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Sample records for conventional papanicolaou smear

  1. A comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional Papanicolaou smears in cervical dysplasia diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Ghanbarzadeh, Nahid; Ataee, Marziee; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza; Mojarrad, Javid Shahbazi; Najafi-Semnani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the high number of women affected by cervical cancer and the importance of an early diagnosis, combined with the frequent incidence of false-negative Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening results for this disease, several studies have been conducted in recent years in order to find better tests. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) tests, including the liquid-based thin layer method, have demonstrated the highest potential for reducing false-negative cases and improved sample quality. This study aimed to compare the strength of the Pap smear test with fluid cytology and conventional tests in detecting cervical dysplasia. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 366 women who attended private laboratories for a Pap smear. The Pap smear sampling was conducted simultaneously using two methods: conventional Pap (CP) smear and LBC), from the cervix. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32 ± 8.8 years. Diagnostic results of endocervical cells, epithelial cells, vaginitis cells, and metaplastia were consistent with both conventional and liquid cytology smears, and the kappa coefficient was determined to be significant (P < 0.001). In total, 40.5% of diagnostic cases indicated bacterial inflammation 80.3% of the diagnoses in both methods were P1 and 3.9% of cases diagnosed were P2, the overall diagnostic consistency was 83.9% between the two sampling methods. The inflammation diagnosis was 40.5% and this was consistent in both methods of LBC and CP. There was one case of a false-negative diagnosis in the LBC method and 14 cases in the CP method. Conclusion: Results showed that the LBC may improve the sample's quality and reduce the number of unsatisfactory cases more than with the CP method. PMID:27995101

  2. A comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional Papanicolaou smears in cervical dysplasia diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Ghanbarzadeh, Nahid; Ataee, Marziee; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza; Mojarrad, Javid Shahbazi; Najafi-Semnani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high number of women affected by cervical cancer and the importance of an early diagnosis, combined with the frequent incidence of false-negative Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening results for this disease, several studies have been conducted in recent years in order to find better tests. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) tests, including the liquid-based thin layer method, have demonstrated the highest potential for reducing false-negative cases and improved sample quality. This study aimed to compare the strength of the Pap smear test with fluid cytology and conventional tests in detecting cervical dysplasia. This descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 366 women who attended private laboratories for a Pap smear. The Pap smear sampling was conducted simultaneously using two methods: conventional Pap (CP) smear and LBC), from the cervix. The mean age of the participants was 32 ± 8.8 years. Diagnostic results of endocervical cells, epithelial cells, vaginitis cells, and metaplastia were consistent with both conventional and liquid cytology smears, and the kappa coefficient was determined to be significant (P < 0.001). In total, 40.5% of diagnostic cases indicated bacterial inflammation 80.3% of the diagnoses in both methods were P1 and 3.9% of cases diagnosed were P2, the overall diagnostic consistency was 83.9% between the two sampling methods. The inflammation diagnosis was 40.5% and this was consistent in both methods of LBC and CP. There was one case of a false-negative diagnosis in the LBC method and 14 cases in the CP method. Results showed that the LBC may improve the sample's quality and reduce the number of unsatisfactory cases more than with the CP method.

  3. Significance of atypia in conventional Papanicolaou smears and liquid-based cytology: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schledermann, D; Ejersbo, D; Hoelund, B

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of atypical squamous epithelial cells, borderline nuclear changes, is associated with some controversy, as it encompasses benign, reactive, as well as possible neoplastic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the follow-up diagnoses of cytological atypia in conventional...... Papanicolaou smears (CP) and liquid-based samples by the ThinPrep Pap Test (TP). A total of 1607 CP smears from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000 and 798 TP samples from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2002 diagnosed as atypia were included. The results show that the detection rate of atypia in cervical...... cytological samples was reduced by 41.3% (P Cytological and histological follow-up data showed the presence of neoplastic lesions in 34.7% of patients screened by TP versus 22.3% of patients screened by CP, corresponding to a 55.6% increase in TP (P

  4. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...

  5. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...... in the municipality of Copenhagen with conventional Papanicolaou technique (n = 82,116) and liquid-based cytology (n = 84,414). RESULTS: After the conversion to liquid-based cytology the percentage of unsatisfactory samples decreased from 2.3% to 0.3% (P ...-based technique. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the number of unsatisfactory samples to be significantly reduced with the liquid-based technique. The data suggest that there is an increased detection rate of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology, but the number of false positive tests is still...

  6. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...... in the municipality of Copenhagen with conventional Papanicolaou technique (n = 82,116) and liquid-based cytology (n = 84,414). RESULTS: After the conversion to liquid-based cytology the percentage of unsatisfactory samples decreased from 2.3% to 0.3% (P ... technique. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the number of unsatisfactory samples to be significantly reduced with the liquid-based technique. The data suggest that there is an increased detection rate of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology, but the number of false positive tests is still...

  7. Women's initial experience of abnormal papanicolaou smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Susan; Hall, Vincent P

    2009-06-01

    To discover the early subjective experience of women affected by abnormal Papanicolaou smear, a qualitative study was undertaken with 8 North Carolina women, 4 to 12 months postnotification of their first abnormal result. Data were analyzed via grounded theory methodology to identify a core theory that could guide interventions to improve follow-up for cancer prevention. This theoretical process is described as a labyrinth journey-an imperative healing process undertaken by all participants, who undertook the following tasks: evaluating peril, seeking refuge, obtaining information, and reframing their self-image. Women who also learned they were infected with the human papillomavirus faced a prolonged sense of threat to their sense of sexual well-being. Their additional tasks related to reevaluating their sexual self-image, and they continued to work on these reframing tasks throughout their 1st year's journey. Progress through the labyrinth depended upon emotional or spiritual support, nonjudgmental acceptance and access to accurate information.

  8. The pathogenic microorganisms in papanicolaou vaginal smears and correlation with inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Barouti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific cervicitis or inflammatory changes in a smear report are common which are usually unclear for clinical approaches. To investigate the frequency of inflammation and pathogenic vaginal microorganisms in cervical smears among an Iranian population sample.This cross-sectional study was carried out on Pap smear samples of women referred to gynecological clinic of Taleghani Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between October 2008 and March 2009. This study was conducted on 528 conventional Papanicolaou cervical smears. The frequency and severity of inflammation and prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV, and vaginal candidiasis (VC was determined in the samples. Also co-infection of the microorganisms in Pap samples was evaluated. percentage, mean±standard deviation of the outcome parameters were calculated. The comparison between data was performed with the Pearson's chi square or Fisher's exact test.The prevalence of BV, VC, and TV in Pap samples was 17%, 11%, and 0.4% respectively. Overall, the prevalence of these microorganisms in women of reproductive age was higher than menopausal women. There was a significant association between VC and the presence of inflammation in our samples.Based on our results, inflammation in the Pap smears can suggest an infection of VC and the patients should be considered for proper VC treatment.

  9. Factors associated with actinomyces-like organisms on Papanicolaou smear in users of intrauterine contraceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitti, D B; Yamamoto, D; Morgenstern, N

    1983-02-01

    To determine the factors associated with the presence of actinomyces-like organisms on cervicovaginal Papanicolaou smears in users of the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD), we carried out a case-control study. Among about 80,000 Papanicolaou smears examined in one year in a large cytology laboratory, actinomyces-like organisms were identified on 107 smears; all but three smears were from IUD users. Compared with IUD users who did not have actinomyces-like organisms on Papanicolaou smears, those with actinomyces-like organisms had used the IUD for more years. An increased risk of actinomyces-like organisms on Papanicolaou smear was not apparent until 7 years of IUD use, however. No significant association of actinomyces-like organisms with the type of IUD was found after controlling for differences in duration of use between users of various IUDs. The percentage of women reporting gynecologic symptoms (vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding) also did not differ significantly between IUD users with and without actinomyces-like organisms on Papanicolaou smear (p = 0.5).

  10. Actinomyces-like organisms in the cervical Papanicolaou-stained smears of intrauterine device (IUD) users

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    p. 159 - 164 The prevalence of Actinomyces-like organisms in cervicovaginal smears of 2,347 Brazilian women, including 151 (6.4%) intrauterine devices (IUD) users for at least six months and as controls 2,196 (93.6%) non-wearers of similar age using hormonal, barrier, or other contraceptive methods or none, living in Salvador, Bahia, has been investigated. Cervical smears were stained by the Papanicolaou method for the microscopic examination of Actinomyces-like organisms. The ...

  11. Papanicolaou smears induce partial immunity against sexually transmitted viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Samuel; Hoffman, Margaret; Constant, Deborah; Rosenberg, Lynn; Carrara, Henri; Allan, Bruce Rider; Marais, Dianne Jean; Passmore, Jo-Ann Shelley; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2007-11-01

    In a case-control study of hormonal contraceptives and invasive cervical cancer, an unexpected finding was a substantial decline in the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection according to the lifetime number of Pap smears received. Here we assess the risk of 3 sexually transmitted viral infections -- herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), HPV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 and 2 -- in relation to the lifetime receipt of Pap smears. Stored sera taken from 1540 controls were tested for HSV2 and HIV; cervical scrapings were tested for HPV. Confounder-adjusted odds ratios for the lifetime receipt of Pap smears were estimated, relative to never having had a Papanicolau test. For ever-receipt of a Papanicolau test, the odds ratios for HSV2 and HPV were 0.7 (95% confidence interval = 0.5-0.9) and 0.5 (0.3-0.7), respectively, and there were dose-response trends according to the lifetime number of Pap smears received (test for trend P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). For HSV2 the odds ratios according to last receipt declined from 0.8 for 10 or more years previously to 0.4 for <1 year previously (trend P = 0.002). For HPV the ORs were 0.4 (0.3-0.7) for last receipt 5-9 years previously and 0.5 (0.4-0.8) for less than 5 years previously; for HIV the odds ratio for last receipt less than 5 years previously was 0.4 (0.3-0.9). For HSV2 and HIV the crude odds ratio estimates were systematically lower than the adjusted estimates, and residual confounding cannot be ruled out. In particular, the true number of sexual partners may have been under-reported, and there was no information on the sexual activity of the male partners, or on other health behaviors of the women or their partners. We hypothesize that Pap smears may provoke a short-term immune response against sexually transmitted viral infections.

  12. Primary serous peritoneal carcinoma presenting first on a routine papanicolaou smear: a case report.

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    Wang, Hangjun; Chen, Patrick C

    2010-01-01

    Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is a relatively uncommon malignancy, and its presentation is similar to that of advanced ovarian serous carcinoma. There have been afew case reports in which the malignant cells from PPC were discovered from routine Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. In 2006 a 49-year-old, asymptomatic female participated in the Hospital Health Fair. High grade adenocarcinoma was found by Pap smear. After negative cervical and endometrial curetting and loop electrosurgical excision procedure cone, laparoscopy revealed widespread peritoneal carcinomatosis. The subsequent surgical specimens showed primary peritoneal serous carcinoma. Although the Pap smear was originally designed to detect premalignant cervical lesions and cancer, it became apparent that malignant cells from extrauterine primaries might appear in the smears. This case illustrated the value of the Pap smear in discovering unsuspected extrauterine malignancies, including PPC. Review of 9 cases showed tumor cells in the fallopian tube lumen in 4 out of 9 cases, indicating the likely route of efflux of tumor cells to appear in the Pap smear. The new concept of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma as the origin of PPC suggests another source of tumor cells in Pap smears.

  13. SEM observations of an IUD from a patient with Actinomyces-like organisms on papanicolaou smear.

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    Keith, L; Method, M; Bailey, R; Bockoff, C; Hidvegi, D; Puleo, M

    1986-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study an IUD from an asymptomatic patient with Actinomyces-like organisms on Papanicolaou smear and in whom Actinomyces israelii was determined to be present in cervical smears. The objective was to determine if there were any variations in surface morphology that might be correlated with the Actinomyces-like organisms. SEM revealed numerous areas of thick surface encrustation. The surface morphology of the IUD fragments showed basic similarities to the morphologies observed in other cases. Encrustations were attached to the arms and stem of the device. A unique finding was apparently biological material adherent to a fragment of encrusted material. Filamentous structures radiated perpendicularly from a central core. These filaments resembled Actinomyces-like organisms in the patient's Pap smear. Also of interest was a delicate network of hair-like structures at the bottom of a naturally occurring space in the surface encrustation.

  14. Clinical importance of detection of bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, candida albicans and actinomyces in Papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdücü, N; Gönenç, G; Işçi, H; Yiğiter, A Başgül; Başsüllü, N; Dünder, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of Papanicolaou (pap) smears in the diagnosis of lower genital tract infections. A retrospective study was planned by reviewing charts of patients for trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, actinomyces, candida and nonspecific vaginitis. Charts of 9,080 patients were reviewed and 1,733 women had a diagnosis of lower genital tract infection in the pap smear or had had a clinically treated lower genital tract infection. Only 33.5%, 30.4%, 43.3%, and 0% of patients with bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, candida and actinomyces, respectively on pap smear were diagnosed and treated clinically. Postmenopausal patients had a higher rate of trichomonas vaginalis infection and a lower rate of candida infection when compared to women of the reproductive age group. Patients using an intrauterine device for contraception had a statistically significantly increased rate of trichomonas vaginalis and candida infection when compared to women using other contraceptive methods or those who were not using any contraception. Finding trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis and actinomyces infections in pap smears might be considered an indication for treatment without performing other diagnostic tests. Treatment of asymptomatic infections can prevent complications in selected patients. Candida can be a commensal bacteria in the vagina, therefore asymptomatic patients may not require treatment. Detection of a higher rate of trichomonas vaginalis and candida infection in IUD users shows that IUDs can increase the risk of vaginal infections and associated complications.

  15. CERVICAL ACID PHOSPHATASE: EVALUATION AS AN ADJUVANT TO PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR SCREENING IN CERVICAL CANCER DETECTION

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    Niranjan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Carcinoma of cervix accounts for 15% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide and is the second most common cancer in women. In the year 2000 there were over 4,71,000 new cases diagnosed and 2,88,000 deaths from cervical cancer. (1 Approximately 79% of these deaths occurred in developing countries. (2 Cervical cancer is preventable, but most women in poorer countries do not have access to effective screening programs. In India it is estimated that approximately 100,000 women develop cervical cancer each year. (3 Cancer cervix occupies either the top r ank or second among cancers in women in developing countries, whereas, in the developed countries cancer cervix does not find a place even in top five leading cancers in women. This is due to routine screening by cervical smear. Cervical smear cytology scr eening by Papanicolaou (Pap stained smears is the most efficacious and cost - effective method of cancer screening, decreasing the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. (4 However, cervical smear screening has significant rates of false - positive and false - negative results, ranging from 10.3% for false positive cases to 5.6% for false negative cases. (5,6 To improve the detection and screening of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix a number of sophisticated tests are available which are e xpensive and can be done only in a tertiary laboratory. To over - come this problems a cost effective cytochemical stain was introduced to measure the acid phosphatase activity in the cervical epithelium. (7 Since the description of the new Cervical Acid Phosphatase Test (CAP Test for visualization of cervical acid phosphatase activity (CAP inside abnormal cervical cells on smears, it has become possible to explore this enzyme as a biomarker for cervical dys plasia, and as a possible surrogate for PAP smear in detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of Cervical Acid

  16. Comparison of specimen adequacy and smear quality in oral smears prepared by manual liquid-based cytology and conventional methods

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    Surabhi Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC, recommended in the mass screening of potentially malignant cervical and oral lesions, suffers from high cost owing to the use of expensive automated devices and materials. Considering the need for cost-effective LBC techniques, we evaluated the efficacy of an inexpensive manual LBC (MLBC technique against conventional cytological technique in terms of specimen adequacy and smear quality of oral smears. Materials and Methods: Cytological samples were collected from 21 patients using a cytobrush device. After preparation of a conventional smear, the brush containing the remaining sample was immersed in the preservative vial. The preserved material was processed by an MLBC technique and subsequently, direct smears were made from the prepared cell button. Both conventional and MLBC smears were stained by routine Papanicolaou technique and evaluated by an independent observer for the thickness of the smear, cellular distribution, resolution/clarity of cells, cellular staining characteristics and the presence of unsatisfactory background/artifacts. Each parameter was graded as satisfactory; or satisfactory, but limited; or unsatisfactory. Chi-square test was used to compare the values obtained (significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: MLBC technique produced a significant number of satisfactory smears with regard to cell distribution, clarity/resolution, staining characteristics and background/artifacts compared to conventional methods. Conclusions: MLBC is a cost-effective cytological technique that may produce oral smears with excellent cytomorphology and longer storage life.

  17. Comparison of specimen adequacy and smear quality in oral smears prepared by manual liquid-based cytology and conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Surabhi; Einstein, A; Shukla, Abhilasha; Mishra, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC), recommended in the mass screening of potentially malignant cervical and oral lesions, suffers from high cost owing to the use of expensive automated devices and materials. Considering the need for cost-effective LBC techniques, we evaluated the efficacy of an inexpensive manual LBC (MLBC) technique against conventional cytological technique in terms of specimen adequacy and smear quality of oral smears. Cytological samples were collected from 21 patients using a cytobrush device. After preparation of a conventional smear, the brush containing the remaining sample was immersed in the preservative vial. The preserved material was processed by an MLBC technique and subsequently, direct smears were made from the prepared cell button. Both conventional and MLBC smears were stained by routine Papanicolaou technique and evaluated by an independent observer for the thickness of the smear, cellular distribution, resolution/clarity of cells, cellular staining characteristics and the presence of unsatisfactory background/artifacts. Each parameter was graded as satisfactory; or satisfactory, but limited; or unsatisfactory. Chi-square test was used to compare the values obtained (significance set at P ≤ 0.05). MLBC technique produced a significant number of satisfactory smears with regard to cell distribution, clarity/resolution, staining characteristics and background/artifacts compared to conventional methods. MLBC is a cost-effective cytological technique that may produce oral smears with excellent cytomorphology and longer storage life.

  18. Comparison of specimen adequacy and smear quality in oral smears prepared by manual liquid-based cytology and conventional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Surabhi; Einstein, A; Shukla, Abhilasha; Mishra, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC), recommended in the mass screening of potentially malignant cervical and oral lesions, suffers from high cost owing to the use of expensive automated devices and materials. Considering the need for cost-effective LBC techniques, we evaluated the efficacy of an inexpensive manual LBC (MLBC) technique against conventional cytological technique in terms of specimen adequacy and smear quality of oral smears. Materials and Methods: Cytological samples were collected from 21 patients using a cytobrush device. After preparation of a conventional smear, the brush containing the remaining sample was immersed in the preservative vial. The preserved material was processed by an MLBC technique and subsequently, direct smears were made from the prepared cell button. Both conventional and MLBC smears were stained by routine Papanicolaou technique and evaluated by an independent observer for the thickness of the smear, cellular distribution, resolution/clarity of cells, cellular staining characteristics and the presence of unsatisfactory background/artifacts. Each parameter was graded as satisfactory; or satisfactory, but limited; or unsatisfactory. Chi-square test was used to compare the values obtained (significance set at P ≤ 0.05). Results: MLBC technique produced a significant number of satisfactory smears with regard to cell distribution, clarity/resolution, staining characteristics and background/artifacts compared to conventional methods. Conclusions: MLBC is a cost-effective cytological technique that may produce oral smears with excellent cytomorphology and longer storage life. PMID:26980958

  19. CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus infection in women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Felding, C; Skouby, S O

    1992-01-01

    In a randomized study, we have evaluated the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions by CO2 laser vaporization. Fifty patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears and histological evidence of cervical HPV infection associated or not with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade...... I were randomized to either a treatment or a control group. The cervical swabs were obtained every 3 months in both groups and examined for HPV type 16 DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. After a follow-up period of 12 months no significant differences were found between the laser treatment...... and the control groups in relation to the disappearance of the abnormal Papanicolaou smear. Two patients in the treatment group and 3 in the control group had a conization because of development of CIN I or aggravation of the concomitant CIN found at the initial visit. The percentage of women who demonstrated HPV...

  20. The incidence of actinomyces-like organisms in Papanicolaou-stained smears of copper- and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merki-Feld, G S; Lebeda, E; Hogg, B; Keller, P J

    2000-06-01

    Actinomyces-like organisms (ALOs) are a common finding in Papanicolaou-stained cervico-vaginal smears (PAP smears) of women using an intrauterine device (IUD). The incidence of ALOs positive PAP smears depends on the type of IUD. Pelvic actinomycosis is a severe disease that may require hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy. In a retrospective study we compared the incidence of ALOs positive PAP smears in users of the new levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) (n = 52) with the incidence in Multiload Copper IUD (ML375) users (n = 104). All IUDs had been inserted from 1996-1998. Women with a follow-up period of more than 9 months were included into the final analysis (LNG-IUD: n = 34; ML375: n = 65). The incidence of ALOs in LNG-IUD users (2.9%) was significantly lower than in ML375 users (20%). Clinical consequences of ALOs positive PAP smears are discussed controversially. The low incidence in the LNG-IUD users probably leads to less IUD-removals, reinsertions and less pelvic-inflammatory-diseases.

  1. A practical problem with calculating the false-negative rate of Papanicolaou smear interpretation by rescreening negative cases alone.

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    Renshaw, A A

    1999-12-25

    Rescreening negative Papanicolaou (Pap) smears alone is the most commonly employed method of determining the false-negative rate (FNR) or the false-negative proportion for a laboratory. Acceptable FNRs have been proposed, and the number of slides needed to be rescreened to demonstrate a statistically significant difference in FNRs has been determined. The authors sought to determine the range of FNRs this method can measure and, by implication, the value of this method. A literature review and an analysis of the FNRs this method can generate was performed. If one assumes that the FNR of review is the same as that of initial screening, the maximum measured FNR is only 25%, even with a true FNR of anywhere from 0-100%. In fact, as a laboratory's FNR increases over 50%, the measured FNR decreases back to zero. This range of FNRs corresponds very closely to the published range of FNRs of 1.6-28%. Because many authorities believe that 5% may be the lowest achievable FNR, the entire possible range of measured FNRs is only 5-25%. In this setting, a statistically significant difference of 20% is meaningless, and a statistically significant difference of 10% can only be achieved by laboratories with an initial FNR of less than 15%, and actual changes in FNR that are much greater than 10%. FNRs determined by review of negative smears without abnormal smears generate unreliable and potentially seriously misleading results. Current methodologies exist for more accurately determining the FNR of Pap smear screening by incorporating abnormal smears into the review process. There is little justification for further review of negative Pap smears alone as a method for determining the FNR of a laboratory. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) Copyright 1999 American Cancer Society.

  2. Management of the abnormal Papanicolaou smear and colposcopy in pregnancy: an evidenced-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, A C; Birsner, M L; Fader, A N

    2012-04-01

    Women diagnosed with abnormal Papanicolau smears or cervical abnormalities during pregnancy present a challenge to health care providers, as conventional management guidelines appropriate for the non-pregnant population may be contraindicated. The physiologic effects of pregnancy that may result in greater difficulty with the colposcopic examination include increased cervical mucus production that may obscure visualization, cervical hyperemia, gland prominence, and eversion of the columnar epithelium. The squamo-columnar junction may also be difficult to visualize in early pregnancy, but will often evert as the pregnancy continues. Because of these changes, cervical dysplasia may have a more prominent appearance in the gravid patient. Therefore, colposcopy should be performed by a skilled examiner with expertise in the cervical changes of pregnancy. The primary goal of colposcopy during pregnancy is to exclude the presence of invasive cancer, and thus, many cervical lesions may be followed with serial cytology and colposcopy during pregnancy or by deferring further colposcopic examination until the postpartum period. Cervical biopsy should be avoided unless a malignancy is suspected and endocervical sampling is contraindicated. Herein, we present a contemporary, evidence-based review of the colposcopic examination and guidelines for triaging and evaluating abnormal cervical cytology and lesions that are diagnosed during pregnancy.

  3. Severe cervical glandular cell lesions and severe cervical combined lesions - Predictive value of the Papanicolaou smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, AJMV; Smedts, FMM; Vooijs, GP

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purpose of the current study was to determine the accuracy of routinely screened cervical smears to predict a glandular cell lesion in histologically confirmed cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA), adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSQCA), and severe

  4. Is a liquid-based cytology more sensitive than a conventional Pap smear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, K

    2013-08-01

    The comparative sensitivity of liquid-based cytology (LBC) test and conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears is controversial. This study analyses the distribution of cytology, histology, colposcopy and large loop excision of the transformation zone among women screened in Iceland with LBC at the Cancer Detection Clinic in Reykjavik and with a conventional Pap smear outside the Detection Clinic in 2007-2011. The study material included 42 654 LBC tests from 20 439 women and 103 909 Pap smears from 61 574 women. The period 2000-2004 is used to correct for potential bias as a result of unequal distribution of the studied parameters between the study sites before the introduction of LBC. The observed results indicated that women screened with an LBC sample had significantly decreased detection rates of inadequate smears, increased detection of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)/atypical cytology and referrals to colposcopy, and an increased detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) irrespective of age. LBC increased significantly the detection rates of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (HSIL+) cytology and CIN3+ histology only in women under 40 years of age. Taking into consideration the unequal prevalence of the studied parameters between the study sites in 2000-2004 indicated, however, that LBC only affected the rate of inadequate and low-grade cytology tests under the age of 40 years. Positive predictive values for CIN2+ were not significantly different between the tests. The study results support the view that LBC is no more sensitive than Pap smears for the detection of HSIL+ and CIN2+ irrespective of age. LBC decreased the rate of inadequate smears, but increased the rate of low-grade cytology under the age of 40 years and decreased the total rate of abnormal smears over the age of 40 years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Bethesda System reporting rates for conventional Papanicolaou tests and liquid-based cytology in a large Chinese, College of American Pathologists-certified independent medical laboratory: analysis of 1394389 Papanicolaou test reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Baowen; Austin, R Marshall; Liang, Xiaoman; Li, Zaibo; Chen, Congde; Yan, Shanshan; Zhao, Chengquan

    2015-03-01

    Reports that use the Bethesda System categories for Chinese Papanicolaou test results are rare. To document and analyze rates reported in the Bethesda System for conventional Papanicolaou tests and liquid-based cytology between 2007 and 2012 in China's largest College of American Pathologists-accredited laboratory. Results from 1,394,389 Papanicolaou tests, rendered between 2007 and 2012 by the Guangzhou Kingmed Diagnostics Cytology Laboratory, were documented by the Bethesda System report categories and Papanicolaou test methodology, which included both conventional Papanicolaou tests and 4 different liquid-based cytology preparations. Results were documented for 326,297 conventional Papanicolaou tests and 1,068,092 liquid-based cytology specimens, which included 928,884 ThinPrep (Hologic, Bedford, Massachusetts), 63,465 SurePath (BD Diagnostics, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey), 50,422 Liqui-Prep (LGM International, Melbourne, Florida), and 25,321 Lituo liquid-cytology (Lituo Biotechnology Co, Hunan, China) specimens. Abnormality rates reported were significantly higher with liquid-based cytology than they were with conventional Papanicolaou tests in all the Bethesda System categories (P < .001). Reporting rates were within the 2006 benchmark ranges from the College of American Pathologists, except for atypical glandular cells (low) and unsatisfactory rates for conventional Papanicolaou tests (low). Participation in the international College of American Pathologists Laboratory Accreditation Program provides laboratory quality standards not otherwise available in many international settings.

  6. Prevalence, risk factors of human papillomavirus infection and papanicolaou smear pattern among women attending a tertiary health facility in south-west Nigeria

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    Olatunji Mathew Kolawole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cervical cancer amongst Nigerian women has been on the increase in the past decade, and is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors of HPV infection, and Papanicolaou smear pattern amongst a cohort of women attending the Gynaecology clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ido-Ekiti, South west Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women between the ages of 15-64 years for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using Papanicolaou smear staining technique and serological diagnosis using IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Respondents were selected through convenience sampling of subjects, while interviewer- administered questionnaire and clinical report form were also used to collect data, and data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 200 blood samples examined for Human papillomavirus infection, 135 (67.5% were sero-positive while 65 (32.5% were sero-negative. For cervical cytology using Papanicolaou smear, 14 (7% were positive (had presence of cervical abnormality while 186 (93% were negative (had no cervical abnormality. Result showed a direct relationship between seropositivity, development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and Human papillomavirus infection. The risk factors for the development of HPV infection included age, type of marriage, parity, history of genital infection and tobacco usage. Non circumcision of male partner was also found to be a risk factor. Conclusion: The presence of abnormal cervical cytology and high level of serological positivity clearly showed why there is need for a holistic approach to the screening, vaccination methodologies and early detection of HPV infection in the country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 453-459

  7. ANALYSIS OF CELL BLOCK VS . CONVENTIONAL SMEAR IN FLUID CYTOLOGY

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    Jyotsna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cytological examination of aspirates of serous effusions is a routinely accepted , simple , safe and minimally invasive technique . Diagnosis in this investigation , especially in malignant effusions , helps in staging , prognosis and management of the patients . AIMS: To assess the utility and sensitivity of cell block method over conventional smear technique in cytodiagnosis of the serous effusions . METHODS: A total of 72 fluid specimens were subjected to simultaneous processing by conventional s mear and cell block technique . Each fluid specimen was divided into two equal parts and results compared for cellularity , cell architecture , cytoplasmic and nuclear features . Cell blocks were prepared using modified cell block technique using alcohol forma lin fixative . RESULTS: The utility of cell block technique in diagnosing malignant effusions is highly significant as compared to the conventional smear technique . Also , the technique using alcohol formalin fixative is simple , safe and these chemicals are routinely used in laboratory . CONCLUSION: Cell block technique is superior to conventional smear technique , especially for malignant effusions . It gives more information about the architectural arrangement and the likely source of primary . More important is that diagnostic material in cell blocks is available for special studies for . I mmunohistochemistry which can further supplement our knowledge about the primary source of metastasis

  8. CENTRIFUGED BUFFY COAT SMEAR: AN ALTERNATIVE TO CONVENTIONAL PERIPHERAL BLOOD SMEAR FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA

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    Neelam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge with more than 200 million deaths annually, specially in the tropical and subtropical countries.(1 In India malaria is endemic throughout the country, problem accounting for 1-2 million cases and 1100 deaths per year.(1 The commonly employed method for diagnosis of malaria involves the microscopic examination of Romanowsky stained blood films.(2 For decades light microscopy of blood smears has been the gold standard in the diagnosis of malaria.(3 It is labor intensive and requires considerable expertise for its interpretation, particularly at low level of parasitaemia.(4 The diagnostic modalities which are available for malaria range from conventional thick and thin smears, Quantitative buffy coat smears(QBC, to rapid and more reliable diagnostic modalities like antigen detection tests for detecting parasitic antigen like Histidine – rich protein-2 (HRP-2, Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH and pan specific aldolase. These techniques have variable sensitivity and specificity.(5 Each of these methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. A previous study from India(6 had developed standardized and reported on using Centrifuged buffy coat smear (CBCS examination for diagnosis of malaria, in which wide bore 4 ml tube instead of a Wintrobe’s tube has been used to obtain a buffy coat. This technique has advantage over the existing method. The purpose of the present study was to assess the usefulness of CBCS technique in comparison to peripheral blood smear and antigen detection. AIMS: Detection of malarial parasite by Centrifuged buffy coat smear (CBCS was compared with conventional thin and thick peripheral smear and antigen detection by commercially available card test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of CBCS in comparison to peripheral blood smear and antigen detection. METHODS, MATERIALS AND RESULTS: A total of 837 patients were tested

  9. Avaliação da influência do uso de métodos contraceptivos sobre os resultados dos esfregaços de Papanicolaou = Evaluation of the influence of contraceptive methods on the results of Papanicolaou smears

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    Fernanda Cristina da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a influência do uso de métodos contraceptivos como dispositivo intrauterino (DIU, contraceptivos hormonais (CPH e preservativo (PRESER, nos resultados dos esfregaços de Papanicolaou (Pap, por meio de análise retrospectiva de seus laudos e das informações sobre métodos contraceptivos de 2251 mulheres, distribuídas em: DIU (n=80, CPH (n=172, PRESER (n=40 e não usuárias (n=1959. As não usuárias apresentaram mais resultados normais e as com DIU mais alterações benignas. Os três grupos de usuárias, principalmente DIU, manifestaram mais metaplasia escamosa do que as não usuárias. Não houve aumento de ASCUS/LIS ou câncer nas usuárias de métodos contraceptivos. Predominaram as infecções candidíase e vaginose bacteriana e em DIU houve mais vaginose. Actinomyces sp. ocorreu apenas em DIU e Trichomonas vaginalis apenasem não usuárias. Assim, é importante a realização de Pap nas usuárias de DIU e CPH para acompanhar as alterações benignas, pois as mesmas podem predispor e/ou facilitar infecções, incluindo por HPV.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the use of contraceptive methods, such as the intrauterine device (IDU, the hormonal contraceptive (HCP and the preservative (PRESER, on the results of Papanicolaou smears (Pap. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on Papanicolau results and on information from2251 women's contraceptive methods, distributed in: IDU (n=80, HCP (n=172, PRESER (n=40 and non-users (n=1959. Non-users presented more normal results; and IDU users presented benign alterations. Among the three groups, the IDU users manifested more squaly squamous metaplasia than the non-users. There was no notice of ASCUS/SIL or cancer in the users of contraceptive methods. The infections withcandidiasis and bacterial vaginosis prevailed. Particularly in IDU users, there was more vaginosis. Actinomyces sp. was only noticed in IDU users, and Trichomonas vaginalis in nonusers. Thus

  10. Exame Papanicolaou: sentimentos relatados por profissionais de enfermagem ao se submeterem a esse exame Pap smear screening: sensations reported by nursing professionals when submitted to this test

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    Roberta Jeane Bezerra Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer os sentimentos de auxiliares e técnicas de enfermagem ao se submeterem ao exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa realizado nos meses de setembro a outubro de 2006, com 35 servidoras de uma instituição governamental referência em ginecologia na cidade de Fortaleza (CE. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semiestruturada, contendo uma questão norteadora gravada e analisada de acordo com referencial teórico metodológico da fenomenologia social. Os relatos foram agrupados em três temáticas: um exame que causa incômodo, medo e vergonha; um exame que gera ansiedade quanto aos resultados; e um exame que "me deixa calma e tranquila". Apesar de as entrevistadas pertencerem a uma instituição que cuida de mulheres na prevenção do câncer cérvico-uterino, elas não deixaram de emitir sentimentos negativos relacionados ao exame. Concluiu-se a importância de realizar projetos educativos, enfatizando a importância do empoderamento das usuárias a fim de minimizar essas questões.This work sought to record the impressions of nursing assistants and technicians after submitting to Pap smear screening. This is a descriptive study using a qualitative approach conducted in September and October of 2006 with 35 employees of a public institution, which is a benchmark in gynecology in Fortaleza in the State of Ceará (Brazil. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews containing a recorded leading question and analyzed according to the methodological-theoretical reference of social phenomenology. The testimonials were separated in three groups: an exam that causes discomfort, fear and shame; an exam that causes anxiety about the results; and an exam that "makes me calm and relaxed". Despite the interviewees being part of an institution that cares for the prevention of cervical-uterine cancer in women, negative feelings about the Pap smear test were nonetheless

  11. Comparative study of manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique and direct smear technique (conventional) on fine-needle cytology/fine-needle aspiration cytology samples.

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    Pawar, Prajkta Suresh; Gadkari, Rasika Uday; Swami, Sunil Y; Joshi, Anil R

    2014-04-01

    Liquid-based cytology technique enables cells to be suspended in a liquid medium and spread in a monolayer, making better morphological assessment. Automated techniques have been widely used, but limited due to cost and availability. The aim was to establish manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material and compare its results with conventional technique. In this study, we examined cells trapped in needles hub used for the collection of FNAC samples. 50 cases were examined by the MLBC technique and compared with the conventional FNAC technique. By centrifugation, sediment was obtained and imprint was taken on defined area. Papanicolaou (Pap) and May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) staining was done. Direct smears and MLBC smears were compared for cellularity, background, cellular preservation, and nuclear preservation. Slides were diagnosed independently by two cytologists with more than 5 years' experience. Standard error of proportion was used for statistical analysis. Cellularity was low in MLBC as compared with conventional smears, which is expected as remnant material in the needle hub was used. Nuclei overlap to a lesser extent and hemorrhage and necrosis was reduced, so cell morphology can be better studied in the MLBC technique. P value obtained was <0.05. This MLBC technique gives results comparable to the conventional technique with better morphology. In a set up where aspirators are learners, this technique will ensure adequacy due to remnant in needle hub getting processed.

  12. Rapid pre-screening is more sensitive in liquid-based cytology than in conventional smears.

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    Dudding, Nick; Renshaw, Andrew A; Ellis, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Rapid pre-screening (RPS) is a useful tool to measure and improve performance in the cytology laboratory. Whether RPS is more or less effective in liquid-based cytology than in conventional smears is unknown. We compared the estimated sensitivity in a laboratory of 11 cytotechnologists which converted from conventional smears to SurePath™ (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, N.J., USA) liquid based cytology. In the 9 months prior to conversion, 23,286 smears were screened compared with 30,610 smears in the 12 months immediately after conversion. The estimated sensitivity of rapid pre-screening for 90 s improved significantly with liquid based cytology for all abnormalities (58.7 vs. 68.7%, pliquid-based cytology compared with conventional smears, and detects significant lesions that are missed by routine screening.

  13. Comparison of Specimen Adequacy and Smear Quality in Conventional and Liquid-Based Pap Tests

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    Moradan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Since the best method of cervical smear is a controversial subject, this study was designed to compare two methods of cervical sampling, consisting of conventional versus liquid base. Objectives Pap smear is a screening test used to detect pre malignant and malignant processes in the endocervical canal of the female reproductive system. There are two methods, consisting of conventional Pap, in which samples are smeared directly on a microscope slide after collection, and liquid based cytology, in which the smear sample is placed in a bottle of preservative for transport to the laboratory, where it is then smeared on the slide. In this study it was decided to compare these two methods of sampling. Methods This randomized trial was carried out at the Amir Hospital of Semnan, Iran on 240 females undergoing Pap smear screening from April to September 2012. Patients were divided to two groups including conventional (n = 120 and liquid base cytology smear (n = 120. The results of cytological reports of both groups were compared in regards to sufficiency of sample, presence of blood in the sample, presence of infection and premalignant or malignant condition. Results Specimen adequacy and smear quality were significantly better in liquid base sampling (P = 0.03; presence of benign cellular changes was not different between the two groups (P = 0.389. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was significantly better with the conventional method (P = 0.007. Also, severe inflammation was more commonly reported in the conventional method than liquid base sampling test (P = 0.029. Conclusions Specimen adequacy and diagnosis of inflammatory reaction were better in liquid base smear and convention smear, respectively.

  14. Papanicolaou na pós-menopausa: fatores associados a sua não realização Factors associated with lack of Pap smear screening in a group of postmenopausal Brazilian women

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    Sheila Cristina Rocha Brischiliari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores de risco relacionados à não realização do exame de Papanicolaou entre as mulheres que vivenciam a menopausa. Neste estudo de base populacional, composto de mulheres de 45-69 anos, residentes na área urbana de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, foram avaliadas 456 mulheres no período da menopausa, as quais apresentaram uma média de 58,7 ± 5,7 anos, sendo 48,0 ± 5,0 anos a idade média do início da menopausa. A maior parte relatou ter até sete anos de estudo, apresentava companheiro, realizava atividade remunerada, era sedentária e não usuária de terapia de reposição hormonal. A cobertura de rastreamento de Papanicolaou foi de 84,5%. Após ajuste por análise multivariada, a faixa etária de 45-69 anos, ocupação remunerada, sem consulta ao ginecologista no último ano e sem realização de mamografia nos últimos dois anos foram associadas à não realização do exame. Os esforços para melhorar o rastreamento do câncer de colo do útero devem estar focados no conhecimento das mulheres e na diminuição dos fatores contribuintes para a não realização do exame de Papanicolaou.This study aimed to analyze risk factors for lack of Pap smear screening among menopausal women. This population-based study evaluated 456 women 45-69 years of age (mean 58.7; SD 5.7, with age at menopause 48.0 years (SD 5.0 living in the urban area of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Most reported having 7 years of schooling or less, were married or living with a partner, had paid work, were sedentary, and were not on hormone replacement therapy. Coverage of Pap smear screening was 84.5%. After adjustment by multivariate analysis, the 45-69-year age bracket, paid work, no visit to the gynecologist in the previous year, and no mammogram in the two previous years were statistically associated with lack of Pap smear screening. Efforts to improve cervical cancer screening should focus on women's knowledge and reduce

  15. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou cytology samples with liquid-based cervical cytology samples from women in Pernambuco, Brazil

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    M.O.L.P. Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we compared the performance of a ThinPrep cytological method with the conventional Papanicolaou test for diagnosis of cytopathological changes, with regard to unsatisfactory results achieved at the Central Public Health Laboratory of the State of Pernambuco. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed with women aged 18 to 65 years, who spontaneously sought gynecological services in Public Health Units in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, between April and November 2011. All patients in the study were given a standardized questionnaire on sociodemographics, sexual characteristics, reproductive practices, and habits. A total of 525 patients were assessed by the two methods (11.05% were under the age of 25 years, 30.86% were single, 4.4% had had more than 5 sexual partners, 44% were not using contraception, 38.85% were users of alcohol, 24.38% were smokers, 3.24% had consumed drugs previously, 42.01% had gynecological complaints, and 12.19% had an early history of sexually transmitted diseases. The two methods showed poor correlation (k=0.19; 95%CI=0.11–0.26; P<0.001. The ThinPrep method reduced the rate of unsatisfactory results from 4.38% to 1.71% (χ2=5.28; P=0.02, and the number of cytopathological changes diagnosed increased from 2.47% to 3.04%. This study confirmed that adopting the ThinPrep method for diagnosis of cervical cytological samples was an improvement over the conventional method. Furthermore, this method may reduce possible losses from cytological resampling and reduce obstacles to patient follow-up, improving the quality of the public health system in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

  16. Comparison of Unsatisfactory Samples from Conventional Smear versus Liquid-Based Cytology in Uterine Cervical Cancer Screening Test.

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    Jeong, Hoiseon; Hong, Sung Ran; Chae, Seoung-Wan; Jin, So-Young; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Lee, Juhie; Kim, Eun Kyung; Ha, Sook Tai; Kim, Sung Nam; Park, Eun-Jung; Jung, Jong Jae; Sung, Sun Hee; Lim, Sung-Chul

    2017-05-01

    Cervical cytology for uterine cervical cancer screening has transitioned from conventional smear (CS) to liquid-based cytology (LBC), which has many advantages. The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of unsatisfactory specimens from CS versus LBC at multiple institutions including general hospitals and commercial laboratories. Each participating institution provided a minimum of 500 Papanicolaou (Pap) test results for analysis. Pap tests were classified according to the participating institution (commercial laboratory or general hospital) and the processing method (CS, ThinPrep, SurePath, or CellPrep). The causes of unsatisfactory results were classified as technical problems, scant cellularity, or complete obscuring factors. A total of 38,956 Pap test results from eight general hospitals and three commercial laboratories were analyzed. The mean unsatisfactory rate of LBC was significantly lower than that of CS (1.26% and 3.31%, p = .018). In the LBC method, samples from general hospitals had lower unsatisfactory rates than those from commercial laboratories (0.65% vs 2.89%, p = .006). The reasons for unsatisfactory results were heterogeneous in CS. On the other hand, 66.2% of unsatisfactory results in LBC were due to the scant cellularity. Unsatisfactory rate of cervical cancer screening test results varies according to the institution and the processing method. LBC has a significantly lower unsatisfactory rate than CS.

  17. Non-useful Papanicolaou smears. Analysis of their causes in the first semester 2005 in Cienfuegos city, Cuba Pruebas citológicas no útiles. Análisis de sus causas en el primer semestre de 2005 en Cienfuegos.

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    Miryam Magalys González González del Pino

    Full Text Available Background: Cervicouterine cancer is a common type of cancer in women. It is one of the three main death causes in women after breast and colon cancer. It is the first cause of mortality among malignant neoplasias in the female reproductive apparatus. Objective: to determine the causes of non-useful Papanicolaou smear in Cienfuegos’ province. Method: a retrospective study which had the non-useful Papanicolaou smear of the 1st semester of the year 2005 as samples the following variable were analyzed; age, health area and cause. Results: the main cause was the absence of the endocervical cells in the samples (91,1 %. The most affected health area were Palmira (8,83 %, Health area III (8,08 % and Juraguá (7,14 %. The higher quantity of non-useful Papanicolaou smear was found in the 30-39 year-old group. Conclusions: Although, the majority of health areas have an index below the 5% of non-useful Papanicolaou smear, there are still difficulties to fulfill adequately the program of early detection of Cervicouterine cancer, due to the issues faced when taking the samples.Fundamento: El cáncer cérvico uterino es una clase común de cáncer en la mujer, que se encuentra entre las 3 primeras causas de muerte después del cáncer de mama y del colon y es la primera causa de mortalidad entre las neoplasias malignas del aparato reproductor femenino. Objetivo: Determinar las causas de las citologías no útiles en la provincia de Cienfuegos. Método: Estudio retrospectivo, que tuvo como muestra las pruebas citológicas no útiles del primer semestre de 2005, con respecto a las cuales se analizaron variables como: edad de la mujer, área de salud y causas. Resultados: La causa principal fue la ausencia de células endocervicales en los extendidos (91,1 %; las tres áreas de salud más afectadas fueron

  18. Cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil e seus fatores determinantes: uma revisão sistemática da literatura Coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil and its determining factors: a systematic literature review

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    Luís Felipe Leite Martins

    2005-08-01

    coberturas abaixo de 70,0% nos últimos três anos. Por outro lado, algumas variáveis foram mais freqüentemente observadas nas mulheres não submetidas ao exame de Papanicolaou: ter baixo nível socioeconômico, ter baixa escolaridade, ter baixa renda familiar e pertencer às faixas etárias mais jovens. CONCLUSÃO: os dados aqui apresentados apontam para desigualdades regionais na cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou na população feminina brasileira e para a necessidade de intervenção junto àqueles fatores a ela associados.PURPOSE: to present an overview of the coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil, emphasizing the determinant factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. METHODS: the literature was reviewed using the LILACS (Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Sciences of the Health, MEDLINE - 1966 to 2004 (International Literature in Sciences of the Health, PAHO (Collection of the Library of the Pan-American Organization of Health, and WHOLIS (System of Information of the Library of OMS databases. The review was enlarged through the search of bibliographical references of relevant studies, request for published and unpublished studies by specialists, and other sources. Articles that fulfilled the following criteria were selected: to be a cross-sectional study, carried out in Brazil, including information about periodicity of the Pap test (some time in life or in the last three years and/or containing information about factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. Duplicates and articles without summary were excluded. A total of 13 articles fulfilling these criteria were selected. RESULTS: there are few studies on the coverage of Pap smear in Brazil. Most of them are concentrated in the big cities of the South and Southeast regions of the country. Besides the shortage, little methodological standardization exists in relation to the sampling and profile of the investigated women, which turns difficult the comparison among them

  19. Causes and relevance of unsatisfactory and satisfactory but limited smears of liquid-based compared with conventional cervical cytology.

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    Siebers, Albertus G; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; Vedder, Judith E M; Arbyn, Marc; Bulten, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Recent randomized controlled trials have shown a significant decrease in unsatisfactory rates for liquid-based cytology (LBC) compared with conventional Papanicolaou test (CP). The underlying causes and relevance of unsatisfactory results for LBC and CP have never been compared within the setting of a randomized controlled trial. To examine differences in causes and relevance of unsatisfactory and satisfactory but limited by (SBLB) results for LBC and CP. Data from the Netherlands ThinPrep Versus Conventional Cytology (NETHCON) trial were used, involving 89 784 women. Causes and relevance of unsatisfactory and SBLB results were analyzed. The primary cause for unsatisfactory results for CP and LBC was scant cellularity. Other causes for unsatisfactory CPs were virtually eliminated with LBC. The same was true for SBLB subcategories, with the exception of SBLB absence of transformation zone component and SBLB scant cellularity. The SBLB absence of transformation zone component showed a statistically significant 22% and SBLB scant cellularity a 12% nonsignificant increase with LBC. The detection rates of abnormalities found during 18 months of follow-up of unsatisfactory test results did not differ significantly between the 2 study arms, nor did they differ from the initial test positivity rates from the NETHCON trial. Liquid-based cytology shows an almost complete elimination of most causes for unsatisfactory CP, with scant cellularity remaining as the sole cause for unsatisfactory LBC. On the other hand, with LBC a significant increase of smears without a transformation zone component was noted. Women with an unsatisfactory test result are not at increased risk for cervical abnormalities either with LBC or with CP. Nederlands Trial Register, NTR1032, www.trialregister.nl .

  20. Causes and relevance of unsatisfactory and satisfactory but limited smears of liquid-based compared with conventional cervical cytology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Vedder, J.E.M.; Arbyn, M.; Bulten, J.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Recent randomized controlled trials have shown a significant decrease in unsatisfactory rates for liquid-based cytology (LBC) compared with conventional Papanicolaou test (CP). The underlying causes and relevance of unsatisfactory results for LBC and CP have never been compared within the s

  1. Causes and relevance of unsatisfactory and satisfactory but limited smears of liquid-based compared with conventional cervical cytology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Vedder, J.E.M.; Arbyn, M.; Bulten, J.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Recent randomized controlled trials have shown a significant decrease in unsatisfactory rates for liquid-based cytology (LBC) compared with conventional Papanicolaou test (CP). The underlying causes and relevance of unsatisfactory results for LBC and CP have never been compared within the s

  2. Fatores associados à utilização do teste de Papanicolaou entre mulheres idosas no interior do Brasil Factors associated with the use of the Papanicolaou smear screening among older women in the interior of Brazil

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    Mônica Cristina Marzullo de Freitas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a cobertura, pelo teste de Papanicolaou, de idosas e os fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Foi desenvolvido um estudo de base populacional com inquérito domiciliar. Os critérios de inclusão foram mulheres com 60 anos de idade ou mais, com residência na zona norte do município de Juiz de Fora, com independência para responder ao questionário ou que dispusessem de informante. A entrevista foi composta por questões sociodemográficas, referentes ao estado geral de saúde das idosas, e sobre a prática preventiva em saúde da mulher. A seleção se deu por amostragem aleatória estratificada e conglomerada em múltiplos estágios. Para a análise dos fatores de associação, elaborou-se um modelo teórico com três blocos hierarquizados de variáveis, ajustadas entre si em cada um deles. As variáveis que obtiveram nível de significância menor ou igual a 0,2 foram incluídas no modelo de regressão de Poisson e ajustadas ao nível superior ao seu (pPURPOSE: To verify the coverage, by Pap testing, of older women and the associated factors. METHODS: A population-based study was conducted by home interviews. The inclusion criteria were women aged 60 and over, living on the north side of the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil, self-sufficient to answer the questionnaire or having someone to answer on their behalf. The interview consisted of sociodemographic questions, regarding the general health of the older women, and preventive practices in women's health. The selection was made by random sampling, stratified and clustered in multiple stages. To analyze associated factors, a theoretical model was formulated with three hierarchical blocks of variables, adjusted to each other in each block. The variables that had a level of significance of 0.2 or less were included in the Poisson regression model and adjusted to their next highest level (p<0.1. RESULTS: Pap testing occurred in 84.1% of cases (95%CI 79.0-88.4. Based on

  3. Causes of non-useful Papanicolaou smear in two health areas. Cienfuegos, 2005. Causas de las pruebas citológicas no útiles en dos áreas de salud. Cienfuegos, 2005.

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    Mayrim Hernández González

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervicouterine cancer represents 10 % of all types of cancer, and it is one of the three main death causes in women. Objectives: to determine the factors that may influence in the diagnosis of non-useful Papanicolaou smear in health areas II and III of Cienfuegos municipality, Cuba. Method: An ambispective analytic study was carried out in the second semester of the year 2005, in Cienfuegos municipality, Cuba. 122 non-useful Papanicolaou smear from health areas II and III were collected and those carrier women of the above mentioned samples were dated to repeat the test. The variables were; requisites and conditions to perform the test, visualization of the cervix and presence of vaginal sepsis. Results: An inadequated sample taking was observed in 93 patients (76,2 %, as well as the bad conditions of the place where the samples were taken. There was also instrumentation deficiency. The interview in more than 50 % of women was not the adequate one. Conclusions: Yet, existing an acceptable index of non useful Papanicolaou smear in Cienfuegos province, the program to detect cervicouterine cancer confront difficulties in its application and results.
    Fundamento: El cáncer cérvico uterino representa el 10 % de todos los cánceres, y es una de las 3 primeras causas de muerte en las mujeres. Objetivo: Determinar los factores que influyen en el diagnóstico de citologías no útiles en las áreas de salud II y III del Municipio de Cienfuegos. Métodos: Se realizó un trabajo ambiespectivo y analítico, en el segundo semestre del año 2005, en el municipio de Cienfuegos. Se tomaron como muestra las 122 pruebas citológicas no útiles de las áreas II y III y se citó a las mujeres portadoras de dichas muestras para repetir la prueba citológica y aplicarles una encuesta. Las variables de an

  4. Citologia vaginal a fresco na gravidez: correlação com a citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou Fresh wet mount in pregnancy: correlation with Pap smears

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    Amadeu Ramos da Silva Filho

    2004-01-01

    neste último método propedêutico. Os diagnósticos de tricomoníase observados em ambos os métodos citológicos (3,7 e 2,7% traduzem a baixa prevalência destes parasitas na gestação. O cálculo do índice kappa para avaliação da concordância entre os dois procedimentos citológicos nos diversos achados microbiológicos demonstrou baixa correlação nos diagnósticos da vaginose bacteriana e colpites bacterianas inespecíficas, bem como na identificação da flora vaginal normal. CONCLUSÕES: embora a citologia corada apresente melhor acurácia no diagnóstico de fungos não formadores de micélios, a citologia direta a fresco demonstrou ser melhor avaliador dos elementos não epiteliais dos esfregaços vaginais. Entretanto, a microscopia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou, por permitir melhor apreciação das células epiteliais cervicovaginais, representa o mais importante instrumento revelador das agressões e reações nucleocitoplasmáticas.PURPOSE: to analyze vaginal contents using the fresh wet mount of a cytological exam in the first prenatal visit of women with or without genital complaints and correlate the conclusion with the results from the Pap smears. Microscopy during pregnancy should be valued and recognized as a method capable of providing immediate diagnosis in 90% of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis cases. METHODS: a prospective study was performed in 216 pregnant women selected from the prenatal department of a public hospital, between October 30, 2001 and November 12, 2002. Two samples were collected from the posterior vaginal vault and deposited onto two separate microscope slides. To one slide, a droplet of 0.9% NaCl was applied and to the other, a droplet of 10% KOH. Both slides were covered with a coverslip for immediate microscopic evaluation. Tests were perfomed in one drop of the material to examine pH and whiff. The microscopic examination of the material was carried out at a 100X, 400X and exceptionally 1000X

  5. Teste de Papanicolaou: cobertura em dois inquéritos domiciliários realizados no município de São Paulo em 1987 e em 2001-2002 Papanicolaou smear screening: coverage in two home surveys applied in the city of São Paulo in 1987 and 2001-2002

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    Carolina Ozawa

    2011-05-01

    ção à saúde da mulher.PURPOSE: to compare the coverage of conventional Papanicolaou cytology in women aged 15 to 59 years between two home surveys, related to some personal attributes and to the tendency to die from cervical cancer. METHODS: we analyzed data collected in two home surveys, with complex sampling, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, over the years from 1987 to 2001 and 2002. The self-reported answers of 968 women in the first inquiry and of 1,125 women in the second inquiry were compared regarding the reply to the question about the execution of the Papanicolaou test "sometimes in a lifetime" in relation to age distribution, black skin, marital status, years of education and tendency to die because cervical cancer during the period from 1980 to 2007. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the sample regarding each item, with the level of significance set at p value >5%. RESULTS: from the first to the second inquiry there was a 24% increase in the execution of conventional Papanicolaou cytology (from 68.8% to 85%. The greatest variations in the increased coverage related to the personal attributes of the women were detected in black skin color, among single women and among women of lower schooling. Regarding the tendency to mortality rates due to cervical cancer, no clear ascending or declining tendency was observed along the 28 years studied (1980 to 2007. CONCLUSION: there was an increase in access to the cytological Papanicolaou test among the most vulnerable women. Since 2001 and 2002, the 85% coverage already reached WHO recommendation, although without a clear trend of decline in mortality due to cervical cancer in the following years, indicating that screening is only part of an effective and organized program for the control of cervical cancer, whose model must guarantee full women's health care.

  6. Avaliação da influência do uso de métodos contraceptivos sobre os resultados dos esfregaços de Papanicolaou - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1091 Evaluation of the influence of contraceptive methods on the results of Papanicolaou smears - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1091

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    Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a influência do uso de métodos contraceptivos como dispositivo intrauterino (DIU, contraceptivos hormonais (CPH e preservativo (PRESER, nos resultados dos esfregaços de Papanicolaou (Pap, por meio de análise retrospectiva de seus laudos e das informações sobre métodos contraceptivos de 2251 mulheres, distribuídas em: DIU (n=80, CPH (n=172, PRESER (n=40 e não usuárias (n=1959. As não usuárias apresentaram mais resultados normais e as com DIU mais alterações benignas. Os três grupos de usuárias, principalmente DIU, manifestaram mais metaplasia escamosa do que as não usuárias. Não houve aumento de ASCUS/LIS ou câncer nas usuárias de métodos contraceptivos. Predominaram as infecções candidíase e vaginose bacteriana e em DIU houve mais vaginose. Actinomyces sp. ocorreu apenas em DIU e Trichomonas vaginalis apenas em não usuárias. Assim, é importante a realização de Pap nas usuárias de DIU e CPH para acompanhar as alterações benignas, pois as mesmas podem predispor e/ou facilitar infecções, incluindo por HPVThis study aimed to evaluate the influence of the use of contraceptive methods, such as the intrauterine device (IDU, the hormonal contraceptive (HCP and the preservative (PRESER, on the results of Papanicolaou smears (Pap. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on Papanicolau results and on information from 2251 women's contraceptive methods, distributed in: IDU (n=80, HCP (n=172, PRESER (n=40 and non-users (n=1959. Non-users presented more normal results; and IDU users presented benign alterations. Among the three groups, the IDU users manifested more squaly squamous metaplasia than the non-users. There was no notice of ASCUS/SIL or cancer in the users of contraceptive methods. The infections with candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis prevailed. Particularly in IDU users, there was more vaginosis. Actinomyces sp. was only noticed in IDU users, and Trichomonas vaginalis in non-users. Thus

  7. Fatores associados à não realização do exame de Papanicolaou: um estudo de base populacional no Município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Factors associated with women's failure to submit to Pap smears: a population-based study in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Vivian Mae Schmidt Lima Amorim

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prevalência da não realização do exame de Papanicolaou segundo variáveis sócio-econômicas, demográficas e de comportamentos relacionados à saúde, em mulheres com 40 anos ou mais de idade, residentes no Município Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil. O estudo foi do tipo transversal, de base populacional em uma amostra de 290 mulheres. Os fatores associados à não realização do Papanicolaou, encontrados na análise multivariada, foram: ter de 40 a 59 anos, ser preta/parda, ter escolaridade de até 4 anos. Entre os motivos alegados por quem nunca realizou o Papanicolaou destacam-se: achar desnecessário (43,5%, sentir vergonha (28,1% e 13,7% por dificuldades relacionadas aos serviços. O SUS foi responsável por 43,2% dos exames de Papanicolaou realizados. Verificou-se a existência de discriminação racial e social na realização do exame, o que enfatiza a necessidade de intervenções que garantam melhor cobertura e atenção às mulheres mais vulneráveis à incidência e mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero.This study analyzes the prevalence of non-submittal to Pap smears according to socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related behavioral variables in women 40 years or older in Campinas, São Paulo State. This was a cross-sectional population-based study with a sample of 290 women. Based on multivariate analysis, factors associated with not having Pap smears were: age (40-59 years, race/ethnicity (black or mixed-race, and schooling (< 4 years. The following reasons were cited for not having Pap smears: considered unnecessary (43.5%, embarrassment (28.1%, and barriers related to health services (13.7%. The Unified National Health System performed 43.2% of the reported Pap smears. Health services should promote more equitable access to the health care system and improve the quality of care for women, since Pap smears are an effective tool against cervical cancer. The study confirmed that

  8. Has the ThinPrep method of cervical screening maintained its improvement over conventional smears in terms of specimen adequacy?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2009-04-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.

  9. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    OpenAIRE

    Vikrant Bhar Singh; Nalini Gupta; Raje Nijhawan; Radhika Srinivasan; Vanita Suri; Arvind Rajwanshi

    2015-01-01

    Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS) have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC) and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sa...

  10. Association between cervical lesion grade and micronucleus frequency in the Papanicolaou test

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    Caroline Tanski Bueno

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the frequency of micronuclei (MN and the cellular changes detected in the conventional Papanicolaou test. One hundred and seventy-four Papanicolaou test smears with cellular changes were examined. MN screening was done in cytopathological smears by counting 1,000 cervical cells in a light microscope. MN frequencies were significantly higher in the group with cellular changes compared to the control group (p < 0.001. The mean MN frequencies were 0.95 ± 1.12 (mean ± SD in the control group (n = 223, 2.98 ± 1.20 in individuals with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US (n = 50, 4.04 ± 1.45 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I (n = 52, 5.97 ± 1.83 in CIN II (n = 30, 7.29 ± 1.55 in CIN III (n = 17 and 8.64 ± 1.55 in invasive cancer (n = 25. These findings suggest that MN monitoring should be included as an additional criterion for the early detection of cytogenetic damage in routine examinations. This monitoring should be done in the same smear as used for cytopathological examination. More specific and systematic studies are necessary to confirm this proposal.

  11. Association between cervical lesion grade and micronucleus frequency in the Papanicolaou test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Caroline Tanski; Dornelles da Silva, Cláudia Maria; Barcellos, Regina Bones; da Silva, Juliana; Dos Santos, Carla Rossana; Menezes, João Evangelista Sampaio; Menezes, Honório Sampaio; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and the cellular changes detected in the conventional Papanicolaou test. One hundred and seventy-four Papanicolaou test smears with cellular changes were examined. MN screening was done in cytopathological smears by counting 1,000 cervical cells in a light microscope. MN frequencies were significantly higher in the group with cellular changes compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The mean MN frequencies were 0.95 ± 1.12 (mean ± SD) in the control group (n = 223), 2.98 ± 1.20 in individuals with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) (n = 50), 4.04 ± 1.45 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (n = 52), 5.97 ± 1.83 in CIN II (n = 30), 7.29 ± 1.55 in CIN III (n = 17) and 8.64 ± 1.55 in invasive cancer (n = 25). These findings suggest that MN monitoring should be included as an additional criterion for the early detection of cytogenetic damage in routine examinations. This monitoring should be done in the same smear as used for cytopathological examination. More specific and systematic studies are necessary to confirm this proposal.

  12. Use of supravital toluidine blue staining to improve the efficiency of fine-needle aspiration cytology reporting in comparison to papanicolaou stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Kanwal; Niazi, Shahida; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Imam, Sardar Fakhar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To see the efficiency, adequacy and accuracy of toluidine blue stained smears of FNAC of Breast thyroid and salivary glands swelling with comparison to conventional stained FNAC smears with Papanicolaou. Methods: A total of 114 aspirates from various sites were included in the study. The smears were stained with toluidine blue and conventional Papanicolaou stain and the cytomorphology of both the smears were compared. The values were tabulated and statistical tests of significance was applied. Results: Of the 114 aspirates included in our study the diagnostic accuracy by using papanicolaou was 78%, while it was upto 100% with supravital toluidine blue stained smears. The percentage of inadequacy was reduced to just 25%. The observations were statistically significant. Breast 37/48 (77%) and Salivary glands 11/48 (23%) respectively. The most commonly used categorization of a five-tier system was used for reporting of breast cytology, with categories ranging from insufficient materials (C1), benign (C2), atypical (C3), suspicious of malignancy (C4), or (C5) frankly malignant. Most of breast lesions were benign 25 (67.56%). There were only 9 (24.32%) malignant cases followed by 2 cases of C-4 and one case of C-3. Benign thyroid lesion were more frequent comprising of 51 (72.27%) cases. One case (1.5%) of papillary carcinoma was found while 13 case were follicular lesions. There were 4 (36.4%) cases of pleomorphic adenoma and 3 (27.3) cases of non-specific sialadenitis. There was one case (9%) of each lesion for mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoidcytic carcinoma and benign cyst. Conclusion: Toluidine blue stained study of FNAC improves the diagnostic accuracy by minimizing the smearing and drying artifact, loss of cell sample during fixation and staining which influences the diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26649003

  13. Unsatisfactory rate in liquid-based cervical samples as compared to conventional smears: A study from tertiary care hospital

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    Nalini Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developed countries adopted liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical cytology, partly because of its lower proportions of unsatisfactory (U/S/inadequate samples. This study was carried out to evaluate effect on the rate of U/S samples after introduction of LBC in our laboratory. Materials and Methods: An audit of U/S cervical samples was performed, which included split samples (n = 1000, only conventional Pap smear (CPS smears (n = 1000, and only LBC samples (n = 1000. The smears were reviewed by two observers independently, and adequacy for the samples was assessed as per The Bethesda System 2001. The reasons for U/S rate in split samples were categorized into various cytologic and/or technical reasons. Results: U/S rate was far less in only LBC samples (1.2% as compared to only CPS (10.5% cases. Cases in the satisfactory but limited category were also less in only LBC (0.4% as compared to only CPS (3.2% samples. The main reasons for U/S smears in split samples were low cell count (37.2% in CPS; 58.8% in LBC. The second main reason was low cellularity with excess blood and only excess blood in CPS samples. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction of U/S rate in LBC samples as compared to CPS samples, and the difference was statistically significant. The main cause of U/S samples in LBC was low cellularity indicating a technical fault in sample collection. The main cause of U/S rate in CPS was low cellularity followed by low cellularity with excess blood. Adequate training of sample takers and cytologists for the precise cell count to determine adequacy in smears can be of great help in reducing U/S rate.

  14. Unsatisfactory rate in liquid-based cervical samples as compared to conventional smears: A study from tertiary care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nalini; Bhar, Vikrant S.; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Suri, Vanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developed countries adopted liquid-based cytology (LBC) cervical cytology, partly because of its lower proportions of unsatisfactory (U/S)/inadequate samples. This study was carried out to evaluate effect on the rate of U/S samples after introduction of LBC in our laboratory. Materials and Methods: An audit of U/S cervical samples was performed, which included split samples (n = 1000), only conventional Pap smear (CPS) smears (n = 1000), and only LBC samples (n = 1000). The smears were reviewed by two observers independently, and adequacy for the samples was assessed as per The Bethesda System 2001. The reasons for U/S rate in split samples were categorized into various cytologic and/or technical reasons. Results: U/S rate was far less in only LBC samples (1.2%) as compared to only CPS (10.5%) cases. Cases in the satisfactory but limited category were also less in only LBC (0.4%) as compared to only CPS (3.2%) samples. The main reasons for U/S smears in split samples were low cell count (37.2% in CPS; 58.8% in LBC). The second main reason was low cellularity with excess blood and only excess blood in CPS samples. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction of U/S rate in LBC samples as compared to CPS samples, and the difference was statistically significant. The main cause of U/S samples in LBC was low cellularity indicating a technical fault in sample collection. The main cause of U/S rate in CPS was low cellularity followed by low cellularity with excess blood. Adequate training of sample takers and cytologists for the precise cell count to determine adequacy in smears can be of great help in reducing U/S rate. PMID:27382408

  15. Citologia vaginal a fresco na gravidez: correlação com a citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou Fresh wet mount in pregnancy: correlation with Pap smears

    OpenAIRE

    Amadeu Ramos da Silva Filho

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: analisar o conteúdo vaginal utilizando o exame citológico a fresco na primeira consulta pré-natal em mulheres com ou sem queixas genitais e correlacionar os resultados com os encontrados na citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou. A microscopia direta durante a gravidez deve ser valorizada e reconhecida como método propedêutico capaz de diagnosticar, de forma imediata, 90% dos casos de vaginose bacteriana, candidose e tricomonose. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo em 216 gestantes, ...

  16. Comparison of liquid-based preparation and conventional smear of fine-needle aspiration cytology of lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priya; Rohilla, Manish; Dey, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have compared the cytomorphologic characteristics of liquid-based preparation (LBP) [SurePath (SP)] cytology and conventional smear (CP) preparations on fine-needle aspiration (FNAC) material by a semi-quantitative scoring system for cases of lymphadenopathy. In this prospective study, a total of 52 consecutive cases of FNAC of lymphadenopathy were included. The first pass was used for CP followed by LBP with the help of SP technique. The smears were independently compared and assessed by two observers (PS and PD). The semiquantitative grading was compared in two groups by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The background information, cell architecture, pleomorphism, nuclear and cytoplasmic details, and three-dimensional structures were significantly different in LBP and CP smears. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a relatively simple technique, which exhibits good nuclear and cytoplasmic details with the absence of obscuring background material. Even the number of slides and area per slide to be screened were less than the conventional preparation but caution must be applied to interpret the slides and secure a diagnosis, especially if LBC is the first and only method applied for diagnosis.

  17. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

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    Vikrant Bhar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sample was obtained using cervex-brush. CPS was prepared from the brush and the brush head was suspended in the LBC vial and processed by SurePath™ LBC. Results: There were 4.3% unsatisfactory (U/S cases in CPS and 1.7% in LBC; the main cause is insufficient cells, and excess of blood in CPS. About 25/100 (2.5% split samples had epithelial abnormalities both in CPS and LBC (1.2%-atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 0.4%-low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.2%-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5%-squamous cell carcinoma; 0.1%-atypical glandular cells favouring neoplasia; 0.2%-adenocarcinoma. Inflammatory organisms were almost equally identified in both techniques but were better seen in LBC samples. Conclusions: LBC technique leads to significant reduction of U/S rate. LBC samples offered better clarity, uniform spread of smears, less time for screening and better handling of hemorrhagic and inflammatory samples. LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to CPS.

  18. Cobertura e fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou em São Luís, Maranhão Coverage and factors associated with not performing Pap smear screening tests in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

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    Márcia Maria Hiluy Nicolau de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar a cobertura, a periodicidade, e identificar fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolau, 465 mulheres de 25 a 49 anos residentes no município de São Luís foram entrevistadas em 1998. Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar pelo método de amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios. Na análise estatística foram calculados intervalos de confiança de 95% corrigidos pelo desenho do estudo, e os "odds ratio" brutos e ajustados por regressão logística. A cobertura do Papanicolaou pelo menos uma vez na vida foi de 82,4% (Intervalo de Confiança 95%, 76,6 - 87,0%, praticamente atingindo a cobertura mínima necessária de 85% para causar impacto epidemiológico na incidência e mortalidade por câncer cérvico-uterino. O intervalo entre a realização dos exames foi curto, pois 65,8% das mulheres repetiram o exame com até um ano. Após o ajuste para fatores de confundimento foram associados à não realização do Papanicolaou: não ter companheiro, ter cinco a oito anos de escolaridade, não ter realizado consulta médica nos três últimos meses e morar em domicílio cujo chefe de família tem ocupação manual não especializada. Ter tido de dois a quatro parceiros sexuais nos três últimos meses foi associado a menor risco de não realização do preventivo. Em capital do Nordeste, a cobertura do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou foi semelhante à relatada em outros estudos nacionais. Entretanto, algumas mulheres realizaram citologias desnecessárias a intervalos curtos, implicando em desperdício de recursos e dificultando o acesso aos grupos mais vulneráveis que apresentaram maiores riscos de não testagem.In 1998, 465 women from 25 to 49 years of age, inhabitants of the municipality of São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil were interviewed to estimate Pap smear coverage, interval between tests and to identify factors associated with not performing Pap smears. A three-stage household

  19. A methodological framework to distinguish spectrum effects from spectrum biases and to assess diagnostic and screening test accuracy for patient populations: Application to the Papanicolaou cervical cancer smear test

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    Coste Joël

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A spectrum effect was defined as differences in the sensitivity or specificity of a diagnostic test according to the patient's characteristics or disease features. A spectrum effect can lead to a spectrum bias when subgroup variations in sensitivity or specificity also affect the likelihood ratios and thus post-test probabilities. We propose and illustrate a methodological framework to distinguish spectrum effects from spectrum biases. Methods Data were collected for 1781 women having had a cervical smear test and colposcopy followed by biopsy if abnormalities were detected (the reference standard. Logistic models were constructed to evaluate both the sensitivity and specificity, and the likelihood ratios, of the test and to identify factors independently affecting the test's characteristics. Results For both tests, human papillomavirus test, study setting and age affected sensitivity or specificity of the smear test (spectrum effect, but only human papillomavirus test and study setting modified the likelihood ratios (spectrum bias for clinical reading, whereas only human papillomavirus test and age modified the likelihood ratios (spectrum bias for "optimized" interpretation. Conclusion Fitting sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios simultaneously allows the identification of covariates that independently affect diagnostic or screening test results and distinguishes spectrum effect from spectrum bias. We recommend this approach for the development of new tests, and for reporting test accuracy for different patient populations.

  20. Access to Papanicolaou Test by the Unified Health System users

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    Vanessa Franco de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand how is the access to the public health service users in the Papanicolaou Test. Methods: qualitative study, with 52 women who have changes in the Pap smear exam, questioning the exam achievement frequency and the difficulties of its access and the consultations. It was developed a thematic analysis based on the Fekete accessibility reference. Results: three categories emerged: access to information on the frequency of Pap smears, highlighting the completion of the examination linked only to the professional application; access to Pap smears, in which most women do not have difficulty; access to a return visit, showing the difficulty of women getting back into service after the exam. Conclusion: most women have easy access to the Pap smear. However, there are limitations on the return visit, hindering to establish immediate actions to the beginning of treatment.

  1. Access to Papanicolaou Test by the Unified Health System users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Franco de Carvalho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand how is the access to the public health service users in the Papanicolaou Test. Methods: qualitative study, with 52 women who have changes in the Pap smear exam, questioning the exam achievement frequency and the difficulties of its access and the consultations. It was developed a thematic analysis based on the Fekete accessibility reference. Results: three categories emerged: access to information on the frequency of Pap smears, highlighting the completion of the examination linked only to the professional application; access to Pap smears, in which most women do not have difficulty; access to a return visit, showing the difficulty of women getting back into service after the exam. Conclusion: most women have easy access to the Pap smear. However, there are limitations on the return visit, hindering to establish immediate actions to the beginning of treatment.

  2. Desempenho de enfermeiras na coleta de material cervico uterino para exame de Papanicolaou Desempeño de enfermeras en la recolección de material cérvico uterino para examen de Papanicolaou Performance of nurses in gathering material for Pap smear test

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    Nancy Costa de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    endocervice; dos colecciones llevó tiempo excesivo para fijación. Espéculos y pinzas Cherron fueron escasas; 63 (100% láminas fueron satisfactorias. CONCLUSION: Ha déficit del conocimiento y técnica, escasez de materiales, y aunque de las imperfecciones observadas en colección, 100% de las láminas tuvieran adecuación conferida.OBJECTIVES: Verify nurses' knowledge and practice to material uterine cervical, to identify availability of material of collection and to verify suitability of the smears. METHODS: Transversal study, at service, was carried from August to October 2006, with 21 nurses. Knowledge was investigated through questionnaire; collection technique and material were researched through observation; suitability of the smears was verified in the lab reports. RESULTS: Seventeen nurses evaluated themselves security to carry through the examination; two had asked about emptiness of bladder and four had explained procedure; none inquired using a shower, sexual abstinence and bleed intermenstrual; two had left to use of spatula correctly and two had considered unnecessary endocervix collection; two collections the time for fixation was excessive. Speculums and Cherron clamps had been insufficient; 63 (100% blades were adjusted. CONCLUSION: It has been detected deficit of knowledge and technique, insufficiency of materials, and although the imperfections observed in the collection, 100% of the findings had conferred adequateness to the blades.

  3. Utility of manual liquid-based cytology and conventional smears in the evaluation of various fine-needle aspiration samples

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    P Arul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC preparation is a way to improve and refine the fine-needle aspiration (FNA samples. There are a few studies comparing LBC with conventional smear (CS. Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of manual LBC (MLBC and CS preparations in various FNA samples. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 FNA samples from various anatomical sites were evaluated using MLBC and CS preparations. Cellularity, blood, informative background, monolayers, cell architecture, cytoplasmic, and nuclear preservation were compared with MLBC and CS preparations by Wilcoxon signed rank test. P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results: MLBC preparations were superior to CS preparations in view of absence of blood and debris (P = 0.001, presence of monolayers (P < 0.001, and preservation of cytoplasmic (P = 0.001 and nuclear details (P = 0.001. However, no statistically significant differences were found between MLBC and CS preparations with regard to cellularity (P = 0.157, informative background (P = 0.083, and architecture (P = 0.739. Conclusion: MLBC preparations in FNAC are a safe, easy, and less time-consuming procedure, and it may have promising diagnostic value in the evaluation of FNA samples from various anatomical sites. However, the use of both MLBC and CS preparations is recommended to achieve optimal diagnostic yield.

  4. Utility of manual liquid-based cytology and conventional smears in the evaluation of various fine-needle aspiration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul, P

    2016-01-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) preparation is a way to improve and refine the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples. There are a few studies comparing LBC with conventional smear (CS). The present study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of manual LBC (MLBC) and CS preparations in various FNA samples. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 FNA samples from various anatomical sites were evaluated using MLBC and CS preparations. Cellularity, blood, informative background, monolayers, cell architecture, cytoplasmic, and nuclear preservation were compared with MLBC and CS preparations by Wilcoxon signed rank test. P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. MLBC preparations were superior to CS preparations in view of absence of blood and debris (P = 0.001), presence of monolayers (P < 0.001), and preservation of cytoplasmic (P = 0.001) and nuclear details (P = 0.001). However, no statistically significant differences were found between MLBC and CS preparations with regard to cellularity (P = 0.157), informative background (P = 0.083), and architecture (P = 0.739). MLBC preparations in FNAC are a safe, easy, and less time-consuming procedure, and it may have promising diagnostic value in the evaluation of FNA samples from various anatomical sites. However, the use of both MLBC and CS preparations is recommended to achieve optimal diagnostic yield.

  5. Detection and prevalence of IUD-associated Actinomyces colonization and related morbidity. A prospective study of 69,925 cervical smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti, J F; Pappas, A A; Graber, C D; Williamson, H O; Willis, N F

    1982-02-26

    Cervical Papanicolaou smears from 69,925 women were screened prospectively for the presence of Actinomyces israelii. The organism was not identified in non-intrauterine (contraceptive) device (IUD)-wearers. The prevalence of A israelii among IUD wearers ranged from 1.6% (general population) to 5.3% (clinic population). Protracted IUD use seemed to predispose to a higher incidence of infection. Direct immunofluorescence proved to be a more accurate and specific method of identification when compared with conventional light microscopy and anaerobic culture. Two of 112 women with direct immunofluorescence-proved A israelii had significant clinical infections. It appears that in the vast majority of cases, IUD-associated Actinomyces colonization produces only a superficial infestation. Conservative management is suggested for asymptomatic patients with cytologically detected Actinomyces to include removal of the IUD and repeated Papanicolaou smear after the next menstrual period.

  6. Utility of Papanicolaou test in diagnosis of cervical lesions: a study in a tertiary care centre of western Uttar Pradesh

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    Mithila Bisht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among females in India. It is also one of the major causes of deaths among them. Papanicolaou (Pap cytological test helps in detecting the early epithelial abnormalities in cervical cells. The morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer has come down in countries with well-established screening programmes at national level. This study was conducted to emphasize the value of cervical screening as a tool for early detection of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of cervix. Slide positivity rate was computed and clinico-pathological correlation was done. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2014 (3 years, on 2202 women aged between 20-70 years coming for a Pap smear examination in a tertiary care hospital in Bareilly, India. After staining with conventional Papanicolaou technique, all cases were classified as per Bethesda nomenclature (2001. Results: Out of 2202 cases, 85.16% slides were found to be negative for intraepithelial abnormalities and 14.84% slides were labelled as positive for epithelial lesions. 97.67% of high grade lesions were found in women more than 40 years. Smears with epithelial cell abnormality were found more common in older age groups whereas smears negative for epithelial cell abnormality were found more common in young age groups. Conclusion: Pap test is a cost effective cancer screening and is a simple method to detect various lesions of cervix, non-neoplastic as well as neoplastic. High risk screening programmes should be directed to all women >40 years. Pap test is especially useful to diagnose precancerous lesions of cervix, thereby early detection of these lesions and subsequent proper treatment can be helpful in prevention of cervical cancer. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1070-1076

  7. Cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e fatores associados à não-realização: um olhar sobre o Programa de Prevenção do Câncer do Colo do Útero em Pernambuco, Brasil Pap smear coverage and factors associated with non-participation in cervical cancer screening: an analysis of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Kamila Matos de Albuquerque

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se avaliar a cobertura do teste Papanicolaou no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, nos três anos anteriores à pesquisa, entre mulheres de 18-69 anos, e identificar fatores associados à sua não-realização. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de base populacional, utilizando-se dados de inquérito realizado no período 2005-2006 com 640 indivíduos, selecionados por amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios de seleção. Foram analisadas informações sobre 258 mulheres. A cobertura do Papanicolaou entre mulheres de 18-69 anos foi de 58,7% e de 25-59 anos de 66,2%. Viver sem companheiro, não ter dado à luz e não ter realizado consulta médica no último ano mostraram associação com a não-realização do teste. Na análise multivariada, o baixo grau de escolaridade mostrou também efeito significativo. A cobertura do Papani-colaou em Pernambuco foi satisfatória, porém insuficiente para impactar no perfil epidemiológico do câncer do colo uterino. É preciso fortalecer e qualificar as ações de promoção da saúde, visando reduzir as desigualdades e estimular o protagonismo das mulheres nas ações de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino.This research aimed to assess coverage of Pap smear screening in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, during the three years prior to the study, among women 18 to 69 years of age, and to identify factors associated with women's lack of participation in screening. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study, using data from a survey in 2005-2006 with 640 women, selected by three-stage cluster sampling. Information on 258 women was analyzed. Pap smear coverage was 58.7% for women 18 to 69 years of age and 66.2% for those 25 to 59. Single marital status, no history of childbirth, and not having consulted a physician in the previous year were associated with lack of Pap smear screening. In the multivariate analysis, low schooling also showed a significant effect. Pap smear coverage in

  8. Perfil de mulheres de 40 a 49 anos cadastradas em um núcleo de saúde da família, quanto à realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou Perfil de mujeres de 40 a 49 años registradas en un núcleo de salud de la familia en cuanto a la realización del examen preventivo de Papanicolaou Pap smear realization profile of women between 40 and 49 years registered at a family health center

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    Aline da Silveira Ramos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de pesquisa de abordagem descritiva, exploratória, cujo objetivo é traçar o perfil de mulheres na faixa etária de 40 a 49 anos, em um Núcleo de Saúde da Família do Município de Ribeirão Preto, segundo as variáveis: cadastro no serviço, posse de convênio e data de realização do preventivo, entre outras. Foram coletados dados dos prontuários de 213 mulheres. Utilizou-se o programa Epi Info 6.0 para digitação, análise e criação do banco de dados. Os resultados revelam que 49% das mulheres realizaram o preventivo de Papanicolaou pelo menos uma vez no período de 2000 a 2003, 54,5% não possuíam convênio de saúde e a realização do exame é maior entre essas. Concluiu-se que a organização da atenção à saúde, nos moldes da Saúde da Família, favorece a adesão ao preventivo. Recomenda-se a realização de novos estudos para se obter um perfil mais representativo da população cadastrada no serviço.La finalidad de esta investigación descriptiva y exploratoria es trazar el perfil de mujeres en el rango de edad de 40 a 49 años, en un núcleo de Salud de la Familia del Municipio de Ribeirão Preto, según las variables: registro en el servicio, posesión de plan de salud y data de realización del preventivo, entre otras. La recopilación de datos abarcó los registros de 213 mujeres. El programa Epi Info 6.0 fue utilizado para digitación, análisis y creación del banco de datos. Los resultados revelan que el 49% de las mujeres realizó el preventivo de Papanicolaou al menos una vez en el período de 2000 a 2003, el 54,5% no poseía plan de salud y la realización del examen es mayor entre estas. Se concluyó que la organización de la atención de salud, de acuerdo con el modelo de Salud de la Familia, favorece la adhesión al preventivo. Recomendamos la realización de nuevos estudios para obtener un perfil más representativo de la población registrada en el servicio.This descriptive and exploratory

  9. Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation

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    Urmila Banik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ≥ 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ≥ 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

  10. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify t...... other previously applied intelligent approaches....

  11. Comparison of PCR, culturing and Pap smear microscopy for accurate diagnosis of genital Actinomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Dilek; Demirezen, Şayeste; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Gülmez Kivanç, Dolunay; Beksaç, Mehmet Sinan

    2013-05-01

    Members of the genus Actinomyces, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria, are normal inhabitants of the mucosal surfaces of the oral, gastrointestinal and genital tracts. Identification of these bacteria using conventional methods is generally difficult because of their complex transport and growth requirements and their fastidious and slow-growing nature. However, in recent years, the advancement of molecular techniques has provided much improved identification and differentiation of closely related Actinomyces species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the PCR technique in the diagnosis of genital Actinomyces in comparison with culturing and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear microscopy. Multiple sampling was conducted from 200 women using smear microscopy, culturing and PCR. Cyto-brushes were smeared on glass slides and stained using the routine Pap technique. Culturing was performed from a sterile swab, and Actinomyces were determined using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. PCR was performed from a second swab, and the Actinomyces type was determined using type-specific primers designed in our laboratory. Only one vaginal fluid sample (0.5%) revealed Actinomyces-like organisms on Pap smear examination. Actinomyces were detected in nine samples (4.5%) using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. Using PCR, eight samples (4%) were found positive for Actinomyces. No specimens that gave positive results by Pap smear microscopy and culturing could be confirmed by PCR. Pap smear microscopy and culturing were both found to have zero sensitivity for Actinomyces. PCR appears to be a sensitive and reliable diagnostic method for the detection of Actinomyces, which are difficult to cultivate from genital samples. PCR can be used for diagnostic confirmation in cases diagnosed by conventional methods, to prevent false-positive results.

  12. Adesão de mulheres de 18 a 50 anos ao exame colpocitológico na estratégia saúde da família Adhesión de mujeres de los 18 a los 50 años a una prueba de Papanicolaou en la estrategia de salud de la familia Adherence of women aged 18 to 50 years to a cervical smear test in the Family Health Strategy

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    Wágna Maria de Araújo Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo exploratório de natureza quantitativa que teve como objetivo avaliar a adesão das mulheres ao exame colpocitológico (COP na Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF de Iporá, Goiás, Brasil. A amostra do estudo foi composta por 114 mulheres com idade mínima de 18 e máxima de 50 anos de idade que compareceram nas unidades de ESF para realizar o COP nos meses de outubro e novembro de 2010. A análise descritiva realizada pelo programa Epi Info 3.5.1 mostrou que a maior adesão está na faixa etária de 46 a 50 anos de idade (24% e a menor nas de 18 a 20 e de 41 a 45 (10% cada. Entre as entrevistadas, 70% realiza o exame a cada dois anos ou menos e 12% nunca o realizou. A unidade de ESF com maior adesão foi a do Jardim Monte Alto, com 16%, e a de menor adesão foi a do bairro Umuarama, com 8%. Concluiu-se que a prevenção é a principal justificação das mulheres para a realização do COP.Estudio descriptivo exploratorio de corte cuantitativo, que tuvo por objeto evaluar la adhesión de las mujeres a las pruebas de rastreo de Papanicolaou en la Estrategia Salud de la Familia (ESF de Iporá, Goias, Brasil. La muestra del estudio consistió en 114 mujeres con una edad mínima de 18 años y una edad máxima de 50 años que asistieron a centros de ESF para realizar la citología entre los meses de octubre y noviembre de 2010. El análisis descriptivo realizado con Epi Info 3.5.1, mostró que la mayor adhesión se encuentra entre los 46 a 50 años de edad (24% y la menor entre los 18 a 20 y 41 a 45 (10% cada uno. Entre las entrevistadas, el 70% realiza el examen cada dos años o menos y el 12% nunca lo ha realizado. La unidad de ESF con mayor adhesión fue la del Jardim Monte Alto (16% y la de menor adherencia fue la del barrio Umuarama con 8%. Se concluyó que la prevención es la razón principal de las mujeres para hacerse el examen.A descriptive exploratory study of quantitative nature with the aim of evaluating the adherence

  13. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L; Rothblat, I; Warhol, M

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative, polyploid and aneuploid. HPV in situ hybridization was performed with a cocktail of probes specific to HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. There was a good correlation between normal cytology and normal DNA histograms. Cytologically normal smears with bacterial or fungal infections showed a high proliferation index. HPV infection correlated with DNA polyploidy but was seen in 15 of 29 smears classified as cytologically normal. Morphologically abnormal Papanicolaou smears correlated with aneuploid DNA content. Smears classified as intraepithelial neoplasia correlated with aneuploid DNA content in all 12 cases. Four of five cases cytologically suspicious for HPV infection had HPV by in situ hybridization.

  14. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT AND CORRILATION OF PAP SMEAR AND LIQUID BASED CYTOLOGY IN BAD CERVIX

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    Khushboo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study to analyze the prevalence of premalignant lesion based on Pap smear and liquid based cytology in patients of bad cervix. OBJECTIVE: To compare sensitivity and specificity of two methods for screening of bad cervix and to know IDR (increase detection rate of cervical cancer by conventional Pap smear and liquid based cytology. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 200 women attending Gynaecology OPD were random selection on the basis of inclusion criteria. All 200 selected women were subjected for down staging through per speculum examination for identification of bad cervix. Pap smears of all 200 selected women were taken and ensured that no local douche, antiseptic cream and no local internal examination was done on the day of test. The prepared smears were then stained according to Papanicolaou's technique. Liquid based cytology smears preparing by using cervical brush 1-1.5cm were inserted into the cervical os until the large outer bristles of the brush touch ectocervix. Data collected for sociodemographic, parity, down staging clinical examination Pap smear and LBC was organised, interpreted and analysis on appropriate statistical software. P value < 0.05 is considered significant RESULT: Analysis revealed that the maximum number of women in our study are from middle age group(31-40yrs, low socioeconomic status, married before 18 yrs, multipara, do not use any contraceptive, uneducated, urban, Muslim population.in this study more abnormal smear is seen in LBC as compared to pap smear. Sensitivity and specificity for LBC is more as compare to pap smear. CONCLUSION: In low resource setting like ours were facilities for radiology, chemo- radiotherapy and supportive care are limited or unavailable. It is important to identify which resources fill healthcare need most effectively and to consider alternative approaches, LBC is strongly advocated in the best interest of public health, by improving the quality of the sample and reducing the

  15. Comparison of the Quality of Pap smear Slides Taken from the Cervix Using Two Fixation Methods

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    Keshavarz Najmeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pap smear or Pap test is a cytological method based on sampling from the cervix (or neck of the womb in women and preparation of smear and direct observation under microscope. Pap smear is now used as a common test for screening in women. Since the Pap smear method has been used as a screening test for early detection of cervical cancer, the incidence of aggressive cervical cancer and mortality caused by it has reduced by 70%. So, conducting of experiments to improve the quality of prepared slides and reduction of red blood cells by proper fixators for better diagnosis of the disease are the purposes of this research. This study is aimed to comprise the adequacy of Pap smear taken from the cervix using conventional fixative spray and Carnoy’s fixative methods. Methods: this study was performed on 202 blood Pap smear slides taken from 101 cervixes of women with abnormal uterine bleeding. These patients referred to Zeinabieh and Shahid Faghihi Hospitals related to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2012 and 2013. After observation of two bleedings, two Pap smear slides were prepared from each sample; both of prepared slides from cervical cells of each sample were fixed at first by conventional fixative spray and one of them was then placed in Carnoy’s solution for 22 minutes and air-dried. The slides were then stained with Papanicolaou stain and examined by two different cytologists in a double-blind fashion. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS. Results: the results showed that the presence of squamous cells (p=0.004, glandular cells (p=0.001, transformation zone cells (p=0.001, cellular inadequacy (p=0.002, distribution of inflammatory cells (p=0.001 and metaplastic cells (p=0.001 were more on the spray-fixed slides. The mean percentage of blood on the slides (p=0.091 and distribution of microbial agents (p=1 on the spray-fixed and Carnoy’s-fixed slides did not show statistically a significant difference. Discussion

  16. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria by conventional peripheral blood smear examination with Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC and Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT - A comparative study

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    Bhat Sandhya K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. Recently, many new rapid diagnostic tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC examination and rapid antigen detection methods are being widely used. We made an attempt to compare peripheral smear, QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of malaria. Materials and Methods: A total number of 500 samples were collected from patients presenting with classical symptoms of malaria. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman’s stain. QBC, Histidine Rich Protein-II antigen test and plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase tests were done using commercially available kits. Results: Taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 90.9%, 100%, 100% and 98.6% respectively. QBC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.31% respectively. HRP-II antigen detection showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 56.06%, 100%, 100% and 94.20%. pLDH showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.40% respectively. Conclusion: In our study, QBC had highest sensitivity followed by pLDH assay. Leishman’s stained thick smear is cost effective but requires technical expertise to interpret the results, so if facilities are available, QBC can be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available rapid diagnostic test devices can be used, especially in endemic areas.

  17. Value of centrifugated liquid-based cytology by Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald in oral epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim; Edris, Ali Mahmmoud; Mohmed, Eneel Ahmed; Hussein, Mohammed Omer M

    2009-01-01

    For many years, liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed for cervical cancer screening and not oral cancer, as it requires automated devices. The aim of this study was to compare the utility of centrifugated CLBC preparation with that of direct preparation in oral lesions, by Papanicolaou (Pap) and May Grünwald-Giemsa's (MGG) methods. A total of 100 consecutive cases of oral lesions were investigated. We compared the results obtained by the CLBC performed by cytocentrifugation with those obtained by direct smear applying Pap and MGG methods. The comparison between CLBC and direct smears was based on the thickening or adequacy of the smear, distribution of cells and staining quality. All smears in CLBC and direct preparation were found adequate. For thickness of the smear, 40% and 42% were excellent, 33% and 30% were good, and 27% and 28% were acceptable by LBC and direct preparation, respectively. For the distribution of cells and scantiness of background elements, 92 (92%) smears of the CLBC have revealed clear, well distributed smears, compared to 70 (70%) of those in direct preparation. For the staining quality with the Pap method, 39% and 69% were excellent staining quality, 25% and 20% were good, and 36% and 11% were acceptable for CLBC and direct preparation, respectively. In MGG method, 9% and 22% were excellent staining quality, 23% and 36% were good and 68% and 43% were acceptable for CLBC and direct preparation respectively. CLBC performed by cytocentrifugation is inexpensive, and reduces inadequate smears and background staining. PMID:21139883

  18. História prévia de realização de teste de Papanicolaou e câncer do colo do útero: estudo caso-controle na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caso-controle hospitalar foi realizado de 2007 a 2010 para estimar a associação de história prévia de colpocitologia e câncer do colo do útero na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostra consistiu de 152 casos histologicamente confirmados e 169 controles selecionados no mesmo hospital dos casos. A análise foi feita de acordo com um modelo em três níveis hierárquicos; considerando as variáveis sociodemográficas (nível distal, sexual/reprodutivas e de estilo de vida (nível intermediário e a história prévia de colpocitologia (nível proximal. Odds ratios (OR e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95% foram calculados pela regressão logística não condicional. Ter história prévia de três ou mais colpocitologias conferiu uma proteção de 84% (OR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,074; 0,384 após ajuste pelas variáveis selecionadas. Os resultados acentuam a importância do exame preventivo ginecológico no risco desse câncer e fortalecem a necessidade de aumentar a aderência às normas do programa brasileiro, bem como de identificar e capturar mulheres relutantes para o rastreamento da doença.This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010 aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal, sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate, and previous Pap smear (proximal. Odds ratios (OR and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384 after adjusting for selected variables. The

  19. A Study of 13315 Papanicolau Smear Diagnoses in Shohada Hospital

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    Maryam Afrakhteh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to review Papanicolaou (Pap smears in patients of Shohada hospital in Tehran.Materials and methods:  A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database search of all Pap smear reports from 1995 to 2005 at cytopathology department was reviewed. The abnormal Pap smear reports based on the Bethesda System were assessed.Results: A total of 13315 Pap smear reports were reviewed from patients aging 20 to 79 years old. Totally 6065 (45.55% cases had diagnosis of ‘negative', 293(2.21% smears were labeled as ‘inadequate', and 6799 (51.06% reports had ‘Benign cellular changes'. There were 158(1.18% abnormal Pap smears consisting of 84 (53.18% SIL with undetermined grade (ASC-US, 28(17.73% low grade SIL (LSIL, 17(10.75% high grade SIL (HSIL, 27(17.08% carcinoma and 2(1.26% atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS. Overall incidence of the cervical cancer among these samples was 0.2%. Benign cellular changes numbered 6799(51.06%, of which 5365 (78.9% smears demonstrated infectious processes.Conclusion: The number of abnormal pap smears in this study is less than western countries, but is comparable with Middle East and Islamic regions. More prospective studies are recommended.

  20. Oral rinse-based cytology and conventional exfoliative cytology: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulki, Shaila; Shetty, Pushparaj; Pai, Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Simple screening test for resource-challenged areas. To compare specimen adequacy and diagnostic agreement between oral rinse-based smears and conventional smears in oral cancer, oral leukoplakia, and normal controls. Twenty-five histologically confirmed cases of oral cancer, 29 clinically diagnosed cases of oral leukoplakia, and 54 normal controls were subjected to the oral rub-and-rinse technique and the conventional exfoliative cytology. Smears were consequently stained with the Papanicolaou (PAP) stain and were examined independently by two different cytopathologists in a double-blind fashion. The results were classified as: Negative, atypical, positive, and unsatisfactory. Furthermore, they were compared, to assess the sample adequacy, cellular distribution, staining, leucocytes/inflammation and cellular clarity in both the smears. Chi square test and Wilcoxon-matched pairs signed rank test (P ≤ 0.05). Among the cancer cases, 84% showed positive, 8% atypical, and 8% unsatisfactory, after using the conventional technique, whereas, the oral rinse technique showed 80% positive, 16% atypical, and 4% unsatisfactory cases. The conventional technique showed 44.82, 37.93, and 6.89% and the oral rinse technique showed 48.27, 31.03, and 20.68% negative, positive, and atypical cases, respectively, among the leukoplakia cases. Among the normal controls, 9.26 and 90.74% and with the oral rinse technique 3.70 and 96.29% showed atypical and negative cases with the conventional technique. Sample adequacy and cellular clarity showed a statistically significant difference between both techniques. Both smears were diagnostically reliable, however, the oral rinse-based method showed an overall improvement in sample adequacy and cellular clarity.

  1. Cervical pap smear- A prospective study in a tertiary hospital

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    S Pudasaini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women worldwide and most common gynaecological cancer in developing countries. Papanicolaou smear is a simple and cost effective screening test for cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate and interpret the cervical pap smear cytology in a tertiary hospital. The interpretation and reporting of the pap smear is based on 2001Bethesda system.Materials and methods: This is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary hospital, Nepal Medical College over a period of two and a half years (January 2013 to June 2015. All cervical pap smears received in the department of Pathology in the study period were included.Results: A total of 4160 cervical pap smears were reported in the study period. Majority of the cases were Negative for Intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (87.9%. Bacterial vaginosis, atrophy and reactive cellular changes associated with inflammation were seen in 5.3%, 2.4% and 1.5% cases respectively.   Epithelial cell abnormalities (0.5% include Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and High grade intraepithelial lesion. 88% of Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was seen in reproductive age group (20-45 years.Conclusion: Cervical cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in the developing countries. Pap smear is the simple and cost effective screening tool to detect pre invasive cervical epithelial lesions.

  2. Predictors of Iranian women's intention to first papanicolaou test practice: An application of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdari, T; Hassani, L; Shojaeizadeh, D; Hajizadeh, E; Nedjat, S; Abedini, M

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of papanicolaou (Pap) test in the early detection and timely treatment of cervical cancer, present study was designed to determine predictors of a sample of Iranian women's intention to first Pap test practice based on the protection motivation theory (PMT) variables. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 240 women referral to the 30 primary health care clinics were selected. They completed a developed scale based on PMT variables including intention, perceived vulnerability and severity, fear, response costs, response efficacy and self-efficacy. Path analysis was used to determine the association between predictive factors and intention. The results showed that PMT had goodness of fit with a χ2/df = 2.37, df = 28, P= 0.001 and RMSEA = 0.076. PMT explained 42% of the variance in women's intention to get first Pap smear test. Self-efficacy (b = 0.55, Ptheory-based educational interventions associated with Pap testing among women.

  3. Age-specific patterns of unsatisfactory results for conventional Pap smears and liquid-based cytology: data from two randomised clinical trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castle, P.E.; Bulten, J.; Confortini, M.; Klinkhamer, P.; Pellegrini, A.; Siebers, A.G.; Ronco, G.; Arbyn, M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of unsatisfactory cervical cell samples in liquid-based cytology (LBC) versus conventional cytology (CC) by age. DESIGN: Randomised clinical trials. SETTING: Population-based cervical cancer screening in the Netherlands and Italy. POPULATION: Asymptomatic women inv

  4. Age-specific patterns of unsatisfactory results for conventional Pap smears and liquid-based cytology: data from two randomised clinical trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castle, P.E.; Bulten, J.; Confortini, M.; Klinkhamer, P.; Pellegrini, A.; Siebers, A.G.; Ronco, G.; Arbyn, M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of unsatisfactory cervical cell samples in liquid-based cytology (LBC) versus conventional cytology (CC) by age. DESIGN: Randomised clinical trials. SETTING: Population-based cervical cancer screening in the Netherlands and Italy. POPULATION: Asymptomatic women inv

  5. Value of centrifugated liquid-based cytology by Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald in oral epithelial cells

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    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available For many years, liquid-based cytology (LBC has been developed for cervical cancer screening and not oral cancer, as it requires automated devices. The aim of this study was to compare the utility of centrifugated CLBC preparation with that of direct preparation in oral lesions, by Papanicolaou (Pap and May Grünwald-Giemsa's (MGG methods. A total of 100 consecutive cases of oral lesions were investigated. We compared the results obtained by the CLBC performed by cytocentrifugation with those obtained by direct smear applying Pap and MGG methods. The comparison between CLBC and direct smears was based on the thickening or adequacy of the smear, distribution of cells and staining quality. All smears in CLBC and direct preparation were found adequate. For thickness of the smear, 40% and 42% were excellent, 33% and 30% were good, and 27% and 28% were acceptable by LBC and direct preparation, respectively. For the distribution of cells and scantiness of background elements, 92 (92% smears of the CLBC have revealed clear, well distributed smears, compared to 70 (70% of those in direct preparation. For the staining quality with the Pap method, 39% and 69% were excellent staining quality, 25% and 20% were good, and 36% and 11% were acceptable for CLBC and direct preparation, respectively. In MGG method, 9% and 22% were excellent staining quality, 23% and 36% were good and 68% and 43% were acceptable for CLBC and direct preparation respectively. CLBC performed by cytocentrifugation is inexpensive, and reduces inadequate smears and background staining.

  6. Conhecimento de mulheres sobre o exame de Papanicolaou Conocimiento de mujeres sobre el examen de Papanicolaou Women's knowledge about the Papanicolaou exam

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Amancio Valente; Viviane Andrade; Maurícia Brochado Oliveira Soares; Sueli Riul da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Estudo epidemiológico, quantitativo, descritivo, transversal. Realizado com mulheres, estudantes do ensino médio noturno em escolas públicas para identificar conhecimentos sobre o exame de Papanicolaou. Participaram 1035 mulheres sendo 476 maiores de 18 anos, que compuseram o grupo de sujeitos. Após consentimento foi aplicado questionário com questões objetivas, capazes de identificar conhecimentos a respeito do exame de Papanicolaou, bem como perfil sócio-epidemiológico do grupo; foi realiza...

  7. Actinomyces-like organisms in the cervical Papanicolaou-stained smears of intrauterine device (IUD) users

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Foi investigada a prevalência de organismos semelhantes a Actinomyces em esfregaços cérvico-vaginais de 2.347 mulheres brasileiras, incluindo 151 (6,4%) portadoras de dispositivo intra-uterino (DIU) por pelo menos seis meses; e como grupo controle 2.196 (93,6%) mulheres não portadoras de DIU, com idade similar, usando métodos contraceptivos diversos (hormonais, de barreira e outros) ou nenhum, morando em Salvador, Estado da Bahia. Os esfregaços cervicais foram corados pelo método ...

  8. Estudo comparativo de raspados orais submetidos à técnica de citologia em meio líquido e citopatologia convencional Comparative study of oral smears applying liquid-based cytology and conventional cytopathology

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    Eliane Pedra Dias

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Quando comparada à técnica da citopatologia convencional (CC, a citologia em meio líquido (LBC tem sido referida como método de desempenho superior em esfregaços cervicouterinos. OBJETIVO: Comparar (quantitativa e qualitativamente esfregaços orais preparados por meio da citopatologia convencional e da LBC. Material e métodos: Foram realizados raspados em borda lateral da língua de seis indivíduos com mucosa oral de aspecto clínico normal, e testados três instrumentos de coleta: escova endocervical (cytobrush, espátula plástica e escova contida no kit da citologia em meio líquido utilizado no estudo, sendo os esfregaços submetidos à citopatologia convencional e à LBC. RESULTADOS: A escova endocervical mostrou-se mais adequada para coleta e quanto ao método, a LBC forneceu lâminas com distribuição celular mais regular e homogênea do que a citopatologia convencional. Notou-se ainda redução da quantidade de células inflamatórias e de colônias de bactérias. DISCUSSÃO: Mesmo em menor quantidade, a sobreposição celular não foi totalmente eliminada na LBC como a literatura relata, pois estava presente em algumas lâminas. Embora em amostras cervicouterinas a redução de células inflamatórias, de hemácias e de muco seja considerada uma vantagem da LBC, nos raspados orais muitas vezes esses elementos compõem aspectos significativos de determinada doença. CONCLUSÕES: A citologia em meio líquido pode ser uma nova técnica a ser somada aos exames auxiliares de diagnóstico oral, mas, apesar de apresentar alguns resultados favoráveis, ainda são necessárias adaptações ao utilizá-la no diagnóstico oral.INTRODUCTION: When compared to conventional cytopathology (CC, liquid-based cytology (LBC has been referred to as a method of superior performance in cervical smears. OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively and qualitatively compare oral smears obtained through conventional cytopathology and liquid medium cytology

  9. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative......, polyploid and aneuploid. HPV in situ hybridization was performed with a cocktail of probes specific to HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. There was a good correlation between normal cytology and normal DNA histograms. Cytologically normal smears with bacterial or fungal infections showed a high proliferation index....... Four of five cases cytologically suspicious for HPV infection had HPV by in situ hybridization....

  10. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen

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    Shwetha Nambiar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exfoliative cytology is the microscopic examination of shed or desquamated cells from the epithelial surface. Centrifuged liquid-based cytology (CLBC is a modified technique that was used in the current study. Aims: To compare the efficacy of CLBC with conventional cytology in apparently normal mucosa after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP stain. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of apparently normal mucosa from healthy subjects were selected for the study. The first sample was taken and spread on the slide by the conventional technique. The second sample was flushed out in a suspending solution, centrifuged, and the cell pellet obtained was used to make the smear. The stained smears were compared for seven parameters such as adequate cellularity, clear background, uniform distribution, cellular overlapping, cellular elongation, mucus, and inflammatory cells. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between CLBC and conventional cytology with parameters such as adequate cellularity (P = 0.001, clear background (P = 0.001, uniform distribution (0.005, cellular overlapping, and cellular elongation (P = 0. The presence of mucus and inflammatory cells was minimal as the samples were collected from healthy subjects. Conclusion: CLBC has better efficacy over the conventional method in all the parameters analyzed.

  11. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Shwetha; Hegde, Veda; Yadav, Nikhil; Hallikeri, Kaveri

    2016-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology is the microscopic examination of shed or desquamated cells from the epithelial surface. Centrifuged liquid-based cytology (CLBC) is a modified technique that was used in the current study. To compare the efficacy of CLBC with conventional cytology in apparently normal mucosa after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Fifty cases of apparently normal mucosa from healthy subjects were selected for the study. The first sample was taken and spread on the slide by the conventional technique. The second sample was flushed out in a suspending solution, centrifuged, and the cell pellet obtained was used to make the smear. The stained smears were compared for seven parameters such as adequate cellularity, clear background, uniform distribution, cellular overlapping, cellular elongation, mucus, and inflammatory cells. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. There was a statistically significant difference between CLBC and conventional cytology with parameters such as adequate cellularity (P = 0.001), clear background (P = 0.001), uniform distribution (0.005), cellular overlapping, and cellular elongation (P = 0). The presence of mucus and inflammatory cells was minimal as the samples were collected from healthy subjects. CLBC has better efficacy over the conventional method in all the parameters analyzed.

  12. A comparative analysis of conventional and SurePath liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology: A study of 140 cases

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    Jyotsna Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of Papanicolaou (Pap test in cervical cancer screening need not be overemphasized. While most Western countries have adopted the liquid-based cytology (LBC, which is considered superior, many developing countries are still using the conventional Pap smear (CPS technique. Objective: To compare the staining and cytomorphological features on conventional versus liquid-based cervicovaginal smears. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty cervicovaginal smears prepared by the standard conventional and LBC techniques were interpreted as per the Bethesda system of reporting cervicovaginal smears. Twelve parameters were studied, compared, and statistically analyzed. A P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: 129/140 (92% of CPSs and 130/140 (93% LBC smears were satisfactory. LBC had a significantly shorter screening time (2.0 ± 0.08 vs 4.0 ± 0.65 and better representative material than that of CPS (50% vs 42%. Neutrophils were significantly more in CPS than LBC (96% vs 92% with a P value <0.05 while hemorrhagic background and red blood cells (RBCs were more prominent in CPS. LBC showed significant artifactual changes in squamous epithelial cells. Epithelial abnormalities ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL were seen in 3% (4 and 2% (2 of CPSs and LBCs, respectively. Organisms were better picked up in CPS (99% in CPS vs 73% LBC with a value of P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Although a shorter screening time and cleaner background are the major advantages of LBC, CPS is not inferior to LBC. Considering the high cost, rather than the advantages associated with LBC, we feel that CPS is a better option for developing countries.

  13. Congress: 50 years of the Papanicolaou test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Rome, March 30, 1995; Convegno: 50 anni di Pap test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Roma, 30 marzo 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branca, Margherita; Cedri, Sabina; Migliore, Giovanna [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica

    1997-12-01

    The Conference was organized to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the cervical smear test, commonly referred to as the `Pap test` after its creator, George Nicholas Papanicolaou. The reports present the development of the test, its worldwide application, and its performance as the screening test for the detection of cervical cancer. Pap smear screening for precursors of carcinoma of the cervix has led to dramatic decrease in the incidence and deaths from this cancer. The test represents one of the greatest achievements in preventive medicine.

  14. [Quality of vaginal smear for cervical cancer screening: a concordance study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendales, Ricardo; Wiesner, Carolina; Murillo, Raúl Hernando; Piñeros, Marion; Tovar, Sandra; Mejía, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the female population in Colombia. The low impact of Papanicolaou smears in reducing cervical cancer mortality in some countries has been attributed to their low reproducibility and high rates of false negatives. To evaluate the quality of the Papanicolaou smears in four regions of Colombia comparing the original report given by provincial cytologists or pathologists with a second report made by a team of expert pathologists from the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of Colombia. A sample of 4,863 Papanicolau smears was selected by a simple stratified randomized sampling method. Three strata were defined according to the original cytological report as negative, positive and unsatisfactory. All slides were newly interpreted with Bethesda 2001 by two independent experienced pathologists blinded to the first results. Non-weighted kappa values were calculated for degree of agreement. Overall, the concordance between the two evaluations was very low with a kappa value of 0.03 (95% CI: 0-0.06). With regard to abnormalities in squamous cells, evaluation concordance was moderate with a value of 0.47 (95% CI: 0.41- 0.53); a trend was noted suggesting higher levels of concordance in the evaluations from the Tolima and Magdalena Provinces. Problems related with the quality of Papanicolau smears or the accurate reading thereof may be factors that explain the low impact of massive screening in cervical cancer mortality in Colombia.

  15. The prevalence of actinomycetes-like organisms found in cervicovaginal smears of 300 IUD wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M C; Buschmann, B O; Dowling, E A; Pollock, H M

    1979-01-01

    The association of Actinomyces with IUD wearers has been widely documented and the possibility of the recognition of actinomycetes-like organisms in routine Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears has been reported. We conducted a retrospective study of IUD wearers to determine the prevalence and significance of actinomycetes-like organisms found in such smears. Three hundred smears from current IUD wearers were rescreened for actinomycetes-like organisms. Of this group, 200 patients were from a public health family planning clinic, and 100 were private patients. The incidence for the public health group was 25.5% and for the private patient group, 8%. A case history of actinomycosis is included. Findings such as other infectious agents, abnormal cytology and symptoms are also discussed. Although the presence of Actinomyces probably represents an opportunistic infection, the threat of pelvic actinomycosis with serious complications poses a management problem to the clinician when Actinomyces is reported in a routine Papanicolaou smear. Our findings lead us to question the practicality of the earlier recommendations of IUD removal and antibiotic therapy.

  16. Comparison of two procedures for routine IUD exchange in women with positive Pap smears for actinomyces-like organisms

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the female genital tract, up to 30% of Papanicolaou (Pap)-stained cervicovaginal smears of intrauterine device (IUD) users are positive for actinomyces-like organisms (ALOs). Many clinicians believe that no therapeutic intervention is necessary if women with ALOs are without symptoms. However, there are no recommendations for the procedure in ALO-positive women with need for a routine IUD exchange. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective study, the incidence of ALOs was compared in...

  17. Group B Streptococcal Septic Arthritis of the Shoulder and Potential Association with Pelvic Examination and PAP Smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Daner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Group B streptococcal (GBS infection of a native joint in a nonpregnant adult is uncommon. While many women are colonized with this flora, it rarely becomes pathogenic in its adult host. GBS associated joint infections have been reported, most of which have been related to hematogenous seeding from unknown sources. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of a GBS joint infection in association with a pelvic exam and Papanicolaou (PAP smear. In this case report, we present a case of GBS sepsis of a native shoulder, possibly resulting from a routine pelvic exam and PAP smear.

  18. Práctica de mastografías y pruebas de Papanicolaou entre mujeres de áreas rurales de México Performance of mammography and Papanicolaou among rural women in Mexico

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    Sandra G Sosa-Rubí

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar la práctica de mastografías y Papanicolaou y el seguimiento de resultados anormales entre mujeres de áreas rurales en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal con la Encuesta de Evaluación de los Hogares Rurales (ENCEL 2007 - Oportunidades levantada entre julio y noviembre del año 2007. Se utilizó un modelo logístico multinivel para modelar la realización de mastografías y Papanicolaou. RESULTADOS: Se encontró una baja frecuencia en la ejecución de mastografías en mujeres de 30 a 39 años (12% y de 40 a 49 años (16%, además de un bajo informe de seguimiento médico (60% en los grupos de edad de alto riesgo y con resultados anormales. Estos factores se relacionaron con la falta de acceso a recursos médicos y la condición indígena de las mujeres. CONCLUSIÓN: Se recomienda fortalecer el acceso a exámenes de mastografía y Papanicolaou entre mujeres de alto riesgo en áreas rurales y el seguimiento adecuado de casos anormales para reducir la letalidad del cáncer de mama (CaMa y el cáncer cervicouterino (CaCu.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of reporting a recently conducted mammogram and/or pap smear and follow-up of abnormal findings among rural poor women in Mexico. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data collected in the ENCEL 2007 - Oportunidades survey carried out between July - November, 2007. We used multilevel logistic regression to model the use of mammography and pap smears. RESULTS: We found a low frequency of reported recent mammogram among the rural poor from 30-39 years old (12% and 40-49 years old (16% and a low frequency of reported medical follow-up of abnormal findings (60%, particularly among women at higher risk because of age or abnormal findings. These findings were associated with a lack of availability of medical resources and being of indigenous origin. CONCLUSION: It is fundamental to strengthen both access to and follow-up of

  19. Cervical cancer and pap smear awareness and utilization of pap smear test among Federal civil servants in North Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth, Hyacinth I; Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A; Ibeh, Joy N; Osoba, Tolulope

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n = 388) aged 18-65 years in a Nigerian Federal establishment. Participants were randomly approached and instructed to complete validated questionnaires. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, t-tests and logistic regression analysis to determine if there was an association between variables and identify any predictors of awareness and utilization of the Pap test. Cervical cancer and Pap smear test awareness was 50.9% and 38.6% respectively, with the media as the major source of information. Pap smear test utilization rate was 10.2%, with routine antenatal care (ANC) as the major reason for getting screened. Personal barriers to screening include the lack of awareness, and belief that cervical cancer is not preventable. Opportunistic screening, mass media campaigns and ANC education were suggested as ways of improving awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services.

  20. Cervical cancer and pap smear awareness and utilization of pap smear test among Federal civil servants in North Central Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyacinth I Hyacinth

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n = 388 aged 18-65 years in a Nigerian Federal establishment. Participants were randomly approached and instructed to complete validated questionnaires. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, t-tests and logistic regression analysis to determine if there was an association between variables and identify any predictors of awareness and utilization of the Pap test. Cervical cancer and Pap smear test awareness was 50.9% and 38.6% respectively, with the media as the major source of information. Pap smear test utilization rate was 10.2%, with routine antenatal care (ANC as the major reason for getting screened. Personal barriers to screening include the lack of awareness, and belief that cervical cancer is not preventable. Opportunistic screening, mass media campaigns and ANC education were suggested as ways of improving awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services.

  1. Decreasing cervical cancer mortality in Mexico: effect of Papanicolaou coverage, birthrate, and the importance of diagnostic validity of cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofía; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Yunes-Diaz, Elsa; Alonso, Patricia; Schiavon, Raffaela; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio

    2008-10-01

    The reduction in cervical cancer mortality in developed countries has been attributed to well-organized, population-based prevention and control programs that incorporate screening with the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. In Mexico, there has been a decrease in cervical cancer mortality, but it is unclear what factors have prompted this reduction. Using data from national indicators, we determined the correlation between cervical cancer mortality rates and Pap coverage, birthrate, and gross national product, using a linear regression model. We determined relative risk of dying of cervical cancer according to place of residence (rural/urban, region) using a Poisson model. We also estimated Pap smear coverage using national survey data and evaluated the validity and reproducibility of Pap smear diagnosis. An increase in Pap coverage (beta= -0.069) and a decrease in birthrate (beta=0.054) correlate with decreasing cervical cancer mortality in Mexico. Self-reported Pap smear rates in the last 12 months vary from 27.4% to 48.1%. Women who live in the central (relative risk, 1.04) and especially the southern (relative risk, 1.47) parts of Mexico have a greater relative risk of dying of cervical cancer than those who live in the north. There is a high incidence of false negatives in cervical cytology laboratories in Mexico; the percentage of false negatives varies from 3.33% to 53.13%. The decrease in cervical cancer mortality observed in Mexico is proportional to increasing Pap coverage and decreasing birthrate. Accreditation of cervical cytology laboratories is needed to improve diagnostic precision.

  2. Conhecimento de mulheres sobre o exame de Papanicolaou Conocimiento de mujeres sobre el examen de Papanicolaou Women's knowledge about the Papanicolaou exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Amancio Valente

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo epidemiológico, quantitativo, descritivo, transversal. Realizado com mulheres, estudantes do ensino médio noturno em escolas públicas para identificar conhecimentos sobre o exame de Papanicolaou. Participaram 1035 mulheres sendo 476 maiores de 18 anos, que compuseram o grupo de sujeitos. Após consentimento foi aplicado questionário com questões objetivas, capazes de identificar conhecimentos a respeito do exame de Papanicolaou, bem como perfil sócio-epidemiológico do grupo; foi realizada uma atividade de educação em saúde com simulação da realização do exame. Após, foi reaplicado o questionário e concluímos que 198 alunas (51,3% acertaram todas as questões do 1º questionário e 360 (75,63% ao reaplicarmos o mesmo, havendo agregação de conhecimento. Destaca-se que a maioria das mulheres abordadas no desenvolvimento do estudo conhece o exame e sabe que é preciso realizá-lo periodicamente, porém este conhecimento não é homogêneo.Estudio epidemiológico, cuantitativo, descriptivo, transversal. Realizado con mujeres, estudiantes del enseño medio nocturno en escuelas públicas para identificar conocimientos sobre el examen de Papanicolaou. Participaron 1035 mujeres siendo 476 mayores de 18 años, que compusieron el grupo de sujetos. Pos consentimiento fue aplicado cuestionario con cuestiones objetivas, capases de identificar conocimientos a respecto del examen de Papanicolaou, así como perfil socio-epidemiológico del grupo; fue realizada una actividad de educación en salud con simulación de la realización del examen. Pos, fue reaplicado el cuestionario y concluimos que 198 alumnas (51,3% acertaron todas las cuestiones del 1º cuestionario y 360 (75,63% al reaplicar el mismo, habiendo agregación de conocimiento. Se destaca que la mayoría conoce el examen y sabe que es preciso realizarlo periódicamente, pero este conocimiento no es homogéneo.Epidemiologic, quantitative, descriptive, transversal study. Carried

  3. Women with Cervical Cancer: Perceptions about the Papanicolaou Test

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Teresa Urrutia; Lauren Poupin

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: examinar las percepciones acerca de la prueba de Papanicolaou (Pap) desde la perspectiva de las mujeres chilenas con cáncer cervical. Diseño: un estudio descriptivo, transversal realizado en Santiago, Chile. Participantes: ciento veintisiete mujeres chilenas. Resultados: Las principales razones para no haber hecho la prueba de PAP fueron dilación y obstáculos relacionados con el miedo, la vergüenza, la incomodidad, el hecho de no estar preocupada, la falta de tiempo y la falta de co...

  4. Relação entre plano de saúde e a realização do exame Papanicolaou: uma aplicação de escore de propensão usando um inquérito amostral complexo Relationship between health care insurance and Papanicolaou exam: a propensity score application using a complex sample inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigo de Moraes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de colo de útero é a segunda doença mais comum entre mulheres em todo o mundo. O esfregaço de Papanicolaou é um teste simples que pode detectar a doença em um estágio precoce e curável. Embora indicado para todas as mulheres adultas, a cobertura do teste é inferior a 70% das mulheres brasileiras. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se a posse de plano de saúde privado está associada à realização do exame de Papanicolaou. Foram analisados dados de 6.299 mulheres com 35 anos ou mais de idade, residentes no Rio de Janeiro, entrevistadas na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD em 2003. A fim de minimizar a ocorrência de vieses, utilizamos o escore de propensão com a técnica de pareamento, levando em consideração todas as informações do desenho amostral na estimação dos escores (pesos amostrais, estratos e unidades primárias de amostragem. Uma subamostra de 2.348 mulheres foi então obtida, com covariáveis socioeconômicas e biológicas distribuídas igualmente entre os grupos com e sem cobertura de plano de saúde privado (1.174 pares. Os resultados com utilização de modelo de regressão logística mostraram que a chance de realizar o exame Papanicolaou é 26,1% maior (OR=1,261; p=0,096; IC 95%=[0,96; 1,66] para mulheres com plano de saúde quando comparadas às mulheres sem cobertura de plano de saúde, no nível de significância de 10%. Os resultados indicam a necessidade da extensão do rastreio periódico do câncer de colo de útero para todas as mulheres, reduzindo as desigualdades ainda presentes nos dias atuais.Cervical uterine cancer is the second most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. Papanicolaou smear is a simple screening test that can detect the disease at an early and curable stage. Although indicated to every adult woman, Pap smear screening covers less than 70% of Brazilian women. This study aimed to evaluate if private health care insurance coverage was associated

  5. Cytologic follow up of Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Pap smears after integrated treatment with antimicrobials followed by oral turmeric oil extract

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Jayashree Vinay; Jagtap, Sujata S.; Paradkar, Prajakta Hemant; Walwatkar, Priya; Paradkar, Hemant S.; Affandi, Zubair M.; Ashok D.B Vaidya

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable because the carcinogenesis is slow and there are opportunities to detect precancerous lesions by Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, colposcopy, or HPV DNA tests and to treat them by antimicrobials, surgery or cold CO2 vapourization. We have earlier reported on the chemopreventive potential of integrated treatment with antimicrobials therapy followed by a standardized oral Turmeric Oil (TO) extract upto 12 weeks in women who had persistent Low-grade Squamous Intra-epithe...

  6. Aspergillus in a cervico-vaginal smear of an adult postmenopausal female: An unusual case

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    Deb Prabal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several case reports documenting opportunistic fungal infection in the female genital tract, with Aspergillus spp being a rarely reported causative organism. We hereby report a case of Aspergillus infection in a 48 year-old, postmenopausal female with carcinoma of the cervix. She presented with features of pelvic inflammatory disease, and an initial routine cervico-vaginal smear revealed severe inflammation along with fungal bodies. The features were consistent with the presence of Aspergillus spp, while the background epithelial cells were negative for intraepithelial malignancy. She was offered therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. A repeat Papanicolaou smear after two weeks was negative for intraepithelial organisms, but showed the evidence of a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, with biopsy confirming squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. Papanicolau smear chances to be diagnostic for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) with or without detectable HPV DNA at in situ hybridization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopracordevole, F; Cadorin, L; Muffato, G; De Benetti, L; Parin, A

    1993-01-01

    The Authors have correlated 39 cervical diagnostic biopsies for squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) with correspective Papanicolau smears (PS), with relation to the presence or the absence of HPV of oncogenic type (HPV-one) detected by in situ hybridization (ISH). Agreement between cytological and histological diagnosis was present in 14 of 16 cases with detectable HPV-one and only in 12 of 23 cases without detectable HPV-one at ISH. The importance of the HPV type in the SILs with relation to the diagnostic accuracy of Papanicolaou smears has been discussed.

  8. Diagnosis value of liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology smears on detecting cervical squamous cell lesions%液基细胞学技术与传统细胞学涂片技术对宫颈病变细胞学的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董彦军; 郑加荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the value of liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology smears on detection of cervical squamous cell lesions.Methods One thousand and two hundred women were detected by cervical liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology smear screening from Oct.2009 to Oct.2012,of which positive cases were detected by colposcopy and biopsy as the gold standard as a positive control.The diagnostic value of the liquid-based cytology on cervical lesions was assessed.Results The positive detection rate of ASCUS/A-GUS and above lesions was 16.00% (96 cases) by liquid-based cytology detection,and positive detection rate of pap ⅡB level and above lesions was 4.83 % (29 cases).The positive detection rate by liquid-based cytology was significantly higher than that of conventional cytology smears,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Colposcopic and histopathological findings as the gold standard,cervical liquid-based cytology screening coincidence rate was 76.80%,conventional cytology smear screening coincidence rate was 38.16%,and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusions Liquid-based cytology screening for cervical squamous cell lesions is significantly superior to conventional cytology smears.%目的 比较液基细胞学技术与传统细胞学涂片在宫颈鳞状细胞病变检测中的价值.方法 对2009年10月至2012年10月1200例妇女采用宫颈液基细胞学或传统细胞学涂片进行筛查,并对筛查阳性病例以其阴道镜检查及病理活检结果为金标准作为阳性对照,评估液基细胞学技术对宫颈不同病变的诊断价值.结果 宫颈液基细胞学筛查出ASCUS/A-GUS及以上分级病例96例,阳性检出率为16.00%;传统细胞学涂片筛查出巴氏ⅡB级及以上分级病例29例,阳性检出率为4.83%;宫颈液基细胞学阳性检出率明显高于传统细胞学涂片,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).以阴道镜及病理组织学

  9. The Lived Experience of Women With Abnormal Papanicolaou Smears Receiving Care in a Military Health Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    paying attention to, worth taking account of” ( Lincoln & Guba , 1985, p. 290). Common criteria for the consistent Lived Experience 31 evaluation of...participation with study participants. Credibility, likened to internal validity by Lincoln and Guba (1985), is enhanced additionally by triangulation, a...methods, investigators, and theories to analyze data ( Lincoln & Guba , 1985). In other words, multiple perspectives and different approaches serve to

  10. Continuous smearing of Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Lohmayer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Continuum smearing was introduced in section 4.1 of JHEP03, 064 (2006) as a meaningful continuum analogue of the well known set of lattice techniques by the same name. Here we apply continuous smearing in continuous space-time to Wilson loops in order to clarify what it does in the context of field theory and also in the context of the loop calculus of the Makeenko-Migdal equation.

  11. Women with Cervical Cancer: Perceptions about the Papanicolaou Test

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    Maria-Teresa Urrutia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: examinar las percepciones acerca de la prueba de Papanicolaou (Pap desde la perspectiva de las mujeres chilenas con cáncer cervical. Diseño: un estudio descriptivo, transversal realizado en Santiago, Chile. Participantes: ciento veintisiete mujeres chilenas. Resultados: Las principales razones para no haber hecho la prueba de PAP fueron dilación y obstáculos relacionados con el miedo, la vergüenza, la incomodidad, el hecho de no estar preocupada, la falta de tiempo y la falta de conocimiento. Conclusión: todas las razones dadas por las mujeres chilenas que participaron en el estudio deben ser considerados por los profesionales de la salud que están en una posición para abogar por la educación y la detección del cáncer cervical para las mujeres, especialmente en países donde la enfermedad sigue siendo prevalente. Los resultados pueden servir como una guía para los programas de educación y pueden ser aplicados en la investigación sobre la intervención.

  12. Hypercubic smeared links for dynamical fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenfratz, A.; Hoffmann, R. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schaefer, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-02-15

    We investigate a variant of hypercubic gauge link smearing where the SU(3) projection is replaced with a normalization to the corresponding unitary group. This smearing is differentiable and thus suitable for use in dynamical fermion simulations using molecular dynamics type algorithms. We show that this smearing is as efficient as projected hypercubic smearing in removing ultraviolet noise from the gauge fields. We test the normalized hypercubic smearing in dynamical improved (clover) Wilson and valence overlap simulations. (orig.)

  13. Processing of long-stored archival cervical smears for human papillomavirus detection by the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roda Husman, A M; Snijders, P J; Stel, H V; van den Brule, A J; Meijer, C J; Walboomers, J M

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of a freeze-thaw method, a proteinase K/Tween 20 lysis method and a guanidinium isothiocyanate/silica beads method for DNA extraction from fixed and Papanicolaou-stained cells from the cervical cancer cell line Siha was measured by beta-globin polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The GTC/silica beads method, which appeared superior, revealed a human papillomavirus (HPV) general primer-mediated PCR sensitivity of 50-500 copies of HPV 16 per sample using dilutions of fixed and stained Siha cells. Application to archival cervical smears (n = 116) revealed that the yield and size of amplifiable DNA decreases with storage time. The longer the storage time, the more repetitions of the whole procedure, including the lysis step, were required to extract sufficient amplifiable DNA. In this way, an overall beta-globin PCR positivity for 98% of the smears was reached. Further analysis revealed that a maximum size of 200 bp could be amplified from smears stored for up to 9 years. The method was validated by demonstrating by PCR the same HPV types in archival smears and corresponding cervical biopsies of cervical cancer patients. In conclusion, the GTC/silica beads method appears suitable to process archival cervical smears for HPV detection by PCR. provided that stepwise adjustments are made until beta-globin PCR positivity is obtained and primers are chosen which amplify a maximum of about 200 bp.

  14. Predicting Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination and Pap Smear Screening Intentions Among Young Singaporean Women Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

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    Evangeline I. Chirayil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB to analyze the role of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control as predictors of intentions to obtain Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccinations or a Papanicolaou (Pap smear in a sample of young Singaporean women. A further aim was to evaluate knowledge of cervical cancer and preventive measures as a possible additional predictor of intentions. A purpose-designed TPB and knowledge questionnaire was completed by 206 women aged 18 to 26 years living in Singapore. Descriptive analyses and structural equation modeling revealed subjective norm as the best predictor, while perceived behavioral control had moderate predictive power. Attitude and knowledge were not significant predictors of intentions. The findings suggest the importance of focusing on subjective norms, rather than factual knowledge, in educational and awareness campaigns that encourage HPV vaccination and Pap smear screening in Singapore.

  15. 非妇科领域应用液基细胞学与传统涂片细胞学参数的比较研究%Comparison study about cytological parameters determined by liquid-based preparation and conventional smear in non-gynecological application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓哲; 周宾; 曹志星; 谢亚峰; 许敏梅; 蔡宏贵; 赵晔

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过液基制片(LBP)方法在非妇科脱落细胞学胸腹水领域中的应用,探讨液基细胞学制片方法在非妇科脱落细胞领域制片的优缺点及其应用前景.方法 对本院25例胸腹水,应用液基制片,并同步与传统涂片进行了细胞形态学观察,免疫组化染色和荧光原位杂交(FISH)检测,并应用图像分析系统加以定量对比分析.结果 定性观察发现,液基制片的细胞明显比传统涂片的细胞变小,细胞形态也发生了一定的变化;免疫组化LCA、EMA、Vim和PCNA染色与传统涂片染色未见明显不同,FISH检测结果,除酶消化时间较传统涂片延长5 min外,其他未见明显不同;细胞定量结果发现,液基制片的细胞面积比传统制片的细胞面积减少了58.1%(P<0.01),细胞周长减少了42.7%(P<0.01),细胞等效直径缩短了37.5%(P<0.01),细胞长径缩短了37.4%(P<0.01),细胞短径也缩短了37.8%,细胞长短径之比未见明显差异(P>0.05).液基制片的细胞形状因子减小了18.12%(P<0.01),细胞圆形度增加了13.7%(P<0.01),细胞平均光度增加了57.1%(P<0.01),细胞积分光度减少了41.5%(P<0.01),细胞平均灰度未见明显差异(P>0.05).结论 液基细胞学制片明显缩小了目标细胞,其形态也发生了较明显改变,但不影响测试细胞进一步的免疫组化染色和FISH检测,在非妇科脱落细胞学领域的应用,对诊断医师具有较高适应训练要求,也仍具有进一步改进的空间.%Objective To explore the advantages and disadvantages of liquid -based preparations (LBP) in the field of non - gynecological exfoliated cytology based on the results of cytological examination of hy-drothorax and ascites. Methods 25 patients with hydrothorax or ascites treated in our hospital were included in this study. The exfoliated cells were detected by both liquid - based preparations (LBP) and conventional smear in parallel, and examined by routine light microscopy

  16. Papillomavirus in cervicovaginal smears of women infected with human immunodefficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilson Eduardo Galore

    Full Text Available It has been described that women infected with the human immunodeffciency virus (HIV present more frequent cytological abnormalities in cervicovaginal smears, generally related to infection by human papillomavirus (HPV. The present work is a study of cervicovaginal smears of 147 HIV-seropositive women submitted to routine gynecological examinations. The smears were stained by the Papanicolaou method. Cytopathic effects of HPV were found in 38 (25.8% cases. Nuclear atypias of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were evident in 36 (24.5% of these cases: 27 (18.4%, CIN I; 6 (4.0%, CIN II and 3 (2.0% CIN III. Also 2 (1.4% invasive carcinomas and one (0.7% endocervical dysplasia were found. Other agents observed were: Candida sp, 19 (12.9% cases, Gardnerella vaginalis, 19 (12.9%, Trichomonas vaginalis, 13 (8.4%, Chlamydia trachomatis 5 (3.4%, Mobiluncus sp 2 (1.4% and Herpes simplex virus 1 (0.7%. This study emphasizes the high frequency of HPV/CIN cervicovaginal abnormalities in HIV-seropositive in our population. It is possible that immunological factors and sexual promiscuity are involved in this phenomenon.

  17. [Performance of mammography and Papanicolaou among rural women in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Walker, Dilys; Serván, Edson

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the frequency of reporting a recently conducted mammogram and/or pap smear and follow-up of abnormal findings among rural poor women in Mexico. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data collected in the ENCEL 2007 - Oportunidades survey carried out between July - November, 2007. We used multilevel logistic regression to model the use of mammography and pap smears. We found a low frequency of reported recent mammogram among the rural poor from 30-39 years old (12%) and 40-49 years old (16%) and a low frequency of reported medical follow-up of abnormal findings (60%), particularly among women at higher risk because of age or abnormal findings. These findings were associated with a lack of availability of medical resources and being of indigenous origin. It is fundamental to strengthen both access to and follow-up of mammography and papsmears, particularly among high-risk rural women in order to reduce the level of mortality associated with breast and cervical-uterine cancer.

  18. Cytohistological correlation and accuracy of the pap smear test in diagnosis of cervical lesions: a hospital based cross-sectional study from Odisha, India

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    Reena Naik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical carcinoma is one of the most common causes of mortality among women.Early detection can be done by Papanicolaou (Papsmear test - a simplest, safe, cost effective and non invasive procedure. The main objective of this study was to categorize Pap smears for cytohistologicalexamination as well as clinically correlate to analyze sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of Pap smear. Methods In this prospective study 417 Pap smears performed, cytohistological correlation was done in 104 cases because patients had undergone both Pap smear and cervical biopsy.Detailed history was taken and clinical examination was done. Pap smear sample was collected from cervix and reporting was made according to Bethesda 2001 classification.Cytological findings were correlated with histopathology. Results Overall concordance rate was 60.7%. Concordance rate for malignancy was 100%, for inflammatory lesions 70.8% and for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 33.3%. Common age group presented for screening was40-50 years.Commonest clinical presentationwas bleeding per vaginum. Conclusion The study provides good cyto-histopathology correlation in detecting high grade lesions and malignancy. Although Pap smear sensitivity was low but can be increased by adequate sampling and avoiding technical errors.Bethesda system is strongly recommended for adequacy of sampling to minimize inconsistency.Regular screening should be advised to the patients for the early detection of cervical carcinoma.

  19. Preparação da mulher para a realização do exame de Papanicolaou na perspectiva da qualidade Preparación de la mujer para la realización del examen de Papanicolaou en la perspectiva de la calidad Woman's preparation for the Papanicolaou's exam in the perspective of the quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylvia Gradênia Torres Eduardo

    2007-03-01

    en 18 (85,7%, respectivamente, orientaron sobre el local privativo para cambiarse y cubrieron la usuaria de forma adecuada durante el examen. CONCLUSONES: la preparación de las mujeres se mostró insatisfactoria, pues los cuatro itens recomendados en el IMD sólo fueron cumplidos en el 52,4% de las veces. Transformar esta realidad exige cambios de actitud humana, área de competencia técnica de mayor desafío en el contexto del servicio público.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nurses' competence in preparing women for Papanicolaou's smear according to the Performance Improvement Instrument. METHODS: Data were collected through direct observation of the performance of 7 nurses from the Family's Health Program in Ceará, during the month of September, 2005. Each nurse was observed on three occasions. RESULTS: The majority of nurses (85.7% provided privacy for the woman to change her clothes and maintained her privacy during the procedure by covering them properly. However, less than a half of the nurses (38.2% explained the procedure to the client, and none of the nurses inquired if the woman had emptied her bladder. CONCLUSION: the nurse competence for preparing women for Papanicolaou's smear was unsatisfactory because the four items of the Performance Improvement Instrument were performed only 52.4% of the time. Promoting changes in attitudes toward competence and adequate performance is challenging public health service.

  20. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Fauziah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were recruited into a cluster randomized trial conducted between January and November 2010. The intervention group participated in a worksite cervical screening initiative whilst the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of the intervention program on Pap smear uptake after 24 weeks of followup. Results. The proportion of women attending for a Pap test was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group (18.1% versus 10.1%, P value < 0.05 with the worksite screening initiative doubling the Pap smear uptake, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29–4.62. Conclusion. Worksite health promotion interventions can effectively increase cervical smear uptake rates among eligible workers in middle-income countries. Policy makers and health care providers in these countries should include such interventions in strategies for reducing cervical cancer burden. This trial is registered with IRCT201103186088N1.

  1. Factors Infuencing Women in Pap Smear Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, K. E.; Alam, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Objective: Pap smear has proven can decrease death caused by cervical cancer. However, in Indonesia, only few woman who already did pap smear. The aim of this study was to investigate women’s knowledge about pap smear cervical cancer, and to investigate factors influence women to do pap smear test. Methods: Quantitative data colected through questionairre towards 31 women who did pap smear and 55 women who did not do pap smear. Questionairre was made using Health Belief model as a guideline to examine percieved susceptibility, perceived serioussnes, perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Chi square and multiple logistic regresion were used to investigate difference in knowledge and what the most factor that influence women to take pap smear test. Results: There’s significance knowledge difference betweeen women who did and did not do pap smear. But furthermore, by using Multiple Logistic Regression test, appearantly knowledge was not a strong predictor factor for women to take pap smear test (koefisiensi β = -0,164) Conclusion: Perceived barriers were factors that affected pap smear uptake in women in Indonesia. Few respondents get the wrong informations about pap smear, cevical cancer and its symptoms

  2. The smear layer in endodontics - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violich, D R; Chandler, N P

    2010-01-01

    Root canal instrumentation produces a layer of organic and inorganic material called the smear layer that may also contain bacteria and their by-products. It can prevent the penetration of intracanal medicaments into dentinal tubules and influence the adaptation of filling materials to canal walls. This article provides an overview of the smear layer, focusing on its relevance to endodontics. The PubMed database was used initially; the reference list for smear layer featured 1277 articles, and for both smear layer dentine and smear layer root canal revealed 1455 publications. Smear layer endodontics disclosed 408 papers. A forward search was undertaken on selected articles and using some author names. Potentially relevant material was also sought in contemporary endodontic texts, whilst older books revealed historic information and primary research not found electronically, such that this paper does not represent a 'classical' review. Data obtained suggests that smear layer removal should enhance canal disinfection. Current methods of smear removal include chemical, ultrasonic and laser techniques - none of which are totally effective throughout the length of all canals or are universally accepted. If smear is to be removed, the method of choice seems to be the alternate use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium hypochlorite solutions. Conflict remains regarding the removal of the smear layer before filling root canals, with investigations required to determine the role of the smear layer in the outcomes of root canal treatment.

  3. Does a diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis on Papanicolaou test signify the presence of inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Debra S; Weiss, Gerson; Bittman, Sara; Goldsmith, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Vaginal atrophy in menopause shows increased parabasal cells on cytology. This may be accompanied by abundant neutrophils. A shift in maturation index in the absence of significant inflammation is more accurately termed "atrophic pattern." This study aims to determine whether a diagnosis of "atrophic vaginitis" or atrophic pattern on Papanicolaou test is a reliable indicator of what is present on the slide. A retrospective review of Papanicolaou test slides from University Hospital Newark was performed. Cases that had been diagnosed as either atrophic vaginitis (n = 100) or atrophic pattern (n = 100) were selected. Exclusion criteria included any additional diagnosis of neoplasia. Slides were re-reviewed and scored based on abundance of neutrophils: 0 to 5, 6 to 10, or more than 10 neutrophils per high-power field (×40), with 10 fields per slide reviewed. Data were analyzed by χ analysis. Among 200 cases with atrophic vaginitis or atrophic pattern, the proportion of those diagnosed with atrophic vaginitis to those diagnosed with atrophic pattern increased across three neutrophil categories (P vaginitis on Papanicolaou test is reliably associated with increased numbers of neutrophils. A diagnosis of atrophic pattern is indicative of low numbers of neutrophils. As the Papanicolaou test diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis does not correlate with clinical symptoms, a single diagnostic term that does not suggest a disease process would more reliably communicate cytology findings to clinicians.

  4. Only a small fraction of high-grade cervical lesions are discovered after an interpretation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance when using imager-assisted, liquid-based papanicolaou tests and the Bethesda 2001 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kelly A; Smith, Debora A; Thrall, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Previous work has reported that most high-grade cervical neoplasia is seen in patients with preceding Papanicolaou test results of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. This information was based on conventional test results and the Bethesda 1991 reporting system and was determined before the current treatment guidelines. Our objective was to perform a retrospective review of all histologically confirmed, high-grade cervical neoplasia to determine the diagnosis of the preceding liquid-based Papanicolaou test. A total of 189 histologically confirmed, high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) cases grade 2 and greater were identified for a 1-year period. Of the 189 cases, 10 (5.3%) had a previous diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 55 (29.1%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; 31 (16.4%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, unable to rule out a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 21 (11.1%) had atypical squamous cells, unable to rule out a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 68 (36%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; 1 (0.5%) had atypical glandular cells; 1 (0.5%) had adenocarcinoma in situ; and 2 (1%) had invasive carcinoma. Combined "low grade" Papanicolaou test results (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) preceded 51 of 103 cases of CIN 2 (49.5%) and 14 of 103 cases (13.6%) of CIN 3/cancer, whereas "high grade" Papanicolaou test results (atypical squamous cells, unable to rule out a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, unable to rule out a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; atypical glandular cells; adenocarcinoma in situ; and invasive carcinoma) preceded 52 of 103 CIN 2 cases (50.5%) and 72 of 103 CIN 3/cancer cases (69.9%). Our data show that we can now more-reliably predict high

  5. Prevenção do câncer de colo do útero: um modelo teórico para analisar o acesso e a utilização do teste de Papanicolaou Cervical cancer prevention: a theoretical framework to analyze Papanicolaou test access and use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Araujo Pinho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Vários estudos têm apontado que a permanência das altas taxas de incidência e mortalidade por câncer cérvico-uterino deve-se à baixa qualidade e cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou, principalmente em países em desenvolvimento. Pretende-se neste artigo analizar alguns pontos relacionados às medidas de prevenção e controle do câncer cervical quanto à efetividade do teste de Papanicolaou, a lógica operacional e científica por detrás das políticas públicas de prevenção ao câncer cervical e a cobertura do teste em países norte-americanos, europeus e na América Latina. Consideram-se, ainda, os modelos explicativos que estão sendo propostos para avaliar o acesso e a utilização deste serviço, a partir da análise dos fatores associados à realização do teste de Papanicolaou descritos pela literatura. Propõe-se uma nova abordagem na investigação destes fatores, buscando a integração e interlocução de outros aspectos de cunho social, cultural e organizacional na análise do acesso e da utilização deste exame, visando um planejamento mais coerente das ações de prevenção e promoção à saúde com as necessidades e direitos das mulheres.Several studies have indicated that the prevailing high incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer, mainly in developing countries, are due to the low quality and coverage of the cervical smear or Papanicolaou (Pap test. This article intends to analise some aspects related to measures of control and prevention of cervical cancer, such as the effectiveness of the Pap test, the operational and scientific rationale of public health policies for the prevention of cervical cancer and coverage of the Papanicolaou test in many countries. It also intends to review the explanatory models that have been proposed to analyze access to this service. For this latter objective, we investigated the factors associated to the use of the Pap test described within the epidemiological literature and

  6. Prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies in cervicovaginal smears in a cervical cancer screening program with emphasis on a case of primary bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusiol Teresa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies (PBs in the cervicovaginal smears of the screening population of Trento district (Italy, with the description of the cytological presentation of an asymptomatic bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma. Methods From 1993 to 2006, women with PBs detected on consecutively screened cervical smears were identified from the computerized pathology database of Rovereto Hospital. The follow-up period was set from the time of cytological diagnosis to May 31st, 2007. Clinical information was obtained from retrospective review of women's medical records. The source of PBs was identified with adequate diagnostic procedures. Results PBs were found in six of the 201,231 Papanicolaou screening smears (0.0029%. Benign conditions (intrauterine device, inclusion ovarian cysts and ovarian cystoadenofibroma with PBs were found in four patients. In two cases, PBs were associated with malignant cells; a bilateral ovarian malignancy was diagnosed in both cases, a serous adenocarcinoma and a psammocarcinoma. Conclusion PBs in the cervicovaginal smears are a rare finding, associated more often with benign conditions than with malignancies. Moreover, to our knowledge, our case of primary ovarian psammocarcinoma is the first report in which the presence of malignant cells and PBs in the cervicovaginal and endometrial smears represents the first manifestation of disease.

  7. Diagnosis of human papillomatosis by polymerase chain reaction in cases of divergence between results of hybrid capture and papanicolaou cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Garcez Novaes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As various types of human papillomavirus (HPV are involved in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, correct diagnosis is of fundamental importance for screening programs. We evaluated the divergence of results between Papanicolaou cytology and hybrid capture by PCR detection of HPV DNA . A transversal study was conducted on 70 women attending private gynecological clinics in Brasilia, Brazil. PCRs were conducted with specific primers for general and high-risk HPV DNA. Based on the PCR results, hybrid capture was a superior diagnostic technique. When Papanicolaou was compared with the molecular biology methods, it was found that a positive Papanicolaou result does not necessarily indicate the presence of HPV. The agreement between PCR and hybrid capture results can be attributed to the fact that both methods detect latent infection, while Papanicolaou detects only microscopic cellular alterations.

  8. Effect of Ultrasonic Activation of Irrigants on Smear Layer Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tamer F; Teixeira, Cleonice S; Felippe, Mara C S; Felippe, Wilson T; Pashley, David H; Bortoluzzi, Eduardo A

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) with 17% EDTA and 1% NaOCl solutions on smear layer removal. Root canal preparations of 32 human teeth were performed with the ProTaper system. Next, they were longitudinally fractured to permit quantitation of smear layer creation from the cervical, middle, and apical thirds of the roots by using scanning electron microscopy. After reassembling the fractured tooth halves, they were divided into 4 groups according to different final irrigation protocols: group1, EDTA + NaOCl; group 2, EDTA with PUI + NaOCl; group 3, EDTA + NaOCl with PUI; and group 4, EDTA + NaOCl, both with PUI. After irrigation, the tooth halves were separated to permit imaging the same areas by scanning electron microscopy, and a percentage of opened dentinal tubules in irrigated areas as a percent of the total area was obtained. The results were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis, analysis of variance, and Bonferroni tests (α = 0.05). The cervical third of the samples from all groups showed higher percentage of smear layer removal and open dentinal tubule areas, followed by the middle and apical thirds. Among the irrigation groups, there were statistically significant differences in cervical third between group 2 and group 4 samples, with the highest and lowest percentage of smear layer removal, respectively. PUI by using 1% NaOCl and ultrasonic tip placed within 1 mm of the apical foramen did not show higher efficacy in smear layer removal compared with conventional irrigation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors related to non-adherence to the realization of the Papanicolaou test

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    Márcia Aparecida dos Santos Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify reasons for low adherence to the Papanicolaou test in women seeking care in primary health care. Methods: cross-sectional study. Data collection carried out during home visits, applying questionnaire to characterize sociodemographic aspects as well as the reasons for non-adherence to examination and suggestions for facilitating adherence. Results: among 169 women, 67% were of reproductive age and 73.9% have finished elementary school. The failure to previously scheduled examination was due mainly to the beliefs and attitudes (36.1% and service organization (25.4%. The feelings reported by women during the Papanicolaou test were shame (55.6%, discomfort (32.5% and pain (20.7%. Conclusion: Although the screening of cervical cancer is essential for timely intervention, a significant proportion of women still does not adhere to examination by myths and taboos, beliefs, and health attitudes, as well as service organization.

  10. Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugge, William R; De Witt, John; Klapman, Jason B; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shidham, Vinod; Chhieng, David; Kwon, Richard; Baloch, Zubair; Zarka, Matthew; Staerkel, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology, including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, techniques of the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology website [www.papsociety.org]. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of sampling techniques in the cytological diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. This document summarizes the current state of the art for techniques in acquiring cytology specimens from the biliary tree as well as solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas.

  11. Smear layer--materials surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, J D

    1992-01-01

    SEM and TEM photomicrographs were presented of the smear layer and several dentin-adhesive interfaces. It was shown that as the wetting and penetration of the dentin adhesive increased, the shear bond strength also increased. Three categories of dentin adhesives were presented. Category one included Scotchbond, Dentin Adhesit and Gluma, with shear bond strength values between 5 and 7 MPa; the second category, dentin adhesives based on Dr. Bowen's research, included Tenure and Mirage Bond, with shear bond strengths between 8 and 14 MPa; the third category included Superbond and Scotchbond 2, with shear bond strength values up to 20 MPa. Failures occurred at the interface or in the resin adhesive for materials in categories one and two; failures occurred through the dentin or composite for materials in category three.

  12. Evaluation of the relationship between fungal infection, neutrophil leukocytes and macrophages in cervicovaginal smears: Light microscopic examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirezen, Şayeste; Dönmez, Hanife Güler; Özcan, Merve; Beksaç, Mehmet Sinan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Right after opportunistic fungi become pathogenic, they face immune system cells including macrophages and neutrophil leukocytes. Although the relationship between fungi and immune cells are being widely studied by using animal models and culture techniques, cervicovaginal smears have not been used to evaluate this interaction yet. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between fungal infection, macrophages and neutrophil leukocytes in cervicovaginal smear. Materials and Methods: Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears from 2307 women, aged between 18 and 73 years, were examined by light microscopy. Periodic acid–Schiff stain was also used to confirm the presence of fungal cell walls. Results: Fungal infections were detected in 239 of 2307 patients (10.4%), and these cases were taken as the study group. Cases without any infectious agents (n = 1800, 78%) were considered as the control group. When the study and control groups were statistically compared in view of macrophages and neutrophil leukocytes, a significant relationship between presence of fungal infection, macrophages and neutrophil leukocytes was detected (P 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that macrophages and neutrophils may play a determining role in host defense against fungal infection together, but neither yeast nor filamentous forms affect the presence of neutrophil leukocytes and macrophages. As a result of this, both yeast and filamentous forms may have pathogenic effects. PMID:26229242

  13. CONHECIMENTO, ATITUDE E PRÁTICA SOBRE O EXAME PAPANICOLAOU DE PROSTITUTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica de Alencar Rodrigues Neri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Al mantener relaciones con múltiples parejas y no usar preservativo, las prostitutas ponen en peligro su salud sexual y reproductiva. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar los factores de riesgo de comportamiento asociados con el cáncer de cuello uterino entre prostitutas de Picos-PI y evaluar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en relación de estas mujeres con relación al Papanicolaou. Estudio exploratorio y descriptivo, realizado con 77 mujeres en sus lugares de trabajo, en septiembre/octubre de 2010. Se observó que existen riesgos directamente relacionados con la salud sexual y reproductiva de prostitutas que pueden promover la aparición del cáncer del cuello uterino. Hay una falta de conocimiento, pero la actitud es apropiada, porque casi todos dijeron que harían el examen de Papanicolaou con más frecuencia, 75 (97,4%. Por lo tanto, es necesaria la participación de las enfermeras en formulación de estrategias educativas que reduzcan al mínimo el déficit de conocimiento de la población estudiada sobre el Papanicolaou.

  14. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  15. Identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slide using automatic scanning microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2015-04-01

    Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.

  16. Cytologic follow up of Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Pap smears after integrated treatment with antimicrobials followed by oral turmeric oil extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Jayashree Vinay; Jagtap, Sujata S; Paradkar, Prajakta Hemant; Walwatkar, Priya; Paradkar, Hemant S; Affandi, Zubair M; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable because the carcinogenesis is slow and there are opportunities to detect precancerous lesions by Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, colposcopy, or HPV DNA tests and to treat them by antimicrobials, surgery or cold CO2 vapourization. We have earlier reported on the chemopreventive potential of integrated treatment with antimicrobials therapy followed by a standardized oral Turmeric Oil (TO) extract upto 12 weeks in women who had persistent Low-grade Squamous Intra-epithelial Lesion (LSIL) in their Pap smears. In this communication we report their post-therapy follow up for 36 months (N = 18) with Pap smears. We were also able to follow up for 36 months control cases (N = 10) who had only standard therapy with antimicrobials. During 36 months of follow up none of the cases with integrated treatment, progressed to HSIL or cancer. Out of 15/18 cases which had a regression of Pap smear, all 15 remained free of LSIL from 6 to 36 months post-therapy showing persistent therapeutic effect of integrated therapy. In one case there was recurrence of LSIL in Pap smear, ten months post-therapy, which regressed to mild atypia after a second course of oral TO for 8 weeks. In the control group, persistence of LSIL after antimicrobials was observed in Pap smears in 5/10 cases when followed up by Pap smears up to 36 months. This preliminary report indicates some post-therapeutic benefit with integrative treatment as compared to the use of antimicrobials alone. A large scale controlled study is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Front-loaded smear microscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in Tripoli, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammo, Mohamed; Lamaric, Widad; Hadida, Mukhtar; Abuazza, Aida; Askar, Nabil A; Yassin, Mohammed A; Cuevas, Luis E

    2013-02-01

    Diagnosis of pulmonary TB by conventional smear microscopy requires patient attendance on 2 consecutive days. We investigated whether collecting sputum on-the-spot for smear microscopy on the day the patient presented was as sensitive and specific for diagnosis as the conventional spot-morning-spot scheme. We enrolled 412 adults who presented between January 2009 and October 2010 at the National Centre for TB Control in Tripoli, Libya, with cough of >2 weeks' duration, into a cross-sectional survey collecting four sputum specimens: on-the-spot and Xspot on Day 1; morning and on-the-spot on Day 2. 97 (24%) of 401 culture results were culture positive. Spot-Xspot and spot-morning smear microscopy had, respectively, 65% and 66% sensitivity and 97% and 96% specificity (p > 0.5). Spot-Xspot-morning and Spot-morning-spot smear-microscopy had, respectively, 67% and 66% sensitivity and 96% and 96% specificity (p > 0.5). For the diagnosis of pulmonary TB, the sensitivity and specificity of front-loaded (same-day) smear microscopy is similar to that of the standard smear microscopy scheme.

  18. Predictive value of p16/Ki-67 immunocytochemistry for triage of women with abnormal Papanicolaou test in cervical cancer screening: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Lee-Wen; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Lee, Chin-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The Papanicolaou (Pap) test is one screening strategy used to prevent cervical cancer in developed countries. The p16/Ki-67 immunocytochemistry is a triage test performed on Pap smears in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Our objective was to review studies investigating the diagnostic performance of p16/Ki-67 dual stain for triage of women with abnormal Pap tests. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. We followed the protocol of systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies. We searched PubMed, The Cochrane Library, BioMed Central, and ClinicalTrials.gov for relevant studies. We included research that assessed the accuracy of p16/Ki-67 dual stain and high risk human papillomavirus testing for triage of abnormal Pap smears. Review articles and studies that provided insufficient data to construct 2.2 tables were excluded. Data synthesis was conducted using a random-effects model. Sensitivity and specificity. In seven studies encompassing 2628 patients, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of p16/Ki-67 for triage of abnormal Pap smear results were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.89 to 0.93) and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.66), respectively. No study used a case-control design. A subgroup analysis involving liquid-based cytology showed a sensitivity of 0.91 (95%CI, 0.89 to 0.93) and specificity of 0.64 (95%CI, 0.61 to 0.66). Our meta-analysis of p16/Ki-67 dual stain studies showed that the test achieved high sensitivity and moderate specificity for p16/Ki-67 immunocytochemistry for high-grade squamous intraepi.thelial lesion and cervical cancer. We suggest that p16/Ki-67 dual stain might be a reliable ancillary method identifying high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in women with abnormal Pap tests. No study in the meta-analysis examined the accuracy of the p16/Ki-67 dual stain for inter.pretation of glandular neoplasms.

  19. FRECUENCIA DE TRICOMONAS VAGINALIS DETECTADAS MEDIANTE PAPANICOLAOU EN CUATRO SERVICIOS DE SALUD, 1997-2002

    OpenAIRE

    OTÁROLA U,CLAUDIA; Briceño F,Jorge; Bahamondes M,María Inés; Muñoz M,Rosa; Lorca H,Myriam

    2005-01-01

    La tricomonosis es una de las infecciones de transmisión sexual más frecuentes en el mundo. El Papanicolaou (PAP) no constituye el examen de elección para su diagnóstico, sin embargo, es frecuente el hallazgo del parásito en muestras obtenidas de población en control ginecológico. Para establecer la frecuencia de Tricomonas vaginalis en los PAP procedentes de los Servicios de Salud de Atacama, Metropolitano Norte, Oriente y Bío-Bío se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de 504.638 muestras entr...

  20. Examen de Papanicolaou: factores que influyen a las mujeres a no recibir el resultado.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    El aumento en la prestación de servicios, prevención y tratamiento de casos de cáncer de cuello de útero tendrá limitado su ámbito de aplicación, si las mujeres no vuelven para recibir el resultado del examen de Papanicolaou. La no recepción de los informes citopatológicos acarrea discontinuidad del tratamiento, lo que impide terapias eficaces para las lesiones detectadas. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar las razones que llevan a las mujeres a no recibir los resultados de los exám...

  1. CONHECIMENTO, ATITUDE E PRÁTICA SOBRE O EXAME PAPANICOLAOU DE PROSTITUTAS

    OpenAIRE

    Érica de Alencar Rodrigues Neri; Maria Sauanna Sany de Moura; Jardeliny Corrêa da Penha; Thaís Gomes Oliveira dos Reis; Priscila De Souza Aquino; Ana Karina Bezerra Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    Al mantener relaciones con múltiples parejas y no usar preservativo, las prostitutas ponen en peligro su salud sexual y reproductiva. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar los factores de riesgo de comportamiento asociados con el cáncer de cuello uterino entre prostitutas de Picos-PI y evaluar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en relación de estas mujeres con relación al Papanicolaou. Estudio exploratorio y descriptivo, realizado con 77 mujeres en sus lugares de trabajo, en septiembr...

  2. Conocimiento y creencias sobre la prueba de Papanicolaou en estudiantes universitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Ybarra Sagarduy, José Luis; Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas; Pérez Salinas, Blanca Estela; Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas; Romero Reyes, Daniela; Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas

    2013-01-01

    El procedimiento de elección para la detección temprana del cáncer cervicouterino en la mujer es el examen del Papanicolaou. En México existe una baja prevalencia de uso de esta prueba y entre los factores que se han encontrado relacionados con su limitado uso están el pudor, la falta de información sobre la utilidad de la prueba o la falta de consentimiento de la pareja. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar los conocimientos y creencias acerca de tal prueba en mujeres y hombr...

  3. Práctica de mastografías y pruebas de Papanicolaou entre mujeres de áreas rurales de México Performance of mammography and Papanicolaou among rural women in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analizar la práctica de mastografías y Papanicolaou y el seguimiento de resultados anormales entre mujeres de áreas rurales en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal con la Encuesta de Evaluación de los Hogares Rurales (ENCEL 2007) - Oportunidades levantada entre julio y noviembre del año 2007. Se utilizó un modelo logístico multinivel para modelar la realización de mastografías y Papanicolaou. RESULTADOS: Se encontró una baja frecuencia en la ejecuci...

  4. Creencias sobre Papanicolaou y cáncer cérvicouterino en un grupo de mujeres chilenas

    OpenAIRE

    Urrutia S,María Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes: Son variadas las descripciones en relación a las creencias y como estas se relacionan con las conductas preventivas en cáncer cérvicouterino. Objetivo: Describir las creencias que tienen un grupo de mujeres chilenas pertenecientes al sistema público de atención acerca del Papanicolaou y cáncer cérvicouterino. Método: Estudio analítico de corte transversal realizado en 333 mujeres chilenas. Se estudiaron las creencias sobre el Papanicolaou y el cáncer cérvicouterino con un instru...

  5. Pioneers of exfoliative cytology in the 19th century: the predecessors of George Papanicolaou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, A; Magiorkinis, E

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to summarize the knowledge on exfoliative cytology during the 19th century and to track down Papanicolaou's predecessors. A thorough study of texts, medical books and reports, together with a review of the available literature in PubMed, was undertaken. The study of cytological preparations as a diagnostic procedure can be traced back to the work of the famous French microscopist Alfred François Donné. However, the systematic study and the criteria for the diagnosis of malignant cells should be attributed to Johannes Müller. The increasing interest in the cytological examination of various fluids of the human body can be confirmed by a plethora of studies published during this period. By the end of the 19th century, the invention of new techniques in pathology, such as the introduction of cell block techniques, tissue sections and new staining methods which provided the opportunity to study surgical specimens in three dimensions, led to a decrease in the interest in exfoliative cytology, which was re-discovered by George Papanicolaou almost three decades later. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Factors influencing behavioral intention to undergo Papanicolaou testing in early adulthood: Comparison of Japanese and Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kaneko, Noriyo

    2017-08-23

    In this study, we identified the factors influencing behavioral intention to undergo Papanicolaou testing among Japanese and Korean women in early adulthood. Their behavioral intentions were compared in this cross-sectional descriptive study. In total, 887 women (Japanese = 498, Korean = 389) aged 20-39 years participated in this study. Using a self-report questionnaire, knowledge, attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention were surveyed. There were significant differences between Japanese and Korean women's scores on all main variables. For Japanese women, all the variables moderately correlated with behavioral intention. In comparison, for Korean women, all independent variables, except for knowledge, moderately correlated with behavioral intention. Through a multiple regression analysis, age, undergoing Papanicolaou testing, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were identified as significant predictors of behavioral intention among Japanese women. Among Korean women, job status, undergoing a Papanicolaou test, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were demonstrated as significant predictors of behavioral intention. Health professionals should consider these factors to encourage Papanicolaou testing in women in early adulthood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. A brief chronicle of cytology: from Janssen to Papanicolaou and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, Aristides; Beloukas, Apostolos I; Kalogeraki, Alexandra M; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil

    2013-06-01

    The aim of our study was to outline and present the major hallmarks in the history of clinical cytology. For this purpose, an extensive research in modern literature and the PubMed database was undertaken. Furthermore, we studied original papers and books of the pioneers in cytopathology. The development of the first microscope by Hans and Sacharias Janssen is a hallmark in biological sciences, since the study of microcosmos was made feasible. From the discovery of single cells by Robert Hooke and the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann till the establishment of exfoliative cytology by George Papanicolaou and the invention of fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique by Martin and Ellis, there is a three-century continuum of important discoveries and research. Today, flow cytometry and the introduction of molecular techniques have revolutionized medicine and are expected to change the face of cytology in the near future. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Entropy of local smeared field observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satz, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    We re-conceptualize the usual entanglement entropy of quantum fields in a spatial region as a limiting case of a more general and well-defined quantity, the entropy of a subalgebra of smeared field observables. We introduce this notion, discuss various examples, and recover from it the area law for the entanglement entropy of a sphere in Minkowski space.

  9. Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has rarely been reported. We described squash cytological findings of cranial LCH. Additionally, based on recent data that suggests an association of LCH with either viral infection or genetic alteration, we investigated the presence of several viruses or mutation of TP53 and BRAF in LCH tissue samples. Intraoperative squash smears of a small tissue fragment excised from the lesion demonstrated a mixed population of eosinophils, neutrophils, small lymphocytes and a high content of histiocytes. The histiocytes possessed abundant dense cytoplasm with round cell shape and eccentrically located nuclei with fine chromatin, delicate nuclear membranes and prominent nuclear grooves, indentations and pseudoinclusions. The cytologic features were consistent with Langerhans cells (LCs). Subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Immunohistochemically, the LCs were positive for S-100, CD1a and langerin, but negative for adenovirus, CMV, EBV, HHV-8, HPV, HSV, SV 40 and p53. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Our findings did not support the role of viruses and genetic abnormalities in the pathogenesis of LCH. In summary, the presence of a mixed population of inflammatory cells and a high content of histiocytes with characteristic cytomorphology, along with radiologic evidence and appropriate clinical findings, is highly suggestive of LCH on the intraoperative squash smears. Awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH is necessary for rapid and accurate diagnosis. Squash smear cytology is a potentially useful tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26339366

  10. TAMIZAJE CERVICOUTERINO USANDO PAPANICOLAOU EN MUJERES DE BARRIOS MARGINALES DE LA REGION LORETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Nuñez Rengifo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación, tiene como objetivo conocer la frecuencia de las mujeres portadoras de lesiones producidas por la infección con Papiloma Virus Humano en las zonas y lugares de difícil acceso geográfico en la región Loreto, donde escasean los recursos y las posibilidades de acceder al servicio de salud sexual y reproductiva son difíciles. Se usó para ello la prueba de Papanicolaou como tamizaje de dichas lesiones. Con ello se pretende reforzar la gestión para la obtención de vacunas contra el PVH, para la nueva generación de mujeres de Loreto; capacitación a los profesionales obstetras para reforzar el manejo en el tratamiento y reducción del cáncer de cuello uterino de la región Loreto. Este estudio tiene un Diseño descriptivo transversal. Se realizó teniendo como estratégica básica los Barridos de Papanicolaou entre los años 2008 y 2009. Se realizaron cientos de intervenciones, lográndose sensibilizar a 25,000 mujeres en Loreto, utilizando la estrategia de Promoción de la Salud, el perifoneo, volanteo, charlas educativas, 5,000 visitas domiciliarias, entre otras. De las 2000 mujeres estudiadas 348 tuvieron algún tipo de normalidad de las células epiteliales. En 45 casos se encontró lesiones intra epiteliales de alto grado ó carcinoma escamoso invasivo.

  11. Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Martha B; Centeno, Barbara A; Ali, Syed Z; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Max Schmidt, C; Brugge, William; Layfield, Lester

    2014-04-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18-month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site (www.papsociety.org). This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Nondiagnostic, Negative, Atypical, Neoplastic (benign or other), Suspicious and Positive. Unique to this scheme is the "Neoplastic" category separated into "benign" (serous cystadenoma), or "Other" (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors, and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma, and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide maximum flexibility

  12. TAMIZAJE CERVICOUTERINO USANDO PAPANICOLAOU EN MUJERES DE BARRIOS MARGINALES DE LA REGION LORETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Nuñez-Rengifo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación, tiene como objetivo conocer la frecuencia de las mujeres portadoras de lesiones producidas por la infección con Papiloma Virus Humano en las zonas y lugares de difícil acceso geográfico en la región Loreto, donde escasean los recursos y las posibilidades de acceder al servicio de salud sexual y reproductiva son difíciles. Se usó para ello la prueba de Papanicolaou como tamizaje de dichas lesiones. Con ello se pretende reforzar la gestión para la obtención de vacunas contra el PVH, para la nueva generación de mujeres de Loreto; capacitación a los profesionales obstetras para reforzar el manejo en el tratamiento y reducción del cáncer de cuello uterino de la región Loreto. Este estudio tiene un Diseño descriptivo transversal. Se realizó teniendo como estratégica básica los Barridos de Papanicolaou entre los años 2008 y 2009. Se realizaron cientos de intervenciones, lográndose sensibilizar a 25,000 mujeres en Loreto, utilizando la estrategia de Promoción de la Salud, el perifoneo, volanteo, charlas educativas, 5,000 visitas domiciliarias, entre otras. De las 2000 mujeres estudiadas 348 tuvieron algún tipo de normalidad de las células epiteliales. En 45 casos se encontró lesiones intra epiteliales de alto grado ó carcinoma escamoso invasivo.

  13. Sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis: Is sputum smear examination required to discontinue airborne precautions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argemi, X; Albrecht, M; Hansmann, Y; Jaulhac, B; Koebel, C; Schramm, F

    2015-10-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the criteria required to discontinue airborne precautions for patients presenting with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis as the need for sputum smear examinations is still a matter of debate. We conducted a retrospective study in the University Hospitals of Strasbourg (France) from July 2011 to July 2013. Our aim was to describe the results of sputum smear examinations and cultures obtained from treated patients presenting with drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis. We included 97 patients in the study. Nearly half of patients for whom a sputum smear examination was performed had a negative sputum direct examination but a positive culture. According to the literature, those patients are still likely to be contagious. This questions the safety of discontinuing airborne precautions in this situation. We also observed a great disparity in physicians' behaviors. Only half of them waited to get a negative sputum direct examination before discontinuing airborne precautions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis ... used to detect several different types of acid-fast bacilli, but it is most commonly used to ...

  15. Persistent inflammation on Pap smear: Does it warrant evaluation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bhutia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the low sensitivity of Pap smear, premalignant lesions of the cervix can be missed in women with inflammatory Pap smears. However, it is not practically possible to subject all women with inflammatory Pap smear to colposcopy. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate whether women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear need further evaluation with colposcopy. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and twenty women were screened at a tertiary level hospital with Pap smear. Women with inflammation on Pap smear were given treatment as per WHO guidelines and Pap smear was repeated at an interval of 6-12 weeks. Women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear were then subjected to colposcopy and directed biopsy if required. Results: Of the 420 women screened, 102 (24.3% women had a Pap smear showing inflammation. Thirty six women (8.6% had persistent inflammatory Pap smear. Thirty women were subjected to colposcopy and 16 (53.3% had abnormal findings on colposcopy. Five out of these 30 women (16.67% had Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN on biopsy. Conclusions: Nearly 16.67% women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Hence, a large number of women with CIN would be missed if persistent inflammation on Pap smear is not evaluated further.

  16. Validación de la prueba de Papanicolaou en el diagnóstico de vaginosis bacteriana. Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Vásquez Peña

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive cross sectional study was carry out in 423 women in seven rural communities of the municipality of Amagá, Antioquia. One of the objectives of this study was to evaluate the sensibility and specificity and predictive values of the test of Papanicolaou in relation to the Gram exam, for the diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV. In the 423 studied women the results showed a prevalence of BV for the bacteriological exam Gram of 20.8 % (88 cases and for Papanicolaou of 21% (89 cases. The sensitivity was 87.5%, the specificity was 96.4%. The value predictive positive was 86,5% and the value predictive negative was 96.7%. The high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Papanicolaou test reported in this study make it a good screening method, since it is an exam that is carried out commonly and no additional testa are required. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte en 423 mujeres de la población rural del municipio de Amagá, Antioquia, cuyas edades estaban comprendidas entre los 15 y 65 años, a quienes se les tomó muestras cérvicovaginales para estudio citológico de Papanicolau y coloración de Gram. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos de la prueba de Papanicolaou frente al Gram, para el diagnóstico de vaginosis bacteriana (vb. La prevalencia de vb por el Gram, en las 423 mujeres estudiadas, fue de 20.8% (88 casos y la prevalencia de vb por Papanicolaou, fue del 21 % (89 casos. La sensibilidad fue 87.5%, la especificidad 96.4%, valor predictivo positivo (VPP 86,5% y valor predictivo negativo (VPN 96.7%. La alta sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos de la prueba de Papanicolaou, reportados en este estudio hacen de ésta un buen método de tamizaje, dado que es un examen que se realiza de rutina y no se requiere una prueba adicional para hacer el diagnóstico; lo que a su vez permite disminuir costos porque se omite el estudio de la flora vaginal

  17. The Shape of Covariantly Smeared Sources in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    von Hippel, Georg M; Rae, Thomas D; Wittig, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Covariantly smeared sources are commonly used in lattice QCD to enhance the projection onto the ground state. Here we investigate the dependence of their shape on the gauge field background and find that the presence of localized concentrations of magnetic field can lead to strong distortions which reduce the smearing radii achievable by iterative smearing prescriptions. In particular, as $a\\to 0$, iterative procedures like Jacobi smearing require increasingly large iteration counts in order to reach physically-sized smearing radii $r_{sm}\\sim$ 0.5 fm, and the resulting sources are strongly distorted. To bypass this issue, we propose a covariant smearing procedure (``free-form smearing'') that allows us to create arbitrarily shaped sources, including in particular Gaussians of arbitrary radius.

  18. Human papillomavirus infections in women seeking cervical Papanicolaou cytology of Durango, Mexico: prevalence and genotypes

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    Reyes-Romero Miguel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HPV infection in women from developing countries is an important public health problem. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalences of HPV infection and HPV genotypes in a female population of Durango City, Mexico. Also to determine whether any socio-demographic characteristic from the women associated with HPV infection exists. Methods Four hundred and ninety eight women seeking cervical Papanicolaou examination in three public Health Centers were examined for HPV infection. All women were tested for HPV DNA PCR by using HPV universal primers. In addition, all positive HPV DNA PCR samples were further analyzed for genotyping of HPV genotype 16, 18 and 33. Socio-demographic characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Twenty-four out of four hundred and ninety-eight (4.8% women were found infected by HPV. HPV genotype 16 was found in 18 out of the 24 (75% infected women. Two of them were also coinfected by HPV genotype 18 (8.3%. In the rest 6 PCR positive women, genotyping for HPV genotypes 16, 18 and 33 were negative. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV in women of Durango City is low; however, most infected women have high risk HPV genotype. The women who were studied showed low frequency of risk factors for HPV infection and this may explain the low prevalence of HPV infection. The high frequency of high risk HPV genotypes observed might explain the high rate of mortality for cervical cancer in our region.

  19. Comparison of Affirm VPIII and Papanicolaou tests in the detection of infectious vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Angelique W; Harigopal, Malini; Hui, Pei; Schofield, Kevin; Chhieng, David C

    2011-03-01

    To compare the Affirm VPIII molecular test (Becton Dickinson, Burlington, NC) with morphologic identification used in routine Papanicolaou (Pap) test screening in the detection and identification of Candida species, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Gardnerella vaginalis, we identified 431 cases with a concomitant Pap test and Affirm VPIII assay performed from the archives of a large academic institution. The study population consisted of women ranging in age from 17 to 79 years (mean and median ages, 33 and 31 years, respectively). With a routine Pap test, 60 patients (13.9%) were found to have bacterial vaginosis, 60 (13.9%) candidiasis, and 3 (0.7%) Trichomonas infection. With the Affirm VPIII assay, 183 (42.5%) patients tested positive for G vaginalis, 70 (16.2%) positive for Candida species, and 10 (2.3%) positive for T vaginalis. The differences were statistically significant. The results demonstrate that our patient population had a high incidence of bacterial vaginosis/Candida vaginitis; however, the Affirm VPIII was a more sensitive diagnostic test for the detection and identification of all 3 organisms compared with the Pap test.

  20. Comparison of visual inspection and Papanicolau (PAP) smears for cervical cancer screening in Honduras: should PAP smears be abandoned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R B; Langrish, S M; Stern, L J; Figueroa, J; Simon, C J

    2007-09-01

    To compare visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) to Papanicolau (PAP) smears in a community setting in a developing nation. Women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Honduras received either VIA and PAP smears (VIA/PAP group) or PAP smears alone (PAP-only group). Local healthcare providers performed PAP screening. A VIA-trained nurse performed VIA exams. All PAP smears were processed in Honduras. PAP smears from the VIA/PAP group were reviewed in the United States. Women with positive VIA or PAP tests were offered colposcopy. We compared the relative accuracy of PAP smears and VIA and the proportions of women completing follow-up colposcopy after positive screening tests. In total, 1709 PAP smears were performed including women from both the VIA/PAP and PAP-only groups. Nine PAP smears were positive (0.5%). Three women completed colposcopy (33%). All three had biopsy-confirmed dysplasia. In the VIA/PAP group (n = 339), 49 VIA exams were abnormal (14%) and two PAP smears were abnormal when read in Honduras (0.6%). When reviewed in the United States, 14 of the 339 PAP smears were abnormal (4%). Forty women (83%) completed follow-up colposcopy after a positive VIA exam. Twenty-three had biopsy-proven dysplasia. All 23 dysplasia cases had negative PAP smear readings in Honduras; four PAP smears were reclassified as positive in the United States. Although few developing countries can maintain high-quality PAP smear programmes, many governments and charitable organizations support cervical cancer screening programmes that rely on PAP smears. This study underscores the need to promote alternative technologies for cervical cancer screening in low-resource settings.

  1. Comparison of centrifuged liquid based cytology method with conventional brush cytology in oral lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Dwivedi; Akhil Agarwal; Vineet Raj; Bina Kashyap; Shaleen Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exfoliative cytology is the study of cells that are shed or scrapped off from mucosal surfaces. Centrifuged Liquid based cytology is a modified technique employed in the present study. Aims: To compare the utility of centrifuged liquid based cytology with conventional cytology in oral lesions after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Materials and Methods: 50 cases of oral lesions comprising of normal mucosa (n=14), hyperkeratotic lesions (n=17), ulcerated lesions (n=7) and at...

  2. Debris and smear removal in flattened root canals after use of different irrigant agitation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Eduardo Milani; Silva-Sousa, Yara T C; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Lorencetti, Karina Torales; Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa

    2012-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) can be used to analyze the presence of debris and smear layer on the internal walls of root canal. This study evaluated the debris and smear removal in flattened root canals using SEM after use of different irrigant agitation protocols. Fifty mandibular incisors were distributed into five groups (n = 10) according to the irrigant agitation protocol used during chemomechanical preparation: conventional syringe irrigation with NaviTip needle (no activation), active scrubbing of irrigant with brush-covered NaviTip FX needle, manual dynamic irrigation, continuous passive ultrasonic irrigation, and apical negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system). Canals were irrigated with 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl at each change of instrument and received a final flush with 17% EDTA for 1 min. After instrumentation, the roots were split longitudinally and SEM micrographs at ×100 and ×1,000 were taken to evaluate the amount of debris and smear layer, respectively, in each third. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc tests (α = 5%). Manual dynamic activation left significantly (p protocols, while ultrasonic irrigation and EndoVac were the most effective (p 0.05) either among the irrigant agitation protocols or between the protocol-canal third interactions. Although none of the irrigant agitation protocols completely removed debris and smear layer from flattened root canals, the machine-assisted agitation systems (ultrasound and EndoVac) removed more debris than the manual techniques.

  3. Estimation of platelet count in unstained peripheral blood smears in comparison with stained smears and evaluation of its efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umashankar, T; Thomas, B M; Sahana, P

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of platelet count is an important diagnostic parameter in haematology. Automated blood cell counters have largely replaced the manual method. However, all abnormal platelet counts are verified in Leishman's stained peripheral blood smear. Platelets also can be identified in the unstained blood smears. The objective of this study is to compare the unstained peripheral blood smears with the stained smears and determination of the effectiveness of unstained smears in the estimation of platelet count. 250 Venous blood samples sent for blood cell counts were analyzed. Platelets were counted in the unstained smear under 100× objective in 10 fields without placing immersion oil and the average number of platelets was calculated. Same smear was stained by Leishman's stain and platelets were counted under 100× objective after placing a drop of immersion oil. Collected data were analyzed for intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC showed excellent agreement (ICC > 0.85). The unstained smears were found to be as effective as stained smears for platelet count in most of the cases. However, in case of doubt a stained preparation has to be made to confirm the count. The turnaround time was 3-5 minutes compared to 15-20 minutes by stained smear technique, thus this technique may be used as an initial screening method whenever there is large sample load.

  4. Immunocytoexpression profile of ProExC in smears interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, and cervical intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Tosuner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We aimed to investigate the immunocytoexpression profiles of a novel assay ProEx C for topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2 in abnormal interpreted smears. Settings and Design: Screening programs with Papanicolaou smear and high risk group human papilloma virus testing have yielded a dramatic reduction of cervical cancer incidence. However, both of these tests have limited specificity for the detection of clinically significant cervical high grade lesions. ProEx C for topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2 has been considered to have tight association with high grade intraepithelial lesions. Materials and Methods: A total number of 54 SurePath cervical cytology specimens of patients previously interpreted as atypical squamous cells-undetermined significance (ASC-US, atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL were included in our study. Results and Conclusions: ProEx C was positive in 14 of HSILs (100%, 3 of 19 LSILs (16%, 2 of 4 ASC-Hs, and none of ASC-USs (0%. The ProEx C test showed very intense nuclear staining in all cytologically abnormal cells. Further studies are indicated to evaluate the diagnostic role of ProEx C.

  5. Urothelial cells in smears from cervix uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Palaoro

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The umbrella cells may be mistaken for dysplastic cells originating in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions lesions (LSILs due to their nuclear and cytoplasm sizes. Therefore, it is important to know the possibility of their appearance in the cervical smears, especially in post menopausal patients in order to avoid a false diagnosis of an intraepithelial lesion. It is unlikely that deeper cells of urothelium would be confused with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL cells. However, their presence might be a reason of mistake in the diagnosis. TCM is an under-recognized metaplastic phenomenon of the cervix and vagina, which is a mimicker of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The differential characteristic between umbrella cells, cells from TCM and the deeper urothelial cells, and LSIL and HSIL are detailed in the present paper.

  6. Papanicolaou durante la menstruación: evaluación de muestras en cuatro hospitales de Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy López

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la factibilidad de obtener una muestra adecuada para el citodiagnóstico durante la menstruación, utilizando la técnica de tomar la muestra cuando el cuello del útero luzca limpio, luego de retirar el flujo menstrual de su superficie. Diseño: Estudio prospectivo, de correlación, de medidas repetidas. Participantes: Mujeres en edad reproductiva. Métodos: Participaron 389 mujeres que acudieron a cuatro hospitales de la región Lima Sur, de quienes se colectó 208 pares de muestras de Papanicolaou: una muestra correspondió al periodo menstrual y otra sin menstruación. La muestra durante la menstruación se obtuvo luego de limpiar suavemente la superficie del cuello uterino con un algodón seco y de esperar a que no hubiera pulso de flujo menstrual a través del os exocervical. Las muestras fueron analizadas separadamente por dos anatomopatólogas. Principales medidas de resultados: Adecuación de las muestras para Papanicolaou tomadas durante la menstruación. Resultados: En dos hospitales en donde las muestras fueron tomadas por personal sensibilizado y entrenado en la técnica, se halló que las muestras con y sin menstruación eran adecuadas para estudio citológico, sin diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre ellas (p < 0,005. En los otros dos hospitales, en donde las muestras fueron tomadas mayormente por personal sin entrenamiento, se halló que 75% de las muestras tomadas durante la menstruación correspondía a extendido hemorrágico, no adecuadas para el estudio del Papanicolaou, habiendo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre muestras adecuadas con menstruación y sin menstruación (p < 0,005. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos nos permiten concluir para este estudio que es posible tomar una muestra adecuada para análisis del Papanicolaou durante la menstruación, si el personal de salud conoce cómo obtener una muestra sin sangre menstrual y está motivado. Este procedimiento puede incrementar el

  7. Conhecimento, atitude e prática de acadêmicas de enfermagem sobre o exame de papanicolaou

    OpenAIRE

    Kellyane Feitosa Carvalho Ribeiro; Maria Sauanna Sany de Moura; Rosianne Gomes Cipriano Brandão; Ana Izabel Oliveira Nicolau; Priscila De Souza Aquino; Ana Karina Bezerra Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    El cáncer de cuello uterino constituye un problema de salud pública, un factor que eventualmente podría ser modificado con la aprobación del examen de Papanicolaou. Llevamos a cabo esta investigación con estudiantes de enfermería de una universidad pública en la ciudad Picos, Piauí. Se trata de un estudio de evaluación del Conocimientos, Actitudes y Prácticas, cuyo objetivo principal fue analizar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de la estudiante de enfermería acerca del examen de Papa...

  8. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

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    Arain Shehla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  9. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Shehla; Walts, Ann E; Thomas, Premi; Bose, Shikha

    2005-02-16

    BACKGROUND: Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. METHODS: The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. RESULTS: Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK), atypical parakeratotic cells (APK), and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. CONCLUSIONS: In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98%) for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50%) for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46-56%) of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  10. MANUFACTURE OF THE FERMENTED SAUSAGES WITH THE SMEARED CONSISTENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterenko A. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In foreign practice we have a great demand of using smoked sausage products with a smeared consistence. In the article the basic aspects of manufacturing smoked sausages with a smeared consistence are resulted: the choice of spices, starting cultures and the way of drawing up of forcemeat

  11. A importância da prevenção do câncer do colo uterino: em pauta o exame de papanicolaou

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Maria Aparecida dos; Audickas, Rita de Cássia; Coutinho, Sandra Cristina; Silva, Janete da; Souza, Lígia do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: No Brasil, o câncer do colo de útero é a segunda neoplasia em mulheres e quando diagnosticado e tratado precocemente, a causa morte é evitável, sendo o papanicolaou método diagnóstico eficaz. Identificar na literatura o conhecimento das mulheres sobre a importância da realização do exame de papanicolaou para a prevenção do câncer de colo uterino. Pesquisa de revisão bibliográfica. Papanicolaou ainda é uma estratégia eficaz, de baixo custo, oferecido pela rede pública de saúde para a d...

  12. [Satisfactory cervical cytology. Circular exocervical cytologic smears against longitudinal exocervical smears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ortega, Gregorio; Díaz-Hernández, Maritza Consuelo; Rodríguez-Moctezuma, José Raymundo; Domínguez-Gómez, Francisco Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, la muestra del frotis del cuello uterino se extiende en el portaobjetos mediante movimientos circulares (técnica habitual) desde el año de 1962. En 2006, la Secretaría de Salud estableció que el extendido exocervical se realizara de forma longitudinal (técnica convencional). El objetivo de la investigación que se presenta fue evaluar la eficacia y calidad de la técnica de extendido exocervical habitual, convencional y una nueva que se propone. MÉTODOS: estudio cuasiexperimental en mujeres que solicitaron prueba citológica cervical. Las variables analizadas fueron técnica de extendido, cobertura celular y calidad de la muestra exocervical. Se conformaron grupos según la técnica que se aplicó. Los estudios citológicos fueron procesados con técnica de Papanicolaou y los resultados fueron informados por tres observadores conforme al sistema Bethesda. Se utilizó prueba Z, ?2, Anova y riesgo relativo.

  13. Dentine sealing provided by smear layer/smear plugs vs. adhesive resins/resin tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Marcela R; Tay, Franklin R; Sword, Jeremy; Donnelly, Adam M; Agee, Kelli A; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Sadek, Fernanda T; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Pashley, David H

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of five experimental resins, which ranged from hydrophobic to hydrophilic blends, to seal acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. The experimental resins (R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5) were evaluated as neat bonding agents (100% resin) or as solutions solvated with absolute ethanol (70% resin/30% ethanol). Fluid conductance was measured at 20 cm H(2)O hydrostatic pressure after sound dentine surfaces were: (i) covered with a smear layer; (ii) acid-etched; or (iii) bonded with neat or solvated resins, which were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. In general, the fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine was significantly higher than that of smear layer-covered dentine. However, when the most hydrophobic neat resins (R1 and R2) were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with ethanol, the fluid conductance was as low as that produced by smear layers. The fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine saturated with ethanol was significantly lower than for resin bonded to water-saturated dentine, except for resin R4. Application of more hydrophobic resins may provide better sealing of acid-etched dentine if the substrate is saturated with ethanol instead of with water.

  14. Stout-link smearing in lattice fermion actions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J B; Bowman, Patrick O; Leinweber, Derek B; Williams, Anthony G

    2009-01-01

    The properties of the momentum space quark propagator in Landau gauge are studied for the overlap quark action in quenched lattice QCD. Numerical calculations are performed over four ensembles of gauge configurations, where three are smeared using either 1, 3, or 6 sweeps of stout-link smearing. We calculate the non-perturbative wave function renormalization function $Z(p)$ and the non-perturbative mass function $M(p)$ for a variety of bare quark masses. We find that the wave-function renormalization function is slightly sensitive to the number of stout-link smearing sweeps. For the mass function we find the effect of the stout-link smearing algorithm to be small for moderate to light bare quark masses. For a heavy bare quark mass we find a strong dependence on the number of smearing sweeps.

  15. Conocimientos y actitudes sobre la toma de papanicolaou en mujeres de Lima, Perú 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Huamaní

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar el nivel de conocimientos y actitudes hacia la toma de Papanicolaou y factores asociados en mujeres en edad fértil de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, se realizó un muestreo por conglomerados empleando un cuestionario validado por juicio de expertos, que tenía 22 ítems, seis preguntas de opción múltiple, nueve abiertas y siete tipo escala de Likert. Se determinó la asociación bajos conocimientos y actitud negativa o indiferente usando regresión logística múltiple Resultados. Se incluyó a 502 mujeres, con una edad promedio de 27±8 años. El 15% inició sus relaciones sexuales antes de los 15 años y 14% había tenido tres o más parejas sexuales. La prevalencia de un nivel bajo de conocimientos sobre la toma del PAP fue de 24,9% (IC95%: 21,0-28,7%, el cual estuvo asociado con un menor nivel educativo (ORa: 3,1; IC95%: 1,0-4,1 y a una historia de PAP inadecuada (ORa: 2,8; IC95%: 1,6-4,9. La prevalencia de una actitud negativa o indiferente hacia la toma del PAP fue de 18,7% (IC95%: 15,2-22,2%, la cual estuvo asociada con un bajo conocimiento sobre el PAP (ORa: 9,0; IC95%: 3,1-26,8, así como a un menor nivel educativo (ORa: 3,2; IC95%: 1,3-7,9, historia inadecuada de PAP (ORa: 2,0; IC95%: 1,1-3,6 y haber tenido más de dos parejas sexuales (ORa: 2,6; IC95%: 1,3-5,3. Conclusiones. Un bajo nivel educativo y una historia inadecuada de PAP están asociados con pobre conocimiento y una actitud negativa hacia la toma del Papanicolau en mujeres de Lima.

  16. Práctica de mastografías y pruebas de Papanicolaou entre mujeres de áreas rurales de México

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analizar la práctica de mastografías y Papanicolaou y el seguimiento de resultados anormales entre mujeres de áreas rurales en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal con la Encuesta de Evaluación de los Hogares Rurales (ENCEL 2007) - Oportunidades levantada entre julio y noviembre del año 2007. Se utilizó un modelo logístico multinivel para modelar la realización de mastografías y Papanicolaou. RESULTADOS: Se encontró una baja frecuencia en la ejecuci...

  17. Smear grading and the Mantoux skin test can be used to predict sputum smear conversion in patients suffering from tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saffari, Mahmood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Smear scores and induration sizes resulting from the PPD (tuberculin purified protein derivative test can serve as indicators of whether a patient suffering from tuberculosis shows smear conversion or not. Methods: Using microbiological methods smear and sputum tests, patients diagnosed as infected with between 2002 and 2015 were included in this study. All of the assumed factors that may have a role in smear conversion were studied, in addition to the prolongation of tuberculosis. Results: 398 of 512 patients fulfilled all the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of this study. 215 patients (54% were females and 183 (46% were males. The median age for both men and women was 36 years. We found a statistically significant difference between the size of induration resulting from the PPD skin test and the rate of non-conversion (=0.002. Further univariate analysis also showed that smear grading and an induration size of ≥10 mm were independently associated with delayed smear conversion. Patients with cavitary lesions showed a higher rate of non-conversion after two months, which was not significant. We could not find any association between some of the variables, such as age, sex, weight, smoking, alcoholism, addictions, respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus, alternative anti-TB treatment, and smear conversion. Conclusion: Intensified treatment and precautions against transmission should be especially considered for TB patients with high smear grading and an induration size of more than 10 mm.

  18. PRECAUÇÕES BÁSICAS E GERENCIAMENTO DE RESÍDUOS NA COLETA PARA O EXAME DE PAPANICOLAOU

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    NANCY COSTA DE OLIVEIRA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las cautelas básicas de prevención de infecciones y manejo de residuos de servicios de salud son temáticas emergentes, des - de el punto de vista de la seguridad de los trabajadores de la salud, usuarios y del medio ambiente. Estudio que tuvo como objetivo verificar la adopción de cautelas básicas de prevención de infecciones y manejo de residuos en la toma de muestra para la prueba de Papanicolaou. Los datos se obtuvieron en 21 (100% unidades de salud de la familia en Maranguape-CE, por medio de observación estructurada directa de las enfermeras y observación participativa. Lavarse las manos no es un hábito de estas enfermeras durante la toma de muestra de la prueba de Papanicolaou, sin embargo se garante la existencia de los guantes de procedimiento de látex en todas las unidades y son utilizados en 100% de los exámenes. El procesamiento de artículos reciclables contaminados y el manejo de residuos infecciosos se revelaron inadecuados, por lo cual, recomendamos que esto sea implantado conforme la Resolución de la Dirección Colegiada (RDC No. 306/2004 de la Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria.

  19. Risk factors for cervical cancer and adherence to papanicolaou among nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Albertina Rocha Diógenes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify the presence of risk factors for cervical cancer and identify adherence to Pap smears in nursing auxiliary and technicians to 20 primary health care, in Fortaleza, Brazil. A descriptive study was conducted from October 2008 to January 2009, involving 77 women. Data were collected using a structured interview, available on tables and treated with absolute and relative frequency. It was Shown that 71.43% of the Women were using oral contraceptives, 19.48% smoked or had smoked, 61.04% had first intercourse between 15 and 20 years of age, 77.92% did not make systematic use of condoms, 22.07% knew the importance of the examination and 84.40% would do so every year. Most joined the regular gynecological exam, but some had risk factors for cervical cancer. It is emphasized the need for an educational intervention directed at these women.

  20. Immunoperoxidase staining of cervicovaginal smears after radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, M S; Thaler, H T; Gangi, M D; Hajdu, S I

    1992-01-01

    Cervicovaginal smears from 2 women with postirradiation dysplasia, 4 women with postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, 30 women with irradiation atypia and 5 healthy, nonirradiated women were stained immunohistochemically with six keratin antibodies. For four of the antibodies--CK19 (BA17), EMA, PKK-1 and CAM 5.2--squamous cells showing irradiation atypia, postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma were more likely to stain positively than were nonirradiated squamous cells. For three of the antibodies in which multiple squamous cells stained positively, the proportion of squamous cells showing postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma staining strongly was equal to or greater than the corresponding overall proportion for squamous cells showing irradiation atypia. This was statistically significant with only one antibody, PKK-1. No statistically significant differences were seen in staining of irradiated and nonirradiated squamous cells by MAK-6 and AE1:AE3. The data show that some keratin antigens are more often expressed in the irradiated groups and that there may be differences in the degree of antigen expression between squamous cells showing postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma and squamous cells showing irradiation atypia.

  1. A novel method for diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis patients by combining a random unbiased Phi29 amplification with a specific real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Lu, Jie; Yang, Jian; Wang, Yufeng; Cohen, Chad; Ni, Xin; Zhao, Yanlin

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we develop a novel method for diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis patients by performing a random unbiased Phi29 amplification prior to the use of a specific real-time PCR. The limit of detection (LOD) of the conventional real-time PCR was 100 colony-forming units (CFU) of MTB genome/reaction, while the REPLI real-time PCR assay could detect 0.4 CFU/reaction. In comparison with the conventional real-time PCR, REPLI real-time PCR shows better sensitivity for the detection of smear-negative tuberculosis (P = 0.015).

  2. Tuberculosis:an experience from Mycobacterium smears and culture analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeehaida M; Siti Asma H; Siti Hawa H; Zaidah AR; Norbanee TH

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Simple tests like direct smear of the acid fast bacilli (AFB)and Mycobacterium culture could assist the diagnosis of tuberculosis.This study is aimed at reviewing the outcome of smears,culture results and con-tamination rate among specimens requested for AFB smear and Mycobacterium culture.Methods:Retrospec-tive laboratory data analysis requesting for Mycobacterium culture from January 2005 till December 2006 was done in a tertiary teaching hospital of Universiti Sains Malaysia,Kubang Kerian,Kelantan,Malaysia.Re-sults:Four hundred and sixty seven (36.6%)isolates grew from 1 277 specimens.Of these isolates,314 (67.2%)grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis,23 (4.9%)grew Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis and 38 (8.1%)grew contaminants.Among the M.tuberculosis cultures,165 (52.5%)had growth of more than 100 confluent colonies,whereas 39 cultures (12.4%)had growth of less than 19 colonies.Direct smear for AFB among smear positive cases showed presence of more than 50 bacilli /line in 231 (49.5%)cases and smear negative cases accounted for 63 (13.5%).Among smear positive cases,291 (94.5%)cultures grew Myco-bacterium species and another 17 (5.5%)cultures grew contaminants.In smear negative cases,32 (62.7%) cultures grew Mycobacterium species and 19 (37.3%)cultures grew contaminants.Conclusion:The results from data analysis of the Mycobacterium cultures should be critically utilized in order to review the laboratory performance and to improve its services in the future.Some of the data is also useful to the administrators of the hospital in terms of estimating the risk of occupational hazard faced by the health care workers.

  3. Actinomyces in cervical smears of women using intrauterine contraceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, B; Joshi, J V; Wagle, U; Hazari, K; Shah, R; Chadha, U; Gokral, J; Bhave, G

    1986-01-01

    Cervical smears from 1,784 women who attended the family planning clinics of the Institute for Research in Reproduction were examined for the presence of Actinomyces-like organisms. Among 815 intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) users, the repeat smears from 57 women were positive for Actinomyces-like organisms, giving a prevalence rate of 6.99%. Immunofluorescent staining using specific antisera confirmed the presence of A. israelii in all 57 women. Forty IUD users whose smears were positive for Actinomyces-like organisms underwent bacteriologic culture studies; A. israelii was isolated in 23 of these cases. The clinical findings at the time of smear collection in the 57 IUD users were within normal limits. The initial cervical smears of all IUD users and both the initial and repeat smears of all nonusers were negative for Actinomyces-like organisms. The data indicate that prolonged use (greater than 2 years) of an inert or copper intrauterine device promotes the overgrowth of Actinomyces in the vagina and that this can be detected by routine cervical cytology.

  4. COMPARISION BETWEEN DIFFERENT CONVENTIONAL METHODS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryamani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification of infectious case is a crucial first step for Tuberculosis Control Programmes worldwide. Now a days Molecular Methods are available for rapid diagnosis but they are too costly and most of the people may not be able to effort for this. Therefore there is an urgent need to improve quality of the smear microscopy. OBJECTIVES: The USP method was compared with the two commonly used conventional meth ods of smear microscopy namely direct smear microscopy and the microscopy by modified Petroff’s method. MATERIALS & METHODS : Two samples from each patient were taken from 210 patients of presumptive tuberculosis. One smear was made for direct Ziehl - Neelsen staining and two smears were made after processing by two concentration methods i. e modified Petroff”s and USP solution. LJ media were inoculated for culture after processing by both concentration methods. RESULTS : Among 195 cases 90 were culture positive by either method. Out of 90 culture positive samples 80.21% were direct smear positive , 91.2% were 4% NaOH smear positive and 95.83% were USP smear positive. Diagnostic accuracy for direct smear was 87.21% , for modified Petroff”s was 92.21% , and for USP it was 96.21%. CONCLUSION : The present study evaluated the smear microscopy by USP method with the two conventional methods , direct microscopy and microscopy by modified Petroff”s method. The study concludes that USP method is more sensitive than other two conventional methods for diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

  5. Conhecimento, atitude e prática de acadêmicas de enfermagem sobre o exame de papanicolaou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellyane Feitosa Carvalho Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de cuello uterino constituye un problema de salud pública, un factor que eventualmente podría ser modificado con la aprobación del examen de Papanicolaou. Llevamos a cabo esta investigación con estudiantes de enfermería de una universidad pública en la ciudad Picos, Piauí. Se trata de un estudio de evaluación del Conocimientos, Actitudes y Prácticas, cuyo objetivo principal fue analizar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de la estudiante de enfermería acerca del examen de Papanicolaou. La recolección de datos ocurrió entre agosto y octubre de 2010, mediante la aplicación de un formulario estructurado a 143 estudiantes de enfermería. Respecto al conocimiento del examen sólo 40 (28% fueron clasificados con el conocimiento apropiado. Con la actitud y la práctica el porcentaje de adecuación fue de 106 (74,1% y 75 (52,4% respectivamente. Algunos factores de riesgo para la salud sexual y reproductiva también fueron identificados, lo que lleva a la conclusión de que, incluso cuando se trata de una población que pertenece a un curso de salud, el conocimiento acerca de la prueba debe ser revisado, con las actividades de promoción de la salud más dentro del ámbito universitario que se centra en los jóvenes con el fin de minimizar el daño a largo plazo.

  6. Comparison of clinical and microbiological profiles in smear-positive and smear-negative cases of suspected microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Savitri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that initial smear examination results have a significant bearing on the management and outcome of suspected microbial keratitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy consecutive patients with suspected microbial keratitis were included in a prospective nonrandomized comparative study and their detailed clinical and microbiological data (smears and cultures of corneal scrapings were captured on a predesigned corneal ulcer database. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 included 68 patients with corneal scrapings negative in smears while Group 2 included 102 patients with corneal scrapings positive in smears. The two groups were compared for their clinico-microbiological profile, management and clinical outcome. The outcome was noted at three months. Fisher′s exact test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: Cultures were sterile in 57.3% of patients in Group 1 compared to 17.6% in Group 2. Scrapings that grew S. pneumoniae , gram-negative organisms, fungi and Acanthamoeba were more often positive in smears (18.6%, 11.8%, 19.6% and 2.9% respectively. While data on duration of prior treatment was not available, prior medication made no significant difference to smear results. More (79.3% patients of Group 1 had small infiltrate size (< 25 mm[[2

  7. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilkerson, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Meisner, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Image Smearing Modeling and Verification for Strapdown Star Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haiyong; ZHOU Wenrui; CHENG Xuan; LIN Haoyu

    2012-01-01

    To further extend study on celestial attitude determination with strapdown star sensor from static into dynamic field,one prerequisite is to generate precise dynamic simulating star maps.First a neat analytical solution of the smearing trajectory caused by spacecraft attitude maneuver is deduced successfully,whose parameters cover the geometric size of optics,three-axis angular velocities and CCD integral time.Then for the first time the mathematical law and method are discovered about how to synthesize the two formulae of smearing trajectory and the static Gaussian distribution function (GDF) model,the key of which is a line integral with regard to the static GDF attenuated by a factor 1/Ls (Ls is the arc length of the smearing trajectory) along the smearing trajectory.The dynamic smearing model is then obtained,also in an analytical form.After that,three sets of typical simulating maps and data are simulated from this dynamic model manifesting the expected smearing effects,also compatible with the linear model as its special case of no boresight rotation.Finally,model validity tests on a rate turntable are carried out,which results in a mean correlation coefficient 0.920 0 between the camera images and the corresponding model simulated ones with the same parameters.The sufficient similarity verifies the validity of the dynamic smearing model.This model,after parameter calibration,can serve as a front-end loop of the ground semi-physical simulation system for celestial attitude determination with strapdown star sensor.

  9. Efficacy of liquid-based cytology versus conventional smears in FNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpalata Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: LBC performed on FNA samples can be a simple and valuable technique. Only in few selected cases, where background factor is an essential diagnostic clue, a combination of both CP and TP is necessary.

  10. Disseminated primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis: a case report with liquid based and conventional smear cytology

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    Bilic Masha

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis is a rare neoplasm confined to the meninges without evidence of primary tumor in the brain or spinal cord parenchyma. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion via ventriculoperitoneal shunt may be used as a therapeutic modality. Herein, we describe the first report of cytologic findings of a case of this neoplasm with shunt-related peritoneal metastasis. Case presentation A 19-year-old male presented with a 6-month history of severe headaches. He had bilateral papilledema on physical exam. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was negative. Four months later a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. Shortly thereafter, he was diagnosed with primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis based on the biopsy of an intradural extramedullary lesion adjacent to the lumbar spinal cord at a referral cancer center. The histology featured an infiltrating growth pattern of pleomorphic astrocytes with diffuse positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein. A couple of months later he presented at our institution with ascites and an anterior peritoneal mass. Repeat cerebrospinal fluid cytology and fine needle aspiration of the mass confirmed disseminated gliomatosis. Cytologic characteristics included clusters of anaplastic cells of variable size, high nuclear to cytoplasm ratio and scant to moderate cytoplasm. Occasional single bizarre multinucleated cells were seen with eccentric "partial wreath-like" nuclei, clumped chromatin and prominent nucleoli. Patient expired 13 months after initial presentation. Conclusion Disseminated primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic aseptic meningitis and in the presence of a peritoneal tumor in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Immunocytochemistry may be of diagnostic value.

  11. Liquid based cytology improves the positive predictive value of glandular smears compared to conventional cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, R J; Errington, C A; Mansour, D J A

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether the introduction of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in an urban setting decreases the diagnosis of glandular neoplasia (grade 6) and improves the positive predictive value (PPV) of cervical cytological screening. A retrospective database review was conducted identifying women with cervical cytological abnormalities including glandular neoplasia (grade 6) before and after the introduction of LBC. Following the introduction of LBC the rate of glandular neoplasia (grade 6) referrals fell from 1.08% to 0.69% of all cervical cytological abnormalities. There was a significant reduction in 'abnormal' cytological samples subsequently found to be associated with no invasive or preinvasive disease but no decrease in the number showing preinvasive or invasive disease. A significant decrease in number of patients having a final diagnosis of normal/inflammatory or wart changes was seen in those patients referred during the LBC period (p cytological glandular neoplasia referrals but not at the expense of missing preinvasive and invasive cancers. It has also increased the PPV of cervical sampling to detect preinvasive and invasive cancer from 59.6% to 76.0%.

  12. Can the skin smear examination in NLEP be reconsidered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porichha, D; Nayak, S; Sahoo, L B; Sahoo, N N; Jinde, B N

    2011-01-01

    Slit and skin smear examination is an important laboratory test which was made optional in the NLEP. In a laboratory managed by LEPRA Society, this test was provided to voluntary reporting cases and those referred by the general health service institutions of the area. Total cases tested were 1180, out of which 152 (12.9%) were positive. Of the 152 smear reports, 121 were from Koraput district and constitute the sample for this study. Regarding the spread of site wise highest BI, 56% cases had BI of 3.1+ to 6+. Of the 121 cases, 112 (92.6%) cases completed 12 doses of MDT. Seventy patients, from whom detailed information was collected by personal contact, responded well to MDT resulting in regression of lesions. Out of them, 46 cases had repeat smear showing negative smear in 39% and decline of 81 in the rest of cases. There are 16 contact cases with 2 family clusters. A rough block-wise mapping showed 4 strata with a dense clustering in the urban area where the laboratory facility is available. The probable reasons for uneven distribution of cases and causes for late diagnosis were discussed. The study reflects the leprosy problem in urban pockets which high infection pool. Together these two factors remain unexposed due to winding up of smear labs and pose a potential threat to elimination. The paper also emphasized on the reasons for past failure of the test along with suggestions to revive this facility with minor modifications.

  13. HPV vaginal self-sampling among women non-adherent to Papanicolaou screening in Chile Autotoma vaginal para detección de virus del papiloma humano en mujeres no adherentes a tamizaje con Papanicolaou en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Léniz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate acceptance, preference and compliance with referral of vaginal self-sampling for the detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV among women non-adherent to Papanicolaou (Pap screening in Santiago, Chile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using multistage sampling we identified women aged 30-64 years who reported not receiving a Pap test in the previous three years and offered them Pap testing at the health center or vaginal self-sampling for HPV testing at home. Self-collected samples were analyzed with hybrid capture. All HPV+ women were referred for colposcopy, biopsy and treatment when needed. RESULTS: 1 254 eligible women were contacted; 86.5% performed self-sampling and 8.1% refused; 124 women were HPV+ (11.4%: 95%CI 9.6-13.5 of whom 85.5% attended colposcopy; 12 had CIN2+ (1.1%: 95 %CI 0.5-1.7. CONCLUSION: HPV vaginal self-sampling can be easily implemented in Chile and could improve coverage, successfully reaching women who drop out of the screening program.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la aceptación, preferencia y adherencia a seguimiento de la autotoma vaginal para detección del virus del papiloma humano (VPH en mujeres inasistentes a Papanicolaou (Pap en Santiago, Chile. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Mediante un muestreo polietápico se identificaron mujeres entre 30 y 64 años inasistentes a Pap por < 3 años, invitándolas a realizarse un Pap en su centro de salud o una autotoma vaginal a domicilio. Las muestras fueron analizadas con captura de híbridos. Las mujeres VPH+ fueron referidas a colposcopía, biopsia y tratamiento en caso necesario. RESULTADOS: 1 254 mujeres elegibles fueron contactadas; 86.5% aceptó la autotoma vaginal y 8.1% la rechazó; 124 mujeres resultaron VPH+ (11.4%: IC95% 9.6-13.5 de las que 85.5% asistió a colposcopía; 12 tenían CIN2+ (1.1%: IC95% 0.5-1.7. CONCLUSIÓN: La autotoma vaginal para detección de VPH es implementable en Chile y su utilización podría mejorar la cobertura del programa rescatando a mujeres

  14. The Value of Cytology Smears for Acanthamoeba Keratitis

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    Sangita P. Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Acanthamoeba keratitis remains a difficult diagnosis despite advances in genetic and imaging technologies. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the utility of cytology smears for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Methods. This is a case study of the diagnostic course for a patient with suspected Acanthamoeba keratitis. Results. A 40-year-old male with poor contact lens hygiene presented with severe left eye pain. Slit lamp examination showed two peripheral ring infiltrates without an epithelial defect. The epithelium over both infiltrates was removed with a Kimura spatula. Half of the sample was smeared on a dry microscope slide and the other half was submitted for Acanthamoeba culture and PCR. Both culture and PCR were negative for Acanthamoeba, but hematoxylin and eosin stain of the smear revealed double-walled cysts. Conclusion. H&E staining of corneal cytology specimens is an efficient and readily available test for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  15. Peritoneal psammocarcinoma diagnosed by a Papanicolau smear: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboni, Francesca; Giana, Michele; Piantanida, Paola; Vigone, Alessandro; Surico, Nicola; Boldorini, Renzo

    2010-01-01

    Serous psammocarcinoma is a rare variant of epithelial neoplasia that can arise from the ovaries or peritoneum. It is characterized by massive psammoma body formation, invasiveness and low grade cytologic features. A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital; a bimanual examination with cervicovaginal smear was performed. The smears revealed neoplastic cells with psammoma bodies; afterward, endocervical curettage revealed microaggregates of epithelial neoplastic cells with psammoma bodies. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a diffuse peritoneal carcinosis with left ovarian calcification. An exploratory laparotomy was carried out. Final pathologic findings showed peritoneal serous psammocarcinoma with ovarian implants. Our report suggests that a Pap smear can play a role in the detection of peritoneal psammocarcinoma and underlines the significance of psammoma bodies as a cytologic marker of this rare tumor.

  16. The Value of Cytology Smears for Acanthamoeba Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jamie L.; Paterson, Joyce; Liu, Weiguo; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Acanthamoeba keratitis remains a difficult diagnosis despite advances in genetic and imaging technologies. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the utility of cytology smears for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Methods. This is a case study of the diagnostic course for a patient with suspected Acanthamoeba keratitis. Results. A 40-year-old male with poor contact lens hygiene presented with severe left eye pain. Slit lamp examination showed two peripheral ring infiltrates without an epithelial defect. The epithelium over both infiltrates was removed with a Kimura spatula. Half of the sample was smeared on a dry microscope slide and the other half was submitted for Acanthamoeba culture and PCR. Both culture and PCR were negative for Acanthamoeba, but hematoxylin and eosin stain of the smear revealed double-walled cysts. Conclusion. H&E staining of corneal cytology specimens is an efficient and readily available test for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:27403362

  17. Thick Smear is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-07-01

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs.

  18. Thick Smear Is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs. PMID:27162266

  19. Free-form smearing for bottomonium and B meson spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wurtz, Mark; Woloshyn, R M

    2015-01-01

    To obtain high-quality results from lattice QCD, it is important to use operators that produce good signals for the quantities of interest. Free-form smearing is a powerful tool that helps to accomplish that goal. The present work introduces a new implementation of free-form smearing that maintains its usefulness and reduces its computational time dramatically. Applications to the mass spectrum of $B$, $B_s$, $B_c$ and bottomonium mesons show the effectiveness of the method. Results are compared with other lattice QCD studies and with experimental data where available. The present work includes the first lattice QCD exploration for some of these mesons.

  20. Motivos que influenciam a não-realização do exame de papanicolaou segundo a percepção de mulheres Razones que influencian la no realización de la prueba de papanicolaou según la percepción de mujeres Influence reasons that inhibit women from doing papanicolaou test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes da Silva Marques Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os motivos que influenciaram um grupo de mulheres a nunca ter realizado o exame de Papanicolaou mesmo após iniciarem a atividade sexual. É uma pesquisa qualitativa. Utilizou-se a entrevista a partir da questão norteadora: Por que você nunca tinha realizado o exame preventivo anteriormente? A técnica da análise de conteúdo proposta por Bardin foi utilizada para a análise das descrições. As mulheres demonstraram desconhecimento do câncer, da técnica e da importância do preventivo. Revelaram ainda medo na realização e resultado do exame. A vergonha e o constrangimento foram sentimentos expressados por elas pela exposição da intimidade a que se submetem. Expressaram ainda possuírem valores culturais que dificultam mudança de atitude. O acesso ao serviço, ter emprego e filhos também foram relatados como impedimento. Os resultados mostram a importância de ações educativas sobre a necessidade do preventivo ao iniciar as atividades sexuais e desmistificar a técnica e resultado.El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las razones que influenciaron un grupo de mujeres que nunca realizaron la prueba de Papanicolaou mismo después de que iniciaron la actividad sexual. Es una investigación cualitativa, se utilizó la entrevista con la cuestión guía: ¿Por que nunca había usted realizado el examen preventivo anteriormente? La técnica del análisis de contenido propuesta por Bardin fue utilizada para el análisis de las descripciones. Las mujeres demostraron desconocimiento del cáncer, de la técnica y de la importancia del preventivo. Revelaron aun miedo en la realización y resultado del examen. La vergüenza y reparo fueron sentimientos que expresaron por la exposición de la intimidad a la que se someten. También dijeron poseer valores culturales que dificultan un cambio de actitud. El acceso al servicio, tener trabajo e hijos también fueron relatados como impedimento. Los resultados

  1. Citologia de Tzanck: redescobrindo uma antiga ferramenta diagnóstica Tzanck smears: an old but useful diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema Mignac Cumming Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A citologia de Tzanck consiste em método simples e confiável para o diagnóstico de dermatoses virais, parasitárias, autoimunes e tumorais. Para exemplificar o emprego do teste de Tzanck em lesões vésico-bolhosas, um caso de pênfigo vulgar é descrito, cuja citologia e imunofluorescência direta, utilizando-se esfregaço coletado de lesão oral, confirmaram o diagnóstico de forma rápida e fácil.Tzanck smears can be used for the diagnosis of cutaneous infections, autoimmune disorders and cutaneous tumors. To exemplify its use, we report a case of a female patient with pemphigus vulgaris whose diagnosis was confirmed by positive direct immunofluorescence and conventional cytology using smears obtained by scraping the cheek mucosa.

  2. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  3. Cytological patterns of cervical pap smears with histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Lakshmi Atla

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Pap smear is simple, inexpensive and can be performed in the outpatient department. Hence, it should be recommended routinely as a method of improving reproductive health, early detection of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1911-1916

  4. Interpreting microbiopsies in cervical smears - A cytohistologic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mravunac, M; Smedts, F; Philippi, A; Remerij, D; Krul, A; Schrik, M; van't Hof, B; van Heusden, C; Vooijs, GP

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess interobserver variation in the diagnosis of thick tissue specimens (microbiopsies) in cytology smears and histologic sections taken from them, to evaluate the applicability of MIB-1 in histologic sections from microbiopsies and to evaluate whether processing microbiopsies in inc

  5. Scanning electron microscopy and dentinal permeability analysis of smear layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, C; Mongiorgi, R; Pashley, D H; Riva di Sanseverino, L

    1991-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the surface morphology and the permeability of dentine after different acid treatments: polyacrylic acid, maleic acid, phosphoric acid and saline solution as control. Dentine permeability was expressed as hydraulic conductance. All the acid treatments removed the smear layer and increased the dentine permeability.

  6. Human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and Papanicolaou cytology in low-resource women in Posadas city, Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badano, Inés; Pedrozo, René W; Ruíz Díaz, Laura S; Galuppo, Juan A; Picconi, María A; Campos, Rodolfo H; Liotta, Domingo J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV infection and cervical lesions present in women who attended a health center in a low-resource area of the city of Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. Cervical cell samples (n = 163) were processed for Papanicolaou cytology and HPV-PCR tests. Socio-cultural risk factors were estimated using the odds ratio (OR, CI 95 %). Cervical lesions were detected in 14.7 % of women. The general prevalence of HPV infection was of 38 %. The most common types among the total population were HPV-16 (9.8 %) and HPV-33 (9.3 %). HPV-16 was detected in association with 29.2 % and 6.5 % of women with and without cervical lesions, respectively, the OR being 5.3 (1.8-15.8). Risk factors for HPV-16 infection were a smoking habit and a history of previous sexually-transmitted diseases. These data are important for the implementation of prevention programs, including an appropriate introduction of vaccination and the baseline for virological surveillance in the vaccine era.

  7. Utilization of ancillary studies in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester J. Layfield

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing and post-biopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussion of the draft document at several national and international meetings and synthesis of selected online comments of the draft document. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. Currently, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH appears to be the most clinically relevant ancillary technique for cytology of bile duct strictures. The addition of FISH analysis to routine cytologic evaluation appears to yield the highest sensitivity without loss in specificity. Loss of immunohistochemical staining for the protein product of the SMAD4 gene and positive staining for mesothelin support a diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical markers for endocrine and exocrine differentiation are sufficient for a diagnosis of endocrine and acinar tumors. Nuclear staining for beta-catenin supports a diagnosis of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm. Cyst fluid analysis for amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen aids in the pre-operative classification of pancreatic cysts. A number of gene mutations (KRAS, GNAS, von Hippel-Lindau, RNF43 and CTNNB1 may be of aid in the diagnosis of cystic neoplasms. Other ancillary techniques do not appear to improve diagnostic sensitivity sufficiently to justify their increased costs.

  8. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Chichester, H. J. M.; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at.% burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low melting points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). A model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  9. Evaluation of Smear Negative and Pozitive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulsen Bozkus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the relation between radiographic involvement and tuberculin skin test (TST and Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG results in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. Material and Method: In 210 patients (%42,7 female, %57,6 male, mean age:40,5 ± 16,1 with smear positive and negative PTB we retrospectively analyzed the relation between radiographic findings, TST and BCG. We separated the patients into three groups as mild, moderate and severe according to their radiologic involvement and compared the radiologic extension with tuberculin skin test results. We also compared the degree of sputum smear positivity with tuberculin skin test results. Results: According to the evaluation of radiological findings of the patients, high risk is detected in 58(67,4% patients in smear-positive group and 28(32,6% patients in smear-negative group and statistically valuable relation between smear positivity and radiological findings of the patients is seen (p:0,001. According to the results of TST of the patients, high risk is detected radiologically in 53(61,6% cases of TST-negative group, 33(38,4% cases of TST-positive group and statistically valuable relation between TST results and radiological findings of the patients is seen (p:0,001. A valuable difference between BCG results and radiological findings is not seen. Discussion: It is concluded that radiology is beneficial for diagnosis especially in cases which are without bacilli and suspicious for tuberculosis and TST is shown that it can be beneficial for determining the immunity against to mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  10. STUDY OF TZANCK SMEARS OVER A PERIOD OF SIX MONTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Cytology of cutaneous lesions can be used for preliminary and rapid diagnosis of many skin diseases. Though the gold standard is a biopsy with or without immunofluorescent studies, the use of simple Tzanck test gives reliable information in many varieties of skin lesions. It is especially useful for cutaneous herpetic lesions and also for early presumptive diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris. AIMS : The study was carried out to determine the usefulness of Tzanck test in herpetic lesions, pemphigus vulgaris and other cutaneous lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present study was a prospective one, carried out over a six month period in the department of pathology at Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Resear ch Centre, Hyderabad, from June 2014 to December 2014. A total of twenty - one Tzanck smears were studied. The material was collected in the Dermatology out - patient department by the dermatologist and sent to the laboratory. A Giemsa stain was used for all t he smears and examined under the microscope. RESULTS : There were total 21 cases ranging in age from 3 years to 62 years. There were 11 male and 10 female patients, the male to female ratio being 1.1:1. There were 8 cases of herpes zoster and Tzanck smear w as reported positive in 5 cases (62.5%. For pemphigus vulgaris, out of 4 cases, 2 (50% were reported positive on Tzanck smear. As biopsy was not available for all the cases the histopathological correlation could not be done. CONCLUSION : Tzanck smear is a rapid, simple, inexpensive and reliable test which is useful for the diagnosis of cutaneous viral infections like herpes zoster, varicella and molluscum contagiosum. It is also helpful for the presumptive diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris thereby facilitat ing early treatment of the patients

  11. Effect of EDTA with and without surfactants or ultrasonics on removal of smear layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Jeen-Nee; Kuah, Hong-Guan; Chen, Nah-Nah

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the in vitro efficacy of Smear Clear (Sybron Endo, CA), a 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution with surfactants, to 17% EDTA, with and without the use of ultrasonics, in removal of the smear layer. Seventy-five extracted teeth, randomly distributed into 5 test groups, were prepared by using ProFile rotary instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and subjected to different final irrigating regimes; group A, 1% sodium hypochlorite; group B, 17% EDTA; group C, 17% EDTA with ultrasonics; group D, Smear Clear; and group E, Smear Clear with ultrasonics. Samples were examined under the scanning electron microscope and scored for debris and smear layer removal. Statistical analysis showed that groups D and E did not perform significantly better than groups B and C. Group C performed significantly better than group B. Addition of surfactants to EDTA in Smear Clear did not result in better smear layer removal. The use of ultrasonics with 17% EDTA improved smear layer removal.

  12. Sputum Conversion Among Patients With Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh A R

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB bacteriologic assessment of sputum for detection of acid bacilli (AFB Has essential role. This evaluation is accomplished by direct sputum smear & sputum culture. These examinations must be done in regular and preferably monthly after beginning of treatment. These tests have two important aims, including, determining of treatment efficacy & duration of isolation."nMethods and Materials: Most of the studies have that classic six month regimen led to sputum smear conversion & negative sputum culture in 85% of patient. This treatment regimen has two phases, including, attack phase and maintenance phase. In the attack phase we use four drugs, including, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampin (RMP, Pyrazinamide (PZA and Ethambutol (EMB for the first 2 months and if necessary until the end of third month. In the maintenance phase we use INH and Rif for the remaining of treatment course. The main objectives of this study were to determine the time needed for smear conversion and assessment of probable factors which may influence the smear conversion until 4 months after beginning of therapy. The factors that were assessed, were, Age, nationality, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, chest radiography (number of cavities, smoking, drug abuse and concentration of AF13 in the sputum Generally, we did this cross sectional study on the patient's records, who had been observed in Imam Khomeni Hospital, west health service center and masih daneshvary hospital between."nResults: This study showed that from totally 218 patients, 138(74.6% patients had sputum conversion at the first 2 months of treatment and until the end of 3rd & 4th month this rate reached to 83.3% respectively. So in the end of fourth month only 32(14.7% patients did not show sputum smear conversion. On the other hand this study showed that two factors including presence of cavities in chest radiography

  13. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pleva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g‑1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 mg.kg-1 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 mg.kg-1. The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 mg.kg-1. The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 mg.kg-1 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even

  14. Dysbacteriosis in silver-stained cervical smears of Dutch-Moroccan immigrants : HPV infection and preneoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, BSM; Boon, ME; van Schie, MA; Wijsman-Grootendorst, R; Kok, LP

    The vaginal/cervical smears of a group of Moroccan immigrants were used to compare vaginal dysbacteriosis (i.e., a bacterial population change with a decrease in lactobacilli and an increase of coccoid bacteria in vaginal/cervical smears) with Dutch women. From our archives, 779 smears from Moroccan

  15. Dysbacteriosis in silver-stained cervical smears of Dutch-Moroccan immigrants : HPV infection and preneoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, BSM; Boon, ME; van Schie, MA; Wijsman-Grootendorst, R; Kok, LP

    2006-01-01

    The vaginal/cervical smears of a group of Moroccan immigrants were used to compare vaginal dysbacteriosis (i.e., a bacterial population change with a decrease in lactobacilli and an increase of coccoid bacteria in vaginal/cervical smears) with Dutch women. From our archives, 779 smears from Moroccan

  16. Comparison of the thick smear and Kato-Katz techniques for diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Fred Luciano Neves

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the efficiency of Kato-Katz thick smear and thick smear techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths. The sensitivity of the thick smear technique was higher than that of the Kato-Katz method for the diagnosis of all helminths except Schistosoma mansoni.

  17. RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images

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    Vishal V. Panchbhai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

  18. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi B Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  19. Surface contamination by smearing during polishing - A PIXE study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklyn, C.B. E-mail: franklyn@aec.co.za; Merkle, R.K.W

    2001-07-01

    Preparation of samples for PIXE analysis follows standard procedures in order to present a smooth, uniform surface for microscopic investigation and analysis. Reports on the quality of the surface preparation are scant. We report on investigations of preparation of metallic samples for micro-probe analysis. These samples are metal strips of typically 0.5 mm width and 10-15 mm length, sandwiched between natural pyrite crystals and quartz glass, mounted in epoxy resin. The surface was polished using diamond abrasives. The smearing of metallic Ag, Au and Cu was investigated and was found to be most prevalent for Cu, but also clearly detectable for Ag and Au. The potential influence of beam halo and beam scattering in the resin mount appears to be negligible, but the results imply additional, as yet unidentified, factors besides smearing to explain all observations.

  20. The psychosocial impact of an abnormal cervical smear result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Mélanie; Brisson, Marc; Maunsell, Elizabeth; Franco, Eduardo L; Coutlée, François; Ferenczy, Alex; Fisher, William; Mansi, James A

    2012-10-01

    Data on the impact of abnormal cervical smear results on health-related quality of life (HrQoL) are scarce. We aimed to (i) prospectively assess the HrQoL of women who were informed of an abnormal smear result; (ii) identify predictors of greater negative psychosocial impact of an abnormal result; and (iii) prospectively estimate the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost following an abnormal result. Between 08/2006 and 08/2008, 492 women with an abnormal result and 460 women with a normal result, frequency matched for age and clinic, were recruited across Canada. HrQoL was measured at recruitment and 4 and 12 weeks later with the EuroQol, Short Form-12, short Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and HPV Impact Profile. Three blocks of potential predictors of higher psychosocial impact were tested by hierarchical modeling: (i) socio-demographics; (ii) sexual activity; and (iii) smear result severity, communication, and understanding. Receiving an abnormal result significantly increased anxiety (STAI mean difference between both groups = 8.3). Initial anxiety decreased over time for the majority of women. However, 35% of women had clinically meaningful anxiety at 12 weeks (i.e. STAI scores ≥0.5 standard deviation of the controls). These women reported a lower socio-economic level, did not completely understand the information about their result and perceived themselves at higher risk of cancer. QALY lost following an abnormal result were between 0.007 and 0.009. Receiving an abnormal smear has a statistically significant and clinically meaningful negative impact on mental health. However, this negative impact subsides after 12 weeks for the majority of women. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Mammography and pap smear use by older rural women.

    OpenAIRE

    Ives, D G; Lave, J R; Traven, N D; Schulz, R.; Kuller, L.H. (Lewis H.)

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To compare the characteristics of older women who did and did not have screening mammograms and Pap smears during the first two years both services were a Medicare Part B benefit. METHODS. A prospective study was conducted in five rural Pennsylvania counties of 2205 female community-dwelling Medicare Part B beneficiaries who volunteered to participate in a Medicare prevention demonstration project. The baseline health risk appraisal included information on demographics, insurance s...

  2. Modifying and Pilot Testing the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Ackerson; Lisa Stines Doane; Robert McNutt; Yuanyuan Shao

    2014-01-01

    This study is a report on modifications and pilot testing of a measurement tool to predict Pap testing based on the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. Women have been found to avoid routine cervical cancer screening (CCS) due to personal influencing factors. For this study, the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire (PSBQ) was modified by adding items and evaluated through content validity index (CVI = .89) and cogni...

  3. Evaluation of cervicovaginal smear results at postmenopausal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Kelekci

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the statistical analysis of cervicovaginal smear results at postmenopausal period accompanied by literature. Cervicovaginal smear results of 894 postmenopausal women were evaluated retrospectively according to the 2001 Bethesda system (BS in Adana Numune Training and Research Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic from 2007–2010. The study found, normal results on 287 patients (32.1%, benign findings on 556 patients (62.2%, abnormal epithelial cell changes on 48 patients (5.36% and malignant changes on 3 patients (0.33%. The abnormal epithelial changes were observed to be atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US for 22 patients (2.46%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL for 11 patients (1.23%, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion(HSIL for 7 patients (0.78%, findings that cannot exclude a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H for 6 patients (0.55% and atypical glandular cells-not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS for 2 patients (0.22%. Malignant results were 2 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC (0.22% and 1 adenocarcinoma (ACC (0.11%. Cervical cancer screening programs should be expanded and Pap smear screening should be applied to all postmenopausal women. The longer time span involved from premalignant lesions to cancer improves our chance for the diagnosis and treatment. As the incidence of invasive cancer increases in menopausal period, gynecological smear examination and regular check-up are crucial. A high rate of abnormalities of epithelial cells was detected in this study.

  4. Microscopic examination and smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keflie, Tibebe Seyoum; Ameni, Gobena

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis causes illness among millions of people each year and ranks as the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of microscopic examination and estimate risk of transmission of TB by smear negative pulmonary TB patients. A cross-sectional study and retrospective data analysis on TB were undertaken in Northwest Shewa, Ethiopia. Microscopic examination, bacterial culture and PCR were performed. The statistical analysis was made by using STATA software version 10. A total of 92 suspected TB cases was included in the study. Of these, 27.17% (25/92) were positive for microscopic examination and 51% (47/92) for culture. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic examination with 95% CI were 48.94% (34.08% to 63.93%) and 95.56% (84.82 to 99.33%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 92% (73.93% to 98.78%) and 64.18% (51.53% to 75.53%), respectively. Of 8150 pulmonary TB cases in the retrospective study, 58.9% was smear negative. The proportion of TB-HIV co-infection was 28.66% (96/335). The sensitivity of microscopic examination was 48.94% which was very low. The poor sensitivity of this test together with the advent of HIV/AIDS elevated the prevalence of smear negative pulmonary TB. This in turn increased the risk of TB transmission.

  5. Loss of accuracy using smeared properties in composite beam modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning

    Advanced composite materials have broad, proven applications in many engineering systems ranging from sports equipment sectors to components on the space shuttle because of their lightweight characteristics and significantly high stiffness. Together with this merit of composite materials is the challenge of improving computational simulation process for composites analysis. Composite structures, particularly composite laminates, usually consist of many layers with different lay-up angles. The anisotropic and heterogeneous features render 3D finite element analysis (FEA) computationally expensive in terms of the computational time and the computing power. At the constituent level, composite materials are heterogeneous. But quite often one homogenizes each layer of composites, i.e. lamina, and uses the homogenized material properties as averaged (smeared) values of those constituent materials for analysis. This is an approach extensively used in design and analysis of composite laminates. Furthermore, many industries tempted to use smeared properties at the laminate level to further reduce the model of composite structures. At this scale, smeared properties are averaged material properties that are weighted by the layer thickness. Although this approach has the advantage of saving computational time and cost of modeling significantly, the prediction of the structural responses may not be accurate, particularly the pointwise stress distribution. Therefore, it is important to quantify the loss of accuracy when one uses smeared properties. In this paper, several different benchmark problems are carefully investigated in order to exemplify the effect of the smeared properties on the global behavior and pointwise stress distribution of the composite beam. In the classical beam theory, both Newtonian method and variational method include several ad hoc assumptions to construct the model, however, these assumptions are avoided if one uses variational asymptotic method. VABS

  6. Conocimientos sobre la prevención del cáncer cervicouterino, locus de control y realización del Papanicolaou

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue identificar la relación entre los conocimientos sobre la prevención del cáncer cervicouterino, el locus de control, y la realización de la prueba de Papanicolaou en mujeres mexicanas con diferentes niveles de escolaridad. Se estudió una muestra de 208 mujeres de entre 30 y 64 años de edad. Las mujeres con escolaridad media superior y superior sabían más sobre la utilidad de la prueba y cuándo realizarla. Todas las mujeres sabían poco sobre los factores de riesgo de...

  7. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 cases analyses, which were reported with either AGC or adenocarcinoma by either method, LBC tends to be milder than that by conventional smear, however, the credibility of LBC is considered to be near to that of conventional smear with regard to screening for glandular abnormalities. These results indicate that cervical cancer screening should shift to LBC under the enough experience and appropriate dealing with the cytological diagnosis.

  8. Mechanisms of clay smear formation in 3D - a field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettermann, Michael; Tronberens, Sebastian; Urai, Janos; Asmus, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Clay smears in sedimentary basins are important factors defining the sealing properties of faults. However, as clay smears are highly complex 3D structures, processes involved in the formation and deformation of clay smears are not well identified and understood. To enhance the prediction of sealing properties of clay smears extensive studies of these structures are necessary including the 3D information. We present extraordinary outcrop data from an open cast lignite mine (Hambach) in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. The faults formed at a depth of 150 m, and have Shale Gouge Ratios between 0.1 and 0.3. Material in the fault zones is layered, with sheared sand, sheared clay and tectonically mixed sand-clay gouge. We studied the 3D thickness distribution of clay smear from a series of thin-spaced incremental cross-sections and several cross-sections in larger distances along the fault. Additionally, we excavated two large clay smear surfaces. Our observations show that clay smears are strongly affected by R- and R'-shears, mostly at the footwall side of our outcrops. These shears can locally cross and offset clay smears, forming holes. Thinnest parts of the clay smears are often located close to source layer cutoffs. Investigating the 3D thickness of the clay smears shows a heterogeneous distribution, rather than a continuous thinning of the smear with increasing distance to the source layers. We found two types of layered clay smears: one with continuous sheared sand between two clay smears providing vertical pathways for fluid flow, and one which consists of overlapping clay patches separated by sheared sand that provide a tortuous pathway across the clay smear. On smaller scale we identified grain-scale mixing as an important process for the formation of clay smears. Sand can be entrained into the clay smear by mixing from the surrounding host rock as well as due to intense shearing of sand lenses that were incorporated into the smear. This causes clay smears

  9. Diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement in cytological samples through a fluorescence in situ hybridization-based assay: Cytological smears versus cell blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito Marino, Federica; Rossi, Giulio; Brunelli, Matteo; Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Liguori, Giuseppina; Bogina, Giuseppe; Morabito, Alessandro; Rocco, Gaetano; Franco, Renato; Botti, Gerardo

    2017-05-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) status analysis of lung cytological specimens should be successfully encouraged in routine practice because biopsy specimens are not always available. To date, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) as diagnostic tests for identifying ALK-positive patients eligible for treatment with crizotinib. Although ALK IHC is an optimal diagnostic tool, FISH becomes mandatory in equivocal cases. ALK FISH of paraffin-embedded tissue material is still the gold standard, whereas the cytological specimen assay has not yet been completely standardized. Many controversial data have been reported on the adequacy of cytology cell blocks (CBs) versus conventional smears for FISH testing. This review discusses some critical issues related to ALK FISH of cytological samples, including the triaging of collected specimens to optimize the material, the use of CBs versus conventional smears, and alternative methods for an ALK rearrangement diagnosis. Conventional smears have the advantages of an immediate evaluation, no probe tissue-related artifactual loss, no fixation-related alterations, and usually sufficient material for an analytic preparation. On the other hand, CBs have several advantages, including the appropriate conservation of the tissue architecture, an absence of problems related to cell overlapping, and the ability to evaluate neoplastic cells in a dark field. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:303-312. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. An evaluation of blood smears made by a new method using a spinner and diluted blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, M; Atwood, J G; Raccio, J; Seligson, D

    1978-12-01

    Blood smears were prepared with the use of a spinner, which rotated with a fixed velocity for a fixed time. All blood samples used for spun smears were diluted with a fixed ratio of buffered isotonic saline solution. Distribution of cells in these smears was found to be random. The average number of cells per unit area was substantially uniform from place to place on the same slide and on multiple slides made with the smae sample. The distribution of leukocytes by type was also iniform. For different blood samples, the average number of cells per unit area in the smears correlated well with the measured cell concentrations per unit volume in the samples for leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets. Leukocyte differential counts on replicate spun smears using the same bloods also agreed to within the sampling error. They similarly agreed with differential counts on pulled smears made from undiluted samples of the same bloods. With few exceptions, erythrocytic morphology on the spun smears was comparable to that on the good areas of pulled smears made with undiluted samples of the same bloods. Nearly all the spun smears were suitable for both viual and fully automated hematologic examination for leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets. This was true over nearly the whole area of each spun slide. In these ways this spinner method makes smears whose consistently high quality is little affected by either the properties of the blood sample or the skill of maker.

  11. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. Aims: To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Setting and Design: Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Materials and Methods: Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Results: Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032 and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2. Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ2 = 1.5; P = 0.2. Conclusions: Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  12. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Mohamed, Mostafa M A; Far, Behrouz H; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together.

  13. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural networks (ANNs are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together.

  14. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Francesca; Ventura, Laura; Sartori, Nicola; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassan, Matteo; Busund, Lill-Tove; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205) in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage) was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg). Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94). miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  15. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Simonato

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC. Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205 in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg. Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94. miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  16. Effectiveness of different irrigation techniques on smear layer removal in apical thirds of mesial root canals of permanent mandibular first molar: A scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Khaord

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare smear layer removal after final irrigant activation with sonic irrigation (SI, manual dynamic agitation (MDA, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, and conventional syringe irrigation (CI. Materials and Methods: Forty mesial canals of mandibular first molars (mesial roots were cleaned and shaped by using ProTaper system to size F1 and sodium hypochlorite 3% and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The specimens were divided into 4 equal groups (n = 10 according to the final irrigation activation technique: Group 1, PUI; group 2, manual dynamic activation (MDA; group 3, SI; and group 4, control group (simple irrigation. Samples were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscope for smear layer presence. Results: Control groups had the highest smear scores, which showed the statistically significant highest mean score at P < 0.05. This was followed by ultrasonic, MDA, and finally sonic, with no significant differences between them. Conclusions: Final irrigant activation with sonic and MDA resulted in the better removal of the smear layer than with CI.

  17. Mass shell smearing effects in top pair production

    CERN Document Server

    Kuksa, V I; Vlasenko, D E

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production and decay are considered in the framework of the smeared-mass unstable particles model. The results for total and differential cross sections in vicinity of $t\\bar{t}$ threshold are in good agreement with the previous ones in the literature. The strategy of calculations of the higher order corrections in the framework of the model is discussed. Suggested approach significantly simplifies calculations compared to the standard perturbative one and can serve as a convenient tool for fast and precise preliminary analysis of processes involving intermediate time-like top quark exchanges in the near-threshold region.

  18. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas; Dounias, Georgios;

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis...... includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods....

  19. Vaginal Smear TNF-alpha, IL18, TLR4, and GATA3 mRNA Levels Correlate with Local Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bourmenskaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A molecular approach to estimation of local inflammatory response associated with dysbiotic conditions of the vagina is reported. This approach is based on immune response gene transcription levels measured by qPCR assay. Methods and Results: qPCR analysis of 24 immune response gene transcripts in vaginal smears was performed for 215 women with vaginitis and 95 healthy controls. The data were sorted by comparison to local inflammatory response profiles assessed by conventional methods. The local inflammatory response in the vagina is found to correlate with TNF-alpha, IL18, TLR4, and GATA3 transcript levels. Sensitivity and specificity of the approach, as validated in accordance with conventional clinical examination results, are 94.9% and 93.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The noninvasive diagnostic approach to vaginal pathology based solely on its molecular characterization may prove to be clinically relevant.

  20. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aparecida da Silva

    Full Text Available In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro.

  1. Inequalities in Pap smear screening for cervical cancer in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mesa, Jeovany; Werutsky, Gustavo; Campani, Raquel Barth; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Barrios, Carlos Henrique

    2013-10-01

    To examine the risk factors associated with never being screened for cervical cancer (CC) in Brazil. Using the National Household Sample Survey 2008 (PNAD), we analyzed data from 102,108 Brazilian women ages 25-64years. The patients were analyzed as having been or never having been screened with a Pap smear (Yes/No). Age-adjusted prevalence of never-screening was analyzed using a Chi-squared test. Crude and adjusted models using Poisson regression were performed. The prevalence of never-screened women for CC was 12.9%, 11.5% and 22.2% in Brazil in general, urban and rural areas, respectively. The Brazilian region with the highest prevalence of never-screening was the North (17.4%, 14.7% and 27.3% in general, urban and rural areas, respectively). The factors associated with a higher risk for never being screened were the following: poverty, younger age, lower educational level, non-white skin color, a greater number of children, no supplemental health insurance and not having visited a doctor in the past 12months. Socioeconomic and demographic conditions lead to inequalities in access to Pap smear screening in Brazil. Public health policy addressing these risk groups is necessary. © 2013.

  2. [Significance of the demonstration of Actinomyces in cervical cytological smears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybdahl, H; Baandrup, U

    1988-10-17

    In recent years there has been well documented evidence of a connection between adnexitis and the use of IUDs. It has also been reported that Actinomyces-caused adnexitis is often a serious precursor of tubo-ovarian abscesses which require surgical attention. The investigation included a total of 17,734 routine Pap smears taken in the pathology department over a 4-month period. The smears were screened for the presence of Actinomyces and information on type of IUD and gynecological symptoms was gathered from women testing positive for Actinomyces. Comparable information was gathered from 2 age-matched control groups. 1 group consisted of women with an IUD but without Actinomyces; the other group consisted of women without an IUD and without Actinomyces. Of the 180 patients with Actinomyces, 175 were IUD users and only 5 were nonusers. The incidence of gynecological symptoms among the patients showed increased frequency for women with Actinomyces only with regard to cervical discharge. The Nova-T IUD was found to be significantly less frequently associated with Actinomyces than the other IUDs.

  3. Tamizaje en cáncer cervical: conocimiento de la utilidad y uso de citología cervical en México Cervical cancer screening: knowledge of Pap smear benefits and utilization in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Aguilar-Pérez

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar y evaluar los factores que predisponen a la utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou en la población que usa el servicio del Programa Nacional de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer en México. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio del tipo transversal de enero de 1997 a diciembre de 1998, en la Ciudad de México; se incluyeron a 2.107 mujeres en edad reproductiva que acudieron a un servicio de planificación familiar, las cuáles respondieron a un cuestionario con preguntas sobre características: sociodemográficas, factores de riesgo reproductivo asociados a cáncer cervical, historia de vida sexual, uso de métodos anticonceptivos, conocimiento de la utilidad y utilización del Papanicolaou. Para el análisis de los datos se construyeron modelos multivariados de regresión logística no condicional. RESULTADOS: Los predisponentes de utilización del programa de detección oportuna de cáncer en esta población fueron: el conocimiento de la utilidad del Papanicolaou incrementó en seis veces más la posibilidad de utilización (IC 95% 4,70-7,67; el antecedente de utilización de dos o más métodos de planificación familiar (OR=2,38; IC 95% 1,75-3,24; el antecedente de historia de infección vaginal (OR=2,18; IC 95% 1,73-2,75, y la aceptación del esposo para la realización de exploraciones ginecológicas (OR=1,56; IC 95% 1,07-2,29. CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de programas educativos en la prevención de cáncer, deberán incluir la utilidad de las pruebas de detección. En México, en mujeres en edad reproductiva utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou se ofrece predominantemente en forma oportunista, por lo que el antecedente de utilización de los Servicios de Salud es un determinante para la utilización del Programa de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervical. Estos resultados muestran la necesidad de ampliar la promoción a la salud de este programa a las mujeres de alto riesgo, incluyendo a sus parejas sexuales

  4. Smear correction of highly-variable, frame-transfer-CCD images with application to polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Iglesias, Francisco A; Nagaraju, K

    2015-01-01

    Image smear, produced by the shutter-less operation of frame transfer CCD detectors, can be detrimental for many imaging applications. Existing algorithms used to numerically remove smear, do not contemplate cases where intensity levels change considerably between consecutive frame exposures. In this report we reformulate the smearing model to include specific variations of the sensor illumination. The corresponding desmearing expression and its noise properties are also presented and demonstrated in the context of fast imaging polarimetry.

  5. Does oral contraceptive pill increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear?

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Binesh; Ali Akhavan; Azar Pirdehghan; Mahnoosh Davoodi

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is noted that oral contraceptive pills increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear but results have been inconsistent across the populations. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) consumption and abnormal Pap smear in women who referred to Shahid Sadoughi and Madar hospitals in Yazd. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database of all Pap smear reports from 2009-2011 at Cytopa...

  6. Smear correction of highly variable, frame-transfer CCD images with application to polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Francisco A; Feller, Alex; Nagaraju, Krishnappa

    2015-07-01

    Image smear, produced by the shutterless operation of frame-transfer CCD detectors, can be detrimental for many imaging applications. Existing algorithms used to numerically remove smear do not contemplate cases where intensity levels change considerably between consecutive frame exposures. In this report, we reformulate the smearing model to include specific variations of the sensor illumination. The corresponding desmearing expression and its noise properties are also presented and demonstrated in the context of fast imaging polarimetry.

  7. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Identification in Direct Smears by a Fluorescent Antibody-Counterstain Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lendell A.; Kellogg, Douglas S.

    1965-01-01

    Direct smears from female patients have been considered unreliable for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by fluorescent-antibody (FA) methods because of inadequate background contrast of the fluorescent-stained smears and a scarcity of organisms on the smear. Evans blue dye employed as a counterstain eliminated the nonspecific background staining and increased the reliability of the direct FA procedure. Direct smears demonstrating positive fluorescence were obtained from 86% of a group of culturally positive named female contacts. The FA-counterstain technique is as sensitive as the presently recommended cultural procedures. PMID:14325874

  8. [Papanicolau smears: reducing the false negative rate by improving the method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, Galya; Levy, Tally

    2004-03-01

    Screening for cervical carcinoma precursors by Papanicolau (Pap) smears diminishes the incidence of cervical cancer in screened populations. The Pap smear test has a considerable rate of false negatives and in order to improve its efficiency and sensitivity several types of technologies were developed, two of which are discussed in this review. One entails measures for collecting cells from the cervix into a liquid medium and preparing single layer smears from these cells. Using this method, a thin and clean smear is obtained, in comparison to the regular Pap smear. The liquid-based test improves sample adequacy and increases the diagnostic accuracy of low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The second type of technology is computerized deciphering of cervical smears, which are prepared either by the regular method or using the previously mentioned thin smear. the computerized deciphering is based on structural measurements of cells via an instrument that is programmed to differentiate between cellular components, thus categorizing the smears into those which are normal and those that require further evaluation by a cytopathologist. Alternatively the computer can display the most abnormal cells in the smear to the cytopathologist. In this manner, the workload of the cytopathologist is reduced while the test efficiency and sensitivity are increased.

  9. Molecular Identification of Leishmania Species Using Samples Obtained from Negative Stained Smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Mohaghegh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic skin disease. Diagnosis primarily is based on clinical signs and microscopic observation of parasite on direct stained smears or tissue sections. Sensitivity of direct smear is not as high as molecular methods. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Leishmania species among the negative direct smears obtained from skin ulcers sus­pected to CL by PCR method.Methods: Among 81 patients with suspicious skin lesions to CL referred to the Parasitology lab, nega­tive Giemsa stained smears were collected. DNA extraction performed by scraping stained smears, then PCR was performed.Results: Among the DNA extracted from smears, L. tropica was isolated from 9 (11.1% of the smears and L.major was not isolated from any samples.Conclusion: Direct microscopy on stained smears for diagnosis of leishmaniasis is not enough accu­rate. PCR is recommended for clinically suspected lesions with negative result of direct smear.

  10. Retinal image smear as a source of information about magnitude of eye movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, L; Holtzman, J D

    1978-11-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to determine to what extent retinal image smearing during saccades provides information about the eye movement magnitude to the perceptual system. The technique involved obtaining measures of perceived movement when the total visual field was displaced in conjunction with saccadic eye movements. Trials with normal retinal smear were compared with trials on which smearing was greatly reduced or eliminated. The results are interpreted as showing that the absence of normal retinal smear during a saccade increases the uncertainty in the information available to the perceptual system and that this uncertainty results in a tendency to perceive smaller than veridical amounts of movement.

  11. Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6% samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases.

  12. Clinical and radiographic factors do not accurately diagnose smear-negative tuberculosis in HIV-infected inpatients in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Lucian Davis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although World Health Organization guidelines recommend clinical judgment and chest radiography for diagnosing tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults with unexplained cough and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, the diagnostic performance of this approach is unknown. Therefore, we sought to assess the accuracy of symptoms, physical signs, and radiographic findings for diagnosing tuberculosis in this population in a low-income country with a high incidence of tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY: We performed a cross-sectional study enrolling consecutive HIV-infected inpatients with unexplained cough and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Trained medical officers prospectively collected data on standard symptoms and signs of systemic respiratory illness, and two radiologists interpreted chest radiographs in a standardized fashion. We calculated positive- and negative-likelihood ratios of these factors for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (defined when mycobacterial cultures of sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were positive. We used both conventional and novel regression techniques to develop multivariable prediction models for pulmonary tuberculosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among 202 enrolled HIV-infected adults with negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, 72 (36% had culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. No single factor, including respiratory symptoms, physical findings, CD4+ T-cell count, or chest radiographic abnormalities, substantially increased or decreased the likelihood of pulmonary tuberculosis. After exhaustive testing, we were also unable to identify any combination of factors which reliably predicted bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical and radiographic criteria did not help diagnose smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients with unexplained cough in a low-income setting. Enhanced diagnostic

  13. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nambiar, Shwetha; Hegde, Veda; Yadav, Nikhil; Hallikeri, Kaveri

    2016-01-01

    ...-based cytology (LBC) was initially developed for cervical uterine cancer screening. As compared to conventional smears, this technique reduces the number of unsatisfactory and false positive results with significant improvement in cytodiagnostic accuracy. [4] Most LBC preparations showed a good quality of preparation including cytoplasmic and...

  14. A pilot study of short-duration sputum pretreatment procedures for optimizing smear microscopy for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Daley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Direct sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB lacks sensitivity for the detection of acid fast bacilli. Sputum pretreatment procedures may enhance sensitivity. We did a pilot study to compare the diagnostic accuracy and incremental yield of two short-duration (<1 hour sputum pretreatment procedures to optimize direct smears among patients with suspected TB at a referral hospital in India. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Blinded laboratory comparison of bleach and universal sediment processing (USP pretreated centrifuged auramine smears to direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN and direct auramine smears and to solid (Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ and liquid (BACTEC 460 culture. 178 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB suspects were prospectively recruited during a one year period. Thirty six (20.2% were positive by either solid or liquid culture. Direct ZN smear detected 22 of 36 cases and direct auramine smears detected 26 of 36 cases. Bleach and USP centrifugation detected 24 cases each, providing no incremental yield beyond direct smears. When compared to combined culture, pretreated smears were not more sensitive than direct smears (66.6% vs 61.1 (ZN or 72.2 (auramine, and were not more specific (92.3% vs 93.0 (ZN or 97.2 (auramine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Short duration sputum pretreatment with bleach and USP centrifugation did not increase yield as compared to direct sputum smears. Further work is needed to confirm this in a larger study and also determine if longer duration pre-treatment might be effective in optimizing smear microscopy for TB.

  15. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  16. A STUDY OF SEX CHEROMATIN FORM BUCCAL SMEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of sex of an individual is an important subject in Forensic Medicine and Criminology and in Civil Law. The determination of sex is necessary in both living and the dead bodies. The expert opinion of the medico legal specialist regarding positive identification of an individual will be required for the following reasons. For the identification of the sex of individual whether living or dead , For deciding cases relating to legitimacy, divorce, paternity, affiliation, marriage, education, im potence, right to disposal of property, and in intersex condition & in cases of concealed sex. Determination of sex will be done by presumptive, probable and certain signs of sex. Sex chromatin is a planoconvex mass of about 1 micron in diameter lying near nuclear membrane - Barr body. In the buccal smear the percentage of the nuclei containing chromatin body ranges from 0 to 4 in males & 20n to 80 in females . In females neutrophil leucocytes contain a small nuclear attachment of drum stick form - David son bo dy in up to 6% of cell . This is absent in males . Exact sex determination can be made by using a single specimen of buccal smear , saliva or hair follicle, by the combined treatment of quinacrinedi hydrochloride staining for Y chromosome which is seen as bright florescent body in the nuclei of male cell & florescent feulgen reaction using acriflavin Schiff reagent for X chromosomes , which is seen as bright yellow spot in the nuclei . The percentage of quanacrine positive bodies ranges from 45 to 80% in male s , and 0 to 4% in females . With feulgen reaction technique florescent bodies are found in 50 to 70 % of cell in females, and 0 to 2% in males. Determination of sex chromatin pattern was done by examination of oral smears technique on 50 males and 50 female s who have attended the Casualty of Government General Hospital, Ananthapuramu., A. P . , in the Dept . of forensic Medicine from 17 - 06 - 2012 to 30 - 12 - 2014. Slides were

  17. Smearing of chaos in sandwich pp-waves

    CERN Document Server

    Podolsky, J

    1999-01-01

    Recent results demonstrating the chaotic behavior of geodesics in non-homogeneous vacuum pp-wave solutions are generalized. Here we concentrate on motion in non-homogeneous sandwich pp-waves and show that chaos smears as the duration of these gravitational waves is reduced. As the number of radial bounces of any geodesic decreases, the outcome channels to infinity become fuzzy, and thus the fractal structure of the initial conditions characterizing chaos is cut at lower and lower levels. In the limit of impulsive waves, the motion is fully non-chaotic. This is proved by presenting the geodesics in a simple explicit form which permits a physical interpretation, and demonstrates the focusing effect. It is shown that a circle of test particles is deformed by the impulse into a family of closed hypotrochoidal curves in the transversal plane. These are deformed in the longitudinal direction in such a way that a specific closed caustic surface is formed.

  18. Study on impression smears of hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Reddy, B Sudhakara; Rayulu, V C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic coccidiosis is a contagious and lethal disease condition in rabbits. The disease was recorded in six rabbits suffering with watery diarrhoea. Clinically, affected rabbits showed decreased growth rate, anorexia, debilitation, diarrhea and rough hair coat. Examination of the faecal samples revealed the presence of unsporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. After sporulation Eimeria stiedae oocysts were identified. Postmortem examination revealed hepatomegaly with presence of discrete yellowish-white nodules on the surface of the liver. Impression smears from the liver revealed the presence of numerous developmental stages of E. stiedae corresponding with the stage of the liver lesion and also represent the histological changes of the liver. Rabbits were treated with a combination of sulphaquinoxaline and diaveridine for five days.

  19. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  20. Numerical insight of a variational smeared approach to cohesive fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddi, F.; Iurlano, F.

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper we numerically investigate and validate a variational smeared model for cohesive crack, recently proposed and theoretically justified by Γ-convergence. To achieve this main goal, we first analyze the response of a bar subjected to traction. Possible solutions are discussed, reconstructing the classical cohesive fracture energy and its related stress-crack opening law through a backtracking procedure. Preliminary 2D investigations are also conducted by using a regularized version of the adopted formulation. This permits to explore the transition phase of the damage evolution and to determine the peculiarities of the model, such as mesh-objectivity and Γ-convergence as damage concentration is forced. Therefore, the numerical simulations confirm the analytical results and put the basis for further engineering applications and possible improvements of the model.

  1. Post-brushing and fine-needle aspiration biopsy follow-up and treatment options for patients with pancreatobiliary lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. I. Kurtycz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology, ancillary testing and post-procedure management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature and discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the PSC web site (www.papsociety.org. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on the follow-up and treatment options for patients after procedures performed for obtaining cytology samples for the evaluation of biliary strictures and solid and cystic masses in the pancreas. These recommendations follow the six-tiered terminology and nomenclature scheme proposed by committee III.

  2. Clinical evaluation, imaging studies, indications for cytologic study and preprocedural requirements for duct brushing studies and pancreatic fine-needle aspiration: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Adler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS and fine-needle aspiration (FNA biopsy, techniques for EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature to be used for pancreaticobiliary disease, ancillary testing and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on expertise of the authors, literature review, discussions of the draft document at national and international meetings and synthesis of online comments of the draft document. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions. This document summarizes recommendations for the clinical and imaging work-up of pancreatic and biliary tract lesions along with indications for cytologic study of these lesions. Prebrushing and FNA requirements are also discussed.

  3. Liquid-based versus conventional cytology in solid pediatric neoplasm: Comparison of their diagnostic and morphological spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Aims: In the present study, we analyzed both smear preparatory techniques in fine-needle aspiration (FNA samples from solid pediatric neoplasms in terms of adequacy and efficacy with objectives to study the changes in background and morphology of tumor cells in LBC smears. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, which included 52 pediatric patients with clinical diagnosis of malignancy and an assessable lump. Both conventional aspiration cytology and LBC smears were prepared as per standard protocols (SurePath BDTM from FNA samples of cases and examined. Results and Conclusion: On comparing the diagnostic efficacy of cytology smears prepared by both techniques, LBC alone was diagnostic in 80.8% of the cases and conventional smear (CS alone was diagnostic in 71.2% of the cases (agreement was 83.7%, P = 0.3. Cellular morphology was better preserved in LBC and interpretation was easier. There was a lower inadequacy rate in LBC and none of the samples was inadequate due to poor morphology in LBC smears (P = 0.0003. LBC showed an overall 40% improvement in inadequate cases by CS. LBC has been recommended as a complement to CC in nongynecological samples. Improved morphology and lower inadequacy rate make LBC a finer technique compared to CS in pediatric tumors as well.

  4. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhyl S.І.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In last time Babesiosis as a tick-borne hemoprotozoans human disease have a very important role in differentil diagnostics of modern infectious medicine. It caused by protozon of the genus Babesia, which invade and destory erythrocytes. Babesiosis olso has been called tick fever. So, Babesia has been known by other genus names, including Nuttallia, Microbabesia, Babesialla, and Gonderia. Because all Babesia species are piroplasms, a more inclusive term for anthropozoonotic infections caused by these organisms would be piroplasmosis.They detective complicacy are bild that, tick-borne disease agents from prolongate life cycles involving arthropod and vertebrate host. The complexity is enhanced by the diversity of hosts in different biotopes, which depends on factors life type of vegetation, climate and/or human influence, such as restoration of former industrial sites, which leads to the development of new biotopes. So, on the one hand, new habitats for plants and animals including ticks, and nature are created. About the first case of babesiosis infection was reported as a cause of human sickness in 1969 in northeastern United State. Several hundred cases are now reported from this region each year. The disease is characterized by a grandual oncet of malaise with anorexia, fever, headaches, myalgia, and other vague symptoms, which may persist for long period. Occasionally dangerous fulminating infections occur particularly in immunocompromised or aged individuals. The purpose of the present research was to study of the cytological diagnostic of blood smears from object’s with the Babesia infection. Materials and methods. Blood smears (by Romanovsky- Gimze (standart, Wright’s standart and staining, the author’s modification, 2014 of domestic dogs (n = 31 of both sexes with Babesia infection at the age from 3 months to 6 years served as the material for the study. The preparations were fixed during 1-2 seconds with 96 % ethyl alcohol. Then

  5. To cervixcytologiske metoder til screening for livmoderhalskraeft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2008-01-01

    Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid-based cytology....

  6. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker-Grob, E.W. de; Kok, I.M. de; Bulten, J.; Rosmalen, J. van; Vedder, J.E.M.; Arbyn, M.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Siebers, A.G.; Ballegooijen, M. van

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted cost-effectiven

  7. To cervixcytologiske metoder til screening for livmoderhalskraeft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2008-01-01

    Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid-based cytology....

  8. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker-Grob, E.W. de; Kok, I.M. de; Bulten, J.; Rosmalen, J. van; Vedder, J.E.M.; Arbyn, M.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Siebers, A.G.; Ballegooijen, M. van

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted cost-effectiven

  9. Oral epithelial atypical changes in apparently healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking, alcohol, peppers and hot meals, using the AgNOR and Papanicolaou staining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim; Ebnoof, Syda Omer M Ali; Hussein, Mohmmed Omer M; Gbreel, Afra Yousif A

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate cytological atypical changes in apparently healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking, alcohol, hot meals, and peppers using the AgNOR and Papanicolaou methods. A total of 180 individuals were evaluated, of which 60 were smokers, 34 were alcohol users, 52 were habitual peppers and hot meal (exposed) consumers, 24 were non-exposed, and 10 were patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC), as an internal control. Cytological materials were obtained by brushing of buccal mucosa, on the border of the tongue and on the floor of the mouth, and participants underwent the Papanicolaou test for cytological changes and AgNOR staining for evaluation of the mean number of AgNOR dots per nucleus. SPSS program was used to perform the Pearson chi-square test. The 95% confidence level, Odds Ratio (OR), and the 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were used. The features of cytological atypia were verified among 10 individuals, including 5 smokers, 2 alcohol users, 2 hot meals and peppers consumers, and one non-exposed. For atypia among tobacco smokers, the adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) and the 95% CI were found to be 2 (0.246-16.24). Increased keratinization was detected among 27 (45%) of the smokers (P cytological atypia were identified with 6 +/- 2 AgNOR mean count. The increase of the variables suggests that the evaluation of epithelial atypical changes in individuals exposed to smoking and alcohol carcinogens may be a useful screening tool. While hot meals and peppers did not seem to be a risk for oral mucosal proliferation, they increased the potency of keratinization and infection.

  10. Improvements of the smearing technique for cross-stiffened thin rectangular plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    New developments in the simplified smearing technique for modeling vibrations of cross-stiffened, thin rectangular plates are presented. The computationally efficient smearing technique has been known for many years, but so far the accuracy of, say, predicted natural frequencies has been inadequa...

  11. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Kemenade, Folkert;

    2008-01-01

    100,000 (95% CI: 43-54), p = 0.59. The hazard ratio for 1998-2006 compared to 1990-1995 adjusted for age, number of previous negative smears and history of abnormalities was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.03). In The Netherlands, a setting with high-quality cytological screening, treating smears with only signs......The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands...... in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n...

  12. New policies, new technologies: modelling the potential for improved smear microscopy services in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ramsay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To quantify the likely impact of recent WHO policy recommendations regarding smear microscopy and the introduction of appropriate low-cost fluorescence microscopy on a case detection and b laboratory workload. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An audit of the laboratory register in an urban hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi, and the application of a simple modelling framework. The adoption of the new definition of a smear-positive case could directly increase case detection by up to 28%. Examining Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN sputum smears for up to 10 minutes before declaring them negative has previously been shown to increase case detection (over and above that gained by the adoption of the new case definition by 70% compared with examination times in routine practice. Three times the number of staff would be required to adequately examine the current workload of smears using ZN microscopy. Through implementing new policy recommendations and LED-based fluorescence microscopy the current laboratory staff complement could investigate the same number of patients, examining auramine-stained smears to an extent that is equivalent to a 10 minutes ZN smear examination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Combined implementation of the new WHO recommendations on smear microscopy and LED-based fluorescence microscopy could result in substantial increases in smear positive case-detection using existing human resources and minimal additional equipment.

  13. Frequency and patterns of abnormal Pap smears in Sudanese women with infertility: What are the perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed O Almobarak

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Epithelial cell abnormalities are significantly higher in women with infertility as compared with fertile women. Importantly, inflammatory smears were reported two times more than in the controls. We recommend pap smear as a routine practice for all women assessed for infertility problems. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of human papilloma virus infections in infertile women with abnormal cervical cytology.

  14. Does the presence of vaginitis on a Pap smear correlate with clinical symptoms in the patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Debra S; Pitsos, Miltiadis; Skurnick, Joan

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the association of the finding of trichomoniasis, candidiasis or bacterial vaginosis (BV) on Pap smear with possible symptoms, findings on the clinical examination or treatment that the patient received shortly before or shortly after the results of the Pap smear. Cases were selected from the Department of Pathology, UMDNJ-University Hospital, Newark. Retrospective chart review of patients who had a diagnosis of Trichomonas or Candida infection or bacterial vaginosis on Pap smear was performed. Controls were patients with none of these organisms on Pap smear. We reviewed 761 charts. Of the patients represented, 78 were menopausal, 258 were pregnant and 425 were neither menopausal nor pregnant; 533 (70%) of the patients had an organism associated with vaginitis on their Pap smear. There was a significant association (p vaginitis overall. By individual organism, there was a significant association between a positive Pap smear and clinical indicators of Candida and Trichomonas, but not of BV. Finding Candida or Trichomonas organisms on a Pap smear is a reliable indicator of vaginitis associated with these organisms. Finding organisms consistent with a shift in vaginal flora (BV) on Pap smear did not correlate with clinical indicators of vaginitis.

  15. DUKUNGAN SUAMI MENDORONG KEIKUTSERTAAN PAP SMEAR PASANGAN USIA SUBUR (PUS DI PERUMAHAN PUCANG GADING SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinanthi Estu Linadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pendahuluan: Kanker serviks menjadi penyebab kematian wanita tertinggi di Indonesia. Jawa Tengah merupakan salah satu provinsi dengan kasus kanker serviks yang tinggi sepanjang tahun 2004-2008 dengan prevalensi tertinggi di Kota Semarang. Deteksi dini dengan pap smear terbukti menurunkan angka kematian penderita tetapi keikutsertaan pap smear di Indonesia masih rendah (5%. Tujuan: Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor yang berhubungan dengan keikutsertaan pap smear oleh PUS di Perumahan Pucang Gading Semarang. Metode : Penelitian ini merupakan studi kuantitatifdengan pendekatan potong lintang. Data PUS didapat dari kader (N=316 dan sebanyak 75 sampel ditentukan secara acak sederhan. Data dianalisis dengan distribusi frekuensi dan metode chi squareuntuk mengetahui hubungan antar variabel. Hasil : Sebanyak 15 responden (20% melakukan pap smear. Dukungan suami dan pengetahuan memiliki hubungan signifikan terhadap keikutsertaan pap smear (p<0,05. Sedangkan variabel sikap memiliki sedikit hubungan (p=0,066. Kesimpulan : Karakteristik dan persepsi responden mengenai sosialisasitidak berhubungan dengan keikutsertaan pap smear. Pengetahuan, sikap, dan dukungan suami menjadi faktor yang meningkatkan keikutsertaan PUS melakukan pap smear. Kata kunci: pap smear, dukungan suami, Semarang

  16. [Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth.

  17. Quantitative differences in sputum smear microscopy results for acid-fast bacilli by age and sex in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieder, H L; Lauritsen, Jens; Naranbat, N

    2009-01-01

    To examine the influence of age and sex on the grading of tuberculosis (TB) sputum smear microscopy results.......To examine the influence of age and sex on the grading of tuberculosis (TB) sputum smear microscopy results....

  18. Cobertura do exame citopatológico do colo do útero na cidade de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Coverage of Pap smear tests in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Karine Muller

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal teve por objetivos verificar a cobertura de realização do exame preventivo de câncer do colo do útero e os fatores associados na população de mulheres de 20 a 60 anos residentes na zona urbana de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, durante o ano de 2003. A amostra foi por conglomerados. Foram analisados dois desfechos, a realização de exame preventivo do câncer do colo do útero nos últimos três anos e exame preventivo de Papanicolaou nunca realizado. Entre as 867 mulheres entrevistadas, 741 (85,5%; IC95%: 83,1-87,8 tinham realizado o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos últimos três anos, 60 (6,9%; IC95%: 5,2-8,6 estavam com o procedimento atrasado e 66 (7,6%; IC95%: 5,8-9,4 nunca o haviam realizado. Na regressão de Poisson foi observada significância para as variáveis: classe econômica, idade, cor da pele, estado civil. Observou-se que apesar da cobertura elevada, os fatores de risco para o câncer de colo uterino não motivaram a realização do exame.This cross-sectional study aimed to verify the coverage of Pap smear tests and associated factors in a cluster sample of women 20 to 60 years of age in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Two outcomes were analyzed: Pap smear in the previous three years and Pap smear never performed. Among 867 women, 741 (85.5%; 95%CI: 83.1-87.8 had a Pap smear in the previous three years, 60 (6.9%; 95%CI: 5.2-8.6 were late with the test, and 66 (7.6%; 95%CI: 5.8-9.4 had never done a Pap smear. Poisson regression showed significant association with: income, age, skin color, and marital status. Although coverage was high, risk factors for uterine cervical cancer were not associated with performing the test.

  19. Liquid-based versus conventional cytology in solid pediatric neoplasm: Comparison of their diagnostic and morphological spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Preeti; Yadav, Sunita; Kumar, Archana; Goel, Madhu M

    2016-01-01

    Conventional cytology (CC) is a well-established and effective methodology for the evaluation of pediatric tumors. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a better technique of smear preparation and is at present the standard protocol in cervical cytology samples. In the present study, we analyzed both smear preparatory techniques in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples from solid pediatric neoplasms in terms of adequacy and efficacy with objectives to study the changes in background and morphology of tumor cells in LBC smears. This was a prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, which included 52 pediatric patients with clinical diagnosis of malignancy and an assessable lump. Both conventional aspiration cytology and LBC smears were prepared as per standard protocols (SurePath BD™) from FNA samples of cases and examined. On comparing the diagnostic efficacy of cytology smears prepared by both techniques, LBC alone was diagnostic in 80.8% of the cases and conventional smear (CS) alone was diagnostic in 71.2% of the cases (agreement was 83.7%, P = 0.3). Cellular morphology was better preserved in LBC and interpretation was easier. There was a lower inadequacy rate in LBC and none of the samples was inadequate due to poor morphology in LBC smears (P = 0.0003). LBC showed an overall 40% improvement in inadequate cases by CS. LBC has been recommended as a complement to CC in nongynecological samples. Improved morphology and lower inadequacy rate make LBC a finer technique compared to CS in pediatric tumors as well.

  20. Bandwidth smearing in infrared long-baseline interferometry. Application to stellar companion search in fringe-scanning mode

    CERN Document Server

    Lachaume, Régis

    2013-01-01

    In long-baseline interferometry, bandwidth smearing of an extended source occurs at finite bandwidth when its different components produce interference packets that only partially overlap. In this case, traditional model fitting or image reconstruction using standard formulas and tools lead to biased results. We propose and implement a method to overcome this effect by calculating analytically a corrective term for the conventional interferometric observables: the visibility amplitude and closure phase. For that purpose, we model the interferogram taking into account the finite bandwidth and the instrumental differential phase. We obtain generic expressions for the visibility and closure phase in the case of temporally-modulated interferograms, either processed using Fourier analysis or with the ABCD method. The expressions can be used to fit arbitrary models to the data. We then apply our results to the search and characterisation of stellar companions with PIONIER at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer,...

  1. Tuberculosis transmission by patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in a large cohort in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tostmann, A.; Kik, S.V.; Kalisvaart, N.A.; Sebek, M.M.; Verver, S.; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D. van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sputum smear microscopy is commonly used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). Although patients with sputum smear-negative TB are less infectious than patients with smear-positive TB, they also contribute to TB transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of TB

  2. COMPARISION AND CORRELATION OF PAP SMEAR WITH COLPOSCOPY AND HISTOPATHIOLOGY IN EVALUATION OF CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : Correlate pap smear findings wi th colposcopic findings, To localize the lesion by colposcopy and obtain biopsy and to provide appropriate treatment wherever possible. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This was a prospective comparative study of 104 patients who attended the Gynecology OPD of KIMS f rom may2012 to may 2014. INCLUSION CRITERIA : 1. Women of age between 20 - 65 years. 2. Women with symptoms like vaginal discharge, post coital bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, intermenstrual bleeding and persistent leucorrhoea . 3. Women with normal looking cervix but symptomatic. EXCLUSION CRITERIA : 1. Women with bleeding at the time of examination . 2. Women with frank lesions . 3. Women with clinical evidence of acute pelvic infection . 4. Women who was previously treated for carcinoma cervix . 5. Pregnant wome n. RESULTS : Sensitivity of pap smear was found to be very low which was 31.25% compared to its specificity which was 94.44%. Which means pap smear shows higher no. of false negative smears Colposcopy showed a high sensitivity 96.57% and a good specificity 88.55% compared to pap smear . CONCLUSIOS: It is evident that colposcopy is definitely more sensitive and accurate than pap smear. By combining pap smear with colposcopy, we can maximize the sensitivity and specificity of cancer cervix screening.

  3. Cannonballs in Pap Smears: Double Whammy of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vani; Satish, Suchitha; Vimalambike, Manjunath Gubbanna

    2016-01-01

    Cannonballs are structures consisting of neutrophils adherent to epithelial cells, often seen in vaginal Pap smears of patients with trichomoniasis and chlamydiasis. We frequently observed these cannonballs in inflammatory Pap smears showing evidence of bacterial vaginosis. To study the association between cannonballs and bacterial vaginosis with associated infections in inflammatory Pap smears. This was a retrospective study performed over a period of 6 months between April 2014 and September 2014. Three hundred consecutive Pap smears assessed during the study period were retrieved from the archives and studied. A total of 280 smears were studied. Neutrophilic infiltrates were seen in 83.6%, cannonballs in 82.3%, and bacterial vaginosis in 70.7% of the smears. Cannonballs were found in 84.4% of the smears showing evidence of bacterial vaginosis with associated inflammatory infiltrates. There was a significant association between cannonballs and bacterial vaginosis (p = 0.0001). The odds ratio was 13.8 (95% CI: 7.2-26.2). The present study shows a significant association between cannonballs and bacterial vaginosis and associated vaginal infections. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The smear layer created by scaling and root planing is physiologically eliminated in a biphasic process

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    Fernanda Regina Godoy ROCHA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical instrumentation of the root surface causes the formation of a smear layer, which is a physical barrier that can affect periodontal regeneration. Although different procedures have been proposed to remove the smear layer, there is no information concerning how long the smear layer persists on root surfaces after instrumentation in vivo. This study assessed the presence of the smear layer on root surfaces over a 28-day period after subgingival instrumentation with hand instruments. Fifty human teeth that were referred for extraction because of advanced periodontal disease were scaled and root planed (SRP by a single experienced operator. Ten teeth were randomly assigned to be extracted 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after SRP. Another 10 teeth were extracted immediately after instrumentation (Day 0, control group. The subgingival area of the instrumented roots was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Representative photomicrographs were assessed by a blinded and calibrated examiner according to a scoring system. A rapid and significant (p < 0.05, Z test initial reduction in the amount of smear layer was observed at 7 days, and a further significant (p < 0.05 decrease was observed 28 days after SRP. Interestingly, even 28 days after SRP, the smear layer was still present on root surfaces. This study showed that the physiological elimination of the smear layer occurred in a biphasic manner: a rapid initial reduction was observed 7 days after instrumentation, which was followed by a slow process leading to a significant decrease 28 days after instrumentation.

  5. DIRECT SMEAR VS CELL BLOCK (PLASMA- THROMBIN CLOT METHOD: DIAGNOSTIC VALUE IN SEROSAL CAVITIES FLUIDS CYTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P MAHZOUNI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To improve testing sensitivity, most laboratories use two or more preparation methods but in our laboratories only one method is used which is "direct smear". In this study we tried to evaluate the diagnostic value of cell block as adjunct to direct smear in the cytologic investigation of serosal cavities fluids. Methods. In a clinical trial study 62 specimens of serosal cavity fluids were investigated in AL-Zahrapathology laboratory (Get. 1998 to Get. 1999. Cytologic slides from each specimens were prepared in two methods: direct smear and cell block (plasma- thrombin clot method. Smears and cell blocks were studied separately by the same cytopathologist. The diagnosis were categorized as positive, negative, suspicious or unsatisfactory. Also, the time required for studing of each slides were noted. Findings. The findings indicated that there are discrepancy between direct smear and cell block methods in the number of "suspicious" cases. Also there is significant difference between the mean time needed for studing of direct smear and cell block. Conclusion. It is recommended that the remainer of each specimen should be kept in refrigerator in order to prepare cell blocks in suspicious cases of direct smear. This method facilitates making a more definite diagnosis and reducing the number of suspicious cases.

  6. Evaluation of the Xpert ® MTB/Rif test, microscopic observation drug susceptibility test and nitrate reductase assay, for rapid and accurate diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis in HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Walusimbi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis (TB, which is frequently seen in HIV-infected patients, is a challenge without conventional culture methods. Since 2007, the WHO (World Health Organization has endorsed new or improved tests for increased and rapid diagnosis of TB. This study was undertaken in an effort to evaluate the accuracy of two rapid culture methods: the Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility assay (MODS and Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA, and the molecular based test Xpert ® MTB/Rif (Xpert, for diagnosis of smear-negative TB in HIV patients using the mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT in the BACTECTM MGITTM 960 system as the reference test. 430 smear-negative patients with presumptive TB were enrolled in a cross-sectional study at a tertiary care facility in Uganda. Their sputum was tested on MODS, NRA, Xpert and MGIT. Of the 430 patients, 373 had complete results to compute test accuracy. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB was detected in 43 patients by MGIT. The sensitivity and specificity were 24.4% and 98.1% for MODS, 41.5% and 92% for NRA, 48.8% and 95.1% for Xpert, respectively. The low sensitivity of the tests implies that additional diagnostics such as chest X-ray and conventional liquid culture methods might still be needed to detect TB in smear-negative HIV patients. The high specificity of the tests is useful to confirm TB in HIV patients with symptoms suggestive of TB.

  7. Assessment of smear layer removal protocols in curved root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, William; Raldi, Denise Pontes; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Mello, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to assess if the final rinse protocol interferes with the smear layer removal in the apical area of curved canals. Sixty-four extracted human mandibular molars with curved mesial roots were instrumented with rotary files and divided into six experimental groups for final rinse: 1EDTA (syringe irrigation with 1 mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) ), 5EDTA (syringe irrigation with 5 mL of 17% EDTA), 1EDTA-P (syringe irrigation with 1 mL of 17% EDTA + pumping with gutta-percha point), 5EDTA-P (syringe irrigation with 5 mL of 17% EDTA + pumping with gutta-percha point), 1EDTA-EA (syringe irrigation with 1 mL of 17% EDTA + EndoActivator) and 5EDTA-EA (syringe irrigation with 5 mL of 17% EDTA + EndoActivator). Final rinsing was carried out over 3 min. The specimens were split lengthwise and observed under a scanning electron microscope using a score criterion. Comparison among the groups showed statistically significant difference only between the 5EDTA-EA group and the other groups (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc tests, P protocols used.

  8. Diagnosing sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis: Does fibre-optic bronchoscopy play a significant role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachh Arshad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Diagnosis of sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients can be both challenging and time consuming with many patients being put on empirical anti-tubercular treatment. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy may provide a confirmative and early diagnosis in such patients. Aims: To assess the role of fibreoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of sputum /smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 75 suspected sputum / smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases attending Pulmonary Medicine Department of Mamata Medical College and Hospital, Khammam, AP. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed; culture of sputum and bronchial washings for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was done by BACTEC method. Results: A final diagnosis of sputum /smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis was made in 60 patients. Bronchial washings smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB was positive in 21 patients while culture of bronchial washings was positive in 39 patients. In 29 patients, smear or culture of bronchial washing alone contributed to the final diagnosis. Total yield of bronchoscopy in diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis was 83.33% (50/60; bronchoscopy was the only diagnostic method in 66% cases (40/60 with bronchial washings being the only diagnostic method in 48.33%. Bronchial washings smear for AFB and histopathological evidence of caseating granuloma made immediate diagnosis possible in 48.33% (29/60 patients. Conclusion: Our study suggests that fibreoptic bronchoscopy can provide excellent material for diagnosis of suspected cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in whom smears of expectorated sputum do not reveal mycobacteria.

  9. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  10. Smears and cultures for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in an asymptomatic immigrant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assael R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Assael, Joaquin Cervantes, Gerardo Barrera Clinica Medica Internacional, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico Background: The World Health Organization estimated in 2010 that 8.8 million new tuberculosis (TB cases. About one-third of the world's population is infected and 10% will develop active TB disease. While cultures remain the international gold standard for diagnosing TB disease, in many other low-income countries, sputum smears remain the only and most accessible tool with which to diagnose active TB disease. As a consequence, in patients with TB who have negative smears, their TB remains undetected. Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to demonstrate the proportion of smear-positive/culture-positive cases compared with smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases in Mexican immigrants bound for the USA. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken of the medical records of 122 active TB cases diagnosed at a clinic in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, from 2009 to 2012. All cases were confirmed by culture, regardless of the sputum smear results. Results: Of the cases, 80% (97 active TB cases had negative sputum smears, while only 25 cases (20% had at least one positive smear. All of the cultures were confirmed as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Conclusion: The fact that 80% of the TB cases were smear negative and 20% smear positive shows that there is a clear gap between the actual state of active TB disease within patients under screening conditions, meaning that eight out of ten actual cases are being missed when sputum smear is the only diagnostic tool in asymptomatic patients with abnormal chest X-rays. Based on these results, it is highly recommended that countries that have not standardized culturing as the gold standard for the diagnosis of active TB do so, so that TB cases – which may endanger global public health – are not missed. It is also recommended that further studies be undertaken to determine the clinical

  11. Observation of the effect of cleaning the smear layer and tubule plugs with SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dan-ni; DONG Ya-li

    2001-01-01

    To clean out the smear layer on teeth surface, and protect the teeth medulla, the experiment applied the study observing the cleanup of six groups of surface smear layer of dental caries and the tubule plugs reserving effect after using of different cavity cleansers with the help of SEM. The result implied that both the acidic preparations and chelator could clean out the smear layer on.teeth surface in some way, but the later one could also reserve partial tubule plugs, which reduce the stimulation to the teeth medulla. So the chelator is better cleansers in clinical use.

  12. Predicting results of mycobacterial culture on sputum smear reversion after anti-tuberculous treatment: a case control study

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    Lee Li-Na

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is currently known regarding sputum smear reversion (acid-fast smear becomes positive again after negative conversion during anti-tuberculous treatment. This study aimed to evaluate its occurrence in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB and identify factors predicting results of mycobacterial culture for smear-reversion of sputum samples. Methods The retrospective review was performed in a tertiary referral center and a local teaching hospital in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2007, patients with smear-positive culture-confirmed pulmonary TB experiencing smear reversion after 14 days of anti-tuberculous treatment were identified. Results The 739 patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB had 74 (10% episodes of sputum smear reversion that grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 22 (30% (Mtb group. The remaining 52 episodes of culture-negative sputum samples were classified as the non-Mtb group. The anti-tuberculous regimen was modified after confirming smear reversion in 15 (20%. Fourteen episodes in the Mtb group and 15 in the non-Mtb group occurred during hospitalization. All were admitted to the negative-pressure rooms at the time of smear reversion. Statistical analysis showed that any TB drug resistance, smear reversion within the first two months of treatment or before culture conversion, and the absence of radiographic improvement before smear reversion were associated with the Mtb group. None of the smear reversion was due to viable M. tuberculosis if none of the four factors were present. Conclusions Sputum smear reversion develops in 10% of patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB, with 30% due to viable M. tuberculosis bacilli. Isolation and regimen modification may not be necessary for all drug-susceptible patients who already have radiographic improvement and develop smear reversion after two months of treatment or after sputum culture conversion.

  13. Rapid and reliable diagnosis of murine myeloid leukemia (ML by FISH of peripheral blood smear using probe of PU. 1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ban Nobuhiko

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murine myeloid leukemia (ML provides a good animal model to study the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia in humans. This disease has been cytogenetically characterized by a partial deletion of chromosome 2 with G-banding. For the rapid diagnosis of ML, this study reports a FISH method using spleen cells and peripheral blood smears from ML mice exposed to gamma rays and neutrons with PU.1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor, as a probe. Results Among mice that were tentatively diagnosed with ML by clinical findings and blood smear examination, 85% carried spleen cells showing the loss of PU.1 although the frequency of these abnormal cells varied among individuals. Mice with very low frequencies of cells showing the loss of one copy of PU.1 (one-PU.1 frequency were later diagnosed pathologically not with ML but with blastic or eosinophilic leukemia. Some neutron-irradiated mice had cells showing translocated PU.1, although no pathological features differentiated these ML mice from ML mice expressing the simple loss of PU.1. The one-PU.1 frequency can be detected from spleen metaphase cells, spleen interphase cells, and blood smears. There was a good correlation between the one-PU.1 frequency in spleen metaphase cells and that in spleen interphase cells (r = 0.96 and between one-PU.1 frequency in spleen interphase cells and that in blood cells (r = 0.83. Conclusion The FISH method was capable of detecting aberration of copy number of the PU.1 gene on murine chromosome 2, and using a peripheral blood smear is more practical and less invasive than conventional pathological diagnosis or the cytogenetic examination of spleen cells.

  14. Sputum smear microscopy at two months into continuation-phase: should it be done in all patients with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis?

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    Mohit Padamchand Gandhi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP of India recommends follow-up sputum smear examination at two months into the continuation phase of treatment. The main intent of this (mid-CP follow-up is to detect patients not responding to treatment around two-three months earlier than at the end of the treatment. However, the utility of mid-CP follow-up under programmatic conditions has been questioned. We undertook a multi-district study to determine if mid-CP follow-up is able to detect cases of treatment failures early among all types of patients with sputum smear-positive TB. METHODOLOGY: We reviewed existing records of patients with sputum smear-positive TB registered under the RNTCP in 43 districts across three states of India during a three month period in 2009. We estimated proportions of patients that could be detected as a case of treatment failure early, and assessed the impact of various policy options on laboratory workload and number needed to test to detect one case of treatment failure early. RESULTS: Of 10055 cases, mid-CP follow-up was done in 6944 (69% cases. Mid-CP follow-up could benefit 117/8015 (1.5% new and 206/2040 (10% previously-treated sputum smear-positive cases by detecting their treatment failure early. Under the current policy, 31 patients had to be tested to detect one case of treatment failure early. All cases of treatment failure would still be detected early if mid-CP follow-up were discontinued for new sputum smear-positive cases who become sputum smear-negative after the intensive-phase of treatment. This would reduce the related laboratory workload by 69% and only 10 patients would need to be tested to detect one case of treatment failure early. CONCLUSION: Discontinuation of mid-CP follow-up among new sputum smear-positive cases who become sputum smear-negative after completing the intensive-phase of treatment will reduce the laboratory workload without impacting overall early

  15. Modifying and Pilot Testing the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire

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    Kelly Ackerson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a report on modifications and pilot testing of a measurement tool to predict Pap testing based on the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. Women have been found to avoid routine cervical cancer screening (CCS due to personal influencing factors. For this study, the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire (PSBQ was modified by adding items and evaluated through content validity index (CVI = .89 and cognitive interviews (think-aloud protocol, resulting in a 31-item instrument with four subscales (Benefits, Barriers, Vulnerability, Experiences. Pilot testing the modified PSBQ was conducted at a local agency. Fifty-three women completed and returned the PSBQ, which had good internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of .81 (Benefits α = .51; Barriers α = .85; Vulnerability α = .78; Experiences α = .87. Test–retest reliability of the 31-item PSBQ was also good (.878. Univariate logistic regression indicated that the only significant predictor of seeking/avoiding routine screening by women’s background characteristics was social influence (p = .04. Subscales found to be significant predictors in Pap testing were Barriers (p = .003 and Gynecological Exam Experiences (p = .04. The refined 31-item PSBQ has good psychometric data supporting its use in predicting CCS. However, this research should be replicated in a larger sample enabling further validity and reliability testing of the PSBQ. Understanding women’s attitudes toward CCS will help health care providers, who deal with gynecological health, develop more effective screening programs and interventions facilitating better experiences for women contributing to an increase in routine screening.

  16. A screening system for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis using artificial neural networks

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    João B. de O. Souza Filho

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: In settings with a high prevalence of smear-negative PTB, the system can be useful for screening and also to aid clinical practice in expediting complementary tests for higher risk patients.

  17. Validation study of HPV DNA detection from stained FNA smears by polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Channir, Hani Ibrahim; Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Ahlborn, Lise Barlebo;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) often presents with cystic cervical metastasis and a small primary tumor localized in the palatine tonsils or base of the tongue, which is diagnostically challenging. Testing for HPV DNA in fine......-needle aspiration (FNA) smears from metastases may facilitate a targeted diagnostic workup for identifying the primary tumor. This study was designed to assess the ability to detect HPV DNA in FNA smears with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: May-Grünvald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained FNA smears from metastases...... and corresponding surgical specimens were collected from 71 patients with known HPV-positive OPSCC, 12 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), 20 patients with branchial cleft cysts, and 20 patients with Warthin tumors. Thirty-eight patients with OPSCC and 7 patients with OSCC had FNA smears available...

  18. TTV and HPV co-infection in cervical smears of patients with cervical lesions

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    Tachezy Ruth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female lower genital tract is a gateway for pathogens entering the host through the mucous membrane. One of the prevalent human viruses is Torque teno virus (TTV. The major reported routes of TTV transmission are fecal-oral and parenteral. Furthermore, other modes of transmission, e.g. sexual contact, are suggested. To investigate the sexual route of TTV transmission, cervical smears of healthy women and those with cervical lesions were screened for the presence of TTV DNA. Methods TTV DNA was studied in cervical smears of 95 patients with cervical lesions and 55 healthy women. Paired serum samples were available from 55 and 42 women, respectively. All healthy women had normal cytology while 44 patients had histologically confirmed low-grade lesion (LGL and 51 high-grade lesion (HGL. TTV DNA was detected with primers specific for the non-coding region. In 40 paired cervical smears and serum samples, the phylogenetic group of TTV isolates was determined. The presence of HPV DNA in cervical smears was detected by means of PCR with MY09/11 primers. Results The prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears of healthy women was 52.7% and was comparable with that in paired serum samples (50%. Symptomatic women had significantly higher prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears (74.7% than healthy controls. The TTV DNA prevalence in patient serum samples was 51%. The phylogenetic groups of TTV serum isolates were concordant with those of TTV from cervical smears of the same subjects. In cervical smears, a wider variety of TTV isolates was found. The viral loads in cervical smears were 10 to 1000 times as high as in sera. The HPV-positive study subjects had significantly higher TTV DNA prevalence than HPV negatives. The prevalence of TTV was not associated with disease severity. Conclusion High prevalence of TTV in cervical smears suggests that sexual transmission is another mode of expansion of TTV infection among the population. The

  19. DIRECT SMEAR VS CELL BLOCK (PLASMA- THROMBIN CLOT) METHOD: DIAGNOSTIC VALUE IN SEROSAL CAVITIES FLUIDS CYTOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahzouni, P.; M SHARIFANI

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. To improve testing sensitivity, most laboratories use two or more preparation methods but in our laboratories only one method is used which is "direct smear". In this study we tried to evaluate the diagnostic value of cell block as adjunct to direct smear in the cytologic investigation of serosal cavities fluids. Methods. In a clinical trial study 62 specimens of serosal cavity fluids were investigated in AL-Zahrapathology laboratory (Get. 1998 to Get. 1999). Cytologic slid...

  20. Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with acetic acid application with magnification [VIAM], visual inspection onLugol’s Iodine application [VILI] in early detection of cervical neoplasia .In our study we compared pap smear withVIA to study the accurarcy of VIA as it is simpler and easier technique to be used as screening in low resourcesettings. Aim: This is a hospital based descriptive, prospective study to evaluate validity of pap smear and VIAtechniques as screening tests in identifying cervical lesions. Materials And Methods: After general and systemicexamination as a routine,visual local pelvic examination including visualisation of cervix and vagina per speculumand the findings are documented in the proforma .Then VIA and pap smear are done in that order, if any of thesetests are positive then cervical biopsy will be taken and further advise to the subject is given. Results: A total of 313women were involved in the study. The sensitivity of pap smear is 54.5% specificity is 98.9% while that of VIA95.4% and 97.9%respectively. We found that VIA accuracy was comparatively more than that of pap smear.Conclusion: In low resource settings, usefulness of VIA is more than that of pap smear. We suggest to perform VIAin all the women inspite of having pap smear facility to improve detection rate of cervical lesions and provide betterpatient councelling and treatment.

  1. Multiple sampling in one day to optimize smear microscopy in children with tuberculosis in Yemen.

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    Nasher Al-Aghbari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The diagnosis of pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB in children is difficult and often requires hospitalization. We explored whether the yield of specimens collected for smear microscopy from different anatomical sites in one visit is comparable to the yield of specimens collected from a single anatomical site over several days. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Children with signs/symptoms of pulmonary TB attending a reference hospital in Sana'a Yemen underwent one nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA the first day of consultation and three gastric aspirates (GA plus three expectorated/induced sputa over 3 consecutive days. Specimens were examined using smear microscopy (Ziehl-Neelsen and cultured in solid media (Ogawa. Two hundred and thirteen children (aged 2 months-15 years were enrolled. One hundred and ninety seven (93% underwent nasopharyngeal aspirates, 196 (92% GA, 122 (57% expectorated sputum and 88 induced sputum. A total 1309 specimens were collected requiring 237 hospitalization days. In total, 29 (13.6% children were confirmed by culture and 18 (8.5% by smear microscopy. The NPA identified 10 of the 18 smear-positives; three consecutive GA identified 10 and induced/expectorated sputa identified 13 (6 by induced, 8 by expectorated sputum and one positive by both. In comparison, 22 (3.7% of 602 specimens obtained the first day were smear-positive and identified 14 (6.6% smear-positive children. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The examination of multiple tests the first day of consultation identified a similar proportion of smear-positive children than specimens collected over several days; would require half the number of tests and significantly less hospitalization. Optimized smear microscopy approaches for children should be explored further.

  2. Actinomyces-like organisms in cervical smears: the association with intrauterine device and pelvic inflammatory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of actinomyces-like organisms in routine cervical smears of Korean women and to evaluate its association with the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in these women. Methods The results of cervical smears between 2011 and 2012 at a single university hospital were searched. If positive for actinomyces-like organisms, the medical record of the patient was searched and development of PID was followed. If the data were not available in the medic...

  3. Trichomonas, Candida , and Gardnerella in cervical smears of Iranian women for cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Kalantari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardrenella vaginalis, and Candida sp are responsible for 90% of vaginitis which has been reported as important risk factors for cervical cancer. Aim: This study aimed to find the prevalence of T. vaginalis, Candida sp, and G. vaginalis in women attended the cancer clinic charity, Babol, Iran and to identify the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study carried out from 1996 to July 2012 on women who attended to a cancer screening program at the cancer clinics charity, Babol, Iran. Papanicolaou test and clinical examinations were performed for each woman. In addition to Papanicolaou test results, demographic data were collected. The data were analyzed with X 2 test using SPSS software, version 18. Results: In total, 2511 out of 33600 (7.5% cases had vaginal infections. A total of 71 (0.2%, 2248 (6.7%, and 192 (0.6% of subjects were infected by T. vaginalis, Candida sp, and Gardnerella, respectively. The highest rate of infection was seen in 20-30 and 30-40 years age group. The frequency of vaginal ulcers was higher in trichomoniasis (14.1%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the prevalence of T. vaginalis, Candida sp, and Gardnerella was low among the studied population. Moreover, malignant cytological alternations were not seen in any infected women.

  4. Incremental yield of bronchial washing for diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Soto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the increased diagnostic yield for pulmonary tuberculosis using bronchial washing cultures compared with sputum cultures. METHODS Study conducted with 61 adults in Lima, Peru, from January 2006 to December 2007. The yield of sputum cultures was compared with the yield of acid-fast bacilli smears and cultures of bronchial washing for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in suspected cases of clinical tuberculosis with negative acid fast bacilli sputum smears. RESULTS Twenty seven (95%CI 32;58 of the cases were eventually diagnosed with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Bronchial washing samples detected 23 (95%CI 72;99 of the smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases compared with 15 (95%CI 37;74 for sputum cultures (p = 0.02. The incremental diagnostic yield of acid fast bacilli smear and culture of bronchial washing specimens over sputum culture was 44% (95%CI 25;65. CONCLUSIONS In function of the epidemiological context and the resources available, bronchoscopy should be deployed as part of a comprehensive work up that optimizes smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis and minimizes risk and costs.

  5. Examination of cytological smears and cell blocks of pleural fluid: Complementary diagnostic value for malignant effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, J M; Quirós, M; Gatius, S; Bielsa, S

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the independent usefulness of pleural fluid smear and cell block (CB) preparations for the diagnosis of malignant effusions. A total of 632 cytological smears and 554 CBs from 414 consecutive patients with malignant effusions were retrospectively evaluated. The diagnostic yield of a first specimen was 44% regardless of whether a smear or CB cytologic examination was performed. The use of subsequent separated specimens increased the identification of malignancy to 56%. Overall, 11% of samples found to be negative by cytologic smears showed malignant cells on CBs, whereas 15% of negative CBs were reported as positive on smear slides. Pleural fluid specimens with low red and/or white blood cell counts more frequently resulted in the generation of suboptimal CB preparations. If CBs and smears are prepared and examined, the percentage of positive diagnoses will be greater than if only one method is used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  6. Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory Pap smear: A prospective analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasari Papa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a good number of patients in the premalignant stage are being missed. This study was undertaken to evaluate patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears without atypia using colposcopy. Methods: A prospective analytical study of 150 gynecologial patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smear between 2006 and 2008 in an out-patient setting. All of them were subjected to colposcopy and biopsy from the abnormal areas. The incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN/invasive carcinoma was calculated by proportions/percentages. Results: The incidence of invasive carcinoma was <1%. But, the incidence of pre-malignant lesions (CIN was high (20.9%. CIN 2/3 and carcinoma in situ were present in 6.9% of the cases. Conclusions: Patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears can harbour a high proportion of CIN and hence these patients will need further evaluation.

  7. Control of smearing during wiping stage of gravure printing of electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Umut; Morris, S. J. S.

    2016-11-01

    During gravure printing, a blade wipes the excess liquid from the engraved gravure roll, the objective is leaving liquid filled cells defining the image to be printed. Capillarity, however, draws some liquid from cell into a meniscus connecting to the blade; and the continuing motion of gravure roll smears that meniscus over its surface. Smearing delivers features lacking in sharpness at the micron scale. Ceyhan and Morris (BAPS.2015.DFD.M8.10) analyze smear formation for the blade-liquid contact angles covering the range 0 <= θ < π / 2 and show that the problem can be treated in plane. Using numerical solutions of the corresponding free boundary problem for the Stokes equations of motion, we show that hydrostatic theory provides an upper bound for the smear volume for finite Ca . The approach of trailing edge of the cell to the meniscus isolates a certain volume of liquid from the cell, the isolated liquid is deformed with the continuing motion of gravure roll. The problem of controlling smear formation now reduces to the simpler problem of reducing the quantity of liquid drawn into the meniscus. The theory explains why polishing to reduce the tip radius of the blade is an effective way to control smearing.

  8. Varieties of conventional implicature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Scott McCready

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a system capable of analyzing the combinatorics of a wide range of conventionally implicated and expressive constructions in natural language via an extension of Potts's (2005 L_CI logic for supplementary conventional implicatures. In particular, the system is capable of analyzing objects of mixed conventionally implicated/expressive and at-issue type, and objects with conventionally implicated or expressive meanings which provide the main content of their utterances. The logic is applied to a range of constructions and lexical items in several languages. doi:10.3765/sp.3.8 BibTeX info

  9. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for collecting samples for conventional and liquid-based cytology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbyn, M.; Herbert, A.; Schenck, U.; Nieminen, P.; Jordan, J.; Mcgoogan, E.; Patnick, J.; Bergeron, C.; Baldauf, J.J.; Klinkhamer, P.; Bulten, J.; Martin-Hirsch, P.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper presents an annex in the second edition of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. It provides guidance on how to make a satisfactory conventional Pap smear or a liquid-based cytology (LBC) sample. Practitioners taking samples for cytology should

  10. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for collecting samples for conventional and liquid-based cytology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbyn, M.; Herbert, A.; Schenck, U.; Nieminen, P.; Jordan, J.; Mcgoogan, E.; Patnick, J.; Bergeron, C.; Baldauf, J.J.; Klinkhamer, P.; Bulten, J.; Martin-Hirsch, P.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper presents an annex in the second edition of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. It provides guidance on how to make a satisfactory conventional Pap smear or a liquid-based cytology (LBC) sample. Practitioners taking samples for cytology should

  11. Making mock-FNA smears from fresh surgical pathology specimens to improve smear preparation technique and to create cytohistological correlation series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Mezei

    Full Text Available Fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology is a well-established diagnostic method based on the microscopic interpretation of often scant cytological material; therefore, experience, good technique and smear quality are equally important in obtaining satisfactory results.We studied the use of fresh surgical pathology specimens for making so-called mock-FNA smears with the potential of cytohistological correlation. Additionally, we studied how this process aids the improvement of preparation technique and smear quality.Cytological aspirates from 32 fresh biopsy specimens from various sites: lung (20, lymph nodes (6, and breast (6 were obtained, all with a clinical diagnosis of tumor. Aspiration was performed from grossly palpable tumors. 25 G needle and Cameco-type syringe holder was used with minimal or no suction.Unfixed surgical specimens provided sufficient cytological material that resulted in good quality smears. After standard processing of specimens into microscopic sections from paraffin embedded tissues, cytohistological case-series were created. No significant alteration was reported in tissue architecture on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections after the aspiration procedure. A gradual, but steady improvement was observed in smear quality just after a few preparations.Our study proved that surgical specimens may be used as a source of cytological material to create cytohistological correlation studies and also to improve FNA cytology skills. The use of very fine gauge needle (25 G, 0,6 mm diameter during the sampling process does not alter tissue architecture therefore the final histopathological diagnosis is not compromised. We conclude that by using fresh surgical specimens useful cytohistological collections can be created both as a teaching resource and as improving experience.

  12. Tuberculosis recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia: retrospective cohort study

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    Datiko Daniel G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decentralization of DOTS has increased the number of cured smear-positive tuberculosis (TB patients. However, the rate of recurrence has increased mainly due to HIV infection. Recurrence rate could be taken as an important measure of long-term success of TB treatment. We aimed to find out the rate of recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia. Methods We did a retrospective cohort study on cured smear-positive TB patients who were treated from 1998 to 2006. Recurrence of smear-positive TB was used as an outcome measure. Person-years of observation (PYO were calculated per 100 PYO from the date of cure to date of interview. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression methods were used to determine the survival and the hazard ratio (HR. Results 368 cured smear-positive TB patients which were followed for 1463 person-years. Of these, 187 patients (50.8% were men, 277 patients (75.5% were married, 157 (44.2% were illiterate, and 152 patients (41.3% were farmers. 15 of 368 smear-positive patients had recurrence. The rate of recurrence was 1 per 100 PYO (0.01 per annum. Recurrence was not associated with age, sex, occupation, marital status and level of education. Conclusion High recurrence rate occurred among smear-positive patients cured under DOTS. Further studies are required to identify factors contributing to high recurrence rates to improve disease free survival of TB patients after treatment.

  13. Psychosocial burden of abnormal pap smears among HIV-infected women at Chon Buri hospital, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathunge, Mangala P H; Bowanwatanuwong, Chureeratana; Maek-A-nantawat, Wirach; Pitisuttithum, Benjaluck Phonratland Punnee

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective case-control study assessed the psychological burden of abnormal Pap smears, and their prevalence and characteristics among HIV-infected women attending an HIV clinic. Women with positive (n = 73) and negative Pap-smear results (n = 317) were assessed for psychosocial burden using 4 questionnaires: Psycho-Social Impact of Abnormal Pap Smears (PEAPS-Q), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Work Productivity and Impairment (WPAI) and the EURO-Qol Thermometer. The prevalence of pre-cervical cancer lesions in HIV infected woman was 17.5% (ASCUS 2.9%, LSIL 3.8%, HSIL 7.4%, SCC 1.7%, and atypical glandular cells including adenocarcinoma 1.7%). HIV infected women with abnormal Pap smears showed higher anxiety levels on the HADS questionnaire (p = 0.015); this had a significant effect on regular daily activities (p = 0.009) per the WPAI questionnaire compared to HIV positive women with normal Pap smear. Ever married HIV infected woman with an abnormal Pap smear had a significantly lower psychosocial burden using the PEAPS-Q questionnaire (p < 0.001). After adjusting for age and duration since last Pap smear, the education level of the patient was a strong predictor for anxiety. Patients, with a college education had significantly lower anxiety (p = 0.001, 95% CI -5.74 to -1.37) than those with lower or higher education. Women with HSIL were more anxious (p = 0.014, 95% CI 0.49 -4.39) than those with low grade or normal lesions.

  14. Effectiveness of the self-adjusting file versus ProTaper systems to remove the smear layer in artificially induced internal root resorption cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Yigit Özer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Smear layer removal from artificially prepared internal root resorption (IRR cavities using the self-adjusting file (SAF system with activated continuous irrigation or the ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland with conventional syringe/needle irrigation was compared. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight maxillary central incisors were selected, decoronated and 20 of them were randomizedly splited along the coronal plane into labial and lingual sections, and artificial IRR cavities were prepared in both walls. Tooth segments were rejoined and teeth were divided into two groups. Each group (n = 10 was prepared using the SAF or ProTaper system with 12-mL 5.25% NaOCl and 12-mL 17% EDTA. Root canals were prepared in six intact positive control teeth using the SAF or ProTaper system with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. As negative controls, two intact teeth were prepared using NaOCl only. Roots were than split longitudinally from the rejoined segments and samples were evaluated under scanning electron microscopy using a five-point scoring system. Results: Most SAF (87% and ProTaper (83% samples (P > 0.05, had scores of 1 and 2 indicating clean canal walls for the IRR cavities. Conclusions: SAF with activated continuous irrigation and ProTaper with conventional syringe/needle irrigation both successfully removed the smear layer from artificially prepared IRR cavities

  15. The Geometry of Conventionality

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2013-01-01

    Hans Reichenbach famously argued that the geometry of spacetime is conventional in relativity theory, in the sense that one can freely choose the spacetime metric so long as one is willing to postulate a "universal force field". Here we make precise a sense in which the field Reichenbach defines fails to be a "force". We then argue that there is an interesting and perhaps tenable sense in which geometry is conventional in classical spacetimes. We conclude with a no-go result showing that the variety of conventionalism available in classical spacetimes does not extend to relativistic spacetimes.

  16. Evaluation of diagnostic role of in situ PCR on slit-skin smears in pediatric leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, R; Natrajan, M; Katoch, K; Katoch, V M

    2010-01-01

    A large proportion of early cases of leprosy in children remain AFB negative in skin smears. Such cases required additional techniques to confirm the diagnosis. In situ PCR on slit- skin smears is minimally invasive and less cumbersome as compared to skin biopsies. This study was initiated in our institute with the objective to evaluate the diagnostic value of in situ PCR on slit- skin smears in pediatric leprosy. A total of 25 cases of leprosy below 16 years of age were included in the study. After detailed history and thorough clinical examination, informed consent was obtained from the parents of children for slit- skin smears from lesion sites for AFB staining and for in situ PCR technique. Cases were clinically categorized according to IAL classification into indeterminate (I), tuberculoid tuberculoid (TT), borderline tuberculoid (BT), borderline borderline (BB), borderline lepromatous (BL) and lepromatous (LL). Most of the patients (76%) were between 9-16 years of age and 64% of the cases had history of contact with leprosy patients within the family. Skin smears were positive for AFB in only 20% of the cases. On applying in situ PCR, it was observed that 62.5% cases of I/TT/BT/BB category and 88.8% of BL/LL category gave positive signals. Overall in situ PCR confirmed the diagnosis in 72% cases while by slit smears diagnosis was confirmed in only 20% of cases. Further, out of 20 skin smear negative cases, 13 were positive by in situ PCR. Specificity of the signals of in situ PCR was established by demonstrating the absence of signals in nonleprosy dermatological conditions of vitiligo and P.alba. This study supports the potential usefulness of in situ PCR on slit- skin smears of early pediatric leprosy cases. This strategy will be especially useful in cases where skin smears are negative and in those cases where skin biopsy can not be done either because of unusual locations of lesions or because of sensitive age of the patients.

  17. The Effect of Smear Layer on Apical Seal of Endodontically Treated Teeth

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    A Farhad

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smear layer on apical seal of endodontically treated teeth. Methods: Sixty extracted single–rooted human teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=25 and two control groups (n=5. The teeth were instrumented with K–type files to size 40 and then flared. Apical patency was ensured in all teeth. 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid was used as irrigants to remove the smear layer in the second experimental group. The experimental groups were obturated by laterally condensed gutta – percha with Roth 801 sealer. The positive control group was obturated with gutta – percha without sealer. The root surfaces were then coated with nail polish and sticky wax except for the apex in the experimental groups and positive control group. The roots were completely covered in the negative control group. The samples were then immersed in India ink for 1 week at 37°C. Results: The statistical analysis of the results showed that the apical leakage was significantly increased in obturated canals with smear layer. Conclusion: The removal of smear layer might improve the long term apical seal and success of endodontically treated teeth. Keywords: Apical Seal, EDTA, Removal, Sodium Hypochlorite, Smear Layer.

  18. Morphometric Analysis in Breast Lesions A Rapid Conjunct to Intraoperative Imprint Smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Marwah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor and leading cause of cancer deaths in women. While fine needle aspiration cytology is highly accurate in the diagnosis of breast lesions, it possesses certain drawbacks. In those circumstancesintraoperative imprint cytology assumes importance, however, imprint cytology is subjected to interpretative errors. Computer image analysis has become an important tool in the pathology laboratory for quantitative morphometric analysis. The purpose of this study was to compare the morphometric values of various breast lesions onintraoperative imprint smears with final histopathological sections.Methods: The study group comprised 30 cases of, borderline(suspicious, and malignant lesions. Intraoperative imprint smears were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and toluidine blue. Morphometry was done on these smears and compared with morphometry on the histopathological sections, followed by statistical correlation. We studied the following five parameters: mean nuclear area, mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear perimeter, feret circle, and nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio.Results: In the current work, all of the studied parameters with the exception of feret circle showed significantly lower values in benign ductal epithelial cells compared to malignant lesions and concentrate on the importance of morphometry as a diagnostictool that could differentiate benign from malignant lesions, especially if it can be employed on imprint smears intraoperatively. Accurate assessment of intraoperative margins by imprint smears using image analysis automation can prevent multiple reexcisionprocedures in breast conservation surgery.

  19. Activation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid by a 940 nm diode laser for enhanced removal of smear layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagemann, Manfred; George, Roy; Chai, Lei; Walsh, Laurence J

    2014-08-01

    Laser enhancement of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) has previously been shown to increase removal of smear layer, for middle-infrared erbium lasers. This study evaluated the efficiency of EDTAC activation using a near-infrared-pulsed 940 nm laser delivered by plain fibre tips into 15% EDTAC or 3% hydrogen peroxide. Root canals in 4 groups of 10 single roots were prepared using rotary files, with controls for the presence and absence of smear layer. After laser treatment (80 mJ pulse(-1) , 50 Hz, 6 cycles of 10 s), roots were split and the apical, middle and coronal thirds of the canal were examined using scanning electron microscopy, with the area of dentine tubules determined by a validated quantitative image analysis method. Lasing EDTAC considerably improved smear layer removal, while lasing into peroxide gave minimal smear layer removal. The laser protocol used was more effective for smear layer removal than the 'gold standard' protocol using EDTAC with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). In addition, lasers may also provide a benefit through photothermal disinfection. Further research is needed to optimise irrigant activation protocols using near-infrared diode lasers of other wavelengths.

  20. Actinomyces-like organisms in the cervical smears of IUCD users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida Jamal; Mohd Salleh Mohd Yasin; Zooraidah Zainal; Hamid Arshat

    1983-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a well-documented complication of IUD use. The presence of tails on the IUDs appears to facilitate ascent of bacteria from the vagina into the uterus. In this study, cervical smears of 128 IUD users were stained by Gram's stain and screened for the presence of Actinomyces-like organisms. 5.5% of the smears were positive for these organisms. Pus was seen in 20.1% of the smears, and yeast cells were seen in 10.2%. The average duration of IUD insertion was 8 months. Smears of 103 controls were negative for Actinomyces-like organisms, pus cells were present in 8.7%, and yeast cells in 4.8%. Of the 7 smears positive for the organisms, only 1 was from the user of a plastic device. All cases included were asymptomatic and were visiting the clinic for routine follow-up. These data suggest that colonization by Actinomyces-like organisms does not appear to be a significant problem in IUD users in Malaysia.

  1. Psammoma bodies and some opportunistic infections detected in cervical smears of women fitted with an IUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, M E; Kirk, R S; De Graaff Guilloud, J C

    1981-07-01

    The incidence of psammoma bodies in cervical smears and of opportunistic infections by actinomyces or ameba is reported in 15,000 patients using IUDs. During the 1972-1978 period, cervical smears from 440,550 women were examined. Of these, 14,980 wore an IUD. 88% of the patients with an IUD were fitted with Multiload Cu250, 8% had Copper T and 4% Lippes Loop. Smears from 7500 patients using oral contraceptives (OCs) and from 7500 patients using no contraception were used as control groups. The smears from the women wearing an IUD were screened and the following were recorded: psammoma bodies, hematoidin crystals, trichomonads, ameba and actinomyces. There were significant differences between IUD users and the control groups in the occurrence of psammoma bodies, ameba and actinomyces but not in trichomonads or hematoidin crystals. Psammoma bodies were found in 1.4% of the cases and actinomyces in 3.7%. Only 1 patient had a transient amebic infestation. The occurrence of psammoma bodies and actinomyces was proportional to duration of IUD use. Most cases were found after 2 years use. The actinomyces were easily identifiable with the Gram stain. The wise course is to make a Gram-stained cervical smear in all women after 2 years of IUD use in order to detect the presence of genital actinomyces.

  2. Conventional Spinal Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients scheduled for clcctive unilateral lower limb surgery. ... the conventional group were turned supine immediately after injection. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen .... Characteristic Type of spinal anaesthcsia P-value.

  3. Conhecimentos, atitudes e prática do exame de Papanicolaou por mulheres, Nordeste do Brasil Conocimientos, actitudes y práctica del examen de Papanicolaou en Noreste Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to Pap test by women, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Veríssimo Fernandes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas das mulheres em relação ao exame citológico de Papanicolaou e a associação entre esses comportamentos e características sociodemográficas MÉTODOS: Inquérito domiciliar com abordagem quantitativa. Foram entrevistadas 267 mulheres com idade de 15 a 69 anos, selecionadas de forma estratificada aleatória, residentes no município de São José do Mipibu, RN, em 2007. Utilizou-se questionário com perguntas pré-codificadas e abertas, cujas respostas foram descritas e analisadas quanto à adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e prática das mulheres em relação ao exame preventivo de Papanicolaou. Foram realizados testes de associação entre as características sociodemográficas e os comportamentos estudados, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Apesar de 46,1% das mulheres entrevistadas terem mostrado conhecimento adequado, proporções de adequação significativamente maiores foram observadas em relação às atitudes e prática quanto ao exame: 63,3% e 64,4%, respectivamente. O maior grau de escolaridade apresentou associação com adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e prática, enquanto as principais barreiras para a realização do exame relatadas foram descuido, falta de solicitação do exame pelo médico e vergonha. CONCLUSÕES: O médico é a principal fonte de informação sobre o exame de Papanicolau. Entretanto, mulheres que vão a consultas com maior freqüência, embora apresentem prática mais adequada do exame, possuem baixa adequação de conhecimento e atitude frente ao procedimento, sugerindo que não estejam recebendo as informações adequadas sobre o objetivo do exame, suas vantagens e benefícios para sua saúde.OBJETIVO: Analizar conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de las mujeres con relación al examen citológico de Papanicolaou y su asociación entre comportamientos y características sociodemográficas. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa domiciliar con

  4. Influence of addition of plasmin or mastitic milk to cheesemilk on quality of smear-ripened cheese

    OpenAIRE

    O'Farrell, Ian P.; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.; Martin G. Wilkinson; Harrington, Dermot; Kelly, Alan L.

    2002-01-01

    peer-reviewed Smear-ripened cheese varieties are characterised by the growth of a smear culture, containing predominantly Brevibacterium linens, on the cheese surface during ripening. In such cheese, considerable zonal differences in biochemistry of ripening exist, due to moisture loss from, and growth and metabolic activity of smear microflora at, the cheese surface. In this study, the effects of adding exogenous plasmin or small amounts of mastitic milk to good quality milk o...

  5. Deletion status of p16 in effusion smear preparation correlates with that of underlying malignant pleural mesothelioma tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Shinji; Hamasaki, Makoto; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Tsujimura, Tohru; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Kamei, Toshiaki; Taguchi, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Akinori; Oda, Yoshinao; Honda, Hiroshi; Nabeshima, Kazuki

    2015-11-01

    Differentiating malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells morphologically from reactive mesothelial hyperplasia cells is problematic. Homozygous deletion (HD) of p16 (CDKN2A), detected by FISH, is a good marker of malignancy and is useful to differentiate between these cells. However, the correlation between the p16 status of effusion smears and that of the underlying MPM tissues has not been investigated. We used p16-specific FISH to investigate 20 cases of MPM from which both effusion cytologic smears and histologic specimens were available. In five cases, histologic specimens included both an invasive component and surface mesothelial proliferation. In 14 cases (70%), MPM cells in both tissue sections and effusion smears were p16 HD-positive. Conversely, MPM cells in the remaining six tumors (30%) were p16 HD-negative in both tissue sections and effusion smears. For all five MPM cases with surface mesothelial proliferations and invasive components, the effusion smears, surface mesothelial proliferations, and invasive MPM components all displayed p16 deletion. Moreover, the extent to which p16 was deleted in smears highly correlated with the extent of p16 deletion in tissues. The p16 deletion percentages were also similar among smears, tissue surface proliferations, and invasive components. In cases with clinical and radiologic evidence of a diffuse pleural tumor, detection of p16 deletion in cytologic smear samples may permit MPM diagnosis without additional tissue examination. However, the absence of p16 deletion in cytologic smear samples does not preclude MPM.

  6. Uniform staining of Cyclospora oocysts in fecal smears by a modified safranin technique with microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvesvara, G S; Moura, H; Kovacs-Nace, E; Wallace, S; Eberhard, M L

    1997-03-01

    Cyclospora, a coccidian protist, is increasingly being identified as an important, newly emerging parasite that causes diarrhea, flatulence, fatigue, and abdominal pain leading to weight loss in immunocompetent persons with or without a recent travel history as well as in patients with AIDS. Modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stain is the most commonly used stain to identify the oocyst of this parasite in fecal smears. Oocysts of Cyclospora stain variably by the modified acid-fast procedure, resulting in the possible misidentification of this parasite. We examined fecal smears stained by six different procedures that included Giemsa, trichrome, chromotrope, Gram-chromotrope, acid-fast, and safranin stains. We report on safranin-based stain that uniformly stains oocysts of Cyclospora a brilliant reddish orange, provided that the fecal smears are heated in a microwave oven prior to staining. This staining procedure, besides being superior to acid-fast staining, is fast, reliable, and easy to perform in most clinical laboratories.

  7. Rapid Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Adults Using Acridine Orange Stained Buffy Coat Smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Miller

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of acridine orange stained buffy coat smears was assessed as a rapid screening test for bacteremia in adults. A total of 356 consecutive blood cultures were submitted with simultaneous anticoagulated blood samples, from which a buffy coat smear was prepared and stained with acridine orange (100 mg/L; pH 3.0. Forty-one of 356 blood samples (12% yielded organisms in the blood culture system. Compared to blood culture, the overall sensitivity of acridine orange stained buffy coat smears was 16%, specificity 88%, and positive predictive value 13%. There was no statistically significant difference in performance of the test among patients who had fever greater than 39°C and/or shock. The low sensitivity and specificity of the test makes it unsuitable as a means of rapid screening for adults with suspected bacteremia.

  8. Ectoine as a natural component of food: detection in red smear cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Julia; Schwarz, Thomas; Lentzen, Georg

    2007-11-01

    Ectoine is a compatible solute accumulated in halophilic bacteria in response to high salt concentrations and offers protection from osmotic stress. The occurrence of compatible solutes is widespread among bacteria, yet ectoine has never been detected in foods. The use of an ectoine producing microorganism (Brevibacterium linens) in the surface ripening of red smear cheeses led to the question whether ectoine can be found in cheese. Therefore we examined samples from a variety of cheese manufacturers and different types of red smear cheeses for the presence of ectoine using HPLC and HPLC/MS analysis. Ectoine solely appears in the rind and was detected up to 178 mg/200 g red smear cheese, depending on several factors like ripening status and conditions throughout the cheese production process (e.g. salt concentrations of used brine baths).

  9. Investigations of significance of blood smear results in diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs

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    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasingly rarely in clinical practice, due to the development of other methods for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs, as well as the lack of knowledge of the morphology of the numerous causes that can be present in the blood, we carried out an investigation into the presence and spread of infections whose causes can be present in dog blood. The investigations covered 100 dogs from which peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained with a Giemsa solution according to the standard protocol and examined under a microscope with an immersion lens. The examination of peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa resulted in the identification of the presence of an Ehrlichia spp. morula in a neutrophil granulocyte in one dog. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas was established in erythrocytes of eleven dogs, while the presence of the protozoa Babesia canis in erythrocytes was identified in five dogs included in the investigations. A microscopic examination of dog peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa was shown as a speedy, practical, simple, and inexpensive method for making a definitive etiological diagnosis of these infections, and it should be included regularly in standard protocols for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases.

  10. Clinical performance of hybrid capture 2 human papillomavirus testing for recurrent high-grade cervical/vaginal intraepithelial neoplasm in patients with an ASC-US Papanicolaou test result during long-term posttherapy follow-up monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vivar, Andrea Diaz; Dawlett, Marilyn; Wang, Jian-Ping; Jack, Annie; Gong, Yun; Staerkel, Gregg; Guo, Ming

    2015-02-01

    Women who have been treated for high-grade cervical or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN or VAIN) or invasive carcinoma are at risk for recurrent/persistent disease and require long-term monitoring. The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in this setting is unclear. To evaluate the clinical performance of the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) HPV test for recurrent/residual high-grade CIN or VAIN in patients with a posttherapy abnormal squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) Papanicolaou test result. We reviewed the follow-up data on 100 patients who had an ASC-US Papanicolaou test and HC2 HPV results after treatment for high-grade CIN/VAIN or carcinoma. Human papillomavirus genotyping was performed for women with a negative HC2 result whose follow-up biopsy revealed CIN/VAIN 2+. The patients' mean age was 47 years. The HC2 test result was positive in 33% of the patients. Follow-up biopsy was available for 17 of these patients (52%) and for 25 of the 67 patients (37%) with a negative HC2 result. A total of 5 of the patients (29%) with a positive HC2 result and 2 of the patients (8%) with a negative HC2 result had CIN/VAIN 3 on follow-up biopsy, a statistically insignificant difference (P = .10). Human papillomavirus 16/18 genotypes were detected in the CIN/VAIN 2+ lesions of 5 patients with a negative HC2 result. HC2 yielded a false-negative rate of 8% for CIN 3. HC2 testing therefore may not be sufficient for triage of patients with an ASC-US Papanicolaou test result. Patients with ASC-US during long-term posttherapy follow-up need close monitoring, with colposcopic evaluation if clinically indicated.

  11. Awareness and practice of cervical cancer and Pap smear testing in a teaching hospital in Tehran

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    Mansoureh Ghaoomi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is known to be preventable because of long period of pre-invasive stage, availability of screening tools, and effective treatments for early invasive cervical lesions. Screening is main measures to prevent the disease and Pap smear is a screening strategy for cervical cancer. Current paper aimed to evaluate levels of awareness and practice regarding Pap smear screening among women aged between 20 to 65 years in Tehran (Iran. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study conducted in Tehran City of Iran in 2015 at Firoozgar Hospital. The research population included all married, widowed and divorced women aged 20-65 years. Data analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation and Student’s t-tests in SPSS, ver. 23 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: Among 90 individuals who have fill questionnaire completely, 66.6% subjects had Pap smear tests. 40% of the individuals aged between 30 to 39 and the education level is distributed equally between Intermediate, Diploma and graduate and only 3 percent of them, continue their education to higher level. There was a significant relationship between the awareness of Pap smear and educational level (of both wives and husbands. The people who have graduate degree, have the best awareness. Working women revealed higher level of awareness about Pap smear. Shame and fear of taking the cancer were the most common reasons which lead to avoidance in doing the test by the women, while the most encouraging factors for performing the test were the information mostly provided by physicians and after that, the information provided by friends. Conclusion: The awareness of Pap smear test which was measured by weighting different questions in the questionnaire by experts, prove that the women aged above 39, have an average level of awareness of Pap smear test. Due to high prevalence of cervical cancer and prolonged pre invasive course, role of Pap smear for early diagnosis necessitate the use

  12. Immunohistochemical staining of human sperm cells in smears from sexual assault cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence....... Not only does it often contain enough DNA for DNA profiling, but it also strongly indicates that an actual sexual act has taken place. The examination of smear slides obtained in sexual assault cases is a time-consuming task especially for the less trained and in cases where the smear only contains few...

  13. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve......In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier...

  14. A General Class of Regular Black Holes based on a Smeared Mass Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Larranaga, Alexis; Torres, Daniel Alexdy

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of a new class of regular black holes based on a non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution. It is shown that the smeared mass distribution consideration cures the well known problems in the terminal phase of black hole evaporation. We find that there is a finite maximum temperature that the black hole reaches before cooling down to absolute zero so that the evaporation ends up in a zero temperature extremal black hole. Finally, we probe the regular characteristic of the new black holes by showing that there is no curvature singularity at the origin.

  15. Human papillomavirus (HPV detection and Papanicolaou cytology in low-resource women in Posadas city, Misiones, Argentina Detección del virus papiloma humano (HPV y citología de Papanicolaou en mujeres de bajos recursos de la ciudad de Posadas, Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Badano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV infection and cervical lesions present in women who attended a health center in a low-resource area of the city of Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. Cervical cell samples (n = 163 were processed for Papanicolaou cytology and HPV-PCR tests. Socio-cultural risk factors were estimated using the odds ratio (OR, CI 95 %. Cervical lesions were detected in 14.7 % of women. The general prevalence of HPV infection was of 38 %. The most common types among the total population were HPV-16 (9.8 % and HPV-33 (9.3 %. HPV-16 was detected in association with 29.2 % and 6.5 % of women with and without cervical lesions, respectively, the OR being 5.3 (1.8-15.8. Risk factors for HPV-16 infection were a smoking habit and a history of previous sexually-transmitted diseases. These data are important for the implementation of prevention programs, including an appropriate introduction of vaccination and the baseline for virological surveillance in the vaccine era.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de la infección por HPV y de lesiones cervicales en mujeres asistidas en un centro de salud situado en un área de bajos recursos de la ciudad de Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. Las muestras (n = 163 fueron examinadas mediante las pruebas de Papanicolaou y de PCR para HPV. Los factores socio-culturales de riesgo fueron identifcados mediante el cálculo de la odds ratio (OR, IC 95 %. Se detectaron lesiones cervicales en el 14,7 % de las mujeres. La prevalencia de infección por HPV fue de 38 %. Los tipos más frecuentes en la población total fueron HPV-16 (9,8 % y HPV-33 (9,3 %. El HPV-16 se detectó asociado al 29,2 % y al 6,5 % de las mujeres con lesiones del cuello uterino y sin ellas, respectivamente, con un OR de 5,3 (1,8-15,8. Los factores de riesgo para la infección por HPV-16 fueron el hábito de fumar y el antecedente de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Estos datos son

  16. ¿POR QUÉ LAS MUJERES NO SE TOMAN EL PAPANICOLAOU? RESPUESTAS ENTREGADAS POR LOS PROFESIONALES DEL PROGRAMA CÁNCER CERVICOUTERINO- AUGE DEL SERVICIO DE SALUD METROPOLITANO SUR ORIENTE

    OpenAIRE

    Urrutia S,María Teresa; Araya G,Alejandra; Poupin B,Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Antecedentes: Los beneficios del test de Papanicolaou (Pap) en reducir la mortalidad de cáncer cervicouterino han sido bien documentados a nivel mundial y nacional. Sin embargo, aún persisten mujeres que no se realizan el Pap rutinariamente. Objetivo: Conocer la percepción que tienen los profesionales de la salud en relación a las causas por las cuales las mujeres no se toman la prueba del Pap. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal, con una muestra de 59 profesionales del Servicio de Salud ...

  17. Comparison of Direct and Concentrated Acid-Fast Smears To Identify Specimens Culture Positive for Mycobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ellena M.; Nakasone, Audrey; Platon-DeLeon, J. M.; Jang, Y.; de la Maza, Luis M.; Desmond, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Microscopic examination of respiratory specimens for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) plays a key role in the initial diagnosis of tuberculosis, monitoring of treatment, and determination of eligibility for release from isolation. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity obtained with smears for detection of AFB (AFB smears) made directly from respiratory specimens (direct AFB smears) to that obtained with parallel smears made from concentrates of the specimens (concentrated AFB smears). A total of 2,693 specimens were evaluated; 1,806 were from the University of California Irvine Medical Center Medical Microbiology Laboratory (UCIMC), which serves a tertiary-care hospital with outpatient clinics, and 887 were from the Microbial Disease Laboratory at the California Department of Public Health (MDL), which receives specimens from outpatient facilities and clinics on Pacific islands. Of the 353 AFB culture-positive specimens at UCIMC, there was a statistically significant difference in the sensitivity of the direct AFB smear (34%) and that of the smear made from the concentrated specimen (58%) (P < 0.05). This was also true for the 208 specimens positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for which the sensitivity of the direct smear was 42% (87 of 208) and that for the smear made from the concentrated specimen was 74% (154 of 208). At MDL, where all but 1 of the 45 culture-positive specimens grew M. tuberculosis, the sensitivity of the smear made from the concentrated specimen was 93% (42 of 45) and was not significantly higher than the sensitivity of the direct smear, which was 82% (37 of 45). By combining the results from both laboratories, 42 patients from whom at least three specimens were received were culture positive for M. tuberculosis. The cumulative results for the initial three specimens from these patients showed that the direct smear detected M. tuberculosis in 81% of these patients, whereas the smear made from the concentrate detected M

  18. Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis Recurrence in the Setting of Negative Splenic Smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Golam; Basher, Ariful; Nath, Proggananda; Ghosh, Prakash; Hossain, Faria; Hossain, Shakhawat; Mondal, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    This report presents two cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) recurrence where the microscopy of the splenic smear failed in diagnosis. However, a strong clinical suspicion compelled further evaluation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which validated the etiology. This short report highlights the usefulness of PCR in diagnosing cases of suspected smear-negative VL recurrence.

  19. Erythrocyte Features for Malaria Parasite Detection in Microscopic Images of Thin Blood Smear: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Shuleenda Devi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic image analysis of blood smear plays a very important role in characterization of erythrocytes in screening of malaria parasites. The characteristics feature of erythrocyte changes due to malaria parasite infection. The microscopic features of the erythrocyte include morphology, intensity and texture. In this paper, the different features used to differentiate the non- infected and malaria infected erythrocyte have been reviewed.

  20. Surface micro-distributions of pigment and the relation between smearing and local mass distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, K. E-mail: karin.bulow@nuclear.lu.se; Kristiansson, P.; Larsson, T.; Malmberg, S.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A

    2001-07-01

    In this work, the process of smearing and its time evolution have been investigated. When smearing occurs, the print is removed from the printed paper and colours other parts of the paper or the printing press and destroys the final product. To study the re-distribution of ink, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer in the coloured pigment has been used. Non-printed paper has been pressed against the paper, 1 and 5 s after the printing. The micro-distributions of ink on both printed and non-printed papers have then been studied using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Basis weight was measured with the off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) technique and this data was correlated with the data from the print. One conclusion is that the process of smearing is not dependent on the shape of the pigment distribution, i.e. copper, or the content of copper in a specific pixel. On the contrary, the smearing was found to be related to the structure of the paper and that it mainly occurs where the paper is thicker.

  1. Evaluation of sputum smear microscopy in the National Tuberculosis Control Programme in the north of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. Huong; B.D. Duong; N.N. Linh; L.N. Van; N.V. Co; J.F. Broekmans; F.G.J. Cobelens; M.W. Borgdorff

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the yield of sputum smear microscopy and sex differences in the National Tuberculosis Control Programme in the north of Vietnam. METHODS: Review of registers of 30 randomly selected laboratories (26 district, 4 provincial level). RESULTS: The average daily workload per technicia

  2. A STUDY ON CERVICAL PAP SMEAR EXAMINATION IN PATIENT LIVING WITH HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Jha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decline in morbidity & mortality due to cervical cancer in developed countries can be mainly attributed to early detection of precancerous & cancerous lesions due to extensive screening programmeof cervical Pap smear examination. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & cancerous lesions as well as inflammatory lesions in female patients living with HIV & to emphasize the fact that Pap smear examination should be established as a part of routine protocol for examination in these women. Methods: The study was carried out on 407 HIV infected females attending Integrated Counseling &Testing Centre of government institute. As controls, 200 females (not falling under high risk category, attending the Obstetrics& Gynecology OPD with various gynecological complaints were taken & results were compared. Results: Squamous cell abnormalities were found about four times high as compared to control group(Pvalue <0.05. High incidences of squamous cell abnormalities were noted in patients with high parity (parity three or more. Conlcusion: Regular gynecological examination including Pap smear examinations is highly recommended for HIV infected females.Pap smear examination is a simple, cheap, safe & practical diagnostic tool for early detection of cervical cancer in high risk population. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 81-84

  3. Comparison of diagnostic methods in cutaneous Leishmaniasis (histopathology compared to skin smears).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazozai, Sanaullah; Iqbal, Javeid; Bukhari, Ishrat; Bashir, Sajid

    2010-10-01

    Present study is carried out to compare laboratory diagnostic methods of Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) for the outdoor patients of Bolan Medical College Complex Hospital, Quetta, Balochistan. From November 2005 to December 2007, three hundred cases of CL patients were selected without restriction of age and sex. The lesions were divided into two groups. Early with duration less than 2 months and late duration between 2 to 4 months and were noted as nodules, plaques, ulcers and scarring (in case of relapses). Skin smears were taken on first visit of the patients, followed by skin biopsy for histopathological examination. Result showed that out of 300 cases 163 (54.33%) were positive smears for Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies and 137 (45.67%) were negative smears for LD bodies.. While histological examination of all 300 cases showed that only 83 (27.66%) cases were negative for (LD) bodies and no granuloma seen, except with evidence of acute and chronic inflammation. Further analysis of histological observations of positive cases (72.34%) revealed that 91(30.33%) cases had LD bodies,, 78 (26%) cases had only necrotic sloughs showing polymorph neutrophilic infiltration, and 48(16%) cases were having granulomas composed of, epithelioid cells Langhan's type of giant cells and lymphocytes. It is therefore concluded that histopathological examination as compared to skin smears method is more sensitive method for diagnosis of CL.

  4. Reactivation of inactive X chromosome in buccal smear of carcinoma of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natekar Prashant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal mucosal smears of 100 female patients of carcinoma of breast were compared with 100 controls matched accordingly. The frequency of Barr bodies was significantly lower in carcinoma of breast patients (menstruating and menopausal women P < 0.001 when compared with controls indicating reactivation of the inactive X chromosome.

  5. Pap smear brochures, misogyny and language: a discourse analysis and feminist critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, V; Lawler, J

    1997-12-01

    Text from a public health brochure on pap smears was analysed with particular reference to ways in which the language used conveys particular messages about women and their bodies. In the text, 'humans' were found to be excluded as such. Both the pap smear service provider and the women who are the recipients of this service--and at whom such brochures are targeted--are objectified and their characteristics of human existence (i.e. ontological capacities) were restricted. The language of the pamphlet invokes an image for women associated with vaginal (penile penetrative) sex. The discourse also is found to be didactic, biomedical and written in the voice of the service provider. Further, the encounter of pap smear events is contextualized as procedural such that not only is the woman 'done to' in the process of having a cervical smear test but the woman's and provider's experiences of the encounter are silenced. It is concluded that the texts may be viewed as misogynist and that such texts do not take account of the complexity of women's decisions to 'submit to' or comply with cervical cancer screening.

  6. What is your diagnosis? Blood smear from an injured red-tailed hawk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Jennifer L; Luff, Jennifer A; Shooshtari, Mahrokh P; Zehnder, Ashley M; Borjesson, Dori L

    2009-06-01

    An injured juvenile red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis. The hawk was quiet, alert, and emaciated, and had a closed comminuted, mid-diaphyseal ulnar fracture. CBC results included heterophilia with a left shift, monocytosis, and increased plasma fibrinogen concentration. The blood smear included rare heterophils containing small, dark blue inclusions approximately 1-2 mum in diameter that ranged from round to coccobacillary in shape and formed variably shaped aggregates; the morphology of the inclusions was suspicious for Chlamydophila or Ehrlichia spp. pathogens. The hawk died, and histopathologic examination of tissues obtained at necropsy found severe multifocal histiocytic and heterophilic splenitis in addition to chronic hepatitis, myocarditis and epicarditis, meningoencephalitis, and airsacculitis. Using immunohistochemistry the presence of Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen within multiple tissues was confirmed. Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was demonstrated in whole blood and fresh splenic tissue via real-time PCR. Direct fluorescent antibody staining of air-dried blood smears was positive in rare leukocytes for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen, and immunocytochemical staining of blood smears for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen was focally positive in rare heterophils. These findings may represent the first reported diagnosis of natural avian C. psittaci infection by visualization of organisms in peripheral blood heterophils. Immunocytochemical evaluation of blood smears was valuable in confirming the diagnosis and may be a useful antemortem test to discriminate between bacteria and other inclusions within heterophils.

  7. Ontology-based Malaria Parasite Stage and Species Identification from Peripheral Blood Smear Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkapati, V.; Rao, R.

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of malaria infection requires detectingthe presence of malaria parasite in the patient as well as identification of the parasite species. We present an image processing-basedapproach to detect parasites in microscope images of blood smear andan ontology-based classificati

  8. Effect of phytic acid used as etchant on bond strength, smear layer, and pulpal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Mohannad; Hiraishi, Noriko; Islam, Md Sofiqul; Aizawa, Mamoru; Tamura, Yukihiko; Otsuki, Masayuki; Kasugai, Shohei; Ohya, Keiichi; Tagami, Junji

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phytic acid (IP6), used as etchant, on resin-dentin bond strength, smear layer removal, and the viability of pulpal cells. Flat dentin surfaces with smear layer were etched with 1% IP6 for 60, 30, or 15 s; in the control group 37% phosphoric acid (PA) was used. Dentin surfaces were rinsed, blot-dried, and bonded with an etch-and-rinse adhesive, followed by composite build-ups. The specimens were subjected to tensile testing after 24 h of water storage at 37°C, and failure modes were determined using scanning electron microscopy. The effectiveness of IP6 to remove the smear layer was observed using scanning electron microscopy. To evaluate the effect on pulpal cells, solutions of 0.1 and 0.01% IP6 and of 3.7 and 0.37% PA were prepared and rat pulpal cells were treated with these solutions for 6 and 24 h. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results demonstrated that all application times of IP6 produced bond-strength values that were significantly higher than that of the control. Phytic acid effectively removed the smear layer and plugs, thus exposing the collagen network. Phytic acid had a minimal effect on pulpal cells, whereas PA resulted in a marked decrease in their viability.

  9. What do women think about abnormal smear test results? A qualitative interview study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Schijf, C.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study is a report of Dutch women's views on abnormal cervical smear test results and the consequences thereof. Twenty-seven women with recent PAP III in their history were interviewed in the context of this qualitative study. GPs often do not inform patients beforehand about the ways

  10. The effect of EDTA with and without ultrasonics on removal of the smear layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuah, Hong-Guan; Lui, Jeen-Nee; Tseng, Patrick S K; Chen, Nah-Nah

    2009-03-01

    This study evaluated in vitro effectiveness of 17% EDTA with and without ultrasonics on smear layer removal. One hundred and five extracted premolars randomly divided into seven groups were instrumented with different final irrigating protocols: group A (Sal3US), saline for 3 minutes with ultrasonics; groups B (Na3) and C (Na3US), 1% sodium hypochlorite for 3 minutes without and with ultrasonics, respectively; groups D (ED3) and E (ED3US), 17% EDTA for 3 minutes without and with ultrasonics, respectively; and groups F (ED1) and G (ED1US), 17% EDTA for 1 minute without and with ultrasonics, respectively. Specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope and scored for smear layer and debris removal. Statistical analysis showed that groups with EDTA and ultrasonic irrigation, groups E (ED3US) and G (ED1US), had significantly more specimens with complete smear layer and debris removal. There was no significant difference between groups E (ED3US) and G (ED1US). A 1-minute application of combined use of EDTA and ultrasonics is efficient for smear layer and debris removal in the apical region of the root canal.

  11. Cytological profile of Pap smears in a tertiary care hospital of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Bhaduri Bhattacharyya

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Majority of the cases cervical cytology were reported to be without any epithelial cell abnormality followed by LSIL. Age and religion were significantly associated with the abnormality of smears. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(12.000: 4397-4400

  12. Autoinducer-2 activity produced by bacteria found in smear of surface ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh; Purrotti, Micol

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial strains of the species Arthrobacter nicotianae, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens, all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses, were found to possess autoinducer-2 (...... increased by dairy-relevant stress conditions, indicates that AI-2 signalling might be important in regulation of microbial succession during ripening of surface ripened cheeses....

  13. Actinomyces-like organisms in cervical smears: the association with intrauterine device and pelvic inflammatory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeo Joo; Youm, Jina; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of actinomyces-like organisms in routine cervical smears of Korean women and to evaluate its association with the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in these women. Methods The results of cervical smears between 2011 and 2012 at a single university hospital were searched. If positive for actinomyces-like organisms, the medical record of the patient was searched and development of PID was followed. If the data were not available in the medical record, the patient was contacted by telephone. Results The incidence of actinomyces-like organisms in cervical smears was 0.26% (52/20,390). Forty-two women (80.8%) were intrauterine device (IUD) users: the copper-IUD in 25 women and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in 13 women (type unknown in 4 women). The majority (71.4%, 30/42) of the IUD users maintained the IUD. Prophylactic antibiotics were prescribed to 12 women. Two continuous IUD users were later diagnosed with PID, but these cases were not pelvic actinomycosis. Conclusion It would be a reasonable option to choose the expectant management for asymptomatic women who incidentally showed actinomyces-like organisms in their cervical smear. PMID:25264530

  14. A SEMI - AUTOMATED MORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF NUCLEI IN PAP SMEARS USING IMAGEJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayashree

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carcinoma of cervix is the fourth commonest malignancy in women. Its incidence is progressively falling due to the routine use of Pap smears to detect precancerous lesions. However, routine Pap smear examination is time consuming and, as it is based on de scriptive morphological assessment, false positive or negative reports are likely to occur. Using morphometric techniques, several attempts have been made to improve the accuracy of reports. In the present study, we have used Image morphometric software an d some of its plugins to create a macro to analyse large number of cells at a time . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using Image and three of its plugins, namely, BEEPS, Kuwahara filter and Mexican Hat filter, we created a macro to morphometrically analyse normal, r eactive and neoplastic Pap smears. We also compared the macro measurements with manual measurements. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Results obtained with macro showed strong positive correlation with manual measurement. Although the neoplastic nuclei were on an average larger than reactive/normal nuclei, there was considerable overlap. More than the enlargement, anisonucleosis (variability in the size appeared to be a better indicator of neoplasia. The macro that we developed works rapidly and gives results comp arable to manual measurements provided the smears and the photographs are technically acceptable.

  15. Atypical endometrial cells and atypical glandular cells favor endometrial origin in Papanicolaou cervicovaginal tests: Correlation with histologic follow-up and abnormal clinical presentations

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    Longwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2001 Bethesda system recommends further classifying atypical glandular cells (AGCs as either endocervical or endometrial origin. Numerous studies have investigated the clinical significance of AGC. In this study, we investigated the incidence of clinically significant lesions among women with liquid-based Papanicolaou cervicovaginal (Pap interpretations of atypical endometrial cells (AEMs or AGC favor endometrial origin (AGC-EM. More importantly, we correlated patients of AEM or AGC-EM with their clinical presentations to determine if AEM/AGC-EM combined with abnormal vaginal bleeding is associated with a higher incidence of significant endometrial pathology. All liquid-based Pap tests with an interpretation of AEM and AGC-EM from July, 2004 through June, 2009 were retrieved from the database. Women with an interpretation of atypical endocervical cells, AGC, favor endocervical origin or AGC, favor neoplastic were not included in the study. The most severe subsequent histologic diagnoses were recorded for each patient. During this 5-year period, we accessioned 332,470 Pap tests of which 169 (0.05% were interpreted as either AEM or AGC-EM. Of the 169 patients, 133 had histologic follow-up within the health care system. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 71 years old (mean 49.7. On follow-up histology, 27 (20.3% had neoplastic/preneoplastic uterine lesions. Among them, 20 patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (18 endometrial, 1 endocervical, and 1 metastatic colorectal, 3 with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 4 with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All patients with significant endometrial pathology, except one, were over 40 years old, and 22 of 25 patients reported abnormal vaginal bleeding at the time of endometrial biopsy or curettage. This study represents a large series of women with liquid-based Pap test interpretations of AEM and AGC-EM with clinical follow-up. Significant preneoplastic or neoplastic endometrial

  16. Papanicolaou test in the detection of high-grade cervical lesions: a re-evaluation based on cytohistologic non-correlation rates in 356 concurrently obtained samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carns, Bhavini; Fadare, Oluwole

    2008-01-01

    Studies evaluating the routine Papanicolaou (Pap) test have traditionally used as the reference gold standard, the diagnoses on the follow-up histologic samples. Since the latter are typically obtained days to weeks after the Pap test, the accuracy of the resultant comparison may be affected by interim factors, such as regression of human papillomavirus, new lesion acquisitions or colposcopy-associated variability. A subset of our clinicians have routinely obtained cervical cytology samples immediately prior to their colposcopic procedures, which presented a unique opportunity to re-evaluate the test performance of liquid-based cervical cytology in detecting the most clinically significant lesions (i.e. cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse: CIN2+), using as gold standard, diagnoses on cervical biopsies that were essentially obtained simultaneously. For each patient, cytohistologic non-correlation between the Pap test and biopsy was considered to be present when either modality displayed a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL)/CIN2+ while the other displayed a less severe lesion. Therefore, HGSIL/CIN2+ was present in both the Pap test and biopsy in true positives, and absent in both modalities in true negatives. In false positives, the Pap test showed HGSIL while the biopsy showed less than a CIN2+. In false negatives, Pap tests displaying less than a HGSIL were associated with biopsies displaying CIN2+. Combinations associated with "atypical" interpretations were excluded. A cytohistologic non-correlation was present in 17 (4.8%) of the 356 combinations reviewed. The non-correlation was attributed, by virtue of having the less severe interpretation, to the Pap test in all 17 cases. There were 17, 322, 0, and 17 true positives, true negatives, false positives and false negatives respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the Pap test, at a diagnostic threshold of HGSIL, in identifying

  17. The low risk of precancer after a screening result of human papillomavirus-negative/atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance papanicolaou and implications for clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Behrens, Catherine; Sharma, Abha; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Cuzick, Jack; Yang, Zi Hua; Kinney, Walter K

    2014-11-01

    Different US practice guidelines have conflicting recommendations for when women should return after a screening result of human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative with an equivocal Papanicolaou (Pap) result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) (ie, return in either 3 or 5 years). One way to determine management is to compare the risk of precancer/cancer after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result with the risks after other negative screening results. For example, if the risk after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result was similar to the risk after a negative Pap test, a 3-year return would be preferred because guidelines agree that women with negative Pap test results should return in 3 years. Alternatively, if the risk after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result is similar to that after a cotest-negative result (HPV negative/Pap test negative), a 5-year return would be preferred because guidelines agree that women testing cotest negative should return in 5 years. The authors compared risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 3 or higher (CIN3+) and cervical cancer among women aged 30 years to 64 years at Kaiser Permanente Northern California with the following test results from 2003 through 2012: 17,191 women testing HPV negative/ASC-US; 980,268 women testing Pap test negative (regardless of HPV result); and 892,882 women testing cotest negative. The 5-year CIN3+ and cancer risks after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result were closer to the risks after a negative Pap test result (CIN3+: 0.48% vs 0.31% [P =.0019]; and cancer: 0.043% vs 0.031% [P =.4]) than after a negative cotest (CIN3+: 0.48% vs 0.11% [Presults, suggesting that women testing HPV negative/ASC-US should be managed similarly to women testing negative on Pap tests with a 3-year return for screening. © 2014 American Cancer Society. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Distribution of human papillomavirus types in ThinPrep Papanicolaou tests classified according to the Bethesda 2001 terminology and correlations with patient age and biopsy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark F; Adamson, Christine S-C; Papillo, Jacalyn L; St John, Timothy L; Leiman, Gladwyn; Cooper, Kumarasen

    2006-03-01

    A survey of the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types across the spectrum of cervical cytologic categories defined by the Bethesda 2001 guidelines was conducted with the objective of examining how HPV detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis may benefit the management of patients who have abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) test results. DNA samples from women with no intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NLM) (n = 300 samples); atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) (n = 200 samples); low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (n = 200 samples); atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) (n = 200 samples); and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (n = 200 samples) were tested for HPV using a modified general primer (GP)5+/GP6+ PCR assay and dot-blot hybridization with type-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR assay analytical sensitivity: 1-100 copies of HPV, depending on the HPV type, in a background of 100 ng human DNA). HPV was detected in 27% of NLM samples, in 89.5% of ASC-US samples, in 97.5% of LSIL samples, in 93% of ASC-H samples, and in 96.5% of HSIL samples. Thirty-seven different HPV types were identified in total. One or more of 13 high-risk (HR) HPV types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68) were detected in 53% of samples that were diagnosed as ASC-US (59.0% of patients younger than age 30 yrs; 45.5% of patients age 30 yrs and older), in 55.5% of samples that were diagnosed as LSIL (60.0% of patients younger than age 30 yrs; 44.0% of patients age 30 yrs and older), in 80% of samples that were diagnosed as ASC-H, and in 87.5% of samples that were diagnosed as HSIL (P biopsy data were obtained for 359 patients. A "benign" biopsy result was recorded for 47 of 64 women (73.5%) with ASC-US, 30 of 66 women (45.5%) with LSIL, 39 of 87 women (45.0%) with ASC-H, and 26 of 142 women (18.0%) with HSIL and was most common in women age

  19. Preliminary study of differentiating smears from cancerous and non-cancerous nasopharyngeal tissue using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqing; Xu, Zhihong; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shanshan; Lin, Xinheng; Zhu, Fengyu; Liu, Nengrong; Huang, Meizhen; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2016-04-01

    Current practice for diagnosing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is based on invasive tissue biopsy. This study aims to explore the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy to differentiate cancerous and non-cancerous nasopharyngeal tissue smears, expecting to realize minimal invasive diagnosis using smears from in vivo mucosa tissue by Raman spectroscopy. Biopsy tissue smears were acquired from 74 patients with pathologically diagnosed nasopharyngeal diseases and measured using confocal Raman spectroscopy. Both fingerprint region and high wavenumber Raman spectra were acquired with distinguish features. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to differentiate cancerous and non-cancerous groups, achieving a diagnostic sensitivity of 87.2 and specificity of 85.7 % for differentiating NPC from nasopharyngeal non-cancerous smears. This work indicates that the method has a unique advantage in microanalysis for tissue smears which may provide a promising minimal invasive (or noninvasive) diagnosing tool for cancer diagnosis.

  20. [Coverage of Pap smear tests in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Deise Karine; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Luz, Anna Maria Hecker; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2008-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to verify the coverage of Pap smear tests and associated factors in a cluster sample of women 20 to 60 years of age in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Two outcomes were analyzed: Pap smear in the previous three years and Pap smear never performed. Among 867 women, 741 (85.5%; 95%CI: 83.1-87.8) had a Pap smear in the previous three years, 60 (6.9%; 95%CI: 5.2-8.6) were late with the test, and 66 (7.6%; 95%CI: 5.8-9.4) had never done a Pap smear. Poisson regression showed significant association with: income, age, skin color, and marital status. Although coverage was high, risk factors for uterine cervical cancer were not associated with performing the test.

  1. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

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    Baneet Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4. The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The prevalence of GCA in Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears.

  2. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Baneet; Gupta, Parikshaa; Gupta, Nalini; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Suri, Vanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year) were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA) during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4). The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of GCA in Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears. PMID:27014363

  3. Refining peripheral blood smear review rules for neonatal inpatients in a South African academic laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J; Alli, N; Mannaru, K; Sedick, Q

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral blood smear review (PBSR) is a labour-intensive test, and skilled morphologists are in short supply. It is therefore helpful for laboratories to establish rules for PBSR to improve laboratory efficiency. Previously published guidelines in this regard are useful, but make few recommendations specific to neonates. Neonatal blood is characterized by several peculiarities which would be considered pathological if present in adults. Consequently, smear review rules (SRR) are often triggered in neonates without significant value being added on review. This study aimed to assess and fine-tune the SRR triggered in neonatal samples in order to improve laboratory efficiency. Full blood counts collected from 188 neonatal inpatients of the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in South Africa were retrospectively reviewed, the triggered rules documented, and the value added on PBSR determined. Smear review rules were triggered in 148 (78.7%) samples, with significant morphological abnormalities identified in 84 (54.4%), and a false-positive rate of 34.0%. In patients with unhelpful review, the commonest rules triggered were the flags querying the presence of abnormal lymphocytes, blasts or nucleated red blood cells. When one or more of these flags were triggered in the absence of any other SRR, PBSR was always noncontributory. Disregarding these flags in the current cohort would reduce both the review and the false-positive rates by >20% without increasing the false-negative rate. False-positive smear review is common in neonates, and minor modifications to SRR can substantially reduce the smear review rate without increasing the false-negative rate. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Micronuclei as prognostic indicators in oral cytological smears: A comparison between smokers and non-smokers

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    Venkatesh Vishwanath Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronucleus is a microscopically visible round or oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass in the extra nuclear vicinity, originated from aberrant mitosis, which consists of eccentric chromosomes that have failed to reach spindle poles during mitosis and are used as biomarkers for assessment of DNA damage. Micronuclei are characteristically seen in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa and urinary bladder wall in precancerous and cancerous conditions. Oral habits of smoking tobacco or chewing areca nut damage the oral tissues. An assessment of the damage is feasible by the detection of micronuclei in exfoliated cells of the oral tissues using smears. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the presence or increase of micronuclei in buccal smears of individuals with tobacco habits against a control group of teetotalers. Materials and Methods: Two groups (smokers and non-smokers of 50 individuals each were examined. Buccal smears of all participants were taken using cytobrush and stained with standard Papanicolaou′s (PAP stain. Presence of micronuclei was assessed under Χ100 magnification and a count per 500 cells was determined. The results were analyzed statistically using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Smears of individuals with tobacco habits showed a significant increase in the total number of micronuclei per 500 cell counts. There was a definite correlation between the occurrence of micronuclei and the frequency and duration of smoking. A paradoxical age related increase in middle-aged groups was also observed. Conclusions: The genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke cause chromosomal damage in the epithelial cells of the oral mucosa and are reflected in the increased micronuclei in smokers. This is present even in the absence of clinically evident changes. This observation is vital in utilization of the micronuclei detection in smears as a prognostic, educational and interventional tool in the management of patients

  5. Efficiency of final irrigation of root canal in removal of smear layer

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    Mitić Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A smear layer forms on the root canal walls as the consequence of root instrumentation. The smear layer formed in such a way considerably influences the quality of root obturation and endodontic treatment outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine after removal of the smear layer by the solution of doxycycline, citric acid and detergent Tween-80 (MTAD. Methods The study involved 60 single-rooted, extracted, human teeth divided into four groups. All samples were instrumented by a step-back technique and manual K-files, and rinsed during instrumentation by 2% CHX and H2O2. The first group of samples was exclusively rinsed by CHX and H2O2; in the second group, besides using CHX and H2O2, MTAD solution was used for the final irrigation. The samples which were rinsed by distilled water (+ control and the samples rinsed by 5.25% NaOCl and 17% Na EDTA (-control served as control groups. All samples were observed under the scanning electronic microscope JEOL-JSM-5300. The coronary, middle and apex thirds of the radix region were analyzed. Results The obtained results of the SEM analysis showed that the application of 2% chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide did not give clear dentine walls, and the smear layer could not be removed completely. The application of the same combination (CHX and H2O2, added by the final MTAD irrigation solution, led to the efficient removal of the smear layer, while the morphological structure of dentine surface remained unchanged. Statistical analysis showed that canal walls in the experimental group with MTAD as the final irrigation were significantly clearer compared to the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that MTAD is an efficient solution for the final irrigation of the canal system.

  6. [The effect of Kaviner and the smear layer on dentin permeability of permanent teeth in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmiscija, H; Kobaslija, S; Ganibegović, M; Jusufagić, H; Huseinbegović, A

    1996-01-01

    The dentin permeability is defined as a moving of fluid, of chemical substances and microbial products as well through the dentin. The clinical protection of children permanent teeth in other words the protection of pulp-dentin complex after their preparation makes a big problem into the restorative stomatology. Caviner is one of the newer means which is used in the protection of pulp-dentin complex which represents the components of powder dispersing within the ethyl-acetate mixture of polystirol. The important variable in this study is the presence or absence of smearing layer which has the important influence onto the dentin permeability. In order to confirm the Caviner and smearing layer working onto the dentin permeability of the children permanent teeth in vitro experiment was designed. We used for it the dentin disks made of the intact first premolar, extracted because of orthodontic reasons at the ten years old children. They were put into the split chamber which represents a part of apparatus made at our Faculty, which is, in fact, a modified apparatus which was formed by prof. D.H. Pashley (Georgia, USA), and it is used for measuring of dentin permeability with the help of hydraulic conductance (Lp) of dentin. The dentin permeability is expressed by the hydraulic conductance term, but the measures are still expressed as the Lp percentage maximum because of better survey of results. Comparing the obtained results with the other authors results we have come to the similar conclusions, and that is in fact, that the smearing layer significantly reduces the dentin permeability, and that the Caviner, as the other layners, reduces the dentin permeability. If we compare the reduction of dentin permeability at the dentin covered with the smearing layer and with the Caviner, it has been noticed that the smearing layer reduces more significantly. It should be accented that the Caviner reduces the dentin permeability less than the most earlier researched means for

  7. Diagnostic value of an abnormal smear in non-pregnant women. Evaluation of positive smear from the surface of the portio obtained by the cottonswab method or by the dry wooden Ayre spatula and the relevance of positive smear from the endocervix and/or from the surface of the portio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, L; Højgaard, L L; Højgaard, K;

    1990-01-01

    During a 3-4 year period, 324 women with a positive smear were registered consecutively and prospectively and divided into two groups according to the design of the investigation. In one group the smear was taken with an Ayre spatula and in the other group with a cotton swab. The purpose of this ...

  8. Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.

    1985-06-01

    Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning (CSF scanning) today is mainly carried out in addition to computerized tomography to obtain information about liquor flow kinetics. Especially in patients with communicating obstructive hydrocephalus, CSF scanning is clinically useful for the decision for shunt surgery. In patients with intracranial cysts, CSF scanning can provide information about liquor circulation. Further indications for CSF scanning include the assessment of shunt patency especially in children, as well as the detection and localization of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

  9. [Determination of Leishmania species by PCR-RFLP in the smear samples taken from the lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertabaklar, Hatice; Ertuğ, Sema; Çalışkan, Serçin Özlem; Bozdoğan, Bülent

    2016-04-01

    The forms of the disease caused by Leishmania species in Turkey as well as in Aegean region are cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (CL and VL, respectively), and the agent of CL is commonly L.tropica. However, L.infantum was also reported as being CL agent recently. Direct microscopic examination, serological tests and culture are the conventional methods used for the diagnosis of CL. Since the specificities of these methods are high their sensitivities are variable and identification at species level is not possible. Recently, the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular methods enabled the rapid and reliable diagnosis and species identification. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method both for the detection and identification of Leishmania species simultaneously in CL patients. A total of 30 smear samples that were positive for Leishmania amastigotes with microscopic examination, obtained from CL-suspected cases admitted to Adnan Menderes University Medical School Hospital, Parasitology Laboratory (located at Aydin, in the Aegean region of Turkey) between 2012-2014 period were included in the study. Ten samples taken from the skin lesions caused by Staphylococcus aureus (n= 5) and Candida albicans (n= 5) were also included as negative controls. DNA extractions from the smears were performed by the use of a commercial kit (Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin Tissue® Kit, Germany). DNA isolation was also performed from L.major, L.infantum and L.tropica promastigotes that were grown in culture as positive controls. In PCR method LITSR and L5.8S primers targeting to ITS (internal transcribed spacer)-1 region were used. In RFLP method, the amplified PCR products were cleaved by BsuRI (HaeIII) restriction enzyme for the species identification. As a result, restriction profiles of all samples (n= 30) were in accordance with L.tropica restriction profile. No band was observed in the

  10. Conventional and unconventional superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Superconductivity has been one of the most fruitful areas of research in condensed matter physics, bringing together researchers with distinct interests in a collaborative effort to understand from its microscopic basis to its potential for unprecedented technological applications. The concepts, techniques, and methods developed along its centennial history have gone beyond the realm of condensed matter physics and influenced the development of other fascinating areas, such as particle physics and atomic physics. These notes, based on a set of lectures given at the 2011 Advanced Summer School of Cinvestav, aim to motivate the young undergraduate student in getting involved in the exciting world of conventional and unconventional superconductors.

  11. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  12. A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charwudzi, Alice; Olayemi, Edeghonghon E; Ekem, Ivy; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Coyle, Mariann; Benneh, Amma Anima; Allotey, Emmanuel Alote

    2014-01-01

    Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis of CML. Methods. Interphase FISH was performed on 22 archival methanol-fixed marrow (BM) and 3 peripheral blood (PB) smear slides obtained at diagnosis. The BM smears included 20 CML and 2 CMML cases diagnosed by morphology; the 3 PB smears were from 3 of the CML patients at the time of diagnosis. Six cases had known BCR-ABL fusion results at diagnosis by RQ-PCR. Full blood count reports at diagnosis were also retrieved. Result. 19 (95%) of the CML marrow smears demonstrated the BCR-ABL translocation. There was a significant correlation between the BCR-ABL transcript detected at diagnosis by RQ-PCR and that retrospectively detected by FISH from the aged BM smears at diagnosis (r = 0.870; P = 0.035). Conclusion. Archival methanol-fixed marrow and peripheral blood smears can be used to detect the BCR-ABL transcript for CML diagnosis.

  13. A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH

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    Alice Charwudzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis of CML. Methods. Interphase FISH was performed on 22 archival methanol-fixed marrow (BM and 3 peripheral blood (PB smear slides obtained at diagnosis. The BM smears included 20 CML and 2 CMML cases diagnosed by morphology; the 3 PB smears were from 3 of the CML patients at the time of diagnosis. Six cases had known BCR-ABL fusion results at diagnosis by RQ-PCR. Full blood count reports at diagnosis were also retrieved. Result. 19 (95% of the CML marrow smears demonstrated the BCR-ABL translocation. There was a significant correlation between the BCR-ABL transcript detected at diagnosis by RQ-PCR and that retrospectively detected by FISH from the aged BM smears at diagnosis (r=0.870; P=0.035. Conclusion. Archival methanol-fixed marrow and peripheral blood smears can be used to detect the BCR-ABL transcript for CML diagnosis.

  14. The diagnostic and prognostic value of conventional and rapid diagnostic tools in malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakanth C.H

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burden of malaria is raising all over the world and India is no exception. Despite well established treatment regimens and diagnostic tools, Malaria is thought to kill between1.1 to 2.7 million people worldwide each year. Rapid diagnosis and early treatment are one of the key factors in controlling the disease burden of malaria. Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic utility of rapid test (QBC, PLDH, HRP2 with conventional thick and thin films Methods: The present study included clinically suspected cases of malaria referred to Microbiology laboratory at Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore during the period from April 2004 to April 2005. Blood samples were collected and were subjected to conventional peripheral smear tests as well as rapid tests by using quantitative buffy coat and Paramax-3 kits. Results: Peripheral smear was 60.78% sensitive to Paramax -3 kit with 59.21% sensitivity for P falciparum and 65.38% for P vivax. Peripheral smear showed more number of false negatives as compared to Paramax-3 kit. QBC is 67.64% (69/102 sensitive to Paramax -3 kit with 60.81% sensitivity for P falciparum and 92.31% for P vivax. Although specificity and sensitivity of QBC higher than peripheral smear, it was not on par with Paramax-3 kit. Conclusion: The QBC method is highly sensitive and specific and provides a reliable, rapid and accurate method for diagnosis of malaria. However, Paramax-3 test was the most sensitive for P falciparum and P vivax.

  15. Smearing technique for vibration analysis of simply supported cross-stiffened and doubly curved thin rectangular shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    a number of stiffened plates are combined in a complicated assembly composed of many plate panels. However, whereas the equivalent smeared plate technique is well established and recently improved for flat panels, there is no similar established technique for doubly curved stiffened shells. In this paper...... the improved smeared plate technique is combined with the equation of motion for a doubly curved thin rectangular shell, and a solution is offered for using the smearing technique for stiffened shell structures. The developed prediction technique is validated by comparing natural frequencies and mode shapes...

  16. Bandwidth smearing in optical interferometry: Analytic model of the transition to the double fringe packet

    CERN Document Server

    Lachaume, Régis

    2012-01-01

    Bandwidth smearing is a chromatic aberration due to the finite frequency bandwidth. In long-baseline optical interferometry terms, it is when the angular extension of the source is greater than the coherence length of the interferogram. As a consequence, separated parts of the source will contribute to fringe packets that are not fully overlapping; it is a transition from the classical interferometric regime to a double or multiple fringe packet. While studied in radio interferometry, there has been little work on the matter in the optical, where observables are measured and derived in a different manner, and are more strongly impacted by the turbulent atmosphere. We provide here the formalism and a set of usable equations to model and correct for the impact of smearing on the fringe contrast and phase, with the case of multiple stellar systems in mind. The atmosphere is briefly modeled and discussed.

  17. Detection of some anaemia types in human blood smears using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsalamony, Hany A.

    2016-08-01

    The identification process based on measuring the level of haemoglobin and the classification of red blood cells using microscopic examination of blood smears is the principal way to diagnose anaemia. This paper presents a proposed algorithm for detecting some anaemia types like sickle and elliptocytosis and trying to count them with healthy ones in human red blood smears based on the circular Hough transform and some morphological tools. Some cells with unknown shapes (not platelets or white cells) also have been detected. The extracted data from the detection process has been analyzed by neural network. The experimental results have demonstrated high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm has achieved the highest detection of around 98.9% out of all the cells in 27 microscopic images. Effectiveness rates up to 100%, 98%, and 99.3% have been achieved by using neural networks for sickle, elliptocytosis and cells with unknown shapes, respectively.

  18. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41...

  19. Bubble-Facilitated VOC Transport from LNAPL Smear Zones and Its Potential Effect on Vapor Intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy, Nicole C; Mumford, Kevin G

    2017-02-10

    Most conceptual and mathematical models of soil vapor intrusion assume that the transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a source toward a building is limited by diffusion through the soil gas. Under conditions where advection occurs, transport rates are higher and can lead to higher indoor air concentrations. Advection-dominated conditions can be created by gas bubble flow in the saturated zone. A series of laboratory column experiments were conducted to measure mass flux due to bubble-facilitated VOC transport from light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) smear zones. Smear zones that contained both LNAPL residual and trapped gas, as well as those that contained only LNAPL residual, were investigated. Results showed that the VOC mass flux due to bubble-facilitated transport was orders-of-magnitude higher than under diffusion-limited conditions. Results also showed that the mass flux due to bubble-facilitated transport was intermittent, and increased with an increased supply of dissolved gases.

  20. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results and to make presumptive diagnosis. In this article we have taken 100 samples for comparative study between RBC histograms obtained by automated haematology analyzer with peripheral blood smear. This article discusses some morphological features of dimorphism and the ensuing characteristic changes in their RBC histograms.

  1. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  2. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  3. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Smear Layer Removal Using Isolated or Interweaving EDTA with Sodium Hypochlorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Beraldo, Ângelo José; Silva, Rogério Vieira; da Gama Antunes, Alberto Nogueira; Silveira, Frank Ferreira; Nunes, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to verify the effect of alternating 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canal surfaces. Methods and Materials: A total of 15 single-rooted human teeth, instrumented with ProTaper files, were randomly distributed in 3 groups. In group 1 (n=7) the canals were irrigated with 1 mL of 2.5% NaOCl between files and final irrigation was done with 1 mL of 2,5% NaOCl, followe by 1 mL of 17% EDTA, for a perio of 15 sec with new irrigtion of 1 mL of 2,5% NaOCl at each change of files. In group 3 (control group) (n=1), saline solution was used. All samples were cleaved into two sections, metalized and analyzed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence or absence of smear layer in the cervical, middle and apical thirds, with scores varying from 1 to 3, respectively were evaluated. The data were submitted to nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: It was observed that there was a greater discrepancy between groups with respect to the apical third. In the other areas there was a greater similarity between the scores attributed to the groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups only in the apical third, when group 1 presented the higher median (P<0.05). Conclusion: The alternating use of EDTA during instrumentation with NaOCl was the most effective irrigation method to remove the apical smear layer. Both forms of irrigation were effective on removal of the smear layer in the coronal and middle thirds of the canals. PMID:28179925

  4. Effect of chitosan-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid on Enterococcus faecalis dentinal biofilm and smear layer removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethapriya, Nagarajan; Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Vivekanandan, Paramasivam; Sukumaran, Virudhachalam Ganapathy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chitosan and chitosan-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (3:1,1:1,1:3) in comparison with 5.2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in disinfecting Enterococcus faecalis biofilm on root canal dentin and in the removal of smear layer with minimal erosion. Materials and Methods: Seventy single-rooted extracted human mandibular premolars (n = 70) were selected for the study. Forty tooth samples were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, and sterilized by autoclaving. The tooth sections were artificially infected with E. faecalis (ATCC 29212 [n = 35] and clinical isolate [SBEF2, n = 35]) to form mature dentinal biofilm in vitro. The tooth samples were treated with the test solutions: chitosan and chitosan-EDTA (3:1, 1:1, 1:3), and the killing time was determined. The smear layer removal ability of the test solutions (Group A: chitosan-EDTA [1:1], Group B: EDTA, Group C: control) (n = 10 tooth/group) was assessed. Results: Chitosan and chitosan-EDTA (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) exhibited antibacterial activity against both the strains of E. faecalis. Chitosan and chitosan-EDTA caused 3 log reduction in the viable count of the sessile cells of E. faecalis at 15 min while 5.2% NaOCl exhibited 99.98% inhibition at 15 min. Chitosan-EDTA (1:1) was found to be effective in removing the smear layer and showed lesser erosion than EDTA at the coronal and middle portions. Conclusion: Chitosan-EDTA (1:1) is a potential root canal irrigant that performs a dual role – root canal disinfection and smear layer removal. PMID:27656070

  5. Effectiveness of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), MTAD and sodium hypochlorite irrigants on smear layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataram, V; Gokhale, S T; Kenchappa, M; Nagarajappa, R

    2013-08-01

    Endodontic success depends heavily on effective chemo-mechanical debridement of root canals through the use of instruments and irrigating solutions. To compare the effectiveness of chamomile hydroalcoholic extract, Biopure™ mixture of tetracycline isomer, acid and detergent (MTAD) and 2.5 % sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on removal of the smear layer. Randomised controlled trial. Thirty extracted single-rooted, primary human teeth were allocated at random into three experimental groups of 10 teeth each. For each tooth, the canal was prepared using the step-back technique. During instrumentation, 2 ml of the irrigant was used for at least 10 s after each file and 10 ml as a final flush for 2 min for chamomile and NaOCL irrigants. Whereas for MTAD, an initial rinse with 1.3 % NaOCl for a cumulated period of 20 min, and use of MTAD as the final rinse for a period of 5 min was followed. Longitudinal grooves were made on root segments, then split into two halves with a chisel, stored in 2.5 % glutaraldehyde solution and fixed in ethanol series. Specimens were examined for the smear layer according to Hulsmann et al. (Int Endod J 35:668-679, 2002) criteria using a scanning electron microscope. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. The most effective result in removal of smear layer occurred with the use of MTAD, followed by chamomile extract. The chamomile extract was found to be significantly more effective than 2.5 % NaOCl solution which had only minor effects. The efficacy of chamomile to remove the smear layer was superior to 2.5 % NaOCl alone, but less effective than MTAD mixture.

  6. The cervical smear pattern in patients with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, M A; Shittu, S O; Randawa, J A; Shehu, M S

    2009-09-01

    Cancer of the cervix is the commonest malignancy of the genital tract in Nigeria. In an atmosphere of opportunistic screening due to lack of a national screening programme, studies are needed to determine patients at risk of premalignant lesions of the cervix. To determine cervical smear pattern in patients with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and investigate the potential of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease as a risk factor to cervical dysplasia. Case-control study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty-nine premenopausal women attending the gynaecologic and family planning clinics of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Nigeria from January to December 2000. Of the 369 women that had cervical cytology by Pap smear, 163 (44%) had chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (cases) while 206 (56%) were non chronic PID patients (control). There was no statistical significance in the mean age between the two groups. The mean age at first coitus and marriage of all the women were 17.92.7 years and 18.5 3.4 years respectively. There were 52 dysplastic smears encountered, giving a prevalence rate of 140/1,000 or 14% for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. There were higher cases of dysplasia in the chronic PID group than in the control and this differences was statistically significant (p4) and age of first coitus less than 20 years. Only 10% of all the women screened were aware of both cervical cancer and Pap smear. Women with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease are probably at higher risk of developing cervical dysplasia than women without chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. Cervical cancer screening programmes should be intensified in chronic pelvic inflammatory disease patients. However, further studies are needed in our setting to verify the association between pelvic inflammatory disease and cervical dysplasia.

  7. Galectin-1 is a useful marker for detecting neoplastic squamous cells in oral cytology smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yuri; Kondo, Yuko; Sakai, Manabu; Sato, Sunao; Kishino, Mitsunobu

    2016-06-01

    Cytologic diagnoses in the oral region are very difficult due to the small amount of cells in smears, which are also exposed to many stimulating factors and often show atypical changes. Galectin-1 (Gal1) is a β-galactoside binding protein that modulates tumor progression. Gal1 is very weakly expressed in normal cells, but is often overexpressed in neoplastic lesions. The aim of the present study was to determine whether it is possible to differentiate reactive changes from neoplastic changes in oral cytology smears based on the expression of Gal1. A total of 155 tissue biopsy specimens and 61 liquid-based cytology specimens were immunostained by an anti-Gal1 antibody, and Gal1 expression levels were subsequently evaluated. These samples consisted of oral squamous cell carcinomas, epithelial dysplasia, and oral mucosal diseases. The positive and negative expressions of Gal1 were examined in 37 specimens collected by scalpel and cytobrush biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Gal1 were also evaluated in smears. In tissue sections, the positive ratio of Gal1 in neoplastic lesions was high (72.3%). In cytology specimens, the positive ratio of Gal1 was higher in neoplastic lesions (79.0%) than in those negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (22.2%). A correlation was found between immunocytochemical Gal1 expression and immunohistochemical Gal1 expression (P < .001). The sensitivity (75.0%), specificity (75.0%), and positive predictive value (91.3%) of Gal1 were also high in smears. In conclusion, Gal1 may be a useful marker for determining whether morphologic changes in cells are reactive or neoplastic.

  8. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted.

  9. Comparison of rapid colorimetric method with conventional method in the isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberoi A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate two methods (colorimetric and conventional for isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A total of 500 clinical specimens were processed by modified Petroff′s method and then inoculated into MB/BacT-240 system bottles and on LJ medium slopes. The specimens included 242 sputum, 95 gastric aspirates, 47 pleural fluids, 45 CSF, 32 urine, 18 pus, 11 bronchoalveolar lavage, 3 tissue, 2 stool, 2 lymphnode specimens, 2 synovial fluid and 1 bronchial wash specimens. The isolation rate was 16.4% by the colorimetric method and 2.2% by the conventional method. The mean detection time was 16 days and 26 days respectively. Among 36 direct smear positive samples, 63.9%(23/36 and 30%(11/36 were positive by colorimetric and conventional methods respectively. Out of 464 direct smear negative samples 12.9%(60/464 and 0.6%(3/464 were positive by colorimetric and conventional methods respectively. Therefore, colorimetric method enables rapid detection leading to early diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing.

  10. [Factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among Quilombola women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; França, Elisabeth Barboza

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among quilombola women living in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with women aged 18 to 64. Descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic model was applied. Women who had never performed the test or had not had one for over three years were compared separately from those who were examined within the preceding three years. Of the 348 women included in the analysis, 27.3%, reported never having a Pap smear test. The following factors were independently associated with never having taken the test: age of 18 to 29 years and 50 to 59 years; lack of education; not having a partner; seeking care in health-related units/establishments other than their place of residence; and having a clinical breast examination three or more years ago or never having one. The findings indicate a need for reflection in order to combat factors that are associated with not having a Pap smear test among quilombola women, since it is important to implement actions for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  11. Influence of smear layer removal on the obturation of root canal ramifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Vianna Freitas Fachin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether smear layer removal has any influence on the filling of the root canal system, by examining the obturation of lateral canals, secondary canals and apical deltas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty maxillary and mandibular canines were randomly divided into two groups, according to their irrigation regimen. Both groups were irrigated with 1% NaOCl during canal shaping, but only the teeth in Group II received a final irrigation with 17% EDTA for smear layer removal. The root canals were obturated with lateral condensation of gutta-percha and the specimens were cleared, allowing for observation under the microscope. RESULTS: In Groups I and II, 42.5% and 37.5% of the teeth, respectively, presented at least one filled canal ramification. Although a larger number of obturated ramifications was found in Group I, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.4957. CONCLUSIONS: Smear layer removal under the conditions tested in this study did not affect the obturation of root canal ramifications when lateral condensation of gutta-percha was the technique used for root canal filling.

  12. Enamel-smear compromises bonding by mild self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, A; De Munck, J; Vivan Cardoso, M; Van Landuyt, K L; Poitevin, A; Kuboki, T; Yoshida, Y; Suzuki, K; Van Meerbeek, B

    2010-12-01

    In light of the increased popularity of less acidic, so-called 'ultra-mild' self-etch adhesives, adhesion to enamel is becoming more critical. It is hypothesized that this compromised enamel bonding should, to a certain extent, be attributed to interference of bur debris smeared across enamel during cavity preparation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the enamel smear layer differed not only in thickness, but also in crystal density and size, depending on the surface-preparation method used. Lab-demineralization of sections clearly disclosed that resin-infiltration of an ultra-mild self-etch adhesive progressed preferentially along micro-cracks that were abundantly present at and underneath the bur-cut enamel surface. The surface-preparation method significantly affected the nature of the smear layer and the interaction with the ultra-mild adhesive, being more uniform and dense for a lab-SiC-prepared surface vs. a clinically relevant bur-prepared surface.

  13. Impact of smear microscopy results and observed therapy on tuberculosis treatment in Mombasa, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentz, M; Narita, M; Sangaré, L; Kah, J F; Low, D; Mandaliya, K; Amukoye, E; Sitienei, J; Walson, J L

    2011-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) treatment center at Coast Provincial General Hospital in Mombasa, Kenya. To describe TB management practices in a facility in coastal Kenya and identify factors associated with poor treatment outcomes. Retrospective review of patient treatment records from January 2008 to June 2009. Treatment outcomes of patients were classified as treatment success (cure or treatment completion) or poor treatment outcome (treatment failure, death or default). Relative risk regression was used to determine the association between exposures of interest and poor treatment outcomes. Records were obtained from a total of 183 patients: 142 (78%) had pulmonary TB, 68 (37%) were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and 81 (44%) had acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive smear micros- copy. Most treated individuals (86%) achieved a successful treatment outcome as defined by the World Health Organization. Of those with poor treatment outcomes, 64% defaulted, 32% died, and 4% failed treatment. Initial negative AFB smear and HIV co-infection were associated with poor treatment outcomes (RR 3.32, 95%CI 1.22-8.99 and RR 4.61, 95%CI 1.69- 12.59, respectively). Strategies to accelerate accurate diagnosis of smear-negative TB and increase patient retention during treatment, especially in HIV co-infected individuals, are needed to reduce poor treatment outcomes in Kenya.

  14. Efficacy of different final irrigant activation protocols on smear layer removal by EDTA and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Daniel R; Santos, Zarina T; Tay, Lidia Y; Silva, Emmanuel J; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Gomes, Brenda P F A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different activation protocols for chelating agents used after chemo-mechanical preparation (CMP), for smear layer (SL) removal. Forty-five single-rooted human premolars with straight canals and fully formed apex were selected. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups depending on the chelating agent used for smear layer removal: distilled water (DW, control group); 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); and 10% citric acid (CA). Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to the activation protocol used: no-activation (NA), manual dynamic activation (MDA), or sonic activation (SA). After CMP, all specimens were sectioned and processed for observation of the apical thirds by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two calibrated evaluators attributed scores to each specimen. The differences between activation protocols were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used for comparison between each root canal third. When chelating agents were activated, either by MDA or SA, it was obtained the best cleaning results with no significant difference between EDTA and CA (P > 0.05). Sonic activation showed the best results when root canal thirds were analyzed, in comparison to MDA and NA groups (P benefits smear layer removal from root canals.

  15. The ability of 5% Tamarindus indica extract as cleaner of the root canal wall smear layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Wulandari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica is one of traditional medicines. Pulpa tamaridorum consist of organic acid that is usually used as irrigant and to remove root canal wall smear layer. The aimed of this study was to elucidate the ability of 5% Tamarindus indica extract as a root canal irrigant to remove root canal wall smear layer. Eighteen tooth samples were cut on cervical line and divided into 2 then groups were prepared with K file and irrigated. Group 1 was irrigated by sterile aquabidest and group 2 was irrigated by 5% Tamarindus indica extract. Samples were cut longitudinally and formed 7 × 2× 2 mm specimen. Each specimen was photographed by scanning electron microscope, scored and summed. The total score obtained is used as the hygiene value of root canal wall. The collected data were statistically analyzed by using independent t test at 0.05 level. The result of the study showed there was a significant difference between 5% Tamarindus indica extract and sterile aquabidest (p < 0.05, the hygiene value of 5% Tamarindus indica extract was higher than sterile aquabidest. The conclusion of this investigation showed that 5% Tamarindus indica extract remove root canal wall smear layer.

  16. A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF MICRO NUCLEI IN ASSESSING THE PROGRESSION OF PRECANCEROUS LESIONS OF CERVIX AND THE DIAGNOSIS OF CARCINOMA OF CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of cervix remains the most common malignant neoplasm of the female genital tract in many countries. The Papanicolaou stained cervical smear is an excellent and effective method in the diagnosis of invasive carcinoma and precancerous lesions of the cervix. This study was conducted to assess the value of Feulgen stained cervical smears in elucidating nuclear features help ful in the diagnosis of malignancy over conventional Pap stained smears and also to look for micronucleated cells in suspected cases of carcinoma of cervix. AIM: To analyse the distribution of cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma and intraepithelial n eoplasia (squamous intraepithelial lesion of cervix over a period of 3 years, to elucidate additional nuclear features helpful in diagnosis of carcinoma using Feulgen stained cervical smears and to study the distribution of micronuclei in Feulgen stained smears from suspected cases of Carcinoma cervix. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A three year analysis of all cases of dysplasia and invasive carcinoma of cervix was done by reviewing Papanicolaou stained cervical smears from all the diagnosed cases of invasive car cinoma and precancerous lesions of the cervix. Cervical smears from sixty clinically suspected cases of carcinoma of cervix and smears from 10 normal women collected during a period of 12 months were studied in detail using Papanicolaou stained and Feulgen Stained Smears and micronuclei analysis (MN analysis was done. RESULTS : A total of 24343 cervical smears were screened during the 3 year period of study. Out of these 24343 cases there were 267(1.09% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 144(0 .592% cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Micronuclei analysis done using Feulgen Stained Smears demonstrated a consistent increase in micronucleated cells proportional to the increase in severity of th e lesion from normal to invasive carcinoma. CO NCLUSION : This study

  17. Comparing same day sputum microscopy with conventional sputum microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculosis--Chhattisgarh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyakanta Nayak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO recommends same day sputum microscopy (spot-spot in preference to conventional strategy (spot-morning for the diagnosis of smear positive tuberculosis with the view that completing diagnosis on a single day may be more convenient to the patients and reduce pre-treatment losses to follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in seven selected district level hospitals of Chhattisgarh State, India. During October 2012 - March 2013, two sputum specimens (spot-early morning were collected from consecutively enrolled adult (≥ 18 years presumptive TB patients as per current national guidelines. In addition, a second sample was collected (one hour after the collection of first spot sample from the same patients. All the samples were examined by ziehl-Neelsen (ZN microscopy. McNemar's test was used to compare statistical differences in the proportion smear positive between the two approaches (spot-spot versus spot-morning. RESULTS: Of 2551 presumptive TB patients, 69% were male. All patients provided the first spot specimen, 2361 (93% provided the second spot specimen, and 2435 (96% provided an early morning specimen. 72% of specimens were mucopurulent in conventional strategy as compared to 60% in same day strategy. The proportion of smear-positive patients diagnosed by same day microscopy was 14%, as compared to 17% by the conventional method (p<0.001. A total of 73 (16.9% potential cases were missed by the same day method compared to only 2 (0.5% by the conventional method. CONCLUSION: Same-day microscopy method missed 17% of smear-positive cases and contrary to prior perception, did not increase the proportion of suspects providing the second sample. These findings call for an urgent need to revisit the WHO recommendation of switching to same-day diagnosis over the current policy.

  18. What constitutes a convention? : implications for the coexistence of conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2002-01-01

    A model of repeated play of a coordination game, where stage games have a location in social space, and players receive noisy signals of the true location of their games, is reviewed. Sugden (1995) suggests that in such a model, there can be a stationary state of convention coexistence only if interaction is non-uniform across social space. This paper shows that an alternative definition of conventions, which links conventions to actions rather than expectations, permits convention coexistenc...

  19. Implementing the CRS beam prestack depth migration with double-smearing operator within the unified Kichhoff imaging theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Shan, Hong-mei; Jiang, Xiao-guang

    2016-12-01

    The unified Kirchhoff imaging theory provides an essential theoretical foundation for understanding any Kirchhoff-type imaging methods. The local kinematic attributes are important information regarding a local coherently event in seismic dataset. We develop a double-smearing operator based common-reflection-surface (CRS) beam prestack depth migration (PSDM) based on the unified Kirchhoff imaging theory and the local kinematic attributes. Differing from the previous works based on the Hugens-curve-stacking scheme, the double-smearing operator employed in this paper is derived on the basis of the isochrones-smearing scheme defined in the unified Kirchhoff imaging theory. It provides a parallel approach to implement the CRS beam PSDM. The synthetic and real data examples demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the double-smearing CRS beam PSDM operator.

  20. Equity of access to Pap smears: population-based study in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Mae Schmidt Lima Amorim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the Papanicolaou exam among women aged 20 to 59 years in the city of Campinas (state of São Paulo, Brazil and to analyze associations between this test and affiliation to private health insurance plans as well as socioeconomic/demographic variables and health-related behavior. METHOD: To do so, a population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out. Statistical analyses took the study design into account. RESULTS: Despite the significant socioeconomic differences between women with and without private health plans, no differences between these groups were found regarding having been submitted to the Papanicolaou test. In fact no differences were found as to socioeconomic and health variables analyzed. Among all variables analyzed, only marital status was significantly associated with having undergone the test. The Brazilian public health system accounted for 55.7% of the exams. CONCLUSION: The present findings indicate social equity in the city of Campinas regarding the preventive exam for cervical cancer in the age group studied.

  1. Use of a molecular diagnostic test in AFB smear positive tuberculosis suspects greatly reduces time to detection of multidrug resistant tuberculosis.

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    Nestani Tukvadze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The WHO has recommended the implementation of rapid diagnostic tests to detect and help combat M/XDR tuberculosis (TB. There are limited data on the performance and impact of these tests in field settings. METHODS: The performance of the commercially available Genotype MTBDRplus molecular assay was compared to conventional methods including AFB smear, culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST using both an absolute concentration method on Löwenstein-Jensen media and broth-based method using the MGIT 960 system. Sputum specimens were obtained from TB suspects in the country of Georgia who received care through the National TB Program. RESULTS: Among 500 AFB smear-positive sputum specimens, 458 (91.6% had both a positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a valid MTBDRplus assay result. The MTBDRplus assay detected isoniazid (INH resistance directly from the sputum specimen in 159 (89.8% of 177 specimens and MDR-TB in 109 (95.6% of 114 specimens compared to conventional methods. There was high agreement between the MTBDRplus assay and conventional DST results in detecting MDR-TB (kappa = 0.95, p<0.01. The most prevalent INH resistance mutation was S315T (78% in the katG codon and the most common rifampicin resistance mutation was S531L (68% in the rpoB codon. Among 13 specimens from TB suspects with negative sputum cultures, 7 had a positive MTBDRplus assay (3 with MDR-TB. The time to detection of MDR-TB was significantly less using the MTBDRplus assay (4.2 days compared to the use of standard phenotypic tests (67.3 days with solid media and 21.6 days with broth-based media. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to conventional methods, the MTBDRplus assay had high accuracy and significantly reduced time to detection of MDR-TB in an area with high MDR-TB prevalence. The use of rapid molecular diagnostic tests for TB and drug resistance should increase the proportion of patients promptly placed on appropriate therapy.

  2. Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F; Vieira, F;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were...... identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female...... 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100 000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from...

  3. Conventional mechanical ventilation

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    Tobias Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU. Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas.

  4. Smear plus Detect-TB for a sensitive diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: a cost-effectiveness analysis in an incarcerated population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Karen Barros; Scherer, Luciene; Barcellos, Regina Bones; Kuhleis, Daniele; Prestes, Isaías Valente; Steffen, Ricardo Ewbank; Dalla Costa, Elis Regina; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2014-12-16

    Prison conditions can favor the spread of tuberculosis (TB). This study aimed to evaluate in a Brazilian prison: the performance and accuracy of smear, culture and Detect-TB; performance of smear plus culture and smear plus Detect-TB, according to different TB prevalence rates; and the cost-effectiveness of these procedures for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis. This paper describes a cost-effectiveness study. A decision analytic model was developed to estimate the costs and cost-effectiveness of five routine diagnostic procedures for diagnosis of PTB using sputum specimens: a) Smear alone, b) Culture alone, c) Detect-TB alone, d) Smear plus culture and e) Smear plus Detect-TB. The cost-effectiveness ratio of costs were evaluated per correctly diagnosed TB case and all procedures costs were attributed based on the procedure costs adopted by the Brazilian Public Health System. A total of 294 spontaneous sputum specimens from patients suspected of having TB were analyzed. The sensibility and specificity were calculated to be 47% and 100% for smear; 93% and 100%, for culture; 74% and 95%, for Detect-TB; 96% and 100%, for smear plus culture; and 86% and 95%, for smear plus Detect-TB. The negative and positive predictive values for smear plus Detect-TB, according to different TB prevalence rates, ranged from 83 to 99% and 48 to 96%, respectively. In a cost-effectiveness analysis, smear was both less costly and less effective than the other strategies. Culture and smear plus culture were more effective but more costly than the other strategies. Smear plus Detect-TB was the most cost-effective method. The Detect-TB evinced to be sensitive and effective for the PTB diagnosis when applied with smear microscopy. Diagnostic methods should be improved to increase TB case detection. To support rational decisions about the implementation of such techniques, cost-effectiveness studies are essential, including in prisons, which are known for health care assessment problems.

  5. Destaining of Diff-Quik stained cytologic smears is not necessary for the detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization

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    Weisheng Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene rearrangement analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is one of the standard molecular tests for targeted therapy of lung adenocarcinoma. However, insufficient cell block cellularity may impede molecular testing. A recent study showed that Diff-Quik (DQ stained cytology smear is suitable for ALK by FISH. Aims: The aim of our study was to observe the impact of destaining intervals on the quality of FISH signals and determine if DQ smears without destaining would allow FISH analysis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five DQ smears from 27 cases of lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed for ALK gene rearrangement by FISH. Twenty three DQ smears were destained for different intervals, including 30 s (13 cases, 1 min (6 cases, or 2 min (4 cases. Twelve DQ smears were not subjected to destaining. For further validation, FISH signals in 8 smears and 6 cell blocks were compared with the paired destained DQ smears. The signal quality was semi-quantified and analyzed with Chi-squared test. Results: Of the total 27 selected cases, three (11% were positive for ALK gene rearrangement, whereas 24 (89% were negative. FISH signal was satisfactory in all DQ smears. There was no significant difference in the quality of signal among smears with different destaining intervals (P = 0.55 or between smears with and without destaining (P = 0.41. DQ smears without destaining showed identical FISH results and similar or better signals as compared with paired destained smears and cell blocks in all cases. Conclusions: Duration of destaining intervals does not impact the quality of FISH signal on DQ smears. Destaining of DQ smears is not necessary for ALK by FISH.

  6. Blood Smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Values can fluctuate at times of illness or stress; intense exercise or smoking can also affect cell counts. ^ Back to top ... Health Professionals Get the Mobile App iTunes | Android | Kindle ...

  7. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  8. Effect of various chemical agents used in gingival retraction systems on smear layer: Scanning electron microscope study

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    Krishna Shivraj Lahoti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical agents used for gingival retraction affects the smear layer. Aim: To determine the effect of three different chemical agents used for gingival retraction systems on smear layer. Materials and Methods: Four human premolars were prepared using air-rotor with air-water spray to receive full crown restoration. Three of them were treated with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min, 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min, and expasyl for 2 min, respectively. One sample was left untreated. Then, the tooth specimens were rinsed with tap water to remove any residue of test materials. All the samples (treated and untreated were processed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Processed samples were examined under SEM at ×2400 to evaluate the effect of chemical agents on smear layer. Results: SEM examination revealed that 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min produced no alteration to smear layer followed by minimum alteration by expasyl for 2 min and complete removal of smear layer with etching of dentin with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min. Conclusion: 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride and expasyl are kind to smear layer.

  9. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear and the Factors Influencing the Pap test Screening among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtarian, Hossein; Mirzabeigi, Elaheh; Mahmoodi, Elham; Khezeli, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Although the Pap smear is known as one of the effective methods to detect the cervical cancer, a large group of women are reluctant to do the test because of various reasons. Therefore, we carried out this study to determine the level of knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear and the factors influencing the Pap test screening among women. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 355 women referred to the health centers of Gilan-e gharb city were randomly recruited in 2015. The participants asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire including five parts (questions about: demographic factors, knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear, Pap smear performance, barriers and facilitators related to Pap smear and the sources of information). Data were analyzed through SPSS version 19, using descriptive statistics, Independent T-test, and logistic regression. Results: The mean age of the participants was 34.08±7.81 years. Almost 50.4% of the subjects had a history of Pap smear test. Pap test performance was significantly higher in those who had higher knowledge (Pperspective of women. Therefore, we suggest that health education and health promotion studies as interdisciplinary and targeted interventions should be implemented to improve the women’s knowledge.

  10. Evaluation of smear layer removal by bicarbonate soda, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with cetrimide and sodium hypochlorite with a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Natalie; Abbott, Paul; Castro Salgado, Jacqueline; Firth, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Various methods are used to evaluate irrigants. The primary aim was to develop a model for preliminary testing of potential irrigants. The second aim was to investigate the effect of bicarbonate soda on smear layer by comparing it with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Extracted human single-canal teeth were halved, and a uniform filing method was used to create smear layer. The following solutions were then applied - distilled water (control), 1% NaOCl, 17% EDTAC and bicarbonate soda at concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10% and 15%. Some samples had multiple solutions in different sequences. Samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Representative images were scored based on the degree of smear layer remaining. Results were analysed with the SAS system, using the GENMOD procedure. Complete smear layer was found in samples treated with all solutions except EDTAC used alone. There were no significant differences between the sequences, EDTAC/NaOCl/EDTAC and NaOCl/EDTAC/NaOCl. There were no significant differences between groups with and without bicarbonate soda. In conclusion, the model was effective for testing chemical effects on solutions on smear layer. Bicarbonate soda did not remove smear layer and provided no additional cleaning effects after EDTAC and NaOCl.

  11. Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Rositch

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies. METHODS: Women were participants of an HIV-discordant couples cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic status, and sexual and medical history at baseline and on knowledge and attitudes towards Pap smears, self-sampling, and HPV vaccination at study exit. RESULTS: Only 14% of the 409 women (67% HIV-positive; median age 29 years had ever had a Pap smear prior to study enrollment and very few women had ever heard of HPV (18%. Although most women knew that Pap smears detect cervical cancer (69%, very few knew that routine Pap screening is the main way to prevent ICC (18%. Most women reported a high level of cultural acceptability for Pap smear screening and a low level of physical discomfort during Pap smear collection. In addition, over 80% of women reported that they would feel comfortable using a self-sampling device (82% and would prefer at-home sample collection (84%. Nearly all women (94% reported willingness to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer if offered at no or low cost. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the need to educate women on routine use of Pap smears in the prevention of cervical cancer and demonstrate that vaccination and self-sampling would be acceptable modalities for cervical cancer prevention and screening.

  12. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  13. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities.

  14. Direct comparison of liquid-based and smear-based cytology with and without rapid on-site evaluation for fine needle aspirates of thoracic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mfokazi, A; Wright, C A; Louw, M; Von Groote-Bidlingmaier, F; Schubert, P T; Koegelenberg, C F N; Diacon, A H

    2016-05-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) and rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) are proposed to improve the quality of fine needle aspirates (FNA) and their diagnostic yield compared with conventional smear cytology (CSC). This prospective study directly compared outcomes of sonar-guided FNA of thoracic tumors supported by LBC, CSC, or CSC with ROSE. Three aspirates each for both LBC and CSC with separate 22G spinal needles in a randomized, alternating sequence during 64 transthoracic FNA of thoracic tumors were collected. Smears were prepared by cytology staff on site but evaluated with ROSE only when all six samples had been collected. If no diagnostic material was found on the first three CSC additional needle passes guided by ROSE were performed. Final diagnoses were non-small cell lung cancer in 50 (78.1%), small cell lung cancer in 11 (17.2%), mesothelioma in 1 (1.6%), and inflammation in 2 cases (3.1%), respectively. LBC and CSC were diagnostic in 42 (65.6%) and 49 (76.6%) cases, respectively (P = 0.039), with both methods diagnostic in 41 cases (64.1%). Fifteen cases (23.4%) remained undiagnosed following three passes for CSC but 9 (14.1%) of these were diagnosed using FNA and ROSE with a total yield of 58 cases (90.6%; P < 0.001). The diagnostic yield of transthoracic FNA submitted for LBC is significantly lower than with CSC when slides are prepared professionally. ROSE significantly increases the yield of transthoracic FNA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Free Active Chlorine in Sodium Hypochlorite Solutions Admixed with Octenidine, SmearOFF, Chlorhexidine, and EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Unni; Saji, Sreeja; Clarkson, Roger; Lalloo, Ratilal; Moule, Alex J

    2017-08-01

    The therapeutic effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions are dependent on the levels of free available chlorine (FAC). Mixing these solutions with irrigants can result in significant reductions in FAC. Although the effect of some irrigants on FAC is known, the effect of other commonly used irrigants is not. Thus, the therapeutic ramifications of the concurrent use of these on the efficiency of NaOCl solutions is not known. Aliquots of 5.2% (w/v) NaOCl solutions were admixed in proportions of 90:10, 80:20, and 50:50 with the following irrigants: octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT); SmearOFF (Vista Dental Products, Racine, WI), 17% EDTA; and 0.2%, 2%, and 5% chlorhexidine (CHX) solutions. Changes in FAC were measured by iodometric titration. Statistical differences between means were determined using a post hoc Tukey analysis test after an analysis of variance. OCT appeared not to affect FAC and was significantly different than all other irrigants, except for 90:10 and 80:20 mixtures of low concentration (0.2%) CHX. CHX solutions showed a marked concentration- and mixture proportion-dependent detrimental effect on FAC. The reduction of FAC between different concentrations of CHX was statistically significant in 80:20 and 50:50 proportions, with 50:50 mixtures of 5% CHX having the greatest influence. Mixtures containing even small proportions of SmearOFF or EDTA exhibited significant losses in FAC. OCT has little effect on FAC and can be used concurrently with NaOCl solutions. Higher concentrations of CHX significantly affect FAC. Their combined use with NaOCl solutions should be avoided. EDTA and SmearOFF should not be mixed with NaOCl solutions. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural network-assisted ("NNA") analysis of cervical smears: pooled effectiveness results and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango; Radensky

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To determine the sensitivity of cervical cancer smear screening with neural network-assisted ("NNA") rescreening.Methods: The Papnet system of NNA analysis of cervical smears has been in clinical use worldwide for over 3 years and has been the subject of over 22 published manuscripts reporting on data from over 202,000 smears. This investigation reviewed the results of these studies and classified each study according to study design using a systematic protocol based on reference validation, diagnostic threshold for abnormal, and outcome metric. This classification taxonomy allowed for weighted (based on number of cases in each study) pooling of studies for each study design class. The pooled effectiveness metrics were used to derive the sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA rescreening, using a baseline unassisted screening sensitivity of 85%. Other effectiveness metrics determined by this analysis include NNA's sensitivity as a primary screener, comparisons with primary unassisted screening, and comparisons of NNA rescreening and unassisted rescreening.Results: Analyses of the weighted, pooled mean estimates for each of the principal outcome metrics indicate the sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA ranges from 90% to 99%; most pooled estimates fall in the range of 97-99%. An economic analysis using the APL-based "Cervical Cancer Screen" computer model developed by Eddy (Eddy DM. Screening for cervical cancer. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:214-26) and these effectiveness estimates as inputs showed that NNA analysis involves an accepted level of resource expenditure (approximately $40,000 per life year saved) when added to unassisted screening on a triennial basis.Conclusion: The sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA rescreening using the Papnet system yields sensitivities in excess of 90% and approaching 99%.

  17. Morphological evaluation of canine platelets on Giemsa- and PAS-stained blood smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmay, Dóra; Sótonyi, P; Vajdovich, P; Gaál, T

    2005-01-01

    The morphology of canine platelets (changes in size, shape, staining characteristics, degree of activation and clump formation, distribution of granules, appearance of vacuoles on Giemsa-stained smears) was investigated in 20 healthy control and 181 diseased dogs. In the group of the sick dogs 84 animals suffered from disorders affecting directly the haematological parameters or the haematopoietic organs such as bleeding, thymic haemorrhage, haemolytic disorders, lymphoma, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and other 97 dogs were affected by other diseases (hepatopathy, nephropathy, hepatic, splenic or intestinal neoplasm, skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, sepsis). The alterations found in platelet morphology were not specific for any disorder. The most common platelet abnormalities were polychromasia and the presence of giant platelets. These changes occurred in a high number in disorders accompanied by bleeding or haemolysis. Anisocytosis was the most frequent finding in hepatic, splenic or intestinal neoplasms and in certain endocrinopathies. Microcytosis was observed in immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, hepatic neoplasms and endocrine disorders. Extreme platelet activation was common in haemolysis, hepatopathies, neoplastic diseases and sepsis. Vacuolisation was present in thymic haemorrhage, pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus and Cushing's syndrome. A new morphologic phenomenon, i.e. a ring-like formation of granules, was described in the cytoplasm of the platelets both in healthy and diseased animals. In addition, two forms of pathologic granulation were also described for the first time in Giemsa-stained blood smears: the pseudonuclear and the spot-like formation of granules, which were observed especially in disorders affecting the blood cells. The granulation and morphological characteristics of platelets on smears stained by periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS) were also studied. Three localisations of granulation were observed, such as

  18. Awareness of Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Testing Among Omani Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Alwahaibi; Waad, Alsalami; Atheer, Alzaabi; Nasra, Alramadhani

    2016-11-01

    Background: In developed countries, awareness of cervical cancer screening is well documented. In contrast, in Oman as a developing country, public responses regarding cervical screening are unclear. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about cervical cancer and Papanicolau (Pap) smear testing and to establish any correlations between knowledge and demographic factors among Omani women. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, participants were divided into three groups: patients who attended the Outpatient Gynecology Department in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, female staff from SQUH, College of Medicine and College of Nursing at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) and graduating female students at SQU. Data collection was through interview-based and online self-administered questionnaires. Cumulative scoring was used for data analysis. Results: There were 204 outpatients, 133 staff and 157 students. Outpatients (79.4%), staff (97.7%) and students (75.2%) had heard of cervical cancer. Nevertheless, their specific knowledge, regarding signs and symptoms, risk factors and Pap smear, was low at 38.7%, 35.3% and 7.6% among outpatients, staff and students, respectively. Some 39.9% of the married outpatients had adequate overall knowledge as compared to none of the single women. Educational level was found to be significantly associated with outpatient knowledge with the highest awareness levels among postgraduates and medical university graduates (61.5%). Conclusion: Specific knowledge of cervical cancer, its risk factors and cervical Pap smear is generally poor among Omani women. This lack of knowledge may be one of the contributing factors for the high incidence of cervical cancer in Oman relative to that in developed countries. Creative Commons Attribution License

  19. Exploring tuberculosis by molecular tests on DNA isolated from smear microscopy slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotosamimanana, Niaina; Rabodoarivelo, Marie Sylvianne; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Razanamparany, Voahangy Rasolofo

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease of global public health importance caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The disease has worsened with the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB strains. The timely diagnosis and treatment of TB remains a key public health priority, and laboratories have a critical role in the rapid and accurate detection of TB and drug resistance. Molecular assays based on nucleic acid amplification techniques have been developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of TB, with the ability to determine the drug sensitivity status. These molecular techniques are now available or are being implemented in developing countries. However, traditional microscopy and culture methods cannot yet be replaced; the molecular assays can be applied in parallel with these tests for the diagnosis of TB or for drug susceptibility testing. Performing such molecular tests is often restricted by constraints with regard to sputum sample storage and safe transportation from remote health centres to central laboratories. Since smear slides are performed routinely for the diagnosis of TB in most TB diagnostic laboratories, they are readily available and could be the ideal tool to transport sputum for further molecular tests. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey on the use of smear slides for both TB diagnosis and the molecular test approach. Based on the literature, stained smear microscopy slides can be a safe system for the transportation of sputum specimens from remote health centres to reference TB laboratories for further molecular TB or MDR-TB detection, and could help in the rapid diagnosis and therefore timely management of TB patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment outcome of new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Muhammad; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ali, Irfhan; Asif, Muhammad; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2014-07-19

    According to the World Health Organization's recent report, in Malaysia, tuberculosis (TB) treatment success rate for new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients is still below the global success target of 85%. In this study, we evaluated TB treatment outcome among new smear positive PTB patients, and identified the predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome and longer duration of treatment (i.e., > 6 months). The population in this study consisted of all new smear positive PTB patients who were diagnosed at the chest clinic of Penang General Hospital between March 2010 and February 2011. During the study period, a standardized data collection form was used to obtain socio-demographic, clinical and treatment related data of the patients from their medical charts and TB notification forms (Tuberculosis Information System; TBIS). These data sources were reviewed at the time of the diagnosis of the patients and then at the subsequent follow-up visits until their final treatment outcomes were available. The treatment outcomes of the patients were reported in line with six outcome categories recommended by World Health Organization. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to find the independent risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcome and longer treatment duration. Data were analyzed using the PASW (Predictive Analysis SoftWare, version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Among the 336 PTB patients (236 male and 100 female) notified during the study period, the treatment success rate was 67.26% (n = 226). Out of 110 patients in unsuccessful outcome category, 30 defaulted from the treatment, 59 died and 21 were transferred to other health care facilities. The mean duration of TB treatment was 8.19 (SD 1.65) months. In multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcome were foreign nationality, male gender and being illiterate. Similarly, risk factors for mortality due to TB included high-grade sputum and presence

  1. Relativistic smearing of the reflection spectrum in Galactic Black Hole Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Done, C; Smith, D A

    1997-01-01

    We identify the reflected component in the GINGA spectra of Nova Muscae, a Black Hole transient system which has been used as the prototype for the recent advection dominated disk models. We see that the reflected spectrum is generally significantly relativistically smeared, and use this and the amount of reflection to track the innermost extent of the accretion disk. We see that the optically thick disk does retreat during the decline, but more slowly than predicted by the advective models, posing problems for this description of the accretion flow.

  2. Spatio-temporal analysis of smear-positive tuberculosis in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesay Hailu Dangisso

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a disease of public health concern, with a varying distribution across settings depending on socio-economic status, HIV burden, availability and performance of the health system. Ethiopia is a country with a high burden of TB, with regional variations in TB case notification rates (CNRs. However, TB program reports are often compiled and reported at higher administrative units that do not show the burden at lower units, so there is limited information about the spatial distribution of the disease. We therefore aim to assess the spatial distribution and presence of the spatio-temporal clustering of the disease in different geographic settings over 10 years in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia.A retrospective space-time and spatial analysis were carried out at the kebele level (the lowest administrative unit within a district to identify spatial and space-time clusters of smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB. Scan statistics, Global Moran's I, and Getis and Ordi (Gi* statistics were all used to help analyze the spatial distribution and clusters of the disease across settings.A total of 22,545 smear-positive PTB cases notified over 10 years were used for spatial analysis. In a purely spatial analysis, we identified the most likely cluster of smear-positive PTB in 192 kebeles in eight districts (RR= 2, p<0.001, with 12,155 observed and 8,668 expected cases. The Gi* statistic also identified the clusters in the same areas, and the spatial clusters showed stability in most areas in each year during the study period. The space-time analysis also detected the most likely cluster in 193 kebeles in the same eight districts (RR= 1.92, p<0.001, with 7,584 observed and 4,738 expected cases in 2003-2012.The study found variations in CNRs and significant spatio-temporal clusters of smear-positive PTB in the Sidama Zone. The findings can be used to guide TB control programs to devise effective TB control strategies for the geographic areas

  3. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  4. The effects of oxalate treatment on the smear layer of ground surfaces of human dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashley, D H; Galloway, S E

    1985-01-01

    The layer was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and by measurement of hydraulic conductance before and after 2-min topical treatment with potassium chloride, neutral potassium oxalate, half-neutralized oxalic acid or both neutral and acidic oxalates. The treated smear layers were then re-evaluated microscopically and functionally both before and after acid challenge. The layers treated with KCl were not altered either microscopically or functionally and were susceptible to acid etching. Dentine surfaces treated with either oxalate solutions became less permeable and were acid-resistant.

  5. Effect of sealers on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without smear layer removal: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhamb Swaty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present study involved the in vitro comparison of root reinforcing abilities of two sealers, i.e., Ketac-Endo and Acroseal, in endodontically treated teeth in the presence and absence of smear layer. Materials and Methods : Fifty teeth were taken and sectioned at the cementoenamel junction. The teeth with faults were discarded and a total of 36 teeth were used for study. The samples were biomechanically prepared using step-back technique. In 10 teeth, the smear layer was preserved using sodium hypochlorite. Smear layers were removed from 10 teeth using 17% EDTA, and in another 10 samples, the smear layers were eliminated using 17% EGTA. The remaining samples served as controls. Samples were obturated with sealers using the lateral condensation technique. Ketac-Endo (3M is a glass ionomer based root canal sealer, and Acroseal (Septodont sealers were used. The teeth were then tested by using an Instron testing machine. Results : Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal. Other factors as the amount of tooth structure remaining, the agents used for the removal of smear layer and instrumentation techniques may alter the tooth resistance to fracture. Conclusion : Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal.

  6. KAJIAN KEBIJAKAN PENGGUNAAN DATA PAP-SMEAR IBU RUMAH TANGGA DALAM SURVEILANS INFEKSI MENULAR SEKSUAL PADA KELOMPOK RISIKO RENDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Hargono

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Kasus Infeksi Menular Seksual (IMS pada kelompok risiko rendah mengalami peningkatan. Analisisdata PKBI Jawa Timur 2004–2009 menunjukkan peningkatan kasus IMS melalui pemeriksaan pap-smear pada ibu rumahtangga. Kajian kebijakan penggunaan data pap-smear dilakukan sebagai bahan pengembangan surveilans IMS padakelompok risiko rendah. Metode: Riset kualitatif dengan kaidah analisis kebijakan dari Walt dan Gilson yang meliputiaktor, konteks, isi dan proses. Penelitian dilakukan di Jakarta, Jawa Barat, Jawa Timur, Kepulauan Riau dan Bali. Informanadalah pelaksana surveilans IMS dan pap-smear dinas kesehatan propinsi, dinas kesehatan kota, rumah sakit, puskesmas,balai pengobatan dan LSM. Pengumpulan data menggunakan Focus Group Disscussion (FGD dan study dokumen. Datadianalisis dengan cara content analysis. Hasil: Aktor yang berperan dalam surveilans adalah unit surveilans epidemiologipusat hingga di daerah. Unit tersebut didukung oleh institusi pelaksana surveilans IMS dan pap-smear yang meliputipemerintah, swasta dan masyarakat. Faktor situasional data kesehatan dan penelitian memperlihatkan meningkatnyakejadian IMS pada ibu rumah tangga. Faktor struktural di masyarakat menunjukkan surveilans IMS sudah dilaksanakandan masyarakat merasakan pentingnya informasi kejadian IMS pada kelompok risiko rendah. Isi kebijakan meliputi fokusdeteksi dini dan pencegahan IMS pada ibu rumah tangga, penggunaan data dan informasi kegiatan pemeriksaan ibu rumahtangga dan pengembangan surveilans IMS menggunakan data pap-smear. Saran: Fokus pencegahan dan mengatasi penyebaran penyakit IMS diperluas pada kelompok risiko rendah yaitu ibu rumah tangga. Memperkuat sistem dan jejaringsurveilans epidemiologi IMS dan HIV/AIDS sebagai upaya pemantauan terus menerus pada masalah IMS.

  7. Effect of the smear layer on apical seals produced by two calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidar, Maryam; Sadeghalhoseini, Niloufar; Forghani, Maryam; Attaran, Negin

    2014-09-01

    We compared the apical seals of two new calcium silicate-based sealers (iRoot SP and MTA Fillapex) in the presence and absence of a smear layer. Eighty-two human premolars were prepared and randomly divided into four groups. In groups 1 and 3, the smear layer was retained. In groups 2 and 4, the root canals were irrigated with EDTA to remove the smear layer. Canals were filled using gutta-percha/iRoot SP (in groups 1 and 2) or obturated with gutta-percha/MTA Fillapex (in groups 3 and 4). Fluid filtration was used to evaluate apical microleakage. The presence of the smear layer had no significant effect on the sealing properties of the filling materials, except for iRoot SP at 2 weeks (P = 0.007). There was significantly less microleakage with iRoot SP than with MTA Fillapex (P = 0.025 at 2 weeks; P removal of the smear layer had no adverse effect on the sealing properties of calcium silicate-based sealers. In addition, the sealing ability of iRoot SP was superior to that of MTA Fillapex.

  8. Measure to Improve Detection of Smear Positive Cases Under RNTCP: Comparison of 2 Sputum Examinations versus 3 Sputum Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar Rahul,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: RNTCP recommends examination of three sputum smears for diagnosis of TB. This may not be practicable under all conditions, especially in difficult areas. It further adds to the laboratory workload, cost of diagnosis and causes inconvenience to patients as well as for the health system. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to compare the efficiency of sputum examination in detecting the smear positive TB cases among the chest symptomatics with 2 sputum examinations Vs 3 sputum examinations. Methods: A cross sectional study including sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients from 2 Tuberculosis Unit (5 Designated Microscopic Centre of Municipal corporation of Vadodara. Results: The study conducted in the fourth quarter included 143 (23.1 percent smear positive cases of TB. Dependence on the first specimen (spot and third specimen (spot could detect 88.1 percent and 89.5 percent of the sputum positive patients’ respectively, while morning specimen could detect 97.3 percent of the sputum positive patients. Comparison of 1st Vs 2nd and 2nd Vs 3rd showed a significant difference at P < 0.01. Repeat sputum Examination in only 11 patients out of 475 TB suspects identified 9% (1/11 smear positive cases. Conclusion: Two sputum smear examinations (one spot & one early morning specimen are sufficient for diagnosis of tuberculosis Patients.

  9. Comparative study between pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid (via) in screening of CIN and early cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Ashish Kumar; Nath, Jyan Dip; Deka, Harajyoti

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common among women globally. In most cases of Assam, Ca Cervix is detected late due to lack of effective screening programme. To screen the patient at Gynaecology OPD at the age 18-60 yrs by doing pap smear, VIA (Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid) and to detect sensitivity and specificity for detecting CIN and early Ca Cervix. It is a cross sectional study of 300 women (18- 60 yrs) who fulfill selection criteria. The pap smear and VIA are done in these cases. In positive cases, cervical biopsy and histopathological studies are done, The sensitivity and specificity of each test are determined and compared. The positive result detected from cytology are 22, VIA was positive in 52 cases. The histology of 19 cases are suggestive of CIN and Ca Cervix. The findings were compared with other studies and evaluated. The most common finding in per speculum examination is cervical erosion. The sensitivity of VIA is 89% (versus pap smear-52%) the specificity of VIA is 87% (versus pap smear-95%). The accuracy VIA is 87% compared to pap smear-93%. The lack of effective and implementable screening programme lead to reporting of advanced cases of Ca Cervix. If detected at CIN or early Ca cervix stage, effective treatment can be provided with encouraging results. Therefore effective & implementable Ca Cervix screening need to be provided in our country.

  10. Effect of the smear layer in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canal walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Arslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the smear layer influences the removal of calcium hydroxide from the root canal with manual or rotary instruments. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 48 freshly extracted single-rooted maxillary incisors were prepared to apical size 40 (n=40 and finally irrigated with sodium hypochlorite (group A, or ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA followed by sodium hypo chlorite (group B. 20 teeth were assigned to each group, while the remaining eight teeth served as positive and negative controls. Each group was divided into two subgroups of 10 teeth (subgroup I - calcium hydroxide was removed with master apical file; subgroup II - with profile file; and, in all removal procedures, citric acid was used for irrigation. The percentage of calcium hydroxide-[Ca(OH [Ca(OH 2 ] coated surface area was calculated by image processing analysis. Results: Considering the root canal as a whole, the removal of Ca(OH 2 from the dentinal walls in group B showed significantly better results (P<0.05 as compared to group A. Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that the smear layer is important in the removal of calcium hydroxide.

  11. The Effect of Fragaria vesca Extract on Smear Layer Removal: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Razavi, Sayed Alireza; Mosaddeghmehrjardi, Mohammad Hossein; Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Successful endodontic treatment depends on elimination of the microorganisms through chemomechanical debridement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) extract (FVE) on the removal of smear layer (SL). Methods and Materials: In this analytical-observational study, 40 extracted mandibular and maxillary human teeth were selected. After canal preparation with standard step-back technique, the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the irrigation solution: saline (negative control), 5.25% NaOCl+EDTA (positive control), FVE and FVE+EDTA. The teeth were split longitudinally so that scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs could be taken to evaluate the amount of remnant SL in coronal, middle and apical thirds. The data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Significant differences were found among the groups (P<0.001). The use of NaOCl+EDTA was the most effective regimen for removing the SL followed by FVE+EDTA. FVE alone was significantly more effective than saline (P<0.001). Conclusion: FVE with and without EDTA could effectively remove the smear layer; however, compared to NaOCl group it was less effective. PMID:26526069

  12. Assessing the efficacy of citrus aurantifolia extract on smear layer removal with scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhari, Behnam; Sharifian, Mohammad Reza; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Monsef Esfehani, Hamid Reza; Tavakolian, Pardis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of citrus aurantifolia (CA) extract on smear layer removal in different parts of root canals. Thirty-nine single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12) and one control (n=3) groups. Teeth were instrumented using MTwo rotary instruments. Root canals were irrigated with NaOCl during instrumentation. The canals in each group were irrigated with one of the following: completed mixture of citrus aurantifolia extracts, 17% EDTA, and alcoholic extract of CA. Distilled water was used for the control group. The irrigants were left within the canal for 20 minutes, and then rinsed with normal saline solution. Teeth were subsequently split longitudinally into 2 halves, and the canals were examined by a scanning electron-microscope. Cleanliness was evaluated using a five point scoring system. Statistical significant difference was found between groups (Pcitrus aurantifolia extracts were not able to effectively remove smear layer compared with 17% EDTA during root canal therapy.

  13. Direct immunofluorescence for Chlamydia trachomatis on urogenital smears for epidemiological purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijs, G J; Kauer, F M; van Gijssel, P M; Schirm, J; Schroder, F P

    1988-04-01

    A population of 197 asymptomatic women, attending an out-patient department for birth-control advice, was screened for urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis by direct immunofluorescence on cervical and urethral smears. A blood sample was obtained for chlamydial serology and demographic, behavioural and clinical data were recorded. Eleven (5.5%) women had a chlamydial infection. Chlamydial infection, as diagnosed with direct immunofluorescence, correlated with a history of sexually transmitted disease (p less than 0.01), promiscuity (p less than 0.01), use of oral contraceptives (p less than 0.02) and high chlamydial antibody titres (p less than 0.01). These last also correlated with a history of sexually transmitted disease (p less than 0.02) and promiscuity (p less than 0.02). These results, obtained with direct immunofluorescence, are indistinguishable from those obtained previously with chlamydial culture. Direct immunofluorescence on urogenital smears seems a valuable tool for epidemiological investigation. Our data also support the hypothesis that oral contraceptive use is correlated with chlamydial infection because of increased cervical susceptibility to infection and not because of a sampling bias towards oral contraceptive users.

  14. Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about “Quatrefoil” Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gavazza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called “quatrefoil RBCs,” qRBCs on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016 and 8.47% (133 of 1569 of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958 and 4.47% (138 of 3,081 of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once. Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P<0.0001, decreased total leukocyte and neutrophil counts (ANOVA, P<0.0001, RBCs anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P<0.018, <0.005, and <0.003, respectively. qRBCs were distributed in the area of feathered edge and at the smear side of body-feathered edge area in blood films. SEM ruled out the possibility of an optical illusion or an accidental overlap. qRBCs are associated with ageing of dogs, total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and RBC anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement.

  15. Effectiveness of Two Self-Etchings Bonded Clinically in Caries Affected Dentin with Homogeneous Smear Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pinna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the interface of two self-etchings in carious affected dentin (CAD, under clinical conditions. Materials and Methods. Class I cavities were prepared in 21 carious premolars, refining them by the use of a fine diamond bur in order to create similar smear layer interference. The mild self-etching Clearfil SE Bond (CSE, pH = 2.0, and the strong Tyrian SPE-One Step Plus (TSO, pH = 0.5, were applied followed by a composite. Teeth were extracted and processed for TEM. The primer’s osmolarity of the self-etchings was also calculated using a microosmometer. Results. CSE hybrid layer retained smear layer residues and scattered crystallites as an effect of the mild acidity. A high presence of hydroxyapatite still protected the affected fibres within the hybrid layer. CSE primer demonstrated values of 3220 mOsm/kg. TSO interdiffusion showed strong demineralization. Resin tags were not formed in the dentinal tubules which remained obstructed by crystals. However, dissolution of peritubular dentin and porosities were observed in the intertubular regions. The osmolarity of TSO was 8200 mOsm/kg. Conclusion. Increasing the acidity and osmolarity of the self-etchings increases interference in the homogeneous reinforcement of CAD, which may predispose the hybrid layer to instability and hydrolytic degradation overtime.

  16. Giemsa and Grocott in the recognition of Histoplasma capsulatum in blood smears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Bava; Alcides Troncoso

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To facilitate the recognition of intracellular yeasts of Histoplasma capsulatum and differentiate it from Leishmania amastigotes and other parasites, using the combination of then Giemsa) to previously fixed peripheral blood smears. Microscopy was performed with 400ístudy. Methods: The combination of both stains was applied consecutively (first Grocott and Giemsa and a rapid modification of Grocott stains to peripheral blood smears in a hematological and 1000í, the latter using immersion oil. Results: The yeasts of Histoplasma capsulatum were observed into the cytoplasm of leukocytes as brownish oval elements, with 3-4 µm in diameter. Conclusions: The combination of both techniques is a simple and fast method to facilitate recognition of intracellular yeasts and it is different from intracellular parasitic elements. Moreover, it allows distinguishing the cell elements that are in the microscopic preparations. It may be very helpful in those cases in which the presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis has not been established yet and where other more sophisticated methods are not available.

  17. Prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Gondar prisoners, North West Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zelalem Addis; Emebet Adem; Abebe Alemu; Wubet Birhan; Biniam Mathewos; Belaynesh Tachebele; Yegnasew Takele

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence and risk factors of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis amongGondar town prisoners,NorthWestEthiopia.Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted fromFebruary toJuly,2008 inGondarPrison.Prisoners with cough duration of more than two weeks were involved in the study by giving three sputum samples and filling the questionnaires prepared for risk factor assessment.Acid fast staining technique was employed to detect the presence of theMycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in the sputum samples.Data was analyzed usingSPSS version13 computer software and presented in table.Chi-square test was used to assess associations and aP-value less than0.05 was taken as significant.Results:A total of384 prisoners,349 male and35 females, with a mean age of33.3 years were involved in the study.The prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among those prisoners with cough duration of more than two weeks was8.59%.Only the length of imprisonment had a significant association(χ²=18.82,P-value<0.0001) with the prevalence of tuberculosis. Conclusions:This study indicated that tuberculosis among prisoners with cough duration of more than two weeks inGondar prison is very high.ThereforePeriodic screening of the prisoners and screening of newly introduced prisoners should be practiced so as to minimize the burden of tuberculosis in prisoners.

  18. Value and feasibility of HPV DNA test in cervical scraping smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sufang; Chen, Gang; Wang, Wei; Xu, Qian; Gu, Hainian; Lu, Yunping; Zhou, Liping; Du, Juan; Li, Fujun; Liao, Guoning; Ma, Ding

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the reliability and feasibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test in cervical scraping smears with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 131 cases of cervical scraping specimens were collected, and the positive rates and accuracy of HPV infection were determined in normal subjects and cervical cancer patients. GP5+/GP6+ and E7 primer pairs designed for detecting HPV L1 and HPV type 16 E7 were tested in this study. Our results showed that positive rates of HPV DNA in normal population and cervical cancer patients were 32.99% and 73.53% respectively and there was significant difference between them (P 0.05). However the detection rates in cervical cancer patients were 38.24% and 67.65% for the two markers, with a significant difference found between them (P scraping smears was feasible. GP5+/GP6+ primer pairs may be a useful probe to screen HPV infection in normal population, but they are not sensitive enough in cervical cancer patients. It is suggested that high risk type HPV DNA test was very useful in population with high risk of cervical cancer.

  19. Value and Feasibility of HPV DNA Test in Cervical Scraping Smears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Sufang; LIAO Guoning; MA Ding; CHEN Gang; WANG Wei; XU Qian; GU Hainian; LU Yunping; ZHOU Liping; DU Juan; LI Fujun

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the reliability and feasibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test in cervical scraping smears with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 131 cases of cervical scraping specimens were collected, and the positive rates and accuracy of HPV infection were determined in normal subjects and cervical cancer patients. GP5+/GP6+ and E7 primer pairs designed for detecting HPV L1 and HPV type 16 E7 were tested in this study. Our results showed that positive rates of HPV DNA in normal population and cervical cancer patients were 32.99 % and 73.53 % respectively and there was significant difference between them (P<0. 001). In normal subjects, detection rates of HPV DNA with GP5+/GP6+ and E7 primer pairs were 27.84 % and 16.49 % respectively, with statistically significant difference between them (P>0.05). However the detection rates in cervical cancer patients were 38.24 % and 67.65 % for the two markers, with a significant difference found between them (P<0.05). It is concluded that HPV DNA test with PCR for cervical scraping smears was feasible. GP5+/GP6+ primer pairs may be a useful probe to screen HPV infection in normal population, but they are not sensitive enough in cervical cancer patients. It is suggested that high risk type HPV DNA test was very useful in population with high risk of cervical cancer.

  20. Vacuum Energy Density Fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir States via Smeared Quantum Fields and Point Separation

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, N G; Phillips, Nicholas. G.

    2000-01-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universe, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life `time-machines'. For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the var...

  1. Cytopatholologic features of gliosarcoma with areas of primitive neuroepithelial differentiation of the brain in squash smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Kushida, Yoshio; Kadota, Kyuichi; Katsuki, Naomi; Bando, Kenji; Miyai, Yumi; Funamoto, Yasunobu; Haba, Reiji

    2009-12-01

    Gliosarcoma with areas of primitive neuroepithelial differentiation (GSPNED) is an extremely rare neoplasm. A case is presented here in which squash smears of a left temporal lobe tumor in a 76-year-old male demonstrated two distinct and easily recognizable cellular populations, i.e., densely hyperchromatic cells of a primitive nature in a fibrillary background and pleomorphic spindle-shaped cells. Occasional pseudo-rosette formations and nuclear cannibalism suggestive of neuroendocrine differentiation were also found. A cytologic diagnosis of a malignant tumor was suggested, and histochemical and immunohistochemical studies were conducted on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. Reticulin stain highlighted increased intercellular collagen and reticulin deposition within the spindled regions, whereas nodules with primitive cells were reticulin-poor. There was a diffuse and strong reactivity to neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and CD56 immunostains. A stain for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 protein demonstrated a subset of tumor cells including elongated cytoplasmic processes. The spindled component was positive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, whereas the primitive-appearing tumor cells were negative. The diagnosis of GSPNED was confirmed based on cytopathologic, histopathological and immunohistochemical results. The cytomorphologic features of this distinctive tumor are illustrated, and the adjunctival value of squash smears for frozen-section diagnosis is also discussed. This is the first presentation of a cytopathologic analysis that provides an important clue to an accurate diagnosis of GSPNED.

  2. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yan-Gang [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China); CERN, PH-TH Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Xu, Zhen-Ming [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2016-04-15

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate the thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and we obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the six- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law holds for the noncommutative black hole whose Hawking temperature is within a specific range, but fails for one whose the Hawking temperature is beyond this range. (orig.)

  3. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P. [Adelaide Univ., SA (AU). Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM); Koller, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Weinberg, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-01-11

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff {lambda}{sub cut}. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV<{lambda}{sub cut}<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  4. Cost Effectiveness of DOTS and Non-DOTS Strategies for Smear-positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, short course) and non-DOTS strategies for smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Beijing was evaluated. Cost calculation was based on the expenses of drugs, chest X-ray films, sputum smears and cultures for the patients. Effectiveness of the intervention was assessed in two aspects: direct benefits to the patients treated and indirect benefits to the others through reduced transmission of tuberculosis; disability adjusted life of year (DALY) was used as an index. The results showed that one DALY could be saved with 45.7 Yuan by DOTS and 471.4 Yuan by non-DOTS. DOTS is a good control strategy for smear-positive tuberculosis.

  5. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, Yan-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the 6- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law maintains for the noncommutative black hole with the Hawking temperature within a specific range, but fails with the Hawking temperature beyond this range.

  6. Utility of MPT64 antigen test for differentiating mycobacteria: Can correlation with liquid culture smear morphology add further value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Nerurkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Clinical presentation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM infections may or may not be the same, but the treatment is always different. Hence accurate differentiation between MTBC and NTM is of utmost importance. Aims: To assess in parallel, the utility of MPT64 antigen immunochromatography assay (MPT64 ICT and bacillary morphology on liquid culture smear, for rapid differentiation between MTBC and NTM in clinical isolates. Settings and Designs: Private sector reference laboratory, prospective. Subjects and Methods: Thousand and ninety-three mycobacterial isolates, recovered using Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 liquid culture system (BD, USA, were subjected to MPT64 ICT (Standard Diagnostics Inc., Korea, para amino nitrobenzoicacid (PNB, niacin, and nitrate reduction tests. Smears prepared from culture vials were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining and observed microscopically for typical patterns (chords, single cells, etc.,. PNB, nitrate and niacin tests served as the reference method for MTBC identification. Results: Thousand and fourteen and 79 isolates were identified as MTBC and NTM, respectively. MPT64 ICT correctly identified 955/1014 MTBC and all NTM isolates, yielding sensitivity and specificity of 94.2% and 100%, respectively. 936/1014 (92.3% MTBC isolates revealed characteristic serpentine chording on culture smear including 56/59 MPT64 ICT negative isolates. Sensitivity and specificity of liquid culture smear were 98.1% and 82.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Correlation of MPT64 ICT results with liquid culture smear was useful, especially in MPT64 ICT negative isolates, where the latter could help to determine need and/or type of additional confirmatory testing. Liquid culture smear, however, lacked specificity and cannot be used as a stand alone test.

  7. Antimicrobial Effect of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Enterococcus Faecalis Within the Dentinal Tubules in The Presence of Smear Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifian MR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Instrumentation of the root canals results in formation of smear layer which covers the dentinal tubules. In infected teeth, it is ideal to achieve a material that has the ability to remove the smear layer besides antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Citrus aurantifolia extracts (lime juice and rind extract on Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules in the presence of smear layer.Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty dentin tubes were prepared from bovine incisors. After removal the smear layer, the specimens were infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Then, the smear layer was reformed. Test solutions were used as the irrigants in study roups as follows: group 1: 5.25% NaOCl; group 2: 17% EDTA; group 3: NaOCl+EDTA; group 4: Lime juice; group 5: ethanolic rind extract of C.aurantifolia; group 6: 96% ethanol. Dentin chips were collected from inner and outer layers of dentinal walls and optical density was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane tests.Results: In outer layer of dentin, the efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. Also Lime juice was less effective than EDTA, NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. In inner layer of dentin, Lime juice was significantly less effective than NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. The efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05.Conclusion: In the presence of smear layer, the antimicrobial activity of Lime juice was less than that of NaOCl but the efficacy of rind extract was similar to that of NaOCl.

  8. New Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Smear Slides in Pelagic and Hemi-Pelagic Sediments of the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M. K.; Aiello, I. W.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Petrographic microscopy of smear slides is the standard method to initially investigate marine sediments in core sediment studies (e.g. IODP expeditions). The technique is not commonly used in more complex analysis due to concerns over the subjectivity of the method and variability in operator training and experience. Two initiatives sponsored by Ocean Leadership, a sedimentology training workshop and a digital reference of smear slide components (Marsaglia et al., 2013) have been implemented to address the need for advanced training. While the influence of subjectivity on the quality of data has yet to be rigorously tested, the lack of standardization in the current method of smear slide analysis (SSA) remains a concern. The relative abundance of the three main components, (total diatoms, silt-to-sand sized siliciclastics, and clay minerals) of high and low density Bering Sea hemi-pelagic sediments from the ocean margin (Site U144; Site U1339) and pelagic sediments from the open-ocean (Site U1340) were analyzed. Our analyses show visual estimation is a reproducible method to quantify the relative abundance of the main sediment components. Furthermore, we present a modified method for SSA, with procedural changes objectively guided by statistical analyses, including constraints to increase randomness and precision in both the preparation and analysis of the smear slide. For example, repeated measure ANOVAs found a smear slide could be accurately quantified by counting three fields of view. Similarly, the use of replicate smear slides to quantify a sample was analyzed. Finally, the data produced from this modified SSA shows a strong correlation to continuously logged physical parameters of sediment such as gamma ray attenuation (Site U1339 r2= 0.41; Site U1340 r2= 0.36). Therefore, the modified SSA combined with other independent methods (e.g. laser particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and physical properties) can be a very effective tool for the

  9. COBAS® TaqMan® MTB, smear positivity grade and MGIT culture; correlation analyses of three methods for bacillary quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Kato, Tomoko; Takaki, Akiko; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Yi, Lina; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the cycle threshold (Ct) value of the COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) MTB (TaqMan MTB), the mycobacterial smear positivity grade, and the time to detection (TTD) in the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) for quantification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). For 57 sputum samples, significant correlations were observed between the Ct value, the smear positivity grade, and the MGIT TTD (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient: r(s) = -0.940, P real-time PCR system, for diagnostic samples.

  10. Impact of Different Methodologies on the Detection of Point Mutations in Routine Air-dried Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) Smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, C; Münz, S; Krogdahl, A

    2013-01-01

    promising approach for molecular FNA diagnostics. The objective of this methodological study was to evaluate the feasibility of detecting BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS mutations from routine air-dried thyroid FNA smears, and to find an optimal method for detecting these mutations in FNA samples. DNA...... was extracted from 110 routine air-dried FNA smears and the corresponding surgically obtained formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. The presence of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS mutations was assessed by real-time PCRs and high resolution melting analysis, and/or pyrosequencing in comparison to real-time PCRs...

  11. KLASIFIKASI INTI SEL PAP SMEAR BERDASARKAN ANALISIS TEKSTUR MENGGUNAKAN CORRELATION-BASED FEATURE SELECTION BERBASIS ALGORITMA C4.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Arifin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Pap Smear is an early examination to diagnose whether there’s indication cervical cancer or not, the process of observations were done by observing pap smear cell under the microscope. There’s so many research has been done to differentiate between normal and abnormal cell. In this research presents a classification of pap smear cell based on texture analysis. This research is using the Harlev image which amounts to 280 images, 140 images are used as training data and 140 images other are used as testing. On the texture analysis used Gray level Co-occurance Matrix (GLCM method with 5 parameters that is correlation, energy, homogeneity and entropy added by counting the value of brightness. For choose which the best attribute used correlation-based feature selection method and than used C45 algorithm for produce classification rule. The result accuracy of the classification normal and abnormal used decision tree C45 is 96,43% and errors in predicting is 3,57%. Keywords : Classification, Pap Smear cell image, texture analysis, Correlation-based feature selection, C45 algorithm. Abstrak - Pap Smear merupakan pemeriksaan dini untuk mendiagnosa apakah ada indikasi kanker serviks atau tidak, proses pengamatan dilakukan dengan mengamati sel pap smear dibawah mikroskop. Banyak penelitian yang telah dilakukan untuk membedakan antara sel normal dan abnormal. Dalam penelitian ini menyajikan klasifikasi inti sel pap smear berdasarkan analisis tektur. Citra yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah citra Harlev yang berjumlah 280 citra, 140 citra digunakan sebagai data training dan 140 citra lain digunakan sebagai testing. Pada analisis tekstur mengunakan metode Gray level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM menggunakan 5 parameter yaitu korelasi, energi, homogenitas dan entropi ditambah dengan menghitung nilai brightness. Untuk memilih mana atribut terbaik digunakan metode correlation-based feature selection lalu digunakan algoritma C45 untuk

  12. Diagnostic performance of smear microscopy and incremental yield of Xpert in detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngabonziza, Jean Claude Semuto; Ssengooba, Willy; Mutua, Florence; Torrea, Gabriela; Dushime, Augustin; Gasana, Michel; Andre, Emmanuel; Uwamungu, Schifra; Nyaruhirira, Alaine Umubyeyi; Mwaengo, Dufton; Muvunyi, Claude Mambo

    2016-11-08

    Tuberculosis control program of Rwanda is currently phasing in light emitting diode-fluorescent microscopy (LED-FM) as an alternative to Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy. This, alongside the newly introduced Xpert (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is expected to improve diagnosis of tuberculosis and detection of rifampicin resistance in patients at health facilities. We assessed the accuracy of smear microscopy and the incremental sensitivity of Xpert at tuberculosis laboratories in Rwanda. This was a cross-sectional study involving four laboratories performing ZN and four laboratories performing LED-FM microscopy. The laboratories include four intermediate (ILs) and four peripheral (PLs) laboratories. After smear microscopy, the left-over of samples, of a single early-morning sputum from 648 participants, were tested using Xpert and mycobacterial culture as a reference standard. Sensitivity of each test was compared and the incremental sensitivity of Xpert after a negative smear was assessed. A total of 96 presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis participants were culture positive for M. tuberculosis. The overall sensitivity in PL of ZN was 55.1 % (40.2-69.3 %), LED-FM was 37 % (19.4-57.6 %) and Xpert was 77.6 % (66.6-86.4 %) whereas in ILs the same value for ZN was 58.3 % (27.7-84.8 %), LED-FM was 62.5 % (24.5-91.5 %) and Xpert was 90 (68.3-98.8 %). The sensitivity for all tests was significantly higher among HIV-negative individuals (all test p incremental sensitivity of Xpert over smear microscopy was 32.3 %; p incremental sensitivity of Xpert was statistically significant for both smear methods at PL (32.9 %; p = 0.001) but not at the ILs (30 %; p = 0.125) for both smear methods. Our study findings of the early implementation of the LED-FM did not reveal significant increment in sensitivity compared to the method being phased out (ZN). This study showed a significant incremental sensitivity for Xpert from both smear methods at peripheral

  13. CONVENTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PREOCCUPATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A great number of the conventions referring to nature, even if they do not refer ton particular species, were limited from the point of view of geography and territories: we may give as example here a convention for the protection of flora, fauna and panoramic beauties of America, the African convention for nature and natural resources… By the Stockholm conferences, from the 5th of June 1972, we entered in a “dynamic of globalization”. Article 1 of the Declaration that followed the conference...

  14. Conventional Armaments for coming decades .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Salwan

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional arnaments have continued to play a decisive role even in the present scenario of nuclear weapons and electronic warfare. As a war-fighting technology, they are low cost, reliable, highly effective and proven in several battlefield situations. With the application of advancements in electronics, materials and manufacturing technologies, computers and propulsion technologies to conventional weapon systems, they are capable of having greater flexibility, lethality , accuracy and effectiveness. This communication gives an overview on advancements in conventional armament systems, emerging trends in weapon technologies and modern enabling technologies for advanced weapon systems.

  15. An Assessment of the Utility of Tissue Smears in Rapid Cancer Profiling with Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolman, Michael; Tata, Alessandra; Bluemke, Emma; Dara, Delaram; Ginsberg, Howard J.; Zarrine-Afsar, Arash

    2017-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging with desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is used to characterize cancer from ex vivo slices of tissues. The process is time-consuming. The use of tissue smears for DESI-MS analysis has been proposed as it eliminates the time required to snap-freeze and section the tissue. To assess the utility of tissue smears for rapid cancer characterization, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to evaluate the concordance between DESI-MS profiles of breast cancer from tissue slices and smears prepared on various surfaces. PCA suggested no statistical discrimination between DESI-MS profiles of tissue sections and tissue smears prepared on glass, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and porous PTFE. However, the abundances of cancer biomarker ions varied between sections and smears, with DESI-MS analysis of tissue sections yielding higher ion abundances of cancer biomarkers compared with smears. Coefficient of variance (CV) analysis suggests DESI-MS profiles from tissue smears are as reproducible as the ones from tissue sections. The limit of detection with smear samples from single pixel analysis is comparable to tissue sections that average the signal from a tissue area of 0.01 mm2. The smears prepared on the PTFE surface possessed a higher degree of homogeneity compared with the smears prepared on the glass surface. This allowed single MS scans ( 1 s) from random positions across the surface of the smear to be used in rapid cancer typing with good reproducibility, providing pathologic information for cancer typing at speeds suitable for clinical utility.

  16. Segmentation of touching mycobacterium tuberculosis from Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Zhou, Dongxiang; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-12-01

    Touching Mycobacterium tuberculosis objects in the Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images present different shapes and invisible boundaries in the adhesion areas, which increases the difficulty in objects recognition and counting. In this paper, we present a segmentation method of combining the hierarchy tree analysis with gradient vector flow snake to address this problem. The skeletons of the objects are used for structure analysis based on the hierarchy tree. The gradient vector flow snake is used to estimate the object edge. Experimental results show that the single objects composing the touching objects are successfully segmented by the proposed method. This work will improve the accuracy and practicability of the computer-aided diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  17. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  18. On a general class of regular rotating black holes based on a smeared mass distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Larranaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the behavior of a new general class of rotating regular black holes based on a non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution. It is shown that the existence of a fundamental minimal length cures the well-known problems in the terminal phase of black hole evaporation, since we find that there is a finite maximum temperature that the black hole reaches before cooling down to absolute zero, so that the evaporation ends up in a zero temperature extremal black hole whose mass and size depends on the value of the fundamental length and on the rotation parameter of the black hole. We also study the geodesic structure in these spacetimes and calculate the shadows that these black holes produce.

  19. Role of intraoperative squash smear cytology as a diagnostic modality in lipoma of quadrigeminal cistern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quadrigeminal lipoma is a rare tumor that has been categorized as developmental malformation rather than a hamartoma or true neoplasm, due to its origin from abnormal persistence and mal-differentiation of meninx primitiva during the development of the subarachnoid cisterns. Reported admixture of adipose tissue with heterotopic elements also supports a developmental origin. Quadrigeminal lipomas are frequently asymptomatic and detected incidentally. Though a favorable clinical course is usually expected, recurrences may occur due to partial removal of lesions in close relation to vital structure. We describe the role of intraoperative squash smear cytology as a diagnostic aid in quadrigeminal cistern lipoma and an alternative to frozen sections that are technically difficult to obtain due to presence of lobules of fibro-adipose tissue. With radiological correlation, squash cytology can be an economical method for intraoperative diagnosis, pending subsequent histopathological confirmation.

  20. Two-Color Schrodinger Functional with Six-Flavors of Stout-Smeared Wilson Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Voronov, Gennady

    2012-01-01

    We study the Schr\\"odinger functional running coupling in the SU(2) gauge theory with six-flavors of massless fermions. The aim is to determine whether the above theory has an infrared fixed point (IRFP). We use the standard Wilson gauge action and the stout-smeared Wilson fermion action. Here we present a determination of the critical mass as a function of the bare coupling and a preliminary study of the phase diagram of this lattice action. We also find preliminary indication that this theory has no IRFP. While this conclusion is not yet definite, we also show that with this approach we will be able to take a proper continuum limit and clearly determine the status of this theory with a reasonable amount of computer time.

  1. [Identification of yeasts in pap smears: clinical characteristics associated with candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovera Suárez, Vilma; Perurena Lancha, Mayda Rosa

    2004-01-01

    A study of 404 women that attended the Microbiology Laboratory of Ramón Gonzalez Coro Gynecoobstetric Hospital, in Havana City, was conducted aimed at identifying species of yeasts isolated from Pap smears, registering the signs and clinical symptoms and determining the risk factors associated with infection. The isolated yeasts were identified by the filamentation tests in serum, production of chlamydoconidia and carbohydrate assimilation. It was found that 138 (34.16%) of women had yeasts in the vagina. 3 genera were identified: Candida (88.49%). Trichosporon (10.79%) and Rhodotorula (0.72%). Pruritus and heat showed statistical significance (p < 0.01). Pregnancy, the use of IUD and the antibacterial therapy proved to be the most common risk factors in relation to the presence of Candida in the vagina.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis among women with normal and abnormal cervical smears in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maymunah Adeshola Adegbesan-Omilabu

    2014-06-01

    Results: The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis was 27.7% with a decreasing trend noted with age (P <0.05. The majority of women with C. trachomatis were in the reproductive age group of 25-45 years. 50% of women with abnormal smears were positive for C. trachomatis, compared to only 16.7% of the controls (X2 = 10.95; P = 0.001. There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of C. trachomatis and cervical cytological types (X2 = 1.892; P = 0.595 Conclusions: The study revealed an association between Chlamydia trachomatis and precancerous lesions of the cervix. Routine screening and treatment of sexually active adolescents and women in the reproductive age group is recommended as an indirect measure to reducing the incidence of cervical cancer in Nigeria. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 501-506

  3. Facing possible illness detected through screening--experiences of healthy women with pathological cervical smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain knowledge about women's perceptions of illness based on their abnormal PAP smears, following screening for cervical cancer. The study uses a phenomenological, hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. Twelve women, aged between 23 and 59...... of a face-value review of participant experiences (naive reading), structural analysis and, critical interpretation of what it means to be potentially ill. The women were unprepared to find that their screening results showed abnormal cells, indicative of incipient genital cancer. They were frustrated...... by the results as they had not experienced any symptoms and felt well, despite being diagnosed with a potential disease. Being diagnosed with abnormal cells caused the participants to feel anxious. Their anxiety had subsided 6 months after the cells had been removed. For those who did not require treatment...

  4. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha Juliette Albert; Seshasayanan Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to p...

  5. Vacuum energy density fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir states via smeared quantum fields and point separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nicholas G.; Hu, B. L.

    2000-10-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that, contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universes, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life ``time machines.'' For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the variance to the mean-squared, calculated from the coincidence limit, is identical to the value of the Casimir case at the same limit for spatial point separation while identical to the value of a hot flat space result with a temporal point separation. We analyze the origin of divergences in the fluctuations of the energy density and discuss choices in formulating a procedure for their removal, thus raising new questions about the uniqueness and even the very meaning of regularization of the energy momentum tensor for quantum fields in curved or even flat spacetimes when spacetime is viewed as having an extended structure.

  6. The Effect of Smear Layer on Antimicrobial Efficacy of Three Root Canal Irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Nazanin; Dianat, Omid; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Zadsirjan, Saeede

    2015-01-01

    One of the main goals of endodontic treatment is to decrease the harboring bacteria within the root canal system and dentinal tubules. This experimental study attempted to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of three root canal irrigants in the presence and absence of smear layer (SL). A total of 210 sound extracted human single-rooted teeth were prepared. After creating the SL and its removal in half of the samples, they were infected with Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Actinomyces israelii (A. israelii). A total of 180 specimen were used to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the three irrigants in presence and absence of SL, 24 specimen were placed in the positive and negative controls, 2 samples were utilized for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and 2 were used for Gram staining. Then, they were exposed to irrigants including 2.61% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and 1% povidone-iodine (PI) for 5, 30 and 60 min. Presence/absence of test microorganisms was determined by incubation of specimens in test tubes containing brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth and then measuring the colony forming units (CFU) on BHI agar. A cumulative logistic model was used to analyze the ordinal response. The 2.61% solution of NaOCl was significantly more effective than 0.2% CHX and the latter was more efficient than 1% PI for decreasing fungal and microbial infection of dentinal tubules in the presence and absence of SL. The presence of smear layer decreased the efficacy of antimicrobial irrigants. The minimum time required for elimination of fungal/microbial infection was 30 min.

  7. Use of p16 FISH for differential diagnosis of mesothelioma in smear preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Shinji; Hamasaki, Makoto; Hida, Tomoyuki; Kamei, Toshiaki; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Tsujimura, Tohru; Kawahara, Kunimitsu

    2016-09-01

    Because most of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients first present with pleural effusion, detection of mesothelioma cells on effusion smears is critical for early diagnosis. Recently, accumulating evidence indicating that the cytological diagnosis of MPM supported by ancillary techniques is as reliable as that based on histopathology has led to new guidelines for the cytopathologic diagnosis of MPM. Based on the guidelines, a combination of cytomorphological criteria and verification by ancillary techniques is required for the cytologic diagnosis of MPM. Detection of p16 homozygous deletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the most reliable ancillary technique for differentiating MPM from reactive mesothelial cells (RMC) because of its relatively high sensitivity and extremely high specificity. We showed that the p16 deletion status of MPM cells in pleural effusions reflected that of the underlying invasive MPM tissues, indicating the usefulness of p16 FISH in effusion smear cytology for MPM diagnosis. Thus, for differentiating MPM from RMC, we propose to perform p16 FISH as often as possible. A positive p16 homozygous deletion supports the diagnosis of MPM. However, a negative result does not rule out the possibility of MPM. In such cases, a morphological assessment is critical. Therefore, we analyzed the morphological characteristics of p16 deletion-positive mesothelioma cells using a combination of virtual microscopy and p16 FISH, and identified three morphological characteristics useful for the differentiation, including cell-in-cell engulfment with or without hump formation, multinucleate cells, and larger berry-like cell aggregates. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:774-780. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A New Nano-Chitosan Irrigant with Superior Smear Layer Removal and Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kassaee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our primary objective was to measure root canal penetrations of aqueous antibacterial nano-chitosan (Nano-CS, for the first time. The second objective was to compare and contrast such penetrations to those of chitosan (CS itself, as well as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, chlorhexidine (CHX and ethylenediamintetraacetic acid (EDTA, at the routinely used concentrations. Molar roots were split longitudinally by a rotary diamond saw. Nano-CS was made by dissolving CS in acetic acid and adding tripolyphosphate (TPP, followed by a freeze-drying process. Dentin penetrations are estimated through measurements of sessile contact angles. Penetrations of the probed irrigants were assessed as inverse functions of their sessile contact angles. Accordingly, all Nano-CS solutions showed smaller sessile angles compared to those of NaOCl, CS, and EDTA samples. Hence, Nano-CS appeared to be a superior irrigant for demonstrating a higher penetration than the latter three. It fell only behind CHX, yet, the superb chelating ability of Nano-CS enabled it to remove smear layer to a larger extend than all of our other irrigants including CHX. Nano-CS could be considered as a new irrigant. Higher penetration was its main advantage over CS, and commercial NaOCl, and EDTA. This was verified by  the smaller sessile contact angle of Nano-CS. Anticipated chelating effect of Nano-CS could anchor more efficient removal of smear layer. This was another advantage of Nano-CS over other irrigants including CHX. Other advantages of Nano-CS included its reported biocompatibility, biodegradability and antibacterial effects. Commercialization of Nano-CS was deemed in the near horizon.

  9. Microscopy of Stained Urethral Smear in Male Urethritis; Which Cutoff Should be Used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moi, Harald; Hartgill, Usha; Skullerud, Kristin Helene; Reponen, Elina J; Syvertsen, Line; Moghaddam, Amir

    2017-03-01

    The microscopical diagnosis of male urethritis was recently questioned by Rietmeijer and Mettenbrink, lowering the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis to ≥2 polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) per high power field (HPF), and adopted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in their 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines. The European Non-Gonococcal Urethritis Guideline advocates a limit of ≥5 PMNL/HPF. To determine if syndromic treatment of urethritis should be considered with a cutoff value of ≥2 PMNL/HPF in urethral smear. The design was a cross-sectional study investigating the presence and degree of urethritis relative to specific infections in men attending an STI clinic as drop-in patients. The material included 2 cohorts: a retrospective study of 13,295 men and a prospective controlled study including 356 men. We observed a mean chlamydia prevalence of 2.3% in the 0-9 stratum, and a 12-fold higher prevalence (27.3%) in the strata above 9. Of the chlamydia cases, 89.8% were diagnosed in strata above 9. For Mycoplasma genitalium, the prevalence was 1.4% in the 0-9 stratum and 11.2% in the stratum ≥10, and 83.6% were diagnosed in strata above 9. For gonorrhea, a significant increase in the prevalence occurred between the 0-30 strata and >30 strata from 0.2% to 20.7%. The results of the prospective study were similar. Our data do not support lowering the cutoff to ≥2 PMNL/HPF. However, a standardization of urethral smear microscopy seems to be impossible. The cutoff value should discriminate between low and high prevalence of chlamydia, mycoplasma, and gonorrhea to include as many as possible with a specific infection in syndromic treatment, without overtreating those with few PMNL/HPF and high possibility of having nonspecific or no urethritis.

  10. Survival and Predictors of Death after Successful Treatment among Smear Positive Tuberculosis: A Cohort Study

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    Mahmood Moosazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB can affect patients′ life even after successful treatment. In this study, we aimed to determine the survival rate of patients with smear positive TB after successful treatment and identify the predictors of mortality. Methods: This was a prospective study. The source of data was the TB registry system in Iran and 964 patients were eligible for the study. The life table was used to determine the annual survival rate. Survival curves were estimated using Kaplan-Meier and were compared using the log-rank test. In order to determine the predictors of survival, four models of Cox regression, exponential, Weibull and log-logistic fitted and finally exponential model with minimum akaike information criteria and Bayesian information criterion values were selected. Then, variables with significant levels <0.2 in univariate analysis were entered into the multivariate model. Hazard ratios with a confidence interval of 95% were used to measure the association. Results: A total of 149 patients (15.5% died during the follow-up period. The median of survival time after successful treatment was 10.5 years and survival probability for 11 years after successful treatment was 70%. Furthermore, previous TB treatment, high age, suffering from kidney failure and cancer were predictors of mortality after successful treatment. Conclusions: This study showed that positive smear pulmonary tuberculosis even after successful treatment has an adverse effect on the patients′ survival and leads to a decrease in their survival rate in the long run. Furthermore, individuals with a history of previous TB treatment had much lower survival rates.

  11. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Cervical Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiyi, EC; Dike, IE; Okeudo, C; Ejikem, C; Nzewuihe, AC; Agbata, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the local risk factors have not been sufficiently assessed. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the prevalence and to evaluate the local risk factors of HPV infection in cervical smears at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The participants involved 445 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the university between April 2004 and May 2012. A questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic characteristics of the participants was administered. The pap smears of the participants were examined microscopically for evidence of HPV infection. The SPSS version 17.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compute and analyze the results. The results were presented in tables as simple percentages. Tests of significance using the Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied where appropriate. Results: The prevalence rate of HPV was 10.3%. The peak age-specific prevalence of 11.7% occurred in the 15-19 years age group. There were significant associations between the occurrence of HPV and multiple sexual partners, coital frequency, multiparity, contraceptive use, marital status, low socio-economic status, abnormal vaginal discharge, irregular menstruation, post-coital and post-menopausal bleeding, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: All sexually active women including teenagers should be screened for cervical HPV infection in an organized systematic program equipped with a good call and recall system. There is, therefore, a need to move emphasis from the current practice of opportunistic screening to a systematic screening of the whole population at risk despite cost implications. PMID:24380003

  12. Accuracy of a Low Priced Liquid-Based Method for Cervical Cytology in 632 Women Referred for Colposcopy After a Positive Pap Smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemel, B. M.; Buikema, H. J.; Groen, H.; Suurmeijer, A. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this quality controlling study was to determine the accuracy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) with the Turbitec (R) cytocentrifuge technique. Cervical smears of 632 Women, Who were referred to our CIN outpatient department, after at least two smears with ASCUS or higher were evaluated and c

  13. Accuracy of a Low Priced Liquid-Based Method for Cervical Cytology in 632 Women Referred for Colposcopy After a Positive Pap Smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemel, B. M.; Buikema, H. J.; Groen, H.; Suurmeijer, A. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this quality controlling study was to determine the accuracy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) with the Turbitec (R) cytocentrifuge technique. Cervical smears of 632 Women, Who were referred to our CIN outpatient department, after at least two smears with ASCUS or higher were evaluated and c

  14. Cytologic follow up of Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Pap smears after integrated treatment with antimicrobials followed by oral turmeric oil extract

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    Jayashree Vinay Joshi

    2016-04-01

    In the control group, persistence of LSIL after antimicrobials was observed in Pap smears in 5/10 cases when followed up by Pap smears up to 36 months. This preliminary report indicates some post-therapeutic benefit with integrative treatment as compared to the use of antimicrobials alone. A large scale controlled study is warranted.

  15. Constraints on the sealing capacity of faults with clay smears from discrete element models validated by laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terheege, J.H.; Wassing, B.B.T.; Orlic, B.; Giger, S.B.; Clennell, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of hydrocarbon column heights in structural traps critically depends on proper analysis of the sealing capacity of faults. Entrainment of clay in fault zones in upper crustal levels may lead to the development of continuous clay smears that dramatically increase the sealing capacity of fa

  16. An in vitro study to determine the sealing ability of sealers with and without smear layer removal

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    Jhamb Swaty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Objectives: The objective of this in vitro study is to compare the sealing ability of Ketac-Endo and Acroseal. Materials and Methods: Seventy teeth were selected and sectioned at the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were cleaned and shaped, and they were divided into five different groups. Group1: 20 teeth in which the smear layer was left intact using sodium hypochlorite. Group 2: 20 teeth in which the smear layer was removed using 17% EDTA. Group 3: 20 teeth in which the smear layer was removed using 17% EGTA. These groups (1, 2, and 3 were further subdivided into two subgroups (a and b by obturation utilizing lateral condensation with Gutta-percha and Acroseal (subgroup "a" or Ketac-Endo (subgroup "b".The subgroups contained 10 teeth each. Group 4: 5 teeth that were instrumented but not obturated. Group 5:5 teeth that were neither instrumented nor obturated. The specimens were immersed in methylene blue dye, and microleakage was assessed using a stereomicroscope. Results: The data was analyzed using one way analysis of variance and student′s t-test. Conclusion: 17% EGTA is a better and potent alternative to 17% EDTA for smear layer removal. Acroseal sealer has less microleakage as compared with Ketac-Endo. Sealing ability of Acroseal sealer is better when it is used in conjunction with 17% EGTA.

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strains FAM22552 and FAM22553, Isolated from Swiss Semihard Red-Smear Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is the main microorganism responsible for late blowing defect in cheeses. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two C. tyrobutyricum strains isolated from a Swiss semihard red-smear cheese. The two draft genomes comprise 3.05 and 3.08 Mbp and contain 3,030 and 3,089 putative coding sequences, respectively.

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strains FAM22552 and FAM22553, Isolated from Swiss Semihard Red-Smear Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storari, Michelangelo; Wüthrich, Daniel; Bruggmann, Rémy; Berthoud, Hélène; Arias-Roth, Emmanuelle

    2015-03-12

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is the main microorganism responsible for late blowing defect in cheeses. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two C. tyrobutyricum strains isolated from a Swiss semihard red-smear cheese. The two draft genomes comprise 3.05 and 3.08 Mbp and contain 3,030 and 3,089 putative coding sequences, respectively.

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strains FAM22552 and FAM22553, Isolated from Swiss Semihard Red-Smear Cheese.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is the main microorganism responsible for late blowing defect in cheeses. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two C. tyrobutyricum strains isolated from a Swiss semihard red-smear cheese. The two draft genomes comprise 3.05 and 3.08 Mbp and contain 3,030 and 3,089 putative coding sequences, respectively.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium variabile Mu292, Isolated from Munster, a French Smear-Ripened Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Dugat-Bony, Eric; Sarthou, Anne-Sophie; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Irlinger, Françoise; Layec, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile Mu292, which was originally isolated from the surface of Munster, a French smear-ripened cheese. This genome investigation will improve our knowledge on the molecular determinants potentially involved in the adaptation of this strain during the Munster-type cheese manufacturing process.

  1. Efficacy of Different Root Canal Irrigants on Smear Layer Removal after Post Space Preparation: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirseifinejad, Rahele; Tabrizizade, Mehdi; Davari, Abdolrahim; Mehravar, Fateme

    2017-01-01

    Effective durable adhesion between post material and dentine using resin cements is essential for longevity of restoration. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the effect of different irrigants on smear layer removal after post space preparation. A total of 75 extracted anterior human teeth were selected. The canals were instrumented by rotary system and then were filled. After preparing the post space, teeth were divided into 5 groups according to irrigants: 17% EDTA; 17% EDTA+2% CHX; 5.25% NaOCl; 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl; and saline. The canals were irrigated with 5 cc of each irrigants for 1 min. Specimens were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hulsmann's score was used for marking of smear layer removal at coronal, middle and apical thirds of post space. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The results revealed that subsequent use of 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl was more effective than the other groups in smear layer removal. No statistical difference was found among different levels of root canal within each group. It can be concluded that 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl could be an effective irrigant for smear layer removal after post space preparation.

  2. Efficacy of Two Irrigants Used with Self-Adjusting File System on Smear Layer: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç Şen, Özgür; Kaya, Sadullah; Er, Özgür; Alaçam, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical instrumentation of root canals produces a smear layer that adversely affects the root canal seal. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of MTAD and citric acid solutions used with self-adjusting file (SAF) system on smear layer. Twenty-three single-rooted human teeth were used for the study. Canals were instrumented manually up to a number 20 K file size. SAF was used to prepare the root canals. The following groups were studied: Group 1: MTAD + 5.25% NaOCl, Group 2: 20% citric acid + 5.25% NaOCl, and Group 3: Control (5.25% NaOCl). All roots were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds was evaluated using a five-score evaluation system. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. In the coronal third, Group 2 exhibited the best results and was statistically different froms the other groups (P 0.05). The solutions used in Group 1 and 2 could effectively remove smear layer in most of the specimens. However, citric acid was more effective than MTAD in the three thirds of the canal.

  3. Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: aerobic coryneform bacteria isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Catherine; Irlinger, Françoise

    2008-09-01

    The group of "coryneform bacteria" belongs to the class of Actinobacteria including a diverse and heterogeneous collection of bacteria of various genera. Most of them are known as environmental residents and/or commensal flora of humans and they are isolated frequently in clinical studies. Actinobacteria include also several aerobic species, present at the surface of smear-ripened cheeses for decades and used as ripening culture in the dairy industry. Their clinical significance is controversial because an easy combination of phenotypic and molecular methods to characterize Actinobacteria at the species level is still lacking. A bibliographical survey was conducted to assess the safety status of Actinobacteria species used as starter culture in fermented dairy foods, according to their technological interest. Aerobic coryneform bacteria isolated from smear-ripened cheeses are most commonly recovered from soil, the environment or food. To date, no clinical infection or food toxi-infection related to smear cheese coryneform bacteria ingestion has been reported. From a taxonomic viewpoint, dairy species are distant from the reference species associated with known pathologies. From a physiological viewpoint, cheese smear coryneform bacteria appear to be related to particular ecological niches: they are all oxidative species, and most are psychrotrophic and unable to grow at 37 degrees C whereas medically relevant coryneform bacteria are facultative anaerobes and grow at 35-37 degrees C. Consequently, technological strains must be selected according to taxonomic criteria (nonpathogenic species) and ecological criteria.

  4. Awareness of cervical cancer and Pap smear among nursing staff at a rural tertiary care hospital in Central India

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    S M Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths in females in developing countries and one in five women suffering from cervical cancer lives in India. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear among nurses working in a tertiary care institute. Study Setting and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a tertiary care institute. Materials and Methods: Nurses working at our institute excluding those who have worked or working in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department were provided with a pre-designed questionnaire testing their knowledge about cervical cancer. Results: Approximately, 86% were aware about cancer cervix and 69% were aware of a pre-cancerous stage. 42.3% were not aware of any risk factor and 27.6% were not aware of any symptom of cancer cervix. 86.2% were aware about Pap smear, but only 58.6% were aware that facilities of Pap smear were available at our hospital. Conclusions: Knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of Pap smear as screening test was inadequate in nursing staff. Awareness programs about cervical cancer and screening are needed to increase awareness for this preventable condition. Recommendation: There is a need to arrange reorientation programs to sensitize nurses and establish cytology clinics to offer facilities for easily accessible and affordable screening.

  5. Women's Understanding of the Term 'Pap smear': A Comparison of Spanish-Speaking Versus English-Speaking Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David L; Soulli, Beth; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin

    2016-11-01

    Objective To compare the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among Spanish-speaking women, as compared to their English-speaking counterparts. Methods Surveys were distributed to English and Spanish speaking female patients in an urban Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic. Patients were at least 18 years old or they were less than 18 years old and pregnant. Results A majority of participants (77.3 % English-speaking vs. 74.1 % Spanish-speaking, respectively) were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term Pap smear. However, Spanish-speaking women were significantly less likely to choose incorrect descriptors. Spanish-speaking women were much less likely to say that a Pap smear was the same as a Pelvic exam (45.7 vs. 78.8 %; p = 0.001), or a test for a sexually transmitted disease (25 vs. 60.6 %; p = 0.001). Conclusions for Practice Compared to English-speaking women, Spanish-speaking women are much less likely to conflate a pelvic exam with a Pap smear. Overall understanding was suboptimal, regardless of primary language, indicating that major efforts are still needed to improve functional health literacy with respect to cervical cancer screening.

  6. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M.; Rodriguez, Victor

    2012-01-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrat

  7. Establishing a protocol for immunocytochemical staining and chromogenic in situ hybridization of Giemsa and Diff-Quick prestained cytological smears

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    Elsa Beraki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protocols for immunocytochemical staining (ICC and in situ hybridization (ISH of air-dried Diff-Quick or May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG-stained smears have been difficult to establish. An increasing need to be able to use prestained slides for ICC and ISH in specific cases led to this study, aiming at finding a robust protocol for both methods. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of MGG- and Diff-Quick-stained smears. After diagnosis, one to two diagnostic smears were stored in the department. Any additional smear(s containing diagnostic material were used for this study. The majority were fine needle aspirates (FNAC from the breast, comprising materials from fibroadenomas, fibrocystic disease, and carcinomas. A few were metastatic lesions (carcinomas and malignant melanomas. There were 64 prestained smears. Ten smears were Diff-Quick stained, and 54 were MGG stained. The antibodies used for testing ICC were Ki-67, ER, and PgR, CK MNF116 (pancytokeratin and E-cadherin. HER-2 Dual SISH was used to test ISH. Citrate, TRS, and TE buffers at pH6 and pH9 were tested, as well as, different heating times, microwave powers and antibody concentrations. The ICC was done on the Dako Autostainer (Dako®, Glostrup, Denmark, and HER-2 Dual SISH was done on the Ventana XT-machine (Ventana / Roche® , Strasbourg, France. Results: Optimal results were obtained with the TE buffer at pH 9, for both ICC and ISH. Antibody concentrations generally had to be higher than in the immunohistochemistry (IHC. The optimal microwave heat treatment included an initial high power boiling followed by low power boiling. No post fixation was necessary for ICC, whereas, 20 minutes post fixation in formalin (4% was necessary for ISH. Conclusions: Microwave heat treatment, with initial boiling at high power followed by boiling at low power and TE buffer at pH 9 were the key steps in the procedure. Antibody concentrations has to be adapted for each ICC marker. Post

  8. Evaluation of rapid techniques for the detection of mycobacteria in sputum with scanty bacilli or clinically evident, smear negative cases of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis

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    Pottathil Shinu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to compare two rapid methods, the BBL Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT TM and Biotec FASTPlaque TB TM (FPTB assays, with the conventional Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ media assay to diagnose mycobacterial infections from paucibacillary clinical specimens. For evaluation of the clinical utility of the BBL MGIT TM and FPTB assays, respiratory tract specimens (n = 208, with scanty bacilli or clinically evident, smear negative cases and non-respiratory tract specimens (n = 119 were analyzed and the performance of each assay was compared with LJ media. MGIT and FPTB demonstrated a greater sensitivity (95.92% and 87.68%, specificity (94.59% and 98.78%, positive predictive value (94.91% and 99.16% and negative predictive value (96.56% and 90.92%, respectively, compared to LJ culture for both respiratory tract and non-respiratory tract specimens. However, the FPTB assay was unable to detect nontuberculous mycobacteria and few Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex cases from paucibacillary clinical specimens. It is likely that the analytical sensitivity of FPTB is moderately low and may not be useful for the direct detection of tuberculosis in paucibacillary specimens. The current study concluded that