph D. thesis in 1997. This synthesis covers the two years as post doctoral researcher at the Bureau d'Evaluation des Risques Sismiques at the Institut de Protection (BERSSIN), and the seven consecutive years as seismologist and head of the BERSSIN team. This work and the research project are presented in the framework of the seismic risk topic, and particularly with respect to the seismic hazard assessment. Seismic risk combines seismic hazard and vulnerability. Vulnerability combines the strength of building structures and the human and economical consequences in case of structural failure. Seismic hazard is usually defined in terms of plausible seismic motion (soil acceleration or velocity) in a site for a given time period. Either for the regulatory context or the structural specificity (conventional structure or high risk construction), seismic hazard assessment needs: to identify and locate the seismic sources (zones or faults), to characterize their activity, to evaluate the seismic motion to which the structure has to resist (including the site effects). I specialized in the field of numerical strong-motion prediction using high frequency seismic sources modelling and forming part of the IRSN allowed me to rapidly working on the different tasks of seismic hazard assessment. Thanks to the expertise practice and the participation to the regulation evolution (nuclear power plants, conventional and chemical structures), I have been able to work on empirical strong-motion prediction, including site effects. Specific questions related to the interface between seismologists and structural engineers are also presented, especially the quantification of uncertainties. This is part of the research work initiated to improve the selection of the input ground motion in designing or verifying the stability of structures. (author)

  6. Seismic rupture modelling, strong motion prediction and seismic hazard assessment: fundamental and applied approaches; Modelisation de la rupture sismique, prediction du mouvement fort, et evaluation de l'alea sismique: approches fondamentale et appliquee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge-Thierry, C

    2007-05-15

    The defence to obtain the 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches' is a synthesis of the research work performed since the end of my Ph D. thesis in 1997. This synthesis covers the two years as post doctoral researcher at the Bureau d'Evaluation des Risques Sismiques at the Institut de Protection (BERSSIN), and the seven consecutive years as seismologist and head of the BERSSIN team. This work and the research project are presented in the framework of the seismic risk topic, and particularly with respect to the seismic hazard assessment. Seismic risk combines seismic hazard and vulnerability. Vulnerability combines the strength of building structures and the human and economical consequences in case of structural failure. Seismic hazard is usually defined in terms of plausible seismic motion (soil acceleration or velocity) in a site for a given time period. Either for the regulatory context or the structural specificity (conventional structure or high risk construction), seismic hazard assessment needs: to identify and locate the seismic sources (zones or faults), to characterize their activity, to evaluate the seismic motion to which the structure has to resist (including the site effects). I specialized in the field of numerical strong-motion prediction using high frequency seismic sources modelling and forming part of the IRSN allowed me to rapidly working on the different tasks of seismic hazard assessment. Thanks to the expertise practice and the participation to the regulation evolution (nuclear power plants, conventional and chemical structures), I have been able to work on empirical strong-motion prediction, including site effects. Specific questions related to the interface between seismologists and structural engineers are also presented, especially the quantification of uncertainties. This is part of the research work initiated to improve the selection of the input ground motion in designing or verifying the stability of structures. (author)

  7. Seismic Applications of Energy Dampers

    OpenAIRE

    Shambhu Sinha

    2004-01-01

    Damping devices based on the operating principle of high velocity fluid flow through orifices have found numerous applications in the shock and vibration isolation of aerospace and defence systems. The study aims to investigate the feasibility of using energy dissipating fluid viscous dampers in structures to protect against seismic loads and to prove analytically and  experimentally that fluid viscous dampers can improve the seismic capacity of a structure by reducing damage and displacement...

  8. Position paper: Seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnworth, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the seismic design criteria to be used on the Title 11 design of the underground double-shell waste storage tanks and appurtenant facilities of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project, and to provide the history and methodologies for determining the recommended Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) anchors for site-specific seismic response spectra curves. Response spectra curves for use in design are provided in Appendix A

  9. Visualization of volumetric seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickermann, Dela; Böttinger, Michael; Ashfaq Ahmed, Khawar; Gajewski, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Mostly driven by demands of high quality subsurface imaging, highly specialized tools and methods have been developed to support the processing, visualization and interpretation of seismic data. 3D seismic data acquisition and 4D time-lapse seismic monitoring are well-established techniques in academia and industry, producing large amounts of data to be processed, visualized and interpreted. In this context, interactive 3D visualization methods proved to be valuable for the analysis of 3D seismic data cubes - especially for sedimentary environments with continuous horizons. In crystalline and hard rock environments, where hydraulic stimulation techniques may be applied to produce geothermal energy, interpretation of the seismic data is a more challenging problem. Instead of continuous reflection horizons, the imaging targets are often steep dipping faults, causing a lot of diffractions. Without further preprocessing these geological structures are often hidden behind the noise in the data. In this PICO presentation we will present a workflow consisting of data processing steps, which enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, followed by a visualization step based on the use the commercially available general purpose 3D visualization system Avizo. Specifically, we have used Avizo Earth, an extension to Avizo, which supports the import of seismic data in SEG-Y format and offers easy access to state-of-the-art 3D visualization methods at interactive frame rates, even for large seismic data cubes. In seismic interpretation using visualization, interactivity is a key requirement for understanding complex 3D structures. In order to enable an easy communication of the insights gained during the interactive visualization process, animations of the visualized data were created which support the spatial understanding of the data.

  10. Seismic fragility of ventilation stack of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, S.S.; Yugai, T.Z.; Kalinkin, I.V.; Vizir, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    Fragility study of safety related elements is necessary step in seismic PSA of nuclear power plant (NPP). In present work fragility was analyzed after the example of the ventilation stack of NPP. Ventilation stack, considered in present work, is a separately erected construction with height of 100 m made of cast-in-place reinforced concrete. In accordance with IAEA terminology fragility of element is defined as conditional probability of its failure at given level of seismic loading. Failure of a ventilation stack was considered as development of the plastic hinge in some section of a shaft. Seismic ground acceleration a, which corresponds to failure, could be defined as limit seismic acceleration of ventilation stack [a]. Limit seismic acceleration [a] was considered as random value. Sources of its variation are connected with stochastic nature of factors determining it (properties of construction materials, soils etc.), and also with uncertainties of existing analytical techniques. Random value [a] was assumed to be distributed lognormally. Median m[a] and logarithmically standard deviation β of this distribution were defined by 'scaling method' developed by R.P. Kennedy et al. Using this values fragility curves were plotted for different levels of confidence probability. (author)

  11. Seismic assessment of Technical Area V (TA-V).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, Carlos S.

    2014-03-01

    The Technical Area V (TA-V) Seismic Assessment Report was commissioned as part of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Self Assessment Requirement per DOE O 414.1, Quality Assurance, for seismic impact on existing facilities at Technical Area-V (TA-V). SNL TA-V facilities are located on an existing Uniform Building Code (UBC) Seismic Zone IIB Site within the physical boundary of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB). The document delineates a summary of the existing facilities with their safety-significant structure, system and components, identifies DOE Guidance, conceptual framework, past assessments and the present Geological and Seismic conditions. Building upon the past information and the evolution of the new seismic design criteria, the document discusses the potential impact of the new standards and provides recommendations based upon the current International Building Code (IBC) per DOE O 420.1B, Facility Safety and DOE G 420.1-2, Guide for the Mitigation of Natural Phenomena Hazards for DOE Nuclear Facilities and Non-Nuclear Facilities.

  12. Modernization of the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Seismic Processing Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolik, L.; Shiro, B.; Friberg, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) operates a Tier 1 Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) seismic network to monitor, characterize, and report on volcanic and earthquake activity in the State of Hawaii. Upgrades at the observatory since 2009 have improved the digital telemetry network, computing resources, and seismic data processing with the adoption of the ANSS Quake Management System (AQMS) system. HVO aims to build on these efforts by further modernizing its seismic processing infrastructure and strengthen its ability to meet ANSS performance standards. Most notably, this will also allow HVO to support redundant systems, both onsite and offsite, in order to provide better continuity of operation during intermittent power and network outages. We are in the process of implementing a number of upgrades and improvements on HVO's seismic processing infrastructure, including: 1) Virtualization of AQMS physical servers; 2) Migration of server operating systems from Solaris to Linux; 3) Consolidation of AQMS real-time and post-processing services to a single server; 4) Upgrading database from Oracle 10 to Oracle 12; and 5) Upgrading to the latest Earthworm and AQMS software. These improvements will make server administration more efficient, minimize hardware resources required by AQMS, simplify the Oracle replication setup, and provide better integration with HVO's existing state of health monitoring tools and backup system. Ultimately, it will provide HVO with the latest and most secure software available while making the software easier to deploy and support.

  13. 3D and 4D Seismic Technics Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Marian

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Years ago, exploration was done through surface observations and „divining rods“ – now, it is done by satellites, microprocessors, remote sensing, and supercomputers. In the 1970´ s, the exploration success rate was 14 percent, today, it is nearly 29 percent. Not so long ago, three – dimension (3D seismic diagnostic techniques helped recover 25-50 percent of the oil in place – now, 4D seismic helps recover up to 70 percent of the oil in place. 3D and 4D seismic and earth imaging systems also help in understanding the subsurface flow of other fluids, such as groundwater and pollutants.Seismic surveys – a technique in which sound waves are bounced off underground rock struktures to reveal possible oil and gas bearing formation – are now standard fare for the modern petroleum industry. But today’s seismic methods are best at locating „structural traps“ where faults or folds in the underground rock have created zones where oil can become trapped.

  14. Frozen Gaussian approximation for 3D seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lihui; Tong, Ping; Yang, Xu

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) wave-equation-based seismic tomography is computationally challenging in large scales and high-frequency regime. In this paper, we apply the frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) method to compute 3D sensitivity kernels and seismic tomography of high-frequency. Rather than standard ray theory used in seismic inversion (e.g. Kirchhoff migration and Gaussian beam migration), FGA is used to compute the 3D high-frequency sensitivity kernels for travel-time or full waveform inversions. Specifically, we reformulate the equations of the forward and adjoint wavefields for the purpose of convenience to apply FGA, and with this reformulation, one can efficiently compute the Green’s functions whose convolutions with source time function produce wavefields needed for the construction of 3D kernels. Moreover, a fast summation method is proposed based on local fast Fourier transform which greatly improves the speed of reconstruction as the last step of FGA algorithm. We apply FGA to both the travel-time adjoint tomography and full waveform inversion (FWI) on synthetic crosswell seismic data with dominant frequencies as high as those of real crosswell data, and confirm again that FWI requires a more sophisticated initial velocity model for the convergence than travel-time adjoint tomography. We also numerically test the accuracy of applying FGA to local earthquake tomography. This study paves the way to directly apply wave-equation-based seismic tomography methods into real data around their dominant frequencies.

  15. Russian regulatory approaches to seismic design and seismic analysis of NPP piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliberda, Y.V.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of Russian regulatory approaches to seismic design and seismic analysis of NPP piping. The paper is focused on categorization and seismic analysis of nuclear power plant items (piping, equipment, supports, valves, but not building structures). The paper outlines the current seismic recommendations, corresponding methods with the examples of calculation models. The paper considers calculation results of the mechanisms of dynamic behavior and the problems of developing a rational and economical approaches to seismic design and seismic protection. (author)

  16. Recent Vs. Historical Seismicity Analysis For Banat Seismic Region (Western Part Of Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Oros Eugen; Diaconescu Mihai

    2015-01-01

    The present day seismic activity from a region reflects the active tectonics and can confirm the seismic potential of the seismogenic sources as they are modelled using the historical seismicity. This paper makes a comparative analysis of the last decade seismicity recorded in the Banat Seismic Region (western part of Romania) and the historical seismicity of the region (Mw≥4.0). Four significant earthquake sequences have been recently localized in the region, three of them nearby the city of...

  17. Cooperative New Madrid seismic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, R.B.; Johnston, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The development and installation of components of a U.S. National Seismic Network (USNSN) in the eastern United States provides the basis for long term monitoring of eastern earthquakes. While the broad geographical extent of this network provides a uniform monitoring threshold for the purpose of identifying and locating earthquakes and while it will provide excellent data for defining some seismic source parameters for larger earthquakes through the use of waveform modeling techniques, such as depth and focal mechanism, by itself it will not be able to define the scaling of high frequency ground motions since it will not focus on any of the major seismic zones in the eastern U.S. Realizing this need and making use of a one time availability of funds for studying New Madrid earthquakes, Saint Louis University and Memphis State University successfully competed for funding in a special USGS RFP for New Madrid studies. The purpose of the proposal is to upgrade the present seismic networks run by these institutions in order to focus on defining the seismotectonics and ground motion scaling in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. The proposed network is designed both to complement the U.S. National Seismic Network and to make use of the capabilities of the communication links of that network

  18. Level-1 seismic probabilistic risk assessment for a PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Keisuke; Nishio, Masahide; Fujimoto, Haruo; Ichitsuka, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, revised Seismic Design Guidelines for the domestic light water reactors was published on September 19, 2006. These new guidelines have introduced the purpose to confirm that residual risk resulting from earthquake that exceeds the design limit seismic ground motion (Ss) is sufficiently small, based on the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) method, in addition to conventional deterministic design base methodology. In response to this situation, JNES had been working to improve seismic PRA (SPRA) models for individual domestic light water reactors. In case of PWR in Japan, total of 24 plants were grouped into 11 categories to develop individual SPRA model. The new regulatory rules against the Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plants' severe accidents occurred on March 11, 2011, are going to be enforced in July 2013 and utilities are necessary to implement additional safety measures to avoid and mitigate severe accident occurrence due to external events such as earthquake and tsunami, by referring to the results of severe accident study including SPRA. In this paper a SPRA model development for a domestic 3-loop PWR plant as part of the above-mentioned 11 categories is described. We paid special attention to how to categorize initiating events that are specific to seismic phenomena and how to confirm the effect of the simultaneous failure probability calculation model for the multiple components on the result of core damage frequency evaluation. Simultaneous failure probability for multiple components has been evaluated by power multiplier method. Then tentative level-1 seismic probabilistic risk assessment (SPRA) has been performed by the developed SPSA model with seismic hazard and fragility data. The base case was evaluated under the condition with calculated fragility data and conventional power multiplier. The difference in CDF between the case of conventional power multiplier and that of power multiplier=1 (complete dependence) was estimated to be

  19. Digital hilar tomography. Comparison with conventional technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, C.B.; Braunschweig, R.; Teufl, F.; Kaiser, W.; Claussen, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the following study was to compare conventional hilar tomography and digital hilar tomography. 20 patients were examined both with conventional and digital hilar tomography using the same tomographic technique and the identical exposure dose. All patients underwent computed tomography of the chest as a golden standard. The digital technique, especially the edge-enhanced image version, showed superior image quality. ROC-analysis by 4 readers found equal diagnostic performance without any statistical difference. Digital hilar tomography shows a superior and constant image quality and lowers the rate of re-exposure. Therefore, digital hilar tomography is the preferable method. (orig.) [de

  20. Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations: Ground Motion Prediction Equations and Site Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide the state-of-the-art practice and detailed technical elements related to ground motion evaluation by ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and site response in the context of seismic hazard assessments as recommended in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The publication includes the basics of GMPEs, ground motion simulation, selection and adjustment of GMPEs, site characterization, and modelling of site response in order to improve seismic hazard assessment. The text aims at delineating the most important aspects of these topics (including current practices, criticalities and open problems) within a coherent framework. In particular, attention has been devoted to filling conceptual gaps. It is written as a reference text for trained users who are responsible for planning preparatory seismic hazard analyses for siting of all nuclear installations and/or providing constraints for anti-seismic design and retrofitting of existing structures

  1. Random noise suppression of seismic data using non-local Bayes algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, De-Kuan; Yang, Wu-Yang; Wang, Yi-Hui; Yang, Qing; Wei, Xin-Jian; Feng, Xiao-Ying

    2018-02-01

    For random noise suppression of seismic data, we present a non-local Bayes (NL-Bayes) filtering algorithm. The NL-Bayes algorithm uses the Gaussian model instead of the weighted average of all similar patches in the NL-means algorithm to reduce the fuzzy of structural details, thereby improving the denoising performance. In the denoising process of seismic data, the size and the number of patches in the Gaussian model are adaptively calculated according to the standard deviation of noise. The NL-Bayes algorithm requires two iterations to complete seismic data denoising, but the second iteration makes use of denoised seismic data from the first iteration to calculate the better mean and covariance of the patch Gaussian model for improving the similarity of patches and achieving the purpose of denoising. Tests with synthetic and real data sets demonstrate that the NL-Bayes algorithm can effectively improve the SNR and preserve the fidelity of seismic data.

  2. Seismic risk analysis for the Westinghouse Electric facility, Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This report presents the results of a detailed seismic risk analysis of the Westinghouse Electric plutonium fuel development facility at Cheswick, Pennsylvania. This report focuses on earthquakes. The historical seismic record was established after a review of available literature, consultation with operators of local seismic arrays and examination of appropriate seismic data bases. Because of the aseismicity of the region around the site, an analysis different from the conventional closest approach in a tectonic province was adapted. Earthquakes as far from the site as 1,000 km were included, as were the possibility of earthquakes at the site. In addition, various uncertainties in the input were explicitly considered in the analysis. For example, allowance was made for both the uncertainty in predicting maximum possible earthquakes in the region and the effect of the dispersion of data about the best fit attenuation relation. The attenuation relationship is derived from two of the most recent, advanced studies relating earthquake intensity reports and acceleration. Results of the risk analysis, which include a Bayesian estimate of the uncertainties, are presented as return period accelerations. The best estimate curve indicates that the Westinghouse facility will experience 0.05 g every 220 years and 0.10 g every 1400 years. The accelerations are very insensitive to the details of the source region geometries or the historical earthquake statistics in each region and each of the source regions contributes almost equally to the cumulative risk at the site

  3. Numerical modeling of the 2017 active seismic infrasound balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, Q.; Komjathy, A.; Garcia, R.; Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Mimoun, D.; Jackson, J. M.; Lai, V. H.; Kedar, S.; Levillain, E.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a numerical tool to propagate acoustic and gravity waves in a coupled solid-fluid medium with topography. It is a hybrid method between a continuous Galerkin and a discontinuous Galerkin method that accounts for non-linear atmospheric waves, visco-elastic waves and topography. We apply this method to a recent experiment that took place in the Nevada desert to study acoustic waves from seismic events. This experiment, developed by JPL and its partners, wants to demonstrate the viability of a new approach to probe seismic-induced acoustic waves from a balloon platform. To the best of our knowledge, this could be the only way, for planetary missions, to perform tomography when one faces challenging surface conditions, with high pressure and temperature (e.g. Venus), and thus when it is impossible to use conventional electronics routinely employed on Earth. To fully demonstrate the effectiveness of such a technique one should also be able to reconstruct the observed signals from numerical modeling. To model the seismic hammer experiment and the subsequent acoustic wave propagation, we rely on a subsurface seismic model constructed from the seismometers measurements during the 2017 Nevada experiment and an atmospheric model built from meteorological data. The source is considered as a Gaussian point source located at the surface. Comparison between the numerical modeling and the experimental data could help future mission designs and provide great insights into the planet's interior structure.

  4. An Adaptable Seismic Data Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Lion; Smith, James; Lei, Wenjie; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Ruan, Youyi; de Andrade, Elliott Sales; Podhorszki, Norbert; Bozdağ, Ebru; Tromp, Jeroen

    2016-11-01

    We present ASDF, the Adaptable Seismic Data Format, a modern and practical data format for all branches of seismology and beyond. The growing volume of freely available data coupled with ever expanding computational power opens avenues to tackle larger and more complex problems. Current bottlenecks include inefficient resource usage and insufficient data organization. Properly scaling a problem requires the resolution of both these challenges, and existing data formats are no longer up to the task. ASDF stores any number of synthetic, processed or unaltered waveforms in a single file. A key improvement compared to existing formats is the inclusion of comprehensive meta information, such as event or station information, in the same file. Additionally, it is also usable for any non-waveform data, for example, cross-correlations, adjoint sources or receiver functions. Last but not least, full provenance information can be stored alongside each item of data, thereby enhancing reproducibility and accountability. Any data set in our proposed format is self-describing and can be readily exchanged with others, facilitating collaboration. The utilization of the HDF5 container format grants efficient and parallel I/O operations, integrated compression algorithms and check sums to guard against data corruption. To not reinvent the wheel and to build upon past developments, we use existing standards like QuakeML, StationXML, W3C PROV and HDF5 wherever feasible. Usability and tool support are crucial for any new format to gain acceptance. We developed mature C/Fortran and Python based APIs coupling ASDF to the widely used SPECFEM3D_GLOBE and ObsPy toolkits.

  5. Multicomponent seismic applications in coalbed methane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.; Trend, S. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2004-07-01

    Seismic applications for coalbed methane (CBM) development are used to address the following challenges: lateral continuity of coal zones; vertical continuity of coal seams; permeability of cleats and fractures; coal quality and gas content; wet versus dry coal zones; and, monitoring storage of greenhouse gases. This paper presented a brief description of existing seismic programs, including 2-D and 3-D surface seismic surveys; multicomponent seismic surveys; vertical seismic profiles; cross-well seismic surveys; and, time-lapse seismic surveys. A comparative evaluation of their use in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation and the Ardley Formation was presented. The study showed that variations in reservoir properties resulting from gas production and dewatering can be effectively imaged using seismic surveys. Seismic surveys are useful in reservoir management, monitoring sweep efficiency during enhanced natural gas from coal (NGC) production, monitoring disposal of produced water and verifying storage of carbon dioxide for carbon credits. tabs., figs.

  6. Romanian Educational Seismic Network Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataru, Dragos; Ionescu, Constantin; Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Tibu, Speranta; Popa, Mihaela; Borleanu, Felix; Toma, Dragos; Brisan, Nicoleta; Georgescu, Emil-Sever; Dobre, Daniela; Dragomir, Claudiu-Sorin

    2013-04-01

    Romania is one of the most active seismic countries in Europe, with more than 500 earthquakes occurring every year. The seismic hazard of Romania is relatively high and thus understanding the earthquake phenomena and their effects at the earth surface represents an important step toward the education of population in earthquake affected regions of the country and aims to raise the awareness about the earthquake risk and possible mitigation actions. In this direction, the first national educational project in the field of seismology has recently started in Romania: the ROmanian EDUcational SEISmic NETwork (ROEDUSEIS-NET) project. It involves four partners: the National Institute for Earth Physics as coordinator, the National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development " URBAN - INCERC" Bucharest, the Babeş-Bolyai University (Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering) and the software firm "BETA Software". The project has many educational, scientific and social goals. The main educational objectives are: training students and teachers in the analysis and interpretation of seismological data, preparing of several comprehensive educational materials, designing and testing didactic activities using informatics and web-oriented tools. The scientific objective is to introduce into schools the use of advanced instruments and experimental methods that are usually restricted to research laboratories, with the main product being the creation of an earthquake waveform archive. Thus a large amount of such data will be used by students and teachers for educational purposes. For the social objectives, the project represents an effective instrument for informing and creating an awareness of the seismic risk, for experimentation into the efficacy of scientific communication, and for an increase in the direct involvement of schools and the general public. A network of nine seismic stations with SEP seismometers

  7. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using sliding isolation bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) are designed for earthquake shaking with very long return periods. Seismic isolation is a viable strategy to protect NPPs from extreme earthquake shaking because it filters a significant fraction of earthquake input energy. This study addresses the seismic isolation of NPPs using sliding bearings, with a focus on the single concave Friction Pendulum(TM) (FP) bearing. Friction at the sliding surface of an FP bearing changes continuously during an earthquake as a function of sliding velocity, axial pressure and temperature at the sliding surface. The temperature at the sliding surface, in turn, is a function of the histories of coefficient of friction, sliding velocity and axial pressure, and the travel path of the slider. A simple model to describe the complex interdependence of the coefficient of friction, axial pressure, sliding velocity and temperature at the sliding surface is proposed, and then verified and validated. Seismic hazard for a seismically isolated nuclear power plant is defined in the United States using a uniform hazard response spectrum (UHRS) at mean annual frequencies of exceedance (MAFE) of 10-4 and 10 -5. A key design parameter is the clearance to the hard stop (CHS), which is influenced substantially by the definition of the seismic hazard. Four alternate representations of seismic hazard are studied, which incorporate different variabilities and uncertainties. Response-history analyses performed on single FP-bearing isolation systems using ground motions consistent with the four representations at the two shaking levels indicate that the CHS is influenced primarily by whether the observed difference between the two horizontal components of ground motions in a given set is accounted for. The UHRS at the MAFE of 10-4 is increased by a design factor (≥ 1) for conventional (fixed base) nuclear structure to achieve a target annual frequency of unacceptable performance. Risk oriented calculations are performed for

  8. Regional seismic lines reprocessed using post-stack processing techniques; National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John J.; Agena, W.F.; Lee, M.W.; Zihlman, F.N.; Grow, J.A.; Taylor, D.J.; Killgore, Michele; Oliver, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains stacked, migrated, 2-Dimensional seismic reflection data and associated support information for 22 regional seismic lines (3,470 line-miles) recorded in the National Petroleum Reserve ? Alaska (NPRA) from 1974 through 1981. Together, these lines constitute about one-quarter of the seismic data collected as part of the Federal Government?s program to evaluate the petroleum potential of the Reserve. The regional lines, which form a grid covering the entire NPRA, were created by combining various individual lines recorded in different years using different recording parameters. These data were reprocessed by the USGS using modern, post-stack processing techniques, to create a data set suitable for interpretation on interactive seismic interpretation computer workstations. Reprocessing was done in support of ongoing petroleum resource studies by the USGS Energy Program. The CD-ROM contains the following files: 1) 22 files containing the digital seismic data in standard, SEG-Y format; 2) 1 file containing navigation data for the 22 lines in standard SEG-P1 format; 3) 22 small scale graphic images of each seismic line in Adobe Acrobat? PDF format; 4) a graphic image of the location map, generated from the navigation file, with hyperlinks to the graphic images of the seismic lines; 5) an ASCII text file with cross-reference information for relating the sequential trace numbers on each regional line to the line number and shotpoint number of the original component lines; and 6) an explanation of the processing used to create the final seismic sections (this document). The SEG-Y format seismic files and SEG-P1 format navigation file contain all the information necessary for loading the data onto a seismic interpretation workstation.

  9. Seismic failure modes and seismic safety of Hardfill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on microscopic damage theory and the finite element method, and using the Weibull distribution to characterize the random distribution of the mechanical properties of materials, the seismic response of a typical Hardfill dam was analyzed through numerical simulation during the earthquakes with intensities of 8 degrees and even greater. The seismic failure modes and failure mechanism of the dam were explored as well. Numerical results show that the Hardfill dam remains at a low stress level and undamaged or slightly damaged during an earthquake with an intensity of 8 degrees. During overload earthquakes, tensile cracks occur at the dam surfaces and extend to inside the dam body, and the upstream dam body experiences more serious damage than the downstream dam body. Therefore, under the seismic conditions, the failure pattern of the Hardfill dam is the tensile fracture of the upstream regions and the dam toe. Compared with traditional gravity dams, Hardfill dams have better seismic performance and greater seismic safety.

  10. EMSE: Synergizing EM and seismic data attributes for enhanced forecasts of reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2014-10-01

    New developments of electromagnetic and seismic techniques have recently revolutionized the oil and gas industry. Time-lapse seismic data is providing engineers with tools to more accurately track the dynamics of multi-phase reservoir fluid flows. With the challenges faced in distinguishing between hydrocarbons and water via seismic methods, the industry has been looking at electromagnetic techniques in order to exploit the strong contrast in conductivity between hydrocarbons and water. Incorporating this information into reservoir simulation is expected to considerably enhance the forecasting of the reservoir, hence optimizing production and reducing costs. Conventional approaches typically invert the seismic and electromagnetic data in order to transform them into production parameters, before incorporating them as constraints in the history matching process and reservoir simulations. This makes automatization difficult and computationally expensive due to the necessity of manual processing, besides the potential artifacts. Here we introduce a new approach to incorporate seismic and electromagnetic data attributes directly into the history matching process. To avoid solving inverse problems and exploit information in the dynamics of the flow, we exploit petrophysical transformations to simultaneously incorporate time lapse seismic and electromagnetic data attributes using different ensemble Kalman-based history matching techniques. Our simulation results show enhanced predictability of the critical reservoir parameters and reduce uncertainties in model simulations, outperforming with only production data or the inclusion of either seismic or electromagnetic data. A statistical test is performed to confirm the significance of the results. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Overcoming barriers to high performance seismic design using lessons learned from the green building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezil, Dorothy

    NEHRP's Provisions today currently governing conventional seismic resistant design. These provisions, though they ensure the life-safety of building occupants, extensive damage and economic losses may still occur in the structures. This minimum performance can be enhanced using the Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering methodology and passive control systems like base isolation and energy dissipation systems. Even though these technologies and the PBEE methodology are effective reducing economic losses and fatalities during earthquakes, getting them implemented into seismic resistant design has been challenging. One of the many barriers to their implementation has been their upfront costs. The green building community has faced some of the same challenges that the high performance seismic design community currently faces. The goal of this thesis is to draw on the success of the green building industry to provide recommendations that may be used overcome the barriers that high performance seismic design (HPSD) is currently facing.

  12. Yield Frequency Spectra and seismic design of code-compatible RC structures: an illustrative example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanos, Evangelos; Vamvatsikos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    with given yield displacement and capacity curve shape. For the 8-story case study building, deformation checking is the governing limit state. A conventional code-based design was performed using seismic intensities tied to the desired MAF for safety checking. Then, the YFS-based approach was employed......The seismic design of an 8-story reinforced concrete space frame building is undertaken using a Yield Frequency Spectra (YFS) performance-based approach. YFS offer a visual representation of the entire range of a system’s performance in terms of the mean annual frequency (MAF) of exceeding...... to redesign the resulting structure working backwards from the desired MAF of response (rather than intensity) to estimate an appropriate value of seismic intensity for use within a typical engineering design process. For this high-seismicity and high-importance midrise building, a stiffer system with higher...

  13. Seismic analysis for the ALMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajirian, F.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design uses seismic isolation as a cost effective approach for simplifying seismic design of the reactor module, and for enhancing margins to handle beyond design basis earthquakes (BDBE). A comprehensive seismic analysis plan has been developed to confirm the adequacy of the design and to support regulatory licensing activities. In this plan state-of-the-art computer programs are used to evaluate the system response of the ALMR. Several factors that affect seismic response will be investigated. These include variability in the input earthquake mechanism, soil-structure interaction effects, and nonlinear response of the isolators. This paper reviews the type of analyses that are planned, and discuses the approach that will be used for validating the specific features of computer programs that are required in the analysis of isolated structures. To date, different linear and nonlinear seismic analyses have been completed. The results of recently completed linear analyses have been summarized elsewhere. The findings of three-dimensional seismic nonlinear analyses are presented in this paper. These analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of changes of isolator horizontal stiffness with horizontal displacement on overall response, to develop an approach for representing BDBE events with return periods exceeding 10,000 years, and to assess margins in the design for BDBEs. From the results of these analyses and bearing test data, it can be concluded that a properly designed and constructed seismic isolation system can accommodate displacements several times the design safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) for the ALMR. (author)

  14. Monitoring Instrument Performance in Regional Broadband Seismic Network Using Ambient Seismic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, F.; Lyu, S.; Lin, J.

    2017-12-01

    In the past ten years, the number of seismic stations has increased significantly, and regional seismic networks with advanced technology have been gradually developed all over the world. The resulting broadband data help to improve the seismological research. It is important to monitor the performance of broadband instruments in a new network in a long period of time to ensure the accuracy of seismic records. Here, we propose a method that uses ambient noise data in the period range 5-25 s to monitor instrument performance and check data quality in situ. The method is based on an analysis of amplitude and phase index parameters calculated from pairwise cross-correlations of three stations, which provides multiple references for reliable error estimates. Index parameters calculated daily during a two-year observation period are evaluated to identify stations with instrument response errors in near real time. During data processing, initial instrument responses are used in place of available instrument responses to simulate instrument response errors, which are then used to verify our results. We also examine feasibility of the tailing noise using data from stations selected from USArray in different locations and analyze the possible instrumental errors resulting in time-shifts used to verify the method. Additionally, we show an application that effects of instrument response errors that experience pole-zeros variations on monitoring temporal variations in crustal properties appear statistically significant velocity perturbation larger than the standard deviation. The results indicate that monitoring seismic instrument performance helps eliminate data pollution before analysis begins.

  15. Seismic analysis of the Aguirre Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda Soza, Cristian

    1999-01-01

    This thesis aims to verify the seismic design of the Aguirre Nuclear Reactor using the finite elements method and comparing the results with the original analysis. The study focused on the dynamic interaction of soil and structures, using the ANSYS program for the analysis, which was implemented for a work station under a UNIX platform belonging to the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. The modeling of the structures was carried out following International Atomic Energy recommendations, those of the makers of the Swanson Analysis Systems program and the prior study by S y S Ingenieros Consultores. Two-dimensional models were developed with axial and symmetry and three-dimensional models with symmetric and asymmetric plans, where the retaining building, the pond block and the soil down to the basal rock were included. The seismic stresses were defined according to the Chilean Standard NCh433.of96, using the spectrum of design accelerations for type II soils for the structural models and type IV for the soil-structure interaction models.The results of interest for this study are: the compression and cutting tensions, the unitary cut distortions and the displacements, which are shown graphically and are compared between the different models and with the original analysis. A sensitivity analysis was prepared for the models with axial symmetry considering soil reaction coefficient values of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1 and 0.5 kp/cm 3 ; and four screens with maximum sizes of 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 cm. The behavior of the stressed materials was studied as well as the result of the seismic stress (CS)

  16. Seismic Wave Propagation in Layered Viscoelastic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    Advances in the general theory of wave propagation in layered viscoelastic media reveal new insights regarding seismic waves in the Earth. For example, the theory predicts: 1) P and S waves are predominantly inhomogeneous in a layered anelastic Earth with seismic travel times, particle-motion orbits, energy speeds, Q, and amplitude characteristics that vary with angle of incidence and hence, travel path through the layers, 2) two types of shear waves exist, one with linear and the other with elliptical particle motions each with different absorption coefficients, and 3) surface waves with amplitude and particle motion characteristics not predicted by elasticity, such as Rayleigh-Type waves with tilted elliptical particle motion orbits and Love-Type waves with superimposed sinusoidal amplitude dependencies that decay exponentially with depth. The general theory provides closed-form analytic solutions for body waves, reflection-refraction problems, response of multiple layers, and surface wave problems valid for any material with a viscoelastic response, including the infinite number of models, derivable from various configurations of springs and dashpots, such as elastic, Voight, Maxwell, and Standard Linear. The theory provides solutions independent of the amount of intrinsic absorption and explicit analytic expressions for physical characteristics of body waves in low-loss media such as the deep Earth. The results explain laboratory and seismic observations, such as travel-time and wide-angle reflection amplitude anomalies, not explained by elasticity or one dimensional Q models. They have important implications for some forward modeling and inverse problems. Theoretical advances and corresponding numerical results as recently compiled (Borcherdt, 2008, Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media, Cambridge University Press) will be reviewed.

  17. Seismic qualification of PWR plant auxiliary feedwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.; Tsai, N.C.

    1983-08-01

    The NRC Standard Review Plan specifies that the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is a safeguard system that functions in the event of a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) to remove the decay heat via the steam generator. Only recently licensed PWR plants have an AFW system designed to the current Standard Review Plan specifications. The NRC devised the Multiplant Action Plan C-14 in order to make a survey of the seismic capability of the AFW systems of operating PWR plants. The purpose of this survey is to enable the NRC to make decisions regarding the need of requiring the licensees to upgrade the AFW systems to an SSE level of seismic capability. To implement the first phase of the C-14 plan, the NRC issued a Generic Letter (GL) 81-14 to all operating PWR licensees requesting information on the seismic capability of their AFW systems. This report summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's efforts to assist the NRC in evaluating the status of seismic qualification of the AFW systems in 40 PWR plants, by reviewing the licensees' responses to GL 81-14

  18. Monitoring El Hierro submarine volcanic eruption events with a submarine seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Molino, Erik; Lopez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2012 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. From the beginning of the eruption a geophone string was installed less than 2 km away from the new volcano, next to La Restinga village shore, to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. The analysis of the dataset using spectral techniques allows the characterization of the different phases of the eruption and the study of its dynamics. The correlation of the data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing) and also with the seismic activity recorded by the IGN field seismic monitoring system, allows the identification of different stages suggesting the existence of different signal sources during the volcanic eruption and also the posteruptive record of the degassing activity. The study shows that the high frequency capability of the geophone array allow the study of important features that cannot be registered by the standard seismic stations. The accumulative spectral amplitude show features related to eruptive changes.

  19. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  20. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  1. Generalized seismic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1993-09-01

    There is a constant need to be able to solve for enforced motion of structures. Spacecraft need to be qualified for acceleration inputs. Truck cargoes need to be safeguarded from road mishaps. Office buildings need to withstand earthquake shocks. Marine machinery needs to be able to withstand hull shocks. All of these kinds of enforced motions are being grouped together under the heading of seismic inputs. Attempts have been made to cope with this problem over the years and they usually have ended up with some limiting or compromise conditions. The crudest approach was to limit the problem to acceleration occurring only at a base of a structure, constrained to be rigid. The analyst would assign arbitrarily outsized masses to base points. He would then calculate the magnitude of force to apply to the base mass (or masses) in order to produce the specified acceleration. He would of necessity have to sacrifice the determination of stresses in the vicinity of the base, because of the artificial nature of the input forces. The author followed the lead of John M. Biggs by using relative coordinates for a rigid base in a 1975 paper, and again in a 1981 paper . This method of relative coordinates was extended and made operational as DMAP ALTER packets to rigid formats 9, 10, 11, and 12 under contract N60921-82-C-0128. This method was presented at the twelfth NASTRAN Colloquium. Another analyst in the field developed a method that computed the forces from enforced motion then applied them as a forcing to the remaining unknowns after the knowns were partitioned off. The method was translated into DMAP ALTER's but was never made operational. All of this activity jelled into the current effort. Much thought was invested in working out ways to unshakle the analysis of enforced motions from the limitations that persisted.

  2. Seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vinale

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some fundamental considerations regarding the behaviour of geotechnical structures under seismic loading. First a complete definition of the earthquake disaster risk is provided, followed by the importance of performing site-specific hazard analysis. Then some suggestions are provided in regard to adequate assessment of soil parameters, a crucial point to properly analyze the seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures. The core of the paper is centered on a critical review of the analysis methods available for studying geotechnical structures under seismic loadings. All of the available methods can be classified into three main classes, including the pseudo-static, pseudo-dynamic and dynamic approaches, each of which is reviewed for applicability. A more advanced analysis procedure, suitable for a so-called performance-based design approach, is also described in the paper. Finally, the seismic behaviour of the El Infiernillo Dam was investigated. It was shown that coupled elastoplastic dynamic analyses disclose some of the important features of dam behaviour under seismic loading, confirmed by comparing analytical computation and experimental measurements on the dam body during and after a past earthquake.

  3. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    demonstrated and sufficient justification of hazard assessment protocols; (b) a more complete learning of the actual range of earthquake hazards to local communities and populations, and (c) a more ethically responsible control over how seismic hazard and seismic risk is implemented to protect public safety. It follows that the international project GEM is on the wrong track, if it continues to base seismic risk estimates on the standard method to assess seismic hazard. The situation is not hopeless and could be improved dramatically due to available geological, geomorphologic, seismic, and tectonic evidences and data combined with deterministic pattern recognition methodologies, specifically, when intending to PREDICT PREDICTABLE, but not the exact size, site, date, and probability of a target event. Understanding the complexity of non-linear dynamics of hierarchically organized systems of blocks-and-faults has led already to methodologies of neo-deterministic seismic hazard analysis and intermediate-term middle- to narrow-range earthquake prediction algorithms tested in real-time applications over the last decades. It proves that Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such info in advance extreme catastrophes, which are LOW PROBABILITY EVENTS THAT HAPPEN WITH CERTAINTY. Geoscientists must initiate shifting the minds of community from pessimistic disbelieve to optimistic challenging issues of neo-deterministic Hazard Predictability.

  4. Instrumentation qualification. Seismic qualification of C-E instrumentation equipment. Part One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    A summary of the C-E seismic qualification program utilized to demonstrate the seismic design adequacy of the instrumentation and control equipment used in C-E supplied Nuclear Steam Supply Systems (NSSS) is presented. The report is divided into two parts. Part One includes the equipment seismic requirements and a description of the qualification methods. Part Two lists the specific equipment by nuclear station in which it is used and the equipment test results are summarized in a standard data sheet format to facilitate review. The seismic requirements are based on individual contract commitments with C-E customers and the NRC Standard Review Plan, Section 3.10 ''Seismic Qualification of Category I Instrumentation and Electrical Equipment.'' Equipment is qualified for use in a seismic environment where damage potential to the equipment is less than or equal to that simulated seismic environment to which it has been qualified. The anticipated Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) environment at the inservice location of equipment should be confirmed by each applicant as not exceeding that to which it is qualified

  5. Analysis of seismic waves and strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, I.C.; Sutton, R.

    1976-10-01

    A number of Western USA earthquake acceleration-time histories concerning events of magnitude less than 6 are considered and their Fourier spectra calculated. An analysis of some of the simpler types of seismic wave is given in order to consider the generation of a spatially dependent acceleration-time history suitable for input into a soil-structure program of analysis. Such an acceleration-time history is required by a comprehensive analysis of soil-structure interaction since the conventionally assumed model of vertically propagating seismic waves, which give rise to three spatially independent ground motions, can lead to over-conservative estimates of the building response in the high frequency range. The possible application is discussed of a given component of a recorded acceleration-time history to the base of structure under the assumption of surface Rayleigh waves or obliquely incident P and SV bulk waves. (author)

  6. Effect of foundation embedment on the seismic response of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.H.; Thompson, R.W.; Charman, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of soil-structure interaction during seismic events upon the dynamic response of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor plant (HTGR) have been investigated for both surface-founded and embedded basemats. The influence from foundation embedment has been quantitatively assessed through a series of theoretical studies on plants of various sizes. The surface-founded analyses were performed using frequency-independent soil impedance parameters, while the embedded plant analyses utilized finite element models simulated on the FLUSH computer program. The seismic response of the surface-founded plants has been used to establish the standard-site design in-structure response spectra. These analyses were performed by using the linear modal formulation based on conventional soil stiffness and damping values. They serve as reference solutions to which the response data of the corresponding embedded plants are compared. In these comparison studies the responses of embedded plants were generally found to be lower than those of the corresponding surface-founded plants. Additional studies on the surface-founded plants have recently been performed by considering inelastic soil behavior. These inelastic solutions, which treat the soil as an elasto-plastic medium exhibiting hysteretic unloading-reloading characteristics in time, have reduced the response of surface-founded plants. Numerical results are presented in terms of in-structure response spectra along with other pertinent seismic load data at key levels of the plant. Analysis techniques for future studies using viscoelastic halfspace representation and inelastic finite element modeling for soil are also discussed

  7. Original seismic design data and application of SMA and GIP methodologies. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    1995-01-01

    The major focus of the IAEA sponsored Benchmark study for seismic analysis of WWER type NPPs is to develop the procedures which should be recommended to assess and enhance the seismic capacity of existing NPPs. The main issues are; identification of the most critical systems, structures and components necessary for safe shutdown; evaluation of as built conditions by collecting the data as originally used codes and standards, design drawings and construction specifications; realistic assessment of seismic response of plant building structures, distribution systems and passive equipment; functional qualification of active mechanical and electrical components through the use seismic experience or test-based data. The main aim of this report is to present the contribution to the task 'Safe shutdown system identification and classification'; to report on the task 'Standards, Criteria - Comparative study'; to present some special considerations coherent to these tasks

  8. Assessment of the Metrological Performance of Seismic Tables for a QMS Recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A Silva; Costa, A Campos; Candeias, P; Martins, L Lages; Martins, A C Freitas; Ferreira, A C; Sousa, J Alves e

    2016-01-01

    Seismic testing and analysis using large infrastructures, such as shaking tables and reaction walls, is performed worldwide requiring the use of complex instrumentation systems. To assure the accuracy of these systems, conformity assessment is needed to verify the compliance with standards and applications, and the Quality Management Systems (QMS) is being increasingly applied to domains where risk analysis is critical as a way to provide a formal recognition. This paper describes an approach to the assessment of the metrological performance of seismic shake tables as part of a QMS recognition, with the analysis of a case study of LNEC Seismic shake table. (paper)

  9. Assessment of the Metrological Performance of Seismic Tables for a QMS Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Ribeiro, A.; Campos Costa, A.; Candeias, P.; Sousa, J. Alves e.; Lages Martins, L.; Freitas Martins, A. C.; Ferreira, A. C.

    2016-11-01

    Seismic testing and analysis using large infrastructures, such as shaking tables and reaction walls, is performed worldwide requiring the use of complex instrumentation systems. To assure the accuracy of these systems, conformity assessment is needed to verify the compliance with standards and applications, and the Quality Management Systems (QMS) is being increasingly applied to domains where risk analysis is critical as a way to provide a formal recognition. This paper describes an approach to the assessment of the metrological performance of seismic shake tables as part of a QMS recognition, with the analysis of a case study of LNEC Seismic shake table.

  10. Seismic design of equipment and piping systems for nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minematsu, Akiyoshi

    1997-01-01

    The philosophy of seismic design for nuclear power plant facilities in Japan is based on 'Examination Guide for Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities: Nuclear Power Safety Committee, July 20, 1981' (referred to as 'Examination Guide' hereinafter) and the present design criteria have been established based on the survey of governmental improvement and standardization program. The detailed design implementation procedure is further described in 'Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants, JEAG4601-1987: Japan Electric Association'. This report describes the principles and design procedure of the seismic design of equipment/piping systems for nuclear power plant in Japan. (J.P.N.)

  11. Seismic design of equipment and piping systems for nuclear power plants in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minematsu, Akiyoshi [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The philosophy of seismic design for nuclear power plant facilities in Japan is based on `Examination Guide for Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities: Nuclear Power Safety Committee, July 20, 1981` (referred to as `Examination Guide` hereinafter) and the present design criteria have been established based on the survey of governmental improvement and standardization program. The detailed design implementation procedure is further described in `Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants, JEAG4601-1987: Japan Electric Association`. This report describes the principles and design procedure of the seismic design of equipment/piping systems for nuclear power plant in Japan. (J.P.N.)

  12. Cosmology and convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, David

    2017-02-01

    I argue that some important elements of the current cosmological model are 'conventionalist' in the sense defined by Karl Popper. These elements include dark matter and dark energy; both are auxiliary hypotheses that were invoked in response to observations that falsified the standard model as it existed at the time. The use of conventionalist stratagems in response to unexpected observations implies that the field of cosmology is in a state of 'degenerating problemshift' in the language of Imre Lakatos. I show that the 'concordance' argument, often put forward by cosmologists in support of the current paradigm, is weaker than the convergence arguments that were made in the past in support of the atomic theory of matter or the quantization of energy.

  13. Application of Seismic Array Processing to Tsunami Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, C.; Meng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami wave predictions of the current tsunami warning systems rely on accurate earthquake source inversions of wave height data. They are of limited effectiveness for the near-field areas since the tsunami waves arrive before data are collected. Recent seismic and tsunami disasters have revealed the need for early warning to protect near-source coastal populations. In this work we developed the basis for a tsunami warning system based on rapid earthquake source characterisation through regional seismic array back-projections. We explored rapid earthquake source imaging using onshore dense seismic arrays located at regional distances on the order of 1000 km, which provides faster source images than conventional teleseismic back-projections. We implement this method in a simulated real-time environment, and analysed the 2011 Tohoku earthquake rupture with two clusters of Hi-net stations in Kyushu and Northern Hokkaido, and the 2014 Iquique event with the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array. The results yield reasonable estimates of rupture area, which is approximated by an ellipse and leads to the construction of simple slip models based on empirical scaling of the rupture area, seismic moment and average slip. The slip model is then used as the input of the tsunami simulation package COMCOT to predict the tsunami waves. In the example of the Tohoku event, the earthquake source model can be acquired within 6 minutes from the start of rupture and the simulation of tsunami waves takes less than 2 min, which could facilitate a timely tsunami warning. The predicted arrival time and wave amplitude reasonably fit observations. Based on this method, we propose to develop an automatic warning mechanism that provides rapid near-field warning for areas of high tsunami risk. The initial focus will be Japan, Pacific Northwest and Alaska, where dense seismic networks with the capability of real-time data telemetry and open data accessibility, such as the Japanese HiNet (>800

  14. Geotechnical Site Assessment by Seismic Piezocone Test in North of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firouzianbandpey, Sarah; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2013-01-01

    These days cone penetration tests (CPT) have gained more popularity as an alternative to the conventional laboratory tests for subsurface investigation and estimation of soil parameters. Due to increasing interest in soil dynamics in the last decades, there is a development of CPT as a seismic pi...

  15. Performance-based seismic design of steel frames utilizing colliding bodies algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veladi, H

    2014-01-01

    A pushover analysis method based on semirigid connection concept is developed and the colliding bodies optimization algorithm is employed to find optimum seismic design of frame structures. Two numerical examples from the literature are studied. The results of the new algorithm are compared to the conventional design methods to show the power or weakness of the algorithm.

  16. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Wayne D.

    2002-05-29

    This project is intended to enhance the ability to use seismic data for the determination of rock and fluid properties through an improved understanding of the physics underlying the relationships between seismic attributes and formation.

  17. SEG Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Robert; Laughlin, Darren; Brune, Bob

    2016-10-17

    Significant advancements in the development of sensors to enable rotational seismic measurements have been achieved. Prototypes are available now to support experiments that help validate the utility of rotational seismic measurements.

  18. Seismic risks posed by mine flooding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goldbach, OD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available are allowed to flood. Such flooding-induced seismicity can have significant environmental, social and economic consequences, and may endanger neighbouring mines and surface communities. While fluid-induced seismicity has been observed in other settings (e...

  19. Annual Hanford seismic report - fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.

    1996-12-01

    Seismic monitoring (SM) at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with the US Atomic Energy Commission. Since 1980, the program has been managed by several contractors under the US Department of Energy (USDOE). Effective October 1, 1996, the Seismic Monitoring workscope, personnel, and associated contracts were transferred to the USDOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). SM is tasked to provide an uninterrupted collection and archives of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) located on and encircling the Hanford Site. SM is also tasked to locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitor changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data compiled are used by SM, Waste Management, and engineering activities at the Hanford Site to evaluate seismic hazards and seismic design for the Site

  20. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, R. A.

    1963-10-15

    The nature of nuclear power reactors demands an exceptionally high degree of seismic integrity. Considerations involved in defining earthquake resistance requirements are discussed. Examples of seismic design criteria and applications of the spectrum technique are described. (auth)

  1. Knowing linguistic conventions | Robinson | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are three standard accounts of the epistemic status of linguistic conventions, which all play into the first camp: (1) knowledge by intuition, (2) inferential a priori knowledge and (3) a posteriori knowledge. I give reasons why these accounts should be rejected. I then argue that linguistic conventions, if conceived of as ...

  2. Seismic analysis and testing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed in this guide: General Recommendations for seismic classification, loading combinations and allowable limits; seismic analysis methods; implications for seismic design; seismic testing and qualification; seismic instrumentation; modelling techniques; material property characterization; seismic response of soil deposits and earth structures; liquefaction and ground failure; slope stability; sloshing effects in water pools; qualification testing by means of the transport vehicle

  3. The Apollo passive seismic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The completed data set obtained from the 4-station Apollo seismic network includes signals from approximately 11,800 events of various types. Four data sets for use by other investigators, through the NSSDC, are in preparation. Some refinement of the lunar model based on seismic data can be expected, but its gross features remain as presented two years ago. The existence of a small, molten core remains dependent upon the analysis of signals from a single, far-side impact. Analysis of secondary arrivals from other sources may eventually resolve this issue, as well as continued refinement of the magnetic field measurements. Evidence of considerable lateral heterogeneity within the moon continues to build. The mystery of the much meteoroid flux estimate derived from lunar seismic measurements, as compared with earth-based estimates, remains; although, significant correlations between terrestrial and lunar observations are beginning to emerge.

  4. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  5. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Huang, Yunsong

    2012-01-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  6. Advancing New 3D Seismic Interpretation Methods for Exploration and Development of Fractured Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Reeves

    2005-01-31

    In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and GeoSpectrum, Inc., new P-wave 3D seismic interpretation methods to characterize fractured gas reservoirs are developed. A data driven exploratory approach is used to determine empirical relationships for reservoir properties. Fractures are predicted using seismic lineament mapping through a series of horizon and time slices in the reservoir zone. A seismic lineament is a linear feature seen in a slice through the seismic volume that has negligible vertical offset. We interpret that in regions of high seismic lineament density there is a greater likelihood of fractured reservoir. Seismic AVO attributes are developed to map brittle reservoir rock (low clay) and gas content. Brittle rocks are interpreted to be more fractured when seismic lineaments are present. The most important attribute developed in this study is the gas sensitive phase gradient (a new AVO attribute), as reservoir fractures may provide a plumbing system for both water and gas. Success is obtained when economic gas and oil discoveries are found. In a gas field previously plagued with poor drilling results, four new wells were spotted using the new methodology and recently drilled. The wells have estimated best of 12-months production indicators of 2106, 1652, 941, and 227 MCFGPD. The latter well was drilled in a region of swarming seismic lineaments but has poor gas sensitive phase gradient (AVO) and clay volume attributes. GeoSpectrum advised the unit operators that this location did not appear to have significant Lower Dakota gas before the well was drilled. The other three wells are considered good wells in this part of the basin and among the best wells in the area. These new drilling results have nearly doubled the gas production and the value of the field. The interpretation method is ready for commercialization and gas exploration and development. The new technology is adaptable to conventional lower cost 3D seismic surveys.

  7. Towards Improved Considerations of Risk in Seismic Design (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    The aftermath of recent earthquakes is a reminder that seismic risk is a very relevant issue for our communities. Implicit within the seismic design standards currently in place around the world is that minimum acceptable levels of seismic risk will be ensured through design in accordance with the codes. All the same, none of the design standards specify what the minimum acceptable level of seismic risk actually is. Instead, a series of deterministic limit states are set which engineers then demonstrate are satisfied for their structure, typically through the use of elastic dynamic analyses adjusted to account for non-linear response using a set of empirical correction factors. From the early nineties the seismic engineering community has begun to recognise numerous fundamental shortcomings with such seismic design procedures in modern codes. Deficiencies include the use of elastic dynamic analysis for the prediction of inelastic force distributions, the assignment of uniform behaviour factors for structural typologies irrespective of the structural proportions and expected deformation demands, and the assumption that hysteretic properties of a structure do not affect the seismic displacement demands, amongst other things. In light of this a number of possibilities have emerged for improved control of risk through seismic design, with several innovative displacement-based seismic design methods now well developed. For a specific seismic design intensity, such methods provide a more rational means of controlling the response of a structure to satisfy performance limit states. While the development of such methodologies does mark a significant step forward for the control of seismic risk, they do not, on their own, identify the seismic risk of a newly designed structure. In the U.S. a rather elaborate performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) framework is under development, with the aim of providing seismic loss estimates for new buildings. The PBEE framework

  8. The application of NISA II FEM package in seismic qualification of small class IE electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancev, T.; Saban, I.; Grgic, D.

    1995-01-01

    According to the IEEE standards 323/1974 and 344/1975, seismic qualification of class IE equipment is appropriate combination of test and analysis methods. Complex equipment and assemblies are usually tested through seismic testing. The analysis is recommended for simple equipment that can be easily modeled to correctly predict its response. This article deals with the application of NISA II FEM package in 3D FE modeling and mode shape calculations of small power low voltage electric motors. (author)

  9. Seismic evaluation of the Mors Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitz, E.

    1982-01-01

    The ''Seismic Case History'' of the Mors saltdome was already published in detail by ELSAM/ELKRAFT so only a few important points need to be mentioned here: (a) Processing and interpretation of the seismic material. (b) Stratigraphic classification of the most important seismic reflection horizons. (c) Construction of the depth sections and description of the saltdome model. (d) Investigations of the problematic salt overhang using interactive seismic modelling. (EG)

  10. Seismic re-evaluation of Mochovce nuclear power plant. Seismic reevaluation of civil structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podrouzek, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this contribution, an overview of seismic design procedures used for reassessment of seismic safety of civil structures at the Mochovce NPP in Slovak Republic presented. As an introduction, the objectives, history, and current status of seismic design of the NPP have been explained. General philosophy of design methods, seismic classification of buildings, seismic data, calculation methods, assumptions on structural behavior under seismic loading and reliability assessment were described in detail in the subsequent section. Examples of calculation models used for dynamic calculations of seismic response are given in the last section. (author)

  11. Core seismic methods verification report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, B.E.; Shatoff, H.D.; Rakowski, J.E.; Rickard, N.D.; Thompson, R.W.; Tow, D.; Lee, T.H.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents the description and validation of the analytical methods for calculation of the seismic loads on an HTGR core and the core support structures. Analytical modeling, integration schemes, parameter assignment, parameter sensitivity, and correlation with test data are key topics which have been covered in detail. Much of the text concerns the description and the results of a series of scale model tests performed to obtain data for code correlation. A discussion of scaling laws, model properties, seismic excitation, instrumentation, and data reduction methods is also presented, including a section on the identification and calculation of statistical errors in the test data

  12. Seismic design of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglaret, G.; Beguin, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with the method used in France for the PWR nuclear plants to derive locations and types of supports of auxiliary and secondary piping systems taking earthquake in account. The successive steps of design are described, then the seismic computation method and its particular conditions of applications for piping are presented. The different types of support (and especially seismic ones) are described and also their conditions of installation. The method used to compare functional tests results and computation results in order to control models is mentioned. Some experiments realised on site or in laboratory, in order to validate models and methods, are presented [fr

  13. Seismic characterization of fracture properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myer, L.R.; Hopkins, D.; Cook, N.G.W.; Pyrak-Nolte, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that there is a relationship, both empirical and theoretical, between the measured seismic response, the mechanical stiffness (also referred to as specific stiffness) of fractures and their hydraulic conductivity. Laboratory measurements of the mechanical stiffness, hydraulic conductivity and seismic properties of natural fractures are summarized. A theoretical model for the amplitude and group time delay for compressional and shear waves transmitted across a single fracture is presented. Predictions based on this model are compared with laboratory measurements. Finally, the results for a single fracture are extended to multiple parallel fractures. 13 refs., 6 figs

  14. The seismic reassessment Mochovce NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumeister, P.

    2004-01-01

    The design of Mochovce NPP was based on the Novo-Voronez type WWER-440/213 reactor - twin units. Seismic characteristic of this region is characterized by very low activity. Mochovce NPP site is located on the rock soil with volcanic layer (andesit). Seismic reassessment of Mochovce NPP was done in two steps: deterministic approach up to commissioning confirmed value Horizontal Peak Ground Acceleration HPGA=0.1 g and activities after commissioning as a consequence of the IAEA mission indicate higher hazard values. (author)

  15. Seismic Holography of Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The basic goal of the project was to extend holographic seismic imaging techniques developed under a previous NASA contract, and to incorporate phase diagnostics. Phase-sensitive imaging gives us a powerful probe of local thermal and Doppler perturbations in active region subphotospheres, allowing us to map thermal structure and flows associated with "acoustic moats" and "acoustic glories". These remarkable features were discovered during our work, by applying simple acoustic power holography to active regions. Included in the original project statement was an effort to obtain the first seismic images of active regions on the Sun's far surface.

  16. SUPPRESSING DIFFRACTION EFFECT USING KIRCHHOFF PRE-STACK TIME MIGRATION ON 2D SEISMIC MULTICHANNEL DATA AT FLORES SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpal Benhard Nainggolan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available 2D seismic multichannel survey has been carried out by Marine Geological Institute of Indonesia to interpret imaging and sub-surface geological information in the Flores Sea. Seismic data processing starts from pre-processing until migration stage. Migration is an important stage in the seismic processing, because at this stage the effects of diffraction and oblique reflectors caused by fault, salt domes, wedging, etc. will be repositioned to the actual points. One example of diffraction effects can be seen on the seismic section of a conventional stacking that have not migrated, i.e. resulting in an apparent bowtie reflector. Geologists find difficulties in interpreting geological information from diffracted seismic section, so it needs further processing to overcome the effects. By using Kirchhoff method and carried out during the Pre-Stack Time Migration (PSTM, this method turns out to produce migrated seismic section which is much better than conventional stacked one. This is due to the Kirchhoff method suppressed the identified diffraction effects, so that the geologist can interpret geological structure of the resulting migrated seismic section of the Flores Sea.

  17. Green's function representations for seismic interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Fokkema, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    The term seismic interferometry refers to the principle of generating new seismic responses by crosscorrelating seismic observations at different receiver locations. The first version of this principle was derived by Claerbout (1968), who showed that the reflection response of a horizontally layered

  18. Redatuming of sparse 3D seismic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tegtmeier, S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of a seismic survey is to produce an image of the subsurface providing an overview of the earth's discontinuities. The aim of seismic processing is to recreate this image. The seismic method is especially well suited for the exploration and the monitoring of hydrocarbon reservoirs. A

  19. Seismic risk map for Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    During the last few years, some studies regarding seismic risk were prepared for three regions of Brazil. They were carried on account of two basic interests: first, toward the seismic history and recurrence of Brazilian seismic events; second, in a way as to provide seismic parameters for the design and construction of hydro and nuclear power plants. The first seismic risk map prepared for the southeastern region was elaborated in 1979 by 6he Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Brasilia Seismological Station). In 1981 another seismic risk map was completed on the basis of seismotectonic studies carried out for the design and construction of the Nuclear power plants of Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro) by IPT (Mining and Applied Geology Division). In Brazil, until 1984, seismic studies concerning hydro and nuclear power plants and other civil construction of larger size did not take into account the seismic events from the point of view of probabilities of seismic recurrences. Such analysis in design is more important than the choice of a level of intensity or magnitude, or adoption of a seismicity level ased on deterministic methods. In this way, some considerations were made, concerning the use of seisms in Brazilian designs of hydro and nuclear power plants, as far as seismic analysis is concerned, recently altered over the current seismic risk panorama. (D.J.M.) [pt

  20. A linear motor as seismic horizontal vibrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijkoningen, G.; Veltman, A.; Hendrix, W.H.A.; Brouwer, J.; Hemstede, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use the concept of linear synchronous motors to act as a seismic shear-wave vibratory source. We show that a linear motor, even with a design that is not focussed on application of seismic surveying, gives seismic records that are convincing and comparable with an

  1. seismic refraction investigation of the subsurface structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    employed for exploration include magnetic, electrical and gravitational methods, which depends on the earth's natural fields. Others are seismic and electromagnetic methods, which depends on the introduction of artificial energy in thereof. The seismic refraction method uses the seismic energy that returns to the surface of ...

  2. Seismic activity maps for the Armenian Highlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, N.K.; Manukyan, Zh.O.

    1976-01-01

    Seismic activity maps for the periods 1952 to 1967 and 1952 to 1968 were compiled for the Armenian Highlands in order to study the spatial distribution of earthquake recurrence and to construct maps in isolines of seismic activity. Diagrams are presented illustrating such seismic activity maps for the indicated periods. 4 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  3. Constraints on mantle convection from seismic tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kárason, H.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2000-01-01

    Since the advent of global seismic tomography some 25 years ago, advances in technology, seismological theory, and data acquisition have allowed spectacular progress in our ability to image seismic heterogeneity in Earth's mantle. We briefly review some concepts of seismic tomography, such as

  4. Seismic evaluation of nuclear installations; Avaliacao sismica de instalacoes nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    Some considerations regarding extreme external events, natural or man-induce, such as earthquakes, floods, air crashes, etc, shall be done for nuclear facilities to minimizing the potential impact of the installation on the public and the environment. In this paper the main aspects of the seismic evaluation of nuclear facilities (except the nuclear power reactors) will be presented based on different codes and standards. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Application of the Aarhus Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters (Aarhus Convention has been adopted in 1998 and entered into force three years later. It envisages three elements for strengthening democratic procedures in decision-making: access to information, public participation and access to justice. At the first meeting of the Member States the Aarhus Convention Compliance Committee was founded. The European Union is a party of the Convention and it has implemented the provisions in its legal order. After entering into force of the Convention, several Directives that regulate these issues in the EU have been enacted. Republic of Serbia has ratified the Convention in 2009 and it is currently in the process of its implementation by involving private subjects in decision-making on environmental issues.

  6. Definition of Exclusion Zones Using Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartal, Y.; Villagran, M.; Ben Horin, Y.; Leonard, G.; Joswig, M.

    - In verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), there is a motivation to be effective, efficient and economical and to prevent abuse of the right to conduct an On-site Inspection (OSI) in the territory of a challenged State Party. In particular, it is in the interest of a State Party to avoid irrelevant search in specific areas. In this study we propose several techniques to determine `exclusion zones', which are defined as areas where an event could not have possibly occurred. All techniques are based on simple ideas of arrival time differences between seismic stations and thus are less prone to modeling errors compared to standard event location methods. The techniques proposed are: angular sector exclusion based on a tripartite micro array, half-space exclusion based on a station pair, and closed area exclusion based on circumferential networks.

  7. Application of the SASSI soil structure interaction method to CANDU 6 NPP seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciuti, R.A.; Elgohary, M.; Usmani, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    The standard CANDU 6 NPP has been conservatively qualified for a Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.2 g. Currently there are potential opportunities for siting the CANDU 6 at higher seismicity sites. In order to be able to extend the use of a standardized design for sites with higher seismicity than the standard plant, various design options, including the use of the SASSI Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analysis method, are being evaluated. This paper presents the results of a study to assess the potential benefits from utilization of the SASSI computer program and the use of more realistic damping ratios for the structures

  8. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  9. Comparison of Conventional and Semi-Conventional Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of Conventional and Semi-Conventional Management Systems on the Performance and Carcass Yield of Broiler Chickens. ... TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2018) >. Log in or ...

  10. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Brady, B.H.G. [ITASCA Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (USA)

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K.

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs

  12. Seismic Risk Assessment of Italian Seaports Using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolomei, Anna; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.

    2008-01-01

    Seaports are crucial elements in the export and import of goods and/or on the flow of travellers in the tourism industry of many industrialised nations included Italy. Experience gained from recent earthquakes (e.g. 1989 Loma Prieta in USA, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu and 2003 Tokachi-Oki in Japan) have dramatically demonstrated the seismic vulnerability of seaport structures and the severe damage that can be caused by ground shaking. In Italy, the Department of Civil Protection has funded a research project to develop a methodology for the seismic design of new marginal wharves and assessment of existing structures at seaports located in areas of medium or high seismicity. This paper shows part of the results of this research project, currently underway, with particular reference to the seismic risk assessment through an interactive, geographically referenced database (GIS). Standard risk assessment have been carried out for the Gioia Tauro port in Calabria (Italy) using the empirical curves implemented by the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS, 2004)

  13. The underground seismic array of Gran Sasso (UNDERSEIS), central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, R.; Muscente, R.; Tronca, F.; Fischione, C.; Rotella, P.; Abril, M.; Alguacil, G.; Martini, M.; de Cesare, W.

    2003-04-01

    Since early May, 2002, a small aperture seismic array has been installed in the underground Physics Laboratories of Gran Sasso, located near seismic active faults of central Apennines, Italy. This array is presently composed by 21 three-component short period seismic stations (Mark L4C-3D), with average distance 90 m and semi-circular aperture of 400 m x 600 m. It is intersecting a main seismogenic fault where the presence of slow earthquakes has been recently detected through two wide band geodetic laser interferometers. The underground Laboratories are shielded by a limestone rock layer having 1400 m thickness. Each seismometer is linked, through a 24 bits A/D board, to a set of 6 industrial PC via a serial RS-485 standard. The six PC transmit data to a server through an ethernet network. Time syncronization is provided by a Master Oscillator controlled by an atomic clock. Earthworm package is used for data selection and transmission. High quality data have been recorded since May 2002, including local and regional earthquakes. In particular the 31 October, 2002, Molise (Mw=5.8 earthquake) and its aftershocks have been recorded at this array. Array techniques such as polarisation and frequency-slowness analyses with the MUSIC noise algorithm indicate the high performance of this array, as compared to the national seismic network, for identifying the basic source parameters for earthquakes located at distance of few hundreds of km.

  14. Seismic safety margin research program. Program plan, Revision I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.D.; Tokarz, F.J.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Cummings, G.E.; Chou, C.K.; Vagliente, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    The overall objective of the SSMRP is to develop mathematical models that realistically predict the probability of radioactive releases from seismically induced events in nuclear power plants. These models will be used for four purposes: (1) To perform sensitivity studies to determine the weak links in seismic methodology. The weak links will then be improved by research and development. (2) To estimate the probability of release for a plant. It is believed that the major difficulty in the program will be to obtain acceptably small confidence limits on the probability of release. (3) To estimate the conservatisms in the Standard Review Plan (SRP) seismic design methodology. This will be done by comparing the results of the SRP methodology and the methodology resulting from the research and development in (1). (4) To develop an improved seismic design methodology based on probability. The Phase I objective proposed in this report is to develop mathematical models which will accomplish the purposes No. 1 and No. 2 with simplified assumptions such as linear elastic analysis, limited assessment on component fragility (considering only accident sequences leading to core melt), and simplified safety system

  15. Seismic Risk Assessment of Italian Seaports Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Anna; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.

    2008-07-01

    Seaports are crucial elements in the export and import of goods and/or on the flow of travellers in the tourism industry of many industrialised nations included Italy. Experience gained from recent earthquakes (e.g. 1989 Loma Prieta in USA, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu and 2003 Tokachi-Oki in Japan) have dramatically demonstrated the seismic vulnerability of seaport structures and the severe damage that can be caused by ground shaking. In Italy, the Department of Civil Protection has funded a research project to develop a methodology for the seismic design of new marginal wharves and assessment of existing structures at seaports located in areas of medium or high seismicity. This paper shows part of the results of this research project, currently underway, with particular reference to the seismic risk assessment through an interactive, geographically referenced database (GIS). Standard risk assessment have been carried out for the Gioia Tauro port in Calabria (Italy) using the empirical curves implemented by the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS, 2004).

  16. Seismic maps foster landmark legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Brown, Robert B.; Page, Robert A.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hendley, James W.

    1995-01-01

    When a powerful earthquake strikes an urban region, damage concentrates not only near the quake's source. Damage can also occur many miles from the source in areas of soft ground. In recent years, scientists have developed ways to identify and map these areas of high seismic hazard. This advance has spurred pioneering legislation to reduce earthquake losses in areas of greatest hazard.

  17. Micromachined silicon seismic accelerometer development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Montague, S. [and others

    1996-08-01

    Batch-fabricated silicon seismic transducers could revolutionize the discipline of seismic monitoring by providing inexpensive, easily deployable sensor arrays. Our ultimate goal is to fabricate seismic sensors with sensitivity and noise performance comparable to short-period seismometers in common use. We expect several phases of development will be required to accomplish that level of performance. Traditional silicon micromachining techniques are not ideally suited to the simultaneous fabrication of a large proof mass and soft suspension, such as one needs to achieve the extreme sensitivities required for seismic measurements. We have therefore developed a novel {open_quotes}mold{close_quotes} micromachining technology that promises to make larger proof masses (in the 1-10 mg range) possible. We have successfully integrated this micromolding capability with our surface-micromachining process, which enables the formation of soft suspension springs. Our calculations indicate that devices made in this new integrated technology will resolve down to at least sub-{mu}G signals, and may even approach the 10{sup -10} G/{radical}Hz acceleration levels found in the low-earth-noise model.

  18. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  19. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  20. Evaluating Seismic Activity in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    map is constructed from which seismic risks in a given sector ... troyed (10, 11) and the people of Eritrea remember these years ... terms of damage caused to man-made structures; they refer to .... walls of a well designed modern building were deta- ched from ... Although, at present, no theory is satisfactory, the fact remains.

  1. Seismic motions from project Rulison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corp., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    In the range from a few to a few hundred km, seismic measurements from the Rulison event are shown and compared with experimentally and analytically derived pre-event estimates. Seismograms, peak accelerations, and response spectra are given along with a description of the associated geologic environment. Techniques used for the pre-event estimates are identified with emphasis on supportive data and on Rulison results. Of particular interest is the close-in seismic frequency content which is expected to contain stronger high frequency components. This higher frequency content translates into stronger accelerations within the first tens of km, which in turn affect safety preparations. Additionally, the local geologic structure at nearby population centers must be considered. Pre-event reverse profile refraction surveys are used to delineate the geology at Rifle, Rulison, Grand Valley, and other sites. The geologic parameters are then used as input to seismic amplification models which deliver estimates of local resonant frequencies. Prediction of such resonances allows improved safety assurance against seismic effects hazards. (author)

  2. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  3. Seismic component fragility data base for IPEEE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.

    1990-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic risk assessment or a seismic margin study will require a reliable data base of seismic fragility of various equipment classes. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has selected a group of equipment and generically evaluated the seismic fragility of each equipment class by use of existing test data. This paper briefly discusses the evaluation methodology and the fragility results. The fragility analysis results when used in the Individual Plant Examination for External Events (IPEEE) Program for nuclear power plants are expected to provide insights into seismic vulnerabilities of equipment for earthquakes beyond the design basis. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Seismic excitation by space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Sturtevant, B.; Anderson, D.L.; Heaton, T.

    1992-01-01

    Shock waves generated by the space shuttles Columbia (August 13, 1989), Atlantis (April 11, 1991) and Discovery (September 18, 1991) on their return to Edwards Air Force Base, California, were recorded by TERRAscope (Caltech's broadband seismic network), the Caltech-U.S.G.S Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), and the University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles Basin Seismic Network. The spatial pattern of the arrival times exhibits hyperbolic shock fronts from which the path, velocity and altitude of the space shuttle could be determined. The shock wave was acoustically coupled to the ground, converted to a seismic wave, and recorded clearly at the broadband TERRAscope stations. The acoustic coupling occurred very differently depending on the conditions of the Earth's surface surrounding the station. For a seismic station located on hard bedrock, the shock wave (N wave) was clearly recorded with little distortion. Aside from the N wave, very little acoustic coupling of the shock wave energy to the ground occurred at these sites. The observed N wave record was used to estimate the overpressure of the shock wave accurately; a pressure change of 0.5 to 2.2 mbars was obtained. For a seismic station located close to the ocean or soft sedimentary basins, a significant amount of shock wave energy was transferred to the ground through acoustic coupling of the shock wave and the oceanic Rayleigh wave. A distinct topography such as a mountain range was found effective to couple the shock wave energy to the ground. Shock wave energy was also coupled to the ground very effectively through large man made structures such as high rise buildings and offshore oil drilling platforms. For the space shuttle Columbia, in particular, a distinct pulse having a period of about 2 to 3 seconds was observed, 12.5 s before the shock wave, with a broadband seismograph in Pasadena. This pulse was probably excited by the high rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles which were

  5. Statistical Seismology and Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiampo, K. F.; González, P. J.; Kazemian, J.

    2014-12-01

    While seismicity triggered or induced by natural resources production such as mining or water impoundment in large dams has long been recognized, the recent increase in the unconventional production of oil and gas has been linked to rapid rise in seismicity in many places, including central North America (Ellsworth et al., 2012; Ellsworth, 2013). Worldwide, induced events of M~5 have occurred and, although rare, have resulted in both damage and public concern (Horton, 2012; Keranen et al., 2013). In addition, over the past twenty years, the increase in both number and coverage of seismic stations has resulted in an unprecedented ability to precisely record the magnitude and location of large numbers of small magnitude events. The increase in the number and type of seismic sequences available for detailed study has revealed differences in their statistics that previously difficult to quantify. For example, seismic swarms that produce significant numbers of foreshocks as well as aftershocks have been observed in different tectonic settings, including California, Iceland, and the East Pacific Rise (McGuire et al., 2005; Shearer, 2012; Kazemian et al., 2014). Similarly, smaller events have been observed prior to larger induced events in several occurrences from energy production. The field of statistical seismology has long focused on the question of triggering and the mechanisms responsible (Stein et al., 1992; Hill et al., 1993; Steacy et al., 2005; Parsons, 2005; Main et al., 2006). For example, in most cases the associated stress perturbations are much smaller than the earthquake stress drop, suggesting an inherent sensitivity to relatively small stress changes (Nalbant et al., 2005). Induced seismicity provides the opportunity to investigate triggering and, in particular, the differences between long- and short-range triggering. Here we investigate the statistics of induced seismicity sequences from around the world, including central North America and Spain, and

  6. Seismic isolation systems designed with distinct multiple frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Two systems for seismic base isolation are presented. The main feature of these system is that, instead of only one isolation frequency as in conventional isolation systems, they are designed to have two distinct isolation frequencies. When the responses during an earthquake exceed the design value(s), the system will automatically and passively shift to the secondly isolation frequency. Responses of these two systems to different ground motions including a harmonic motion with frequency same as the primary isolation frequency, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of these new systems certainly will greatly enhance the safety and reliability of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs

  7. Enhanced seismic criteria for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, F. . E-mail francoise.touboul@cea.fr; Blay, N.; Sollogoub, P.; Chapuliot, S.

    2006-01-01

    In situ or laboratory experiments have shown that piping systems exhibit satisfactory seismic behavior. Seismic motion is not severe enough to significantly damage piping systems unless large differential motions of anchorage are imposed. Nevertheless, present design criteria for piping are very severe and require a large number of supports, which creates overly rigid piping systems. CEA, in collaboration with EDF, FRAMATOME and IRSN, has launched a large R and D program on enhanced design methods which will be less severe, but still conservative, and compatible with defect justification during operation. This paper presents the background of the R and D work on this matter, and CEA proposed equations. Our approach is based on the difference between the real behavior (or the best estimated computed one) with the one supposed by codified methods. Codified criteria are applied on an elastically calculated behavior that can be significantly different from the real one: the effect of plasticity may be very meaningful, even with low incursion in the plastic domain. Moreover, and particularly in piping systems, the elastic follow-up effect affects stress distribution for both seismic and thermal loads. For seismic load, we have proposed to modify the elastic moment limitation, based on the interpretation of experimental results on piping systems. The methods have been validated on more industrial cases, and some of the consequences of the changes have been studied: modification of the drawings and of the number of supports, global displacements, forces in the supports, stability of potential defects, etc. The basic aim of the studies undertaken is to make a decision on the stress classification problem, one that is not limited to seismic induced stresses, and to propose simplified methods for its solution

  8. Time-dependent seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Of methods for measuring temporal changes in seismic-wave speeds in the Earth, seismic tomography is among those that offer the highest spatial resolution. 3-D tomographic methods are commonly applied in this context by inverting seismic wave arrival time data sets from different epochs independently and assuming that differences in the derived structures represent real temporal variations. This assumption is dangerous because the results of independent inversions would differ even if the structure in the Earth did not change, due to observational errors and differences in the seismic ray distributions. The latter effect may be especially severe when data sets include earthquake swarms or aftershock sequences, and may produce the appearance of correlation between structural changes and seismicity when the wave speeds are actually temporally invariant. A better approach, which makes it possible to assess what changes are truly required by the data, is to invert multiple data sets simultaneously, minimizing the difference between models for different epochs as well as the rms arrival-time residuals. This problem leads, in the case of two epochs, to a system of normal equations whose order is twice as great as for a single epoch. The direct solution of this system would require twice as much memory and four times as much computational effort as would independent inversions. We present an algorithm, tomo4d, that takes advantage of the structure and sparseness of the system to obtain the solution with essentially no more effort than independent inversions require. No claim to original US government works Journal compilation ?? 2010 RAS.

  9. Development of Deep-tow Autonomous Cable Seismic (ACS) for Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMSs) Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hitoshi; Saito, Shutaro; Lee, Sangkyun; Tara, Kenji; Kato, Masafumi; Jamali Hondori, Ehsan; Sumi, Tomonori; Kadoshima, Kazuyuki; Kose, Masami

    2017-04-01

    Within the EEZ of Japan, numerous surveys exploring ocean floor resources have been conducted. The exploration targets are gas hydrates, mineral resources (manganese, cobalt or rare earth) and especially seafloor massive sulphide (SMS) deposits. These resources exist in shallow subsurface areas in deep waters (>1500m). For seismic explorations very high resolution images are required. These cannot be effectively obtained with conventional marine seismic techniques. Therefore we have been developing autonomous seismic survey systems which record the data close to the seafloor to preserve high frequency seismic energy. Very high sampling rate (10kHz) and high accurate synchronization between recording systems and shot time are necessary. We adopted Cs-base atomic clock considering its power consumption. At first, we developed a Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) system that uses hydrophone arrays moored vertically from the ocean bottom to record close to the target area. This system has been successfully applied to SMS exploration. Specifically it fixed over known sites to assess the amount of reserves with the resultant 3D volume. Based on the success of VCS, we modified the VCS system to use as a more efficient deep-tow seismic survey system. Although there are other examples of deep-tow seismic systems, signal transmission cables present challenges in deep waters. We use our autonomous recording system to avoid these problems. Combining a high frequency piezoelectric source (Sub Bottom Profiler:SBP) that automatically shots with a constant interval, we achieve the high resolution deep-tow seismic without data transmission/power cable to the board. Although the data cannot be monitored in real-time, the towing system becomes very simple. We have carried out survey trial, which showed the systems utility as a high-resolution deep-tow seismic survey system. Furthermore, the frequency ranges of deep-towed source (SBP) and surface towed sparker are 700-2300Hz and 10-200Hz

  10. The utility of petroleum seismic exploration data in delineating structural features within salt anticlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, S.L.; Balch, Alfred H.

    1978-01-01

    The Salt Valley anticline, in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, is under investigation for use as a location for storage of solid nuclear waste. Delineation of thin, nonsalt interbeds within the upper reaches of the salt body is extremely important because the nature and character of any such fluid- or gas-saturated horizons would be critical to the mode of emplacement of wastes into the structure. Analysis of 50 km of conventional seismic-reflection data, in the vicinity of the anticline, indicates that mapping of thin beds at shallow depths may well be possible using a specially designed adaptation of state-of-the-art seismic oil-exploration procedures. Computer ray-trace modeling of thin beds in salt reveals that the frequency and spatial resolution required to map the details of interbeds at shallow depths (less than 750 m) may be on the order of 500 Hz, with surface-spread lengths of less than 350 m. Consideration should be given to the burial of sources and receivers in order to attenuate surface noise and to record the desired high frequencies. Correlation of the seismic-reflection data with available well data and surface geology reveals the complex, structurally initiated diapir, whose upward flow was maintained by rapid contemporaneous deposition of continental clastic sediments on its flanks. Severe collapse faulting near the crests of these structures has distorted the seismic response. Evidence exists, however, that intrasalt thin beds of anhydrite, dolomite, and black shale are mappable on seismic record sections either as short, discontinuous reflected events or as amplitude anomalies that result from focusing of the reflected seismic energy by the thin beds; computer modeling of the folded interbeds confirms both of these as possible causes of seismic response from within the salt diapir. Prediction of the seismic signatures of the interbeds can be made from computer-model studies. Petroleum seismic-reflection data are unsatisfactory for

  11. Seismic risk assessment of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.E.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Chen, J.C.; Lappa, D.A.; Chuang, T.Y.; Murray, R.C.; Johnson, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The simplified seismic risk methodology developed in the USNRC Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) was demonstrated by its application to the Zion nuclear power plant (PWR). The simplified seismic risk methodology was developed to reduce the costs associated with a seismic risk analysis while providing adequate results. A detailed model of Zion, including systems analysis models (initiating events, event trees, and fault trees), SSI and structure models, and piping models, was developed and used in assessing the seismic risk of the Zion nuclear power plant (FSAR). The simplified seismic risk methodology was applied to the LaSalle County Station nuclear power plant, a BWR; to further demonstrate its applicability, and if possible, to provide a basis for comparing the seismic risk from PWRs and BWRs. (orig./HP)

  12. Methodology for seismic PSA of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirsa, P.

    1999-09-01

    A general methodology is outlined for seismic PSA (probabilistic safety assessment). The main objectives of seismic PSA include: description of the course of an event; understanding the most probable failure sequences; gaining insight into the overall probability of reactor core damage; identification of the main seismic risk contributors; identification of the range of peak ground accelerations contributing significantly to the plant risk; and comparison of the seismic risk with risks from other events. The results of seismic PSA are typically compared with those of internal PSA and of PSA of other external events. If the results of internal and external PSA are available, sensitivity studies and cost benefit analyses are performed prior to any decision regarding corrective actions. If the seismic PSA involves analysis of the containment, useful information can be gained regarding potential seismic damage of the containment. (P.A.)

  13. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  14. EMERALD: Coping with the Explosion of Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. D.; Fouch, M. J.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2009-12-01

    The geosciences are currently generating an unparalleled quantity of new public broadband seismic data with the establishment of large-scale seismic arrays such as the EarthScope USArray, which are enabling new and transformative scientific discoveries of the structure and dynamics of the Earth’s interior. Much of this explosion of data is a direct result of the formation of the IRIS consortium, which has enabled an unparalleled level of open exchange of seismic instrumentation, data, and methods. The production of these massive volumes of data has generated new and serious data management challenges for the seismological community. A significant challenge is the maintenance and updating of seismic metadata, which includes information such as station location, sensor orientation, instrument response, and clock timing data. This key information changes at unknown intervals, and the changes are not generally communicated to data users who have already downloaded and processed data. Another basic challenge is the ability to handle massive seismic datasets when waveform file volumes exceed the fundamental limitations of a computer’s operating system. A third, long-standing challenge is the difficulty of exchanging seismic processing codes between researchers; each scientist typically develops his or her own unique directory structure and file naming convention, requiring that codes developed by another researcher be rewritten before they can be used. To address these challenges, we are developing EMERALD (Explore, Manage, Edit, Reduce, & Analyze Large Datasets). The overarching goal of the EMERALD project is to enable more efficient and effective use of seismic datasets ranging from just a few hundred to millions of waveforms with a complete database-driven system, leading to higher quality seismic datasets for scientific analysis and enabling faster, more efficient scientific research. We will present a preliminary (beta) version of EMERALD, an integrated

  15. The development of seismic guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, R.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the development of Seismic Guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Although structures have always been built conservatively, SLAC management decided to review and update their seismic guidelines. SLAC is about mid-way between the epicenters of the 8.3 Richter magnitude 1906 San Francisco and the 7.2 Loma Prieta Earthquakes. The west end of the two mile long electron/positron particle accelerator lies a half mile from the large San Andreas Fault. Suggestions for seismic planning processes were solicited from local computer manufacturing firms, universities, and federal laboratories. A Committee of the various stakeholders in SLAC`s seismic planning retained an internationally known Seismic Planning Consultant and reviewed relevant standards and drafted Guidelines. A panel of seismic experts was convened to help define the hazard, site response spectra, probabilistic analysis of shaking, and near field effects. The Facility`s structures were assigned to seismic classes of importance, and an initial assessment of a sample of a dozen buildings conducted. This assessment resulted in emergency repairs to one structure, and provided a {open_quotes}reality basis{close_quotes} for establishing the final Guidelines and Administrative Procedures, and a program to evaluate remaining buildings, shielding walls, tunnels, and other special structures.

  16. The development of seismic guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, R.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the development of Seismic Guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Although structures have always been built conservatively, SLAC management decided to review and update their seismic guidelines. SLAC is about mid-way between the epicenters of the 8.3 Richter magnitude 1906 San Francisco and the 7.2 Loma Prieta Earthquakes. The west end of the two mile long electron/positron particle accelerator lies a half mile from the large San Andreas Fault. Suggestions for seismic planning processes were solicited from local computer manufacturing firms, universities, and federal laboratories. A Committee of the various stakeholders in SLAC's seismic planning retained an internationally known Seismic Planning Consultant and reviewed relevant standards and drafted Guidelines. A panel of seismic experts was convened to help define the hazard, site response spectra, probabilistic analysis of shaking, and near field effects. The Facility's structures were assigned to seismic classes of importance, and an initial assessment of a sample of a dozen buildings conducted. This assessment resulted in emergency repairs to one structure, and provided a open-quotes reality basisclose quotes for establishing the final Guidelines and Administrative Procedures, and a program to evaluate remaining buildings, shielding walls, tunnels, and other special structures

  17. SHEAT: a computer code for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsumi; Kondo, Masaaki; Abe, Kiyoharu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Takani, Michio.

    1994-08-01

    The SHEAT code developed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis which is one of the tasks needed for seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of a nuclear power plant. Seismic hazard is defined as an annual exceedance frequency of occurrence of earthquake ground motions at various levels of intensity at a given site. With the SHEAT code, seismic hazard is calculated by the following two steps: (1) Modeling of earthquake generation around a site. Future earthquake generation (locations, magnitudes and frequencies of postulated earthquakes) is modelled based on the historical earthquake records, active fault data and expert judgement. (2) Calculation of probabilistic seismic hazard at the site. An earthquake ground motion is calculated for each postulated earthquake using an attenuation model taking into account its standard deviation. Then the seismic hazard at the site is calculated by summing the frequencies of ground motions by all the earthquakes. This document is the user's manual of the SHEAT code. It includes: (1) Outlines of the code, which include overall concept, logical process, code structure, data file used and special characteristics of the code, (2) Functions of subprograms and analytical models in them, (3) Guidance of input and output data, and (4) Sample run results. The code has widely been used at JAERI to analyze seismic hazard at various nuclear power plant sites in japan. (author)

  18. Robust seismicity forecasting based on Bayesian parameter estimation for epidemiological spatio-temporal aftershock clustering models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Hossein; Jalayer, Fatemeh

    2017-08-29

    In the immediate aftermath of a strong earthquake and in the presence of an ongoing aftershock sequence, scientific advisories in terms of seismicity forecasts play quite a crucial role in emergency decision-making and risk mitigation. Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) models are frequently used for forecasting the spatio-temporal evolution of seismicity in the short-term. We propose robust forecasting of seismicity based on ETAS model, by exploiting the link between Bayesian inference and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation. The methodology considers the uncertainty not only in the model parameters, conditioned on the available catalogue of events occurred before the forecasting interval, but also the uncertainty in the sequence of events that are going to happen during the forecasting interval. We demonstrate the methodology by retrospective early forecasting of seismicity associated with the 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence activities in central Italy. We provide robust spatio-temporal short-term seismicity forecasts with various time intervals in the first few days elapsed after each of the three main events within the sequence, which can predict the seismicity within plus/minus two standard deviations from the mean estimate within the few hours elapsed after the main event.

  19. Seismic evaluation of a diesel generator system at the Savannah River Site using earthquake experience data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.J.; Tong, Wen H.; Rawls, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    New equipment and systems have been seismically qualified traditionally by either two methods, testing or analysis. Testing programs are generally expensive and their input loadings are conservative. It is generally recognized that standard seismic analysis techniques produce conservative results. Seismic loads and response levels for equipment that are typically calculated exceed the values actually experienced in earthquakes. An alternate method for demonstrating the seismic adequacy of equipment has been developed which is based on conclusions derived from studying the performance of equipment that has been subjected to actual earthquake excitations. The conclusion reached from earthquake experience data is that damage or malfunction to most types of equipment subjected to earthquakes is less than that predicted by traditional testing and analysis techniques. The use of conclusions derived from experience data provides a realistic approach in assessing the seismic ruggedness of equipment. By recognizing the inherently higher capacity that exists in specific classes of equipment, commercial ''off-the-shelf'' equipment can be procured and qualified without the need to perform expensive modifications to meet requirements imposed by traditional conservative qualification analyses. This paper will present the seismic experience data methodology applied to demonstrate the seismic adequacy of several commercially supplied 800KW diesel powered engine driven generator sets with peripheral support components installed at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

  20. Vertebral Fracture Assessment in Supine Position : Comparison by Using Conventional Semiquantitative Radiography and Visual Radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Ilone C.; van der Laan, Johan G.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Nieboer, Patrick; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Kreeftenberg, Herman G.; Jager, Pieter L.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) performed with the patient in the supine position and conventional semiquantitative radiography of the spine by using conventional visual radiography of the spine as the reference standard. Materials and

  1. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A philosophical Study (Lewis 1969). Besides exciting the logical community by providing the seminal analysis work on common knowledge, it also laid the foundations for the formal approach to the study of social conventions by means of game the...

  2. Improving the Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO{sub 2} Sequestered in Geologic Systems with Multicomponent Seismic Technology and Rock Physics Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Engin; DeAngelo, Michael; Hardage, Bob; Sava, Diana; Sullivan, Charlotte; Wagner, Donald

    2012-12-31

    concept that the same weight must be given to S-wave sequences and facies as is given to P-wave sequences and facies. This philosophy differs from the standard practice of depending on only conventional P-wave seismic stratigraphy to characterize reservoir units. The fundamental physics of elastic wavefield seismic stratigraphy is that S- wave modes sense different sequences and facies across some intervals than does a P-wave mode because S-wave displacement vectors are orthogonal to P- wave displacement vectors and thus react to a different rock fabric than do P waves. Although P and S images are different, both images can still be correct in terms of the rock fabric information they reveal.

  3. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function.

  4. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack

    2014-01-01

    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function

  5. Research on high level radioactive waste repository seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xu

    2012-01-01

    Review seismic hazard analysis principle and method in site suitable assessment process of Yucca Mountain Project, and seismic design criteria and seismic design basis in primary design process. Demonstrated spatial character of seismic hazard by calculated regional seismic hazard map. Contrasted different level seismic design basis to show their differences and relation. Discussed seismic design criteria for preclosure phrase of high level waste repository and preference goal under beyond design basis ground motion. (author)

  6. Integrating population dynamics into mapping human exposure to seismic hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Freire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk is not fully characterized without taking into account vulnerability and population exposure. Assessment of earthquake risk in urban areas would benefit from considering the variation of population distribution at more detailed spatial and temporal scales, and from a more explicit integration of this improved demographic data with existing seismic hazard maps. In the present work, "intelligent" dasymetric mapping is used to model population dynamics at high spatial resolution in order to benefit the analysis of spatio-temporal exposure to earthquake hazard in a metropolitan area. These night- and daytime-specific population densities are then classified and combined with seismic intensity levels to derive new spatially-explicit four-class-composite maps of human exposure. The presented approach enables a more thorough assessment of population exposure to earthquake hazard. Results show that there are significantly more people potentially at risk in the daytime period, demonstrating the shifting nature of population exposure in the daily cycle and the need to move beyond conventional residence-based demographic data sources to improve risk analyses. The proposed fine-scale maps of human exposure to seismic intensity are mainly aimed at benefiting visualization and communication of earthquake risk, but can be valuable in all phases of the disaster management process where knowledge of population densities is relevant for decision-making.

  7. A modified symplectic PRK scheme for seismic wave modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaolin; Yang, Dinghui; Ma, Jian

    2017-02-01

    A new scheme for the temporal discretization of the seismic wave equation is constructed based on symplectic geometric theory and a modified strategy. The ordinary differential equation in terms of time, which is obtained after spatial discretization via the spectral-element method, is transformed into a Hamiltonian system. A symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta (PRK) scheme is used to solve the Hamiltonian system. A term related to the multiplication of the spatial discretization operator with the seismic wave velocity vector is added into the symplectic PRK scheme to create a modified symplectic PRK scheme. The symplectic coefficients of the new scheme are determined via Taylor series expansion. The positive coefficients of the scheme indicate that its long-term computational capability is more powerful than that of conventional symplectic schemes. An exhaustive theoretical analysis reveals that the new scheme is highly stable and has low numerical dispersion. The results of three numerical experiments demonstrate the high efficiency of this method for seismic wave modeling.

  8. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi

    2002-01-01

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines

  9. Cracking pattern and seismic performance assessment of the Orvieto cathedral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Canio, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper are described the in situ cracking pattern measurement and ambient vibration monitoring for the seismic performance evaluation of the Orvieto Cathedral Italy, according the deplacement based safety assessment. This requires, as a first step, the direct measurement of the cracking pattern and dynamic response of the structural macro elements of the cathedral due to weak vibrations induced by traffic and seismic micro tremors. Seismic assessment for this type of structure require also the proper limit states definitions. In fact, in the case historic monuments like churches, due to the presence of specific typology of macro elements: rigid blocks, complex vault systems, slenderness of the walls, presence of wide halls, domes and drums with particular geometry, is necessary to define the proper assessment procedures which are slightly different with respect those required for conventional civil industrial buildings. Regarding the Ambient vibration monitoring, a new approach to estimate the participating masses associated to the macro element kinematics is defined: it is based on the frequency contribution to the Root Main Square Acceleration, obtained by numerical integration of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) function. This information, when associated to the analysis of the Real and Imaginary part of the Cross Spectral Density (CSD) function between the acceleration time histories at different points, allow to identify the principal (at least first and second) mode shapes of the structure.

  10. Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.

    2012-08-01

    As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.

  11. Linearized inversion of two components seismic data; Inversion linearisee de donnees sismiques a deux composantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, D.

    1997-05-22

    The aim of the dissertation is the linearized inversion of multicomponent seismic data for 3D elastic horizontally stratified media, using Born approximation. A Jacobian matrix is constructed; it will be used to model seismic data from elastic parameters. The inversion technique, relying on single value decomposition (SVD) of the Jacobian matrix, is described. Next, the resolution of inverted elastic parameters is quantitatively studies. A first use of the technique is shown in the frame of an evaluation of a sea bottom acquisition (synthetic data). Finally, a real data set acquired with conventional marine technique is inverted. (author) 70 refs.

  12. Seismic-load-induced human errors and countermeasures using computer graphics in plant-operator communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Fumio

    1988-01-01

    This paper remarks the importance of seismic load-induced human errors in plant operation by delineating the characteristics of the task performance of human beings under seismic loads. It focuses on man-machine communication via multidimensional data like that conventionally displayed on large panels in a plant control room. It demonstrates a countermeasure to human errors using a computer graphics technique that conveys the global state of the plant operation to operators through cartoon-like, colored graphs in the form of faces that, with different facial expressions, show the plant safety status. (orig.)

  13. U.S. experience in seismic re-evaluation and verification programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summary of the development of a seismic re-evaluation program for older nuclear power plants in the U.S. The principal focus of this reevaluation is the use of actual strong motion earthquake response data for structures and mechanical and electrical systems and components. These data are supplemented by generic shake table test results. Use of this type of seismic re-evaluation has led to major cost reductions as compared to more conventional analytical and component specific testing procedures. (author)

  14. Shear wave profiles from surface wave inversion: the impact of uncertainty on seismic site response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaga, J; Vignoli, G; Cassiani, G

    2011-01-01

    Inversion is a critical step in all geophysical techniques, and is generally fraught with ill-posedness. In the case of seismic surface wave studies, the inverse problem can lead to different equivalent subsoil models and consequently to different local seismic response analyses. This can have a large impact on an earthquake engineering design. In this paper, we discuss the consequences of non-uniqueness of surface wave inversion on seismic responses, with both numerical and experimental data. Our goal is to evaluate the consequences on common seismic response analysis in the case of different impedance contrast conditions. We verify the implications of inversion uncertainty, and consequently of data information content, on realistic local site responses. A stochastic process is used to generate a set of 1D shear wave velocity profiles from several specific subsurface models. All these profiles are characterized as being equivalent, i.e. their responses, in terms of a dispersion curve, are compatible with the uncertainty in the same surface wave data. The generated 1D shear velocity models are then subjected to a conventional one-dimensional seismic ground response analysis using a realistic input motion. While recent analyses claim that the consequences of surface wave inversion uncertainties are very limited, our test points out that a relationship exists between inversion confidence and seismic responses in different subsoils. In the case of regular and relatively smooth increase of shear wave velocities with depth, as is usual in sedimentary plains, our results show that the choice of a specific model among equivalent solutions strongly influences the seismic response. On the other hand, when the shallow subsoil is characterized by a strong impedance contrast (thus revealing a characteristic soil resonance period), as is common in the presence of a shallow bedrock, equivalent solutions provide practically the same seismic amplification, especially in the

  15. Seismic waves in 3-D: from mantle asymmetries to reliable seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panza, Giuliano F.; Romanelli, Fabio

    2014-10-01

    A global cross-section of the Earth parallel to the tectonic equator (TE) path, the great circle representing the equator of net lithosphere rotation, shows a difference in shear wave velocities between the western and eastern flanks of the three major oceanic rift basins. The low-velocity layer in the upper asthenosphere, at a depth range of 120 to 200 km, is assumed to represent the decoupling between the lithosphere and the underlying mantle. Along the TE-perturbed (TE-pert) path, a ubiquitous LVZ, about 1,000-km-wide and 100-km-thick, occurs in the asthenosphere. The existence of the TE-pert is a necessary prerequisite for the existence of a continuous global flow within the Earth. Ground-shaking scenarios were constructed using a scenario-based method for seismic hazard analysis (NDSHA), using realistic and duly validated synthetic time series, and generating a data bank of several thousands of seismograms that account for source, propagation, and site effects. Accordingly, with basic self-organized criticality concepts, NDSHA permits the integration of available information provided by the most updated seismological, geological, geophysical, and geotechnical databases for the site of interest, as well as advanced physical modeling techniques, to provide a reliable and robust background for the development of a design basis for cultural heritage and civil infrastructures. Estimates of seismic hazard obtained using the NDSHA and standard probabilistic approaches are compared for the Italian territory, and a case-study is discussed. In order to enable a reliable estimation of the ground motion response to an earthquake, three-dimensional velocity models have to be considered, resulting in a new, very efficient, analytical procedure for computing the broadband seismic wave-field in a 3-D anelastic Earth model.

  16. Revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, Otto von.

    1977-01-01

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention have in substance remained unchanged since their adoption in 1960 and 1963, respectively. During that period, nuclear industry and technology have developed considerably while the financial and monetary bases of the Conventions have been shattered. The amounts of liability and compensation have been eroded by inflation, and the gold-based unit of account in which these amounts are expressed has lost its original meaning after the abolition of the official gold price. The question of revising the Conventions, in particular of raising those amounts and of replacing the unit of account, is therefore being studied by the Group of Governmental Experts on Third party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (auth.) [fr

  17. Input for seismic hazard assessment using Vrancea seismic source region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, Iren-Adelina; Enescu, B.D.; Pantea, A.

    1998-01-01

    We use an extended and combined data base including historical and modern, qualitative and quantitative data, i.e., more than 25 events during the period 1790 - 1990 with epicentral/maximum intensities ranging from X to V degree (MSK scale), the variation interval of isoseismal curves ranging from IX th to III rd degree. The data set was analysed using both the sum phasor techniques of Ridelek and Sacks (1984) for different magnitudes and depth intervals and the Stepp's method. For the assessment of seismic hazard we need a pattern of seismic source regions including an estimation for the maximum expected magnitude and the return period for the studied regions. Another necessary step in seismic hazard assessment is to develop attenuation relationships specific to a seismogenic zone, particularly to sub-crustal earthquakes of Vrancea region. The conceptual frame involves the use of appropriate decay models and consideration of the randomness in the attenuation, taking into account the azimuthal variation of the isoseist shapes. (authors)

  18. Psychological Structuring of citizen's willingness for seismic reinforcement of houses *

    OpenAIRE

    Kawarasaki, Yuta; Morita, Eri; Takezaki, Mayu; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Nasu, Seigo

    2008-01-01

    The Japanese Islands are said to have entered at the seismic activity term from the time of the Kobe earthquake (1995). And it is said that the big earthquake from Hokkaido to Kyushu occurs in the probability of 90% within 50 years. When such a big earthquake occurs, collapse of a structure is one of main causes of bringing about serious damage. The Building Standard Law was improved in the past earthquake, and the building structure which is less than a Building Standard Law act has the very...

  19. Impact of magnitude uncertainties on seismic catalogue properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptokaropoulos, K. M.; Adamaki, A. K.; Roberts, R. G.; Gkarlaouni, C. G.; Paradisopoulou, P. M.

    2018-05-01

    Catalogue-based studies are of central importance in seismological research, to investigate the temporal, spatial and size distribution of earthquakes in specified study areas. Methods for estimating the fundamental catalogue parameters like the Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) b-value and the completeness magnitude (Mc) are well established and routinely applied. However, the magnitudes reported in seismicity catalogues contain measurement uncertainties which may significantly distort the estimation of the derived parameters. In this study, we use numerical simulations of synthetic data sets to assess the reliability of different methods for determining b-value and Mc, assuming the G-R law validity. After contaminating the synthetic catalogues with Gaussian noise (with selected standard deviations), the analysis is performed for numerous data sets of different sample size (N). The noise introduced to the data generally leads to a systematic overestimation of magnitudes close to and above Mc. This fact causes an increase of the average number of events above Mc, which in turn leads to an apparent decrease of the b-value. This may result to a significant overestimation of seismicity rate even well above the actual completeness level. The b-value can in general be reliably estimated even for relatively small data sets (N < 1000) when only magnitudes higher than the actual completeness level are used. Nevertheless, a correction of the total number of events belonging in each magnitude class (i.e. 0.1 unit) should be considered, to deal with the magnitude uncertainty effect. Because magnitude uncertainties (here with the form of Gaussian noise) are inevitable in all instrumental catalogues, this finding is fundamental for seismicity rate and seismic hazard assessment analyses. Also important is that for some data analyses significant bias cannot necessarily be avoided by choosing a high Mc value for analysis. In such cases, there may be a risk of severe miscalculation of

  20. Seismic safety margins research program. Project I SONGS 1 AFWS Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, T.Y.; Smith, P.D.; Dong, R.G.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Bohn, M.P.; Cummings, G.E.; Wells, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The seismic qualification requirements of auxiliary feedwater systems (AFWS) of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) were developed over a number of years. These are formalized in the publication General Design Criteria (Appendix A to 10CFR50). The full recognition of the system as an engineered safety feature did not occur until publication of the Standard Review Plan (1975). Efforts to determine how to backfit seismic requirements to earlier plants has been undertaken primarily in the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) for a limited number of operating reactors. Nuclear Reactor Research (RES) and NRR have requested LLNL to perform a probabilistic study on the AFWS of San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Unit 1 utilizing the tools developed by the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The main objectives of this project are to: identify the weak links of AFWS; compare the failure probabilities of SONGS 1 and Zion 1 AFWS: and compare the seismic responses due to different input spectra and design values