WorldWideScience

Sample records for conventional ls-pump based

  1. Controlling a Conventional LS-pump based on Electrically Measured LS-pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the increasing use of sensors in mobile hydraulic equipment, the need for hydraulic pilot lines is decreasing, being replaced by electrical wiring and electrically controllable components. For controlling some of the existing hydraulic components there are, however, still a need fo...

  2. A comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, C; Gezginç, K; Toy, H; Findik, S; Yilmaz, O

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the 2 methods of cytologic screening to detect abnormalities of the cervical epithelium. This study with 3 groups of women was performed at Selcuk University Meram Medical School between January 2004 and March 2006. In one group (paired sample for specimen collection) women were screened with conventional cytology; in another group (paired sample for specimen collection) they were screened with liquid-based cytology; and in the third group (split sample for specimen collection) they were screened by both methods. The rate of unsatisfactory results was lower in the liquid-based than in the conventional cytology group (6.1% vs. 2.6%; Pliquid-based method, but the difference was not statistically significant. Also, no statistically significant differences between liquid-based and conventional cytology were observed in the detection of other epithelial abnormalities (P>0.05). The liquid-based and conventional cytology methods were found to be equivalent in the detection of cervical epithelial abnormalities.

  3. Micro-droplet based directed evolution outperforms conventional laboratory evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjostrom, Staffan L.; Huang, Mingtao; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    are confined in microfluidic droplets to prevent the phenotype, e.g. secreted enzymes, from leaking between cells. The method was benchmarked against and found to significantly outperform conventional adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) in enriching enzyme producing cells. It was furthermore applied to enrich......We present droplet adaptive laboratory evolution (DrALE), a directed evolution method used to improve industrial enzyme producing microorganisms for e.g. feedstock digestion. DrALE is based linking a desired phenotype to growth rate allowing only desired cells to proliferate. Single cells...

  4. Diagnosis of Dengue Infection Using Conventional and Biosensor Based Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Parkash

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed.

  5. CONVENTIONAL THERAPY OF PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS: EVIDENCE-BASED REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Soriano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis is a heterogeneous condition, the pattern of which is determined by any combination of pathology affecting peripheral joints, the enthesis and the spine. There is a paucity of evidence for most of the conventional agents used to treat psoriatic arthritis, with many of them being used on the basis of experience in rheumatoid arthritis. Herein, we summarise the evidence compiled relating to effectiveness of treatment for various manifestation of PsA. For those patients with progressive forms of arthritis who may benefit from intervention of newer biological therapies, the continued use of conventional therapy needs ever increasing scrutiny. Key words: Psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, therapy

  6. Comparing conventional and biotechnology-based pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O

    2011-06-08

    Pest management has changed dramatically during the past 15 years by the introduction of transgenes into crops for the purpose of pest management. Transgenes for herbicide resistance or for production of one or more Bt toxins are the predominant pest management traits currently available. These two traits have been rapidly adopted where available because of their superior efficacy and simplification of pest management for the farmer. Furthermore, they have substantially reduced the use of environmentally and toxicologically suspect pesticides while reducing the carbon footprint of pest management as reduced tillage became more common, along with fewer trips across the field to spray pesticides. The most successful of these products have been glyphosate-resistant crops, which cover approximately 85% of all land occupied by transgenic crops. Over-reliance on glyphosate with continual use of these crops has resulted in the evolution of highly problematic glyphosate-resistant weeds. This situation has resulted in some farmers using weed management methods similar to those used with conventional crops. Evolution of resistance has not been a significant problem with Bt crops, perhaps because of a mandated resistance management strategy. Transgenic crops with multiple genes for resistance to different herbicides and resistance to additional insects will be available in the next few years. These products will offer opportunities for the kind of pest management diversity that is more sustainable than that provided by the first generation of transgenic crops.

  7. A review on conventional and laser assisted machining of Aluminium based metal matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum based Metal Matrix Composites (Al-MMC) have been found in different industrial applications due its excellent properties compared to conventional materials. Machining of these composites is difficult due to the hard particle reinforcements. The wider usage of these composites is limited due high machining cost and excessive tool wear with conventional machining. Because of increasing demands in industries, any improvement of conventional machining process or any other deployment of a...

  8. Creep curve modelling of a conventionally cast nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupinc, V.; Maldini, M. [CNR - IENI, Milan (Italy); Poggio, E.; Vacchieri, E. [Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Constant load creep tests on Rene 80, a nickel base superalloy for gas turbine blade application, were run in the temperature interval 800-950 C with applied stresses producing rupture times up to 1000 h. Creep curves are generally dominated by a long accelerating/tertiary creep that follows a relatively small decelerating/primary creep. No steady state stage has been observed. Analysis of the creep curves has shown that a single damage parameter can describe the long accelerating/tertiary state in the explored temperature range. The damage appears to be dependent on the accumulated creep strain and, as a first approximation, independent on the applied stress and temperature. The whole creep curve, primary and tertiary stages, has been modelled by a simple set of coupled differential equations obtained using the formalism of the Continuum Damage Mechanics. The proposed set of equations has an analytical solution, strain vs. time, for creep curves at constant temperature and stress. (orig.)

  9. [Systemic cardiovascular risk assessment. Conventional or eye fundus-based?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A; Kernt, M; Kampik, A; Neubauer, A S

    2010-09-01

    Several systemic cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment algorithms exist, of which the ESC HeartScore, Framingham and PROCAM are the most frequently applied in Germany. The risk estimates generated differ and take a number of different risk factors into consideration. Due to existing homology of retinal vessels and brain vessels, eye fundus examination is a promising approach to improving risk prediction. Large cohort studies investigated retinal vascular changes, including arteriovenous ratio, as well as signs of retinopathy such as cotton-wool spots, microaneurysms, or retinal hemorrhages for their ability to predict systemic cardiovascular events. While signs of retinopathy proved to have high predictive power (but are rarely diagnosed,) the retinal vascular changes investigated could contribute little to enhancing systemic CV risk prediction. A number of new and promising approaches based on static and dynamic retinal analysis exist, but still need to be validated prospectively.

  10. Addition of a Project-Based Component to a Conventional Expository Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Gorezi, Marianna

    2007-01-01

    Students should enjoy their laboratory classes and for this purpose a project-based activity is added to a conventional physical chemistry laboratory. Students were given project work instead of conventional experiment and then they had to make progress in the project according to instructions and then carry out experiments related to the project.

  11. Survey-based naming conventions for use in OBO Foundry ontology development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungall Chris

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide variety of ontologies relevant to the biological and medical domains are available through the OBO Foundry portal, and their number is growing rapidly. Integration of these ontologies, while requiring considerable effort, is extremely desirable. However, heterogeneities in format and style pose serious obstacles to such integration. In particular, inconsistencies in naming conventions can impair the readability and navigability of ontology class hierarchies, and hinder their alignment and integration. While other sources of diversity are tremendously complex and challenging, agreeing a set of common naming conventions is an achievable goal, particularly if those conventions are based on lessons drawn from pooled practical experience and surveys of community opinion. Results We summarize a review of existing naming conventions and highlight certain disadvantages with respect to general applicability in the biological domain. We also present the results of a survey carried out to establish which naming conventions are currently employed by OBO Foundry ontologies and to determine what their special requirements regarding the naming of entities might be. Lastly, we propose an initial set of typographic, syntactic and semantic conventions for labelling classes in OBO Foundry ontologies. Conclusion Adherence to common naming conventions is more than just a matter of aesthetics. Such conventions provide guidance to ontology creators, help developers avoid flaws and inaccuracies when editing, and especially when interlinking, ontologies. Common naming conventions will also assist consumers of ontologies to more readily understand what meanings were intended by the authors of ontologies used in annotating bodies of data.

  12. Effects of conventional and problem-based learning on clinical and general competencies and career development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Geertsma, Jelle; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test hypotheses regarding the longitudinal effects of problem-based learning (PBL) and conventional learning relating to students' appreciation of the curriculum, self-assessment of general competencies, summative assessment of clinical competence and indicators of career development.

  13. Processing Conventional Conceptual Metaphors in Persian: A Corpus-Based Psycholinguistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshaie, Ramin; Golfam, Arsalan

    2015-10-01

    Research on the psycholinguistic processing of conceptual metaphors has produced contrasting results in recent years. There have also been criticisms that in experimental studies of metaphor processing, linguistic stimuli are mostly intuition-based and not designed objectively based on the original language use data. To address these issues, we studied the processing of conventional metaphoric expressions in Persian language using corpus data. A reading time experiment was designed to test whether conventional metaphoric expressions activated conceptual metaphors. A corpus of 50 million word tokens was used to study the conventional patterns of metaphoric expressions usages and construct experimental items. Fifty five Persian speakers read a set of scenarios containing non-conventional metaphor, conventional metaphor and non-metaphor expressions on computer and the reading times of the following novel target sentence in each condition were recorded by DMDX stimulus presenter program. Comparing mean reading times using one-way ANOVA revealed that reading target sentence after conventional metaphor scenarios had been significantly faster than non-metaphor scenarios, but slower than non-conventional scenarios. The results show that conventionality has a weakening effect on the strength of metaphoric expressions to activate conceptual metaphors.

  14. Comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology for detection of cervical cancer precursors: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Grefte, J.M.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Vedder, J.E.; Beijers-Broos, A.; Bulten, J.; Arbyn, M.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Liquid-based cytology has been developed as an alternative for conventional cervical cytology. Despite numerous studies and systematic reviews, controversy remains about its diagnostic accuracy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of liquid-based cytology compared with conventional

  15. Rapid pre-screening is more sensitive in liquid-based cytology than in conventional smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudding, Nick; Renshaw, Andrew A; Ellis, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Rapid pre-screening (RPS) is a useful tool to measure and improve performance in the cytology laboratory. Whether RPS is more or less effective in liquid-based cytology than in conventional smears is unknown. We compared the estimated sensitivity in a laboratory of 11 cytotechnologists which converted from conventional smears to SurePath™ (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, N.J., USA) liquid based cytology. In the 9 months prior to conversion, 23,286 smears were screened compared with 30,610 smears in the 12 months immediately after conversion. The estimated sensitivity of rapid pre-screening for 90 s improved significantly with liquid based cytology for all abnormalities (58.7 vs. 68.7%, pliquid-based cytology compared with conventional smears, and detects significant lesions that are missed by routine screening.

  16. A Comparative Study of Reduced-Variables-Based Flash and Conventional Flash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2013-01-01

    the advantages of the reduced-variables methods in their recent paper. A fair comparison between the reduced-variables-based flash and the conventional flash is not straightforward because it is difficult to formulate the former as unconstrained minimization problems, and the flash calculation time is also...... related to the implementation quality. With the recent formulations by Nichita and Graciaa (2011), it is possible to code the reduced-variables methods without extensive modifications of Michelsen's conventional flash algorithm. A minimization-based reduced-variables algorithm was coded and compared...... with the conventional minimization-based flash. A test with the use of the SPE 3 example (Kenyon and Behie 1987) showed that the best reduction in time was less than 20% for the extreme situation of 25 components and just one row/column with nonzero BIPs. A better performance can be achieved by a simpler implementation...

  17. Comparison of Specimen Adequacy and Smear Quality in Conventional and Liquid-Based Pap Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Since the best method of cervical smear is a controversial subject, this study was designed to compare two methods of cervical sampling, consisting of conventional versus liquid base. Objectives Pap smear is a screening test used to detect pre malignant and malignant processes in the endocervical canal of the female reproductive system. There are two methods, consisting of conventional Pap, in which samples are smeared directly on a microscope slide after collection, and liquid based cytology, in which the smear sample is placed in a bottle of preservative for transport to the laboratory, where it is then smeared on the slide. In this study it was decided to compare these two methods of sampling. Methods This randomized trial was carried out at the Amir Hospital of Semnan, Iran on 240 females undergoing Pap smear screening from April to September 2012. Patients were divided to two groups including conventional (n = 120 and liquid base cytology smear (n = 120. The results of cytological reports of both groups were compared in regards to sufficiency of sample, presence of blood in the sample, presence of infection and premalignant or malignant condition. Results Specimen adequacy and smear quality were significantly better in liquid base sampling (P = 0.03; presence of benign cellular changes was not different between the two groups (P = 0.389. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was significantly better with the conventional method (P = 0.007. Also, severe inflammation was more commonly reported in the conventional method than liquid base sampling test (P = 0.029. Conclusions Specimen adequacy and diagnosis of inflammatory reaction were better in liquid base smear and convention smear, respectively.

  18. Neural Correlates of Post-Conventional Moral Reasoning: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Prehn; Marc Korczykowski; Hengyi Rao; Zhuo Fang; Detre, John A.; Robertson, Diana C.

    2015-01-01

    Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which mora...

  19. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nambiar, Shwetha; Hegde, Veda; Yadav, Nikhil; Hallikeri, Kaveri

    2016-01-01

    ...-based cytology (LBC) was initially developed for cervical uterine cancer screening. As compared to conventional smears, this technique reduces the number of unsatisfactory and false positive results with significant improvement in cytodiagnostic accuracy. [4] Most LBC preparations showed a good quality of preparation including cytoplasmic and...

  20. A comparison of the dimensional accuracy of microwave and conventionally polymerized denture base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A; Huggett, R; Zissis, A; Vowles, R W

    1993-01-01

    This study compares the dimensional changes of microwave and conventionally polymerized denture bases and also establishes the degree of monomer conversion using gas-liquid chromatography. Dimensional changes of three denture base materials were assessed using an optical comparator and the results showed no significant differences between the materials employed or the curing method used. Efficient monomer conversion was demonstrated with levels of residual monomer of less than 1% for all materials.

  1. Comparison of centrifuged liquid based cytology method with conventional brush cytology in oral lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Dwivedi; Akhil Agarwal; Vineet Raj; Bina Kashyap; Shaleen Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exfoliative cytology is the study of cells that are shed or scrapped off from mucosal surfaces. Centrifuged Liquid based cytology is a modified technique employed in the present study. Aims: To compare the utility of centrifuged liquid based cytology with conventional cytology in oral lesions after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Materials and Methods: 50 cases of oral lesions comprising of normal mucosa (n=14), hyperkeratotic lesions (n=17), ulcerated lesions (n=7) and at...

  2. A comparison between conventional and LANDSAT based hydrologic modeling: The Four Mile Run case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, R. M.; Jackson, T. J.; Fitch, W. N.; Shubinski, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    Models designed to support the hydrologic studies associated with urban water resources planning require input parameters that are defined in terms of land cover. Estimating the land cover is a difficult and expensive task when drainage areas larger than a few sq. km are involved. Conventional and LANDSAT based methods for estimating the land cover based input parameters required by hydrologic planning models were compared in a case study of the 50.5 sq. km (19.5 sq. mi) Four Mile Run Watershed in Virginia. Results of the study indicate that the LANDSAT based approach is highly cost effective for planning model studies. The conventional approach to define inputs was based on 1:3600 aerial photos, required 110 man-days and a total cost of $14,000. The LANDSAT based approach required 6.9 man-days and cost $2,350. The conventional and LANDSAT based models gave similar results relative to discharges and estimated annual damages expected from no flood control, channelization, and detention storage alternatives.

  3. Student Modeling using Case-Based Reasoning in Conventional Learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriana Hidayah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional face-to-face classrooms are still the main learning system applied in Indonesia. In assisting such conventional learning towards an optimal learning, formative evaluations are needed to monitor the progress of the class. This task can be very hard when the size of the class is large. Hence, this research attempted to create a classroom monitoring system based on student’s data of Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology UGM. In order to achieve the goal, a student modeling using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR was proposed. A generic student model based on jCOLIBRI 2.3 framework was developed. The model represented student’s knowledge of a subject. The result showed that the system was able to store and retrieve student’s data for suggestion of the current situation and formative evaluation for one of the subject in the Department.

  4. Dimensional changes of acrylic resin denture bases: conventional versus injection-molding technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Gharechahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin denture bases undergo dimensional changes during polymerization. Injection molding techniques are reported to reduce these changes and thereby improve physical properties of denture bases. The aim of this study was to compare dimensional changes of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques.SR-Ivocap Triplex Hot resin was used for conventional pressure-packed and SR-Ivocap High Impact was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, all the specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. For dimensional accuracy evaluation, measurements were recorded at 24-hour, 48-hour and 12-day intervals using a digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA using t-test and repeated-measures ANOVA. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05.After each water storage period, the acrylic specimens produced by injection exhibited less dimensional changes compared to those produced by the conventional technique. Curing shrinkage was compensated by water sorption with an increase in water storage time decreasing dimensional changes.Within the limitations of this study, dimensional changes of acrylic resin specimens were influenced by the molding technique used and SR-Ivocap injection procedure exhibited higher dimensional accuracy compared to conventional molding.

  5. Comparison of Computed Tomography Scout Based Reference Point Localization to Conventional Film and Axial Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Lan; Templeton, Alistair; Turian, Julius; Kirk, Michael; Zusag, Thomas; Chu, James C.H., E-mail: jchu@rush.edu

    2011-01-01

    Identification of source positions after implantation is an important step in brachytherapy planning. Reconstruction is traditionally performed from films taken by conventional simulators, but these are gradually being replaced in the clinic by computed tomography (CT) simulators. The present study explored the use of a scout image-based reconstruction algorithm that replaces the use of traditional film, while exhibiting low sensitivity to metal-induced artifacts that can appear in 3D CT methods. In addition, the accuracy of an in-house graphical software implementation of scout-based reconstruction was compared with seed location reconstructions for 2 phantoms by conventional simulator and CT measurements. One phantom was constructed using a planar fixed grid of 1.5-mm diameter ball bearings (BBs) with 40-mm spacing. The second was a Fletcher-Suit applicator embedded in Styrofoam (Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI) with one 3.2-mm-diameter BB inserted into each of 6 surrounding holes. Conventional simulator, kilovoltage CT (kVCT), megavoltage CT, and scout-based methods were evaluated by their ability to calculate the distance between seeds (40 mm for the fixed grid, 30-120 mm in Fletcher-Suit). All methods were able to reconstruct the fixed grid distances with an average deviation of <1%. The worst single deviations (approximately 6%) were exhibited in the 2 volumetric CT methods. In the Fletcher-Suit phantom, the intermodality agreement was within approximately 3%, with the conventional sim measuring marginally larger distances, with kVCT the smallest. All of the established reconstruction methods exhibited similar abilities to detect the distances between BBs. The 3D CT-based methods, with lower axial resolution, showed more variation, particularly with the smaller BBs. With a software implementation, scout-based reconstruction is an appealing approach because it simplifies data acquisition over film-based reconstruction without requiring any specialized equipment

  6. Superior performance of liquid-based versus conventional cytology in a population-based cervical cancer screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerman, H.; van Dorst, E. B. L.; Kuenen-Boumeester, V.; Hogendoorn, P. C. W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Liquid-based cytology may offer improvements over conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening. The two cytology techniques were compared in a group of 86,469 women who participated in a population-based screening program. Using a nation-wide pathology database containing both cerv

  7. Superior performance of liquid-based versus conventional cytology in a population-based cervical cancer screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerman, H.; van Dorst, E. B. L.; Kuenen-Boumeester, V.; Hogendoorn, P. C. W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Liquid-based cytology may offer improvements over conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening. The two cytology techniques were compared in a group of 86,469 women who participated in a population-based screening program. Using a nation-wide pathology database containing both cerv

  8. Superior performance of liquid-based versus conventional cytology in a population-based cervical cancer screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerman, H.; van Dorst, E. B. L.; Kuenen-Boumeester, V.; Hogendoorn, P. C. W.

    Objective. Liquid-based cytology may offer improvements over conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening. The two cytology techniques were compared in a group of 86,469 women who participated in a population-based screening program. Using a nation-wide pathology database containing both

  9. Oral rinse-based cytology and conventional exfoliative cytology: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulki, Shaila; Shetty, Pushparaj; Pai, Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Simple screening test for resource-challenged areas. To compare specimen adequacy and diagnostic agreement between oral rinse-based smears and conventional smears in oral cancer, oral leukoplakia, and normal controls. Twenty-five histologically confirmed cases of oral cancer, 29 clinically diagnosed cases of oral leukoplakia, and 54 normal controls were subjected to the oral rub-and-rinse technique and the conventional exfoliative cytology. Smears were consequently stained with the Papanicolaou (PAP) stain and were examined independently by two different cytopathologists in a double-blind fashion. The results were classified as: Negative, atypical, positive, and unsatisfactory. Furthermore, they were compared, to assess the sample adequacy, cellular distribution, staining, leucocytes/inflammation and cellular clarity in both the smears. Chi square test and Wilcoxon-matched pairs signed rank test (P ≤ 0.05). Among the cancer cases, 84% showed positive, 8% atypical, and 8% unsatisfactory, after using the conventional technique, whereas, the oral rinse technique showed 80% positive, 16% atypical, and 4% unsatisfactory cases. The conventional technique showed 44.82, 37.93, and 6.89% and the oral rinse technique showed 48.27, 31.03, and 20.68% negative, positive, and atypical cases, respectively, among the leukoplakia cases. Among the normal controls, 9.26 and 90.74% and with the oral rinse technique 3.70 and 96.29% showed atypical and negative cases with the conventional technique. Sample adequacy and cellular clarity showed a statistically significant difference between both techniques. Both smears were diagnostically reliable, however, the oral rinse-based method showed an overall improvement in sample adequacy and cellular clarity.

  10. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetha Nambiar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exfoliative cytology is the microscopic examination of shed or desquamated cells from the epithelial surface. Centrifuged liquid-based cytology (CLBC is a modified technique that was used in the current study. Aims: To compare the efficacy of CLBC with conventional cytology in apparently normal mucosa after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP stain. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of apparently normal mucosa from healthy subjects were selected for the study. The first sample was taken and spread on the slide by the conventional technique. The second sample was flushed out in a suspending solution, centrifuged, and the cell pellet obtained was used to make the smear. The stained smears were compared for seven parameters such as adequate cellularity, clear background, uniform distribution, cellular overlapping, cellular elongation, mucus, and inflammatory cells. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between CLBC and conventional cytology with parameters such as adequate cellularity (P = 0.001, clear background (P = 0.001, uniform distribution (0.005, cellular overlapping, and cellular elongation (P = 0. The presence of mucus and inflammatory cells was minimal as the samples were collected from healthy subjects. Conclusion: CLBC has better efficacy over the conventional method in all the parameters analyzed.

  11. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Shwetha; Hegde, Veda; Yadav, Nikhil; Hallikeri, Kaveri

    2016-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology is the microscopic examination of shed or desquamated cells from the epithelial surface. Centrifuged liquid-based cytology (CLBC) is a modified technique that was used in the current study. To compare the efficacy of CLBC with conventional cytology in apparently normal mucosa after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Fifty cases of apparently normal mucosa from healthy subjects were selected for the study. The first sample was taken and spread on the slide by the conventional technique. The second sample was flushed out in a suspending solution, centrifuged, and the cell pellet obtained was used to make the smear. The stained smears were compared for seven parameters such as adequate cellularity, clear background, uniform distribution, cellular overlapping, cellular elongation, mucus, and inflammatory cells. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. There was a statistically significant difference between CLBC and conventional cytology with parameters such as adequate cellularity (P = 0.001), clear background (P = 0.001), uniform distribution (0.005), cellular overlapping, and cellular elongation (P = 0). The presence of mucus and inflammatory cells was minimal as the samples were collected from healthy subjects. CLBC has better efficacy over the conventional method in all the parameters analyzed.

  12. Liquid-based versus conventional cytology of oral brush biopsies: a split-sample pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmerbach, T W; Pomjanski, N; Bauer, U; Neumann, H

    2017-01-11

    The aim of this prospective split sample study was to evaluate the applicability of liquid-based cytology (LBC) of oral brush biopsies for detection of oral cancer. Two different preparation techniques were investigated: the conventional transfer procedure to glass slides and the LBC preparation method. The obtainments of epithelial cells were performed five times with a nylon brush and transferred onto five glass slides. Additionally, the brushes, which were normally discarded, were stored in a fixative solution. Conventional slides and respective thin layers from a total of 113 cases were reviewed with both techniques. Thin layers showed excellent morphology on a clear background, which allowed an accurate diagnosis. In contrast, the conventional glass slides showed significantly more blood contamination and cell overlapping. The sensitivity of conventional cytological diagnosis was 96.3%, the specificity archived 90.6%, the positive predictive value was 96.3% and the negative predictive value scored 90.6%. The sensitivity of the cytological diagnosis using thin layers archived 97.5%, the specificity was 68.8%, the positive predictive value revealed 88.76% and negative predictive value was 91.7%. Our findings indicate that in oral cytology, LBC may replace other types of wet-fixed preparations using the full amount of collected cells, resulting in enhanced specimen quality archiving comparable values of diagnostic accuracy. LBC facilitates the cell collection due to simpler handling and less transfer errors by dentists and may improve the overall diagnostic accuracy of oral brush biopsies in future.

  13. Solum depth spatial prediction comparing conventional with knowledge-based digital soil mapping approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Duarte de Menezes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Solum depth and its spatial distribution play an important role in different types of environmental studies. Several approaches have been used for fitting quantitative relationships between soil properties and their environment in order to predict them spatially. This work aimed to present the steps required for solum depth spatial prediction from knowledge-based digital soil mapping, comparing the prediction to the conventional soil mapping approach through field validation, in a watershed located at Mantiqueira Range region, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Conventional soil mapping had aerial photo-interpretation as a basis. The knowledge-based digital soil mapping applied fuzzy logic and similarity vectors in an expert system. The knowledge-based digital soil mapping approach showed the advantages over the conventional soil mapping approach by applying the field expert-knowledge in order to enhance the quality of final results, predicting solum depth with suited accuracy in a continuous way, making the soil-landscape relationship explicit.

  14. Microneedle arrays delivery of the conventional vaccines based on nonvirulent viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wang, Ning; Wang, Xueting; Zhen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ting

    2016-11-01

    Recently, microneedle arrays (MAs) have been developed for painless inoculation of vaccines and possess many prominent advantages, including convenience for inoculation, and exact delivery of vaccine to the exact epidermal and dermal or mucosal compartments which teem with antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Among different types of MAs, while the micro-environmental stimulus-responsive MAs represent one of the developmental trends in the field, the MAs combined with the conventional vaccines that are based on nonvirulent viruses, such as live attenuated or whole inactivated viruses, and antigen-encoding DNA viral vectors, have developed rapidly into the advanced stages, with certain products already on clinical trials. The pre- and clinical research outcomes showed that the painless MA delivery of the conventional vaccines through mammalian skin or mucosa can not only elicit robust systemic and even mucosal immunity to pathogens but also, in certain circumstances, redirect the immune response toward a specific Th1 pathway, resulting in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to erase the cell-hidden pathogens, thanks to the robust adjuvant function of MAs exerted through damaging the contacted cells to release dangerous signals. This paper focuses on reviewing the latest research and advancements in MA delivery of the conventional vaccines that are based on nonvirulent viruses, underlining MA enhancement of the overall vaccine performance and the most advanced MA vaccine products that are relatively close to markets.

  15. Comparison of computed tomography scout based reference point localization to conventional film and axial computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lan; Templeton, Alistair; Turian, Julius; Kirk, Michael; Zusag, Thomas; Chu, James C H

    2011-01-01

    Identification of source positions after implantation is an important step in brachytherapy planning. Reconstruction is traditionally performed from films taken by conventional simulators, but these are gradually being replaced in the clinic by computed tomography (CT) simulators. The present study explored the use of a scout image-based reconstruction algorithm that replaces the use of traditional film, while exhibiting low sensitivity to metal-induced artifacts that can appear in 3D CT methods. In addition, the accuracy of an in-house graphical software implementation of scout-based reconstruction was compared with seed location reconstructions for 2 phantoms by conventional simulator and CT measurements. One phantom was constructed using a planar fixed grid of 1.5-mm diameter ball bearings (BBs) with 40-mm spacing. The second was a Fletcher-Suit applicator embedded in Styrofoam (Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI) with one 3.2-mm-diameter BB inserted into each of 6 surrounding holes. Conventional simulator, kilovoltage CT (kVCT), megavoltage CT, and scout-based methods were evaluated by their ability to calculate the distance between seeds (40 mm for the fixed grid, 30-120 mm in Fletcher-Suit). All methods were able to reconstruct the fixed grid distances with an average deviation of <1%. The worst single deviations (approximately 6%) were exhibited in the 2 volumetric CT methods. In the Fletcher-Suit phantom, the intermodality agreement was within approximately 3%, with the conventional sim measuring marginally larger distances, with kVCT the smallest. All of the established reconstruction methods exhibited similar abilities to detect the distances between BBs. The 3D CT-based methods, with lower axial resolution, showed more variation, particularly with the smaller BBs. With a software implementation, scout-based reconstruction is an appealing approach because it simplifies data acquisition over film-based reconstruction without requiring any specialized equipment

  16. Comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology for detection of cervical cancer precursors: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Grefte, J.M.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Vedder, J.E.; Beijers-Broos, A.; Bulten, J.; Arbyn, M.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Liquid-based cytology has been developed as an alternative for conventional cervical cytology. Despite numerous studies and systematic reviews, controversy remains about its diagnostic accuracy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of liquid-based cytology compared with conventional cytolog

  17. Comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology for detection of cervical cancer precursors: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Grefte, J.M.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Vedder, J.E.; Beijers-Broos, A.; Bulten, J.; Arbyn, M.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Liquid-based cytology has been developed as an alternative for conventional cervical cytology. Despite numerous studies and systematic reviews, controversy remains about its diagnostic accuracy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of liquid-based cytology compared with conventional cytolog

  18. Neural correlates of post-conventional moral reasoning: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Kristin; Korczykowski, Marc; Rao, Hengyi; Fang, Zhuo; Detre, John A; Robertson, Diana C

    2015-01-01

    Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA) students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago.

  19. Neural correlates of post-conventional moral reasoning: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Prehn

    Full Text Available Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema, whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2 which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago.

  20. A comparison of problem-based learning and conventional teaching in nursing ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiou-Fen; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Chung, Chun-Chih; Yang, Che-Ming

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the learning effectiveness of peer tutored problem-based learning and conventional teaching of nursing ethics in Taiwan. The study adopted an experimental design. The peer tutored problem-based learning method was applied to an experimental group and the conventional teaching method to a control group. The study sample consisted of 142 senior nursing students who were randomly assigned to the two groups. All the students were tested for their nursing ethical discrimination ability both before and after the educational intervention. A learning satisfaction survey was also administered to both groups at the end of each course. After the intervention, both groups showed a significant increase in ethical discrimination ability. There was a statistically significant difference between the ethical discrimination scores of the two groups (P nursing ethics education, but problem-based learning was shown to be more effective. Peer tutored problem-based learning has the potential to enhance the efficacy of teaching nursing ethics in situations in which there are personnel and resource constraints.

  1. Evaluation of water quality functions of conventional and advanced soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer A; Loomis, George W; Kalen, David V; Amador, Jose A

    2015-05-01

    Shallow narrow drainfields are assumed to provide better wastewater renovation than conventional drainfields and are used for protection of surface and ground water. To test this assumption, we evaluated the water quality functions of two advanced onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) drainfields-shallow narrow (SND) and Geomat (GEO)-and a conventional pipe and stone (P&S) drainfield over 12 mo using replicated ( = 3) intact soil mesocosms. The SND and GEO mesocosms received effluent from a single-pass sand filter, whereas the P&S received septic tank effluent. Between 97.1 and 100% of 5-d biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), fecal coliform bacteria, and total phosphorus (P) were removed in all drainfield types. Total nitrogen (N) removal averaged 12.0% for P&S, 4.8% for SND, and 5.4% for GEO. A mass balance analysis accounted for 95.1% (SND), 94.1% (GEO), and 87.6% (P&S) of N inputs. When the whole treatment train (excluding the septic tank) is considered, advanced systems, including sand filter pretreatment and SND or GEO soil-based treatment, removed 99.8 to 99.9% of BOD, 100% of fecal coliform bacteria and P, and 26.0 to 27.0% of N. In contrast, the conventional system removed 99.4% of BOD and 100% of fecal coliform bacteria and P but only 12.0% of N. All drainfield types performed similarly for most water quality functions despite differences in placement within the soil profile. However, inclusion of the pretreatment step in advanced system treatment trains results in better N removal than in conventional treatment systems despite higher drainfield N removal rates in the latter.

  2. From conventional therapy toward microRNA-based therapy in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtesham, Naeim; Sharifi, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a hematopoietic malignancy that is known with its special cytogenetic feature. Several studies have surveyed expression signature of microRNAs (miRNAs) in APL patients, especially patients who are treated with conventional therapy of this disease. Using miRNAs as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers in various cancers has been widely studied. Currently, most studies are focusing on exploiting miRNAs as therapeutic tools, and promising progress has been achieved in this field. Recently, studies in the field of miRNA-based therapy in APL have been started. PMID:28028527

  3. Source effects in analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoennicke, M. G. [Universidade Federal da Integracao Latino-Americana, 85867-970 Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil); Manica, J. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, 85867-970 Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil); Mazzaro, I.; Cusatis, C. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19091, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Huang, X.-R. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Several recent papers have shown the implementation of analyzer based X-ray phase contrast imaging (ABI) with conventional X-ray sources. The high flux is always a requirement to make the technique useful for bio-medical applications. Here, we present and discuss three important parameters, which need to be taken into account, when searching for the high flux ABI: anisotropic magnification, double image, and source size spread due to intrinsic dispersive diffraction by asymmetrically cut crystals. These parameters, if not well optimized, may cause important features in the acquired images which can mislead the interpretation. A few ways to minimize these effects are implemented and discussed, including some experimental results.

  4. Optimizing efficiency on conventional transformer based low power AC/DC standby power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nils

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the research results for simple and cheap methods to reduce the idle- and load-losses in very low power conventional transformer based power supplies intended for standby usage. In this case "very low power" means 50 Hz/230 V-AC to 5 V-DC@1 W. The efficiency is measured...... on two common power supply topologies designed for this power level. The two described topologies uses either a series (or linear) or a buck regulation approach. Common to the test power supplies is they either are using a standard cheap off-the-shelf transformer, or one, which are loss optimized by very...

  5. A comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional Papanicolaou smears in cervical dysplasia diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Ghanbarzadeh, Nahid; Ataee, Marziee; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza; Mojarrad, Javid Shahbazi; Najafi-Semnani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the high number of women affected by cervical cancer and the importance of an early diagnosis, combined with the frequent incidence of false-negative Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening results for this disease, several studies have been conducted in recent years in order to find better tests. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) tests, including the liquid-based thin layer method, have demonstrated the highest potential for reducing false-negative cases and improved sample quality. This study aimed to compare the strength of the Pap smear test with fluid cytology and conventional tests in detecting cervical dysplasia. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 366 women who attended private laboratories for a Pap smear. The Pap smear sampling was conducted simultaneously using two methods: conventional Pap (CP) smear and LBC), from the cervix. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32 ± 8.8 years. Diagnostic results of endocervical cells, epithelial cells, vaginitis cells, and metaplastia were consistent with both conventional and liquid cytology smears, and the kappa coefficient was determined to be significant (P < 0.001). In total, 40.5% of diagnostic cases indicated bacterial inflammation 80.3% of the diagnoses in both methods were P1 and 3.9% of cases diagnosed were P2, the overall diagnostic consistency was 83.9% between the two sampling methods. The inflammation diagnosis was 40.5% and this was consistent in both methods of LBC and CP. There was one case of a false-negative diagnosis in the LBC method and 14 cases in the CP method. Conclusion: Results showed that the LBC may improve the sample's quality and reduce the number of unsatisfactory cases more than with the CP method. PMID:27995101

  6. A comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional Papanicolaou smears in cervical dysplasia diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Ghanbarzadeh, Nahid; Ataee, Marziee; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza; Mojarrad, Javid Shahbazi; Najafi-Semnani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high number of women affected by cervical cancer and the importance of an early diagnosis, combined with the frequent incidence of false-negative Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening results for this disease, several studies have been conducted in recent years in order to find better tests. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) tests, including the liquid-based thin layer method, have demonstrated the highest potential for reducing false-negative cases and improved sample quality. This study aimed to compare the strength of the Pap smear test with fluid cytology and conventional tests in detecting cervical dysplasia. This descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 366 women who attended private laboratories for a Pap smear. The Pap smear sampling was conducted simultaneously using two methods: conventional Pap (CP) smear and LBC), from the cervix. The mean age of the participants was 32 ± 8.8 years. Diagnostic results of endocervical cells, epithelial cells, vaginitis cells, and metaplastia were consistent with both conventional and liquid cytology smears, and the kappa coefficient was determined to be significant (P < 0.001). In total, 40.5% of diagnostic cases indicated bacterial inflammation 80.3% of the diagnoses in both methods were P1 and 3.9% of cases diagnosed were P2, the overall diagnostic consistency was 83.9% between the two sampling methods. The inflammation diagnosis was 40.5% and this was consistent in both methods of LBC and CP. There was one case of a false-negative diagnosis in the LBC method and 14 cases in the CP method. Results showed that the LBC may improve the sample's quality and reduce the number of unsatisfactory cases more than with the CP method.

  7. Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from organic and conventional cereal-based cropping systems under different management, soil and climate factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Báez, D;

    2015-01-01

    -based cropping systems. Forage maize was grown in a conventional dairy system at Mabegondo (NW Spain) and wheat and barley in organic and conventional crop rotations at Foulum (NW Denmark). These two European sites represent agricultural areas with high and low to moderate emission levels, respectively. Field...

  8. Comparison of Candida Albicans Adherence to Conventional Acrylic Denture Base Materials and Injection Molding Acrylic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Aslanimehr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Candida species are believed to play an important role in initiation and progression of denture stomatitis. The type of the denture material also influences the adhesion of candida and development of stomatitis. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the adherence of candida albicans to the conventional and injection molding acrylic denture base materials. Materials and Method: Twenty injection molding and 20 conventional pressure pack acrylic discs (10×10×2 mm were prepared according to their manufacturer’s instructions. Immediately before the study, samples were placed in sterile water for 3 days to remove residual monomers. The samples were then sterilized using an ultraviolet light unit for 10 minutes. 1×108 Cfu/ml suspension of candida albicans ATCC-10231 was prepared from 48 h cultured organism on sabouraud dextrose agar plates incubated at 37oC. 100 μL of this suspension was placed on the surface of each disk. After being incubated at 37oC for 1 hour, the samples were washed with normal saline to remove non-adherent cells. Attached cells were counted using the colony count method after shaking at 3000 rmp for 20 seconds. Finally, each group was tested for 108 times and the data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Results: Quantitative analysis revealed that differences in colony count average of candida albicans adherence to conventional acrylic materials (8.3×103 comparing to injection molding acrylic resins (6×103 were statistically significant (p<0.001. Conclusion: Significant reduction of candida albicans adherence to the injection acrylic resin materials makes them valuable for patients with high risk of denture stomatitis.

  9. Comparison of Candida Albicans Adherence to Conventional Acrylic Denture Base Materials and Injection Molding Acrylic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanimehr, Masoomeh; Rezvani, Shirin; Mahmoudi, Ali; Moosavi, Najmeh

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Candida species are believed to play an important role in initiation and progression of denture stomatitis. The type of the denture material also influences the adhesion of candida and development of stomatitis. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the adherence of candida albicans to the conventional and injection molding acrylic denture base materials. Materials and Method: Twenty injection molding and 20 conventional pressure pack acrylic discs (10×10×2 mm) were prepared according to their manufacturer’s instructions. Immediately before the study, samples were placed in sterile water for 3 days to remove residual monomers. The samples were then sterilized using an ultraviolet light unit for 10 minutes. 1×108 Cfu/ml suspension of candida albicans ATCC-10231 was prepared from 48 h cultured organism on sabouraud dextrose agar plates incubated at 37oC. 100 μL of this suspension was placed on the surface of each disk. After being incubated at 37oC for 1 hour, the samples were washed with normal saline to remove non-adherent cells. Attached cells were counted using the colony count method after shaking at 3000 rmp for 20 seconds. Finally, each group was tested for 108 times and the data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Results: Quantitative analysis revealed that differences in colony count average of candida albicans adherence to conventional acrylic materials (8.3×103) comparing to injection molding acrylic resins (6×103) were statistically significant (pcandida albicans adherence to the injection acrylic resin materials makes them valuable for patients with high risk of denture stomatitis. PMID:28280761

  10. Conventional four field radiotherapy versus computed tomography-based treatment planning in cancer cervix: A dosimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Gulia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With advancements in imaging, wide variations in pelvic anatomy have been observed, thus raising doubts about adequate target volume coverage by conventional external radiotherapy fields based on bony landmarks. The present study evaluates the need for integrating computed tomography (CT-based planning in the treatment of carcinoma cervix. Aims: To estimate inadequacies in target volume coverage when using conventional planning based on bony landmarks. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 50 patients. Target volume delineation was done on planning CT scans, according to the guidelines given in literature. The volume of target receiving 95% of prescribed dose (V95 was calculated after superimposing a conventional four field box on digitally reconstructed radiograph. The geographic miss with conventional four field box technique was compared with the CT-based target volume delineation. Results: In 48 out of 50 patients, the conventional four field box failed to encompass the target volume. The areas of miss were at the superior and lateral borders of the anterior-posterior fields, and the anterior border of the lateral fields. The median V95 for conventional fields marked with bony landmarks was only 89.4% as compared to 93% for target delineation based on CT contouring. Conclusions: Our study shows inadequate target volume coverage with conventional four field box technique. We recommend routine use of CT-based planning for treatment with radiotherapy in carcinoma cervix.

  11. Mixing and reaction processes in rocket based combined cycle and conventional rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Matthew Kurt

    Raman spectroscopy was used to make species measurements in two rocket engines. An airbreathing rocket, the rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine, and a conventional rocket were investigated. A supersonic rocket plume mixing with subsonic coflowing air characterizes the ejector mode of the RBCC engine. The mixing length required for the air and plume to become homogenous is a critical dimension. For the conventional rocket experiments, a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen single-element shear coaxial injector was used. Three chamber Mach number conditions, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3, were chosen to assess the effect of Mach number on mixing. The flow within the chamber was entirely subsonic. For the RBCC experiments, vertical Raman line measurements were made at multiple axial locations downstream from the rocket nozzle plane. Species profiles assessed the mixing progress between the supersonic plume and subsonic air. For the conventional rocket, Raman line measurements were made downstream from the injector face. The goal was to evaluate the effect of increased chamber Mach number on injector mixing/reaction. For both engines, quantitative and qualitative information was collected for computational fluid dynamics (CFD development. The RBCC experiments were conducted for three distinct geometries. The primary flow path was a diffuse and afterburner design with a direct-connect air supply. A sea-level static (SLS) version and a thermally choked variant were also tested. The experimental results show that mixing length increases with additional coflow air in the DAB geometry. Operation of variable rocket mixture ratios at identical air flow rates did not significantly affect the mixing length. The thermally choked variant had a longer mixing length compared to the DAB geometry, and the SLS modification had a shorter mixing length due to a reduced air flow. The conventional rocket studies focused on the effect of chamber Mach number on primary injector mixing. Chamber Mach

  12. A Comparative Study of Reduced Variables Based Flash and Conventional Flash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Michael Locht; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Speeding up flash calculation is a central issue in compositional reservoir simulations since phase equilibrium calculation is the most time-consuming part in those simulations. The reduced variables methods, or the reduction methods, reformulate the original phase equilibrium problem with a smal......Speeding up flash calculation is a central issue in compositional reservoir simulations since phase equilibrium calculation is the most time-consuming part in those simulations. The reduced variables methods, or the reduction methods, reformulate the original phase equilibrium problem....... Most of the studies in the last decade suggest that the reduced variables methods are much more efficient than the conventional flash method. However, Haugen and Beckner questioned the advantages of the reduced variables methods in their recent paper (SPE 141399). A fair comparison between the reduced...... variables based flash and the conventional flash is not straightforward since the former is difficult to be formulated as unconstrained minimization and involves more complicated composition derivatives. With the recent formulations by Nichita and Graciaa (2010), it is possible to code the reduced variables...

  13. High power microwave system based on power combining and pulse compression of conventional klystrons

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Zheng-Feng; Cheng, Cheng; Ning, Hui; Tang, Chuan-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    A high power microwave system based on power combining and pulse compression of conventional klystrons is introduced in this paper. This system mainly consists of pulse modulator, power combiner, driving source of klystrons and pulse compressor. A solid state induction modulator and pulse transformer were used to drive two 50 MW S-band klystrons with pulse widths 4 {\\mu}s in parallel, after power combining and pulse compression, the tested peak power had reached about 210 MW with pulse widths nearly 400 ns at 25 Hz, while the experimental maximum output power was just limited by the power capacity of loads. This type of high power microwave system has widely application prospect in RF system of large scale particle accelerators, high power radar transmitters and high level electromagnetic environment generators.

  14. Ciprofloxacin interaction with silicon-based and conventional hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgard, C C S; Jones, L W; Moresoli, C

    2003-04-01

    Hydrogel contact lenses can be used as bandage lenses to protect the corneal surface after injury. The use of novel silicon-based hydrogel lens materials as bandage lenses has not gained widespread acceptance. As a first step toward advocating their usefulness as bandage lenses, their interaction with ocular pharmaceuticals must be understood because topical agents are often administered in conjunction with bandage lenses. The in vitro uptake and release of ciprofloxacin from silicone-based hydrogel (SH) and conventional pHEMA-based (CH) hydrogel contact lenses was examined by spectrophotometric evaluation of the drug concentration in saline solution. The hydrogel contact lenses tested showed similar drug uptake (average 1800 microg/lens) but different levels of drug release. Multiphoton laser microscopy indicated that ciprofloxacin was distributed throughout the lens thickness, with higher levels of drug at the surface owing to drug precipitation. The drug adsorption onto the lenses was partially reversible. The SH lenses released a lower amount of drug than CH lenses (72 vs. 168 microg/lens). Ionic lenses released less drug than non-ionic lenses (127 vs. 151 microg/lens). The differences in ciprofloxacin uptake and release between SH and CH materials may not be clinically significant because the amount of drug released from all lenses would be above the MIC(90) of ciprofloxacin for common ocular pathogens. These results indicate that material properties have a significant impact on drug-lens interactions.

  15. Is a liquid-based cytology more sensitive than a conventional Pap smear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, K

    2013-08-01

    The comparative sensitivity of liquid-based cytology (LBC) test and conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears is controversial. This study analyses the distribution of cytology, histology, colposcopy and large loop excision of the transformation zone among women screened in Iceland with LBC at the Cancer Detection Clinic in Reykjavik and with a conventional Pap smear outside the Detection Clinic in 2007-2011. The study material included 42 654 LBC tests from 20 439 women and 103 909 Pap smears from 61 574 women. The period 2000-2004 is used to correct for potential bias as a result of unequal distribution of the studied parameters between the study sites before the introduction of LBC. The observed results indicated that women screened with an LBC sample had significantly decreased detection rates of inadequate smears, increased detection of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)/atypical cytology and referrals to colposcopy, and an increased detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) irrespective of age. LBC increased significantly the detection rates of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (HSIL+) cytology and CIN3+ histology only in women under 40 years of age. Taking into consideration the unequal prevalence of the studied parameters between the study sites in 2000-2004 indicated, however, that LBC only affected the rate of inadequate and low-grade cytology tests under the age of 40 years. Positive predictive values for CIN2+ were not significantly different between the tests. The study results support the view that LBC is no more sensitive than Pap smears for the detection of HSIL+ and CIN2+ irrespective of age. LBC decreased the rate of inadequate smears, but increased the rate of low-grade cytology under the age of 40 years and decreased the total rate of abnormal smears over the age of 40 years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from legumes based rotations under conventional and organic practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Fernández, Juan A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study we assessed the effect of two different rotations based on winter (faba bean) or summer (cowpea) legumes on the direct emissions of CO2 and CH4. Faba bean was rotated with the summer melon crop (Cucumis melo) while cowpea was rotated with the winter broccoli crop (Brassica oleracea). We also assessed if different legume cultivars and management practices (conventional and organic) significantly influenced gas emissions. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2, during two complete cycles. Gas samples were taken in different times (0, 30 and 60 minutes) once a week using the static gas chamber technique for each crop. Results showed that cumulative CO2 emissions in broccoli decreased after the rotation with both cowpea cultivars under conventional management practices. Faba bean cultivars and management practices had no influence on cumulative CO2 emissions in melon crop. Cumulative CH4 emissions in broccoli crop were lowest after the rotation with Grey-eyed pea than Black-eyed pea cultivar, under both management practices. However, faba bean cultivars and management practices had no influence on cumulative CH4 emissions in melon crop. Cumulative CH4 emissions in melon crop were highest than in the rest of crops. Cowpea cultivar and management practice influenced cumulative CH4 and CO2 emissions of broccoli crop, respectively. Faba bean cultivar and management practice had no effect on cumulative CH4 and CO2 emissions of melon crop. Acknowledgements: This research was financed by the FP7 European Project Eurolegume (FP7-KBBE-613781).

  17. Using bilaterally fascioperichondrial flaps with a distal and a proximal base combined with conventional otoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkoren, Saime; Kucukkaya, Deniz; Sivrioglu, Nazan; Ozkan, Heval Selman

    2014-06-01

    Prominent ears are the most common aesthetic abnormality of the external ear. Mustardè sutures and conchal setback are usually used for otoplasty, additional various cartilage-manipulation methods are also presented. One adjunctive technique that is often used involves the elevation of a fascial flap beneath which is sutured for additional cover, potentially reducing the risk of complications and recurrence. In the literature, this flap is traditionally raised with a proximal or distal base but it can be raised both distally and proximally with a number of advantages as we demonstrate. This article presents a technique to raise the fascioperichondrial flap with both a proximal and a distal base as an addition to conventional otoplasty. One hundred consecutive patients, followed up for at least 12 months, have been reviewed. One hundred ninety otoplasties were performed in 100 patients (10 unilateral), 65 women and 35 men. The mean age was 20.6 years, and the mean follow-up time was 16.3 months, respectively. No patient has developed skin necrosis or suture extrusion. In two patients (One bilateral and one unilateral for a total of three ears) a further procedure has been required to improve symmetry (1.5%). Using the retro auricular fascioperichondrial flap combined with other techniques offers good results and can be used as a standard procedure in the surgical treatment of prominent ears.

  18. Optimization design of a full asynchronous pipeline circuit based on null convention logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Xuguang; Zhou Duan; Yang Yintang, E-mail: guanxuguang_5@126.co [Institute of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2009-07-15

    This paper proposes a new optimization method to improve the performance of a null convention logic asynchronous pipeline. Parallel combinational logic modules in the pipelines can work alternately in null and data cycles by using a parallel processing mode. The complete waiting time for both null and data signals of combinational logic output in previous asynchronous register stage is reduced by decoupling the output from combinational logic modules. Performance penalty brought by null cycle is reduced while the data processing capacity is increased. The novel asynchronous pipeline based on asynchronous full adders with different bit widths as asynchronous combination logic modules is simulated using 0.18-{mu}m CMOS technology. Based on 6 bits asynchronous adder as asynchronous combination logic modules, the simulation result of this new pipeline proposal demonstrates a high throughput up to 72.4% improvement with appropriate power consumption. This indicates the new design proposal is preferable for high-speed asynchronous designs due to its high throughput and delay-insensitivity.

  19. Synthesis of 2-pyrazolines from pyridine based chalcone by conventional and microwave techniques: Their comparison and antimicrobial studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin B. Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 2-Pyrazolines from pyridine based chalcones by conventional and microwave techniques have been synthesized and their antimicrobial activity as well as a comparison study between conventional and microwave techniques has been done. Antimicrobial activity was carried out according to the broth micro dilution method and it was observed that compound 2d was found to be most active against gram negative bacteria and fungus Candida albicans. Microwave technique has been found superior over the conventional method in view of reaction time and energy requirement. Compounds have been characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and Mass spectral analyses.

  20. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    OpenAIRE

    Vikrant Bhar Singh; Nalini Gupta; Raje Nijhawan; Radhika Srinivasan; Vanita Suri; Arvind Rajwanshi

    2015-01-01

    Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS) have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC) and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sa...

  1. Metabolic engineering of the non-conventional yeast Pichia ciferrii for production of rare sphingoid bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börgel, Daniel; van den Berg, Marco; Hüller, Thomas; Andrea, Heiko; Liebisch, Gerhard; Boles, Eckhard; Schorsch, Christoph; van der Pol, Ruud; Arink, Anne; Boogers, Ilco; van der Hoeven, Rob; Korevaar, Kees; Farwick, Mike; Köhler, Tim; Schaffer, Steffen

    2012-07-01

    The study describes the identification of sphingolipid biosynthesis genes in the non-conventional yeast Pichia ciferrii, the development of tools for its genetic modification as well as their application for metabolic engineering of P. ciferrii with the goal to generate strains capable of producing the rare sphingoid bases sphinganine and sphingosine. Several canonical genes encoding ceramide synthase (encoded by PcLAG1 and PcLAF1), alkaline ceramidase (PcYXC1) and sphingolipid C-4-hydroxylase(PcSYR2), as well as structural genes for dihydroceramide Δ(4)-desaturase (PcDES1) and sphingolipid Δ(8)-desaturase (PcSLD1) were identified, indicating that P. ciferrii would be capable of synthesizing desaturated sphingoid bases, a property not ubiquitously found in yeasts. In order to convert the phytosphingosine-producing P. ciferrii wildtype into a strain capable of producing predominantly sphinganine, Syringomycin E-resistant mutants were isolated. A stable mutant almost exclusively producing high levels of acetylated sphinganine was obtained and used as the base strain for further metabolic engineering. A metabolic pathway required for the three-step conversion of sphinganine to sphingosine was implemented in the sphinganine producing P. ciferrii strain and subsequently enhanced by screening for the appropriate heterologous enzymes, improvement of gene expression and codon optimization. These combined efforts led to a strain capable of producing 240mgL(-1) triacetyl sphingosine in shake flask, with tri- and diacetyl sphinganine being the main by-products. Lab-scale fermentation of this strain resulted in production of up to 890mgkg(-1) triacetyl sphingosine. A third by-product was unequivocally identified as triacetyl sphingadienine. It could be shown that inactivation of the SLD1 gene in P. ciferrii efficiently suppresses triacetyl sphingadienine formation. Further improvement of the described P. ciferrii strains will enable a biotechnological route to produce

  2. Concurrent Use of Conventional Drugs with Chinese Herbal Products in Taiwan: A Population-based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chen Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs worldwide has raised the concern of herb–drug interactions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and utilization patterns of concurrent use of conventional drugs and CHPs in Taiwan. The usage and frequency of services in the co-prescription of a CHP and a conventional drug were evaluated. Subjects were recruited from a simple random sample of 1,000,000 subjects from over 22 million beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance in 2007. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for the co-prescription of a CHP and a conventional drug (CH+D and a conventional drug alone (D-alone. The prevalence of the CH+D was 14.1%. Females, regular salary earners, and elderly (65 years and above were more likely to consume a CHP and a conventional drug concurrently. Painkillers, especially acetaminophen, and anti-cough medicines were the top two conventional drugs that were most frequently co-prescribed with a CHP. Anti-cough medication is the most common conventional drug co-prescribed with CHP, after painkillers. We recommend that safety issues be investigated in future research and integrating both healthcare technologies may be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of patients.

  3. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities.

  4. Integrated management of land and water resources based on a collective approach to fragmented international conventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Alfred M

    2003-12-29

    Interlinked crises of land degradation, food security, ecosystem decline, water quality and water flow depletion stand in the way of poverty reduction and sustainable development. These crises are made worse by increased fluctuations in climatic regimes. Single-purpose international conventions address these crises in a piecemeal, sectoral fashion and may not meet their objectives without greater attention to policy, legal, and institutional reforms related to: (i) balancing competing uses of land and water resources within hydrologic units; (ii) adopting integrated approaches to management; and (iii) establishing effective governance institutions for adaptive management within transboundary basins. This paper describes this global challenge and argues that peace, stability and security are all at stake when integrated approaches are not used. The paper presents encouraging results from a decade of transboundary water projects supported by the Global Environment Facility in developing countries that test practical applications of processes for facilitating reforms related to land and water that are underpinned by science-based approaches. Case studies of using these participative processes are described that collectively assist in the transition to integrated management. A new imperative for incorporating interlinkages among food, water, and environment security at the basin level is identified.

  5. Parameter Estimation from Near Stall Flight Data using Conventional and Neural-based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saderla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current research paper is an endeavour to estimate the parameters from near stall flight data of manned and unmanned research flight vehicles using conventional and neural based methods. For an aircraft undergoing stall, the aerodynamic model at these high angles of attack becomes non linear due to the influence of unsteady, transient and flow separation phenomena. In order to address these issues the Kirchhoff’s flow separation theory was used to incorporate the nonlinearity in the aerodynamic model in terms of flow separation point and stall characteristic parameters. The classical Maximum Likelihood (MLE method and Neural Gauss-Newton (NGN method have been employed to estimate the nonlinear parameters of two manned and one unmanned research aircrafts. The estimated static stall parameter and the break point, for the flight vehicles under consideration, were observed to be consistent from both the methods. Moreover the efficacy of the methods is also evident from the consistent estimates of post stall hysteresis time constant. It can also be inferred that the considered quasi steady model is able to adequately capture the drag and pitching moment coefficients in the post stall regime. The confidence in these estimates have been significantly enhanced with the observed lower values of Cramer-Rao bounds. Further the estimated nonlinear parameters were validated by performing a proof of match exercise for the considered flight vehicles. Interestingly the NGN method, which doesn’t involve solving equations of motion, was able to perform on a par with the MLE method.

  6. Proximity effect of iron-based superconductor in conventional s-wave superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Nick; Proslier, Thomas; Koshelev, Alex; Stantev, Valentin; Chung, Duck-Young

    2012-02-01

    The proximity effect has been proposed as a mechanism to unambiguously identify the possible s±-state in iron-based superconductors.ootnotetextA. E. Koshelev, V. Stanev, Europhysics Letters, Vol. 96, 27014 (2011) With a thin s-wave superconductor atop a s±-superconductor it is suggested that the s-wave order parameter will couple to the s±-gaps differently, inducing a correction to the s-wave density of states that can be probed using electron tunneling spectroscopy. In this talk, we will present recent results of the superconducting proximity effect in s-wave MoGe thin films sputtered on top of bulk superconducting Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Tc=35K) pnictide. Electron tunneling spectroscopy measurements were performed for several MoGe film thicknesses using a homemade point contact setup. Finally, results will also be presented for similar measurements using two conventional s-wave superconductors.

  7. A dynamic agent-based analysis for the environmental impacts of conventional and novel book retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Allenby, Braden; Kim, Junbeum; Kahhat, Ramzy

    2009-04-15

    The dynamics of an e-commerce market and the associated environmental impacts from a bottom-up perspective using an agent-based model is explored. A conceptual meta-theory from psychology is adopted to form the behavioral rules of artificial consumers choosing different methods of buying a book, including conventional bookstores, e-commerce, and a proposed self-pick-up option. Given the energy and emissions savings that result from a shift to e-commerce from bookstore purchase, it appears that reductions in environmental impacts are relatively probable. Additionally, our results suggest that the shift to e-commerce is mainly due to the growth of Internet users, which ties energy and emissions savings to Internet penetration. Moreover, under any scenario, the energy and emissions savings will be provided by the introduction of the proposed self-pick-up option. Our model thus provides insights into market behaviors and related environmental impacts of the growing use of e-commerce systems at the retail level, and provides a basis for the development and implementation of more sustainable policies and practices.

  8. Comparison of Different Recruitment Methods for Sexual and Reproductive Health Research: Social Media–Based Versus Conventional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Yoko; Taguri, Masataka; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Enomoto, Takayuki; Wark, John Dennis; Garland, Suzanne Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background Prior research about the sexual and reproductive health of young women has relied mostly on self-reported survey studies. Thus, participant recruitment using Web-based methods can improve sexual and reproductive health research about cervical cancer prevention. In our prior study, we reported that Facebook is a promising way to reach young women for sexual and reproductive health research. However, it remains unknown whether Web-based or other conventional recruitment methods (ie, face-to-face or flyer distribution) yield comparable survey responses from similar participants. Objective We conducted a survey to determine whether there was a difference in the sexual and reproductive health survey responses of young Japanese women based on recruitment methods: social media–based and conventional methods. Methods From July 2012 to March 2013 (9 months), we invited women of ages 16-35 years in Kanagawa, Japan, to complete a Web-based questionnaire. They were recruited through either a social media–based (social networking site, SNS, group) or by conventional methods (conventional group). All participants enrolled were required to fill out and submit their responses through a Web-based questionnaire about their sexual and reproductive health for cervical cancer prevention. Results Of the 243 participants, 52.3% (127/243) were recruited by SNS, whereas 47.7% (116/243) were recruited by conventional methods. We found no differences between recruitment methods in responses to behaviors and attitudes to sexual and reproductive health survey, although more participants from the conventional group (15%, 14/95) chose not to answer the age of first intercourse compared with those from the SNS group (5.2%, 6/116; P=.03). Conclusions No differences were found between recruitment methods in the responses of young Japanese women to a Web–based sexual and reproductive health survey. PMID:28283466

  9. Investment appraisal of automatic milking and conventional milking technologies in a pasture-based dairy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, J; Shalloo, L; Foley, C; Sleator, R D; O'Brien, B

    2016-09-01

    The successful integration of automatic milking (AM) systems and grazing has resulted in AM becoming a feasible alternative to conventional milking (CM) in pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to identify the profitability of AM in a pasture-based system, relative to CM herringbone parlors with 2 different levels of automation, across 2 farm sizes, over a 10-yr period following initial investment. The scenarios which were evaluated were (1) a medium farm milking 70 cows twice daily, with 1 AM unit, a 12-unit CM medium-specification (MS) parlor and a 12-unit CM high-specification (HS) parlor, and (2) a large farm milking 140 cows twice daily with 2 AM units, a 20-unit CM MS parlor and a 20-unit CM HS parlor. A stochastic whole-farm budgetary simulation model combined capital investment costs and annual labor and maintenance costs for each investment scenario, with each scenario evaluated using multiple financial metrics, such as annual net profit, annual net cash flow, total discounted net profitability, total discounted net cash flow, and return on investment. The capital required for each investment was financed from borrowings at an interest rate of 5% and repaid over 10-yr, whereas milking equipment and building infrastructure were depreciated over 10 and 20 yr, respectively. A supporting labor audit (conducted on both AM and CM farms) showed a 36% reduction in labor demand associated with AM. However, despite this reduction in labor, MS CM technologies consistently achieved greater profitability, irrespective of farm size. The AM system achieved intermediate profitability at medium farm size; it was 0.5% less profitable than HS technology at the large farm size. The difference in profitability was greatest in the years after the initial investment. This study indicated that although milking with AM was less profitable than MS technologies, it was competitive when compared with a CM parlor of similar technology.

  10. Comparison between Conventional Blind Embryo Transfer and Embryo Transfer Based on Previously Measured Uterine Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Saharkhiz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Embryo transfer (ET is one of the most important steps in assisted reproductive technology (ART cycles and affected by many factors namely the depth of embryo deposition in uterus. In this study, the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles after blind embryo transfer and embryo transfer based on previously measured uterine length using vaginal ultrasound were compared. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomised clinical trial included one hundred and forty non-donor fresh embryo transfers during January 2010 to June 2011. In group I, ET was performed using conventional (blind method at 5-6cm from the external os, and in group II, ET was done at a depth of 1-1.5 cm from the uterine fundus based on previously measured uterine length using vaginal sonography. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t test and Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. The software that we used was PASW statistics version 18. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Chemical pregnancy rate was 28.7% in group I and 42.1% in group II, while the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.105. Clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates for group I were 21.2%, 17.7%, and 12.8%, while for group II were 33.9%, 33.9%, and 22.1, respectively. In group I and group II, abortion rates were 34.7% and 0%, respectively, indicating a statistically significant difference (p<0.005. No ectopic pregnancy occurred in two groups. Conclusion: The use of uterine length measurement during treatment cycle in order to place embryos at depth of 1-1.5cm from fundus significantly increases clinical and ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates, while leads to a decrease in abortion rate (Registration Number: IRCT2014032512494N1.

  11. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Assuncao, Jefferson; Irwig, Les; Macaskill, Petra; Chan, Siew F; Richards, Adele; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of liquid based cytology using the computerised ThinPrep Imager with that of manually read conventional cytology. Design Prospective study. Setting Pathology laboratory in Sydney, Australia. Participants 55 164 split sample pairs (liquid based sample collected after conventional sample from one collection) from consecutive samples of women choosing both types of cytology and whose specimens were examined between August 2004 and June 2005. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accuracy of slides for detecting squamous lesions. Secondary outcomes were rate of unsatisfactory slides, distribution of squamous cytological classifications, and accuracy of detecting glandular lesions. Results Fewer unsatisfactory slides were found for imager read cytology than for conventional cytology (1.8% v 3.1%; Pcytology (7.4% v 6.0% overall and 2.8% v 2.2% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 1 or higher). Among 550 patients in whom imager read cytology was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher and conventional cytology was less severe than grade 1, 133 of 380 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Among 294 patients in whom imager read cytology was less severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and conventional cytology was grade 1 or higher, 62 of 210 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Imager read cytology therefore detected 71 more cases of high grade histology than did conventional cytology, resulting from 170 more biopsies. Similar results were found when one pathologist reread the slides, masked to cytology results. Conclusion The ThinPrep Imager detects 1.29 more cases of histological high grade squamous disease per 1000 women screened than conventional cytology, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 as the threshold for referral to colposcopy. More imager read slides than conventional slides were satisfactory for examination and more contained low grade cytological

  12. Sterilization of silicone-based hydrogels for biomedical application using ozone gas: Comparison with conventional techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Raquel; Ghisleni, Daniela; Paradiso, Patrizia; Alves, Vitor D; Pinto, Terezinha J A; Colaço, Rogério; Serro, Ana Paula

    2017-09-01

    Sterilization of hydrogels is challenging due to their often reported sensitivity to conventional methods involving heat or radiation. Although aseptic manufacturing is a possibility, terminal sterilization is safer in biological terms, leading to a higher overall efficiency, and thus should be used whenever it is possible. The main goal of this work was to study the applicability of an innovative ozone gas terminal sterilization method for silicone-based hydrogels and compare its efficacy and effects with those of traditional sterilization methods: steam heat and gamma irradiation. Ozone gas sterilization is a method with potential interest since it is reported as a low cost green method, does not leave toxic residues and can be applied to thermosensitive materials. A hydrogel intended for ophthalmological applications, based on tris(trimethylsiloxy)silyl] propyl methacrylate, was prepared and extensively characterized before and after the sterilization procedures. Alterations regarding transparency, swelling, wettability, ionic permeability, friction coefficient, mechanical properties, topography and morphology and chemical composition were monitored. Efficacy of the ozonation was accessed by performing controlled contaminations and sterility tests. In vitro cytotoxicity testes were also performed. The results show that ozonation may be applied to sterilize the studied material. A treatment with 8 pulses allowed sterilizing the material with bioburdens≤10(3)CFU/mL, preserving all the studied properties within the required known values for contact lenses materials. However, a higher exposure (10 pulses) led to some degradation of the material and induced mild cytotoxicity. Steam heat sterilization led to an increase of swelling capacity and a decrease of the water contact angle. Regarding gamma irradiation, the increase of irradiation dose led to an increase of the friction coefficient. The higher dose (25kGy) originated surface degradation and affected the

  13. Cervical screening by visual inspection, HPV testing, liquid-based and conventional cytology in Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Winkler, Jennifer L; Cuzick, Jack; Tsu, Vivien; Robles, Sylvia; Takahashi, Rina; Sasieni, Peter

    2007-08-15

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem in many developing countries, where cytology screening has been ineffective. We compared four tests to identify the most appropriate for screening in countries with limited resources. Nineteen midwives screened 5,435 women with visual inspection (VIA) and collected cervical samples for HPV testing, liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). If VIA was positive, a doctor performed magnified VIA. CC was read locally, LBC was read in Lima and HPV testing was done in London. Women with a positive screening test were offered colposcopy or cryotherapy (with biopsy). Inadequacy rates were 5% and 11% for LBC and CC respectively, and less than 0.1% for VIA and HPV. One thousand eight hundred eighty-one women (84% of 2,236) accepted colposcopy/cryotherapy: 79 had carcinoma in situ or cancer (CIS+), 27 had severe- and 42 moderate-dysplasia on histology. We estimated a further 6.5 cases of CIS+ in women without a biopsy. Sensitivity for CIS+ (specificity for less than moderate dysplasia) was 41.2% (76.7%) for VIA, 95.8% (89.3%) for HPV, 80.3% (83.7%) for LBC, and 42.5% (98.7%) for CC. Sensitivities for moderate dysplasia or worse were better for VIA (54.9%) and less favourable for HPV and cytology. In this setting, VIA and CC missed the majority of high-grade disease. Overall, HPV testing performed best. VIA gives immediate results, but will require investment in regular training and supervision. Further work is needed to determine whether screened-positive women should all be treated or triaged with a more specific test.

  14. Nuclear characteristics of the endometrial cytology: liquid-based versus conventional preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, Yoshiaki; Shigematsu, Yumie; Sakamoto, Shingo; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Yanoh, Kenji; Kawanishi, Namiki; Kobayashi, Tadao K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the utility of liquid-based cytologic preparation (LP) compared with conventional preparation (CP) for the assessment of nuclear findings in endometrial glandular and stromal breakdown (EGBD) which may be misdiagnosed as carcinoma in EGBD cases. The material consists of cytologic smears including 20 cases of proliferative endometrium (PE), 20 cases of EGBD, and 20 cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma grade1 (G1) for which histopathological diagnosis was obtained by endometrial curettage at the JA Suzuka General Hospital. Nuclear findings were examined in PE cells, EGBD-stromal cells, EGBD-metaplastic cells, and G1 cells, respectively. It was examined about the following items; (1) nuclear shape; (2) A long/minor axis ratio in cell nuclei; (3) an area of cell nuclei; (4) overlapping nuclei. Results are as follows: (1) nuclear shape; as for the reniform shape of EGBD-stromal cells and spindle shape of EGBD-metaplastic cells, the ratio of the LP method was a higher value than the CP method. (2) The long axis and area of cell nuclei; LP in all groups was a recognizable tendency for nuclear shrinkage. (3) The long/minor axis ratio in cell nuclei; only EGBD-metaplastic cells recognize a significant difference between CP and LP. (4) Overlapping nuclei; LP was a higher value in comparison with CP in the other groups except PE cells, and the degree of overlapping nuclei was enhanced about three times. Therefore, although a cell of LP has a shrinking tendency, (1) it is excellent that LP preserves a characteristic of nuclear shape than CP; (2) a cellular characteristic becomes clearer, because three-dimensional architecture of LP is preserved of than CP. As for the standard preparation method for endometrial cytology samples, we considered that a concrete introduction of the LP method poses no problems.

  15. Flood detention area modelling based on nationwide topographic data: ALS-DTMs vs. conventional DTMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesakoski, Jenni-Mari; Alho, Petteri; Hyyppä, Juha; Holopainen, Markus; Flener, Claude; Hyyppä, Hannu

    2014-05-01

    Topographic depressions have an important role in hydrology. These effects on hydrological processes are caused by changes in the water balance and runoff response of a watershed. Nevertheless, research has focused in detail neither on the effects of acquisition and processing methods nor on the effects of resolution of nationwide grid digital terrain models (DTMs) on topographic depressions. Recently, many countries have conducted nationwide ALS (Airborne laser scanning) surveys for DTM purposes. Thus, detailed comparison between nationwide ALS-DTMs with different grid sizes and DTMs that represent more conventional acquisition methods, such as photogrammetric methods, is needed for different study fields. In here, the objective is to delineate the difference of depression variables between nationwide DTMs with different acquisition methods, processing methods and grid sizes. Our depression detection is based on nationwide 25x25 m and 10x10 m DTMs and 2x2 m ALS-DTM produced by NLS of Finland. ALS-DTM2 was resampled to 10x10 and 25x25 m DTMs. Thus, it was possible to compare DTMs that represent the same grid size but different acquisition and processing methods. The variables considered are the mean depth of the depression, the number of its pixels, and its area and volume. Shallow and single-pixel depressions and the impact of mean filtering on ALS-DTM were also examined. Quantitative methods and error models were applied. According to our study, the depression variables were dependent on the scale, area and acquisition method. When the depths of depression pixels were compared with the most accurate DTM based on accurate VRNS-GNSS (Virtual Reference Stations, Global Navigation Satellite Systems) field survey data, the maximum errors created the largest differences between DTMs and hence represented the amount of the depth error. The mean filtering of ALS-DTM2 focuses on the small and shallow depressions, and is thus suitable for using in flood risk management

  16. Comparative study of the results from conventional cervico-vaginal oncotic cytology and liquid-based cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Sueli Aparecida Batista; Evangelista, Dilson Henrique Ramos; Talamonte, Valdely Helena; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2012-01-01

    To compare two oncotic cervical cytology techniques, the conventional and the liquid-based cytology, in low risk patients for uterine cervical cancer. Comparative prospective study with 100 patients who came to their annual gynecological exam, and were submitted simultaneously to both techniques. We used the McNemar test, with a significance level of p cytology and in 84% of the liquid-based cytology had statistical significance. As for the diagnosis of atypical cells they were detected in 3% of conventional cytology and in 10% of liquid-based cytology (p = 0.06). Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were the most prevalent abnormality. The liquid-based cytology performance was better when compared with colposcopy (guided biopsy), presenting sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 100%. There was no cytological and histological concordance for the conventional cytology. Liquid-based cytology had a better performance to diagnose atypical cells and the cytohistological concordance was higher than in the conventional cytology.

  17. Job requirements compared to medical school education: differences between graduates from problem-based learning and conventional curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federkeil Gero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem-based Learning (PBL has been suggested as a key educational method of knowledge acquisition to improve medical education. We sought to evaluate the differences in medical school education between graduates from PBL-based and conventional curricula and to what extent these curricula fit job requirements. Methods Graduates from all German medical schools who graduated between 1996 and 2002 were eligible for this study. Graduates self-assessed nine competencies as required at their day-to-day work and as taught in medical school on a 6-point Likert scale. Results were compared between graduates from a PBL-based curriculum (University Witten/Herdecke and conventional curricula. Results Three schools were excluded because of low response rates. Baseline demographics between graduates of the PBL-based curriculum (n = 101, 49% female and the conventional curricula (n = 4720, 49% female were similar. No major differences were observed regarding job requirements with priorities for "Independent learning/working" and "Practical medical skills". All competencies were rated to be better taught in PBL-based curriculum compared to the conventional curricula (all p Conclusion Among medical graduates in Germany, PBL demonstrated benefits with regard to competencies which were highly required in the job of physicians. Research and business competence deserve closer attention in future curricular development.

  18. Cytologic detection of cervical abnormalities using liquid-based compared with conventional cytology: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Arbyn, M.; Raifu, A.O.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare test positivity rates of liquid-based and conventional cytology. METHODS: This study was a cluster randomized controlled trial with family practice as the unit of randomization, performed within the Dutch national cervical screening program. Women aged 30-60 years (n=89,784) re

  19. Causes and relevance of unsatisfactory and satisfactory but limited smears of liquid-based compared with conventional cervical cytology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Vedder, J.E.M.; Arbyn, M.; Bulten, J.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Recent randomized controlled trials have shown a significant decrease in unsatisfactory rates for liquid-based cytology (LBC) compared with conventional Papanicolaou test (CP). The underlying causes and relevance of unsatisfactory results for LBC and CP have never been compared within the s

  20. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for collecting samples for conventional and liquid-based cytology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbyn, M.; Herbert, A.; Schenck, U.; Nieminen, P.; Jordan, J.; Mcgoogan, E.; Patnick, J.; Bergeron, C.; Baldauf, J.J.; Klinkhamer, P.; Bulten, J.; Martin-Hirsch, P.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper presents an annex in the second edition of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. It provides guidance on how to make a satisfactory conventional Pap smear or a liquid-based cytology (LBC) sample. Practitioners taking samples for cytology should

  1. Comparative study of the results from conventional cervico-vaginal oncotic cytology and liquid-based cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Stabile,Sueli Aparecida Batista; Evangelista,Dilson Henrique Ramos; Talamonte,Valdely Helena; Lippi,Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two oncotic cervical cytology techniques, the conventional and the liquid-based cytology, in low risk patients for uterine cervical cancer. METHODS: Comparative prospective study with 100 patients who came to their annual gynecological exam, and were submitted simultaneously to both techniques. We used the McNemar test, with a significance level of p

  2. Modular VSC converter based HVDC power transmission from offshore wind power plant: Compared to the conventional HVAC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Jensen, Kim Høj;

    2010-01-01

    power transmission options with HVDC systems are under consideration. In this paper, a comparison between a conventional HVAC transmission system and a HVDC system equipped with modular voltage source converters is provided. The comparison is based on the total energy transmission capability...

  3. The development of diagnostic competence : Comparison of a problem-based, an integrated, and a conventional medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MachielsBongaerts, M; Hermans, H; Venekamp, R; Boshuizen, HPA

    Purpose. To compare the diagnostic performances of students in five curriculum years educated at schools with problem-based, integrative, or conventional medical curricula. Method. Data were analyzed in 1994 for 612 students in their second, third, or fourth (preclinical) or fifth or sixth

  4. Causes and relevance of unsatisfactory and satisfactory but limited smears of liquid-based compared with conventional cervical cytology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Vedder, J.E.M.; Arbyn, M.; Bulten, J.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Recent randomized controlled trials have shown a significant decrease in unsatisfactory rates for liquid-based cytology (LBC) compared with conventional Papanicolaou test (CP). The underlying causes and relevance of unsatisfactory results for LBC and CP have never been compared within the s

  5. Cytologic detection of cervical abnormalities using liquid-based compared with conventional cytology: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Arbyn, M.; Raifu, A.O.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare test positivity rates of liquid-based and conventional cytology. METHODS: This study was a cluster randomized controlled trial with family practice as the unit of randomization, performed within the Dutch national cervical screening program. Women aged 30-60 years (n=89,784) re

  6. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for collecting samples for conventional and liquid-based cytology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbyn, M.; Herbert, A.; Schenck, U.; Nieminen, P.; Jordan, J.; Mcgoogan, E.; Patnick, J.; Bergeron, C.; Baldauf, J.J.; Klinkhamer, P.; Bulten, J.; Martin-Hirsch, P.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper presents an annex in the second edition of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. It provides guidance on how to make a satisfactory conventional Pap smear or a liquid-based cytology (LBC) sample. Practitioners taking samples for cytology should

  7. Sustainable Systems Analysis of Production and Transportation Scenarios for Conventional and Bio-based Energy Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, E. M.; Golden, J. S.; Nowacek, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    International commerce places unique pressures on the sustainability of water resources and marine environments. System impacts include noise, emissions, and chemical and biological pollutants like introduction of invasive species into key ecosystems. At the same time, maritime trade also enables the sustainability ambition of intragenerational equity in the economy through the global circulation of commodities and manufactured goods, including agricultural, energy and mining resources (UN Trade and Development Board 2013). This paper presents a framework to guide the analysis of the multiple dimensions of the sustainable commerce-ocean nexus. As a demonstration case, we explore the social, economic and environmental aspects of the nexus framework using scenarios for the production and transportation of conventional and bio-based energy commodities. Using coupled LCA and GIS methodologies, we are able to orient the findings spatially for additional insight. Previous work on the sustainable use of marine resources has focused on distinct aspects of the maritime environment. The framework presented here, integrates the anthropogenic use, governance and impacts on the marine and coastal environments with the natural components of the system. A similar framework has been highly effective in progressing the study of land-change science (Turner et al 2007), however modification is required for the unique context of the marine environment. This framework will enable better research integration and planning for sustainability objectives including mitigation and adaptation to climate change, sea level rise, reduced dependence on fossil fuels, protection of critical marine habitat and species, and better management of the ocean as an emerging resource base for the production and transport of commodities and energy across the globe. The framework can also be adapted for vulnerability analysis, resilience studies and to evaluate the trends in production, consumption and

  8. Patch-based generation of a pseudo CT from conventional MRI sequences for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Daniel; Van Leemput, Koen; Hansen, Rasmus H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In radiotherapy (RT) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the only modality, the information on electron density must be derived from the MRI scan by creating a so-called pseudo computed tomography (pCT). This is a nontrivial task, since the voxel-intensities in an MRI scan are n...... on conventional T1-weighted MRI sequences and without deformable registrations. In our evaluations, the method performed better than existing voxel-based and atlas-based methods and showed a promising potential for RT of the brain based only on MRI....

  9. Occurrence of patulin in organic and conventional apple-based food marketed in Catalonia and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqué, Ester; Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Gómez-Catalán, Jesús; Lapuente, Joaquin de; Llobet, Joan Maria

    2013-10-01

    In the last years, consumption of organic foods has become increasingly popular. Nevertheless, safety of organic foods is still unclear, and needs to be thoroughly evaluated. Patulin is a mycotoxin mainly present in rotten apples and apple-based products. The aim of this study is to analyse the content of patulin in apple juices and purees derived from organic and conventional production systems, in order to assess the risk to consumers, particularly in children. A total of 93 apple-based products marketed in Catalonia were analysed, 49 of which were derived from conventional and 44 from organic farming. The results showed higher incidence of positive samples and higher concentration of patulin in organic apple purees when comparing with conventional ones. In the case of juices, significant differences were found between conventional and organic samples, but applying a multivariate analysis the type of agriculture did not seem to have a relevant contribution to patulin occurrence, being cloudiness the main factor involved. The estimated daily intake of patulin for infants and young children (0-3 years old), children (4-18 years old) and adults (19-66 years old), were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.4 μg/kg bw in all scenarios considered.

  10. Distortion behavior of heat-activated acrylic denture-base resin in conventional and long, low-temperature processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawara, M; Komiyama, O; Kimoto, S; Kobayashi, N; Kobayashi, K; Nemoto, K

    1998-06-01

    There have been many reports on fatal distortion of heat-activated acrylic denture-base resin which is still widely used in the field of removable prosthodontics. However, these reports have failed to report quantitatively on polymerization and thermal shrinkage factors. In the present study, we attempted to verify that the shrinkage of heat-activated acrylic denture-base resin was caused mainly by thermal contraction after processing. Furthermore, we examined the degree of distortion resulting from long, low-temperature processing, and compared the results with that of the conventional method. The strain gauge and thermo-couple were embedded in a specimen at the time of resin packing. The measurement started from the beginning of processing and continued until the specimen was bench-cooled and immediately before and after it was de-flasked, as well as during seven-day immersion in water at 37 degrees C. The resin expanded when processed by the conventional method. Meanwhile, mild shrinkage, possibly polymerization shrinkage, was observed when the resin was processed by the low-temperature method. This suggested that polymerization shrinkage was compensated for by thermal expansion during processing by the conventional method. Moreover, the shrinkage strains in the period from the completion of processing to immediately after de-flasking, in both the conventional and low-temperature methods, were identical to the theoretical value of thermal shrinkage which we obtained by multiplying the linear coefficients of thermal expansion by temperature differences. The shrinkage strain in the specimen processed by the low-temperature method, measured from the end of processing to immediately after de-flasking, averaged 64% of that in the specimen processed by the conventional method. The results revealed quantitatively that the shrinkage of heat-activated acrylic denture-base resin was mainly thermal shrinkage, and demonstrated the advantage of the low-temperature method in

  11. Conventional and Advanced Separations in Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics: Methodologies and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, Heino M.; Zhang, Xing; Tang, Keqi; Baker, Erin Shammel; Metz, Thomas O.

    2016-02-16

    Metabolomics is the quantitative analysis of all metabolites in a given sample. Due to the chemical complexity of the metabolome, optimal separations are required for comprehensive identification and quantification of sample constituents. This chapter provides an overview of both conventional and advanced separations methods in practice for reducing the complexity of metabolite extracts delivered to the mass spectrometer detector, and covers gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separation techniques coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) as both uni-dimensional and as multi-dimensional approaches.

  12. Creating a research base for nursing education: an interpretive review of conventional, critical, feminist, postmodern, and phenomenologic pedagogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, P M

    2001-03-01

    The National League for Nursing Priorities for Nursing Education Research calls educators (1) to increase their pedagogic literacy to meet the challenges of the changing social, health care, and educational worlds and (2) to develop research-based pedagogies for nursing. This interpretive review of conventional, critical, feminist, postmodern, and phenomenologic pedagogies facilitates the pedagogic literacy of faculty members and provides a background for research-based nursing education. An example of a research-based pedagogy, Narrative Pedagogy, which developed through interpretive (hermeneutic) studies of the lived experiences of students, teachers, and clinicians in nursing education, is explicated.

  13. Comparison of specimen adequacy and smear quality in oral smears prepared by manual liquid-based cytology and conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC, recommended in the mass screening of potentially malignant cervical and oral lesions, suffers from high cost owing to the use of expensive automated devices and materials. Considering the need for cost-effective LBC techniques, we evaluated the efficacy of an inexpensive manual LBC (MLBC technique against conventional cytological technique in terms of specimen adequacy and smear quality of oral smears. Materials and Methods: Cytological samples were collected from 21 patients using a cytobrush device. After preparation of a conventional smear, the brush containing the remaining sample was immersed in the preservative vial. The preserved material was processed by an MLBC technique and subsequently, direct smears were made from the prepared cell button. Both conventional and MLBC smears were stained by routine Papanicolaou technique and evaluated by an independent observer for the thickness of the smear, cellular distribution, resolution/clarity of cells, cellular staining characteristics and the presence of unsatisfactory background/artifacts. Each parameter was graded as satisfactory; or satisfactory, but limited; or unsatisfactory. Chi-square test was used to compare the values obtained (significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: MLBC technique produced a significant number of satisfactory smears with regard to cell distribution, clarity/resolution, staining characteristics and background/artifacts compared to conventional methods. Conclusions: MLBC is a cost-effective cytological technique that may produce oral smears with excellent cytomorphology and longer storage life.

  14. Comparison of specimen adequacy and smear quality in oral smears prepared by manual liquid-based cytology and conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Surabhi; Einstein, A; Shukla, Abhilasha; Mishra, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC), recommended in the mass screening of potentially malignant cervical and oral lesions, suffers from high cost owing to the use of expensive automated devices and materials. Considering the need for cost-effective LBC techniques, we evaluated the efficacy of an inexpensive manual LBC (MLBC) technique against conventional cytological technique in terms of specimen adequacy and smear quality of oral smears. Cytological samples were collected from 21 patients using a cytobrush device. After preparation of a conventional smear, the brush containing the remaining sample was immersed in the preservative vial. The preserved material was processed by an MLBC technique and subsequently, direct smears were made from the prepared cell button. Both conventional and MLBC smears were stained by routine Papanicolaou technique and evaluated by an independent observer for the thickness of the smear, cellular distribution, resolution/clarity of cells, cellular staining characteristics and the presence of unsatisfactory background/artifacts. Each parameter was graded as satisfactory; or satisfactory, but limited; or unsatisfactory. Chi-square test was used to compare the values obtained (significance set at P ≤ 0.05). MLBC technique produced a significant number of satisfactory smears with regard to cell distribution, clarity/resolution, staining characteristics and background/artifacts compared to conventional methods. MLBC is a cost-effective cytological technique that may produce oral smears with excellent cytomorphology and longer storage life.

  15. Comparison of specimen adequacy and smear quality in oral smears prepared by manual liquid-based cytology and conventional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Surabhi; Einstein, A; Shukla, Abhilasha; Mishra, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC), recommended in the mass screening of potentially malignant cervical and oral lesions, suffers from high cost owing to the use of expensive automated devices and materials. Considering the need for cost-effective LBC techniques, we evaluated the efficacy of an inexpensive manual LBC (MLBC) technique against conventional cytological technique in terms of specimen adequacy and smear quality of oral smears. Materials and Methods: Cytological samples were collected from 21 patients using a cytobrush device. After preparation of a conventional smear, the brush containing the remaining sample was immersed in the preservative vial. The preserved material was processed by an MLBC technique and subsequently, direct smears were made from the prepared cell button. Both conventional and MLBC smears were stained by routine Papanicolaou technique and evaluated by an independent observer for the thickness of the smear, cellular distribution, resolution/clarity of cells, cellular staining characteristics and the presence of unsatisfactory background/artifacts. Each parameter was graded as satisfactory; or satisfactory, but limited; or unsatisfactory. Chi-square test was used to compare the values obtained (significance set at P ≤ 0.05). Results: MLBC technique produced a significant number of satisfactory smears with regard to cell distribution, clarity/resolution, staining characteristics and background/artifacts compared to conventional methods. Conclusions: MLBC is a cost-effective cytological technique that may produce oral smears with excellent cytomorphology and longer storage life. PMID:26980958

  16. Patch-based generation of a pseudo CT from conventional MRI sequences for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreasen, Daniel, E-mail: dana@dtu.dk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby 2800, Denmark and Department of Oncology, Radiotherapy Research Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev 2730 (Denmark); Van Leemput, Koen [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby 2800, Denmark and A.A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, MGH, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 (United States); Hansen, Rasmus H. [Department of Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev 2730 (Denmark); Andersen, Jon A. L.; Edmund, Jens M. [Department of Oncology, Radiotherapy Research Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev 2730 (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy (RT) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the only modality, the information on electron density must be derived from the MRI scan by creating a so-called pseudo computed tomography (pCT). This is a nontrivial task, since the voxel-intensities in an MRI scan are not uniquely related to electron density. To solve the task, voxel-based or atlas-based models have typically been used. The voxel-based models require a specialized dual ultrashort echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization and the atlas-based models require deformable registrations of conventional MRI scans. In this study, we investigate the potential of a patch-based method for creating a pCT based on conventional T{sub 1}-weighted MRI scans without using deformable registrations. We compare this method against two state-of-the-art methods within the voxel-based and atlas-based categories. Methods: The data consisted of CT and MRI scans of five cranial RT patients. To compare the performance of the different methods, a nested cross validation was done to find optimal model parameters for all the methods. Voxel-wise and geometric evaluations of the pCTs were done. Furthermore, a radiologic evaluation based on water equivalent path lengths was carried out, comparing the upper hemisphere of the head in the pCT and the real CT. Finally, the dosimetric accuracy was tested and compared for a photon treatment plan. Results: The pCTs produced with the patch-based method had the best voxel-wise, geometric, and radiologic agreement with the real CT, closely followed by the atlas-based method. In terms of the dosimetric accuracy, the patch-based method had average deviations of less than 0.5% in measures related to target coverage. Conclusions: We showed that a patch-based method could generate an accurate pCT based on conventional T{sub 1}-weighted MRI sequences and without deformable registrations. In our evaluations, the method performed better than existing voxel-based and

  17. Study on constitutive relationship of coal based on conventional triaxial compression test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong-jie; CHU Jun; YAN Xiang-hong

    2007-01-01

    Constitutive relationship of coal under triaxial compression must be determined during solving the theoretical calculation and numerical simulation about coal body failure.This paper carried out conventional triaxial compression test on No.3 coal of Baodian Colliery using MTS815.03 servo-controlled rock mechanical test system. The results indicate that the failure process of coal can be divided into 5 stages: densification stage, apparent linear elastic deformation stage, accelerated inelastic deformation stage, fracture and developing stage and plasticity flow stage. Combined with the test results, the constitutive relationship model of coal can be simplified as the four segments of straight line model of elastic-plastic hardening-plastic softening-residual perfectly plastic. Through fitting calculation of test data, the segmented constitutive equation of coal can be obtained.

  18. Study on the Constitutive Model of Marble Based on the Conventional Triaxial Compression Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Sheng-li; Lu Yun-de; Ge Xiu-run

    2004-01-01

    The RMB-150B rock mechanics test system was employed to obtain the complete stress-strain test curves under confining pressures of 0-30MPa for marble samples from Ya'an ,Sichuan province. On the basis of former study and the convention triaxial pressure test results ,the complete procedures curves which described the relationships between yielding strength、 peak strength、 residual strength and confining pressure was obtained. Taking the strain softening of rock into account, the bilinear elastic-linear softening-residual perfect plasticity four-linear model was put forward in this paper on the basis of the test results and theory of plasticity. This model was adopted to describe the behaviors of marble in different phases under triaxial compression with the constitutive equation of strain softening phase as focus. The results indicated that the theoretic model fitted in well with the test results.

  19. A comparison of conventional lecture and team-based learning methods in terms of student learning and teaching satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Team-based learning (TBL) is a structured type of cooperative learning that has growing application in medical education. This study compares levels of student learning and teaching satisfaction for a neurology course between conventional lecture and team-based learning. Methods: The study incorporated 70 students aged 19 to 22 years at the school of rehabilitation. One half of the 16 sessions of the neurology course was taught by lectures and the second half with team-based learning. Teaching satisfaction for the teaching methods was determined on a scale with 5 options in response to 20 questions. Results: Significant difference was found between lecture-based and team-based learning in final scores (pstudent satisfaction was 94%, and external and internal consistencies of the scale were 0.954 and 0.921 orderly (plecture method was 81.3%. Conclusion: Results revealed more success and student satisfaction from team-based learning compared to conventional lectures in teaching neurology to undergraduate students. It seems that application of new teaching methods such as team-based learning could be effectively introduced to improve levels of education and student learning PMID:25250250

  20. A comparison of conventional lecture and team-based learning methods in terms of student learning and teaching satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is a structured type of cooperative learning that has growing application in medical education. This study compares levels of student learning and teaching satisfaction for a neurology course between conventional lecture and team-based learning. The study incorporated 70 students aged 19 to 22 years at the school of rehabilitation. One half of the 16 sessions of the neurology course was taught by lectures and the second half with team-based learning. Teaching satisfaction for the teaching methods was determined on a scale with 5 options in response to 20 questions. Significant difference was found between lecture-based and team-based learning in final scores (plecture method was 81.3%. RESULTS revealed more success and student satisfaction from team-based learning compared to conventional lectures in teaching neurology to undergraduate students. It seems that application of new teaching methods such as team-based learning could be effectively introduced to improve levels of education and student learning.

  1. Towards non-conventional methods of designing register-based epidemiological studies: An application to pediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tong; Brew, Bronwyn; Sjölander, Arvid; Almqvist, Catarina

    2017-07-01

    Various epidemiological designs have been applied to investigate the causes and consequences of fetal growth restriction in register-based observational studies. This review seeks to provide an overview of several conventional designs, including cohort, case-control and more recently applied non-conventional designs such as family-based designs. We also discuss some practical points regarding the application and interpretation of family-based designs. Definitions of each design, the study population, the exposure and the outcome measures are briefly summarised. Examples of study designs are taken from the field of low birth-weight research for illustrative purposes. Also examined are relative advantages and disadvantages of each design in terms of assumptions, potential selection and information bias, confounding and generalisability. Kinship data linkage, statistical models and result interpretation are discussed specific to family-based designs. When all information is retrieved from registers, there is no evident preference of the case-control design over the cohort design to estimate odds ratios. All conventional designs included in the review are prone to bias, particularly due to residual confounding. Family-based designs are able to reduce such bias and strengthen causal inference. In the field of low birth-weight research, family-based designs have been able to confirm a negative association not confounded by genetic or shared environmental factors between low birth weight and the risk of asthma. We conclude that there is a broader need for family-based design in observational research as evidenced by the meaningful contributions to the understanding of the potential causal association between low birth weight and subsequent outcomes.

  2. Prognostic value of normal stress-only myocardial perfusion imaging: a comparison between conventional and CZT-based SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shu; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Timmer, Jorik R. [Isala Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Mouden, Mohamed; Engbers, Elsemiek [Isala Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L. [Isala Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging has proven to have prognostic importance in patients with suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The recently introduced ultrafast cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based gamma cameras have been associated with less equivocal findings and more normal interpretations, allowing stress-only imaging to be performed more often. However, it is yet unclear whether normal stress-only CZT SPECT has comparable prognostic value as normally interpreted stress-only conventional SPECT. The study population consisted of 1,650 consecutive patients without known CAD with normal stress-only myocardial perfusion results with either conventional (n = 362) or CZT SPECT (n = 1,288). The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE, all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization) was compared between the conventional SPECT and CZT SPECT groups. Multivariable analyses using the Cox model were used to adjust for differences in baseline variables. Patients scanned with CZT were less often male (33 vs 39 %), had less often hypercholesterolaemia (41 vs 50 %) and had more often a family history of CAD (57 vs 49 %). At a median follow-up time of 37 months (interquartile range 28-45 months) MACE occurred in 68 patients. The incidence of MACE was 1.5 %/year in the CZT group, compared to 2.0 %/year in the conventional group (p = 0.08). After multivariate analyses, there was a trend to a lower incidence of MACE in the CZT SPECT group (hazard ratio 0.61, 95 % confidence interval 0.35-1.04, p = 0.07). The prognostic value of normal stress-only CZT SPECT is at least comparable and may be even better than that of normal conventional stress SPECT. (orig.)

  3. Rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty: nonimage-based navigation system versus conventional technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-long; ZHANG Wen; SHAO Jun-jie

    2012-01-01

    Background Proper rotational alignment during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is important for adequate postoperative patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics,as well as for achieving balanced flexion space at 90°.The effects of computer navigation-assisted total knee replacement and conventional total knee arthroplasty on rotational alignment,mechanical axis,component position and clinical outcomes were compared.Methods Two methods were used in 82 patients and the rotation of the femoral and tibial components in the transverse plane,the combined rotation of the two components,the mismatch between them,and the mechanical axis of the lower limb were analyzed.All of these parameters were measured from postoperative radiographs and computed tomography images.Functional outcomes were compared at 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively.Results Significant differences were found between the two techniques (P <0.05) in the following parameters:average rotation of the femoral component ((1.51±3.55)° vs.(-0.63±3.04)°); combined rotation of the femoral and tibial components (2.85±4.07)° vs.(0.28±3.43)°); and mismatch between the femoral and tibial components ((1.44±4.55)° vs.(-0.43±2.86)°).Differences in the rotation of the tibial component were not statistically significant.The prevalence of outliers (malalignment >±3° intemal/external rotation) of the femoral component (31.7% vs.12.5%) and the tibial component (36.6% vs.15%) were significantly reduced when the navigation system was used (P<0.05).In addition,while patients in the navigation group had significantly better mechanical axis and functional outcomes at 6 weeks after surgery (P <0.05),there was no significant difference between the two groups (P >0.05) with respect to functional outcomes at 6 months.Conclusion The navigation system exhibited higher accuracy than the conventional technique in the transverse and coronal plane,and provided better early functional outcomes.

  4. Widely Linear versus Conventional Subspace-Based Estimation of SIMO Flat-Fading Channels: Mean Squared Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Saeed; Psaromiligkos, Ioannis N.

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the mean-squared error (MSE) performance of widely linear (WL) and conventional subspace-based channel estimation for single-input multiple-output (SIMO) flat-fading channels employing binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) modulation when the covariance matrix is estimated using a finite number of samples. The conventional estimator suffers from a phase ambiguity that reduces to a sign ambiguity for the WL estimator. We derive closed-form expressions for the MSE of the two estimators under four different ambiguity resolution scenarios. The first scenario is optimal resolution, which minimizes the Euclidean distance between the channel estimate and the actual channel. The second scenario assumes that a randomly chosen coefficient of the actual channel is known and the third assumes that the one with the largest magnitude is known. The fourth scenario is the more realistic case where pilot symbols are used to resolve the ambiguities. Our work demonstrates that there is a strong relationship between the accuracy of ambiguity resolution and the relative performance of WL and conventional subspace-based estimators, and shows that the less information available about the actual channel for ambiguity resolution, or the lower the accuracy of this information, the higher the performance gap in favor of the WL estimator.

  5. Risk of hospitalization for acute pancreatitis associated with conventional and atypical antipsychotics: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasse, Christiane; Jacobsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    as the index date for the matched control subjects. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) for hospitalization due to acute pancreatitis in current users (0-90 days before admission or index date) and former users (> 90 days before admission or index date) of atypical......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of atypical and conventional antipsychotics with the risk of hospitalization for acute pancreatitis. DESIGN: Population-based, case-control study. DATA SOURCE: Health care databases of Northern Denmark. PATIENTS: A total of 3083 adults hospitalized...... for current use and former use of atypical antipsychotics were 0.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3-1.1) and 0.3 (95% CI 0.1-0.9), respectively. A trend was noted for increasing risk of hospitalization due to acute pancreatitis with decreasing potency of conventional antipsychotics, with adjusted RRs of 1...

  6. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Uwe; Constantinescu, Mihai A.; Woermann, Ulrich; Schmitz, Felix; Schnabel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. Objective: This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. Methodology: A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the “Conventional Instruction” (CI) study group or to the “Video-based Instruction” (VI) study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a) of the preparation and (b) of the procedure as well as (c) the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire. Results: The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (t=-78, p<0.44) or in the quality (t=-99, p<0.34). With respect to performance, it was possible to demonstrate a strong treatment effect. In the practical (t=-3.33, p<0.002, d=0.943) and in the total score (t=-2.65, p<0.011, d=0.751), the group with video-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4%) of students stated video

  7. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. Objective: This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. Methodology: A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the “Conventional Instruction” (CI study group or to the “Video-based Instruction” (VI study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a of the preparation and (b of the procedure as well as (c the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire.Results: The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (=-78, <0.44 or in the quality (=-99, <0.34. With respect to performance, it was possible to demonstrate a strong treatment effect. In the practical (=-3.33, <0.002, =0.943 and in the total score (=-2.65, <0.011, =0.751, the group with video-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4% of students stated video instruction

  8. Non-conventional photocathodes based on Cu thin films deposited on Y substrate by sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, A.; D'Elia, M.; Gontad, F.; Di Giulio, M.; Maruccio, G.; Cola, A.; Stankova, N. E.; Kovacheva, D. G.; Broitman, E.

    2014-07-01

    Copper (Cu) thin films were deposited on yttrium (Y) substrate by sputtering. During the deposition, a small central area of the Y substrate was shielded to avoid the film deposition and was successively used to study its photoemissive properties. This configuration has two advantages: the cathode presents (i) the quantum efficiency and the work function of Y and (ii) high electrical compatibility when inserted into the conventional radio-frequency gun built with Cu bulk. The photocathode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy to determine surface morphology. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy studies were performed to compare the structure and surface properties of the deposited film. The measured electrical resistivity value of the Cu film was similar to that of high purity Cu bulk. Film to substrate adhesion was also evaluated using the Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C adhesion test method. Finally, the photoelectron performance in terms of quantum efficiency was obtained in a high vacuum photodiode cell before and after laser cleaning procedures. A comparison with the results obtained with a twin sample prepared by pulsed laser deposition is presented and discussed.

  9. Non-conventional photocathodes based on Cu thin films deposited on Y substrate by sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrone, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics and University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); D’Elia, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gontad, F., E-mail: francisco.gontad@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics and University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Di Giulio, M.; Maruccio, G. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cola, A. [National Council Research, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Stankova, N.E. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kovacheva, D.G. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Broitman, E. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Copper (Cu) thin films were deposited on yttrium (Y) substrate by sputtering. During the deposition, a small central area of the Y substrate was shielded to avoid the film deposition and was successively used to study its photoemissive properties. This configuration has two advantages: the cathode presents (i) the quantum efficiency and the work function of Y and (ii) high electrical compatibility when inserted into the conventional radio-frequency gun built with Cu bulk. The photocathode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy to determine surface morphology. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy studies were performed to compare the structure and surface properties of the deposited film. The measured electrical resistivity value of the Cu film was similar to that of high purity Cu bulk. Film to substrate adhesion was also evaluated using the Daimler–Benz Rockwell-C adhesion test method. Finally, the photoelectron performance in terms of quantum efficiency was obtained in a high vacuum photodiode cell before and after laser cleaning procedures. A comparison with the results obtained with a twin sample prepared by pulsed laser deposition is presented and discussed.

  10. Comparison of propofol based anaesthesia to conventional inhalational general anaesthesia for spine surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L D Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Often conventional Inhalational agents are used for maintenance of anaesthesia in spine surgery. This study was undertaken to compare propofol with isoflurane anaesthesia with regard to haemodynamic stability, early emergence, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV and early assessment of neurological functions. Patients & Methods: Eighty ASA grade I &II adult patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Patients in study group received inj propofol for induction as well as for maintenance along with N 2O+O2 and the control group patients received inj thiopentone for induction and N 2 O+O 2 +isoflurane for maintenance. BIS monitoring was used for titrating the anaesthetic dose adjustments in all patients. All patients received fentanyl boluses for intraoperative analgesia and atracurium as muscle relaxant. Statistical data containing haemodynamic parameters, PONV, emergence time, dose of drug consumed & quality of surgical field were recorded and compared using student t′ test and Chi square test. Results: The haemodynamic stability was coparable in both the groups. The quality of surgical field were better in study group. Though there was no significant difference in the recovery profile (8.3% Vs 9.02% between both the groups, the postoperative nausea and vomiting was less in propofol group than isoflurane group (25%Vs60%. The anaesthesia cost was nearly double for propofol than isoflurane anaesthesia. Conclusion: Haemodynamic stability was comparable in both the groups. There was no significant difference in the recovery time between intravenous and inhalational group. Patients in propofol group were clear headed at awakening and were better oriented to place than inhalational group.

  11. Role of clinical images based teaching as a supplement to conventional clinical teaching in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumoorthy Rajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Clinical Dermatology is a visually oriented specialty, where visually oriented teaching is more important than it is in any other specialty. It is essential that students must have repeated exposure to common dermatological disorders in the limited hours of Dermatology clinical teaching. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the effect of clinical images based teaching as a supplement to the patient based clinical teaching in Dermatology, among final year MBBS students. Methods: A clinical batch comprising of 19 students was chosen for the study. Apart from the routine clinical teaching sessions, clinical images based teaching was conducted. This teaching method was evaluated using a retrospective pre-post questionnaire. Students′ performance was assessed using Photo Quiz and an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. Feedback about the addition of images based class was collected from students. Results: A significant improvement was observed in the self-assessment scores following images based teaching. Mean OSCE score was 6.26/10, and that of Photo Quiz was 13.6/20. Conclusion : This Images based Dermatology teaching has proven to be an excellent supplement to routine clinical cases based teaching.

  12. Comparative Analysis Of Conventional Method With Activity Based Costing In PT Mulia Sejati Gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Nadia Erena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to provide readers the information about the calculation methods, both traditional and activity-based costing in the application of the cost of production. The method used in this research was the qualitative method. The analysis was done by calculating the amount of the production cost using the traditional system and the magnitude of the production cost when using the activity-based costing system. The amount of each acquisition was then performed into data analysis. The results achieved are massive distortion between the calculations using traditional systems and activity based costing system. The conclusions of the whole thesis are activity-based costing system is considered more relevant than traditional systems that are currently used by the company.

  13. Advances in Reasoning-Based Image Processing Intelligent Systems Conventional and Intelligent Paradigms

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    The book puts special stress on the contemporary techniques for reasoning-based image processing and analysis: learning based image representation and advanced video coding; intelligent image processing and analysis in medical vision systems; similarity learning models for image reconstruction; visual perception for mobile robot motion control, simulation of human brain activity in the analysis of video sequences; shape-based invariant features extraction; essential of paraconsistent neural networks, creativity and intelligent representation in computational systems. The book comprises 14 chapters. Each chapter is a small monograph, representing resent investigations of authors in the area. The topics of the chapters cover wide scientific and application areas and complement each-other very well. The chapters’ content is based on fundamental theoretical presentations, followed by experimental results and comparison with similar techniques. The size of the chapters is well-ballanced which permits a thorough ...

  14. Combination Treatment of People with Multiple Sclerosis based on Collaboration between Conventional Healthcare Providers and Alternative Practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Lasse; Launsø, Laila; Pedersen, Inge Kryger;

    2011-01-01

    from combined treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe which outcomes PwMS have experienced from combination treatment based on collaboration between conventional healthcare providers and CAM practitioners. A second purpose is to identify and study aspects of the courses of treatment......’s role; b) participants’ perception of treatment function. Outcomes are shown to differ for different PwMS, and results indicate that the combined interventions have played a role in a dynamic and process-oriented interaction with the entire life situation of the individual patient. The results described...

  15. Mixing Problem Based Learning And Conventional Teaching Methods In An Analog Electronics Course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podges, J.M.; Kommers, P.A.M.; Winnips, K.; Joolingen, van W.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study, undertaken at the Walter Sisulu University of Technology (WSU) in South Africa, describes how problem-based learning (PBL) affects the first year ‘analog electronics course’, when PBL and the lecturing mode is compared. Problems were designed to match real-life situations. Data betwee

  16. Mixing Problem Based Learning And Conventional Teaching Methods In An Analog Electronics Course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podges, J.M.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Winnips, K.; van Joolingen, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    This study, undertaken at the Walter Sisulu University of Technology (WSU) in South Africa, describes how problem-based learning (PBL) affects the first year ‘analog electronics course’, when PBL and the lecturing mode is compared. Problems were designed to match real-life situations. Data between

  17. Home management of oral anticoagulation via telemedicine versus conventional hospital-based treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henry; Lauterlein, Jens-Jacob; Sørensen, Patricia D

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an expert computer system for the control of oral anticoagulation therapy, accessible by the patients via their own computer. To investigate if the weekly measurement and dosing of international normalized ratio (INR) at home using the online Internet-based system was superior...

  18. The Surprisingly Low Motivational Power of Future Rewards: Comparing Conventional Money-Based Measures of Discounting with Motivation-Based Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Jane E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal discount rates are often poor predictors of behaviors that we expect will be motivated by the future. The current research suggests this may be because conventional discounting measures are poor measures of the motivational value of future rewards. In six studies, I develop motivation-based measures of the present value (PV) of future…

  19. Multi-scale structural changes of starch-based material during microwave and conventional heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Li, Lin; Zhang, Shuyan; Li, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Binjia

    2016-11-01

    This work revealed the influence of thermal processing on the microstructural, mesoscopic and molecular scale structures and thus the plasticizer migration of the starch ester films. Thermal processing promoted the permeation of water molecules to hinder the shrink of the amorphous macromolecules. That is, the swelling of the amorphous macromolecules diminished the ordered regions to a certain degree, resulting in the enlarged amorphous regions. Along with slight degradation of the macromolecules, the crystallites were partially disorganized, as indicated by a reduced relative crystallinity. These multi-scale structural changes of the films and the thermally enhanced mobility of plasticizer molecules synergistically enhanced the plasticizer migration. This study not only enables a well understanding of how thermal treatment alters the plasticizer migration of starch-based films from a multi-scale structural view, but also hints to our future work that rationally modulating the structural features of starch-based film may effectively control the migration of chemicals.

  20. In vitro antibacterial activity of a silicone-based endodontic sealer and two conventional sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstein, Marcela; Morgental, Renata Dornelles; Waltrick, Silvana Beltrami Gonçalves; Oliveira, Sílvia Dias; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira; Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli; Steier, Liviu; Tavares, Cauana Oliva; Scarparo, Roberta Kochenborger

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the modification in the silver component is capable of providing GuttaFlow 2 with antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis compared with epoxy resin-based (AH Plus) and zinc oxide and eugenol-based (Endofill) sealers. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using a reference strain of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212). Freshly mixed sealers were subjected to the agar diffusion test (ADT), while the direct contact test (DCT) was performed after materials setting. ADT results were obtained through measurements, in millimeters, of the inhibition zones promoted by the materials, using a digital caliper. In DCT, values of CFU/mL promoted by the three sealers were compared in three experimental periods (1 min, 1 h, and 24 h). The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-hoc tests (p antibacterial effect against E. faecalis.

  1. Feed particle size evaluation: conventional approach versus digital holography based image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell’Orto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of image analysis approach based on digital holography in defining particle size in comparison with the sieve shaker method (sieving method as reference method. For this purpose ground corn meal was analyzed by a sieve shaker Retsch VS 1000 and by image analysis approach based on digital holography. Particle size from digital holography were compared with results obtained by screen (sieving analysis for each of size classes by a cumulative distribution plot. Comparison between particle size values obtained by sieving method and image analysis indicated that values were comparable in term of particle size information, introducing a potential application for digital holography and image analysis in feed industry.

  2. Comparison of the antifungal activity of titanium dioxide based nanosilver packaging and conventional polyethylene packaging in consumed bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using titanium dioxide nanosilver packaging which is antibacterial and resistance to the diffusion of gases such as oxygen is increasing in food industry. Therefore we compared the effect of titanium dioxide based nanosilver packaging and conventional polyethylene packaging - on fungal flora of consuming bread in order to increase the shelf life storage of  consuming bread. One hundred forty four samples of 6 different types of loaf of bread randomly obtained from 12 bakeries in District 2 of Tehran. The samples were packaged with 3%, 5% and 10% nano coatings and also conventional polyethylene coatings as control group. The bacterial examination and monitoring of samples, according to the national standards of Iran was carried out 3 times, on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28, of study period.This study showed that the film type and storage period, were main factors which significantly influenced fungal flora of bread. The lowest rate of various fungi growth (%14 was observed in 10% Nano film, while the highest rate of various fungi growth (47% was observed in conventional polyethylene coating (P<0.001. With increasing storage periods,  the number of various fungi increased, however this correlation was not similar in most of breads and fungi types. There were significant difference between them (P = 0.001. According to the results of the present study, due to increasing population growth and in order to improve food security, using packages with nanosilver particles which are based on titanium dioxide, prevails over the polyethylene packages. Therefore using such packages are highly recommended in bakery industry.

  3. A comparative analysis of conventional and SurePath liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology: A study of 140 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of Papanicolaou (Pap test in cervical cancer screening need not be overemphasized. While most Western countries have adopted the liquid-based cytology (LBC, which is considered superior, many developing countries are still using the conventional Pap smear (CPS technique. Objective: To compare the staining and cytomorphological features on conventional versus liquid-based cervicovaginal smears. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty cervicovaginal smears prepared by the standard conventional and LBC techniques were interpreted as per the Bethesda system of reporting cervicovaginal smears. Twelve parameters were studied, compared, and statistically analyzed. A P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: 129/140 (92% of CPSs and 130/140 (93% LBC smears were satisfactory. LBC had a significantly shorter screening time (2.0 ± 0.08 vs 4.0 ± 0.65 and better representative material than that of CPS (50% vs 42%. Neutrophils were significantly more in CPS than LBC (96% vs 92% with a P value <0.05 while hemorrhagic background and red blood cells (RBCs were more prominent in CPS. LBC showed significant artifactual changes in squamous epithelial cells. Epithelial abnormalities ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL were seen in 3% (4 and 2% (2 of CPSs and LBCs, respectively. Organisms were better picked up in CPS (99% in CPS vs 73% LBC with a value of P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Although a shorter screening time and cleaner background are the major advantages of LBC, CPS is not inferior to LBC. Considering the high cost, rather than the advantages associated with LBC, we feel that CPS is a better option for developing countries.

  4. Example-Based Automatic Music-Driven Conventional Dance Motion Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Songhua [ORNL; Fan, Rukun [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Geng, Weidong [Zhejiang University

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for synthesizing dance motions that follow the emotions and contents of a piece of music. Our method employs a learning-based approach to model the music to motion mapping relationship embodied in example dance motions along with those motions' accompanying background music. A key step in our method is to train a music to motion matching quality rating function through learning the music to motion mapping relationship exhibited in synchronized music and dance motion data, which were captured from professional human dance performance. To generate an optimal sequence of dance motion segments to match with a piece of music, we introduce a constraint-based dynamic programming procedure. This procedure considers both music to motion matching quality and visual smoothness of a resultant dance motion sequence. We also introduce a two-way evaluation strategy, coupled with a GPU-based implementation, through which we can execute the dynamic programming process in parallel, resulting in significant speedup. To evaluate the effectiveness of our method, we quantitatively compare the dance motions synthesized by our method with motion synthesis results by several peer methods using the motions captured from professional human dancers' performance as the gold standard. We also conducted several medium-scale user studies to explore how perceptually our dance motion synthesis method can outperform existing methods in synthesizing dance motions to match with a piece of music. These user studies produced very positive results on our music-driven dance motion synthesis experiments for several Asian dance genres, confirming the advantages of our method.

  5. Assessment of Tissue Perfusion Following Conventional Liposuction of Perforator-Based Abdominal Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Deniz Akdeniz Doğan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe effect of liposuction on the perforators of the lower abdominal wall has been investigated in several studies. There are controversial results in the literature that have primarily demonstrated the number and patency of the perforators. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of liposuction on the perfusion of perforator-based abdominal flaps using a combined laser–Doppler spectrophotometer (O2C, Oxygen to See, LEA Medizintechnik.MethodsNine female patients undergoing classical abdominoplasty were included in the study. Perforators and the perfusion zones of the deep inferior epigastric artery flap were marked on the patient's abdominal wall. Flap perfusion was quantitatively assessed by measuring blood flow, velocity, capillary oxygen saturation, and relative amount of hemoglobin for each zone preoperatively, after tumescent solution infiltration, following elevation of the flap on a single perforator, and after deep and superficial liposuction, respectively.ResultsThe measurements taken after elevation of the flap were not significantly different than measurements taken after the liposuction procedures.ConclusionsThe liposuction procedure does not significantly alter the perfusion of perforator-based abdominal flaps in the early period. The abdominal tissue discarded in a classic abdominoplasty operation can be raised as a perforator flap and has been demonstrated to be a unique model for clinical research.

  6. In vitro antibacterial activity of a silicone-based endodontic sealer and two conventional sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela WAINSTEIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the modification in the silver component is capable of providing GuttaFlow 2 with antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis compared with epoxy resin-based (AH Plus and zinc oxide and eugenol-based (Endofill sealers. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using a reference strain of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212. Freshly mixed sealers were subjected to the agar diffusion test (ADT, while the direct contact test (DCT was performed after materials setting. ADT results were obtained through measurements, in millimeters, of the inhibition zones promoted by the materials, using a digital caliper. In DCT, values of CFU/mL promoted by the three sealers were compared in three experimental periods (1 min, 1 h, and 24 h. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-hoc tests (p < 0.05. In both ADT and DCT, GuttaFlow 2 presented no effect against E. faecalis, while Endofill and AH Plus showed similar inhibition zones. Endofill was the only material capable of reducing bacterial growth in DCT. In conclusion, modifications in the silver particle of GuttaFlow 2 did not result in a sealer with antibacterial effect against E. faecalis.

  7. Comparison of liquid-based preparation and conventional smear of fine-needle aspiration cytology of lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priya; Rohilla, Manish; Dey, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have compared the cytomorphologic characteristics of liquid-based preparation (LBP) [SurePath (SP)] cytology and conventional smear (CP) preparations on fine-needle aspiration (FNAC) material by a semi-quantitative scoring system for cases of lymphadenopathy. In this prospective study, a total of 52 consecutive cases of FNAC of lymphadenopathy were included. The first pass was used for CP followed by LBP with the help of SP technique. The smears were independently compared and assessed by two observers (PS and PD). The semiquantitative grading was compared in two groups by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The background information, cell architecture, pleomorphism, nuclear and cytoplasmic details, and three-dimensional structures were significantly different in LBP and CP smears. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a relatively simple technique, which exhibits good nuclear and cytoplasmic details with the absence of obscuring background material. Even the number of slides and area per slide to be screened were less than the conventional preparation but caution must be applied to interpret the slides and secure a diagnosis, especially if LBC is the first and only method applied for diagnosis.

  8. Effects of conventional sucrose-based, fructose-based and isomalt-based chocolates on postprandial metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, J M; Cooke, D; Gorick, S; Wortley, G M; Greenwood, R H; Zumbe, A; Johnson, I T

    1991-11-01

    Milk chocolate is rich in both sucrose and fat, and is therefore considered unsuitable for diabetics. Nevertheless there is little information on the metabolic effects of conventional chocolate or specialized formulations with reduced sucrose content. In the present study six male non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients (age range 35-60 years; body-mass index less than 28) consumed test meals of chocolate (75 g) on three separate occasions. The control chocolate contained sucrose (45.5% w/w); the test chocolates contained either fructose (45.5% w/w) or isomalt (45.1% w/w). The latter is a sweet disaccharide alcohol which has no glycaemic effect when consumed as a pure compound. Venous blood samples were obtained at 30 min intervals for 5 h, and analysed for glucose, insulin, lactate and triglycerides. All three chocolates provoked a sustained rise in blood glucose, which reached a maximum at 90 min after ingestion and returned to baseline values by 5 h. The highest blood glucose levels occurred after conventional chocolate, and differences were statistically significant at 60 and 90 min (P less than 0.05). The area under the glycaemic curve for isomalt chocolate was 36% smaller than that for conventional chocolate (P less than 0.05), and there were differences in insulin and lactate levels, consistent with the lower glycaemic effect. The glycaemic response to the fructose-based chocolate was also lower than that to control chocolate but the difference was not significant. All three chocolates led to a similar sustained rise in serum triglyceride levels. Isomalt appears to be a palatable alternative sweetener capable of reducing the glycaemic effect of diabetic confectionary.

  9. An approach to using conventional brachytherapy software for clinical treatment planning of complex, Monte Carlo-based brachytherapy dose distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, Mark J.; Melhus, Christopher S.; Granero, Domingo; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Ballester, Facundo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Radiation Oncology Department, Physics Section, ' ' La Fe' ' University Hospital, Avenida Campanar 21, E-46009 Valencia (Spain); Department of Atomic, Molecular, and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Spain and IFIC (University of Valencia-CSIC), C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Certain brachytherapy dose distributions, such as those for LDR prostate implants, are readily modeled by treatment planning systems (TPS) that use the superposition principle of individual seed dose distributions to calculate the total dose distribution. However, dose distributions for brachytherapy treatments using high-Z shields or having significant material heterogeneities are not currently well modeled using conventional TPS. The purpose of this study is to establish a new treatment planning technique (Tufts technique) that could be applied in some clinical situations where the conventional approach is not acceptable and dose distributions present cylindrical symmetry. Dose distributions from complex brachytherapy source configurations determined with Monte Carlo methods were used as input data. These source distributions included the 2 and 3 cm diameter Valencia skin applicators from Nucletron, 4-8 cm diameter AccuBoost peripheral breast brachytherapy applicators from Advanced Radiation Therapy, and a 16 mm COMS-based eye plaque using {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs seeds. Radial dose functions and 2D anisotropy functions were obtained by positioning the coordinate system origin along the dose distribution cylindrical axis of symmetry. Origin:tissue distance and active length were chosen to minimize TPS interpolation errors. Dosimetry parameters were entered into the PINNACLE TPS, and dose distributions were subsequently calculated and compared to the original Monte Carlo-derived dose distributions. The new planning technique was able to reproduce brachytherapy dose distributions for all three applicator types, producing dosimetric agreement typically within 2% when compared with Monte Carlo-derived dose distributions. Agreement between Monte Carlo-derived and planned dose distributions improved as the spatial resolution of the fitted dosimetry parameters improved. For agreement within 5% throughout the clinical volume, spatial resolution of

  10. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture...

  11. Liquid based cytology improves the positive predictive value of glandular smears compared to conventional cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, R J; Errington, C A; Mansour, D J A

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether the introduction of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in an urban setting decreases the diagnosis of glandular neoplasia (grade 6) and improves the positive predictive value (PPV) of cervical cytological screening. A retrospective database review was conducted identifying women with cervical cytological abnormalities including glandular neoplasia (grade 6) before and after the introduction of LBC. Following the introduction of LBC the rate of glandular neoplasia (grade 6) referrals fell from 1.08% to 0.69% of all cervical cytological abnormalities. There was a significant reduction in 'abnormal' cytological samples subsequently found to be associated with no invasive or preinvasive disease but no decrease in the number showing preinvasive or invasive disease. A significant decrease in number of patients having a final diagnosis of normal/inflammatory or wart changes was seen in those patients referred during the LBC period (p cytological glandular neoplasia referrals but not at the expense of missing preinvasive and invasive cancers. It has also increased the PPV of cervical sampling to detect preinvasive and invasive cancer from 59.6% to 76.0%.

  12. Liquid-based versus conventional cytology in solid pediatric neoplasm: Comparison of their diagnostic and morphological spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Preeti; Yadav, Sunita; Kumar, Archana; Goel, Madhu M

    2016-01-01

    Conventional cytology (CC) is a well-established and effective methodology for the evaluation of pediatric tumors. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a better technique of smear preparation and is at present the standard protocol in cervical cytology samples. In the present study, we analyzed both smear preparatory techniques in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples from solid pediatric neoplasms in terms of adequacy and efficacy with objectives to study the changes in background and morphology of tumor cells in LBC smears. This was a prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, which included 52 pediatric patients with clinical diagnosis of malignancy and an assessable lump. Both conventional aspiration cytology and LBC smears were prepared as per standard protocols (SurePath BD™) from FNA samples of cases and examined. On comparing the diagnostic efficacy of cytology smears prepared by both techniques, LBC alone was diagnostic in 80.8% of the cases and conventional smear (CS) alone was diagnostic in 71.2% of the cases (agreement was 83.7%, P = 0.3). Cellular morphology was better preserved in LBC and interpretation was easier. There was a lower inadequacy rate in LBC and none of the samples was inadequate due to poor morphology in LBC smears (P = 0.0003). LBC showed an overall 40% improvement in inadequate cases by CS. LBC has been recommended as a complement to CC in nongynecological samples. Improved morphology and lower inadequacy rate make LBC a finer technique compared to CS in pediatric tumors as well.

  13. Typology of eaters based on conventional and organic food consumption: results from the NutriNet-Santé cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Julia; Touvier, Mathilde; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Limited information is available on large-scale populations regarding the socio-demographic and nutrient profiles and eating behaviour of consumers, taking into account both organic and conventional foods. The aims of this study were to draw up a typology of consumers according to their eating habits, based both on their dietary patterns and the mode of food production, and to outline their socio-demographic, behavioural and nutritional characteristics. Data were collected from 28 245 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary information was obtained using a 264-item, semi-quantitative, organic FFQ. To identify clusters of consumers, principal component analysis was applied on sixteen conventional and sixteen organic food groups followed by a clustering procedure. The following five clusters of consumers were identified: (1) a cluster characterised by low energy intake, low consumption of organic food and high prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes; (2) a cluster of big eaters of conventional foods with high intakes of SFA and cholesterol; (3) a cluster with high consumption of organic food and relatively adequate nutritional diet quality; (4) a group with a high percentage of organic food consumers, 14 % of which were either vegetarians or vegans, who exhibited a high nutritional diet quality and a low prevalence of inadequate intakes of most vitamins except B12; and (5) a group of moderate organic food consumers with a particularly high intake of proteins and alcohol and a poor nutritional diet quality. These findings may have implications for future aetiological studies investigating the potential impact of organic food consumption.

  14. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus among coagulase positive staphylococci from animal origin based on conventional and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Velizarova Rusenova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to detect Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus among other coagulase positive staphylococci from animal origin by using conventional methods (biochemical tests and latex agglutination and a molecular method, based on the nuc gene, as the gold standard and to assess the usefulness of these methods. For this purpose, total of 344 staphylococcal isolates were collected and analysed. A total of 156 isolates suspicious for S. aureus were detected by a conventional biochemical method – 88 from cows, 18 from goats, 7 from pigs, 17 from poultry, 7 from rabbits and 19 from dogs. The majority of S. aureus strains gave typical biochemical reactions with the exception of 30 (19.2% and 25 (16% that were VP negative and weak positive in fermenting mannitol, respectively. Twelve strains were found to be non-haemolytic (7.7% and four strains did not ferment trehalose (2.6%. Other staphylococci were identified as S. pseudintermedius (n = 103, S. hyicus (n = 23 and the rest were coagulase-negative staphylococci. Latex agglutination test resulted in rapid positive reactions with S. aureus with exception of 5 strains (3.2% from cow mastitis milk. Positive agglutination reactions were also established with S. pseudintermedius, and S. hyicus. PCR confirmed all strains that were preliminary identified as S. aureus by amplification of 270 bp fragment of nuc gene specific for this species. The atypical reactions in certain strains established in this study have shown that the precise detection of S. aureus from animal origin should be done by combination of conventional and molecular methods.

  15. Disseminated primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis: a case report with liquid based and conventional smear cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilic Masha

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis is a rare neoplasm confined to the meninges without evidence of primary tumor in the brain or spinal cord parenchyma. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion via ventriculoperitoneal shunt may be used as a therapeutic modality. Herein, we describe the first report of cytologic findings of a case of this neoplasm with shunt-related peritoneal metastasis. Case presentation A 19-year-old male presented with a 6-month history of severe headaches. He had bilateral papilledema on physical exam. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was negative. Four months later a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. Shortly thereafter, he was diagnosed with primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis based on the biopsy of an intradural extramedullary lesion adjacent to the lumbar spinal cord at a referral cancer center. The histology featured an infiltrating growth pattern of pleomorphic astrocytes with diffuse positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein. A couple of months later he presented at our institution with ascites and an anterior peritoneal mass. Repeat cerebrospinal fluid cytology and fine needle aspiration of the mass confirmed disseminated gliomatosis. Cytologic characteristics included clusters of anaplastic cells of variable size, high nuclear to cytoplasm ratio and scant to moderate cytoplasm. Occasional single bizarre multinucleated cells were seen with eccentric "partial wreath-like" nuclei, clumped chromatin and prominent nucleoli. Patient expired 13 months after initial presentation. Conclusion Disseminated primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic aseptic meningitis and in the presence of a peritoneal tumor in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Immunocytochemistry may be of diagnostic value.

  16. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bhar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sample was obtained using cervex-brush. CPS was prepared from the brush and the brush head was suspended in the LBC vial and processed by SurePath™ LBC. Results: There were 4.3% unsatisfactory (U/S cases in CPS and 1.7% in LBC; the main cause is insufficient cells, and excess of blood in CPS. About 25/100 (2.5% split samples had epithelial abnormalities both in CPS and LBC (1.2%-atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 0.4%-low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.2%-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5%-squamous cell carcinoma; 0.1%-atypical glandular cells favouring neoplasia; 0.2%-adenocarcinoma. Inflammatory organisms were almost equally identified in both techniques but were better seen in LBC samples. Conclusions: LBC technique leads to significant reduction of U/S rate. LBC samples offered better clarity, uniform spread of smears, less time for screening and better handling of hemorrhagic and inflammatory samples. LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to CPS.

  17. MO-G-BRD-01: Point/Counterpoint Debate: Arc Based Techniques Will Make Conventional IMRT Obsolete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, D [Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Popple, R [University Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Balter, P [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    A variety of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques have been developed that have provided clinicians with the ability to deliver highly conformal dose distributions. The delivery techniques include compensators, step-and-shoot IMRT, sliding window IMRT, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and tomotherapy. A key development in the field of IMRT was the introduction of new planning algorithms and delivery control systems in 2007 that made it possible to coordinate the gantry rotation speed, dose rate, and multileaf collimator leaf positions during the delivery of arc therapy. With these developments, VMAT became a routine clinical tool. The use of VMAT has continued to grow in recent years and some would argue that this will soon make conventional IMRT obsolete, and this is the premise of this debate. To introduce the debate, David Shepard, Ph.D. will provide an overview of IMRT delivery techniques including historical context and how they are being used today. The debate will follow with Richard Popple, Ph.D. arguing FOR the Proposition and Peter Balter, Ph.D. arguing AGAINST it. Learning Objectives: Understand the different delivery techniques for IMRT. Understand the potential benefits of conventional IMRT. Understand the potential benefits of arc-based IMRT delivery.

  18. The scale of the evidence base on the health effects of conventional yogurt consumption: findings of a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Glanville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health effects of conventional yogurt have been investigated for over a century; however, few systematic reviews have been conducted to assess the extent of the health benefits of yogurt.Objective: The aim of this scoping review was to assess the volume of available evidence on the health effects of conventional yogurt. Methods: The review was guided by a protocol agreed a priori and informed by an extensive literature search conducted in November 2013. Randomized controlled trials were selected and categorized according to the eligibility criteria established in the protocol. Results: 213 studies were identified as relevant to the scoping question. The number of eligible studies identified for each outcome were: bone health (14 studies, weight management and nutrition related health outcomes (81 studies, metabolic health (6 studies; cardiovascular health (57 studies; gastrointestinal health (24 studies; cancer (39 studies; diabetes (13 studies, Parkinson’s disease risk (3 studies, all-cause mortality (3 studies, skin complaints (3 studies, respiratory complaints (3 studies, joint pain/function (2 studies; the remaining 8 studies reported a variety of other outcomes. For studies of a similar design and which assessed the same outcomes in similar population groups, we report the potential for the combining of data across studies in systematic reviews. Conclusions: This scoping review has revealed the extensive evidence base for many outcomes which could be the focus of systematic reviews exploring the health effects of yogurt consumption.

  19. Characterization of a human tooth with carious lesions using conventional and synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadowiec, Iwona; Beckmann, Felix; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Müller, Bert

    2014-09-01

    In a dental office, every day X rays of teeth within the oral cavity are obtained. Caries induces a mineral loss and, therefore, becomes visible by reduced X-ray absorption. The detailed spatial distribution of the mineral loss, however, is inaccessible in conventional dental radiology, since the dose for such studies is intolerable. As a consequence, such measurements can only be performed after tooth extraction. We have taken advantage of synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography to characterize a human tooth with a rather small, natural caries lesion and an artificially induced lesion provoked by acidic etching. Both halves of the tooth were separately visualized from 2400 radiographs recorded at the beam line P07 / PETRA III (HASYLAB at DESY, Hamburg, Germany) with an asymmetric rotation axis at photon energy of 45 keV. Because of the setup, one finds an energy shift in the horizontal plane, to be corrected. After the appropriate three-dimensional registration of the data with the ones of the same crown using the better accessible phoenix nanotom® m of General Electric, Wunstorf, Germany, one can determine the joint histogram, which enable to calibrate the system with the conventional X-ray source.

  20. ANN-based energy reconstruction procedure for TACTIC {gamma}-ray telescope and its comparison with other conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, V.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Astrophysical Sciences Division, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: veer@barc.gov.in; Tickoo, A.K.; Koul, M.K.; Rannot, R.C.; Yadav, K.K.; Chandra, P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Astrophysical Sciences Division, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Dubey, B.P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Electronics and Instruments Services Division, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Koul, R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Astrophysical Sciences Division, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2009-07-21

    The energy estimation procedures employed by different groups, for determining the energy of the primary {gamma}-ray using a single atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope, include methods like polynomial fitting in SIZE and DISTANCE, general least square fitting and look-up table based interpolation. A novel energy reconstruction procedure, based on the utilization of Artificial Neural Network (ANN), has been developed for the TACTIC telescope. The procedure uses a 3:30:1 ANN configuration with resilient backpropagation algorithm to estimate the energy of a {gamma}-ray like event on the basis of its image SIZE, DISTANCE and zenith angle. The new ANN-based energy reconstruction method, apart from yielding an energy resolution of {approx}26%, which is comparable to that of other single imaging telescopes, has the added advantage that it considers zenith angle dependence as well. Details of the ANN-based energy estimation procedure along with its comparative performance with other conventional energy reconstruction methods are presented in the paper and the results indicate that amongst all the methods considered in this work, ANN method yields the best results. The performance of the ANN-based energy reconstruction has also been validated by determining the energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula in the energy range 1-16 TeV, as measured by the TACTIC telescope.

  1. Significance of atypia in conventional Papanicolaou smears and liquid-based cytology: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schledermann, D; Ejersbo, D; Hoelund, B

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of atypical squamous epithelial cells, borderline nuclear changes, is associated with some controversy, as it encompasses benign, reactive, as well as possible neoplastic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the follow-up diagnoses of cytological atypia in conventional...... Papanicolaou smears (CP) and liquid-based samples by the ThinPrep Pap Test (TP). A total of 1607 CP smears from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000 and 798 TP samples from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2002 diagnosed as atypia were included. The results show that the detection rate of atypia in cervical...... cytological samples was reduced by 41.3% (P Cytological and histological follow-up data showed the presence of neoplastic lesions in 34.7% of patients screened by TP versus 22.3% of patients screened by CP, corresponding to a 55.6% increase in TP (P

  2. Current-Mode CCII+ Based Oscillator Circuits using a Conventional and a Modified Wien-Bridge with All Capacitors Grounded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bajer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a pair of current-mode sine-wave oscillator circuits. Both these circuits are implemented using positive second-generation current conveyors (CCII+. The principle of the first oscillator is based on a conventional Wien-bridge network. However, this implementation suffers from the use of a floating capacitor, which can be unacceptable in the case of on-chip integration. This drawback is solved in the second variant via a slight modification of the Wien-bridge network, which then allows the use of all capacitors grounded. The modified circuit version was manufactured by means of the socalled diamond transistors, which play the role of CCII+ active building blocks. The circuit behavior was analyzed theoretically, with particular emphasis on the identification of real effects and their elimination, and subsequently verified experimentally. The experimental results are included in the paper.

  3. Causes and relevance of unsatisfactory and satisfactory but limited smears of liquid-based compared with conventional cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebers, Albertus G; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; Vedder, Judith E M; Arbyn, Marc; Bulten, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Recent randomized controlled trials have shown a significant decrease in unsatisfactory rates for liquid-based cytology (LBC) compared with conventional Papanicolaou test (CP). The underlying causes and relevance of unsatisfactory results for LBC and CP have never been compared within the setting of a randomized controlled trial. To examine differences in causes and relevance of unsatisfactory and satisfactory but limited by (SBLB) results for LBC and CP. Data from the Netherlands ThinPrep Versus Conventional Cytology (NETHCON) trial were used, involving 89 784 women. Causes and relevance of unsatisfactory and SBLB results were analyzed. The primary cause for unsatisfactory results for CP and LBC was scant cellularity. Other causes for unsatisfactory CPs were virtually eliminated with LBC. The same was true for SBLB subcategories, with the exception of SBLB absence of transformation zone component and SBLB scant cellularity. The SBLB absence of transformation zone component showed a statistically significant 22% and SBLB scant cellularity a 12% nonsignificant increase with LBC. The detection rates of abnormalities found during 18 months of follow-up of unsatisfactory test results did not differ significantly between the 2 study arms, nor did they differ from the initial test positivity rates from the NETHCON trial. Liquid-based cytology shows an almost complete elimination of most causes for unsatisfactory CP, with scant cellularity remaining as the sole cause for unsatisfactory LBC. On the other hand, with LBC a significant increase of smears without a transformation zone component was noted. Women with an unsatisfactory test result are not at increased risk for cervical abnormalities either with LBC or with CP. Nederlands Trial Register, NTR1032, www.trialregister.nl .

  4. Combination of DNA-based and conventional methods to detect human leukocyte antigen polymorphism and its use for paternity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereszturya, László; Rajczya, Katalin; Lászikb, András; Gyódia, Eva; Pénzes, Mária; Falus, András; Petrányia, Gyõzõ G

    2002-03-01

    In cases of disputed paternity, the scientific goal is to promote either the exclusion of a falsely accused man or the affiliation of the alleged father. Until now, in addition to anthropologic characteristics, the determination of genetic markers included human leukocyte antigen gene variants; erythrocyte antigens and serum proteins were used for that reason. Recombinant DNA techniques provided a new set of highly variable genetic markers based on DNA nucleotide sequence polymorphism. From the practical standpoint, the application of these techniques to paternity testing provides greater versatility than do conventional genetic marker systems. The use of methods to detect the polymorphism of human leukocyte antigen loci significantly increases the chance of validation of ambiguous results in paternity testing. The outcome of 2384 paternity cases investigated by serologic and/or DNA-based human leukocyte antigen typing was statistically analyzed. Different cases solved by DNA typing are presented involving cases with one or two accused men, exclusions and nonexclusions, and tests of the paternity of a deceased man. The results provide evidence for the advantage of the combined application of various techniques in forensic diagnostics and emphasizes the outstanding possibilities of DNA-based assays. Representative examples demonstrate the strength of combined techniques in paternity testing.

  5. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou cytology samples with liquid-based cervical cytology samples from women in Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O.L.P. Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we compared the performance of a ThinPrep cytological method with the conventional Papanicolaou test for diagnosis of cytopathological changes, with regard to unsatisfactory results achieved at the Central Public Health Laboratory of the State of Pernambuco. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed with women aged 18 to 65 years, who spontaneously sought gynecological services in Public Health Units in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, between April and November 2011. All patients in the study were given a standardized questionnaire on sociodemographics, sexual characteristics, reproductive practices, and habits. A total of 525 patients were assessed by the two methods (11.05% were under the age of 25 years, 30.86% were single, 4.4% had had more than 5 sexual partners, 44% were not using contraception, 38.85% were users of alcohol, 24.38% were smokers, 3.24% had consumed drugs previously, 42.01% had gynecological complaints, and 12.19% had an early history of sexually transmitted diseases. The two methods showed poor correlation (k=0.19; 95%CI=0.11–0.26; P<0.001. The ThinPrep method reduced the rate of unsatisfactory results from 4.38% to 1.71% (χ2=5.28; P=0.02, and the number of cytopathological changes diagnosed increased from 2.47% to 3.04%. This study confirmed that adopting the ThinPrep method for diagnosis of cervical cytological samples was an improvement over the conventional method. Furthermore, this method may reduce possible losses from cytological resampling and reduce obstacles to patient follow-up, improving the quality of the public health system in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

  6. Corrosion in artificial saliva of a Ni-Cr-based dental alloy joined by TIG welding and conventional brazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Irma C; Bastos, Ivan N; Diniz, Marília G; de Miranda, Mauro S

    2015-08-01

    Fixed prosthesis and partial dental prosthesis frameworks are usually made from welded Ni-Cr-based alloys. These structures can corrode in saliva and have to be investigated to establish their safety. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the corrosion behavior of joints joined by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and conventional brazing in specimens made of commercial Ni-Cr alloy in Fusayama artificial saliva at 37°C (pH 2.5 and 5.5). Eighteen Ni-Cr base metal specimens were cast and welded by brazing or tungsten inert gas methods. The specimens were divided into 3 groups (base metal, 2 welded specimens), and the composition and microstructure were qualitatively evaluated. The results of potential corrosion and corrosion current density were analyzed with a 1-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test for pairwise comparisons (α=.05). Base metal and tungsten inert gas welded material showed equivalent results in electrochemical corrosion tests, while the air-torched specimens exhibited low corrosion resistance. The performance was worst at pH 2.5. These results suggest that tungsten inert gas is a suitable welding process for use in dentistry, because the final microstructure does not reduce the corrosion resistance in artificial saliva at 37°C, even in a corrosion-testing medium that facilitates galvanic corrosion processes. Moreover, the corrosion current density of brazed Ni-Cr alloy joints was significantly higher (P<.001) than the base metal and tungsten inert gas welded joints. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of bone substitute materials: comparison of flat-panel based volume CT to conventional multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbier, Sebastian; Duttenhoefer, Fabian; Sachlos, Elefterios; Haberstroh, Jörg; Scheifele, Christian; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Voss, Pit Jacob; Veigel, Egle; Smedek, Jörg; Ganter, Philip; Tuna, Taskin; Gutwald, Ralf; Palmowski, Moritz

    2013-10-01

    Over the last decade tissue engineering has emerged as a key factor in bone regeneration within the field of cranio-maxillofacial surgery. Despite this in vivo analysis of tissue-engineered-constructs to monitor bone rehabilitation are difficult to conduct. Novel high-resolving flat-panel based volume CTs (fp-VCT) are increasingly used for imaging bone structures. This study compares the potential value of novel fp-VCT with conventional multidetector CT (MDCT) based on a sheep sinus floor elevation model. Calcium-hydroxyapatite reinforced collagen scaffolds were populated with autologous osteoblasts and implanted into sheep maxillary sinus. After 8, 16 and 24 weeks MDCT and fp-VCT scans were performed to investigate the volume of the augmented area; densities of cancellous and compact bone were assessed as comparative values. fp-VCT imaging resulted in higher spatial resolution, which was advantageous when separating closely related anatomical structures (i.e. trabecular and compact bone, biomaterials). Fp-VCT facilitated imaging of alterations occurring in test specimens over time. fp-VCTs therefore displayed high volume coverage, dynamic imaging potential and superior performance when investigating superfine bone structures and bone remodelling of biomaterials. Thus, fp-VCTs may be a suitable instrument for intraoperative imaging and future in vivo tissue-engineering studies.

  8. Further validation of artificial neural network-based emissions simulation models for conventional and hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth-Nagy, Csaba; Conley, John J; Jarrett, Ronald P; Clark, Nigel N

    2006-07-01

    With the advent of hybrid electric vehicles, computer-based vehicle simulation becomes more useful to the engineer and designer trying to optimize the complex combination of control strategy, power plant, drive train, vehicle, and driving conditions. With the desire to incorporate emissions as a design criterion, researchers at West Virginia University have developed artificial neural network (ANN) models for predicting emissions from heavy-duty vehicles. The ANN models were trained on engine and exhaust emissions data collected from transient dynamometer tests of heavy-duty diesel engines then used to predict emissions based on engine speed and torque data from simulated operation of a tractor truck and hybrid electric bus. Simulated vehicle operation was performed with the ADVISOR software package. Predicted emissions (carbon dioxide [CO2] and oxides of nitrogen [NO(x)]) were then compared with actual emissions data collected from chassis dynamometer tests of similar vehicles. This paper expands on previous research to include different driving cycles for the hybrid electric bus and varying weights of the conventional truck. Results showed that different hybrid control strategies had a significant effect on engine behavior (and, thus, emissions) and may affect emissions during different driving cycles. The ANN models underpredicted emissions of CO2 and NO(x) in the case of a class-8 truck but were more accurate as the truck weight increased.

  9. A prospective evaluation of conventional cystography for detection of urine leakage at the vesicourethral anastomosis site after radical prostatectomy based on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.S. [Urologic Oncology Clinic, Center for Prostate Cancer, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu-dong, Ilsan-dong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 411-769, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H.J. [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, D.C. [Department of Radiology, Center for Specific Organs Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. [Cancer Registration and Biostatistics Branch, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, K.S.; Joung, J.Y.; Seo, H.K.; Chung, J. [Urologic Oncology Clinic, Center for Prostate Cancer, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu-dong, Ilsan-dong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 411-769, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.H., E-mail: uroonco@ncc.re.k [Urologic Oncology Clinic, Center for Prostate Cancer, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu-dong, Ilsan-dong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 411-769, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of conventional cystography for the detection of urine leakage at the vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA) site after radical prostatectomy based on computed tomography (CT) cystography. Materials and methods: Patients who underwent radical prostatectomies at a single tertiary cancer centre were prospectively enrolled. Conventional cystography was routinely performed on postoperative day 7. Non-enhanced pelvic CT images were obtained after retrograde instillation of the same contrast material for a reference standard of urine leakage at the VUA site. Urine leakage was classified as follows: none; a plication abnormality; mild; moderate; and excessive. Results: One hundred and twenty consecutive patients were enrolled. Conventional cystography detected 14 urine leakages, but CT cystography detected 40 urine leakages, which consisted of 28 mild and 12 moderate urine leakages. When using CT cystography as the standard measurement, conventional cystography showed a diagnostic accuracy of 17.8% (5/28) for mild urine leakage and 75% (9/12) for moderate leakage. Of nine patients diagnosed with mild leakage on conventional cystography, four (44.4%) had complicated moderate urine leakages based on CT cystography, requiring prolonged catheterization. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of conventional cystography were 35, 100, 100, 75.4, and 78.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Conventional cystography is less accurate than CT cystography for diagnosing urine leakage at the VUA site after a radical prostatectomy. The present results suggest that CT cystography is a good choice for diagnostic imaging of urine leakage after radical prostatectomy.

  10. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, ...... % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  11. A Balanced Scorecard-Based Model for Evaluating E-Learning and Conventional Pedagogical Activities in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovelja, Tomaž; Vavpotic, Damjan; Žvanut, Boštjan

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of e-learning and conventional pedagogical activities in nursing programmes has focused either on a single pedagogical activity or the entire curriculum, and only on students' or teachers' perspective. The goal of this study was to design and test a novel approach for evaluation of e-learning and conventional pedagogical activities…

  12. A Balanced Scorecard-Based Model for Evaluating E-Learning and Conventional Pedagogical Activities in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovelja, Tomaž; Vavpotic, Damjan; Žvanut, Boštjan

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of e-learning and conventional pedagogical activities in nursing programmes has focused either on a single pedagogical activity or the entire curriculum, and only on students' or teachers' perspective. The goal of this study was to design and test a novel approach for evaluation of e-learning and conventional pedagogical activities…

  13. Retention of a Flowable Composite Resin in Comparison to a Conventional Resin-Based Sealant: One-year Follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    N. Tadayon; B. Malekafzali; M.Jafarzadeh; Fallahi, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Long-term retention of pit and fissure sealants is crucial for their success. This clinical study evaluated the retention rate of a flowable composite resin (Filtek Supreme XT Flowable Restorative) compared to a conventional resin-based sealant (Concise Light Cure White Sealant) over 12 months. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects aged 6 to 9 years were included in the study. Using a half-mouth design, a total of 80 first permanent molars were sealed with conventional fissure seal...

  14. Conventional epidemiology underestimates the incidence of asthma and wheeze-a longitudinal population-based study among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedman Linnéa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of shifts in the gender ratio and incidence and remission rates of asthma during the teen ages, the methodology of incidence studies among teenagers is important, i.e. if the time intervals between surveys are too long, the incident cases might not be properly identified. The aim was to study the impact of study design on the incidence rates of asthma and wheeze during the teen ages. Methods In a study about asthma and allergic diseases within the OLIN studies (Obstructive Lung Disease in northern Sweden, a cohort of school children (n = 3,430 was followed annually by questionnaire from age 8 yrs. In the endpoint survey (age 18 yrs 2,582 (75% of original responders participated. Incident cases from age 12-18 yrs were identified by two methods: annual questionnaire reports (AR and baseline-endpoint surveys only (BE. Results The cumulative incidence of asthma and wheeze was significantly higher based on AR compared to BE. Compared to the incidence rates based on all the annual surveys, the calculated average annual rates based on BE were in general lower both among the boys and among the girls. There were no differences between boys and girls in incidence rates of asthma or wheeze during the early teen years. However, from the age of 15 years, the annual incidence rates were significantly or borderline significantly higher among girls than boys. At onset, the additional cases of current asthma identified by AR had significantly less severe asthma than those identified in BE (p Conclusion the size of the incidence of asthma and wheeze during the teen ages was influenced by study design. By using the conventional prospective study design with longer follow-up time, the incidence was underestimated.

  15. Conventional liquid-based techniques versus Cytyc Thinprep® processing of urinary samples: a qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutin Karine

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to objectively compare Cytyc Thinprep® and other methods of obtaining thin layer cytologic preparations (cytocentrifugation, direct smearing and Millipore® filtration in urine cytopathology. Methods Thinprep slides were compared to direct smears in 79 cases. Cytocentrifugation carried out with the Thermo Shandon Cytospin® 4 was compared to Thinprep in 106 cases, and comparison with Millipore filtration followed by blotting was obtained in 22 cases. Quality was assessed by scoring cellularity, fixation, red blood cells, leukocytes and nuclear abnormalities. Results The data show that 1 smearing allows good overall results to be obtained, 2 Cytocentrifugation with reusable TPX® chambers should be avoided, 3 Cytocentrifugation using disposable chambers (Cytofunnels® or Megafunnel® chambers gives excellent results equalling or surpassing Thinprep and 4 Millipore filtration should be avoided, owing to its poor global quality. Despite differences in quality, the techniques studied have no impact on the diagnostic accuracy as evaluated by the rate of abnormalities. Conclusion We conclude that conventional methods such as cytocentrifugation remain the most appropriate ones for current treatment of urinary samples. Cytyc Thinprep processing, owing to its cost, could be used essentially for cytology-based molecular studies.

  16. Utility of manual liquid-based cytology and conventional smears in the evaluation of various fine-needle aspiration samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Arul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC preparation is a way to improve and refine the fine-needle aspiration (FNA samples. There are a few studies comparing LBC with conventional smear (CS. Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of manual LBC (MLBC and CS preparations in various FNA samples. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 FNA samples from various anatomical sites were evaluated using MLBC and CS preparations. Cellularity, blood, informative background, monolayers, cell architecture, cytoplasmic, and nuclear preservation were compared with MLBC and CS preparations by Wilcoxon signed rank test. P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results: MLBC preparations were superior to CS preparations in view of absence of blood and debris (P = 0.001, presence of monolayers (P < 0.001, and preservation of cytoplasmic (P = 0.001 and nuclear details (P = 0.001. However, no statistically significant differences were found between MLBC and CS preparations with regard to cellularity (P = 0.157, informative background (P = 0.083, and architecture (P = 0.739. Conclusion: MLBC preparations in FNAC are a safe, easy, and less time-consuming procedure, and it may have promising diagnostic value in the evaluation of FNA samples from various anatomical sites. However, the use of both MLBC and CS preparations is recommended to achieve optimal diagnostic yield.

  17. Recognition of Mould Colony on Unhulled Paddy Based on Computer Vision using Conventional Machine-learning and Deep Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ke; Wang, Zhengjie; Tu, Kang; Wang, Shaojin; Pan, Leiqing

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the potential of conventional and deep learning techniques to recognize the species and distribution of mould in unhulled paddy, samples were inoculated and cultivated with five species of mould, and sample images were captured. The mould recognition methods were built using support vector machine (SVM), back-propagation neural network (BPNN), convolutional neural network (CNN), and deep belief network (DBN) models. An accuracy rate of 100% was achieved by using the DBN model to identify the mould species in the sample images based on selected colour-histogram parameters, followed by the SVM and BPNN models. A pitch segmentation recognition method combined with different classification models was developed to recognize the mould colony areas in the image. The accuracy rates of the SVM and CNN models for pitch classification were approximately 90% and were higher than those of the BPNN and DBN models. The CNN and DBN models showed quicker calculation speeds for recognizing all of the pitches segmented from a single sample image. Finally, an efficient uniform CNN pitch classification model for all five types of sample images was built. This work compares multiple classification models and provides feasible recognition methods for mouldy unhulled paddy recognition.

  18. Comparison of Unsatisfactory Samples from Conventional Smear versus Liquid-Based Cytology in Uterine Cervical Cancer Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hoiseon; Hong, Sung Ran; Chae, Seoung-Wan; Jin, So-Young; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Lee, Juhie; Kim, Eun Kyung; Ha, Sook Tai; Kim, Sung Nam; Park, Eun-Jung; Jung, Jong Jae; Sung, Sun Hee; Lim, Sung-Chul

    2017-05-01

    Cervical cytology for uterine cervical cancer screening has transitioned from conventional smear (CS) to liquid-based cytology (LBC), which has many advantages. The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of unsatisfactory specimens from CS versus LBC at multiple institutions including general hospitals and commercial laboratories. Each participating institution provided a minimum of 500 Papanicolaou (Pap) test results for analysis. Pap tests were classified according to the participating institution (commercial laboratory or general hospital) and the processing method (CS, ThinPrep, SurePath, or CellPrep). The causes of unsatisfactory results were classified as technical problems, scant cellularity, or complete obscuring factors. A total of 38,956 Pap test results from eight general hospitals and three commercial laboratories were analyzed. The mean unsatisfactory rate of LBC was significantly lower than that of CS (1.26% and 3.31%, p = .018). In the LBC method, samples from general hospitals had lower unsatisfactory rates than those from commercial laboratories (0.65% vs 2.89%, p = .006). The reasons for unsatisfactory results were heterogeneous in CS. On the other hand, 66.2% of unsatisfactory results in LBC were due to the scant cellularity. Unsatisfactory rate of cervical cancer screening test results varies according to the institution and the processing method. LBC has a significantly lower unsatisfactory rate than CS.

  19. Utility of manual liquid-based cytology and conventional smears in the evaluation of various fine-needle aspiration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul, P

    2016-01-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) preparation is a way to improve and refine the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples. There are a few studies comparing LBC with conventional smear (CS). The present study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of manual LBC (MLBC) and CS preparations in various FNA samples. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 FNA samples from various anatomical sites were evaluated using MLBC and CS preparations. Cellularity, blood, informative background, monolayers, cell architecture, cytoplasmic, and nuclear preservation were compared with MLBC and CS preparations by Wilcoxon signed rank test. P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. MLBC preparations were superior to CS preparations in view of absence of blood and debris (P = 0.001), presence of monolayers (P < 0.001), and preservation of cytoplasmic (P = 0.001) and nuclear details (P = 0.001). However, no statistically significant differences were found between MLBC and CS preparations with regard to cellularity (P = 0.157), informative background (P = 0.083), and architecture (P = 0.739). MLBC preparations in FNAC are a safe, easy, and less time-consuming procedure, and it may have promising diagnostic value in the evaluation of FNA samples from various anatomical sites. However, the use of both MLBC and CS preparations is recommended to achieve optimal diagnostic yield.

  20. Teaching baroreflex physiology to medical students: a comparison of quiz-based and conventional teaching strategies in a laboratory exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Damgaard, Morten

    2012-06-01

    Quiz-based and collaborative teaching strategies have previously been found to be efficient for the improving meaningful learning of physiology during lectures. These approaches have, however, not been investigated during laboratory exercises. In the present study, we compared the impact of solving quizzes individually and in groups with conventional teaching on the immediate learning during a laboratory exercise. We implemented two quizzes in a mandatory 4-h laboratory exercise on baroreflex physiology. A total of 155 second-year medical students were randomized to solve quizzes individually (intervention group I, n = 57), in groups of three to four students (intervention group II, n = 56), or not to perform any quizzes (control; intervention group III, n = 42). After the laboratory exercise, all students completed an individual test, which encompassed two recall questions, two intermediate questions, and two integrated questions. The integrated questions were of moderate and advanced difficulty, respectively. Finally, students completed an evaluation form. Intervention group I reached the highest total test scores and proved best at answering the integrated question of advanced difficulty. Moreover, there was an overall difference between groups for student evaluations of the quality of the teaching, which was highest for intervention group II. In conclusion, solving quizzes individually during a laboratory exercise may enhance learning, whereas solving quizzes in groups is associated with higher student satisfaction.

  1. Integration of conventional GIS-based techniques and remote sensing analysis to landslide risk assessment at basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agili, F.; Bartolomei, A.; Casagli, N.; Catani, F.; Ermini, L.; Farina, P.; Kukavicic, M.; Mirannalti, M.; Moretti, S.; Righini, G.

    2003-04-01

    This note concerns the preliminary results gathered in a research project aimed at landslide risk assessment in the Arno River basin (9000 km^2). The project, sponsored by the Basin Authority of the Arno River, started in the year 2002 and it will finish in the 2004. The objective of such a project consists of the updating of the landslide risk cartography related to the PAI document (Piano Assetto Idrogeologico) with reference to the Italian Law 267/1998. Different types of products will be generated: the updating of the existing inventory maps and the definition and application of a methodology for landslide hazard and risk mapping. Conventional methods, such as aerial-photo interpretation and field surveys are coupled with the use of different remote sensing methods, and all the data are integrated within a GIS environment. The analysis of remote sensing data regards both optical and radar images. In particular for the analysis of optical data, panchromatic and multispectral Landsat images are used in order to update the Corine standard land cover maps. In addition high resolution images (Ikonos and Quickbird), acquired in stereoscopic configuration, are analysed for integrating the aerial-photo intepretation. Differential SAR interferometry, implemented by using ERS and JERS data, is used in order to detect new mass movements, not yet observed and to evaluate the state of activity of known phenomena. Such data represent the base needed to produce the final landslide risk cartography.

  2. SIMULTANEOUS SAXS/WAXS/DSC STUDIES ON MICROSTRUCTURE OF CONVENTIONAL AND METALLOCENE-BASED ETHYLENE-BUTENE COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-ting Xu; Bo-tao Li; Zhi-qiang Fan; Anthony J. Ryan

    2004-01-01

    The fractions of one metallocene-based (mPE) and one conventional (znPE) ethylene-butene copolymer eluted at 80-82℃ from temperature rising elution fractionation were selected for DSC and time-resolved small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) characterization. The DSC and WAXS results show that two crystal structures exist in both mPE and znPE: structure A with higher melting temperature and structure B with lower melting temperature. It was found that original znPE (s-znPE) contains more highly ordered structure A than original mPE (s-mPE)in spite of the higher comonomer content of znPE. Another structure C is also identified because of higher crystallinity measured by WAXS than by DSC and is attributed to the interfacial region. The SAXS data were analyzed with correlation function and two maxima were observed in s-mPE and s-znPE, in agreement with the conclusion of two crystal populations drawn from DSC and WAXS results. These two crystal populations have close long periods in s-mPE, but very different long periods in s-znPE. In contrast, freshly crystallized mPE and znPE (f-mPE and f-znPE) contain only a single crystal population with a broader distribution of long period.

  3. A comparative analysis of conventional cytopreparatory and liquid based cytological techniques (Sure Path) in evaluation of serous effusion fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Hrishikesh; Toi, Pampa Ch; Siddaraju, Neelaiah; Sevvanthi, Kalidas

    2016-11-01

    Clinically, detection of malignant cells in serous body fluids is critical, as their presence implies the upstaging of the disease. Cytology of body cavity fluids serves as an important tool when other diagnostic tests cannot be performed. In most laboratories, currently, the effusion fluid samples are analysed chiefly by the conventional cytopreparatory (CCP) technique. Although, there are several studies comparing the liquid-based cytology (LBC), with CCP technique in the field of cervicovaginal cytology; the literature on such comparison with respect to serous body fluid examination is sparse. One hundred samples of serous body fluids were processed by both CCP and LBC techniques. Slides prepared by these techniques were studied using six parameters. A comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in detection of malignant cells was carried out with appropriate statistical tests. The samples comprised 52 pleural, 44 peritoneal and four pericardial fluids. No statistically significant difference was noted with respect to cellularity (P values = 0.22), cell distribution (P values = 0.39) and diagnosis of malignancy (P values = 0.20). As for the remaining parameters, LBC provided statistically significant clearer smear background (P values cytologic interpretation point of view. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:874-879. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. NANOBIOCATALYTIC SYSTEMS BASED ON LIPASE-Fe3O4 AND CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS FOR ISONIAZID SYNTHESIS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Superparamagnetic nanomaterials have attracted interest in many areas due to the high saturation magnetization and surface area. For enzyme immobilization, these properties favor the enzyme-support contact during the immobilization reaction and easy separation from the reaction mixture by use of low-cost magnetic processes. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, MNPs, produced by the co-precipitation method, functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES and glutaraldehyde (GLU, were evaluated as a solid support for Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB immobilization. The nanomagnetic derivative (11nm obtained after CALB immobilization (MNPs/APTES/GLU/CALB was evaluated as biocatalyst in isoniazide (INH synthesis using ethyl isonicotinate (INE and hydrazine hydrate (HID as substrates, in 1,4-dioxane. The results showed that MNPs/APTES/CALB had a similar performance when compared to a commercial enzyme Novozym 435, showing significant advantages over other biocatalysts, such as Rhizhomucor miehei lipase (RML and CALB immobilized on non-conventional, low-cost, chitosan-based supports.

  5. Liquid-based and conventional cytology for bronchial washings/bronchoalveolar lavages in the diagnosis of malignancy - An institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Abha; Bakshi, Pooja; Kaur, Gagandeep; Verma, Kusum

    2017-01-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative for conventional cytology (CC) in cervical smears. It is now increasingly being used all over the world for cervical cancer screening. However, its role and diagnostic accuracy in bronchial wash (BW)/bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens remains undetermined. To assess and compare the diagnostic performance and accuracy of LBC with CC for detecting malignancy in bronchial specimens. This was a retrospective analytical hospital-based study. Bronchial specimens (BW/BAL) received over a period of 4.5 years were reviewed. The samples were processed by CC from June 2010 to September 2012 (2.25 years) and by LBC from October 2012 to December 2014 (2.25 years). Data were retrieved from the records of cytology laboratory and compared among both the groups. Detection rate for histologically or cytologically verified samples was calculated. A total of 559 cases verified by histological and cytological follow-up were evaluated. These included 247 CC cases and 312 LBC cases. The positive diagnostic rate for malignancy in CC was 28.6% whereas that for LBC was 32.9%. The negative diagnostic rates were 66.5% and 66.3% for CC and LBC, respectively. However, unsatisfactory rates had shown a good reduction from 4.4% in CC to 0.6% after LBC introduction. The smears showed more homogeneous distribution of cells with elimination of obscuring factors such as blood, inflammation, and mucus. The diagnostic accuracy of LBC was slightly better than CC. The unsatisfactory rates showed reduction in LBC preparation. Thus, LBC is a viable alternative to CC and has the advantages of standardization of preparation with decrease in unsatisfactory rates.

  6. Age-specific patterns of unsatisfactory results for conventional Pap smears and liquid-based cytology: data from two randomised clinical trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castle, P.E.; Bulten, J.; Confortini, M.; Klinkhamer, P.; Pellegrini, A.; Siebers, A.G.; Ronco, G.; Arbyn, M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of unsatisfactory cervical cell samples in liquid-based cytology (LBC) versus conventional cytology (CC) by age. DESIGN: Randomised clinical trials. SETTING: Population-based cervical cancer screening in the Netherlands and Italy. POPULATION: Asymptomatic women inv

  7. Age-specific patterns of unsatisfactory results for conventional Pap smears and liquid-based cytology: data from two randomised clinical trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castle, P.E.; Bulten, J.; Confortini, M.; Klinkhamer, P.; Pellegrini, A.; Siebers, A.G.; Ronco, G.; Arbyn, M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of unsatisfactory cervical cell samples in liquid-based cytology (LBC) versus conventional cytology (CC) by age. DESIGN: Randomised clinical trials. SETTING: Population-based cervical cancer screening in the Netherlands and Italy. POPULATION: Asymptomatic women inv

  8. Unsatisfactory rate in liquid-based cervical samples as compared to conventional smears: A study from tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developed countries adopted liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical cytology, partly because of its lower proportions of unsatisfactory (U/S/inadequate samples. This study was carried out to evaluate effect on the rate of U/S samples after introduction of LBC in our laboratory. Materials and Methods: An audit of U/S cervical samples was performed, which included split samples (n = 1000, only conventional Pap smear (CPS smears (n = 1000, and only LBC samples (n = 1000. The smears were reviewed by two observers independently, and adequacy for the samples was assessed as per The Bethesda System 2001. The reasons for U/S rate in split samples were categorized into various cytologic and/or technical reasons. Results: U/S rate was far less in only LBC samples (1.2% as compared to only CPS (10.5% cases. Cases in the satisfactory but limited category were also less in only LBC (0.4% as compared to only CPS (3.2% samples. The main reasons for U/S smears in split samples were low cell count (37.2% in CPS; 58.8% in LBC. The second main reason was low cellularity with excess blood and only excess blood in CPS samples. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction of U/S rate in LBC samples as compared to CPS samples, and the difference was statistically significant. The main cause of U/S samples in LBC was low cellularity indicating a technical fault in sample collection. The main cause of U/S rate in CPS was low cellularity followed by low cellularity with excess blood. Adequate training of sample takers and cytologists for the precise cell count to determine adequacy in smears can be of great help in reducing U/S rate.

  9. An Acetazolamide Based Multimodal Analgesic Approach Versus Conventional Pain Management in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Living Donor Nephrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rupinder; Sen, Indu; Wig, Jyotsna; Minz, M; Sharma, Ashish; Bala, Indu

    2009-01-01

    Summary Choice of an appropriate anaesthetic technique and adequate pain relief during laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LDN) is likely to make the procedure more appealing to kidney donors. Various analgesic regimens proposed to relieve pain after laparoscopic surgery include: opioids, non-opioid analgesics followed by opioids for the breakthrough pain and intra-peritoneal normal saline irrigation and instillation of local anaesthetics at surgical sites. Thorough literature review and medline search did not reveal any study where a combination of orogastric acetazolamide along with intraperitoneal saline irrigation and bupivacaine instillation techniques have been tried in these patients. In a prospective, double blind, randomized trial, eighty healthy adults undergoing LDN under general anaesthesia were enrolled to compare the efficacy of an acetazolamide based multimodal analgesic approach (Group A) with conventional pain management (Group B). Donors' demographics, intra-operative variables, early allograft function and recovery characteristics were evaluated for 72 hours. The primary end points were postoperative pain intensity on a visual analog scale and the incidence of shoulder tip pain (STP). The secondary end points included the latency of the rescue analgesia request rate, total analgesic consumption and patient satisfaction. Consistently lower mean pain scores were observed in Group A (p<0.03 for visceral pain). Frequency as well as the total dose of rescue analgesics administered was significantly less in Group A (p=0.001). Twelve patients (30.7%) in Group B complained of STP compared to three (7.5%) in Group A (p=0.025). Shoulder pain also presented earlier (8 hours versus 12 hours) and persisted for longer period in Group B (72 hours versus 48 hours, p 0.025). To conclude, a multimodal analgesic approach consisting a combination of orogastric acetazolamide, intraperito-neal saline irrigation and use of bupivacaine in the operated renal fossa

  10. Unsatisfactory rate in liquid-based cervical samples as compared to conventional smears: A study from tertiary care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nalini; Bhar, Vikrant S.; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Suri, Vanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developed countries adopted liquid-based cytology (LBC) cervical cytology, partly because of its lower proportions of unsatisfactory (U/S)/inadequate samples. This study was carried out to evaluate effect on the rate of U/S samples after introduction of LBC in our laboratory. Materials and Methods: An audit of U/S cervical samples was performed, which included split samples (n = 1000), only conventional Pap smear (CPS) smears (n = 1000), and only LBC samples (n = 1000). The smears were reviewed by two observers independently, and adequacy for the samples was assessed as per The Bethesda System 2001. The reasons for U/S rate in split samples were categorized into various cytologic and/or technical reasons. Results: U/S rate was far less in only LBC samples (1.2%) as compared to only CPS (10.5%) cases. Cases in the satisfactory but limited category were also less in only LBC (0.4%) as compared to only CPS (3.2%) samples. The main reasons for U/S smears in split samples were low cell count (37.2% in CPS; 58.8% in LBC). The second main reason was low cellularity with excess blood and only excess blood in CPS samples. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction of U/S rate in LBC samples as compared to CPS samples, and the difference was statistically significant. The main cause of U/S samples in LBC was low cellularity indicating a technical fault in sample collection. The main cause of U/S rate in CPS was low cellularity followed by low cellularity with excess blood. Adequate training of sample takers and cytologists for the precise cell count to determine adequacy in smears can be of great help in reducing U/S rate. PMID:27382408

  11. Evaluation of Calcium Fluoroaluminosilicate Based Glass Ionomer Luting Cements Processed Both by Conventional and Microwave Assisted Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja Upadhya P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium fluoroaluminosilicate glasses (CAS are used in the formulation of glass ionomer cements for dental applications. However, the cements obtained from CAS glasses were found to be radiolucent. In this study, the influence of substituting Zn, Sr and Mg for Ca of CAS glasses was investigated with respect to the structure and setting characteristics, mechanical properties, and radiopacity of cements designed for luting applications. Three glass compositions based on substitution of Zn, Sr and Mg for Ca at 1:1 molar ratio was synthesized. They were coded as the G 021 (Ca: Zn, G 022 (Ca: Sr, G 023 (Ca: Mg. G 021 and G 022 glasses were processed by conventional melt quench route, whereas G 023 was processed by microwave melt–quench route. Each glass was then mixed with Fuji Type I GIC liquid in order to evaluate the properties of novel cements at different powder/liquid ratios. X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the structure of the processed glasses. The average particle size of the processed glass powders was within specification limits for luting applications (<15 μm. The substitution of Zn, Sr and Mg for Ca at 1:1 molar ratio increased the reactivity of the respective glasses. This has been reflected in their respective setting characteristics and mechanical properties. The optimal combination of setting time, strength and radiopacity for the cements examined here was shown by G 022 cements. The microwave melting can be utilized for processing ionomer glasses as it did not alter the structure and properties of G 023 cement.

  12. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...... in the municipality of Copenhagen with conventional Papanicolaou technique (n = 82,116) and liquid-based cytology (n = 84,414). RESULTS: After the conversion to liquid-based cytology the percentage of unsatisfactory samples decreased from 2.3% to 0.3% (P ...-based technique. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the number of unsatisfactory samples to be significantly reduced with the liquid-based technique. The data suggest that there is an increased detection rate of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology, but the number of false positive tests is still...

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Of The Injury Treatment On Diabetes Based On The Leg Between Modern Treatment Method With Conventional Treatment Method Of Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Basri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyze cost effectiveness of the injury on diabetic leg based on the difference between modern treatment method and conventional method. The research was a quasi experimental study conducted in nurse independent practice and Tenriawaru hospital of bone. The sample was determined using purposive sampling method based on inclusive criteria. The data were obtained using instrument on the study of Bates-Jensen and record sheets of material cost of injury treatment. The difference of cost effectiveness between modern method and conventional method was examined using indenpendent t-tes with a confident level of 95. The results of indevendent t-tes indicate that there is a difference of cost effectiveness between modern treatment method and conventional method with a value of p 0001. Therefore health service institution need to develop treatment method of injury on diabetic leg using modern treatment method.

  14. Universal or Specific? A Modeling-Based Comparison of Broad-Spectrum Influenza Vaccines against Conventional, Strain-Matched Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Subramanian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of vaccines, influenza remains a major public health challenge. A key reason is the virus capacity for immune escape: ongoing evolution allows the continual circulation of seasonal influenza, while novel influenza viruses invade the human population to cause a pandemic every few decades. Current vaccines have to be updated continually to keep up to date with this antigenic change, but emerging 'universal' vaccines-targeting more conserved components of the influenza virus-offer the potential to act across all influenza A strains and subtypes. Influenza vaccination programmes around the world are steadily increasing in their population coverage. In future, how might intensive, routine immunization with novel vaccines compare against similar mass programmes utilizing conventional vaccines? Specifically, how might novel and conventional vaccines compare, in terms of cumulative incidence and rates of antigenic evolution of seasonal influenza? What are their potential implications for the impact of pandemic emergence? Here we present a new mathematical model, capturing both transmission dynamics and antigenic evolution of influenza in a simple framework, to explore these questions. We find that, even when matched by per-dose efficacy, universal vaccines could dampen population-level transmission over several seasons to a greater extent than conventional vaccines. Moreover, by lowering opportunities for cross-protective immunity in the population, conventional vaccines could allow the increased spread of a novel pandemic strain. Conversely, universal vaccines could mitigate both seasonal and pandemic spread. However, where it is not possible to maintain annual, intensive vaccination coverage, the duration and breadth of immunity raised by universal vaccines are critical determinants of their performance relative to conventional vaccines. In future, conventional and novel vaccines are likely to play complementary roles in

  15. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...... in the municipality of Copenhagen with conventional Papanicolaou technique (n = 82,116) and liquid-based cytology (n = 84,414). RESULTS: After the conversion to liquid-based cytology the percentage of unsatisfactory samples decreased from 2.3% to 0.3% (P ... technique. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the number of unsatisfactory samples to be significantly reduced with the liquid-based technique. The data suggest that there is an increased detection rate of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology, but the number of false positive tests is still...

  16. Gender-based genre conventions and the critical reception of Buchi Emecheta’s Destination Biafra (Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polo B. Moji

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A gendered spatial schema of war – which creates a dichotomy between a masculine battlefront and a feminine home-front – undermines the credibility of women’s participation in battle, impacting on the legitimacy of women’s war novels. Through a study of Buchi Emecheta’s Destination Biafra, first published in 1982, this article highlights the role of genre conventions in the production and reception of war novels written by African women. Emecheta makes a daring choice to reconceptualise the home and/or battlefront dichotomy. By manipulating the representational genre convention of soldier-hero she subverts its archetypal masculinity. Debbie, the female soldier-hero, is the focal point of this analysis. Within the context of post-colonial African literature, women’s writing is portrayed as a process of ‘writing back’ to a canon that represents women as apolitical conduits of tradition. In Debbie, Emecheta foregoes canonical markers of African ‘authenticity’ to create a liminal figure that negotiates her identity between modernity and tradition; masculinity and femininity. The article concludes that the principal reason why the characterisation of Debbie is deemed dissatisfying is that it defies the facile categorisation offered by the adherence to the gendered representational conventions. Too often genre is considered a fixed category yet a meaningful analysis of Destination Biafra forces one to consider it as an open category whose conventions can be ‘bent’ to accommodate minority literatures spawning new sub-genres.

  17. Outcomes associated with conventional versus lipid-based formulations of amphotericin B in propensity-matched groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell RS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca S Campbell,1 Paresh Chaudhari,2 Harlen D Hays,1 Robert J Taylor,1 Brian H Nathanson,3 Samuel A Bozzette,1 David Horn4 1Cerner Research, Culver City, CA, USA; 2Astellas Scientific and Medical Affairs, Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA; 3OptiStatim, LLC, Longmeadow, MA, USA; 4David Horn LLC, Doylestown, PA, USA Background: Lipid-based formulations of amphotericin B (LF-AMB are indicated for treatment of invasive fungal infections in patients intolerant to conventional amphotericin B (CAB or with refractory infections. Physicians still may choose to administer CAB to such patients. We described the use of CAB and LF-AMB in this population and quantified differences in post-amphotericin B length of stay (LOS among survivors and hospital mortality in matched patients. Methods: Data were extracted from Health Facts (Cerner Corporation, Kansas City, MO, USA for a retrospective cohort analysis. Inpatients aged ≥18 years with evidence of fungal infection and with orders for LF-AMB or CAB on  ≥2 days from January 2001 to June 2010 were identified. Patients were required to have renal insufficiency or other relative contraindications to use of CAB, exposure to nephrotoxic agents, or evidence of a CAB-refractory infection. Multilevel (hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with initial exposure to LF-AMB versus CAB. Multivariate adjustment of outcomes was done using propensity score matching. Results: 655 patients were identified: 322 patients initiated therapy with CAB and 333 initiated treatment with LF-AMB. Compared to those initiating CAB, patients initiating LF-AMB had greater acuity and underlying disease severity. In unadjusted analyses, hospital mortality was significantly higher in the LF-AMB group (32.2% versus 23.7%; P = 0.02. After propensity score matching and covariate adjustment, mortality equalized and observed differences in LOS after amphotericin B initiation decreased. Conclusion

  18. Comparison of Effects of Teaching English to Thai Undergraduate Teacher-Students through Cross-Curricular Thematic Instruction Program Based on Multiple Intelligence Theory and Conventional Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at comparing the effects of teaching English to Thai undergraduate teacher-students through cross-curricular thematic instruction program based on multiple intelligence theory and through conventional instruction. Two experimental groups, which utilized Randomized True Control Group-Pretest-posttest Time Series Design and…

  19. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...

  20. A Comparative Study of the Effects of the Neurocognitive-Based Model and the Conventional Model on Learner Attention, Working Memory and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikoon, Sanit; Bunterm, Tassanee; Nethanomsak, Teerachai; Ngang, Tang Keow

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The attention, working memory, and mood of learners are the most important abilities in the learning process. This study was concerned with the comparison of contextualized attention, working memory, and mood through a neurocognitive-based model (5P) and a conventional model (5E). It sought to examine the significant change in attention,…

  1. Cost-consequence analysis of remifentanil-based analgo-sedation vs. conventional analgesia and sedation for patients on mechanical ventilation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Al (Maiwenn); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona); S.S. Tan (Siok Swan); J. Bakker (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Hospitals are increasingly forced to consider the economics of technology use. We estimated the incremental cost-consequences of remifentanil-based analgo-sedation (RS) vs. conventional analgesia and sedation (CS) in patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) in the

  2. Comparable performance of conventional and liquid-based cytology in diagnosing anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected and -uninfected Thai men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanuphak, Nittaya; Teeratakulpisarn, Nipat; Lim, Cherry; Changnam, Taweesak; Kerr, Stephen; Deesua, Amornrat; Hongchookiat, Piranun; Rodbamrung, Piyanee; Numto, Saranya; Barisri, Jiranuwat; Phanuphak, Praphan; Keelawat, Somboon; Sohn, Annette H; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Triratanachat, Surang

    2013-08-01

    Anal cytology has increasingly been used to screen for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) among men who have sex with men (MSM) at increased risk for anal cancer. Use of liquid-based cytology has been reported to reduce fecal and bacterial contamination and air-drying artifact compared with conventional cytology. Costs associated with liquid-based cytology, however, may limit its use in resource-limited settings. Anal swab samples were collected from MSM participants and used to prepare conventional and liquid-based cytology slides. Abnormal conventional cytology results triggered referral for high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy. Agreement between the 2 cytology techniques and the positive predictive value ratios of histology confirmed AIN were calculated. Among 173 MSM, abnormal anal cytology was identified in 46.2% of conventional and 32.4% of liquid-based slides. The results agreed in 62.4% of cases with a κ value of 0.49 (P cytology results (95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 7.8; P = 0.001) compared with HIV-uninfected MSM. Histological AIN 2 and 3 were identified in 20 MSM. The positive predictive value ratios and 95% confidence interval indicated no difference between the 2 techniques. Conventional anal cytology may be a preferred option for resource-limited settings given comparable performances to liquid-based cytology for the detection of AIN, although the agreement between the 2 techniques was lower among HIV-infected MSM. Due to high prevalence of abnormal anal cytology and AIN, health systems should prepare adequate infrastructure for high-resolution anoscopy services and AIN treatment.

  3. Conventional P-ω/Q-V Droop Control in Highly Resistive Line of Low-Voltage Converter-Based AC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaochao; Sun, Yao; Yuan, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    In low-voltage converter-based alternating current (AC) microgrids with resistive distribution lines, the P-V droop with Q-f boost (VPD/FQB) is the most common method for load sharing. However, it cannot achieve the active power sharing proportionally. To overcome this drawback, the conventional P......-ω/Q-V droop control is adopted in the low-voltage AC microgrid. As a result, the active power sharing among the distributed generators (DGs) is easily obtained without communication. More importantly, this study clears up the previous misunderstanding that conventional P-ω/Q-V droop control is only applicable...... to microgrids with highly inductive lines, and lays a foundation for the application of conventional droop control under different line impedances. Moreover, in order to guarantee the accurate reactive power sharing, a guide for designing Q-V droop gains is given, and virtual resistance is adopted to shape...

  4. The switch from conventional to atypical antipsychotic treatment should not be based exclusively on the presence of cognitive deficits. A pilot study in individuals with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Moreno José

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical antipsychotics provide better control of the negative and affective symptoms of schizophrenia when compared with conventional neuroleptics; nevertheless, their heightened ability to improve cognitive dysfunction remains a matter of debate. This study aimed to examine the changes in cognition associated with long-term antipsychotic treatment and to evaluate the effect of the type of antipsychotic (conventional versus novel antipsychotic drugs on cognitive performance over time. Methods In this naturalistic study, we used a comprehensive neuropsychological battery of tests to assess a sample of schizophrenia patients taking either conventional (n = 13 or novel antipsychotics (n = 26 at baseline and at two years after. Results Continuous antipsychotic treatment regardless of class was associated with improvement on verbal fluency, executive functions, and visual and verbal memory. Patients taking atypical antipsychotics did not show greater cognitive enhancement over two years than patients taking conventional antipsychotics. Conclusions Although long-term antipsychotic treatment slightly improved cognitive function, the switch from conventional to atypical antipsychotic treatment should not be based exclusively on the presence of these cognitive deficits.

  5. Microstructural investigation on marforming and conventional cold deformation in Ni-Ti-Fe-based shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Ritwik; Szpunar, Jerzy; Eskandari, Mostafa; Mohtadi-Bonab, M.A. [Univ. Saskatchewan, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    A hot-rolled Ni-Ti-Fe alloy was subjected to 50% cold rolling by laboratory rolling mill and was subsequently annealed at 800 C for 1.5 h. This sample was then deformed through another 10% reduction in thickness by two different routes (i) conventional cold rolling and (ii) marforming (rolling in liquid nitrogen) followed by annealing under identical conditions. The grain refinement during normal cold rolling was attributed to relatively large presence of dislocations in the ND // left angle 110 right angle grains in the starting microstructure. The regions of higher dislocation densities became gradually textured to ND // left angle 111 right angle orientation, with cold rolling. Marforming (deformation in liquid nitrogen following phase transformation) on the other hand led to more significant grain refinement and also change in the bulk texture. The objective of this study was to compare the grain refinement and microstructural modification produced through marforming with that obtained in conventional cold deformation.

  6. Wavelength preserved phase erasure and PSK to conventional OOK data format conversion based on phase sensitive amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kan; Yang, Weili; Yu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a phase erasure and format conversion of phase-shift keying (PSK) to conventional on-off keying (OOK) is proposed and demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. Using a single-pump nondegenerate phase sensitive amplification process in a highly nonlinear fiber, the 0 and 1-bits of the PSK signal obtain different gains through amplification and de-amplification. As a result, the modulation information is transferred onto the amplitude. With an optimized input power difference between the signal and idler, the signal phase information is erased with wavelength preservation after the PSA. The output constellation and eye diagrams show an effective phase erasure and format conversion of PSK to conventional OOK. The error vector magnitude is utilized to evaluate the scheme performance. The proposed scheme provides the flexibility and resiliency for future photonic networks.

  7. Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based X-ray source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Saam

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Phase-contrast imaging is a novel X-ray based technique that provides enhanced soft tissue contrast. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of visualizing human carotid arteries by grating-based phase-contrast tomography (PC-CT at two different experimental set-ups: (i applying synchrotron radiation and (ii using a conventional X-ray tube. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five ex-vivo carotid artery specimens were examined with PC-CT either at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility using a monochromatic X-ray beam (2 specimens; 23 keV; pixel size 5.4 µm, or at a laboratory set-up on a conventional X-ray tube (3 specimens; 35-40 kVp; 70 mA; pixel size 100 µm. Tomographic images were reconstructed and compared to histopathology. Two independent readers determined vessel dimensions and one reader determined signal-to-noise ratios (SNR between PC-CT and absorption images. RESULTS: In total, 51 sections were included in the analysis. Images from both set-ups provided sufficient contrast to differentiate individual vessel layers. All PCI-based measurements strongly predicted but significantly overestimated lumen, intima and vessel wall area for both the synchrotron and the laboratory-based measurements as compared with histology (all p0.53 per mm(2, 95%-CI: 0.35 to 0.70. Although synchrotron-based images were characterized by higher SNRs than laboratory-based images; both PC-CT set-ups had superior SNRs compared to corresponding conventional absorption-based images (p0.98 and >0.84 for synchrotron and for laboratory-based measurements; respectively. CONCLUSION: Experimental PC-CT of carotid specimens is feasible with both synchrotron and conventional X-ray sources, producing high-resolution images suitable for vessel characterization and atherosclerosis research.

  8. Weighing Scale-Based Pulse Transit Time is a Superior Marker of Blood Pressure than Conventional Pulse Arrival Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie L.-O.; Carek, Andrew M.; Kim, Chang-Sei; Ashouri, Hazar; Inan, Omer T.; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2016-12-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is being widely pursued for cuff-less blood pressure (BP) monitoring. Most efforts have employed the time delay between ECG and finger photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms as a convenient surrogate of PTT. However, these conventional pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements include the pre-ejection period (PEP) and the time delay through small, muscular arteries and may thus be an unreliable marker of BP. We assessed a bathroom weighing scale-like system for convenient measurement of ballistocardiography and foot PPG waveforms – and thus PTT through larger, more elastic arteries – in terms of its ability to improve tracking of BP in individual subjects. We measured “scale PTT”, conventional PAT, and cuff BP in humans during interventions that increased BP but changed PEP and smooth muscle contraction differently. Scale PTT tracked the diastolic BP changes well, with correlation coefficient of ‑0.80 ± 0.02 (mean ± SE) and root-mean-squared-error of 7.6 ± 0.5 mmHg after a best-case calibration. Conventional PAT was significantly inferior in tracking these changes, with correlation coefficient of ‑0.60 ± 0.04 and root-mean-squared-error of 14.6 ± 1.5 mmHg (p < 0.05). Scale PTT also tracked the systolic BP changes better than conventional PAT but not to an acceptable level. With further development, scale PTT may permit reliable, convenient measurement of BP.

  9. Comparative study of manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique and direct smear technique (conventional) on fine-needle cytology/fine-needle aspiration cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Prajkta Suresh; Gadkari, Rasika Uday; Swami, Sunil Y; Joshi, Anil R

    2014-04-01

    Liquid-based cytology technique enables cells to be suspended in a liquid medium and spread in a monolayer, making better morphological assessment. Automated techniques have been widely used, but limited due to cost and availability. The aim was to establish manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material and compare its results with conventional technique. In this study, we examined cells trapped in needles hub used for the collection of FNAC samples. 50 cases were examined by the MLBC technique and compared with the conventional FNAC technique. By centrifugation, sediment was obtained and imprint was taken on defined area. Papanicolaou (Pap) and May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) staining was done. Direct smears and MLBC smears were compared for cellularity, background, cellular preservation, and nuclear preservation. Slides were diagnosed independently by two cytologists with more than 5 years' experience. Standard error of proportion was used for statistical analysis. Cellularity was low in MLBC as compared with conventional smears, which is expected as remnant material in the needle hub was used. Nuclei overlap to a lesser extent and hemorrhage and necrosis was reduced, so cell morphology can be better studied in the MLBC technique. P value obtained was <0.05. This MLBC technique gives results comparable to the conventional technique with better morphology. In a set up where aspirators are learners, this technique will ensure adequacy due to remnant in needle hub getting processed.

  10. Home-based hand rehabilitation after chronic stroke: Randomized, controlled single-blind trial comparing the MusicGlove with a conventional exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K. Zondervan, PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with chronic stroke have limited options for hand rehabilitation at home. Here, we sought to determine the feasibility and efficacy of home-based MusicGlove therapy. Seventeen participants with moderate hand impairment in the chronic phase of stroke were randomized to 3 wk of home-based exercise with either the MusicGlove or conventional tabletop exercises. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Box and Blocks test score from baseline to 1 mo posttreatment. Both groups significantly improved their Box and Blocks test score, but no significant difference was found between groups. The MusicGlove group did exhibit significantly greater improvements than the conventional exercise group in Motor Activity Log Quality of Movement and Amount of Use scores 1 mo posttherapy (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively. Participants significantly increased their use of MusicGlove over time, completing 466 gripping movements per day on average at study end. MusicGlove therapy was not superior to conventional tabletop exercises for the primary end point but was nevertheless feasible and led to a significantly greater increase in self-reported functional use and quality of movement of the impaired hand than conventional home exercises.

  11. Comparison of follicular dynamics, superovulatory response, and embryo recovery between estradiol based and conventional superstimulation protocol in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the follicular dynamics, superovulatory response, and embryo recovery following superstimulatory treatment initiated at estradiol-17β induced follicular wave emergence and its comparison with conventional superstimulatory protocol in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Six normal cycling pluriparous buffaloes, lactating, 90-180 days post-partum, and weighing between 500 and 660 kg were superstimulated twice with a withdrawal period of 35 days in between two treatments. In superstimulation protocol-1 (estradiol group buffaloes were administered estradiol-17β (2 mg, i.m. and eazibreed controlled internal drug release (CIDR was inserted intravaginally (day=0 at the random stage of the estrous cycle. On the day 4, buffaloes were superstimulated using follicle stimulating hormone (FSH 400 mg, divided into 10 tapering doses given at 12 hourly intervals. Prostaglandin F2α analogs (PGF2α was administered at day 7.5 and day 8, and CIDR was removed with the second PGF2α injection. In superstimulation protocol - 2 (conventional group buffaloes were superstimulated on the 10th day of the estrous cycle with same FSH dose regimen and similar timings for PGF2α injections. In both groups, half of the buffaloes were treated with luteinizing hormone (LH 25 mg and other half with 100 ug buserelin; gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH analog at 12 h after the end of FSH treatment. All buffaloes in both protocols were inseminated twice at 12 and 24 h of LH/GnRH treatment. Daily ultrasonography was performed to record the size and number of follicles and superovulatory response. Results: Significantly higher number of small follicles (8 mm, corpora lutea, and transferable embryos was higher in buffaloes superstimulated at estradiol-induced follicular wave compared to the conventional protocol: Further the percentage of transferable embryos was significantly higher in buffaloes administered with LH compared to GnRH.

  12. Individualized Positron Emission Tomography–Based Isotoxic Accelerated Radiation Therapy Is Cost-Effective Compared With Conventional Radiation Therapy: A Model-Based Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongers, Mathilda L., E-mail: ml.bongers@vumc.nl [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Coupé, Veerle M.H. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Ruysscher, Dirk [Radiation Oncology University Hospitals Leuven/KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiation Oncology, GROW Research Institute, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Oberije, Cary; Lambin, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, GROW Research Institute, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uyl-de Groot, Cornelia A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term health effects, costs, and cost-effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET)-based isotoxic accelerated radiation therapy treatment (PET-ART) compared with conventional fixed-dose CT-based radiation therapy treatment (CRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Our analysis uses a validated decision model, based on data of 200 NSCLC patients with inoperable stage I-IIIB. Clinical outcomes, resource use, costs, and utilities were obtained from the Maastro Clinic and the literature. Primary model outcomes were the difference in life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost/utility ratio (ICER and ICUR) of PET-ART versus CRT. Model outcomes were obtained from averaging the predictions for 50,000 simulated patients. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis and scenario analyses were carried out. Results: The average incremental costs per patient of PET-ART were €569 (95% confidence interval [CI] €−5327-€6936) for 0.42 incremental LYs (95% CI 0.19-0.61) and 0.33 QALYs gained (95% CI 0.13-0.49). The base-case scenario resulted in an ICER of €1360 per LY gained and an ICUR of €1744 per QALY gained. The probabilistic analysis gave a 36% probability that PET-ART improves health outcomes at reduced costs and a 64% probability that PET-ART is more effective at slightly higher costs. Conclusion: On the basis of the available data, individualized PET-ART for NSCLC seems to be cost-effective compared with CRT.

  13. Liquid-based versus conventional cytology in solid pediatric neoplasm: Comparison of their diagnostic and morphological spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Aims: In the present study, we analyzed both smear preparatory techniques in fine-needle aspiration (FNA samples from solid pediatric neoplasms in terms of adequacy and efficacy with objectives to study the changes in background and morphology of tumor cells in LBC smears. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, which included 52 pediatric patients with clinical diagnosis of malignancy and an assessable lump. Both conventional aspiration cytology and LBC smears were prepared as per standard protocols (SurePath BDTM from FNA samples of cases and examined. Results and Conclusion: On comparing the diagnostic efficacy of cytology smears prepared by both techniques, LBC alone was diagnostic in 80.8% of the cases and conventional smear (CS alone was diagnostic in 71.2% of the cases (agreement was 83.7%, P = 0.3. Cellular morphology was better preserved in LBC and interpretation was easier. There was a lower inadequacy rate in LBC and none of the samples was inadequate due to poor morphology in LBC smears (P = 0.0003. LBC showed an overall 40% improvement in inadequate cases by CS. LBC has been recommended as a complement to CC in nongynecological samples. Improved morphology and lower inadequacy rate make LBC a finer technique compared to CS in pediatric tumors as well.

  14. Retention of a Flowable Composite Resin in Comparison to a Conventional Resin-Based Sealant: One-year Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tadayon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Long-term retention of pit and fissure sealants is crucial for their success. This clinical study evaluated the retention rate of a flowable composite resin (Filtek SupremeXT Flowable Restorative compared to a conventional resin-based sealant (Concise Light Cure White Sealant over 12 months.Materials and Methods: Forty subjects aged 6 to 9 years were included in the study. Using a half-mouth design, a total of 80 first permanent molars were sealed with conventional fissure sealant on one side of the mouth and flowable composite on the contralateralside. Clinical evaluation was performed at 3, 6, and 12 months by a single blind examiner and the retention was classified as complete retention, partial loss, or total loss.Results: For both materials, there was no total loss of sealants over 12 months. Partial loss of both materials was observed in one sealant after 3 months. After 6 months, 36 teeth sealed with conventional fissure sealant were intact compared with 37 sealed with a flowable composite, and after 12 months, 33 teeth sealed with conventional fissure sealant were intact compared with 35 that were sealed with a flowable composite. There were no statistically significant difference (P>0.05 between the two materials regarding the retention rate at each follow-up period.Conclusion: As flowable composite resulted in comparable sealant retention rates, this material could be a good choice for fissure sealant.

  15. Fast HPLC for quality control of Harpagophytum procumbens by using a monolithic silica column: method transfer from conventional particle-based silica column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander H

    2005-05-06

    The applicability of a monolithic C18-bonded silica column for the rapid HPLC separation of ingredients in medicinal plants and their phytopharmaceutical preparations has been evaluated in the author's laboratory. In this presentation, an existing method for the determination of the iridoid glycoside harpagoside in Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil's Claw) was successfully transferred from a conventional particle-based C18 silica column to a monolithic silica column. The very high porosity of the stationary phase allows chromatography with a much lower backpressure than on conventional columns. Therefore, the flow rate could be easily increased from 0.8 mL/min (particle-based column) to 5 mL/min (monolithic column) and the run-time reduced from 30 to 5 min (that is a reduction about 85% !), without losing any chromatographic resolution of the compound of interest. The amount of harpagoside was measured with the original method on a conventional particle-based silica column and on the adapted method on a monolithic silica column. The statistical mean t-test showed no significant differences of the variances and the means indicating that the fast HPLC method is an acceptable alternative. The shorter analysis time makes the method very valuable for commercial quality control of Harpagophytum extracts and its pharmaceutical preparations.

  16. Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Report on the Relationship Between Molecular Structure and Compression Ignition Fuels, Both Conventional and HCCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Wendy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2004-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to increasing our nation’s energy security by decreasing our dependence on imported petroleum. The Fuels Technologies Subprogram within DOE’s Office of Freedom Car and Vehicle Technology (OFCVT) supports research that allows the United States to develop advanced fuels that enable efficient engines with low emissions. This document reports the completion of NREL FY 2004 Annual Operating Plan milestone 10.2: “Report on the relationship between molecular structure and compression ignition fuels, both conventional and HCCI.” This work is an incremental step toward the OFCVT Multi-Year Program Plan APBF/NPBF Milestone No. 3: “Establish fuel and lubricant constituents that are required for advanced combustion regime engines.”

  17. Non-conventional cement-based composites reinforced with vegetable fibers: A review of strategies to improve durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, S. F.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review shows the state-of-art on the approachs about improving the processing, physical- mechanical performance and durability of non-conventional fiber-cement composites. The objective of this review is to show some of these strategies to mitigate the degradation of the vegetable fibers used as reinforcement in cost-effective and non-conventional fiber-cement and, consequently, to improve their mechanical and durability properties for applications in the housing construction. Beyond the introduction about vegetable fibers, the content of this review is divided in the following sections: (i surface modification of the fibers; (ii improving fiber-to-cement interface; (iii natural pozzolans; (iv accelerated carbonation; (v applications of nanoscience; and (vi principles of functionally graded materials and extrusion process were briefly discussed with focus on future research needs.La presente revisión explora la actualidad en el campo de los compuestos de fibrocemento no convencionales en relación a mejoras en el proceso productivo, el rendimiento físico-mecánico y la durabilidad. El objetivo de esta revisión es exponer algunas estrategias para mitigar la degradación de las fibras vegetales utilizadas como refuerzo en fibrocementos no convencionales y rentables, obteniendo en consecuencia una mejoría en el rendimiento de sus propiedades mecánicas y durabilidad para su aplicación en el área de la construcción de viviendas. Además de la introducción en relación a las fibras vegetales, el contenido de esta revisión se divide en las siguientes secciones: (i modificación de la superficie de las fibras; (ii mejoramiento de la interfaz fibra-cemento; (iii puzolanas naturales; (iv carbonatación acelerada; (v aplicaciones de la nanociencia; y (vi principios de los materiales funcionalmente graduados y el proceso de extrusión fueron discutidos brevemente con un enfoque a investigaciones futuras.

  18. Conventional P-ω/Q-V Droop Control in Highly Resistive Line of Low-Voltage Converter-Based AC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochao Hou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In low-voltage converter-based alternating current (AC microgrids with resistive distribution lines, the P-V droop with Q-f boost (VPD/FQB is the most common method for load sharing. However, it cannot achieve the active power sharing proportionally. To overcome this drawback, the conventional P-ω/Q-V droop control is adopted in the low-voltage AC microgrid. As a result, the active power sharing among the distributed generators (DGs is easily obtained without communication. More importantly, this study clears up the previous misunderstanding that conventional P-ω/Q-V droop control is only applicable to microgrids with highly inductive lines, and lays a foundation for the application of conventional droop control under different line impedances. Moreover, in order to guarantee the accurate reactive power sharing, a guide for designing Q-V droop gains is given, and virtual resistance is adopted to shape the desired output impedance. Finally, the effects of power sharing and transient response are verified through simulations and experiments in converter-based AC Microgrid.

  19. Review of progresses on clinical applications of ion selective electrodes for electrolytic ion tests: from conventional ISEs to graphene-based ISEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongguo Yan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There exist several positively and negatively charged electrolytes or ions in human blood, urine, and other body fluids. Tests that measure the concentration of these ions in clinics are performed using a more affordable, portable, and disposable potentiometric sensing method with few sample volumes, which requires the use of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs and reference electrodes. This review summarily descriptively presents progressive developments and applications of ion selective electrodes in medical laboratory electrolytic ion tests, from conventional ISEs, solid-contact ISEs, carbon nanotube based ISEs, to graphene-based ISEs.

  20. COMPARISON OF A DNA BASED PCR APPROACH WITH CONVENTIONAL METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS IN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathiah Zakham

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem and the rapid diagnosis and appropriate chemotherapy become the first priority and a serious challenge to improve TB treatment. In the objective of early TB diagnosis and rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB in the clinical specimens, the utility of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using the Insertion Sequence 6110 (IS6110 as target was compared to conventional methods. Methods: Out of 305 patients with different clinical manifestations: suspected, new, drug relapse, drug failure and chronic cases were enrolled in this study and tested by mycobacteriological and PCR techniques for the investigation about the tubercle bacilli. Results: The results of the in house IS6110 PCR showed a good sensitivity (92, 42% and high specificity (98%, the positive and negative predictive values were 96.4 % and 95.3 % respectively. Conclusion: This study showed clearly that the PCR testing using the IS6110 in the routine analysis is a potential tool for the rapid TB diagnosis, especially for critical cases and would be of great interest to help the clinician in the misdiagnosed critical cases by the traditional radiology.

  1. Conventional and unconventional superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Superconductivity has been one of the most fruitful areas of research in condensed matter physics, bringing together researchers with distinct interests in a collaborative effort to understand from its microscopic basis to its potential for unprecedented technological applications. The concepts, techniques, and methods developed along its centennial history have gone beyond the realm of condensed matter physics and influenced the development of other fascinating areas, such as particle physics and atomic physics. These notes, based on a set of lectures given at the 2011 Advanced Summer School of Cinvestav, aim to motivate the young undergraduate student in getting involved in the exciting world of conventional and unconventional superconductors.

  2. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinogga, Anna, E-mail: anna_trinogga@gmx.de; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    variety of threatened or endangered raptors and other members of the guild of scavengers. - Highlights: ► Wound diameters do not differ between lead-free and lead-based hunting rifle bullets. ► The size of the wound's maximum cross-sectional area does not depend on bullet material. ► Lead-free rifle bullets represent a suitable alternative to conventional bullets. ► The use of non lead bullets is appropriate to prevent lead deposit in the ecosystem.

  3. Utilization patterns of conventional and complementary/alternative treatments in children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, Roger S; Krakowiak, Paula; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hansen, Robin L

    2014-01-01

    To compare the utilization of conventional treatments and utilization of complementary and alternative medicine in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD). Participants were 578 children who were part of an ongoing population-based, case-control study of 2- to 5-year olds with ASD, DD, and the general population. Parents completed an interview on past and current services. Four hundred fifty-three children with ASD and 125 DD children were included. ASD families received more hours of conventional services compared with DD families (17.8 vs 11; p parental education was associated with an increased CAM use in ASD and DD. Families who used >20 hours per week of conventional services were more likely to use CAM, including potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Underimmunized children were marginally more likely to use CAM but not more likely to have received potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Use of CAM is common in families of young children with neurodevelopmental disorders, and it is predicted by higher parental education and non-Hispanic ethnicity but not developmental characteristics. Further research should address how health care providers can support families in making decisions about CAM use.

  4. Analysis of nanometer-isolated trench diffract aerial image of both conventional and second-generation synchrotron-based proximity x-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changqing; Chen, Dapeng; Liu, Ming; Ye, Tianchun; Yi, Futing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, Beam Propagation Method (BPM) with Fast Fourier Transforms(FFT) is employed to efficiently calculate the diffract image in the wafer plane for both conventional and second generation synchrotron-based proximity x-ray lithography(PXL). In the simulation, a dark-field isolated space pattern silicon nitride/Ta x-ray mask is used for conventional PXL and a diamond /Ta x-ray mask is used for second generation PXL, the diffract image"s dependency on absorber thickness, mask-wafer gap, effective total blur, linewidth and absorber sidewall slope has been numerically evaluated. For conventional PXL, in order to obtain a isolated trench resolution of 50nm, the mask-wafer gap should be controlled below 5 micron, the optimization condition is mask-wafer gap 5 micron, Ta absorber thickness 300nm, effective total blur 10nm, absorber sidewall slope 3°, the corresponding aerial image contrast is 0.457; For second generation, in order to obtain a isolated trench resolution of 50nm, the mask-wafer gap can be as large as 10 micron. In order to obtain a isolated trench resolution of 35nm, mask-wafer gap should be controlled below 5 micron.

  5. Effectiveness of conventional versus virtual reality-based balance exercises in vestibular rehabilitation for unilateral peripheral vestibular loss: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Dara; Herdman, Susan; Vance, Roisin; Murray, Deirdre; Malone, Kareena; Duffy, Douglas; Glennon, Aine; McConn-Walsh, Rory

    2015-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of virtual reality-based balance exercises to conventional balance exercises during vestibular rehabilitation in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular loss (UVL). Assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial. Two acute care university teaching hospitals. Patients with UVL (N=71) who had dizziness/vertigo, and gait and balance impairment. Patients with UVL were randomly assigned to receive 6 weeks of either conventional (n=36) or virtual reality-based (n=35) balance exercises during vestibular rehabilitation. The virtual reality-based group received an off-the-shelf virtual reality gaming system for home exercise, and the conventional group received a foam balance mat. Treatment comprised weekly visits to a physiotherapist and a daily home exercise program. The primary outcome was self-preferred gait speed. Secondary outcomes included other gait parameters and tasks, Sensory Organization Test (SOT), dynamic visual acuity, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Vestibular Rehabilitation Benefits Questionnaire, and Activities Balance Confidence Questionnaire. The subjective experience of vestibular rehabilitation was measured with a questionnaire. Both groups improved, but there were no significant differences in gait speed between the groups postintervention (mean difference, -.03m/s; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.09 to .02m/s). There were also no significant differences between the groups in SOT scores (mean difference, .82%; 95% CI, -5.00% to 6.63%) or on any of the other secondary outcomes (P>.05). In both groups, adherence to exercise was high (∼77%), but the virtual reality-based group reported significantly more enjoyment (P=.001), less difficulty with (P=.009) and less tiredness after (P=.03) balance exercises. At 6 months, there were no significant between-group differences in physical outcomes. Virtual reality-based balance exercises performed during vestibular rehabilitation were not superior to conventional balance

  6. Modeling Nitrogen Losses in Conventional and Advanced Soil-Based Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems under Current and Changing Climate Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Morales

    Full Text Available Most of the non-point source nitrogen (N load in rural areas is attributed to onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS. Nitrogen compounds cause eutrophication, depleting the oxygen in marine ecosystems. OWTS rely on physical, chemical and biological soil processes to treat wastewater and these processes may be affected by climate change. We simulated the fate and transport of N in different types of OWTS drainfields, or soil treatment areas (STA under current and changing climate scenarios, using 2D/3D HYDRUS software. Experimental data from a mesocosm-scale study, including soil moisture content, and total N, ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3- concentrations, were used to calibrate the model. A water content-dependent function was used to compute the nitrification and denitrification rates. Three types of drainfields were simulated: (1 a pipe-and-stone (P&S, (2 advanced soil drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (PSND and (3 Geomat (GEO, a variation of SND. The model was calibrated with acceptable goodness-of-fit between the observed and measured values. Average root mean square error (RSME ranged from 0.18 and 2.88 mg L-1 for NH4+ and 4.45 mg L-1 to 9.65 mg L-1 for NO3- in all drainfield types. The calibrated model was used to estimate N fluxes for both conventional and advanced STAs under current and changing climate conditions, i.e. increased soil temperature and higher water table. The model computed N losses from nitrification and denitrification differed little from measured losses in all STAs. The modeled N losses occurred mostly as NO3- in water outputs, accounting for more than 82% of N inputs in all drainfields. Losses as N2 were estimated to be 10.4% and 9.7% of total N input concentration for SND and Geo, respectively. The highest N2 losses, 17.6%, were estimated for P&S. Losses as N2 increased to 22%, 37% and 21% under changing climate conditions for Geo, PSND and P&S, respectively. These findings can provide

  7. Modeling Nitrogen Losses in Conventional and Advanced Soil-Based Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems under Current and Changing Climate Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ivan; Cooper, Jennifer; Amador, José A; Boving, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Most of the non-point source nitrogen (N) load in rural areas is attributed to onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). Nitrogen compounds cause eutrophication, depleting the oxygen in marine ecosystems. OWTS rely on physical, chemical and biological soil processes to treat wastewater and these processes may be affected by climate change. We simulated the fate and transport of N in different types of OWTS drainfields, or soil treatment areas (STA) under current and changing climate scenarios, using 2D/3D HYDRUS software. Experimental data from a mesocosm-scale study, including soil moisture content, and total N, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, were used to calibrate the model. A water content-dependent function was used to compute the nitrification and denitrification rates. Three types of drainfields were simulated: (1) a pipe-and-stone (P&S), (2) advanced soil drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (PSND) and (3) Geomat (GEO), a variation of SND. The model was calibrated with acceptable goodness-of-fit between the observed and measured values. Average root mean square error (RSME) ranged from 0.18 and 2.88 mg L-1 for NH4+ and 4.45 mg L-1 to 9.65 mg L-1 for NO3- in all drainfield types. The calibrated model was used to estimate N fluxes for both conventional and advanced STAs under current and changing climate conditions, i.e. increased soil temperature and higher water table. The model computed N losses from nitrification and denitrification differed little from measured losses in all STAs. The modeled N losses occurred mostly as NO3- in water outputs, accounting for more than 82% of N inputs in all drainfields. Losses as N2 were estimated to be 10.4% and 9.7% of total N input concentration for SND and Geo, respectively. The highest N2 losses, 17.6%, were estimated for P&S. Losses as N2 increased to 22%, 37% and 21% under changing climate conditions for Geo, PSND and P&S, respectively. These findings can provide practitioners

  8. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mi Lee

    Full Text Available Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D; however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals.Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46 or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47 for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks.The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017. When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%. The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks.Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms.CRiS KCT0001771.

  9. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Se-A; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Guk; Park, Keun-Gyu; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Jae-Han; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals. Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46) or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47) for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks. The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017). When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%). The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks. Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms. CRiS KCT0001771.

  10. Conventional versus ultrasound and microwave assisted synthesis: Some new environmentally friendly functionalized picolinium-based ionic liquids with potential antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messali Mouslim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A green chemistry approach has been adopted for the synthesis of thirty-four new picolinium-based ionic liquids using microwave (MW and ultrasound (US irradiation as well as conventional thermal heating. Their structures were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 11B NMR, 19F NMR, 31P NMR, mass spectra and elemental analyses. The antimicrobial profile of the novel ionic liquids was evaluated and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC showed their moderate to low antimicrobial activity against eight types of human pathogens.

  11. Self-reported changes in quality of life among people with multiple sclerosis who have participated in treatments based on collaboration between conventional healthcare providers and CAM practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Liv; Henningsen, Inge Biehl; Skovgaard, Lasse;

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the study: This study assesses the changes in self-reported quality of life (QoL) from hospitalisation to 18 months later among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) who have participated in treatments based on collaboration between conventional healthcare providers and CAM practitioners......Lwas found within the areas of emotional well-being and thinking/fatigue. Conclusion: The results indicate that collaboration between healthcare providers andCAMpractitioners can improve treatment outcomes regarding some of the psychological aspects of QoL over a period of 18 months for people with MS....

  12. Hybrid approach of retractor-based and conventional laparoscopy enabling minimally invasive hysterectomy in a morbidly obese patient: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellen, Friederike; Rody, Achim; Ros, Andrea; Bruns, Angela; Cirkel, Christoph; Bohlmann, Michael K

    2014-06-01

    Minimally invasive hysterectomy in obese patients may be limited by laparoscopic sight on the one hand and by intraoperative complications related to reduced ventilation due to pneumoperitoneum on the other. Retractor-based laparoscopy offers an operative technique reducing anesthesia risks. We report the case of laparoscopic hysterectomy in an obese patient of short stature. Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy was performed by a hybrid approach of a retractor system exerting its effects on lifting the abdominal wall through gravity and conventional laparoscopy, thus bypassing the adverse effects of pneumoperitoneum on ventilation.

  13. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Teske, E.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Day, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA). Methods Canine (n = 247) and feline (n = 74) blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two

  14. A Study of the Effects of a Skills-Based Versus a Conventional Group Counseling Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaby, Marlowe H.; Maddux, Cleborne D.; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Zimmick, Renee

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a study of counselors-in-training who completed systematic groups skills training based on the Skilled Group Counseling Training Model (SGCTM). Findings indicate that higher level group-counseling skills can be efficiently taught prior to practica and internships. Concludes that if counselors-in-training gain higher level skills prior…

  15. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Teske, E.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Day, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA). Methods Canine (n = 247) and feline (n = 74) blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two laboratories

  16. Teaching Baroreflex Physiology to Medical Students: A Comparison of Quiz-Based and Conventional Teaching Strategies in a Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Ronan M. G.; Plovsing, Ronni R.; Damgaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Quiz-based and collaborative teaching strategies have previously been found to be efficient for the improving meaningful learning of physiology during lectures. These approaches have, however, not been investigated during laboratory exercises. In the present study, we compared the impact of solving quizzes individually and in groups with…

  17. Hospital-based community cataract surgery: comparison of visual outcomes between conventional extra-capsular cataract extraction and small incision cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, P; Shrestha, K; Shrestha, J B

    2009-01-01

    the small-incision cataract surgery is gaining popularity among the ophthalmic surgeons. to compare the visual outcome of conventional extra-capsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) in a hospital based community cataract program. aprospective interventional study without randomization was carried out including the patients undergoing cataract surgery by either conventional ECCE or manual SICS. They were followed up for 6 weeks postoperatively. The visual outcomes were compared between the two groups. the statistical program Epi-Info version 2000 was used to analyze the data. Mean values with standard deviations, 95% CI and p value were calculated. The p value ofECCE and 41 (M: F=15:26) SICS (RR= 0.71, 95% CI=0.42-1.2, p value=0.16). Unaided visual acuity on the 1st postoperative day in the ECCE group was e"6/ 18 in 22.7%,ECCE group was e"6/18 in 79.5%,ECCE and SICS are good procedures for hospital based community cataract surgery but within the 6 weeks postoperative period SICS gives better visual outcome. Remarkably higher number of female patients can be provided service in a hospital based community cataract programme as compared to males.

  18. Characterization of the wear response of a modified zinc-based alloy vis-à-vis a conventional zinc-based alloy and a bearing bronze at a high sliding speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B. K.; Yegneswaran, A. H.; Patwardhan, A. K.

    1996-11-01

    In this investigation, an attempt has been made to examine the wear response of a modified zinc-based alloy at a high speed (4.60 m/s) of sliding over a range of applied pressures. A conventional zinc-based alloy and a bearing bronze have also been subjected to identical tests with a view to assess the working capability of the modified alloy with respect to the existing ones. The wear characteristics of the alloys have been correlated with their microstructural features, while operating wear mechanisms have been studied through analyses of wear surfaces, subsurfaces, and debris particles. The conventional zinc-based alloy attained most inferior wear behavior when compared with that of the modified (zinc-based) alloy and the bronze. Interestingly, the modified alloy exhibited its wear response to be much better than that of the conventional zinc-based alloy due to the presence of nickel/silicon containing (hard and thermally stable) microconstituents. Moreover, the modified alloy also seized at a pressure similar to that of the bronze, although its wear rate prior to seizure was more than that of the latter. The study clearly indicates that it is possible to develop modified versions of zinc-based alloys having much improved wear characteristics over the conventional variety; the information gains special attention in view of the high speed of sliding selected in this study.

  19. Conventional Cisplatin-Based Combination Chemotherapy Is Effective in the Treatment of Metastatic Spermatocytic Seminoma with Extensive Rhabdomyosarcomatous Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yumun; Cheon, Jaekyung; Kim, Tae-Oh; Lim, Doo-Ho; Lee, Sunpyo; Cho, Young-Mi; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Jae Lyun

    2015-10-01

    A 52-year-old man was presented with a huge left testicular mass and palpable cervical lymphadenopathy with retroperitoneal lymph node enlargement on an abdominal computed tomography. A left radical orchiectomy and an ultrasound-guided neck node biopsy were performed. A pathological examination revealed spermatocytic seminoma with extensive rhabdomyosarcomatous transformation, a condition known to be highly resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy. The patient received four cycles of etoposide, ifosfamide and cisplatin (VIP) chemotherapy. A repeat computed tomography revealed a substantial regression consistent with a partial response. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was attempted, which revealed rhabdomyosarcoma; however, complete microscopic resection was not achieved. After surgery, the residual abdominal lymph node progressed and salvage paclitaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin (TIP) chemotherapy was employed, which again achieved a partial response. Here, we present a first case report of a spermatocytic seminoma with extensive rhabdomyosarcomatous transformation and multiple metastatic lymphadenopathies that showed a favorable response to platinum-based systemic chemotherapy.

  20. Difference in the Set-up Margin between 2D Conventional and 3D CT Based Planning in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sun Mi; Chun, Mi Sun; Kim, Mi Hwa; Oh, Young Taek; Noh, O Kyu [Ajou University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seung Hee [Inje University, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Simulation using computed tomography (CT) is now widely available for radiation treatment planning for breast cancer. It is an important tool to help define the tumor target and normal tissue based on anatomical features of an individual patient. In Korea, most patients have small sized breasts and the purpose of this study was to review the margin of treatment field between conventional two-dimensional (2D) planning and CT based three-dimensional (3D) planning in patients with small breasts. Twenty-five consecutive patients with early breast cancer undergoing breast conservation therapy were selected. All patients underwent 3D CT based planning with a conventional breast tangential field design. In 2D planning, the treatment field margins were determined by palpation of the breast parenchyma (In general, the superior: base of the clavicle, medial: midline, lateral: mid - axillary line, and inferior margin: 2 m below the inflamammary fold). In 3D planning, the clinical target volume (CTV) ought to comprise all glandular breast tissue, and the PTV was obtained by adding a 3D margin of 1 cm around the CTV except in the skin direction. The difference in the treatment field margin and equivalent field size between 2D and 3D planning were evaluated. The association between radiation field margins and factors such as body mass index, menopause status, and bra size was determined. Lung volume and heart volume were examined on the basis of the prescribed breast radiation dose and 3D dose distribution. The margins of the treatment field were smaller in the 3D planning except for two patients. The superior margin was especially variable (average, 2.5 cm; range, -2.5 to 4.5 cm; SD, 1.85). The margin of these targets did not vary equally across BMI class, menopause status, or bra size. The average irradiated lung volume was significantly lower for 3D planning. The average irradiated heart volume did not decrease significantly. The use of 3D CT based planning reduced the

  1. Catalytic depolymerisation of starch-based industrial waste:use of non-conventional activation methods and novel reaction media

    OpenAIRE

    Hernoux-Villière, A. (Audrey)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The rapid increase of energy demand for transportation generates a rise of environmental pollution, stimulating the development of alternative sources of energy. Biomass is considered as the main organic carbon source of energy to substitute petroleum permitting sustainable production of chemicals and transportation fuels. Biowastes, residues and non-edible feedstock possess high potential resources avoiding food competition. This research aims to convert starch-based industria...

  2. Development of a versatile and conventional technique for gene disruption in filamentous fungi based on CRISPR-Cas9 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan-Mei; Lin, Fu-Long; Gao, Hao; Zou, Gen; Zhang, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Gao-Qian; Chen, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Zhi-Hua; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Hu, Dan

    2017-08-23

    Filamentous fungi represent an invaluable source of pharmaceutically active compounds. The development of versatile methods to genetically manipulate filamentous fungi is of great value for improving the low yields of bioactive metabolites and expanding chemical diversity. The CRISPR-Cas9-based system has become a common platform for genome editing in a variety of organisms. However, recent application of this technology in filamentous fungi is limited to model strains, a versatile method for efficient gene disruption in different fungi is lacking. Here, we investigated the utility of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in a less-studied fungus Nodulisporium sp. (No. 65-12-7-1), and we have developed an efficient CRISPR-Cas9-based gene disruption strategy by simultaneous transformation of in vitro transcriptional gRNA and the linear maker gene cassette into the Cas9-expressing fungi. We found that the linear marker gene cassette could not only allow for selection of transformants, but also significantly enhance the gene disruption efficiency by inserting itself into the Cas9 cut site. Moreover, the above approach also demonstrated its efficiency in two other phylogenetically distinct strains Aspergillus oryzae NSAR1 and Sporormiella minima (No. 40-1-4-1) from two different classes of Ascomycota. These results suggested that a versatile CRISPR-Cas9-based gene disruption method in filamentous fungi was established.

  3. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  4. Patient-Specific CT-Based Instrumentation versus Conventional Instrumentation in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study on Clinical Outcomes and In-Hospital Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kotela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a frequently performed procedure in orthopaedic surgery. Recently, patient-specific instrumentation was introduced to facilitate correct positioning of implants. The aim of this study was to compare the early clinical results of TKA performed with patient-specific CT-based instrumentation and conventional technique. A prospective, randomized controlled trial on 112 patients was performed between January 2011 and December 2011. A group of 112 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group comprised 52 patients who received the Signature CT-based implant positioning system, and the control group consisted of 60 patients with conventional instrumentation. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the KSS scale, WOMAC scale, and VAS scales to assess knee pain severity and patient satisfaction with the surgery. Specified in-hospital data were recorded. Patients were followed up for 12 months. At one year after surgery, there were no statistically significant differences between groups with respect to clinical outcomes and in-hospital data, including operative time, blood loss, hospital length of stay, intraoperative observations, and postoperative complications. Further high-quality investigations of various patient-specific systems and longer follow-up may be helpful in assessing their utility for TKA.

  5. LOW DOSE CAPSULE BASED 13C-UREA BREATH TEST COMPARED WITH THE CONVENTIONAL 13C-UREA BREATH TEST AND INVASIVE TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane MATTAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context One of the limitations of 13C-urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosis in Brazil is the substrate acquisition in capsule presentation. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate a capsule-based 13C-urea, manipulated by the Pharmacy Division, for the clinical practice. Methods Fifty patients underwent the conventional and the capsule breath test. Samples were collected at the baseline and after 10, 20 and 30 minutes of 13C-urea ingestion. Urease and histology were used as gold standard in 83 patients. Results In a total of 50 patients, 17 were positive with the conventional 13C-urea (75 mg breath test at 10, 20 and 30 minutes. When these patients repeated breath test with capsule (50 mg, 17 were positive at 20 minutes and 15 at 10 and 30 minutes. The relative sensitivity of 13C-urea with capsule was 100% at 20 minutes and 88.24% at 10 and at 30 minutes. The relative specificity was 100% at all time intervals. Among 83 patients that underwent capsule breath test and endoscopy the capsule breath test presented 100% of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Capsule based breath test with 50 mg 13C-urea at twenty minutes was found highly sensitive and specific for the clinical setting. HEADINGS- Helicobacter pylori. Breath Test. Urea, analysis.

  6. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Kuhnen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pasture-based dairy production is used widely on family dairy farms in Southern Brazil. This study investigates conventional high input (C-HI, conventional low input (C-LI, and organic low input (O-LI pasture-based systems and their effects on quantity and quality of the milk produced. We conducted technical site visits and interviews monthly over one year on 24 family farms (n = 8 per type. C-HI farms had the greatest total area (28.9 ha, greatest percentage of area with annual pasture (38.7%, largest number of lactating animals (26.2 and greatest milk yield per cow (22.8 kg·day−1. O-LI farms had the largest perennial pasture area (52.3%, with the greatest botanical richness during all seasons. Area of perennial pasture was positively correlated with number of species consumed by the animals (R2 = 0.74. Milk from O-LI farms had higher levels of fat and total solids only during the winter. Hygienic and microbiological quality of the milk was poor for all farms and need to be improved. C-HI farms had high milk yield related to high input, C-LI had intermediate characteristics and O-LI utilized a year round perennial pasture as a strategy to diminish the use of supplements in animal diets, which is an important aspect in ensuring production sustainability.

  7. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Christine J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA. Methods Canine (n = 247 and feline (n = 74 blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two laboratories. A subset of canine samples was categorized as having idiopathic IMHA, secondary IMHA, or no IMHA. Results The kappa values for agreement between the tests were in one laboratory 0.86 for canine and 0.58 for feline samples, and in the other 0.48 for canine samples. The lower agreement in the second laboratory was caused by a high number of positive canine DATs for which the gel test was negative. This group included significantly more dogs with secondary IMHA. Conclusions The gel test might be used as a screening test for idiopathic IMHA and is less often positive in secondary IMHA than the DAT.

  8. Aquatic therapy versus conventional land-based therapy for Parkinson's disease: an open-label pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, Jamile; Arias, Pablo; Cudeiro, Javier

    2011-08-01

    To assess and compare 2 different protocols of physiotherapy (land or water therapy) for people with Parkinson's disease (PD) focused on postural stability and self-movement, and to provide methodological information regarding progression within the program for a future larger trial. Randomized, controlled, open-label pilot trial. Outpatients, Parkinson's disease Center of Ferrol-Galicia (Spain). Individuals (N=11) with idiopathic PD in stages 2 or 3 according to the Hoehn and Yahr Scale completed the investigation (intervention period plus follow-up). After baseline evaluations, participants were randomly assigned to a land-based therapy (active control group) or a water-based therapy (experimental group). Participants underwent individual sessions for 4 weeks, twice a week, for 45 minutes per session. Both interventions were matched in terms of exercise features, which were structured in stages with clear objectives and progression criteria to pass to the next phase. Participants underwent a first baseline assessment, a posttest immediately after 4 weeks of intervention, and a follow-up assessment after 17 days. Evaluations were performed OFF-dose after withholding medication for 12 hours. Functional assessments included the Functional Reach Test (FRT), the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the UPDRS, the 5-m walk test, and the Timed Up and Go test. A main effect of both therapies was seen for the FRT. Only the aquatic therapy group improved in the BBS and the UPDRS. In this pilot study, physiotherapy protocols produced improvement in postural stability in PD that was significantly larger after aquatic therapy. The intervention protocols are shown to be feasible and seem to be of value in amelioration of postural stability-related impairments in PD. Some of the methodological aspects detailed here can be used to design larger controlled trials. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Real-time polymerase chain reaction-based identification of bacteria in milk samples from bovine clinical mastitis with no growth in conventional culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taponen, S; Salmikivi, L; Simojoki, H; Koskinen, M T; Pyörälä, S

    2009-06-01

    In more than 30% of milk samples from clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis, bacteria fail to grow even after 48 h of conventional culture. The "no-growth" samples are problematic for mastitis laboratories, veterinarians, and dairy producers. This study provides the first investigation of the bacteriological etiology of such samples, using a real-time PCR-based commercial reagent kit. The assay targets the DNA of the 11 most common bacterial species or groups in mastitis and the staphylococcal blaZ gene (responsible for penicillin resistance) and can identify and quantify bacterial cells even if dead or growth-inhibited. A study was made of 79 mastitic milk samples with no-growth bacteria in conventional culture, originating from cows with clinical mastitis. Of the 79 samples, 34 (43%) were positive for 1 (32 samples) or 2 (2 samples) of the target bacteria. The positive findings included 11 Staphylococcus spp. (staphylococci other than Staphylococcus aureus), 10 Streptococcus uberis, 2 Streptococcus dysgalactiae, 6 Corynebacterium bovis, 3 Staph. aureus, 1 Escherichia coli, 1 Enterococcus, and 1 Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The positive samples contained as many as 10(3) to 10(7) bacterial genome copies per milliliter of milk. This study demonstrates that in nearly half of the clinical mastitis cases in which conventional culture failed to detect bacteria, mastitis pathogens were still present, often in substantial quantities. The clearly elevated N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase activity values of the milk samples, together with clinical signs of the infected cows and quarters, confirmed the diagnosis of clinical mastitis and indicated that real-time, PCR-based bacterial findings are able to reveal bacteriological etiology. We conclude that all common mastitis bacteria can occur in large quantities in clinical mastitis samples that exhibit no growth in conventional culture, and that the real-time PCR assay is a useful tool for bacteriological diagnosis of such

  10. Beyond conventional energy use: A regionally based end-use approach for the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Deborah R.

    In the United States, the dominant energy discourse is supply-oriented and focused on the large-scale use of fossil fuel and nuclear electricity energy resources. Fossil fuels and nuclear electricity are valued for the convenience, quality of life, and services that they provide. Despite these qualities, the laws of thermodynamics tell us that fossil fuels and nuclear electricity are not required for all end-use needs. Concentrated high quality energy sources such as fossil fuels and electricity are degraded when used for tasks such as water and space heating. The degraded energy is released into the environment as waste heat and pollution and contribute to scarcity in many realms. This dissertation suggests an alternative discourse on energy that calls on three frameworks of thinking: the nexus of relations, end-use analysis, and regional geography. The nexus of relations is a device for showing how different relations in society construct uses of energy that lead most naturally to scarcity and environmental degradation. End-use analysis is a framework for matching energy sources and end-uses based on thermodynamic quality, and regional geography is useful for identifying localized renewable energy sources and end-use needs. By combining these three approaches, a new framework has been created that matches thermodynamically appropriate renewable resources to end-use needs. This approach offers a new perspective on resource use that emphasizes how energy demands can be met, while minimizing scarcity and environmental degradation. To illustrate this regionally based end-use framework, a case study was conducted at three sites within Centre County, Pennsylvania. At each study site, the flux density of solar, wind, and water resources was evaluated and matched with local end-use needs. This exercise resulted in several findings: one, fossil fuel/nuclear electricity savings are possible at each study site; two, geographically-specific renewable resources can be used to

  11. Game-Based E-Learning Is More Effective than a Conventional Instructional Method: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Third-Year Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeker, Martin; Andel, Peter; Vach, Werner; Frankenschmidt, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Background When compared with more traditional instructional methods, Game-based e-learning (GbEl) promises a higher motivation of learners by presenting contents in an interactive, rule-based and competitive way. Most recent systematic reviews and meta-analysis of studies on Game-based learning and GbEl in the medical professions have shown limited effects of these instructional methods. Objectives To compare the effectiveness on the learning outcome of a Game-based e-learning (GbEl) instruction with a conventional script-based instruction in the teaching of phase contrast microscopy urinalysis under routine training conditions of undergraduate medical students. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 145 medical students in their third year of training in the Department of Urology at the University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany. 82 subjects where allocated for training with an educational adventure-game (GbEl group) and 69 subjects for conventional training with a written script-based approach (script group). Learning outcome was measured with a 34 item single choice test. Students' attitudes were collected by a questionnaire regarding fun with the training, motivation to continue the training and self-assessment of acquired knowledge. Results The students in the GbEl group achieved significantly better results in the cognitive knowledge test than the students in the script group: the mean score was 28.6 for the GbEl group and 26.0 for the script group of a total of 34.0 points with a Cohen's d effect size of 0.71 (ITT analysis). Attitudes towards the recent learning experience were significantly more positive with GbEl. Students reported to have more fun while learning with the game when compared to the script-based approach. Conclusions Game-based e-learning is more effective than a script-based approach for the training of urinalysis in regard to cognitive learning outcome and has a high positive motivational impact on learning. Game-based

  12. Game-based e-learning is more effective than a conventional instructional method: a randomized controlled trial with third-year medical students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Boeker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When compared with more traditional instructional methods, Game-based e-learning (GbEl promises a higher motivation of learners by presenting contents in an interactive, rule-based and competitive way. Most recent systematic reviews and meta-analysis of studies on Game-based learning and GbEl in the medical professions have shown limited effects of these instructional methods. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness on the learning outcome of a Game-based e-learning (GbEl instruction with a conventional script-based instruction in the teaching of phase contrast microscopy urinalysis under routine training conditions of undergraduate medical students. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 145 medical students in their third year of training in the Department of Urology at the University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany. 82 subjects where allocated for training with an educational adventure-game (GbEl group and 69 subjects for conventional training with a written script-based approach (script group. Learning outcome was measured with a 34 item single choice test. Students' attitudes were collected by a questionnaire regarding fun with the training, motivation to continue the training and self-assessment of acquired knowledge. RESULTS: The students in the GbEl group achieved significantly better results in the cognitive knowledge test than the students in the script group: the mean score was 28.6 for the GbEl group and 26.0 for the script group of a total of 34.0 points with a Cohen's d effect size of 0.71 (ITT analysis. Attitudes towards the recent learning experience were significantly more positive with GbEl. Students reported to have more fun while learning with the game when compared to the script-based approach. CONCLUSIONS: Game-based e-learning is more effective than a script-based approach for the training of urinalysis in regard to cognitive learning outcome and has a high positive motivational impact on

  13. Game-based e-learning is more effective than a conventional instructional method: a randomized controlled trial with third-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeker, Martin; Andel, Peter; Vach, Werner; Frankenschmidt, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    When compared with more traditional instructional methods, Game-based e-learning (GbEl) promises a higher motivation of learners by presenting contents in an interactive, rule-based and competitive way. Most recent systematic reviews and meta-analysis of studies on Game-based learning and GbEl in the medical professions have shown limited effects of these instructional methods. To compare the effectiveness on the learning outcome of a Game-based e-learning (GbEl) instruction with a conventional script-based instruction in the teaching of phase contrast microscopy urinalysis under routine training conditions of undergraduate medical students. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 145 medical students in their third year of training in the Department of Urology at the University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany. 82 subjects where allocated for training with an educational adventure-game (GbEl group) and 69 subjects for conventional training with a written script-based approach (script group). Learning outcome was measured with a 34 item single choice test. Students' attitudes were collected by a questionnaire regarding fun with the training, motivation to continue the training and self-assessment of acquired knowledge. The students in the GbEl group achieved significantly better results in the cognitive knowledge test than the students in the script group: the mean score was 28.6 for the GbEl group and 26.0 for the script group of a total of 34.0 points with a Cohen's d effect size of 0.71 (ITT analysis). Attitudes towards the recent learning experience were significantly more positive with GbEl. Students reported to have more fun while learning with the game when compared to the script-based approach. Game-based e-learning is more effective than a script-based approach for the training of urinalysis in regard to cognitive learning outcome and has a high positive motivational impact on learning. Game-based e-learning can be used as an effective teaching

  14. Comparison of Ciprofloxacin-Based Triple Therapy with Conventional Triple Regimen for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Tayebeh; Najafi, Mehri; Fallahi, Gholamhosein; Khodadad, Ahmad; Motamed, Farzaneh; Mahdi Marashi, Sayed; Shoaran, Maryam; Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Raheleh

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a prevalent disease among Iranian children. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ciprofloxacin and furazolidone on eradicating helicobacter pylori in Iranian children in combination with amoxicillin and omeprazole. In this cohort study, helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed by gastroscopy, rapid urease test or pathologic assessments. A total of 66 children were randomly enrolled; based on the random number table, and were divided into two groups; first, a combination regimen consisting of ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and omeprazole; second, a three-medication regimen consisting of amoxicillin, furazolidone, and omeprazole. The effect of both medical regimens on the successful eradication of helicobacter pylori infection was assessed and compared. Chi-square test was used for evaluating the association between quantitative variables. All comparisons were made at the significance of Phelicobacter pylori infection was reported 87.9% (29/33) in the first group (CAO) and 60.6% (20.33) in the second group (FAO) (P=0.011). It appears that a major advantage of our proposed regimen over others is a lack of wide use of fluoroquinolones for treating children's diseases. Given FDA's recommendation about the possibility of prescribing ciprofloxacin for infected patients with multidrug resistance, we can use the regimen proposed in this study in patients with resistance to standard treatments.

  15. Effectiveness of two conventional methods for seismic retrofit of steel and RC moment resisting frames based on damage control criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti Aval, Seyed Bahram; Kouhestani, Hamed Sadegh; Mottaghi, Lida

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the efficiency of two types of rehabilitation methods based on economic justification that can lead to logical decision making between the retrofitting schemes. Among various rehabilitation methods, concentric chevron bracing (CCB) and cylindrical friction damper (CFD) were selected. The performance assessment procedure of the frames is divided into two distinct phases. First, the limit state probabilities of the structures before and after rehabilitation are investigated. In the second phase, the seismic risk of structures in terms of life safety and financial losses (decision variables) using the recently published FEMA P58 methodology is evaluated. The results show that the proposed retrofitting methods improve the serviceability and life safety performance levels of steel and RC structures at different rates when subjected to earthquake loads. Moreover, these procedures reveal that financial losses are greatly decreased, and were more tangible by the application of CFD rather than using CCB. Although using both retrofitting methods reduced damage state probabilities, incorporation of a site-specific seismic hazard curve to evaluate mean annual occurrence frequency at the collapse prevention limit state caused unexpected results to be obtained. Contrary to CFD, the collapse probability of the structures retrofitted with CCB increased when compared with the primary structures.

  16. A functional comparison of conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses and a microprocessor-controlled leg orthosis system based on biomechanical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Thomas; Pröbsting, Eva; Auberger, Roland; Siewert, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    The microprocessor-controlled leg orthosis C-Brace enables patients with paretic or paralysed lower limb muscles to use dampened knee flexion under weight-bearing and speed-adapted control of the swing phase. The objective of the present study was to investigate the new technical functions of the C-Brace orthosis, based on biomechanical parameters. The study enrolled six patients. The C-Brace orthosis is compared with conventional leg orthoses (four stance control orthoses, two locked knee-ankle-foot orthoses) using biomechanical parameters of level walking, descending ramps and descending stairs. Ground reaction forces, joint moments and kinematic parameters were measured for level walking as well as ascending and descending ramps and stairs. With the C-Brace, a nearly natural stance phase knee flexion was measured during level walking (mean value 11° ± 5.6°). The maximum swing phase knee flexion angle of the C-Brace approached the normal value of 65° more closely than the stance control orthoses (66° ± 8.5° vs 74° ± 6.4°). No significant differences in the joint moments were found between the C-Brace and stance control orthosis conditions. In contrast to the conventional orthoses, all patients were able to ambulate ramps and stairs using a step-over-step technique with C-Brace (flexion angle 64.6° ± 8.2° and 70.5° ± 12.4°). The results show that the functions of the C-Brace for situation-dependent knee flexion under weight bearing have been used by patients with a high level of confidence. The functional benefits of the C-Brace in comparison with the conventional orthotic mechanisms could be demonstrated most clearly for descending ramps and stairs. The C-Brace orthosis is able to combine improved orthotic function with sustained orthotic safety. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  17. Pyrethroid residue determination in organic and conventional vegetables using liquid-solid extraction coupled with magnetic solid phase extraction based on polystyrene-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xi; Yang, Hongshun

    2017-02-15

    A detection method using polystyrene-coated magnetic nanoparticles based extraction technique coupled to HPLC was developed for trace amount of pyrethroids residue detection in vegetable matrixes. The recoveries for five kinds of commonly used pyrethroids were in the range of 91.6%-116.2%. The sensitivity and precision of the method were satisfactory with the limits of detection and limits of quantification in the range of 0.0200-0.0392ngg(-1) and 0.072-0.128ngg(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations for the recoveries of the analytes were lower than 6.8% and 10.7%, respectively. The nanoparticles can be washed and recycled after use. The results indicate that the developed method was efficient, fast, economical and environmentally friendly. The method was successfully applied to detect the pyrethroids residue in ten pairs of commonly consumed organic and conventional fresh vegetables in Singapore. Pyrethroids residue was detected in four kinds of conventional vegetables and one kind of organic vegetable.

  18. Radiological Outcomes and Operative Time following Total Knee Arthroplasty using Accelerometer-based, Portable Navigation versus Conventional Inter-Medullary Alignment Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDessi, Samuel; Solayar, GN; Thatcher, N; Chen, Darren B

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Accelerometer-based, portable navigation instrumentation is a new method of achieving desired resection alignments in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: After randomisation and the application of exclusion criteria, 79 knees were analysed. 42 patients which underwent TKA using conventional intra-medullary (IM) alignment guides were compared to 37 patients with the use of accelerometer-based, portable navigation device (KneeAlign; OrthoAlign Inc, Aliso Viejo, California). Radiographic results were obtained from post-operative computer-tomography following the CT Perth Protocol. Results: In the IM cohort, 81.0% of patients had a coronal alignment within 3° of a neutral mechanical axis (vs 83.8% with KneeAlign, p=0.74), 81.0% had a femoral coronal alignment within 2° of perpendicular to the femoral mechanical axis (vs 89.2% with KneeAlign, p=0.31), and 92.9% had a tibial coronal alignment within 2° of perpendicular to the tibial mechanical axis (vs 81.1% with KneeAlign, p=0.12). Regarding sagittal alignment, the IM cohort had 90.5% of patients with femoral component alignment within 2° of optimum (vs 91.9% with KneeAlign, p=0.83) and 92.9% had a tibial component alignment within 2° of the optimal tibial slope (vs 89.2% with KneeAlign, p=0.57). The mean tourniquet time (from incision to completion of coronal bone resections) in the IM cohort was 16.5± 8.9 minutes vs 22.2 ± 7.6 minutes in the KneeAlign cohort (p<0.003). Conclusion: Accelerometer-based, portable navigation has a statistically similar outcome in alignment following TKA as IM guides. It is noted that using the portable navigation device does prolong surgical time compared to conventional IM surgery and this may be due to the learning curve.

  19. Varieties of conventional implicature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Scott McCready

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a system capable of analyzing the combinatorics of a wide range of conventionally implicated and expressive constructions in natural language via an extension of Potts's (2005 L_CI logic for supplementary conventional implicatures. In particular, the system is capable of analyzing objects of mixed conventionally implicated/expressive and at-issue type, and objects with conventionally implicated or expressive meanings which provide the main content of their utterances. The logic is applied to a range of constructions and lexical items in several languages. doi:10.3765/sp.3.8 BibTeX info

  20. Detection of the free living amoeba Naegleria fowleri by using conventional and real-time PCR based on a single copy DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régoudis, Estelle; Pélandakis, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The amoeba-flagellate Naegleria fowleri is a causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). This thermophilic species occurs worldwide and tends to proliferate in warm aquatic environment. The PAM cases remain rare but this infection is mostly fatal. Here, we describe a single copy region which has been cloned and sequenced, and was used for both conventional and real-time PCR. Targeting a single-copy DNA sequence allows to directly quantify the N. fowleri cells. The real-time PCR results give a detection limit of 1 copy per reaction with high reproducibility without the need of a Taqman probe. This procedure is of interest as compared to other procedures which are mostly based on the detection of multi-copy DNA associated with a Taqman probe.

  1. Determination of anti-endomysium IgA antibodies in the diagnosis of celiac disease: Comparison of a novel ELISA-based assay with conventional immunofluorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis CW Poland; Huib Ceelie; Rob B Dinkelaar; Cornelis Beijer

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the novel anti-endomysium (anti-EMA)detection based on ELISA.METHODS: Anti-EMA IgA was measured by a novel ELISA in 196 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and suspected mal-absorption. Data were compared with those obtained by the conventional IF test.RESULTS: A good concordance of 98% was found between these two assays. In sera of 161 patients (82%)both assays tested negative whereas in sera of 31 patients (16%) both assays tested positive for the presence of anti-EMA antibodies. Discrepancies between EMAELISA and EMA-immunofluorescence (IF) were found in only 4 patients (2%).CONCLUSION: This ELISA can replace IF for the detection of anti-EMA antibodies and provide clinicians with an excellent tool to screen for celiac disease in patients with gastrointestinal complaints.

  2. Use of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction for confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a broth-based culture system ESP II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung G; Kim, Eun H; Lafferty, Caroline J; Miller, Loretta J; Koo, Hye J; Stehman, Susan M; Shin, Sang J

    2004-09-01

    The ESP II Culture System (ESP II), a broth-based culture system, has been modified and optimized for culturing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) in animal feces since 2000. Conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on the IS900 sequence were performed as confirmatory tests for M. paratuberculosis in ESP II liquid culture medium. There were no differences between test results of conventional and real-time PCR assays. During the 5-week incubation period, if acid-fast bacilli (AFB) were detected in ESP culture-positive samples, IS900 PCR assays were performed to confirm whether those AFB were M. paratuberculosis. At the end of the 5-week incubation, AF staining was performed on all ESP II-negative cultures to screen any false-negative cultures; IS900 PCR assays were performed on AFB-positive cultures. During a period of 1 year, of a total of 18,499 ESP II cultures, 2,814 (15.2%) PCR confirmation assays were performed. Of those, 2,259 (80%) were both ESP and PCR positive; 104 (4%) were ESP positive and PCR negative; 423 (15%) were ESP negative and PCR positive; 28 (1%) were both ESP and PCR negative. The AF-staining step after the 5-week incubation produced 423 (15%) more PCR-positive cultures. Of a total of 2,814 AFB-positive cultures, 132 (5%) were not confirmed as M. paratuberculosis. Further studies are needed for speciation of non-M. paratuberculosis isolates.

  3. Medical students' achievement on the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery/Chirurgery Final Part I and II licensing examination: a comparison of students in problem-based learning, community-based education and service, and conventional curricula in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogre, Victor; Amalba, Anthony; Saaka, Mark; Kyei-Aboagye, Kwabena

    2014-05-08

    Problem-based learning is an established method of teaching and learning in medical education. However, its impact on students' achievement on examinations is varied and inconsistent. We compared the levels of achievement on the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery/Chirurgery (MB ChB) Part I and II licensing examination of students in problem-based learning, community-based education and service (PBL/COBES), and conventional curricula. In 2014, we analyzed the MB ChB Final Part I and II licensing examination results of students in three classes (2004, 2005, and 2006) of the School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana. Ninety-three students in the 2004 and 2005 cohorts followed a conventional curriculum, and 82 students in the 2006 cohort followed a PBL/COBES curriculum. Using appropriate statistical tools, the analysis compared individual discipline scores and the proportions of students who received distinction/credit/pass grades among the classes. The PBL students had significantly higher mean and median scores than the conventional students in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Internal Medicine, Community Health and Family Medicine, Surgery, and Psychiatry, but not in Child Health and Pediatrics. Also, a significantly (P=0.0010) higher percentage, 95.1% (n=78), of the PBL students passed all the disciplines, compared to 79.6% (n=74) of the conventional students. The PBL students significantly performed better in all the disciplines except child health and pediatrics, where the conventional students scored higher. These findings demonstrate that the benefits of the PBL/COBES curriculum are tangible and should be fostered.

  4. The Geometry of Conventionality

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2013-01-01

    Hans Reichenbach famously argued that the geometry of spacetime is conventional in relativity theory, in the sense that one can freely choose the spacetime metric so long as one is willing to postulate a "universal force field". Here we make precise a sense in which the field Reichenbach defines fails to be a "force". We then argue that there is an interesting and perhaps tenable sense in which geometry is conventional in classical spacetimes. We conclude with a no-go result showing that the variety of conventionalism available in classical spacetimes does not extend to relativistic spacetimes.

  5. Comparative study of the fabrication of ultrafine Ti(C,N)-based cermets by spark plasma sintering and conventional vacuum sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Yan; XIONG Weihao; LIANG Zaiguo; FENG Ping; WANG Zhiwu

    2005-01-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) and conventional vacuum sintering (VS) were employed to fabricate ultrafine Ti(C,N)-based cermets. The shrinkage behavior, microstructure, and porosity and mechanical properties of the samples fabricated by SPS were compared with those of the samples sintered by VS using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, universal testing machine, and rockwell tester. The results are as follows: (1) The shrinkage process occurred mainly in the range of 1000-1300℃ during the VS process, and only a 0.2% linear shrinkage ratio appeared below 800℃;during the SPS process, a 60% dimensional change occurred below 800℃ as a result of pressure action. (2) By utilizing the SPS technique, it is difficult for obtaining fully dense Ti(C,N)-based cermets. Due to the much existence of pores and uncombined carbon, the mechanical properties of the sintered samples by SPS are inferior to sintered ones by VS. (3) grain size of the samples sintered by SPS is still below 0.5 μm, but not by VS; because of low sintering temperature, there are no typical core/rim structures formed in the sintered samples by SPS 1; the main microstructures of the sintered samples by SPS2 are a white core/grey shell structure, whereas by VS show a typical black core/grey shell structure.

  6. Reform of Conventional Teaching based on ACM Programming Contest%基于ACM程序设计竞赛的常规教学改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志; 李梦泽; 马嫣; 章韵; 陈春玲

    2011-01-01

    To foster students' problem-solving ability, this paper proposes a teaching system based on ACM International Gollegiate Programming Contest (ACM/ICPC), which embeds the ACM/ICPC mechanism in the conventional teaching, transforms the theoretical teaching content and the experimental teaching form. The reform and practice in typical courses shows that ACM/ICPC based teaching model can stimulate students' learning interest, improve their practical ability, creative thinking and teamwork mentality%为辚养学生解决问题的能力,本文提出一种基于ACM国际大学程序设计竞赛(ACM/ICPC)的教学体系,将ACM/ICPC机制嵌入至常规教学,改造理论教学内容和实验教学形式。典型课程的改革与实践表明,基于ACM/ICPC的教学模式能够激发学生的学习兴趣,提高其动手能力、创造件思维和团队合作意识。

  7. A comparative study between conventional and liquid-based cytology in screening for anal intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Livia Bravo; Marinho, Larissa Cardoso; Wanderley Paes Barbosa, Tania; Batalha Filho, Eronides Salustiano; Ribeiro Velasco, Lara Franciele; Garcia Costa, Patrícia Godoy; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; de Oliveira, Paulo Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is associated with HPV infection and can be detected by cytological screening. While conventional exfoliative cytology (CC) is a low-cost and nonaggressive method, liquid-based cytology (LBC) tends to give clearer readings. Although studies of the efficacy of anal cancer screening methods would be of great importance for groups at high risk for AIN, few such studies have been conducted. The aim of the present study was to assess the concordance of CC and LBC in diagnosing anal pre-neoplastic lesions, and to compare cytological results with anoscopy, histopathological, and molecular biology findings. Comparative study involving 33 HIV-positive patients, who underwent anoscopy and biopsy of suspected lesions. Concordance between the two cytology methods was calculated, as were the associations between cytology results and findings from other screening methods. A total of 54.5% of cases were considered AIN-negative by CC and LBC, and concordance between the two methods was statistically significant (P liquid-based cytology are equally effective in screening for anal preneoplastic lesions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. PERFORMANCE OF CONVENTIONAL PCRs BASED ON PRIMERS DIRECTED TO NUCLEAR AND MITOCHONDRIAL GENES FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Leishmania spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOPES, Estela Gallucci; GERALDO, Carlos Alberto; MARCILI, Arlei; SILVA, Ricardo Duarte; KEID, Lara Borges; OLIVEIRA, Trícia Maria Ferreira da Silva; SOARES, Rodrigo Martins

    2016-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the detection of the agent is of paramount importance to identify reservoirs of infection. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic attributes of PCRs based on primers directed to cytochrome-B (cytB), cytochrome-oxidase-subunit II (coxII), cytochrome-C (cytC), and the minicircle-kDNA. Although PCRs directed to cytB, coxII, cytC were able to detect different species of Leishmania, and the nucleotide sequence of their amplicons allowed the unequivocal differentiation of species, the analytical and diagnostic sensitivity of these PCRs were much lower than the analytical and diagnostic sensitivity of the kDNA-PCR. Among the 73 seropositive animals, the asymptomatic dogs had spleen and bone marrow samples collected and tested; only two animals were positive by PCRs based on cytB, coxII, and cytC, whereas 18 were positive by the kDNA-PCR. Considering the kDNA-PCR results, six dogs had positive spleen and bone marrow samples, eight dogs had positive bone marrow results but negative results in spleen samples and, in four dogs, the reverse situation occurred. We concluded that PCRs based on cytB, coxII, and cytC can be useful tools to identify Leishmania species when used in combination with automated sequencing. The discordance between the results of the kDNA-PCR in bone marrow and spleen samples may indicate that conventional PCR lacks sensitivity for the detection of infected dogs. Thus, primers based on the kDNA should be preferred for the screening of infected dogs. PMID:27253743

  9. Zebrafish-based reporter gene assays reveal different estrogenic activities in river waters compared to a conventional human-derived assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonavane, Manoj; Creusot, Nicolas; Maillot-Maréchal, Emmanuelle; Péry, Alexandre; Brion, François; Aїt-Aïssa, Selim

    2016-04-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) act on the endocrine system through multiple mechanisms of action, among them interaction with estrogen receptors (ERs) is a well-identified key event in the initiation of adverse outcomes. As the most commonly used estrogen screening assays are either yeast- or human-cell based systems, the question of their (eco)toxicological relevance when assessing risks for aquatic species can be raised. The present study addresses the use of zebrafish (zf) derived reporter gene assays, both in vitro (i.e. zf liver cell lines stably expressing zfERα, zfERβ1 and zfERβ2 subtypes) and in vivo (i.e. transgenic cyp19a1b-GFP zf embryos), to assess estrogenic contaminants in river waters. By investigating 20 French river sites using passive sampling, high frequencies of in vitro zfER-mediated activities in water extracts were measured. Among the different in vitro assays, zfERβ2 assay was the most sensitive and responsive one, enabling the detection of active compounds at all investigated sites. In addition, comparison with a conventional human-based in vitro assay highlighted sites that were able to active zfERs but not human ER, suggesting the occurrence of zf-specific ER ligands. Furthermore, a significant in vivo estrogenic activity was detected at the most active sites in vitro, with a good accordance between estradiol equivalent (E2-EQ) concentrations derived from both in vitro and in vivo assays. Overall, this study shows the relevance and usefulness of such novel zebrafish-based assays as screening tools to monitor estrogenic activities in complex mixtures such as water extracts. It also supports their preferred use compared to human-based assays to assess the potential risks caused by endocrine disruptive chemicals for aquatic species such as fish.

  10. Conventional Spinal Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients scheduled for clcctive unilateral lower limb surgery. ... the conventional group were turned supine immediately after injection. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen .... Characteristic Type of spinal anaesthcsia P-value.

  11. Alias subtraction more efficient than conventional zero-padding in the Fourier-based calculation of the susceptibility induced perturbation of the magnetic field in MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Job G; Bakker, Chris J G

    2012-08-01

    Forward calculation of the susceptibility induced field shift by Fourier-based procedures requires spatial zero-padding to prevent aliasing artifacts (periodic wrap-around). Padding with a factor of two gives accurate results, however, halves the maximal attainable resolution, and slows down the calculation, which may hamper the feasibility of real-time calculations. Herein is proposed to first perform the calculation at the original resolution--allowing aliasing-and to remove aliasing with an additional convolution in a lower resolution, to alleviate these restrictions regarding memory size and calculation speed, a procedure we termed "virtual" zero-padding. Virtual zero-padding was numerically and experimentally tested and validated with conventional zero-padding and the analytical solution (in the case of spheres) on several phantoms. A demonstration of the increased efficiency is given by implementing virtual zero-padding in a dynamic calculation procedure. The improved efficiency is expected to be relevant regarding the ongoing increase in spatial and temporal resolution in ultra-high-field MRI. Procedures are presented for circular convolution using the discrete Green's function and k-space filtering using the continuous Green's function.

  12. SU-E-P-58: Dosimetric Study of Conventional Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Knowledge-Based Radiation Therapy for Postoperation of Cervix Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C; Yin, Y [Shandong Tumor Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Provice (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric difference of the target volume and organs at risk(OARs) between conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy(C-IMRT) and knowledge-based radiation therapy (KBRT) plans for cervix cancer. Methods: 39 patients with cervical cancer after surgery were randomly selected, 20 patient plans were used to create the model, the other 19 cases used for comparative evaluation. All plans were designed in Eclipse system. The prescription dose was 30.6Gy, 17 fractions, OARs dose satisfied to the clinical requirement. A paired t test was used to evaluate the differences of dose-volume histograms (DVH). Results: Comparaed to C-IMRT plan, the KBRT plan target can achieve the similar target dose coverage, D98,D95,D2,HI and CI had no difference (P≥0.05). The dose of rectum, bladder and femoral heads had no significant differences(P≥0.05). The time was used to design treatment plan was significant reduced. Conclusion: This study shows that postoperative radiotherapy of cervical KBRT plans can achieve the similar target and OARs dose, but the shorter designing time.

  13. Synthesis and synergistic antifungal activities of a pyrazoline based ligand and its copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes with conventional antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Wani, Waseem A; Khan, Amber; Haque, Ashanul; Ahmad, Aijaz; Saleem, Kishwar; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2012-08-01

    A pyrazoline based ligand; (5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-phenyl-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide) has been synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of acetophenone with p-chlorobenzaldehyde, followed by sodium hydroxide assisted cyclization of the resulting chalcone with thiosemicarbazide. Metal ion complexes of the synthesized ligand were prepared with Cu(II) and Ni(II) metal ions, separately and respectively. Ligand and the metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)HNMR, ESI-MS and (13)CNMR spectroscopic techniques. Molar conductance measurements in DMSO suggested non-electrolytic nature of the complexes. Tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry for copper and octahedral geometry for the nickel complexes was proposed on the basis of UV-Vis spectroscopic studies and magnetic moment measurements. The complexes were investigated for their ability to kill human fungal pathogen Candida by determining MICs (Minimum inhibitory concentrations), inhibition in solid media and ability to produce a possible synergism with conventional most clinically practiced antifungals by disc diffusion assay and FICI (fractional inhibitory concentration index).

  14. Adaptation of ubiquitin-PNA based sperm quality assay for semen evaluation by a conventional flow cytometer and a dedicated platform for flow cytometric semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, J F; Sutovsky, M; DeJarnette, J M; Marshall, C; Sutovsky, P

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of semen quality evaluation is to predict the fertility potential of the sample in an objective, rapid and inexpensive manner. However, utilization of sperm quality biomarkers such as ubiquitin and lectin Arachis hypogaea agglutinin (PNA) for flow cytometric semen evaluation might eliminate the need for visual assessment by microscopy. Herein, we demonstrate a robust ubiquitin and PNA-based semen evaluation conducted on a simple, easy to operate, dedicated sperm flow cytometer, EasyCyte Plus (IMV Technologies, L'Aigle, France). Semen samples were collected periodically from two dairy bulls, which were subjected to temporary scrotal insults to induce variable semen quality. Samples were labeled with fluorescently-conjugated anti-ubiquitin antibodies (bind exclusively to the surface of defective sperm) and lectin PNA (binds to acrosomal surface in prematurely capacitated and acrosome-damaged sperm). Fluorescent properties of the samples were measured with a conventional flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson FACScan; Becton Dickinson Corp., Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and by the EasyCyte (IMV Technologies) instrument. Data from the two flow cytometers were positively correlated for the percentage of PNA-positive sperm with a damaged acrosome (r = 0.47; P flow cytometric semen evaluation.

  15. Investigation on Structural and Optical Properties of Willemite Doped Mn2+ Based Glass-Ceramics Prepared by Conventional Solid-State Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Farhana Samsudin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn-doped willemite (Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ glass-ceramics derived from ZnO-SLS glass system were prepared by a conventional melt-quenching technique followed by a controlled crystallization step employing the heat treatment process. Soda lime silica (SLS glass waste, ZnO, and MnO were used as sources of silicon, zinc, and manganese, respectively. The obtained glass-ceramic samples were characterized using the X-ray diffraction (XRD, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, UV-Visible (UV-Vis, and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. The results of XRD revealed that ZnO crystal and willemite (β-Zn2SiO4 were presented as major embedded crystalline phases. This observation was consistent with the result of FESEM which showed the presence of irregularity in shape and size of willemite crystallites. FTIR spectroscopy exhibits the structural evolution of willemite based glass-ceramics. The optical band gap shows a decreasing trend as the Mn-doping content increased. Photoluminescent technique was applied to characterize the role of Mn2+ ions when entering the willemite glass-ceramic structure. By measuring the excitation and emission spectra, the main emission peak of the glass-ceramic samples located at a wavelength of 585 nm after subjecting to 260 nm excitations. The following results indicate that the obtained glass-ceramics can be applied as phosphor materials.

  16. Investigation of sulfur interactions on a conventional nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell anode during methane steam and dry reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Whitney S.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are an attractive energy source because they do not have undesirable emissions, are scalable, and are feedstock flexible, which means they can operate using a variety of fuel mixtures containing H2 and hydrocarbons. In terms of fuel flexibility, most potential fuel sources contain sulfur species, which severely poison the nickel-based anode. The main objective of this thesis is to systematically evaluate sulfur interactions on a conventional Ni/YSZ anode and compare sulfur poisoning during methane steam and dry reforming (SMR and DMR) to a conventional catalyst (Sud Chemie, Ni/K2O-CaAl2O4). Reforming experiments (SMR and DMR) were carried out in a packed bed reactor (PBR), and it was demonstrated that Ni/YSZ is much more sensitive to sulfur poisoning than Ni/K2O-CaAl2O4 as evidenced by the decline in activity to zero in under an hour for both SMR and DMR. Adsorption and desorption of H2S and SO2 on both catalysts was evaluated, and despite the low amount of accessible nickel on Ni/YSZ (14 times lower than Ni/K2O-CaAl2O4), it adsorbs 20 times more H2S and 50 times more SO2 than Ni/K 2O-CaAl2O4. A one-dimensional, steady state PBR model (DetchemPBED) was used to evaluate SMR and DMR under poisoning conditions using the Deutschmann mechanism and a recently published sulfur sub-mechanism. To fit the observed deactivation in the presence of 1 ppm H2S, the adsorption/desorption equilibrium constant was increased by a factor 16,000 for Ni/YSZ and 96 for Ni/K2O-CaAl2O4. A tubular SAE reactor was designed and fabricated for evaluating DMR in a reactor that mimics an SOFC. Evidence of hydrogen diffusion through a supposedly impermeable layer indicated that the tubular SAE reactor has a major flaw in which gases diffuse to unintended parts of the tube. It was also found to be extremely susceptible to coking which leads to cell failure even in operating regions that mimic real biogas. These problems made it impossible to validate the tubular SAE

  17. Longterm effects of problem-based learning: A comparison of competencies acquired by graduates of a problem-based and a conventional medical school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Schmidt (Henk); L. Vermeulen (Lyanda); H.T. van der Molen (Henk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Problem-based learning (PBL) as an approach to the instruction of medical students has attracted much attention in recent years. However, its effect on the performance of its graduates is the subject of considerable debate. This article presents data from a large-scale study

  18. A randomised study of home-based electrical stimulation of the legs and conventional bicycle exercise training for patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stuart; LeMaitre, John P; Mackenzie, Graham; Fox, Keith A A; Denvir, Martin A

    2003-05-01

    Recent guidelines recommend regular exercise in the management of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This study was designed to compare the safety and efficacy of conventional bicycle exercise and functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the legs as forms of home-based exercise training for patients with stable CHF. Forty-six patients (38 male) with stable NYHA Class II/III heart failure underwent a 6-week training programme using either a bicycle ergometer or electrical stimulation of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles. In the bike group, significant increases were seen in 6-min walk (44.6m, 95% confidence interval (CI) 29.3-60.9 m), treadmill exercise time (110 s, 95% CI 72.2-148.0 s), maximum leg strength (5.32 kg, 95% CI 3.18-7.45 kg), and quadriceps fatigue index (0.08, 95% CI 0.04-0.12) following training. In the stimulator group, similar significant increases were seen following training for 6-min walk (40.6m, 95% CI 28.2-53.0m), treadmill exercise time (67 s, 95% CI 11.8-121.8s), maximum leg strength (5.35 kg, 95% CI 1.53-9.17 kg), and quadriceps fatigue index (0.10, 95% CI 0.04-0.17). Peak VO(2)did not change in either group following training, indicating a low-intensity regime. Quality of life scores improved following training when the bicycle and stimulator groups were considered together, but not when considered separately (-0.43, 95% CI -8.13 to -0.56). FES produces beneficial changes in muscle performance and exercise capacity in patients with CHF. Within this study, the benefits were similar to those observed following bicycle training. FES could be offered to patients with heart failure as an alternative to bicycle training as part of a home-based rehabilitation programme.

  19. Model-based development and testing of advertising messages: A comparative study of two campaign proposals based on the MECCAS model and a conventional approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, the development of advertising messages has been based on "creative independence", sometimes catalysed by inductively generated empirical data. Due to the recent intensified focus on advertising effectiveness, this state of affairs is beginning to change. The purpose of the study....... The comparison involved the efficiency of the managerial communication taking place in the message development process as well as target group communication effects. The managerial communication was studied by interviews with the involved advertising agency (Midtmarketing, Ikast, Denmark) and client staff...... described in this article is to compare the development and effects of two campaign proposals, with the sommon aim of increasing the consumption of apples among young Danes (18 to 35 years of age). One of the proposals is the result of an inductive-creative process, while the other is base on the MECCAS...

  20. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Dionys; Andres, Christian; Verma, Rajeev; Zundel, Christine; Messmer, Monika M; Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010) of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton) management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st) crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008) for cotton (-29%) and wheat (-27%), whereas in the 2(nd) crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010) cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant) yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2). Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%), whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25%) due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11%) across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton and

  1. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionys Forster

    Full Text Available The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010 of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008 for cotton (-29% and wheat (-27%, whereas in the 2(nd crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010 cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2. Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%, whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25% due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11% across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton

  2. 基于常规物性的石脑油组成预测方法%PREDICTION OF NAPHTHA COMPOSITION BASED ON CONVENTIONAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳; 焦国凤; 周祥; 郭锦标

    2014-01-01

    建立了利用物性数据对石脑油组成进行预测的方法,根据对石脑油样本的整理,选取正构烷烃、异构烷烃、环烷烃和芳烃4个族的54个真实组分来表示石脑油的组成,利用密度、折射率、族组成数据(PIONA值)以及恩式蒸馏曲线等物性数据建立方程组,对该方程组求解得到54个组分的质量分数。选择典型直馏石脑油样品,根据以上方法建立方程组并求解,得到石脑油中各组分的质量分数,并与实测结果进行对比。结果表明,正构烷烃、异构烷烃及环烷烃含量的计算平均误差分别为6.6%,8.5%,5.9%,其中,石脑油中含量较高的C6~C11组分中正构烷烃、异构烷烃和环烷烃含量的计算平均误差分别为3.2%,5.2%,4.4%,说明所建立的模型基本可以反映直馏石脑油的烃类组成分布情况。%A method for predicting naphtha composition based on the conventional physical proper﹣ties was established. Based on the data base of RIPP,54 real components were chosen to represent the composition of naphtha,which is divided into 4 groups:n﹣paraffins,iso﹣paraffins,naphthenic and aro﹣matics. A set of simulation equations were built using conventional properties of density,refractive in﹣dex,group composition,and Engler distillation curve of 4 groups to get the mass fractions of 54 compo﹣nents and then compared with the measured results. The results show that the calculated compositions agree well with the measured results. The calculation average error for corresponding normal alkanes, iso﹣alkanes,cyclanes is 6. 6%,8. 5%,5. 9%,respectively. The error of alkanes,iso﹣alkane and cycla﹣nes contents in C6—C11 is 3. 2%,5. 2%,4. 4%,respectively. The above results demonstrate that the established model equations can reflect well the hydrocarbon distribution of straight﹣run naphtha.

  3. Bethesda System reporting rates for conventional Papanicolaou tests and liquid-based cytology in a large Chinese, College of American Pathologists-certified independent medical laboratory: analysis of 1394389 Papanicolaou test reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Baowen; Austin, R Marshall; Liang, Xiaoman; Li, Zaibo; Chen, Congde; Yan, Shanshan; Zhao, Chengquan

    2015-03-01

    Reports that use the Bethesda System categories for Chinese Papanicolaou test results are rare. To document and analyze rates reported in the Bethesda System for conventional Papanicolaou tests and liquid-based cytology between 2007 and 2012 in China's largest College of American Pathologists-accredited laboratory. Results from 1,394,389 Papanicolaou tests, rendered between 2007 and 2012 by the Guangzhou Kingmed Diagnostics Cytology Laboratory, were documented by the Bethesda System report categories and Papanicolaou test methodology, which included both conventional Papanicolaou tests and 4 different liquid-based cytology preparations. Results were documented for 326,297 conventional Papanicolaou tests and 1,068,092 liquid-based cytology specimens, which included 928,884 ThinPrep (Hologic, Bedford, Massachusetts), 63,465 SurePath (BD Diagnostics, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey), 50,422 Liqui-Prep (LGM International, Melbourne, Florida), and 25,321 Lituo liquid-cytology (Lituo Biotechnology Co, Hunan, China) specimens. Abnormality rates reported were significantly higher with liquid-based cytology than they were with conventional Papanicolaou tests in all the Bethesda System categories (P < .001). Reporting rates were within the 2006 benchmark ranges from the College of American Pathologists, except for atypical glandular cells (low) and unsatisfactory rates for conventional Papanicolaou tests (low). Participation in the international College of American Pathologists Laboratory Accreditation Program provides laboratory quality standards not otherwise available in many international settings.

  4. Model-based development and testing of advertising messages: A comparative study of two campaign proposals based on the MECCAS model and a conventional approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    1. Traditionally the development of advertising messages has been based on "creative independence", sometimes catalysed by inductively generated empirical data. Due to the recent intensified focus on advertising effectiveness, this state of affair is now beginning to change. 2. Implementing...... theoretically valid and comprehensible guidelines for message development potentially enhances the effects of advertising messages and improves the possibility of measuring such effects. Moreover, such guidelines also have potential implications for the managerial communication processes (client......-agency and intra-agency) involved in the development of advertising messages. 3. The purpose of the study described in this paper is to compare the development and effects of two campaign proposals, with the common aim of increasing the consumption of apples among young Danes (18 to 35 years of age). One...

  5. A Comparative Evaluation of Sealing Ability of New MTA Based Sealers with Conventional Resin Based Sealer: An In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Lovejeet; Jasuja, Purshottam; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Juneja, Suruchi; Mathur, Aditi; Walia, Rashmeet; Kakkar, Ashish; Singla, Metashi

    2016-07-01

    Root canal obturation is the most important step in the root canal treatment that aims to obtain a complete hermetic seal and to prevent the re-growth of microorganisms in the root canal system. To accomplish this, many endodontic obturation materials and sealers are being used. To evaluate and compare the apical microleakage of a resin based sealer; Adseal with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) based sealers; Pro root MTA and MTA Fillapex. Total 75 extracted human single rooted teeth were taken and decoronated at cemento-enamel junction. The access cavities and biomechanical preparation were performed using endodontic rotary system. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups with n=15; Group I - Gutta-percha and Adseal sealer; Group II - Gutta-percha and MTA Fillapex; Group III- Gutta-percha and Pro root MTA; Group IV- Gutta-percha without sealer (positive control group); Group V- Root canal remained empty (negative control). All the specimens were stored at 37(0)C with 100% humidity for one week. All root surfaces except the apical 2mm were covered with two layers of nail varnish and then immersed in an aqueous solution of 2% methylene blue dye for 72 hours. Roots were longitudinally split using a diamond disk. Linear apical dye penetration was measured under Stereomicroscope at 40X magnification. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using paried t-test, ANOVA for interclass comparison, with SPSS statistical software (version 20.0). The intraobserver reliability was found to be insignificant in each of the triplicate study of all the three study samples. MTA Fillapex group showed maxmium apical microleakage followed by Pro root MTA and Adseal sealer. The results concluded that Adseal sealer showed minimal dye penetration followed by Pro root MTA and MTA Fillapex. Thus, concluding that Adseal sealer is better in apical sealing than Pro root MTA and MTA Fillapex.

  6. Evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of independent dose calculation followed by machine log file analysis against conventional measurement based IMRT QA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baozhou; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Boddu, Sunita; Goddu, Murty; Yang, Deshan; Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya; Yaddanapudi, Sridhar; Wooten, Omar; Mutic, Sasa

    2012-09-06

    Experimental methods are commonly used for patient-specific IMRT delivery verification. There are a variety of IMRT QA techniques which have been proposed and clinically used with a common understanding that not one single method can detect all possible errors. The aim of this work was to compare the efficiency and effectiveness of independent dose calculation followed by machine log file analysis to conventional measurement-based methods in detecting errors in IMRT delivery. Sixteen IMRT treatment plans (5 head-and-neck, 3 rectum, 3 breast, and 5 prostate plans) created with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) were recalculated on a QA phantom. All treatment plans underwent ion chamber (IC) and 2D diode array measurements. The same set of plans was also recomputed with another commercial treatment planning system and the two sets of calculations were compared. The deviations between dosimetric measurements and independent dose calculation were evaluated. The comparisons included evaluations of DVHs and point doses calculated by the two TPS systems. Machine log files were captured during pretreatment composite point dose measurements and analyzed to verify data transfer and performance of the delivery machine. Average deviation between IC measurements and point dose calculations with the two TPSs for head-and-neck plans were 1.2 ± 1.3% and 1.4 ± 1.6%, respectively. For 2D diode array measurements, the mean gamma value with 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance-to-agreement was within 1.5% for 13 of 16 plans. The mean 3D dose differences calculated from two TPSs were within 3% for head-and-neck cases and within 2% for other plans. The machine log file analysis showed that the gantry angle, jaw position, collimator angle, and MUs were consistent as planned, and maximal MLC position error was less than 0.5 mm. The independent dose calculation followed by the machine log analysis takes an average 47 ± 6 minutes, while the experimental approach (using IC and

  7. Assessment of cecal microbiota, integron occurrence, fermentation responses, and Salmonella frequency in conventionally raised broilers fed a commercial yeast-based prebiotic compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang In; Park, Si Hong; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    Prebiotics are defined as nondigestible food ingredients that can stimulate the growth of one or more beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. The Biolex(®) MB40 is a commercial prebiotic that contains mannanoligosaccharides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of prebiotic Biolex(®) MB40 on cecal microbiota of conventionally raised chickens using PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and assessing Salmonella prevalence. Chickens were randomly selected and distributed into three groups; a negative control (NC) and two treatment groups (T1 and T2). The NC group was fed a non-medicated feed, while the treatment groups were fed either T1 or T2, 0.05% antibiotic (BMD50) or 0.2% Biolex(®) MB40 respectively. During the study, cecal contents and bird feed were plated on selective media for Salmonella, yeast and mold prevalence analysis. Ten chickens from each group were randomly selected at 1, 2, 4 and 6 wk and ceca were extracted for DNA isolation for PCR-based DGGE. Also, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed from collected cecal material by gas chromatography. Only 4.2% of the samples were Salmonella positive. Presence of class 1 integron from cecal material were analyzed by PCR and 97.5% of the cecal samples were positive for integron presence, but no class I integrons were detected in the Salmonella isolates. According to the PCR-based DGGE analysis, the T2 group exhibited a cecal microbial population pattern that was similar to the T1 group prior to wk 4 and the T2 group appeared to be almost identical with the NC group after wk 4 but T2 exhibited less Bacteroides rodentium prior to wk 4. Overall results showed that the commercial prebiotic, MB40 did not lead to a detectable reduction of Salmonella but the general frequency of Salmonella was minimal in all treatments. However, feeding an MB40 supplement did result in similar DGGE band patterns as the T1 group indicating that cecal microbiotia were potentially

  8. Retention and penetration of a conventional resin-based sealant and a photochromatic flowable composite resin placed on occlusal pits and fissures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the retention and penetration of a conventional resin-based sealant (Fluroshield and a photochromatic flowable composite resin (Tetric Flow Chroma placed on occlusal pits and fissures and submitted to thermal or chemical cycling regimens. Penetration assessment - ten premolars were sealed with each material, isolated (except for the sealed surface and immersed in 0.2% Rhodamine B. The teeth were serially sectioned in a mesiodistal direction. The images of the sections were digitized and analyzed (ImageLab. The distance between the most superficial and the deepest points on the occlusal central groove was calculated to determine the groove′s total depth. The length of the central groove filled with the sealant was divided by its total depth to obtain the percentage of sealing of the occlusal groove. Retention assessment - 30 premolars were sealed, their occlusal surfaces were photographed and the area occupied by the sealing materials was demarcated (ImageLab. The teeth were submitted to different treatments: thermocycled, stored in artificial saliva and immersed in acetic acid and saliva (10 cycles/day protocol for 30 days. New photographs were taken to assess the final area occupied by the materials. The difference between the final and initial area was calculated to obtain the material loss. The data was analyzed (two-way anova and Tukey′s test P < 0.05. Both materials presented similar penetration of the occlusal central groove. After thermal and chemical cycling, the materials did not differ with respect to retention, except for immersion in acetic acid. In this case, Tetric Flow Chroma presented greater retention than Fluoroshield.

  9. Magnetization transfer imaging identifies basal ganglia abnormalities in adult ADHD that are invisible to conventional T1 weighted voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Sethi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In childhood, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is reliably associated with reduced volume of the striatum. In contrast, striatal abnormalities are infrequently detected in voxel-based morphometry (VBM neuroimaging studies of adults with ADHD. This discrepancy has been suggested to reflect normalisation of striatal morphology with age and prolonged treatment of symptoms. If so, this would indicate that while striatal abnormalities are linked to symptom expression in childhood, they cannot explain the persistence of these symptoms in adulthood. However, this may not be case. Instead, we hypothesized that the lack of evidence for striatal abnormalities in adult ADHD may reflect poor sensitivity of typical (T1-weighted neuroimaging to detect subcortical differences. To address this, we acquired both magnetisation transfer (MT saturation maps optimised for subcortical contrast, and conventional T1-weighted images in 30 adults with ADHD and 30 age, IQ, gender and handedness-matched controls. Using VBM of both datasets, we demonstrate volumetric reductions within the left ventral striatum on MT that are not observed on identically pre-processed T1-weighted images from the same participants. Nevertheless, both techniques reported similar sensitivity to cortical abnormalities in the right inferior parietal lobe. Additionally, we show that differences in striatal iron may potentially explain this reduced sensitivity of T1-weighted images in adults. Together, these findings indicate that prior VBM studies reporting no abnormalities in striatal volume in adult ADHD might have been compromised by the methodological insensitivity of T1-weighted VBM to subcortical differences, and that structural abnormalities of the striatum in ADHD do indeed persist into adulthood.

  10. MR whole spin projection: Computer-based simulation of conventional scoliosis projection; MR-Ganzwirbelsaeulenaufnahme: Computergestuetzte Simulation der konventionell-roentgenologischen Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.; Jaeger, U.; Ostertun, B.; Kandyba, J.; Schild, H.H. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany); Wagner, U. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Orthopaedie (Germany); Gieseke, J. [Philips Medizin Systeme (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Purpose: Development of an MR-based imaging technique for the spine allowing reduction of frequency of conventional Nadiographs in the monitoring of juvenile scoliosis. Patients and Methods: 25 patients between the ages of 6 to 36 years were examined in supine position. Two examinations of the cervical and upper thoracic spine and of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine were performed with a 1.5 T Gyroscan ACS-NT Powertrak 6000 system with body coil employing 3D EPI-sequence (T{sub R} 17 ms, T{sub e} 9 ms, flip angle 20 , field of view 450 mm) or 3D FFE-sequences (T{sub R} 9 ms, T{sub E} 4.5 ms, flip angle 20 , field of view 450 mm) and pulse-oxymetry gating. 64 coronal slices were acquired with reconstructed slice thickness of 2 mm. Image processing was performed with an algorithm merging acquisition results into two single images in the coronal and sagittal orientations allowing measurement of the Cobb angle. Results: Mean examination time was 14 minutes per patient. Mean data processing time was seven minutes. Interobserver variance of determination of the Cobb angle was 1.8 degrees. Conclusions: It is to be hoped that MR whole spine projection will allow a reduction of the frequency of conventional projection in the monitoring of juvenile scoliosis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Entwicklung eines MRT-basierten Verfahrens zur Darstellung der gesamten Wirbelsaeule, welches geeignet ist, die Haeufigkeit konventioneller Roentgenuntersuchungen bei der Verlaufsbeobachtung der juvenilen Skoliose zu reduzieren. Patienten und Methode: Untersucht wurden 25 Patienten im Alter zwischen 6 und 36 Jahren. Pro Patient erfolgte in Rueckenlage mittels Koerperspule jeweils eine MR-Messung der HWS und oberen BWS sowie eine der unteren BWS und LWS an einem 1,5 T Gyroscan ACS-NT-Powertrak 6000 System. Zum Einsatz kamen entweder 3D EPI-Sequenzen (T{sub R} 17 ms, T{sub E} 9 ms, Flipwinkel 20 , Gesichtsfeld 450 mm) oder 3D FFE-Sequenzen (T{sub R} 9 ms, T{sub E} 4,5 ms, Flipwinkel 20

  11. Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.

    1985-06-01

    Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning (CSF scanning) today is mainly carried out in addition to computerized tomography to obtain information about liquor flow kinetics. Especially in patients with communicating obstructive hydrocephalus, CSF scanning is clinically useful for the decision for shunt surgery. In patients with intracranial cysts, CSF scanning can provide information about liquor circulation. Further indications for CSF scanning include the assessment of shunt patency especially in children, as well as the detection and localization of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

  12. Preventing and Addressing Homophobic and Transphobic Bullying in Education: A Human Rights-Based Approach Using the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Homophobic and transphobic bullying in schools can have a serious effect on children and young people subjected to it at a crucial moment in their lives. It is an obstacle to the right to education, which is one of the basic universal human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and various United Nations Conventions. This…

  13. Preventing and Addressing Homophobic and Transphobic Bullying in Education: A Human Rights-Based Approach Using the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Homophobic and transphobic bullying in schools can have a serious effect on children and young people subjected to it at a crucial moment in their lives. It is an obstacle to the right to education, which is one of the basic universal human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and various United Nations Conventions. This…

  14. Development of conventional and real-time multiplex PCR-based assays for estimation of natural infection rates and Trypanosoma cruzi load in triatomine vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Otacilio C; Verly, Thaiane; Finamore-Araujo, Paula; Gomes, Suzete A O; Lopes, Catarina M; de Sousa, Danielle M; Azevedo, Lívia R; da Mota, Fabio F; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia M; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R; Britto, Constança

    2017-08-29

    Chagas disease is a complex anthropozoonosis with distinct domestic and sylvatic mammal species acting as potential reservoirs. The diversity of vector species and their habitats are among the factors that hinder the control of the disease. Control programs periodically monitor the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in insect bugs through microscopical observation of diluted feces. However, microscopy presents limited sensitivity in samples with low parasite numbers, difficulties in examining all evolutionary stages of the insect and may in turn be limited to differentiate T. cruzi from other morphologically similar trypanosomatids. Here, we report two highly sensitive and accurate methodologies to infer T. cruzi infection rates and to quantify parasite load in the gut of field-collected triatomines. Triatomines were manually collected in the period 2011-2012 and 2014-2015, in domestic, peridomestic or sylvatic habitats in rural areas of 26 municipalities, encompassing three distinct Brazilian biomes: Caatinga, Cerrado and Atlantic Rainforest. Following morphological and taxonomical identification, the search for flagellated protozoa was performed by optical microscopy. A conventional PCR targeting T. cruzi kDNA and a TaqMan qPCR directed to the parasite nuclear satellite DNA (SAT) were developed, both in multiplex, with the triatomine 12S subunit ribosomal RNA gene, used as internal amplification control. Both methods were used for detection (kDNA-PCR) and parasite load quantification (SAT-DNA-qPCR), to investigate T. cruzi infection in captured triatomines. The combined methods were assayed on a panel of 205 field-collected triatomine samples. Diagnostic analysis revealed 21% positivity for the kDNA-PCR, whereas microscopic examination enabled identification of T. cruzi in only 7.0% of the PCR-positive samples. Negative PCR results were confirmed by the absence of T. cruzi flagellates using microscopy. Caatinga biome yielded the highest T. cruzi infection rate (60

  15. Serological diagnosis of autoimmune bullous skin diseases: Prospective comparison of the BIOCHIP mosaic-based indirect immunofluorescence technique with the conventional multi-step single test strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beek Nina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various antigen-specific immunoassays are available for the serological diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases. However, a spectrum of different tissue-based and monovalent antigen-specific assays is required to establish the diagnosis. BIOCHIP mosaics consisting of different antigen substrates allow polyvalent immunofluorescence (IF tests and provide antibody profiles in a single incubation. Methods Slides for indirect IF were prepared, containing BIOCHIPS with the following test substrates in each reaction field: monkey esophagus, primate salt-split skin, antigen dots of tetrameric BP180-NC16A as well as desmoglein 1-, desmoglein 3-, and BP230gC-expressing human HEK293 cells. This BIOCHIP mosaic was probed using a large panel of sera from patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, n = 65, pemphigus foliaceus (PF, n = 50, bullous pemphigoid (BP, n = 42, and non-inflammatory skin diseases (n = 97 as well as from healthy blood donors (n = 100. Furthermore, to evaluate the usability in routine diagnostics, 454 consecutive sera from patients with suspected immunobullous disorders were prospectively analyzed in parallel using a the IF BIOCHIP mosaic and b a panel of single antibody assays as commonly used by specialized centers. Results Using the BIOCHIP mosaic, sensitivities of the desmoglein 1-, desmoglein 3-, and NC16A-specific substrates were 90%, 98.5% and 100%, respectively. BP230 was recognized by 54% of the BP sera. Specificities ranged from 98.2% to 100% for all substrates. In the prospective study, a high agreement was found between the results obtained by the BIOCHIP mosaic and the single test panel for the diagnosis of BP, PV, PF, and sera without serum autoantibodies (Cohen’s κ between 0.88 and 0.97. Conclusions The BIOCHIP mosaic contains sensitive and specific substrates for the indirect IF diagnosis of BP, PF, and PV. Its diagnostic accuracy is comparable with the conventional multi

  16. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinogga, Anna; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide variety

  17. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  18. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    , measuring 1,600 compounds. Cabbage was sampled in 2 years from one conventional and two organic farming systems in a rigidly controlled long-term field trial in Denmark. Using Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures–Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), we found that the production system leaves a significant...... (p = 0.013) imprint in the white cabbage metabolome that is retained between production years. We externally validated this finding by predicting the production system of samples from one year using a classification model built on samples from the other year, with a correct classification in 83...... % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  19. Effects of diets based on foods from conventional versus organic production on intake and excretion of flavonoids and markers of antioxidative defense in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinder-Pedersen, Lisbeth; Rasmussen, Salka E.; Bügel, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    Different food production methods may result in differences in the content of secondary metabolites such as polyphenolic compounds. The present study compared conventionally (CPD) and organically produced (OPD) diets in a human crossover intervention study (n = 16) with respect to the intake...... both interventions. Most markers of antioxidative defense did not differ between the diets, but intake of OPD resulted in an increased protein oxidation and a decreased total plasma antioxidant capacity compared to baseline (P

  20. Vibrant SoundBridge application to middle ear windows versus conventional hearing aids: a comparative study based on international outcome inventory for hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Ahmet; Tutar, Hakan; Gunduz, Bulent; Bayazıt, Yıldırım A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the outcomes of satisfaction of the patients who used hearing aids preceding the vibrant sound bridge (VSB) application on middle ear windows (14 oval window and 5 round window). Nineteen adult patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss were included in the study. All patients used behind the ear hearing aids on the site which was selected for VSB application. The patients used hearing aids for at least 3 months before the VSB operation. The floating mass transducer (FMT) was placed on one of the middle ear windows (oval or round) in VSB operation. The patients were evaluated with International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) preoperatively after at least 3 months trial of conventional hearing aid and postoperatively after 3 months use of VSB. No perioperative problem was encountered. The total score of IOI-HA was significantly higher with VSB compared with conventional hearing aids (p 0.05). The IOI-HA scores were significantly higher with the middle ear implant than the conventional hearing aid regarding benefit and residual participation restrictions (p VSB and hearing aid use, there was a superiority of VSB in terms of benefit and residual participation restrictions as well as overall IOI-HA scores as the FMT was placed on one of the middle ear windows.

  1. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than

  2. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Pasi I; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo; Happo, Mikko S; Markkanen, Ari; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hakulinen, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Salonen, Raimo O; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-09-29

    One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used - rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than those with EN590

  3. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalava Pasi I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM. We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590 and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214 and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC. A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were

  4. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted.

  5. What constitutes a convention? : implications for the coexistence of conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2002-01-01

    A model of repeated play of a coordination game, where stage games have a location in social space, and players receive noisy signals of the true location of their games, is reviewed. Sugden (1995) suggests that in such a model, there can be a stationary state of convention coexistence only if interaction is non-uniform across social space. This paper shows that an alternative definition of conventions, which links conventions to actions rather than expectations, permits convention coexistenc...

  6. Conventional and microwave-assisted multicomponent reaction of alkyne, halide and sodium azide catalyzed by copper apatite as heterogeneous base and catalyst in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Kale

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional and microwave assisted multicomponent synthesis of disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles from terminal alkynes and in situ generated organic azide using copper apatite catalyst in water is reported. The catalytic activity is intimately connected to the basicity of the catalyst. The best activities were observed with the copper hydroxyapatite. The catalyst could be used ten times without further treatment and activation under controlled microwave heating. The protocol was also applicable for various alkynes and halides which affords desired product in good to excellent yield.

  7. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: Best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 2: Core stability versus conventional exercise for treating non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, John; Callaghan, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A short cut review was carried out to establish whether core stability exercises are better than conventional exercise for treating non-specific low back pain. 6 papers were found of which 4 presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. The clinical bottom line is the perception that a core stability rehabilitation programme will improve low back pain has not been proven.

  8. Conventional Chiralpak ID vs. capillary Chiralpak ID-3 amylose tris-(3-chlorophenylcarbamate)-based chiral stationary phase columns for the enantioselective HPLC separation of pharmaceutical racemates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marwa; Gwairgi, Marina; Ghanem, Ashraf

    2014-11-01

    A comparative enantioselective analysis using immobilized amylose tris-(3-chlorophenylcarbamate) as chiral stationary phase in conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with Chiralpak ID (4.6 mm ID × 250 mm, 5 µm silica gel) and micro-HPLC with Chiralpak ID-3 (0.30 mm ID × 150 mm, 3 µm silica gel) was conducted. Pharmaceutical racemates of 12 pharmacological classes, namely, α- and β-blockers, anti-inflammatory drugs, antifungal drugs, dopamine antagonists, norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, catecholamines, sedative hypnotics, diuretics, antihistaminics, anticancer drugs, and antiarrhythmic drugs were screened under normal phase conditions. The effect of an organic modifier on the analyte retentions and enantiomer recognition was investigated. Baseline separation was achieved for 1-acenaphthenol, carprofen, celiprolol, cizolirtine carbinol, miconazole, tebuconazole, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid, 1-indanol, 1-(2-chlorophenyl)ethanol, 1-phenyl-2-propanol, flavanone, 6-hydroxyflavanone, 4-bromogluthethimide, and pentobarbital on the 4.6 mm ID packed with a 5 µm silica column using conventional HPLC. Nonetheless, baseline separation was achieved for aminoglutethimide, naftopidil, and thalidomide on the 0.3 mm ID packed with a 3 µm silica capillary column.

  9. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU. Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas.

  10. Simulation and economic analysis of a liquid-based solar system with a direct-contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger, in comparison to a system with a conventional heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, P.; Karaki, S.

    Using a solar computer simulation package called TRNSYS, simulations of the direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) solar system and a system with conventional shell-and-tube heat exchanger were developed, based in part on performance measurements of the actual systems. The two systems were simulated over a full year on an hour-by-hour basis at five locations; Boston, Massachusetts, Charleston, South Carolina, Dodge City, Kansas, Madison, Wisconsin, and Phoenix, Arizona. Typically the direct-contact system supplies slightly more heat for domestic hot water and space heating in all locations and about 5 percentage points more cooling as compared to the conventional system. Using a common set of economic parameters and the appropriate federal and state income tax credits, as well as property tax legislation for solar systems in the corresponding states, the results of the study indicate for heating-only systems, the DCLLHE system has a slight life-cycle cost disadvantage compared to the conventional system. For combined solar heating and cooling systems, the DCLLHE has a slight life-cycle cost advantage which varies with location and amounts to one to three percent difference from the conventional system.

  11. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  12. Geneva convention and Critical Loads: an example of Science-based Environmental Policy; Conveio de Ginebra y cargas criticas:un ejemplo de politica ambiental basada en ciencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago Juan-Aracil, I.; Alonso del Amo, R.

    2011-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the leading environmental problems of out times that could eventually change the living conditions of human beings and the ecosystems on the whole planet. Therefore, international forums have been created to discuss environmental policies aimed at the control of pollutant emissions and the protection of ecosystems and human health. the fundamental purpose is to take common actions that go beyond political borders, since in many cases the emissions of pollutants affect ecosystems far from the emission source. These were the objectives leading to the creation of the Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, of the Economic commission for Europe-United Nations (UNECE). (Author) 12 refs.

  13. A randomised trial of telemedicine-based treatment versus conventional hospitalisation in patients with severe COPD and exacerbation - effect on self-reported outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Lone; Ostergaard, Birte; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated self-reported outcome in patients with COPD and exacerbation. Consecutive patients were randomised to an intervention group with home telemedicine and a control group who had conventional hospital admission. We assessed Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) using the St George......'s Respiratory Questionnaire, daily activity using Instrumental Activity of Daily Living, anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and self-assessed cognitive decline using Subjective Cognitive Functioning. Data were collected at 3 days, 6 weeks and 3 months after discharge...... in the intervention group from 94% to 96%. Regarding HRQoL, there was a non-significant (P = 0.05) improvement in the symptom score in favour of the control group, but the improvement was not maintained after three months. However, there were no significant differences in self-reported outcomes in COPD patients...

  14. Intensive or conventional insulin therapy in type 2 diabetic patients? A population-based study on metabolic control and quality of life (The JEVIN-trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, R; Müller, U A

    1999-01-01

    Long-term micro- and macrovascular complications cause major morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Up to the present it is not clear whether intensified or conventional insulin treatment is more effective to keep blood glucose concentrations close to the normal range. In the present trial 90% (n = 117) of all insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients aged 16 to 60 years and living in the city of Jena (100,247 inhabitants), Thuringia, Germany were examined. Fourty patients (34%) were on intensive insulin therapy (ICT, > or = 2 injections of normal- and > or = 1 injection of NPH-/mixed-insulin/day, > or = 1 insulin-dose adjustments/week, > or = 2 blood-glucose self-tests/day) and 77 patients (66%) were on conventional insulin therapy (CIT). Patients with ICT had more injections/d (4.3 +/- 0.7 vs CIT 2.4 +/- 0.7, p ICT had higher insulin doses (0.71 +/- 0.32 vs 0.47 +/- 0.2 IU/kg body wt/d, p education or socio-economic factors. Also, in respect of quality of life and treatment satisfaction, assessed with standardized questionnaires according to Bradley et al. and Lewis et al., there were no differences between the two groups. In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients, ICT seems to be indicated in a second step in "problem-patients" with bad metabolic control under CIT and/or individual's need for more flexibility. Perhaps, in these patients ICT leads to an improvement in the quality of metabolic control.

  15. Does crystallographic anisotropy prevent the conventional treatment of aqueous mineral reactivity? A case study based on K-feldspar dissolution kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet-Villard, Marion; Daval, Damien; Ackerer, Philippe; Saldi, Giuseppe D.; Wild, Bastien; Knauss, Kevin G.; Fritz, Bertrand

    2016-10-01

    Which conceptual framework should be preferred to develop mineral dissolution rate laws, and how the aqueous mineral reactivity should be measured? For over 30 years, the classical strategy to model solid dissolution over large space and time scales has relied on so-called kinetic rate laws derived from powder dissolution experiments. In the present study, we provide detailed investigations of the dissolution kinetics of K-feldspar as a function of surface orientation and chemical affinity which question the commonplace belief that elementary mechanisms and resulting rate laws can be retrieved from conventional powder dissolution experiments. Nanometer-scale surface measurements evidenced that K-feldspar dissolution is an anisotropic process, where the face-specific dissolution rate satisfactorily agrees with the periodic bond chain (PBC) theory. The chemical affinity of the reaction was shown to impact differently the various faces of a single crystal, controlling the spontaneous nucleation of etch pits which, in turn, drive the dissolution process. These results were used to develop a simple numerical model which revealed that single crystal dissolution rates vary with reaction progress. Overall, these results cast doubt on the conventional protocol which is used to measure mineral dissolution rates and develop kinetic rate laws, because mineral reactivity is intimately related to the morphology of dissolving crystals, which remains totally uncontrolled in powder dissolution experiments. Beyond offering an interpretive framework to understand the large discrepancies consistently reported between sources and across space scales, the recognition of the anisotropy of crystal reactivity challenges the classical approach for modeling dissolution and weathering, and may be drawn upon to develop alternative treatments of aqueous mineral reactivity.

  16. Conventional transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B; O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings, Thomas H

    2014-02-01

    Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project.

  17. Medical students’ achievement on the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery/Chirurgery Final Part I and II licensing examination: a comparison of students in problem-based learning, community-based education and service, and conventional curricula in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mogre

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: The PBL students significantly performed better in all the disciplines except child health and pediatrics, where the conventional students scored higher. These findings demonstrate that the benefits of the PBL/COBES curriculum are tangible and should be fostered.

  18. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Evaluation of knowledge base certification methods. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the Knowledge Base Certification activity of the expert systems verification and validation (V&V) guideline development project which is jointly funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ultimate objective is the formulation of guidelines for the V&V of expert systems for use in nuclear power applications. This activity is concerned with the development and testing of various methods for assuring the quality of knowledge bases. The testing procedure used was that of behavioral experiment, the first known such evaluation of any type of V&V activity. The value of such experimentation is its capability to provide empirical evidence for -- or against -- the effectiveness of plausible methods in helping people find problems in knowledge bases. The three-day experiment included 20 participants from three nuclear utilities, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Technical training Center, the University of Maryland, EG&G Idaho, and SAIC. The study used two real nuclear expert systems: a boiling water reactor emergency operating procedures tracking system and a pressurized water reactor safety assessment systems. Ten participants were assigned to each of the expert systems. All participants were trained in and then used a sequence of four different V&V methods selected as being the best and most appropriate for study on the basis of prior evaluation activities. These methods either involved the analysis and tracing of requirements to elements in the knowledge base (requirements grouping and requirements tracing) or else involved direct inspection of the knowledge base for various kinds of errors. Half of the subjects within each system group used the best manual variant of the V&V methods (the control group), while the other half were supported by the results of applying real or simulated automated tools to the knowledge bases (the experimental group).

  19. On the stability of conventional and nano-structured carbon-based catalysts in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene under industrially relevant conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarubina, Valeriya; Talebi, Hesamoddin; Nederlof, Christian; Kapteijn, Freek; Makkee, Michiel; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Relevant carbon-based materials, home-made carbon-silica hybrids, commercial activated carbon, and nanostructured multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were tested in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EB). Special attention was given to the reaction conditions, using a relatively concen

  20. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for severa...

  1. Accuracy of Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Insertion Technique with Conventional Dual Fluoroscopy Units and a Retrospective Comparative Study Based on Surgeon Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Masayuki; Yasuhara, Takao; Inoue, Takafumi; Takahashi, Yuichi; Kumamoto, Shinji; Hijikata, Yasukazu; Kusumegi, Akira; Sakamoto, Yushi; Ogawa, Koichi; Nishida, Kenki

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Retrospective comparative study. Objective To evaluate the accuracy of percutaneous pedicle screw (PPS) placement and intraoperative imaging time using dual fluoroscopy units and their differences between surgeons with more versus less experience. Methods One hundred sixty-one patients who underwent lumbar fusion surgery were divided into two groups, A (n = 74) and B (n = 87), based on the performing surgeon's experience. The accuracy of PPS placement and radiation time for PPS insertion were compared. PPSs were inserted with classic technique under the assistance of dual fluoroscopy units placed in two planes. The breach definition of PPS misplacement was based on postoperative computed tomography (grade I: no breach; grade II: experience.

  2. Can conventional bases and unsaturated hydrocarbons be converted into gas-phase superacids that are stronger than most of the known oxyacids? The role of beryllium bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2013-08-26

    The association of BeX2 (X: H, F, Cl) derivatives with azoles leads to a dramatic increase of their intrinsic acidity. Hence, whereas 1H-tetrazole can be considered as a typical N base in the gas phase, the complex 1H-tetrazole-BeCl2 is predicted to be, through the use of high-level G4 ab initio calculations, a nitrogen acid stronger than perchloric acid. This acidity enhancement is due to a more favorable stabilization of the deprotonated species after the beryllium bond is formed, because the deprotonated anion is a much better electron donor than the neutral species. Consequently, this is a general phenomenon that should be observed for any Lewis base, including those in which the basic site is a hydroxy group, an amino group, a carbonyl group, an aromatic N atom, a second-row atom, or the π system of unsaturated hydrocarbons. The consequence is that typical bases like aniline or formamide lead to BeX2 complexes that are stronger acids than phosphoric or chloric acids. Similarly, water, methanol, and SH2 become stronger acids than sulfuric acid, pyridine becomes a C acid almost as strong as acetic acid, and unsaturated hydrocarbons such as ethylene and acetylene become acids as strong as nitric and sulfuric acids, respectively.

  3. EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENT IN CONVENTIONAL AND NON CONVENTIONAL SPECIES OF CURCUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena Jyoti; Sahu Rajeshwari

    2012-01-01

    Plants and plant based medicaments are the basis of many of the modern pharmaceutical we use today for our various aliment. Plant show medicinal properties as it contain phytochemical constituent. Phytochemical constituent are non nutritive plant chemical that have disease preventive properties .This paper reports an investigation of phytochemical constituent present in the Methanolic crude rhizome extract of conventional and non conventional Curcuma species i.e Curcuma caecia , Curcuma amad...

  4. The use of microbead-based spoligotyping for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to evaluate the quality of the conventional method: Providing guidelines for Quality Assurance when working on membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzelli Carlo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classical spoligotyping technique, relying on membrane reverse line-blot hybridization of the spacers of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis CRISPR locus, is used world-wide (598 references in Pubmed on April 8th, 2011. However, until now no inter-laboratory quality control study had been undertaken to validate this technique. We analyzed the quality of membrane-based spoligotyping by comparing it to the recently introduced and highly robust microbead-based spoligotyping. Nine hundred and twenty-seven isolates were analyzed totaling 39,861 data points. Samples were received from 11 international laboratories with a worldwide distribution. Methods The high-throughput microbead-based Spoligotyping was performed on CTAB and thermolyzate DNA extracted from isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC strains coming from the genotyping participating centers. Information regarding how the classical Spoligotyping method was performed by center was available. Genotype discriminatory analyses were carried out by comparing the spoligotypes obtained by both methods. The non parametric U-Mann Whitney homogeneity test and the Spearman rank correlation test were performed to validate the observed results. Results Seven out of the 11 laboratories (63 %, perfectly typed more than 90% of isolates, 3 scored between 80-90% and a single center was under 80% reaching 51% concordance only. However, this was mainly due to discordance in a single spacer, likely having a non-functional probe on the membrane used. The centers using thermolyzate DNA performed as well as centers using the more extended CTAB extraction procedure. Few centers shared the same problematic spacers and these problematic spacers were scattered over the whole CRISPR locus (Mostly spacers 15, 14, 18, 37, 39, 40. Conclusions We confirm that classical spoligotyping is a robust method with generally a high reliability in most centers. The applied DNA extraction procedure (CTAB

  5. Conventional therapy for Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carsten Büning; Herbert Lochs

    2006-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial disorder of unknown cause. Outstanding progress regarding the pathophysiology of CD has led to the development of innovative therapeutic concepts. Numerous controlled trials have been performed in CD over the last years. However, many drugs have not been approved by regulatory authorities due to lack of efficacy or severe side effects. Therefore, well-known drugs, including 5-ASA, systemic or topical corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants such as azathioprine, are still the mainstay of CD therapy. Importantly, biologicals such as infliximab have shown to be efficacious in problematic settings such as fistulizing or steroid-dependent CD. This review is intended to give practical guidelines to clinicians for the conventional treatment of CD. We concentrated on the results of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and meta-analyses, when available, that provide the highest degree of evidence. We provide evidence-based treatment algorithms whenever possible. However, many clinical situations have not been answered by controlled clinical trials and it is important to fill these gaps through expert opinions. We hope that this review offers a useful tool for clinicians in the challenging treatment of CD.

  6. CONVENTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PREOCCUPATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A great number of the conventions referring to nature, even if they do not refer ton particular species, were limited from the point of view of geography and territories: we may give as example here a convention for the protection of flora, fauna and panoramic beauties of America, the African convention for nature and natural resources… By the Stockholm conferences, from the 5th of June 1972, we entered in a “dynamic of globalization”. Article 1 of the Declaration that followed the conference...

  7. Conventional Armaments for coming decades .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Salwan

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional arnaments have continued to play a decisive role even in the present scenario of nuclear weapons and electronic warfare. As a war-fighting technology, they are low cost, reliable, highly effective and proven in several battlefield situations. With the application of advancements in electronics, materials and manufacturing technologies, computers and propulsion technologies to conventional weapon systems, they are capable of having greater flexibility, lethality , accuracy and effectiveness. This communication gives an overview on advancements in conventional armament systems, emerging trends in weapon technologies and modern enabling technologies for advanced weapon systems.

  8. Study of Bus Signal Priority Control Algorithm Based on Conventional Public Transport System%常规公交系统公交信号优先控制算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟小岳; 何祖军

    2011-01-01

    The urban traffic problems has increasingly received more and more attention by people, developing transportation is one of effective methods to solve traffic jam. According to the problem of bus priority, bus signals priority control system is established which based on conventional public traffic system, put forward control algorithm of bus signals priority which based on conventional traffic respectively in single-phase and multi-phase, provide theoretical basis for public traffic signal control system of urban traffic.%城市交通问题已日益受到人们的关注,大力发展公共交通是解决交通拥堵的有效方法之一.针对公交优先问题,建立了常规公交系统下的公交信号优先控制系统.提出了常规交通分别在单相以及多相下的公交信号优先控制算法,为城市交通公共交通信号控制系统的设计提供了理论依据.

  9. 一种基于改进型PCNN的织物疵点图像自适应分割方法%An Approach for Fabric Defect Image Segmentation Based on the Improved Conventional PCNN Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝双武; 郝重阳

    2012-01-01

    An approach is proposed for fabric defect detection based on the improved conventional pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) model. For these too many parameters of conventional PCNN.it is difficult to get die adaptive parameters. The problem can be solved in the proposed way, in which optimal number of iteration to segment fabric defect image automatically is determined based on minimum difference of uniformity within region. Segmentations on various defect images are implemented with the proposed approach and die experimental results demonstrate its reliability and validity.%针对传统脉冲耦合神经网络(Pulse Coupled Neural Network,PCNN)模型中网络参数多、不易自动选取的问题,本文在对PCNN模型进行改进的基础上,提出了一种基于改进型PCNN织物疵点图像自适应分割方法.采用了一种基于分割区域内均匀度差异最小作为最佳迭代次数判断标准,从而有效地满足了PCNN对织物疵点图像的自动分割要求.通过对不同疵点图像分割实验证明了算法对疵点分割的准确性和有效性.

  10. From ultraviolet to green InGaN-based conventional and resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naranjo, F.B.; Fernandez, S.; Calle, F.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Calleja, E. [ISOM, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Polittecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-08-16

    InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy were used as the active layer of standard and resonant-cavity light emitting diodes. Varying the In content in the wells from 1% to 35% and the well thickness from 1 to 2.5 nm, the room temperature electroluminescence can be tuned from 370 nm (ultraviolet) to 510 nm (green). The main factor that determines the emission energy in the well is the exciton localization for narrow wells, whereas for well thicknesses larger than 3 nm the piezoelectric field is the key factor, even for high In contents. Green resonant-cavity light emitting diodes have been successfully fabricated with a semitransparent AlGaN/GaN-based distributed bragg reflector as bottom mirror and an Al coating as top mirror. The external efficiency of those devices is increased by a factor of 10 compared to standard light emitting diodes. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Evaluation of an Array-Based Method for Human Papillomavirus Detection and Genotyping in Comparison with Conventional Methods Used in Cervical Cancer Screening▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sierra, Nerea; Martró, Elisa; Castellà, Eva; Llatjós, Mariona; Tarrats, Antoni; Bascuñana, Elisabet; Díaz, Rosana; Carrasco, María; Sirera, Guillem; Matas, Lurdes; Ausina, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second-most prevalent cancer in young women around the world. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), especially high-risk HPV types (HR-HPV), is necessary for the development of this cancer. HPV-DNA detection is increasingly being used in cervical cancer screening programs, together with the Papanicolau smear test. We evaluated the usefulness of introducing this new array-based HPV genotyping method (i.e., Clinical Arrays Papillomavirus Humano) in the cervical cancer screening algorithm in our center. The results obtained using this method were compared to those obtained by the hybrid capture II high-risk HPV DNA test (HC-II) and Papanicolau in a selected group of 408 women. The array-based assay was performed in women that were HC-II positive or presented cytological alterations. Among 246 array-positive patients, 123 (50%) presented infection with ≥2 types, and HR-HPV types were detected in 206 (83.7%), mainly HPV-16 (24.0%). Up to 132 (33.2%) specimens were classified as ASCUS (for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), and only 48 (36.4%) of them were HPV-DNA positive by either assay; however, 78.7% of these cases were caused by HR-HPV types. The agreement between both HPV-DNA detection techniques was fairly good (n = 367). Screening with Papanicolau smear and HC-II tests, followed by HPV detection and genotyping, provided an optimal identification of women at risk for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, with the identification of specific genotypes, either in single or multiple infections, a better prediction of disease progression was achieved. The array method also made allowed us to determine the possible contribution of the available vaccines in our setting. PMID:19439534

  12. Evaluation of an array-based method for human papillomavirus detection and genotyping in comparison with conventional methods used in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sierra, Nerea; Martró, Elisa; Castellà, Eva; Llatjós, Mariona; Tarrats, Antoni; Bascuñana, Elisabet; Díaz, Rosana; Carrasco, María; Sirera, Guillem; Matas, Lurdes; Ausina, Vicente

    2009-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the second-most prevalent cancer in young women around the world. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), especially high-risk HPV types (HR-HPV), is necessary for the development of this cancer. HPV-DNA detection is increasingly being used in cervical cancer screening programs, together with the Papanicolau smear test. We evaluated the usefulness of introducing this new array-based HPV genotyping method (i.e., Clinical Arrays Papillomavirus Humano) in the cervical cancer screening algorithm in our center. The results obtained using this method were compared to those obtained by the hybrid capture II high-risk HPV DNA test (HC-II) and Papanicolau in a selected group of 408 women. The array-based assay was performed in women that were HC-II positive or presented cytological alterations. Among 246 array-positive patients, 123 (50%) presented infection with >or=2 types, and HR-HPV types were detected in 206 (83.7%), mainly HPV-16 (24.0%). Up to 132 (33.2%) specimens were classified as ASCUS (for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), and only 48 (36.4%) of them were HPV-DNA positive by either assay; however, 78.7% of these cases were caused by HR-HPV types. The agreement between both HPV-DNA detection techniques was fairly good (n = 367). Screening with Papanicolau smear and HC-II tests, followed by HPV detection and genotyping, provided an optimal identification of women at risk for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, with the identification of specific genotypes, either in single or multiple infections, a better prediction of disease progression was achieved. The array method also made allowed us to determine the possible contribution of the available vaccines in our setting.

  13. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization is more informative than conventional karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization in the analysis of first-trimester spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jinsong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH is a new technique for detecting submicroscopic deletions and duplications, and can overcome many of the limitations associated with classic cytogenetic analysis. However, its clinical use in spontaneous abortion needs comprehensive evaluation. We used aCGH to investigate chromosomal imbalances in 100 spontaneous abortions and compared the results with G-banding karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Inconsistent results were verified by quantitative fluorescence PCR. Results Abnormalities were detected in 61 cases. aCGH achieved the highest detection rate (93.4%, 57/61 compared with traditional karyotyping (77%, 47/61 and FISH analysis (68.9%, 42/61. aCGH identified all chromosome abnormalities reported by traditional karyotyping and interphase FISH analysis, with the exception of four triploids. It also detected three additional aneuploidy cases in 37 specimens with ‘normal’ karyotypes, one mosaicism and 10 abnormalities in 14 specimens that failed to grow in vitro. Conclusions aCGH analysis circumvents many limitations in traditional karyotyping or FISH. The accuracy and efficiency of aCGH in spontaneous abortions highlights its clinical usefulness for the future. As aborted tissues have the potential to be contaminated with maternal cells, the threshold value of detection in aCGH should be lowered to avoid false negatives.

  14. MRI-CEST assessment of tumour perfusion using X-ray iodinated agents: comparison with a conventional Gd-based agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anemone, Annasofia; Consolino, Lorena [Universita degli Studi di Torino, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Molecolari e Scienze per la Salute, Torino (Italy); Longo, Dario Livio [Universita degli Studi di Torino, Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini (CNR) c/o Centro di Biotecnologie Molecolari, Torino (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    X-ray iodinated contrast media have been shown to generate contrast in MR images when used with the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) approach. The aim of this study is to compare contrast enhancement (CE) capabilities and perfusion estimates between radiographic molecules and a Gd-based contrast agent in two tumour murine models with different vascularization patterns. MRI-CEST and MRI-CE T{sub 1w} images were acquired in murine TS/A and 4 T1 breast tumours upon sequential i.v. injection of iodinated contrast media (iodixanol, iohexol, and iopamidol) and of gadoteridol. The signal enhancements observed in the two acquisition modalities were evaluated using Pearson's correlation, and the correspondence in the spatial distribution was assessed by a voxelwise comparison. A significant, positive correlation was observed between iodinated contrast media and gadoteridol for tumour contrast enhancement and perfusion values for both tumour models (r = 0.51-0.62). High spatial correlations were observed in perfusion maps between iodinated molecules and gadoteridol (r = 0.68-0.86). Tumour parametric maps derived by iodinated contrast media and gadoteridol showed high spatial similarities. A good to strong spatial correlation between tumour perfusion parameters derived from MRI-CEST and MRI-CE modalities indicates that the two procedures provide similar information. (orig.)

  15. Clinical, patient-related, and economic outcomes of home-based high-dose hemodialysis versus conventional in-center hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsides N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicos Mitsides,1,2 Sandip Mitra,1,2 Tom Cornelis3 1Department of Renal Medicine, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Center, Manchester, 2National Institute for Healthcare Research Devices for Dignity Healthcare Co-operative, Sheffield, UK; 3Department of Nephrology, Jessa Hospital, Hasselt, Belgium Abstract: Despite technological advances in renal replacement therapy, the preservation of health and quality of life for individuals on dialysis still remains a challenge. The high morbidity and mortality in dialysis warrant further research and insight into the clinical domains of the technique and practice of this therapy. In the last 20 years, the focus of development in the field of hemodialysis (HD has centered around adequate removal of urea and other associated toxins. High-dose HD offers an opportunity to improve mortality, morbidity, and quality of life of patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, the uptake of this modality is low, and the risk associated with the therapy is not fully understood. Recent studies have highlighted the evidence base and improved our understanding of this technique of dialysis. This article provides a review of high-dose and home HD, its clinical impact on patient outcome, and the controversies that exist. Keywords: hemodialysis, home dialysis, high dose, outcomes

  16. A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiliane Rodrigues Carneiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®. PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas.

  17. A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Teiliane Rodrigues; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Pinheiro, Marta Cristhiany Cunha; de Oliveira, Sara Menezes; Peralta, José Mauro; Bezerra, Fernando Schemelzer Moraes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®). PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas. PMID:24402156

  18. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha Juliette Albert; Seshasayanan Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to p...

  19. Beyond conventional c-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes: A systematic exploration of LEDs on semi-polar orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavarian, Morteza

    Despite enormous efforts and investments, the efficiency of InGaN-based green and yellow-green light emitters remains relatively low, and that limits progress in developing full color display, laser diodes, and bright light sources for general lighting. The low efficiency of light emitting devices in the green-to-yellow spectral range, also known as the "Green Gap", is considered a global concern in the LED industry. The polar c-plane orientation of GaN, which is the mainstay in the LED industry, suffers from polarization-induced separation of electrons and hole wavefunctions (also known as the "quantum confined Stark effect") and low indium incorporation efficiency that are the two main factors that contribute to the Green Gap phenomenon. One possible approach that holds promise for a new generation of green and yellow light emitting devices with higher efficiency is the deployment of nonpolar and semi-polar crystallographic orientations of GaN to eliminate or mitigate polarization fields. In theory, the use of other GaN planes for light emitters could also enhance the efficiency of indium incorporation compared to c-plane. In this thesis, I present a systematic exploration of the suitable GaN orientation for future lighting technologies. First, in order to lay the groundwork for further studies, it is important to discuss the analysis of processes limiting LED efficiency and some novel designs of active regions to overcome these limitations. Afterwards, the choice of nonpolar orientations as an alternative is discussed. For nonpolar orientation, the (1100)-oriented (mo-plane) structures on patterned Si (112) and freestanding m-GaN are studied. The semi-polar orientations having substantially reduced polarization field are found to be more promising for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) owing to high indium incorporation efficiency predicted by theoretical studies. Thus, the semi-polar orientations are given close attention as alternatives for future LED technology

  20. A comparison of three Deformable Image Registration Algorithms in 4DCT using conventional contour based methods and voxel-by-voxel comparison methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirek eFatyga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commonly used methods of assessing the accuracy of Deformable Image Registration (DIR rely on image segmentation or landmark selection. These methods are very labor intensive and thus limited to relatively small number of image pairs. The direct voxel-by-voxel comparison can be automated to examine fluctuations in DIR quality on a long series of image pairs.Methods: A voxel-by-voxel comparison of three DIR algorithms applied to lung patients is presented. Registrations are compared by comparing volume histograms formed both with individual DIR maps and with a voxel-by-voxel subtraction of the two maps. When two DIR maps agree one concludes that both maps are interchangeable in treatment planning applications, though one cannot conclude that either one agrees with the ground truth. If two DIR maps significantly disagree one concludes that at least one of the maps deviates from the ground truth. We use the method to compare three DIR algorithms applied to peak inhale-peak exhale registrations of 4DFBCT data obtained from thirteen patients. Results: All three algorithms appear to be nearly equivalent when compared using DICE similarity coefficients. A comparison based on Jacobian Volume Histograms shows that all three algorithms measure changes in total volume of the lungs with reasonable accuracy, but show large differences in the variance of Jacobian distribution on all contoured structures. Analysis of voxel-by-voxel subtraction of DIR maps shows that the three algorithms differ to a degree which is sufficient to create a potential for dosimetric discrepancy during dose accumulation.Conclusions: DIR algorithms can perform well in some clinical applications, while potentially fail in others. These algorithms are best treated as potentially useful approximations of tissue deformation that need to be separately validated for every intended clinical application.

  1. Comparison of Synchrotron Radiation-based Propagation Phase Contrast Imaging and Conventional Micro-computed Tomography for Assessing Intervertebral Discs and Endplates in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianzhong; Ni, Shuangfei; Cao, Yong; Wang, Xiaokai; Liao, Shenghui; Lu, Hongbin

    2017-08-01

    The synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography (SRμCT) and micro-CT (μCT) were applied to comparatively assess the intervertebral disc (IVD) and endplate (EP). To explore a new approach to evaluate the detailed structure of the IVD and EP during maturation and aging in a murine model. Till date, methods to observe the morphological changes in the IVD and EP from rodents have been relatively limited. SRμCT has been recognized as a potential way to visualize the structures containing sclerous and soft tissue. Our study focused on comparing the capacity of SRμCT and μCT in evaluating the detailed structure of the IVD and EP. Both SRμCT and μCT were performed to depict the structure of spinal tissue from 4-month-old mice. Then, the imaging quality was evaluated in the three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed model. Further, the changes in the EP and IVD during the maturation and aging process were assessed morphologically and quantitatively using SRμCT. The 3D reconstructed model of the EP from both μCT and SRμCT provided detailed information on its inner structure. However, the IVD was only depicted using SRμCT. Multi-angle observations of the 3D structure of EP and IVD from mice of different ages (15 days, 2 months, 4 months, and 18 months) were dynamically performed by SRμCT. Quantitative evaluations indicated that the total volume of EP and IVD, the average height of IVD and the canal-total volume ratio of EP increased from 15-day-old mice to 4-month-old mice and decreased in 18-month-old mice. The EP and IVD were clearly visualized using SRμCT. Compared with μCT, SRμCT provided a better ultrahigh resolution image of soft tissue and hard tissue simultaneously, which makes it a promising approach for the noninvasive study of disc degeneration. N /A.

  2. Invoking “The Family” to Legitimize Gender- and Sexuality-Based Public Policies in the United States: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the 2012 Democratic and Republican National Party Conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pilecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Women and sexual minorities in the United States continue to experience subordinate status, and the policy gains they have made in areas such as reproductive rights and marriage equality continue to be challenged in political discourse. We conducted a critical discourse analysis of texts from the 2012 Democratic and Republican national conventions in order to examine the extent to which ideological representations of the family were employed to legitimize public policy positions related to gender (e.g., abortion and sexuality (e.g., same-sex marriage. We analyzed two forms of text (official party platform document, transcripts of speeches with distinct intended audiences (i.e., party members, general audience. Findings revealed that an ideological representation of the traditional family ideal—featuring a heterosexual couple, their children, and asymmetric gender relations—was present within speeches given by both parties, particularly by the spouses of the presidential candidates (Michelle Obama and Ann Romney. Although this ideological representation was subsequently used within the Republican Party platform to legitimize positions against same-sex marriage and abortion, the Democratic Party platform challenged this representation of the family to instead advocate for policy positions in favor of same-sex marriage and women’s reproductive rights. We discuss this ambivalence within Democratic texts in light of the different audiences that party convention texts seek. Implications for gender- and sexuality-based policies are discussed, as well as the importance of examining political discourse across diverse forms and settings.

  3. Gun barrel erosion - Comparison of conventional and LOVA gun propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, A.C.; Leurs, O.

    2006-01-01

    The research department Energetic Materials within TNO Defence, Security and Safety is involved in the development and (safety and insensitive munitions) testing of conventional (nitro cellulose based) and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) based gun propellants. Recently our testing capabilities have

  4. Gun barrel erosion - Comparison of conventional and LOVA gun propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, A.C.; Leurs, O.

    2006-01-01

    The research department Energetic Materials within TNO Defence, Security and Safety is involved in the development and (safety and insensitive munitions) testing of conventional (nitro cellulose based) and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) based gun propellants. Recently our testing capabilities have be

  5. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Juliette Albert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation.

  6. NULL convention floating point multiplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Anitha Juliette; Ramachandran, Seshasayanan

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation.

  7. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    theory. Like for the study of common knowledge much has happened in this latter field since then. The theory of convention has been developed and extended so as to include multiple types as well as a basis for the study of social norms. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis...... as a tool for understanding and explaining social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around which any theory of convention must revolve. The so-called evolutionary turn in game theory marks a transition from the classical assumptions of rationality and common knowledge...... of such to evolutionary game theoretical frameworks inspired by the models of (Maynard Smith & Price 1973), (Taylor & Jonker 1978) and (Maynard Smith 1982). By providing an account of equilibrium selection these are thought to work as well-defined metaphors of learning processes upon which a revised theory of convention...

  8. Establishment of a minor groove binder-probe based quantitative real time PCR to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and differentiation of Borrelia spielmanii by ospA-specific conventional PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strube Christina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes as vector. For identification of Borrelia infections in ticks a TaqMan™ minor groove binder (MGB probe-based quantitative real time PCR (qPCR was established targeting the 5S-23S intergenic spacer. Extension to a duplex qPCR included an Ixodes spp. positive control to verify successful DNA isolation. Besides qPCR, an ospA-specific conventional PCR for species-specific identification of B. spielmanii was established. Afterwards 1000 I. ricinus flagged in the city of Hanover, Germany, were investigated for B. burgdorferi sl infections followed by species identification. Furthermore, I. hexagonus ticks were investigated to proof applicability of the PCRs. Results Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR identifying B. burgdorferi sl in ticks was able to detect 1-10 copies per reaction. B. spielmanii ospA-specific conventional PCR was also highly specific and showed no cross reactions with the other tested Borrelia species. From 1000 hanoveranian ticks 24.3% were positive compared to only 7.4% positives by dark-field microscopy. Related to tick stage 1.7% larvae, 18.1% nymphs, and 34.6% adults were positive. The most frequent species was B. garinii, followed by B. afzelii, B. spielmanii, B. valaisiana and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss. 70.6% of I. ricinus were mono-infected, whereas 28.0% and 1.4% were infected with two and three Borrelia species, respectively. From 232 I. hexagonus collected from hedgehogs in different sites of Germany, qPCR detected 5.7% to be infected with B. burgdorferi sl, which were identified as B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. spielmanii. Conclusions The evaluated qPCR to detect B. burgdorferi sl in Ixodes spp. is highly specific and sensitive. As a duplex qPCR including detection of Ixodes spp. DNA it is the first DNA based technique incorporating a control for successful DNA isolation from

  9. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    theory. Like for the study of common knowledge much has happened in this latter field since then. The theory of convention has been developed and extended so as to include multiple types as well as a basis for the study of social norms. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis...... as a tool for understanding and explaining social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around which any theory of convention must revolve. The so-called evolutionary turn in game theory marks a transition from the classical assumptions of rationality and common knowledge...

  10. Hydrogen storage: beyond conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalebrook, Andrew F; Gan, Weijia; Grasemann, Martin; Moret, Séverine; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2013-10-09

    The efficient storage of hydrogen is one of three major hurdles towards a potential hydrogen economy. This report begins with conventional storage methods for hydrogen and broadly covers new technology, ranging from physical media involving solid adsorbents, to chemical materials including metal hydrides, ammonia borane and liquid precursors such as alcohols and formic acid.

  11. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...

  12. Inventory non-conventional gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntendam-Bos, A.G.; Wassing, B.B.T.; Ter Heege, J.H.; Van Bergen, F.; Schavemaker, Y.A.; Van Gessel, S.F.; De Jong, M.L.; Nelskamp, S.; Van Thienen-Visser, K.; Guasti, E.; Van den Belt; Marges, V.C. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    This report describes the results of the inventory for each non-conventional gas resource expected to be present in the Netherlands, which are: Tight Gas, Shallow gas, Coal bed Methane (CBM), Shale gas, Basin Centered Gas, Aquifer Gas and Stratigraphic traps.

  13. Rapid and simple determination of acrylamide in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips through conversion to 3-[bis(trifluoroethanoyl)amino]-3-oxopropyl trifluoroacetate by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale; Centola, Angela; Notardonato, Ivan; Cinelli, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    A new, simple, rapid and fully validated method based on gas chromatography coupled with Electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors (GC-ECD and GC-IT/MS) is presented for quantitative analysis of acrylamide contaminant in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips. Before analysis acrylamide was efficiently derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride, the effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the acylation reaction were evaluated. Chromatographic analysis was performed on SE-54 capillary column; good retention and peak response of the acrylamide derivative achieved under the optimal conditions. The analytical method has been fully validated by assessment of the following parameters: LODs and LOQs (1 and 25ngg(-1) by GC-ECD and 2 and 36ngg(-1) by GC-IT/MS, with a Relative Standard Deviations acrylamide spiked at levels of 1, 20, 50 and 100ngg(-1)). Furthermore, the method proposed requires no clean-up step of the acrylamide derivative to be performed prior to injection. The developed method has been successfully applied to determine acrylamide in different commercial cereal-based foods (including French fries and potato chips).

  14. 不同光固化方法对可压型及通用型树脂硬度的影响%Influence of two photoactivation modes on the hardness of packable and conventional resin-based composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军英; 陈珊; 张盛炎; 王海燕

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soft-start is a newly photoactivation mode, which has certain effect on composite resin. However, previous study mainly concentrated on the conventional resin-based composites, the reports regarding soft-start on packable resin-based composites is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: It is assumed that soft-start photoactivation had effect on packable resin-based composites, in addition, to investigate its effect on the hardness of packable resin-based composites. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A double factors design. The experiment was performed at the Department of Stomatology, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University and Chemical Mine Metal Material Test Laboratory, Guangdong Inspection and Quarantine Technology Center in October 2007. MATERIALS: Three packable resin-based composites were Ecusphere-Carat (EC, DMG Company, Germany), Filtek P60 (P60, 3M EPSE Company, USA), Tetric Ceram HB (HB, Ivoclar Vivadent Company, Liechtenstein) and a conventional composite FiltekZ250 (Z250, 3M EPSE Company, USA). The color of composites was A3. METHODS: Three packable resin-based composites and a conventional composite were filling in a cylindrical container (7 mm diameter, 4 mm depth), to obtain 80 samples, and then were divided into different groups according to the composite and photoactivation mode (n=10). In the soft-start photoactivation, samples were irradiated by 300 mW/cm~2 for 10 s, and then 600 mW/cm~2 for 30 s. Standard photoactivation was irradiated with 600 mW/cm~2 for 40 s.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The microhardness of the top and bottom of the specimens was determined by Vickers microhardness tester. RESULTS: Three packable composites had higher hardness values than conventional composite. Though soft-start photoactivation could decrease the hardness of packable composites, the difference had no significant difference to standard mode (P > 0.05). There was significant difference on the top hardness and on the bottom hardness of conventional composite

  15. Comparative evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic-based methods for identification of clinically important yeasts in a UK-based medical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatania, Nita; Fraser, Mark; Savage, Mike; Hart, Jason; Abdolrasouli, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was compared in a side-by side-analysis with conventional phenotypic methods currently in use in our laboratory for identification of yeasts in a routine diagnostic setting. A diverse collection of 200 clinically important yeasts (19 species, five genera) were identified by both methods using standard protocols. Discordant or unreliable identifications were resolved by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. MALDI-TOF and conventional methods were in agreement for 182 isolates (91%) with correct identification to species level. Eighteen discordant results (9%) were due to rarely encountered species, hence the difficulty in their identification using traditional phenotypic methods. MALDI-TOF MS enabled rapid, reliable and accurate identification of clinically important yeasts in a routine diagnostic microbiology laboratory. Isolates with rare, unusual or low probability identifications should be confirmed using robust molecular methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Effectiveness of conventional versus virtual reality based vestibular rehabilitation in the treatment of dizziness, gait and balance impairment in adults with unilateral peripheral vestibular loss: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Meldrum

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unilateral peripheral vestibular loss results in gait and balance impairment, dizziness and oscillopsia. Vestibular rehabilitation benefits patients but optimal treatment remains unkown. Virtual reality is an emerging tool in rehabilitation and provides opportunities to improve both outcomes and patient satisfaction with treatment. The Nintendo Wii Fit Plus® (NWFP is a low cost virtual reality system that challenges balance and provides visual and auditory feedback. It may augment the motor learning that is required to improve balance and gait, but no trials to date have investigated efficacy. Methods/Design In a single (assessor blind, two centre randomised controlled superiority trial, 80 patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular loss will be randomised to either conventional or virtual reality based (NWFP vestibular rehabilitation for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure is gait speed (measured with three dimensional gait analysis. Secondary outcomes include computerised posturography, dynamic visual acuity, and validated questionnaires on dizziness, confidence and anxiety/depression. Outcome will be assessed post treatment (8 weeks and at 6 months. Discussion Advances in the gaming industry have allowed mass production of highly sophisticated low cost virtual reality systems that incorporate technology previously not accessible to most therapists and patients. Importantly, they are not confined to rehabilitation departments, can be used at home and provide an accurate record of adherence to exercise. The benefits of providing augmented feedback, increasing intensity of exercise and accurately measuring adherence may improve conventional vestibular rehabilitation but efficacy must first be demonstrated. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT01442623

  17. Exploring Shakespeare: Dynamic Drama Conventions in Teaching "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sophie

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a Year 10 unit on teaching "Romeo and Juliet" based on standard experiential conventions which include the following: (1) Teacher in Role, (2) Soundscaping, (3) Freeze Frames, (4) Alter Egos, (5) Hot Seating, and (6) Role Playing. Suggests that these conventions can be applied to the study of any Shakespearean play. (NH)

  18. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A Philosophical Study (Lewis, 2002). This laid the foundation for a game-theoretic approach to social conventions, but became more famously known for its seminal analysis of common knowledge; the concept receiving its canonical analysis...... in Aumann (1976) and which, together with the assumptions of perfect rationality, came to be defining of classical game theory. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis as a tool for exploring social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around...... knowledge to assumptions characterising agents as conditioned for playing certain strategies upon the population of which evolutionary processes operate. By providing accounts of equilibrium selection and stability properties of behaviours, the resulting frameworks have been brought to work as well...

  19. Conventional treatments for ankylosing spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dougados, M; Dijkmans, B; Khan, M.(Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India); Maksymowych, W; van der Linden, S; Brandt, J

    2002-01-01

    Management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is challenged by the progressive nature of the disease. To date, no intervention is available that alters the underlying mechanism of inflammation in AS. Currently available conventional treatments are palliative at best, and often fail to control symptoms in the long term. Current drug treatment may perhaps induce a spurious state of "disease remission," which is merely a low level of disease activity. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first ...

  20. CONVENTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PREOCCUPATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia ANDRITOI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A great number of the conventions referring to nature, even if they do not refer ton particular species, were limited from the point of view of geography and territories: we may give as example here a convention for the protection of flora, fauna and panoramic beauties of America, the African convention for nature and natural resources… By the Stockholm conferences, from the 5th of June 1972, we entered in a “dynamic of globalization”. Article 1 of the Declaration that followed the conference is important for the global awareness: “Human beings have the basic right for freedom, equality and conditions of a satisfying life, in an environment with a quality that allows him to live with dignity and well being. He has the solemn duty to protect and improve the environment for the present and future generations (…”. This article proclaims a right for the environment. A new law seems to have arisen with the apparition of this convention: the right of a healthy human being and of a healthy environment. This law is bipolar because it associates the human beings to nature. Human beings have the right to live in a healthy environment and this is why he has to protect nature. This does not represent a right of the human beings from a strict point of view. This is a right that has a universal value. The right to a healthy environment can not be put in the same category as the right to live or the right to be healthy, because this right contains the latter.

  1. Estudo comparativo de raspados orais submetidos à técnica de citologia em meio líquido e citopatologia convencional Comparative study of oral smears applying liquid-based cytology and conventional cytopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pedra Dias

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Quando comparada à técnica da citopatologia convencional (CC, a citologia em meio líquido (LBC tem sido referida como método de desempenho superior em esfregaços cervicouterinos. OBJETIVO: Comparar (quantitativa e qualitativamente esfregaços orais preparados por meio da citopatologia convencional e da LBC. Material e métodos: Foram realizados raspados em borda lateral da língua de seis indivíduos com mucosa oral de aspecto clínico normal, e testados três instrumentos de coleta: escova endocervical (cytobrush, espátula plástica e escova contida no kit da citologia em meio líquido utilizado no estudo, sendo os esfregaços submetidos à citopatologia convencional e à LBC. RESULTADOS: A escova endocervical mostrou-se mais adequada para coleta e quanto ao método, a LBC forneceu lâminas com distribuição celular mais regular e homogênea do que a citopatologia convencional. Notou-se ainda redução da quantidade de células inflamatórias e de colônias de bactérias. DISCUSSÃO: Mesmo em menor quantidade, a sobreposição celular não foi totalmente eliminada na LBC como a literatura relata, pois estava presente em algumas lâminas. Embora em amostras cervicouterinas a redução de células inflamatórias, de hemácias e de muco seja considerada uma vantagem da LBC, nos raspados orais muitas vezes esses elementos compõem aspectos significativos de determinada doença. CONCLUSÕES: A citologia em meio líquido pode ser uma nova técnica a ser somada aos exames auxiliares de diagnóstico oral, mas, apesar de apresentar alguns resultados favoráveis, ainda são necessárias adaptações ao utilizá-la no diagnóstico oral.INTRODUCTION: When compared to conventional cytopathology (CC, liquid-based cytology (LBC has been referred to as a method of superior performance in cervical smears. OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively and qualitatively compare oral smears obtained through conventional cytopathology and liquid medium cytology

  2. Ormocer: An aesthetic direct restorative material; An in vitro study comparing the marginal sealing ability of organically modified ceramics and a hybrid composite using an ormocer-based bonding agent and a conventional fifth-generation bonding agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives : To compare the marginal sealing ability of ormocer with a hybrid composite using an ormocer based bonding agent and a conventional fifth generation bonding agent. Materials and Methods : Fifty four human premolars were randomly distributed into four test groups of 12 teeth each and two control groups of 3 teeth each. Class I occlusal preparation of 1.5 mm depth were made in each tooth. These were restored using the adhesive and restorative material according to the group. The restorations were finished using a standard composite finishing and polishing kit. Thermocycling between 5 o C and 55 o C was carried out. Having blocked the root apex and the entire tooth surface except 1 mm around the restoration margin, the teeth were immersed in 2% methylene blue for 48 hours, after which the dye penetration through the margins of each sample was studied under a stereomicroscope. Results and Discussion : Group IV (Admira with Admira Bond showed the minimum marginal leakage with a mean of 0.200 mm. Four samples in this group showed no microleakage at all and a maximum of 0.400 mm was seen in one sample. Group II (Spectrum TPH with Admira Bond showed the maximum leakage with a mean of 0.433 mm. One sample showed as much as 1.00 mm of microleakage. Admira when used with Admira Bond showed lesser microleakage than Spectrum TPH used with Prime & Bond NT, the difference being statistically insignificant.

  3. CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GENERAL TAKAFUL AND CONVENTIONAL INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mher Mushtaq Hussain

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Insurance in Islam is essentially a concept of mutual help. Insurance business under conventional system is based on uncertainty, which is prohibited in Islamic society under Islamic principles. So there is need to clear the difference between the conventional insurance and the Islamic insurance. A rich literature also describes such differences but the present article addresses the differences based on conceptual and operational framework.

  4. High-level production of tetraacetyl phytosphingosine (TAPS) by combined genetic engineering of sphingoid base biosynthesis and L-serine availability in the non-conventional yeast Pichia ciferrii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorsch, Christoph; Köhler, Tim; Andrea, Heiko; Boles, Eckhard

    2012-03-01

    The non-conventional yeast Pichia ciferrii is known to secrete the sphingoid long-chain base phytosphingosine in a tetraacetylated form (TAPS). Sphingolipids are important ingredients in cosmetic applications as they play important roles in human skin. Our work aimed to improve TAPS production by genetic engineering of P. ciferrii. In the first step we improved precursor availability by blocking degradation of L-serine, which is condensed with palmitoyl-CoA by serine palmitoyltransferase in the first committed step of sphingolipid biosynthesis. Successive deletion of two genes, SHM1 and SHM2, encoding L-serine hydroxymethyltransferases, and of CHA1 encoding L-serine deaminase, resulted in a strain producing 65 mg((TAPS))g(-1)((cdw)), which is a threefold increase in comparison with the parental strain. Attempts to increase the metabolic flux into and through the L-serine biosynthesis pathway did not improve TAPS production. However, genetic engineering of the sphingolipid pathway further increased secretion of TAPS. Blocking of sphingoid long-chain base phosphorylation by deletion of the LCB kinase gene PcLCB4 resulted in a further increase in TAPS production by 78% and significant secretion of the direct precursor of phytosphingosine, sphinganin, in a triacetylated form (TriASa). Overproduction of two serine palmitoyltransferase subunits, Lcb1 and Lcb2, together with a deletion of the gene ORM12 encoding a putative negative regulator of sphingolipid synthesis resulted in a strain producing 178 mg((TAPS))g(-1)((cdw)). Additional overproduction of the C4-hydroxylase Syr2 converting sphinganine to phytosphingosine reduced TriASa production and further improved TAPS production. The final recombinant P. ciferrii strain produced up to 199 mg((TAPS))g(-1)((cdw)) with a maximal production rate of 8.42 mg×OD(600nm)(-1)h(-1) and a titer of about 2 g L(-1), and should be applicable for industrial TAPS production.

  5. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  6. Comprehending conventional and novel metaphors: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Curran, Tim; Menn, Lise

    2009-08-11

    The neural mechanisms underlying the processing of conventional and novel conceptual metaphorical sentences were examined with event-related potentials (ERPs). Conventional metaphors were created based on the Contemporary Theory of Metaphor and were operationally defined as familiar and readily interpretable. Novel metaphors were unfamiliar and harder to interpret. Using a sensicality judgment task, we compared ERPs elicited by the same target word when it was used to end anomalous, novel metaphorical, conventional metaphorical and literal sentences. Amplitudes of the N400 ERP component (320-440 ms) were more negative for anomalous sentences, novel metaphors, and conventional metaphors compared with literal sentences. Within a later window (440-560 ms), ERPs associated with conventional metaphors converged to the same level as literal sentences while the novel metaphors stayed anomalous throughout. The reported results were compatible with models assuming an initial stage for metaphor mappings from one concept to another and that these mappings are cognitively taxing.

  7. Coupling of Laser-Generated Electrons with Conventional Accelerator Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Antici, P; Benedetti, C; Chiadroni, E; Ferrario, M; Lancia, L; Migliorati, M; Mostacci, A; Palumbo, L; Rossi, A R; Serafini, L

    2011-01-01

    Laser-based electron acceleration is attracting strong interest from the conventional accelerator community due to its outstanding characteristics in terms of high initial energy, low emittance and high beam current. Unfortunately, such beams are currently not comparable to those of conventional accelerators, limiting their use for the manifold applications that a traditional accelerator can have. Besides working on the plasma source itself, a promising approach to shape the laser-generated beams is coupling them with conventional accelerator elements in order to benefit from both, a versatile electron source and a controllable beam. In this paper we show that some parameters commonly used by the particle accelerator community must be reconsidered when dealing with laser-plasma beams. Starting from the parameters of laser-generated electrons which can be obtained nowadays by conventional multi hundred TW laser systems, we compare different conventional magnetic lattices able to capture and transport those GeV...

  8. Conventionalism and integrable Weyl geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucheu, M. L.

    2015-03-01

    Since the appearance of Einstein's general relativity, gravitation has been associated to the space-time curvature. This theory introduced a geometrodynamic language which became a convenient tool to predict matter behaviour. However, the properties of space-time itself cannot be measurable by experiments. Taking Poincaré idea that the geometry of space-time is merely a convention, we show that the general theory of relativity can be completely reformulated in a more general setting, a generalization of Riemannian geometry, namely, the Weyl integrable geometry. The choice of this new mathematical language implies, among other things, that the path of particles and light rays should now correspond to Weylian geodesies. Such modification in the dynamic of bodies brings a new perception of physical phenomena that we will explore.

  9. Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvi A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4, 197-200 (2004], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3, 324 (2001; Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4, 283-286 (2002], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45, 847-852 (2002]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision. RESULTS : A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85% of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g. Mean operative time was 214 min (45-390 min. The conversion rate was 11.5% ( n = 3. Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3-30 days. Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease. CONCLUSION : Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS.

  10. Conventional and nanotechniques for DNA methylation profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganathan, Rajasree; Basheer, Nazeema B; Amirthalingam, Laxmi; Muthukumar, Harshiny; Kaliaperumal, Rajendran; Shanmugam, Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is critical for gene silencing and is associated with the incidence of many diseases, including cancer. Underlying molecular mechanisms of human diseases and tissue-specific gene expression have been elucidated based on DNA methylation studies. This review highlights the advantages and drawbacks of various methylation screening techniques: blotting, genomic sequencing, bisulfite sequencing, methylation-specific PCR, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation, microarray analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, nanowire transistor detection procedure, quantum dot-based nanoassay, single-molecule real-time detection, fluorimetric assay, electrochemical detection, and atomic force spectroscopy. The review provides insight for selecting a method or a combination of methods for DNA methylation analysis. Convergence of conventional and contemporary nanotechniques to enumerate methylation at specific CpG sites of oncogene would fill the gap in diagnosis of cancer.

  11. Chronotopes in education: Conventional and dialogic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Matusov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bakhtin defines chronotope in his literary dialogic theory as the unity of time and space where events occur.  Here, in this conceptual paper, I expand and apply this notion to education, discuss, and illustrate the three major espoused educational chronotopes that I abstracted in my analysis of educational practices around Dialogic Pedagogy. Frist is the Assignment Chronotope based on a type of monologic pedagogy, the most common in conventional, but also in some innovative, schools, focusing on making students arrive at preset curricular endpoints. Second is the Dialogic Provocation Chronotope based on narrowly defined dialogic pedagogy and involving promotion of the students’ responsive critical authorship. Third is the Journey Chronotope focusing on promoting the students’ self-assignments and self-initiated educational journeys that can propel self-generated critical authorship in a targeted practice (or a network of practices. Educational examples, concerns, and consequences of these chronotopes are considered.

  12. The sustainability transition. Beyond conventional development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskin, P.; Chadwick, M.; Jackson, T.; Leach, G.

    1996-10-01

    This paper synthesizes findings of the first phase in SEI`s PoleStar Project - a project aimed at developing long-term strategies and policies for sustainable development. Taking a global and long-range perspective, the paper aims to describe a theoretical framework for addressing sustainability, to identify emerging issues and outline directions for future action. The paper begins by setting today`s development and environmental challenges in historical context, and describing the scenario method for envisioning and evaluating alternative futures, and identifying propitious areas for policy and action. It next summarizes a detailed scenario based on conventional development assumptions, and discusses the implications of this scenario for demographic and economic patterns, energy and water resources, land resources and agriculture, and pollution loads and the environment to the year 2050. The conventional scenario relies in part on the sectorally-oriented work discussed in Papers 3 through 6 of the PoleStar Project report series, and makes use of the PoleStar System, software designed for integrated resource, environment and socio-economic accounting and scenario analysis (described in Paper 2). The paper then examines the critical risks to social, resource and environmental systems lying ahead on the conventional development path. Finally, the paper surveys the requirements for sustainability across a number of policy dimensions, and raises key questions for the future. The PoleStar Project is proceeding to examine a range of alternative development scenarios, in the context of the work of the regionally-diverse Global Scenario Group, convened by SEI. The hope remains to offer wise counsel for a transition to an equitable, humane and sustainable future for the global community. 144 refs, 30 figs, 9 tabs

  13. Conventional and advanced liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Mladenović Nataša L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and independence, increase and fluctuation of the oil price, fossil fuel resources depletion and global climate change are some of the greatest challanges facing societies today and in incoming decades. Sustainable economic and industrial growth of every country and the world in general requires safe and renewable resources of energy. It has been expected that re-arrangement of economies towards biofuels would mitigate at least partially problems arised from fossil fuel consumption and create more sustainable development. Of the renewable energy sources, bioenergy draws major and particular development endeavors, primarily due to the extensive availability of biomass, already-existence of biomass production technologies and infrastructure, and biomass being the sole feedstock for liquid fuels. The evolution of biofuels is classified into four generations (from 1st to 4th in accordance to the feedstock origin; if the technologies of feedstock processing are taken into account, than there are two classes of biofuels - conventional and advanced. The conventional biofuels, also known as the 1st generation biofuels, are those produced currently in large quantities using well known, commercially-practiced technologies. The major feedstocks for these biofuels are cereals or oleaginous plants, used also in the food or feed production. Thus, viability of the 1st generation biofuels is questionable due to the conflict with food supply and high feedstocks’ cost. This limitation favoured the search for non-edible biomass for the production of the advanced biofuels. In a general and comparative way, this paper discusses about various definitions of biomass, classification of biofuels, and brief overview of the biomass conversion routes to liquid biofuels depending on the main constituents of the biomass. Liquid biofuels covered by this paper are those compatible with existing infrastructure for gasoline and diesel and ready to be used in

  14. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  15. Economic evaluation comparing intraoperative cone beam CT-based navigation and conventional fluoroscopy for the placement of spinal pedicle screws: a patient-level data cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dea, Nicolas; Fisher, Charles G; Batke, Juliet; Strelzow, Jason; Mendelsohn, Daniel; Paquette, Scott J; Kwon, Brian K; Boyd, Michael D; Dvorak, Marcel F S; Street, John T

    2016-01-01

    Pedicle screws are routinely used in contemporary spinal surgery. Screw misplacement may be asymptomatic but is also correlated with potential adverse events. Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) has been associated with improved screw placement accuracy rates. However, this technology has substantial acquisition and maintenance costs. Despite its increasing usage, no rigorous full economic evaluation comparing this technology to current standard of care has been reported. Medical costs are exploding in an unsustainable way. Health economic theory requires that medical equipment costs be compared with expected benefits. To answer this question for computer-assisted spinal surgery, we present an economic evaluation looking specifically at symptomatic misplaced screws leading to reoperation secondary to neurologic deficits or biomechanical concerns. The study design was an observational case-control study from prospectively collected data of consecutive patients treated with the aid of CAS (treatment group) compared with a matched historical cohort of patients treated with conventional fluoroscopy (control group). The patient sample consisted of consecutive patients treated surgically at a quaternary academic center. The primary effectiveness measure studied was the number of reoperations for misplaced screws within 1 year of the index surgery. Secondary outcome measures included were total adverse event rate and postoperative computed tomography usage for pedicle screw examination. A patient-level data cost-effectiveness analysis from the hospital perspective was conducted to determine the value of a navigation system coupled with intraoperative 3-D imaging (O-arm Imaging and the StealthStation S7 Navigation Systems, Medtronic, Louisville, CO, USA) in adult spinal surgery. The capital costs for both alternatives were reported as equivalent annual costs based on the annuitization of capital expenditures method using a 3% discount rate and a 7-year amortization period

  16. Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis : SPA Convention and Project

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Allanach, Benjamin C; Arnowitt, R; Baer, H A; Bagger, J A; Balázs, C; Barger, V; Barnett, M; Bartl, Alfred; Battaglia, M; Bechtle, P; Belyaev, A; Berger, E L; Blair, G; Boos, E; Bélanger, G; Carena, M S; Choi, S Y; Deppisch, F; Desch, Klaus; Djouadi, A; Dutta, B; Dutta, S; Díaz, M A; Eberl, H; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Erler, Jens; Fraas, H; Freitas, A; Fritzsche, T; Godbole, Rohini M; Gounaris, George J; Guasch, J; Gunion, J F; Haba, N; Haber, Howard E; Hagiwara, K; Han, L; Han, T; He, H J; Heinemeyer, S; Hesselbach, S; Hidaka, K; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirsch, M; Hohenwarter-Sodek, K; Hollik, W; Hou, W S; Hurth, Tobias; Jack, I; Jiang, Y; Jones, D R T; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamon, T; Kane, G; Kang, S K; Kernreiter, T; Kilian, W; Kim, C S; King, S F; Kittel, O; Klasen, M; Kneur, J L; Kovarik, K; Kraml, Sabine; Krämer, M; Lafaye, R; Langacker, P; Logan, H E; Ma, W G; Majerotto, Walter; Martyn, H U; Matchev, K; Miller, D J; Mondragon, M; Moortgat-Pick, G; Moretti, S; Mori, T; Moultaka, G; Muanza, S; Mukhopadhyaya, B; Mühlleitner, M M; Nauenberg, U; Nojiri, M M; Nomura, D; Nowak, H; Okada, N; Olive, Keith A; Oller, W; Peskin, M; Plehn, T; Polesello, G; Porod, Werner; Quevedo, Fernando; Rainwater, D L; Reuter, J; Richardson, P; Rolbiecki, K; de Roeck, A; Weber, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim at reconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breaking mechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed when higher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme, Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set of conventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs is provided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate the Lagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e+e- linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths and production cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition, programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, the density of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the cross sections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme still requires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental side before data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the d...

  17. Cergutuzumab amunaleukin (CEA-IL2v), a CEA-targeted IL-2 variant-based immunocytokine for combination cancer immunotherapy: Overcoming limitations of aldesleukin and conventional IL-2-based immunocytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christian; Waldhauer, Inja; Nicolini, Valeria G.; Freimoser-Grundschober, Anne; Nayak, Tapan; Vugts, Danielle J.; Dunn, Claire; Bolijn, Marije; Benz, Jörg; Stihle, Martine; Lang, Sabine; Roemmele, Michaele; Hofer, Thomas; van Puijenbroek, Erwin; Moser, Samuel; Ast, Oliver; Brünker, Peter; Gorr, Ingo H.; Neumann, Sebastian; Hinton, Heather; Crameri, Flavio; Gerdes, Christian; Bacac, Marina; van Dongen, Guus; Moessner, Ekkehard; Umaña, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We developed cergutuzumab amunaleukin (CEA-IL2v, RG7813), a novel monomeric CEA-targeted immunocytokine, that comprises a single IL-2 variant (IL2v) moiety with abolished CD25 binding, fused to the C-terminus of a high affinity, bivalent carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific antibody devoid of Fc-mediated effector functions. Its molecular design aims to (i) avoid preferential activation of regulatory T-cells vs. immune effector cells by removing CD25 binding; (ii) increase the therapeutic index of IL-2 therapy by (a) preferential retention at the tumor by having a lower dissociation rate from CEA-expressing cancer cells vs. IL-2R-expressing cells, (b) avoiding any FcγR-binding and Fc effector functions and (c) reduced binding to endothelial cells expressing CD25; and (iii) improve the pharmacokinetics, and thus convenience of administration, of IL-2. The crystal structure of the IL2v-IL-2Rβγ complex was determined and CEA-IL2v activity was assessed using human immune effector cells. Tumor targeting was investigated in tumor-bearing mice using 89Zr-labeled CEA-IL2v. Efficacy studies were performed in (a) syngeneic mouse models as monotherapy and combined with anti-PD-L1, and in (b) xenograft mouse models in combination with ADCC-mediating antibodies. CEA-IL2v binds to CEA with pM avidity but not to CD25, and consequently did not preferentially activate Tregs. In vivo, CEA-IL2v demonstrated superior pharmacokinetics and tumor targeting compared with a wild-type IL-2-based CEA immunocytokine (CEA-IL2wt). CEA-IL2v strongly expanded NK and CD8+ T cells, skewing the CD8+:CD4+ ratio toward CD8+ T cells both in the periphery and in the tumor, and mediated single agent efficacy in syngeneic MC38-CEA and PancO2-CEA models. Combination with trastuzumab, cetuximab and imgatuzumab, all of human IgG1 isotype, resulted in superior efficacy compared with the monotherapies alone. Combined with anti-PD-L1, CEA-IL2v mediated superior efficacy over the respective

  18. Cergutuzumab amunaleukin (CEA-IL2v), a CEA-targeted IL-2 variant-based immunocytokine for combination cancer immunotherapy: Overcoming limitations of aldesleukin and conventional IL-2-based immunocytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christian; Waldhauer, Inja; Nicolini, Valeria G; Freimoser-Grundschober, Anne; Nayak, Tapan; Vugts, Danielle J; Dunn, Claire; Bolijn, Marije; Benz, Jörg; Stihle, Martine; Lang, Sabine; Roemmele, Michaele; Hofer, Thomas; van Puijenbroek, Erwin; Wittig, David; Moser, Samuel; Ast, Oliver; Brünker, Peter; Gorr, Ingo H; Neumann, Sebastian; de Vera Mudry, Maria Cristina; Hinton, Heather; Crameri, Flavio; Saro, Jose; Evers, Stefan; Gerdes, Christian; Bacac, Marina; van Dongen, Guus; Moessner, Ekkehard; Umaña, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    We developed cergutuzumab amunaleukin (CEA-IL2v, RG7813), a novel monomeric CEA-targeted immunocytokine, that comprises a single IL-2 variant (IL2v) moiety with abolished CD25 binding, fused to the C-terminus of a high affinity, bivalent carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific antibody devoid of Fc-mediated effector functions. Its molecular design aims to (i) avoid preferential activation of regulatory T-cells vs. immune effector cells by removing CD25 binding; (ii) increase the therapeutic index of IL-2 therapy by (a) preferential retention at the tumor by having a lower dissociation rate from CEA-expressing cancer cells vs. IL-2R-expressing cells, (b) avoiding any FcγR-binding and Fc effector functions and (c) reduced binding to endothelial cells expressing CD25; and (iii) improve the pharmacokinetics, and thus convenience of administration, of IL-2. The crystal structure of the IL2v-IL-2Rβγ complex was determined and CEA-IL2v activity was assessed using human immune effector cells. Tumor targeting was investigated in tumor-bearing mice using (89)Zr-labeled CEA-IL2v. Efficacy studies were performed in (a) syngeneic mouse models as monotherapy and combined with anti-PD-L1, and in (b) xenograft mouse models in combination with ADCC-mediating antibodies. CEA-IL2v binds to CEA with pM avidity but not to CD25, and consequently did not preferentially activate Tregs. In vivo, CEA-IL2v demonstrated superior pharmacokinetics and tumor targeting compared with a wild-type IL-2-based CEA immunocytokine (CEA-IL2wt). CEA-IL2v strongly expanded NK and CD8(+) T cells, skewing the CD8(+):CD4(+) ratio toward CD8(+) T cells both in the periphery and in the tumor, and mediated single agent efficacy in syngeneic MC38-CEA and PancO2-CEA models. Combination with trastuzumab, cetuximab and imgatuzumab, all of human IgG1 isotype, resulted in superior efficacy compared with the monotherapies alone. Combined with anti-PD-L1, CEA-IL2v mediated superior efficacy over the respective

  19. The Thinking of the BRM Training Course based on Manila Amendments of STCW Convention%基于STCW公约马尼拉修正案的BRM培训思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成军

    2014-01-01

    To summarize the significant impact content of maritime education on the STCW convention Ma-nila amendment,and put forward maritime vocational colleges should be appropriate adjustments to the training content and training form to adapt to the amend of the convention,further reform of the curriculum framework and the curriculum content,renewal training equipment,improve the teaching mode.%分析了STCW公约马尼拉修正案中BRM的修正内容,提出航海高职院校应适应公约的修改对培训内容和培训形式作适当的调整,进一步改革课程框架和课程内容,更新培训设备,改进教学模式。

  20. Ability Estimation for Conventional Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jwa K.; Nicewander, W. Alan

    1993-01-01

    Bias, standard error, and reliability of five ability estimators were evaluated using Monte Carlo estimates of the unknown conditional means and variances of the estimators. Results indicate that estimates based on Bayesian modal, expected a posteriori, and weighted likelihood estimators were reasonably unbiased with relatively small standard…

  1. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted.

  2. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Narayan, R.; Davies, G. B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all ‘good’ or petrochemical-based products are all ‘bad’. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated ‘home’ composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  3. Fairtrade certification, conventions and labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the potential of Fairtrade in hired labour situations in terms of improving conditions for agricultural workers. The chapter will address various aspects including the contentious issue of Fairtrade and trade union organisation as well as on issues of worker empowerment. At ....... At a local level, analysis focuses on the implications of Fairtrade certification for large enterprises and workers, drawing on a field-based studies of certified flower farms in Ecuador and Kenya....

  4. Emergy evaluations for constructed wetland and conventional wastewater treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J. B.; Jiang, M. M.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-04-01

    Based on emergy synthesis, this study presents a comparative study on constructed wetland (CW) and conventional wastewater treatments with three representative cases in Beijing. Accounting the environmental and economic inputs and treated wastewater output based on emergy, different characteristics of two kinds of wastewater treatments are revealed. The results show that CWs are environment-benign, less energy-intensive despite the relatively low ecological waste removal efficiency (EWRE), and less cost in construction, operation and maintenance compared with the conventional wastewater treatment plants. In addition, manifested by the emergy analysis, the cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) has the merit of higher ecological waste elimination efficiency.

  5. Conventional Leasing vs Islamic Leasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leasing developed in time, from the simple form of renting to the modern modality of financial from nowadays, as an alternative for loan. It is present in the entire world, being used both by the financial specialized companies and banks, and the clients are companies and population. The object of leasing contract can be assets and also services, which are rented by the financier (lessor, on definite period, to the client (lessee, in exchange for a leasing rate (rent. The registering in accounting and the fiscal implications in the companies financial administration are different, according to the leasing form which they are using. The capitalist system has in view to obtain profit from renting, but the Islamic System, based on Șaria, forbids renting “haram” assets and services, obtaining interest from renting and using the leasing contract for the transfer of the property.

  6. Cluster headache: conventional pharmacological management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Werner J

    2013-01-01

    Cluster headache pain is very intense, usually increases in intensity very rapidly from onset, and attacks are often frequent. These clinical features result in significant therapeutic challenges. The most effective pharmacological treatment options for acute cluster attack include subcutaneous sumatriptan, 100% oxygen, and intranasal zolmitriptan. Subcutaneous or intramuscular dihydroergotamine and intranasal sumatriptan are additional options. Transitional therapy is applicable mainly for patients with high-frequency (>2 attacks per day) episodic cluster headache, and options include short courses of high-dose oral corticosteroids, dihydroergotamine, and occipital nerve blocks with local anesthetic and steroids. Prophylactic therapy is important both for episodic and chronic cluster headache, and the main options are verapamil and lithium. Verapamil is drug of first choice but may cause cardiac arrhythmias, and periodic electrocardiograms (EKGs) during dose escalation are important. Many other drugs are also in current use, but there is an insufficient evidence base to recommend them.

  7. An Efficient Data Communication Using Conventional Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Nikam Pratibha Madhavrao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The BER performance of conventional FFT-OFDM system is compared with DWT-OFDM system and DCT-OFDM system in an AWGN environment and Saleh-Valenzuela (SV channel model at 60 GHz. Several wavelets such as Haar, Daubechies, Symlet, biorthogonal are considered. The BER is calculated for signaling format BPSK and the performance is analyzed at 60 GHz. Simulation results show that DCT based scheme yields the lowest average bit error rate. While out of all wavelet mother used Haar and Daubechies wavelet based scheme yields lower BER than FFT-OFDM for an AWGN channel. But it may include the implementation of forward error correction techniques such as convolution codes. An efficient channel estimation algorithm may be included for performance evaluation of DCT-OFDM and DWT- OFDM working at 60 GHz band. We introduce the Interfacing Techniques for Accessing data transfer data delivery. By using our approach we are increasing the efficiency of the data communication.

  8. The Study of Basic Crew Security Training Based on STCW Convention Manila Amendments%基于STCW公约马尼拉修正案的船员基本安全培训的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫前; 施振华

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic crew security training. Combining the current situation of the per- formance of STCW convention of the new requirements in Manila amendment, this paper discusses the basic se- curity crew under the new situation and new development of the training.%通过分析船员基本安全培训的现状,结合STCW公约马尼拉修正案的新要求,探讨新形势下船员基本安全履约培训的策略。

  9. AECT Convention, Orlando, Florida 2008 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Eddie

    2009-01-01

    This article presents several reports that highlight the events at the 2008 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) International Convention in Orlando, Florida. At the annual convention this year, the Multimedia Production Division goal was to continue to share information about the latest tools in multimedia production,…

  10. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...

  11. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  12. Conventional Teaching in Basic Science: An inner view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhendu Dutta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional teaching became debatable since early nineteenth century due to many factors. The most important was lack of basic science teacher that initiated to involve clinical teachers to teach basic sciences. Due to paucity of subject expert teacher, different forms of teaching modules were adopted namely problem-based learning, problem-solving learning, task-based learning, and so on. In mid nineteenth century controversy raised regarding outcome of new horizon of teaching. Therefore an effort was made to find out the opinions of the students and teaching fraternity about the applicability of conventional lecture based teaching by a subject expert in anatomy as well as other basic science subjects through literature survey. It is observed that conventional teaching, guided by subject expert is well appreciated by the students and that has been reflected in National Board of Examination part –I and United State Medical Licensing Examination. There are some inherent demerits also observed. To overcome weakness, study result suggests to adopt hybrid module of teaching that is combination of the merits of conventional and problem-based or problem-solving teaching. Horizontal integration is essential to correlate basic science subjects for firm foundation of basic knowledge before entering into clinical field. Care should be taken that under no circumstance novice is over loaded by the transmission of factual knowledge.

  13. GROUND-WATER SAMPLING BIAS OBSERVED IN SHALLOW, CONVENTIONAL WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A previous field demonstration project on nitrate-based bioremediation of a fuel-contaminated aquifer used short-screened clustered well points in addition to shallow (10 foot), conventional monitoring wells to monitor the progress of remediation during surface application of rec...

  14. Classification system for conventional crown and fixed partial denture failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manappallil, John Joy

    2008-04-01

    The dental literature is replete with reports on the many aspects of failure encountered with traditional fixed prosthodontic treatment, including longitudinal survival studies of crowns and fixed partial dentures and reasons for failures. However, criteria for grading or classifying the type and severity of these failures are inadequate. A classification system for conventional fixed prosthodontic failures based on severity is presented.

  15. The framework convention on climate change a convention for sustainable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassing, P.; Mendis, M.S.; Menezes, L.M.; Gowen, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In 1992, over 165 countries signed the United Nation`s Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). These countries have implicitly agreed to alter their `anthropogenic activities` that increase the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere and deplete the natural sinks for these same greenhouse gases. The energy sector is the major source of the primary anthropogenic GHGs, notably carbon dioxide and methane. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries presently account for the major share of GHG emissions from the energy sector. However, the developing countries are also rapidly increasing their contribution to global GHG emissions as a result of their growing consumption of fossil-based energy. Implementation of this global climate change convention, if seriously undertaken by the signatory countries, will necessitate changes in the energy mix and production processes in both the OECD and developing countries. International actions also will be needed to put the world on a sustainable energy path. By adoption of the FCCC, representatives of the world`s populations have indicated their desire to move toward such a path. The Conference of Parties to the Convention has just concluded its second meeting, at which the Parties endorsed a U.S. proposal that legally binding and enforceable emissions targets be adopted. It is clearly evident that the FCCC, as presently operating, cannot achieve the objective of stabilizing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere unless it adopts a major protocol to significantly reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. As demonstrated here, a good starting point in determining the steps the Parties to the FCCC should take in designing a protocol is to remember that the primary source of anthropogenic GHG emissions is the consumption of fossil fuels and the future growth of GHG emissions will derive primarily from the ever-increasing demand for and consumption of these fuels.

  16. The Capillary Pressure Curve Reconstruction Based on Conventional Log Physical Properties%利用常规测井物性曲线重构毛细管压力曲线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培春; 李兴丽; 张琳琳; 邢仁东

    2012-01-01

    为更好地研究盖层封闭能力和储层的岩石孔隙结构,提出一种利用常规测井曲线获得毛细管压力曲线的方法.介绍了压汞毛细管压力曲线的双曲线特征,指出毛细管压力曲线的形态由完全连通的孔隙体积、门槛压力和孔喉几何因子确定.分析了现有计算方法的不足,结合现有常规测井物性资料,对重构毛细管压力曲线的关键参数进行了大量统计分析.门槛压力与孔渗比值存在很好的拟合关系,通过建立二者之间的回归关系式可直接求取门槛压力.利用渤海地区压汞资料和常规测井曲线拟合出了压汞毛细管压力曲线.实际资料验证表明该方法能够满足油田勘探开发以及科研需要.%In order to study the seal ability of cap rock and the rock pore structure of reservoir in depth, a new method is provided to get capillary pressure curve with conventional well logging data. Introduced is hyperbolic curve feature of the capillary pressure curve, and it is indicated that the curve shape is determined by completely interconnected pore bulk, threshold pressure and pore throat geometrical factor. Analyzed are the disadvantages of existing computing methods. Combining with conventional logging data, a large number of statistic analyses are used for key parameters of restructuring capillary pressure curves. It is believed that the threshold pressure has good fitting relationship with porosity-permeability ratio, and it is possible to get the threshold pressure directly by structuring regression equation between them. Mercury injection capillary pressure curve of Bohai area is fitted with mercury-injection and conventional well logging data in this area. Practical application indicates that this method can meet oilfield exploration and research demand.

  17. 基于城市轨道交通的常规公交线网优化调整%Optimal Adjustment of Conventional Public Transportation Network Based on Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡列格; 段胜楠; 唐量; 王佳

    2015-01-01

    为推动公交优先发展战略全面实施,充分发挥大运量城市轨道交通在公共交通系统中的骨干作用和常规公交的辅助协调作用,需要围绕城市轨道交通对常规公交做出优化调整。该文从城市轨道交通影响范围内的常规公交客流的变化情况入手,对常规公交线网优化调整问题进行描述,建立以直达能力最大为目标函数,以线路长度、非直线系数、公交线网密度等为约束条件的常规公交线网优化模型;构造算例,应用遗传算法进行优化模型求解分析,其结果表明对常规公交线网优化的效果明显。%In order to promote the full implementation of public transport priority development strate‐gy ,make the large capacity backbone role of the urban rail transit and assistance coordinating role of con‐ventional bus transit in to full play ,it is necessary to adjust conventional bus transport to urban rail tran‐sit .Putting the passenger flow changes of the conventional bus transit into consideration ,this paper de‐scribed the optimal adjustment problems on bus transit under the influence of urban rail transit ,established an optimizing model of conventional bus transit network and solved it via genetic algorithm with maximum of non‐stop capacity as its objective function ,the line length ,non‐linear coefficient and public transport net‐work density as its constraints .

  18. Adapting conventional cancer treatment for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jian; Liu, Zhida; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of directly killing tumors by conventional cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, has been for several decades well established. But, a suppressed immune response might become a lethal side effect after repeated cycles of intensive treatment. Recently, achievements in immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T cell-mediated immunotherapies have resulted in changes in frontline management of advanced cancer diseases. However, accumulated evidence indicates that immunotherapeutic and conventional strategies alone are often ineffective to eradicate big tumors or metastasis. To improve the outcomes of treatment for advanced cancer diseases, the combination of conventional cancer treatment with various immunotherapeutic approaches has been attempted and has shown potential synergistic effects. Recent studies have unexpectedly demonstrated that some strategies of conventional cancer treatment can regulate the immune response positively, thus the understanding of how to adapt conventional treatment for immunotherapy is crucial to the design of effective combination therapy of conventional treatment with immunotherapy. Here, we review both experimental and clinical studies on the therapeutic effect and its mechanisms of combining conventional therapy with immunotherapy in treatment of cancer.

  19. [New challenges in the biological weapons convention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissonen, Susanna; Raijas, Tiina; Haikala, Olli; Hietala, Heikki; Virri, Markku; Nikkari, Simo

    2012-01-01

    Microbes and their toxins are biological weapons that can cause disease in humans, animals or plants, and which can be used with hostile intent in warfare and terrorism. Biological agents can be used as weapons of mass destruction and therefore, immense human and social and major economical damage can be caused. Rapid development of life sciences and technologies during the recent decades has posed new challenges to the Biological Weapons Convention. The Convention states that the States Parties to the BWC strive to ensure that the Convention remains relevant and effective, despite changes in science, technology or politics.

  20. Energy balance in IPM rice farms compared to conventional farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fazeli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management based on Farmer Field Schools (IPM/FFS is a program aimed to guide farmers toward managing agricultural pests in an environmentally responsible manner. This program has been in practice during the recent decade in the north of Iran. A study was conducted to evaluate the overall impacts of IPM/FFS program on energy balance and economic revenue of paddy (Oryza sativa L. farms compared with conventional farms (no IPM. The data of inputs, management practices, and output (yield of 238 paddy farms (135 IPM farms and 103 conventional farms located in a semi-Mediterranean climate were collected in 2010 and 2011. Total energy input, energy output, energy efficiency, and energy productivity were determined as indicators of energy balance. The total energy requirement for paddy production in IPM system was 48756 MJ ha−1, indicating that 8% more energy was used in IPM farms than that in conventional farms. It was noticed that IPM program in this region failed to reduce the consumption of chemical pesticides in paddy farms and the conventional system was more energy efficient than IPM system. Although paddy yield of the two systems was similar, the economic net return in IPM system was almost 20% higher than the conventional system due to the higher price of paddy produced in IPM system.

  1. The Paradox Struggle Between the Islamic and Conventional Banking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishath Muneeza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a multi religious and a multi ethnic society with aplural legal structure. The banking system of country is essentially dual in nature and hence, there are two different sets of legal framework working simultaneously. Today, the Islamic Banking system which emerged in 1983 has levelled up to the conventional banking system which had rooted itself in the society a long time ago. Whether we believe it or not there are challenges and clashes at hand due to the existence of the dual system in the society and they need to be addressed properly, so that the clashes between these two types of banking system can be minimized. There are several quarrels between conventional and Islamic Banking laws. Some of these clashes are created due to the application of common law or conventional law based legislation to resolve the problems in the Islamic banking system. The impact of this is huge, primarily because, Islamiceconomics has a different premise from conventional banking andapplying the same legal principles to resolve disputes for both markets does not work. Unlike conventional banking’s capitalist conviction that winner takes all, Islam argues for a fair distribution of profit and loss and bans purely speculative activity.

  2. Islamic versus conventional banking: A comparative analysis of financial arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Marinković, Srđan

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the concept of Islamic banking by making comparison between the basic features of some key conventional and Islamic financial arrangements. Paradigm version of Islamic banking forbids arrangements based on a predetermined rate of return on financial investments, instead it proposes equity based modes of finance which promote partnership between financier and an entrepreneur. Nevertheless, the theoretically suggested concepts in current practice are faced with serious diffic...

  3. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...... foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved...

  4. Less tachycardia during transnasal versus conventional gastroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenschwander, Anders U; Christensen, Merete; Schulze, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Transnasal endoscopy is well tolerated, but physiological benefits compared with conventional gastroscopy have not been studied in detail. The aims of this randomised study were to evaluate cardiopulmonary features, patient tolerance, and the endoscopist's evaluation of transnasal versus conventi...

  5. numerical assessment of conventional regulation effectiveness for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benkoussas B, Djedjig R, and Vauquelin O

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... International License. Libraries Resource ... Keywords: underground station; conventional regulation; ventilation strategies; smoke ... Intuitively, ventilation is the first practice which is applied to secure the space and users.

  6. Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning: Innovations ... using various blended learning media including print, ICTs, electronic platforms, ... Admittedly, the blending of offline and online learning enhances significantly ...

  7. Reflexive convention: civil partnership, marriage and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, Brian

    2017-09-14

    Drawing on an analysis of qualitative interview data from a study of formalized same-sex relationships (civil partnerships) this paper examines the enduring significance of marriage and family as social institutions. In doing so, it intervenes in current debates in the sociology of family and personal life about how such institutions are undermined by reflexivity or bolstered by convention. Against the backdrop of dominating sociological frames for understanding the links between the changing nature of marriage and family and same-sex relationship recognition, the paper analyses the diverse and overlapping ways (including the simple, relational, strategic, ambivalent and critical ways) in which same-sex partners reflexively constructed and engaged with marriage and family conventions. My analysis suggests that instead of viewing reflexivity and convention as mutually undermining, as some sociologists of family and personal life do, it is insightful to explore how diverse forms of reflexivity and convention interact in everyday life to reconfigure the social institutions of marriage and family, but do not undermine them as such. I argue the case for recognizing the ways in which 'reflexive convention', or reflexive investment in convention, contributes to the continuing significance of marriage and family as social institutions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  8. Keynes' theory of conventional decision-making in financial markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ognjen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed in this paper is whether financial markets actually function in the manner described by the today still dominant modern theory of efficient financial markets. We argue that the theory's conclusions are based on unreal assumptions that the future is predictable and ergodic. Since assumptions of a model determine its conclusions, unreal assumptions imply incorrect and inapplicable theoretical models. In contrast to neoclassical theory, Keynes insisted that future was fundamentally uncertain and nonergodic. Under such circumstances, when it is not possible to calculate the future, the only rational thing for agents in financial markets to do is to base their decisions on socially acceptable conventions. Consequently, since convention-based expectations are unstable and since expectations create future it is possible to prove that financial markets are inherently unstable.

  9. A comparative design and tuning for conventional fuzzy control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H X

    1997-01-01

    A new methodology is introduced for designing and tuning the scaling gains of the conventional fuzzy logic controller (FLC) based on its well-tuned linear counterpart. The conventional FLC with a linear rule base is very similar to its linear counterpart. The linear three-term controller has proportional, integral and/or derivative gains. Similarly, the conventional fuzzy three-term controller also has fuzzy proportional, integral and/or derivative gains. The new concept "fuzzy transfer function" is invented to connect these fuzzy gains with the corresponding scaling gains. The comparative gain design is presented by using the gains of the well-tuned linear counterpart as the initial fuzzy gains of the conventional FLC. Furthermore, the relationship between the scaling gains and the performance can be deduced to produce the comparative tuning algorithm, which can tune the scaling gains to their optimum by less trial and error. The performance comparison in the simulation demonstrates the viability of the new methodology.

  10. Immediate Versus Early Loading and Conventional Loading in Implant Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Maghaireh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the risk of implant failures after their placement, dental implants are traditionally kept load-free for 3 to 8 months to establish osseointegration before connecting the prosthetic super-structure (conventional loading. However, implant dentists are under continuous pressure from the media and patients to speed up the treatment and reduce number of visits during the implant therapy. Immediate implant loading can also reduce the cost and might also improve aesthetics as claimed by some surgeons. This pressure from the media, patients and dentists was behind introducing changes into the loading protocols and nowadays implants are loaded early and even immediately and it would be useful to know whether there is a difference in success rates between immediately and early loaded implants compared with conventionally loaded implants. It is well known that whenever a clinician is faced with a clinical question, the answer(s should be evidence based to avoid the risk of bias as opinion based answers can be misleading and can cause more failures in the dental practice. This mini-review aims to evaluate the effects of (1 immediate (within 1 week, (2 early (between 1 week and 2 months, and (3 conventional (after 2 months loading of osseointegrated dental implants. The review found no evidence that attaching artificial teeth either immediately, after 6 weeks (early or after at least 3 months (conventional led to any important differences in the failure of the implant or the artificial tooth, or to the amount of bone which surrounded the implant (any bone loss would be an undesirable consequence. However, we found a trend of more failures and complications with early loading when compared to immediate or conventional loading. More research is needed in this area. - See more at: http://smiledentaljournal.com/article.php?id=59#sthash.mniQLIcf.dpuf

  11. Knee bone tumors: findings on conventional radiology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Neto, Francisco; Teixeira, Manuel Joaquim Diógenes; Araújo, Leonardo Heráclio do Carmo; Ponte, Carlos Eduardo Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The knee is a common site for bone tumors, whether clinically painful or not. Conventional radiology has been established as the first line of investigation in patients with knee pain and can reveal lesions that often generate questions not only for the generalist physician but also for the radiologist or general orthopedist. History, image examination, and histopathological analysis compose the essential tripod of the diagnosis of bone tumors, and conventional radiology is an essential diagnostic tool in patients with knee pain. This pictorial essay proposes to depict the main conventional radiography findings of the most common bone tumors around the knee, including benign and malignant tumors, as well as pseudo-tumors. PMID:27403019

  12. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  13. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  14. The collapse of the conventional career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, P

    The Collapse of the Conventional Career was commissioned by the ENB as 'the first in a number of discussion papers in which important issues were to be explored so that the professional could debate them fully' (Jean Hooper, chairwoman of the ENB, in her foreword). The author Celia Davis' premise was that, conventionally, a career was seen as comprising full-time work carried out without a break in service. Because many female nurses could not fulfil this expectation they were disadvantaged in a number of ways. In order to address the problems faced in practice by those who would not be able, for various reasons, to undertake a conventional career, Professor Davis looked at what changes in thinking and policy would be required.

  15. Investigation of Surfaces after Non Conventional Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micietova, Anna; Neslusan, Miroslav; Cillikova, Maria

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with analysis of surface integrity of steel after electro discharge machining (EDM), water jet machining, (WJM) laser beam machining (LBM) and plasma beam machining (PBM). The paper discusses surface integrity expressed in surface roughness, sample precision expressed in perpendicularity deviation as well as stress state. This study also demonstrates influence of the various non-conventional methods on structure transformations and reports about sensitivity of the different non-conventional methods of machining with regard to variable thickness of machined samples.

  16. Control of non-conventional synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,

  17. 1985 CSEG/CGU National Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, John W.; Millington, Graham

    The Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists (CSEG) and the Canadian Geophysical Union (CGU) held their first joint national meeting in Calgary, Canada, May 7-10, 1985. As the CSEG represents primarily the oil exploration side of geophysics and the CGU represents mainly the academic side, both groups felt that a joint convention would broaden their perspectives. Some 1750 delegates and over 100 students registered for the meeting. The Convention Committee was chaired by Ian Baker (Atlantis Resources Ltd.), and CGU was represented by Peter Savage (Pan Canadian Petroleum Ltd.). The Technical Committee was chaired by John Peirce (Petro-Canada Inc.) for CGU and Graham Millington (Canadian Superior Oil Ltd.) for CSEG

  18. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    as 1) the reformulation of the theory of action focusing on the uncertainty of social action; 2) pointing to the importance of collective frames of reference for individual rationality; and 3) the elaboration of a theory of institutions, focusing on the importance of conventions as forming...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...

  19. Periodontal health in patients under conventional and lingual orthodontic therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gonzalo Tapia-Rivera

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveSome clinical periodontal health parameters were assessed comparatively in patients using conventional and lingual brackets.Material and methodA trained examiner registered the frequencies of visible plaque (VP, bleeding on probing (BOP, as well as the simplified oral hygiene (OHI-S and modified gingival (MGI indices in 83 subjects from two clinics. The effects of orthodontic treatments on periodontal health were analyzed using logistic regression (α = 0.05.ResultIn the conventional group, the frequency of visible plaque was significantly higher on the buccal surfaces of anterior (OR = 12.5 and maxillary posterior (OR = 3.6 teeth, p < 0.01. BOP in posterior teeth was also more frequent in this group, p < 0.05. The lingual group presented higher frequency of visible plaque on the lingual surfaces of anterior teeth (OR = 4.3; p = 0.0034. The conventional group had significantly higher frequencies of mild gingivitis in the buccal regions of anterior (OR = 9.0 and maxillary posterior (OR = 16.7 teeth, p < 0.05, and anterior papillae (OR = 9.0; p = 0.0003. On the other hand, the lingual group evidenced mild gingivitis more often in the lingual regions of anterior teeth (OR = 54.5, p < 0.01.ConclusionBased on the results of this study, the clinical periodontal health conditions may be considered acceptable for patients using both conventional and lingual brackets.

  20. Conventional vs Biomimetic Approaches to the Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, A.

    It is not usual to refer to convention in planetary exploration missions by virtue of the innovation required for such projects. The term conventional refers to the methodologies, tools and approaches typically adopted in engineering that are applied to such missions. Presented is a "conventional" Mars rover mission in which the author was involved - ExoMars - into which is interspersed references to examples where biomimetic approaches may yield superior capabilities. Biomimetics is a relatively recently active area of research which seeks to examine how biological systems solve the problem of survival in the natural environment. Biological organisms are autonomous entities that must survive in a hostile world adapting both adaptivity and robustness. It is not then surprising that biomimetics is particularly useful when applied to robotic elements of a Mars exploration mission. I present a number of areas in which biomimetics may yield new solutions to the problem of Mars exploration - optic flow navigation, potential field navigation, genetically-evolved neuro-controllers, legged locomotion, electric motors implementing muscular behaviour, and a biomimetic drill based on the wood wasp ovipositor. Each of these techniques offers an alternative approach to conventional ones. However, the perceptive hurdles are likely to dwarf the technical hurdles in implementing many of these methods in the near future.

  1. Conventional versus virtual radiographs of the injured pelvis and acetabulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Julius A.; Rao, Allison J.; Pouliot, Michael A.; Bellino, Michael [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Beaulieu, Christopher [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Evaluation of the fractured pelvis or acetabulum requires both standard radiographic evaluation as well as computed tomography (CT) imaging. The standard anterior-posterior (AP), Judet, and inlet and outlet views can now be simulated using data acquired during CT, decreasing patient discomfort, radiation exposure, and cost to the healthcare system. The purpose of this study is to compare the image quality of conventional radiographic views of the traumatized pelvis to virtual radiographs created from pelvic CT scans. Five patients with acetabular fractures and ten patients with pelvic ring injuries were identified using the orthopedic trauma database at our institution. These fractures were evaluated with both conventional radiographs as well as virtual radiographs generated from a CT scan. A web-based survey was created to query overall image quality and visibility of relevant anatomic structures. This survey was then administered to members of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA). Ninety-seven surgeons completed the acetabular fracture survey and 87 completed the pelvic fracture survey. Overall image quality was judged to be statistically superior for the virtual as compared to conventional images for acetabular fractures (3.15 vs. 2.98, p = 0.02), as well as pelvic ring injuries (2.21 vs. 1.45, p = 0.0001). Visibility ratings for each anatomic landmark were statistically superior with virtual images as well. Virtual radiographs of pelvic and acetabular fractures offer superior image quality, improved comfort, decreased radiation exposure, and a more cost-effective alternative to conventional radiographs. (orig.)

  2. Applied intelligent systems: blending fuzzy logic with conventional control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filev, Dimitar; Syed, Fazal U.

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that design of applied intelligent control systems requires different types of blending between fuzzy logic and conventional control systems. Two alternative automotive applications - a manufacturing process control problem and an advisory system for fuel efficient driving - that benefit from both fuzzy and control theories are reviewed and different levels of prioritisations of both approaches are discussed based on the specificity of the applications.

  3. Teaching the Conventions of Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonney, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Given the current emphasis on disciplinary discourses, it's not surprising that so little recent attention has been devoted to identifying conventions that are universal in academic discourse. In this essay, the author argues that there are shared features that unite academic writing, and that by introducing these features to first-year students…

  4. Fracture healing: direct magnification versus conventional radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, T.M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Kessler, T. [Dept. of Traumatic and Hand Surgery, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Lange, T. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Overbeck, J. [Dept. of Traumatic and Hand Surgery, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Fiebich, M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Peters, P.E. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany)

    1994-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of magnification radiography in diagnosing fracture healing and assessing its complications. Seventy-three patients with fractures or who had undergone osteotomy were radiographed with both conventional (non-magnified) and magnification (5-fold) techniques. Since 10 patients were radiographed twice and 1 three times, 83 radiographs using each technique were obtained. All radiographs were analysed and the findings correlated with the patients` follow-up studies. The microfocal X-ray unit used for magnification radiography had a focal spot size of 20-130 {mu}m. As an imaging system, digital luminescence radiography was employed with magnification, while normal film-screen systems were used with conventional radiography. Magnification radiography proved superior to conventional radiography in 47% of cases: endosteal and periosteal callus formations were seen earlier and better in 26 cases, and osseous union could be evaluated with greater certainty in 33 cases. In 49% of cases magnification radiography was equal and in 4% inferior to conventional radiography. Additionally an ``inter-observer analysis`` was carried out. Anatomical and pathological structures were classified into one of four grades. Results were significantly (P < 0.01) better using magnification radiography. We conclude that the magnification technique is a good method for monitoring fracture healing in its early stages. (orig.)

  5. Electric and Conventional Vehicle Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is an interesting vehicle type that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, e.g., by using electricity from wind turbines. A significant disadvantage of EVs is a very limited range, typically less than 200 km. This paper compares EVs to conventional vehicles (CVs...

  6. Children's Impressions of Moral and Conventional Transgressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1985-01-01

    Two studies examined children's inferences of personality for actors engaging in different domains of behavior. In both studies, first, fourth, and seventh graders were given two descriptions of actors engaging in either moral or conventional transgressions. Findings indicated that children's concepts of persons were inferred from information…

  7. Conventionalism and Methodological Standards in Contending with Skepticism about Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumble, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    What it means to measure and interpret confidence and uncertainty in a result is often particular to a specific scientific community and its methodology of verification. Additionally, methodology in the sciences varies greatly across disciplines and scientific communities. Understanding the accuracy of predictions of a particular science thus depends largely upon having an intimate working knowledge of the methods, standards, and conventions utilized and underpinning discoveries in that scientific field. Thus, valid criticism of scientific predictions and discoveries must be conducted by those who are literate in the field in question: they must have intimate working knowledge of the methods of the particular community and of the particular research under question. The interpretation and acceptance of uncertainty is one such shared, community-based convention. In the philosophy of science, this methodological and community-based way of understanding scientific work is referred to as conventionalism. By applying the conventionalism of historian and philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn to recent attacks upon methods of multi-proxy mean temperature reconstructions, I hope to illuminate how climate skeptics and their adherents fail to appreciate the need for community-based fluency in the methodological standards for understanding uncertainty shared by the wider climate science community. Further, I will flesh out a picture of climate science community standards of evidence and statistical argument following the work of philosopher of science Helen Longino. I will describe how failure to appreciate the conventions of professionalism and standards of evidence accepted in the climate science community results in the application of naïve falsification criteria. Appeal to naïve falsification in turn has allowed scientists outside the standards and conventions of the mainstream climate science community to consider themselves and to be judged by climate skeptics as valid

  8. The Conventional and Unconventional about Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.; Bishop, Malachy; Mpofu, Elias

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in relation to prior United Nations conventions on disability and U.S. disability policy law with a view to identifying the conventional and also the incremental advances of the CRPD. Previous United Nations conventions related to…

  9. Unbiased quantitative testing of conventional orthodontic beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S

    1998-03-01

    This study used a preexisting database to test in hypothesis from the appropriateness of some common orthodontic beliefs concerning upper first molar displacement and changes in facial morphology associated with conventional full bonded/banded treatment in growing subjects. In an initial pass, the author used data from a stratified random sample of 48 subjects drawn retrospectively from the practice of a single, experienced orthodontist. This sample consisted of 4 subgroups of 12 subjects each: Class I nonextraction, Class I extraction, Class II nonextraction, and Class II extraction. The findings indicate that, relative to the facial profile, chin point did not, on average, displace anteriorly during treatment, either overall or in any subgroup. Relative to the facial profile, Point A became significantly less prominent during treatment, both overall and in each subgroup. The best estimate of the mean displacement of the upper molar cusp relative to superimposition on Anterior Cranial Base was in the mesial direction in each of the four subgroups. In only one extraction subject out of 24 did the cusp appear to be displaced distally. Mesial molar cusp displacement was significantly greater in the Class II extraction subgroup than in the Class II nonextraction subgroup. Relative to superimposition on anatomical "best fit" of maxillary structures, the findings for molar cusp displacement were similar, but even more dramatic. Mean mesial migration was highly significant in both the Class II nonextraction and Class II extraction subgroups. In no subject in the entire sample was distal displacement noted relative to this superimposition. Mean increase in anterior Total Face Height was significantly greater in the Class II extraction subgroup than in the Class II nonextraction subgroup. (This finding was contrary to the author's original expectation.) The generalizability of the findings from the initial pass to other treated growing subjects was then assessed by

  10. QUESTIONING CONVENTIONS: ARE PRODUCT CONVENTIONS TRADING OFF THE USABILITY OF PRODUCTS FOR SHORT TERM USER SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Gough Young

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mapping conventions are a key aspect of user centered design as they present users with familiar interactions in unfamiliar products. Conventions evolve over time and are slow to be adopted, requiring a high percentage of acceptance within a society, ensuring that conventions exhibit a sufficient level of usability. However this paper argues that while usability is a necessary condition for good interactions it is not a sufficient one. Therefore user centered design which accents individuals bias towards conventions my in fact be hindering the innovation of product interactions. This paper argues that a cognitive approach should be adopted in order understand and reassess product interactions. An experiment was carried out that demonstrates the influence that simple mappings can have on cognitive load. The results showed that basic mappings of the types that are found throughout product conventions can have a substantial impact on mental load and subsequently product interaction.

  11. Diagnosis value of liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology smears on detecting cervical squamous cell lesions%液基细胞学技术与传统细胞学涂片技术对宫颈病变细胞学的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董彦军; 郑加荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the value of liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology smears on detection of cervical squamous cell lesions.Methods One thousand and two hundred women were detected by cervical liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology smear screening from Oct.2009 to Oct.2012,of which positive cases were detected by colposcopy and biopsy as the gold standard as a positive control.The diagnostic value of the liquid-based cytology on cervical lesions was assessed.Results The positive detection rate of ASCUS/A-GUS and above lesions was 16.00% (96 cases) by liquid-based cytology detection,and positive detection rate of pap ⅡB level and above lesions was 4.83 % (29 cases).The positive detection rate by liquid-based cytology was significantly higher than that of conventional cytology smears,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Colposcopic and histopathological findings as the gold standard,cervical liquid-based cytology screening coincidence rate was 76.80%,conventional cytology smear screening coincidence rate was 38.16%,and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusions Liquid-based cytology screening for cervical squamous cell lesions is significantly superior to conventional cytology smears.%目的 比较液基细胞学技术与传统细胞学涂片在宫颈鳞状细胞病变检测中的价值.方法 对2009年10月至2012年10月1200例妇女采用宫颈液基细胞学或传统细胞学涂片进行筛查,并对筛查阳性病例以其阴道镜检查及病理活检结果为金标准作为阳性对照,评估液基细胞学技术对宫颈不同病变的诊断价值.结果 宫颈液基细胞学筛查出ASCUS/A-GUS及以上分级病例96例,阳性检出率为16.00%;传统细胞学涂片筛查出巴氏ⅡB级及以上分级病例29例,阳性检出率为4.83%;宫颈液基细胞学阳性检出率明显高于传统细胞学涂片,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).以阴道镜及病理组织学

  12. Inspiral waveforms for spinning compact binaries in a new precessing convention

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    It is customary to use a precessing convention, based on Newtonian orbital angular momentum ${\\bf L}_{\\rm N}$, to model inspiral gravitational waves from generic spinning compact binaries. A key feature of such a precessing convention is its ability to remove all spin precession induced modulations from the orbital phase evolution. However, this convention usually employs a post-Newtonian (PN) accurate precessional equation, appropriate for the PN accurate orbital angular momentum ${\\bf L}$, to evolve the ${\\bf L}_{\\rm N}$-based precessing source frame. This motivated us to develop inspiral waveforms for spinning compact binaries in a precessing convention that explicitly use ${\\bf L}$ to describe the binary orbits. Our approach introduces certain additional 3PN order terms in the orbital phase and frequency evolution equations with respect to the usual ${\\bf L}_{\\rm N}$-based implementation of the precessing convention. The implications of these additional terms are explored by computing the match between in...

  13. Ratio between conventional and renewable energy production in Germany with focus on 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziems, Christian; Weber, Harald [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Electrical Power Engineering; Meinke, Sebastian; Hassel, Egon; Nocke, Juergen [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Technical Thermodynamics

    2011-07-01

    The increasing influence of renewable power production into the existing electrical energy supply system leads to displacement of conventional power production. This also results in reduced inertia with negative effects on system stability. Investigations are required to examine the maximally possible integration of renewables-based power and adjusted modes of operation of conventional power plants and the effects on lifetime and efficiency. (orig.)

  14. Conceptions of Moral, Social-Conventional, and Personal Events among Chinese Preschoolers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Jenny; Smetana, Judith G.

    2003-01-01

    Interviewed 4- and 6-year-old Hong Kong preschoolers about familiar moral, social-conventional, and personal events. Found that children judged children as deciding personal issues, based on personal choice justifications, and judged parents as deciding moral and conventional issues. With age, children granted increased decisionmaking power to the…

  15. Comparison of Islamic Banks with Conventional Banks: Evidence from an Emerging Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameenullah Aman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates and compares the performance of Sharia-compliant banks with their conventional counterparts operating in Pakistan. Data of five full-fledged Islamic Banks(IBs and fifteen Conventional Banks (CBs, all from Pakistan, have been used for the study. Study period comprises of six years from year 2008 to year 2013. Bank's orientation, efficiency, quality of assets and stability are the measures used to compare the performance of Shariah-compliant and conventional banks. The Islamic Banks in Pakistan are younger in age and smaller in size compared to the Conventional Banks. Based on the financial ratios of two types of banks, we find that the business model of Islamic Banks is inferior to the model of Conventional Banks. Islamic Banks are less cost efficient than Conventional Banks. However, Islamic Banks have superior asset quality with better bank stability position.

  16. Statistical estimation of white matter microstructure from conventional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah H Suttner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI has become the predominant modality for studying white matter integrity in multiple sclerosis (MS and other neurological disorders. Unfortunately, the use of DTI-based biomarkers in large multi-center studies is hindered by systematic biases that confound the study of disease-related changes. Furthermore, the site-to-site variability in multi-center studies is significantly higher for DTI than that for conventional MRI-based markers. In our study, we apply the Quantitative MR Estimation Employing Normalization (QuEEN model to estimate the four DTI measures: MD, FA, RD, and AD. QuEEN uses a voxel-wise generalized additive regression model to relate the normalized intensities of one or more conventional MRI modalities to a quantitative modality, such as DTI. We assess the accuracy of the models by comparing the prediction error of estimated DTI images to the scan-rescan error in subjects with two sets of scans. Across the four DTI measures, the performance of the models is not consistent: Both MD and RD estimations appear to be quite accurate, while AD estimation is less accurate than MD and RD; the accuracy of FA estimation is poor. Thus, in some cases when assessing white matter integrity, it may be sufficient to acquire conventional MRI sequences alone.

  17. Characteristics and criticism of conventional eco- and environmental economics models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karajz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to introduce basic theories of environmental economics, dealing with environment factors, and to present critical view on them. The results of the analysis. The necessity to create a new economic paradigm or to elaborate a new approach to economics can most efficiently be justified by providing a critical analysis of conventional economic theories. Following this view, the material introduces basic theories of environmental economics belonging to the branch of economics dealing with environmental factors and based on conventional or neoclassical foundations (problems of public welfare, Pigouvian taxes, the Coase theorem, optimal utilisation of natural resources, the standard price theory and presents critical views related to these issues. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The conventional economics is based on fundamental assumption of neoclassical welfare economics according to which the primarily aim of economics is obviously to achieve Pareto optimal conditions. This optimum can be in two meanings: if Pareto optimum means Pareto norms, it reflects relevant conditions for economic policy. If Pareto optimum is linked with marginal analysis when a determined fictitious economic optimum is sought for in a perfect competition situation, it an instrument used for formal analytical analysis. According to this allocation of resources or the volume of production is optimal if there is a situation in which it is possible to make any individual better off without making someone else worse off.

  18. Comparative Study of Diagrid Structures with Conventional Frame Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manthan I. Shah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern age, the decrease of available free land and increase of land prices along with the wide spread of urban area has made architects and engineers to develop the cities vertically. For vertical growth, the only option is to construct the buildings as high as possible. It is a task of a structural designer to make the desired building stand and stable throughout its life. There are various structural systems for tall buildings, among them diagrid system is selected for this work. Diagrid is an exterior structural system which resists the lateral forces by axial actions of diagonals provided in periphery. Statistical analysis of tall buildings in India is carried out and presented for buildings having height more than 150 m or 40 storeys. Parametric study and detailed comparison of diagrid structural system with respect to conventional frame is carried out for symmetrical buildings. In this study seven steel buildings of identical base area and loadings with different heights are designed for optimum sections for both structural systems diagrid and conventional frame in ETABS. Various parameters like fundamental time period, maximum top storey lateral displacement, maximum base shear, steel weight, percentage differences in change of steel weight, maximum storey displacement and maximum storey drift are considered in this study. A Diagrid structure performs well than conventional frame structures and increase in steel weight with increase in height of building is considerably less in diagrid structures

  19. Renovating the excitation circuit of a conventional welding converter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gulderen Yildirmaz; M Hadi Sarul; Remzi Gulgun; Hulya Obdan

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents two different new excitation current supplies based on power electronics for an existing conventional welding converter. The proposed circuits are simulated using Lab-VIEW 1200 AI and a PC based system. In the expressions for winding currents the dynamic inductances are used to take into account the saturation in the core of the winding. The experimental circuits are implemented and tested. The percentage peak-to-peak ripple currents are calculated for both simulation and experimental results and for both circuit configurations. The results are summarized in two tables for comparison.

  20. Assessment of Conventional Teaching Procedures: Implications for Gifted Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogbel Aid K Alenizi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to assess the conventional teaching procedures in the development of mathematical skills of the students with learning difficulties. The study group was made up of all the children with academic learning disorders in KSA. The research questions have been scrutinized from the averages and the standard deviation of the marks scored by the participants in the test and control group. The outcomes of the study show that the conventional teaching procedures have effects on mathematical skill development of the female pupils with learning disorders. The results of the study show that the test group outperformed the control group. Based on the data and the evidences, various recommendations have been proposed for the stakeholders in the area of teaching the gifted children so as to ascertain better training for them. Keywords: Maths skills, Learning difficulties, Saudi Arabia

  1. Late bilateral temporal lobe necrosis after conventional radiotherapy. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Michio; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Kagami, Hiroshi; Murase, Ikurou; Nakatsukasa, Masashi [Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    A 63-year-old woman presented with radionecrosis in the bilateral temporal lobes manifesting as dementia about 30 years after undergoing conventional radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed edema and cystic lesions in both temporal lobes. The mass in the left temporal lobe was excised. MR imaging 12 days after surgery showed reduced edema. Her dementia had improved. Radionecrosis usually occurs between several months and a few years after radiotherapy. The incidence of radionecrosis is estimated as 5%, but may be higher with longer follow-up periods. Clinical reports have suggested that larger total doses of radiation are associated with earlier onset of delayed necrosis and the fractional dose is the most significant factor causing cerebral radionecrosis. Radionecrosis can occur long after conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery using a linac-based system or a gamma knife unit. (author)

  2. Non-conventional superconducting fluctuations in Ba(Fe1-xRhx)2As2 iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossoni, L. [Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Romano, L. [Univ. of Parma (Italy); Canfield, Paul C. [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Lascialfari, A. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy)

    2014-09-17

    We measured the static uniform spin susceptibility of Ba(Fe1-xRhx)2As2 iron-based superconductors, over a broad range of doping (0.041x0.094) and magnetic fields. At small fields (H ≤ 1 kOe) we observed, above the transition temperature Tc, the occurrence of precursor diamagnetism, which is not ascribable to the Ginzburg–Landau theory. On the contrary, our data agree with a phase fluctuation model, which has been used to interpret a similar phenomenology occurring in the high-Tc cuprate superconductors. Additionally, in the presence of strong fields, the unconventional fluctuating diamagnetism is suppressed, whereas Ginzburg–Landau fluctuations are found, in agreement with literature.

  3. Is 5 mm MMLC suitable for VMAT-based lung SBRT? A dosimetric comparison with 2.5 mm HDMLC using RTOG-0813 treatment planning criteria for both conventional and high-dose flattening filter-free photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Shanmuga V; Subramani, Vellaiyan; Thirumalai Swamy, Shanmugam; Gandhi, Arun; Chilukuri, Srinivas; Kathirvel, Murugesan

    2015-07-08

    The aim of this study is to assess the suitability of 5 mm millennium multileaf collimator (MMLC) for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-based lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Thirty lung SBRT patient treatment plans along with their planning target volumes (ranging from 2.01 cc to 150.11 cc) were transferred to an inhomogeneous lung phantom and retrospectively planned using VMAT technique, along with the high definition multileaf collimator (HDMLC) and MMLC systems. The plans were evaluated using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG-0813) treatment planning criteria for target coverage, normal tissue sparing, and treatment efficiency for both the MMLC and HDMLC systems using flat and flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beams. Irrespective of the target volumes, both the MLC systems were able to satisfy the RTOG-0813 treatment planning criteria without having any major deviation. Dose conformity was marginally better with HDMLC. The average conformity index (CI) value was found to be 1.069 ± 0.034 and 1.075 ± 0.0380 for HDMLC and MMLC plans, respectively. For the 6 MV FFF beams, the plan was slightly more conformal, with the average CI values of 1.063 ± 0.029 and 1.073 ± 0.033 for the HDMLC and MMLC plans, respectively. The high dose spillage was the maximum for 2 cc volume set (3% for HDMLC and 3.1% for MMLC). In the case of low dose spillage, both the MLCs were within the protocol of no deviation, except for the 2 cc volume set. The results from this study revealed that VMAT-based lung SBRT using 5 mm MMLC satisfies the RTOG-0813 treatment planning criteria for the studied target size and shapes.

  4. Merging conventional and laser wakefield accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitler, Benno; Schnepp, Matthias; Gehrke, Tim; Gruener, Florian [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (Germany); Grebenyuk, Julia; Mehrling, Timon; Osterhoff, Jens [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Floettmann, Klaus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators deliver high quality electron beams in terms of emittance and bunch length. However there are also parameters which cannot compete with conventional machines, namely spectral width and shot to shot stability. One reason for that is that there is no direct access to the injection mechanism. Injecting a well-characterized electron beam produced by a conventional accelerator into a plasma wakefield could help to solve that problem, since such a pump-probe type experiment should allow for a direct reconstruction of the field distribution and a better understanding of the injection process. REGAE at DESY in Hamburg is a suited accelerator for such a type of experiment. We report on the status of the beamline extension at REGAE and the plans towards the external injection project with the goal to directly measure the wakefield and further improve the stability of laser wakefield accelerators.

  5. "Conventional" CT images from spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandary, Paurakh L.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging systems need to be able to produce "conventional" images, and it's been shown that systems with energy discriminating detectors can achieve higher CNR than conventional systems by optimal weighting. Combining measured data in energy bins (EBs) and also combining basis material images have previously been proposed, but there are no studies systematically comparing the two methods. In this paper, we analytically evaluate the two methods for systems with ideal photon counting detectors using CNR and beam hardening (BH) artifact as metrics. For a 120-kVp polychromatic simulations of a water phantom with low contrast inserts, the difference of the optimal CNR between the two methods for the studied phantom is within 2%. For a polychromatic spectrum, beam-hardening artifacts are noticeable in EB weighted images (BH artifact of 3.8% for 8 EB and 6.9% for 2 EB), while weighted basis material images are free of such artifacts.

  6. Non-conventional mesons at PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Non-conventional mesons, such as glueballs and tetraquarks, will be in the focus of the PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility. In this lecture we recall the basic properties of QCD and describe some features of unconventional states. We focus on the search of the not-yet discovered glueballs and the use of the extended Linear Sigma Model for this purpose, and on the already discovered but not-yet understood X, Y, Z states.

  7. Non conventional engines; Moteurs non conventionnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descombes, G. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)]|[Paris-6 Univ. Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, 75 (France). Laboratoire de mecanique physique; Magnet, J.L. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)]|[Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-07-01

    The extraordinary realizations of the last century in words of piston engines, are always current events at the dawn of 2000. This paper deals with three types of non conventional engines: the reciprocating internal combustion engines (opposed piston engines, oscillating piston engines, variable geometry piston engines...); the internal combustion rotary engines(Wankel engine, blade engines...) and external combustion reciprocating engines (historical aspects, conception, thermodynamics and market). (A.L.B.)

  8. Dying Convention of Sanctuary for the Soul

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXIAOPING

    2004-01-01

    MEN of the Yi ethnic group living in the Liangshan Mountains of Sichuan Province have for the past 2,000 years followed the convention of wearing their hair as long as it will grow. According to legend, the custom originates in the epic hero Etilaba who prevailed over an evil celestial being by letting loose his long hair and letting it stream through the air, puzzling and confusing his enemy.

  9. Non-Conventional Treatment Approaches in Pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Çayırlı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus is a bullous auto-immune disease which has high mortality and morbidity rates and affects the skin and mucosa. Corticosteroids are still the baseline treatment modality of pemphigus management. However, non-steroidal drugs and methods have been used more frequently in patients with pemphigus who are non-responders to conventional therapy or have severe side effects. In this article we aimed to review unconventional therapy modalities in patients with pemphigus.

  10. Conventional Weapons Effects on Reinforced Soil Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    of the reinforced soil wall. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Reinforced soil, conventional weapons, protective structures, 388 geosynthetics ...high tensile strength materials such as steel strips or geosynthetics . A single face of a reinforced soil berm can be constructed to approximately...yards of geosynthetics representing $3.1 billion have been used in a wide range of civil engineering applications (Koerner, 1990). Between 1991 and 1992

  11. Archaeoastronomical Heritage and the World Heritage Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Michel

    In 2009, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) began a joint thematic study on astronomical heritage. The initial question was, "What are the best ways to support and encourage the inscription of the most outstanding examples of astronomical heritage onto a globally balanced World Heritage List?" That led us first to a large overview across ages and countries, because every civilization had a relationship with the sky. The result is far beyond what was anticipated, showing a richness and diversity of heritage, both for various civilizations around the world and throughout human history, especially for the proto-historical period and indigenous practices of observing the sky. This chapter also reviews the World Heritage Convention, its goals, evaluation tools, and trends. A strategy must be created for a credible dossier in the UNESCO-recommended format, with proper identification of "outstanding universal value" (OUV) as a key point for the World Heritage listing. To assist in reaching such ambitious goals, this chapter examines the layout of the convention related to astronomical and archaeoastronomical heritage, though the main requirements need to be recognized. A methodology is proposed for site analysis by examples and practices of the World Heritage Convention, with a description of its origins, favorite subjects, and recent evolutions. Pure astronomical heritage is rare on the World Heritage List, but astronomy is frequently present as an associated value for complex sites and as a specific attribute that increases a global sense of the heritage.

  12. PUBLIC POLICY VIOLATION UNDER NEW YORK CONVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ayu Chinta Kristy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of the use of arbitration in Asia has highlighted the significant influence of the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards. The New York Convention currently becomes the most widely accepted convention to which the courts would refer when recognizing and enforcing foreign arbitral awards. This article would firstly provide a comparative study of the court’s interpretation towards public policy as mentioned under Article V (2 b of the New York Convention between non-arbitration-friendly-law Indonesia and arbitration-friendly-law China. Subsequently, it will discuss whether uniformity in interpreting and reserving public policy is required or not. Peningkatan jumlah penggunaan lembaga arbitrasi di Asia mendorong peningkatan signifikansi pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Konvensi New York saat ini menjadi konvensi yang diterima secara luas dimana dijadikan referensi oleh pengadilan dalam hal pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Artikel ini akan pertama-tama membahas studi perbandingan atas interpretasi pengadilan mengenai penggunaan kebijakan publik sebagaimana tertera pada Pasal V (2 b Konvensi New York antara Indonesia yang hukumnya tidak mendukung dan China dengan hukum yang mendukung pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Apakah keseragaman antar negara dalam menginterpretasi dan menggunakan kebijakan publik diperlukan atau tidak dibahas pada diskusi selanjutnya.

  13. Einstein Synchronisation and the Conventionality of Simultaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Domazet

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite a broad-range title the paper settles for the related issue of whether the Special Theory of Relativity (STR necessarily advocates the demise of an ontological difference between past and future events, between past and future in general. In the jargon of H. Stein: are we forced, within the framework of the STR, to choose only between ‘solipsism’ and ‘determinism’ exclusively? A special emphasis is placed on the role that the conventionality of simultaneity plays in the STR with regards to this question. The standard arguments rely on the relativity of simultaneity, the claim that the STR negates the existence of a universal ‘present’ that divides the ‘past’ and the ‘future’, so as to conclude that there is no ontological difference between past and future events, that both are equally determined/real (‘determinism’. This often neglects the fact that to establish the ontological claims related to relativity of simultaneity, one must first resolve the issues of conventionality of simultaneity within the STR. The paper will aim to show that by addressing the issue of conventionality from Dummett’s ‘purely philosophical’ determination of the difference between the past and the future, we develop an understanding of the said difference, within the framework of the STR, beyond the (unwanted strict ontological dichotomy of ‘solipsism/determinism’, given that the criterion that is provided by the STR is understood as epistemic and not ontological.

  14. Communicating novel and conventional scientific metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2005-01-01

    Metaphors are more popular than ever in the study of scientific reasoning and culture because of their innovative and generative powers. It is assumed, that novel scientific metaphors become more clear and well-defined, as they become more established and conventional within the relevant discours...... changes too during the career of the metaphor. Whereas the standard scientific article is central in experimentally researching and explaining the metaphor, a mixture of more popular scientific genres dominate in the innovative conceptual development of the metaphor.......Metaphors are more popular than ever in the study of scientific reasoning and culture because of their innovative and generative powers. It is assumed, that novel scientific metaphors become more clear and well-defined, as they become more established and conventional within the relevant discourses....... But we still need empirical studies of the career of metaphors in scientific discourse and of the communicative strategies identifying a given metaphor as either novel or conventional. This paper presents a case study of the discursive development of the metaphor of "the genetic code" from...

  15. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  16. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  17. Net carbon flux in organic and conventional olive production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid Mohamad, Ramez; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Bitar, Lina Al; Roma, Rocco; Moretti, Michele; Chami, Ziad Al

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural systems are considered as one of the most relevant sources of atmospheric carbon. However, agriculture has the potentiality to mitigate carbon dioxide mainly through soil carbon sequestration. Some agricultural practices, particularly fertilization and soil management, can play a dual role in the agricultural systems regarding the carbon cycle contributing to the emissions and to the sequestration process in the soil. Good soil and input managements affect positively Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) changes and consequently the carbon cycle. The present study aimed at comparing the carbon footprint of organic and conventional olive systems and to link it to the efficiency of both systems on carbon sequestration by calculating the net carbon flux. Data were collected at farm level through a specific and detailed questionnaire based on one hectare as a functional unit and a system boundary limited to olive production. Using LCA databases particularly ecoinvent one, IPCC GWP 100a impact assessment method was used to calculate carbon emissions from agricultural practices of both systems. Soil organic carbon has been measured, at 0-30 cm depth, based on soil analyses done at the IAMB laboratory and based on reference value of SOC, the annual change of SOC has been calculated. Substracting sequestrated carbon in the soil from the emitted on resulted in net carbon flux calculation. Results showed higher environmental impact of the organic system on Global Warming Potential (1.07 t CO2 eq. yr-1) comparing to 0.76 t CO2 eq. yr-1 in the conventional system due to the higher GHG emissions caused by manure fertilizers compared to the use of synthetic foliar fertilizers in the conventional system. However, manure was the main reason behind the higher SOC content and sequestration in the organic system. As a resultant, the organic system showed higher net carbon flux (-1.7 t C ha-1 yr-1 than -0.52 t C ha-1 yr-1 in the conventional system reflecting higher efficiency as a

  18. Diagnosis of malignant stricture of common bile duct: liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology%液基细胞学与传统细胞学方法诊断胆总管恶性狭窄的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀明; 庞玉兰; 郎翠翠; 王拥军; 张澍田

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of liquid-based cytology in malignant stricture of common bile duct. Methods Between October 2008 and June 2009, patients suspected of having malignant stricture of common bile duct underwent brushing through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancre-atography (ERCP). Specimens were processed in two ways, liquid-based and conventional cytology, and positive diagnostic rates were compared. Results Among 76 cases of suspected malignant bile duct stricture , 65 were confirmed via surgical pathology, cytology tests or follow-up. Of all the 32 cases which were confirmed by cytology tests, 17 (26.2% , 17/65) were through conventional cytology, and 32 (49.2% , 32/65 ) through liquid-based cytology, which were significantly different ( P < 0. 05). Conclusion Compared with conventional cytology, liquid-based cytology can improve positive diagnostic rate of brushing during ERCP.%目的 探讨液基细胞学方法对胆总管恶性狭窄的诊断价值.方法对2008年10月至2009年6月间影像学怀疑为胆总管恶性狭窄的患者进行ERCP胆管细胞刷刷检,分别采用液基细胞学、传统细胞学方法进行细胞学标本制备,比较两种方法诊断的阳性率.结果疑诊胆总管恶性狭窄患者76例,经手术病理、细胞学检测及临床随访最终明确诊断为胆总管恶性狭窄的共65例.32例细胞学检测明确诊断的患者中,传统细胞学方法发现阳性17例(阳性率为26.2%,17/65)、液基细胞学方法发现阳性32例(阳性率为49.2%,32/65),两者阳性率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论液基细胞学较传统细胞学方法可提高ERCP胆管细胞刷刷检标本的阳性发现率,具有较高的临床应用价值.

  19. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  20. Enterorrafias em plano aposicional convencionale com adesivo à base de cianoacrilato no cólon descendente de eqüinos Conventional appositional pattern and cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive in descending colon enterorrhaphy in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Acosta Duarte

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Em eqüinos, as enterotomias no cólon descendente são necessárias para remover enterólitos, corpos estranhos e material alimentar compactado que não podem ser removidos por técnicas conservativas. Este segmento intestinal possui um suprimento sangüíneo pobre, além de predisposição a complicações pós-operatórias relacionadas à contaminação bacteriana. Assim, este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de efetuar avaliações clínicas e anatomopatológicas do emprego de adesivo tecidual à base de cianoacrilato no cólon descendente de eqüinos, comparando-o a uma técnica de sutura aposicional convencional. A intervenção cirúrgica foi realizada em 15 animais posicionados em decúbito lateral direito, através de laparotomia pelo flanco esquerdo, sob anestesia geral inalatória. Após a exteriorização do cólon descendente, foram realizadas duas enterotomias de cinco centímetros de extensão cada, distanciadas 20cm uma da outra. Os animais foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em cinco tempos de observação de três animais cada e sacrificados aos três, sete, 14, 35 e 70 dias de pós-operatório. O adesivo butil-2-cianoacrilato e o fio de poliglactina 910 mostraram-se igualmente apropriados para uso em enterorrafias desse órgão, sendo que o fio de poliglactina 910 provocou inflamação inicial mais intensa que o cianoacrilato e, mais tardiamente, ambos causaram inflamação granulomatosa do tipo corpo estranho observada, primeiramente, junto ao fio de poliglactina 910 (7º dia e, a partir do 35º dia, ao redor do cianoacrilato.The descending colon enterotomies in horses are necessary to remove enteroliths, foreign body and impacted material that can not be removed with conservative technique. This intestinal segment has a poor blood supply and the predisposition to post operation complications related to bacterium contamination. This trial was conducted in order to evaluate, clinically and anatomopathologically, the use of

  1. Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

  2. The determination of maturity levels in source rocks of the La Luna Formation, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela, based on convention geochemical parameters and asphaltenes; Determinacao do grau de maturacao em rochas geradoras de petroleo, formacao La Luna, Bacia de Maracaibo, Venezuela: parametros geoquimicos convencionais e asfaltenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, L.P. de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Pesquisas sobre o Armazenamento de Carbono; Franco, N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Lopez, L.; Lo Monaco, S.; Escobar, G. [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Caracas (Venezuela); Kalkreuth, W. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Analises de Carvao e Rochas Geradoras de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    The La Luna Formation, main source rock of the Maracaibo Basin was studied by conventional geochemical parameters, used to determine the maturity, and they were compared with the physic-chemical and molecular properties of the asphaltenes present in the bitumen of the rocks. Three wells were studied (A, B and C) with a total of 13 samples. Based on Rock-Eval results the organic matter in well A (455 deg C Tmax) shows a relatively high level of maturation (top of the oil window), whereas the organic matter in well B (435 - 436 deg C Tmax) is in the beginning of the oil window. Tmax values in well C (438 - 446 deg C) and well C suggest an intermediate maturity level. The biomarkers identified in well B and C show ratios indicating an equilibrium state in the maturity level. A good correlation was found comparing the conventional analytical data with the determination of maturity level obtained from the asphaltenes precipitated from the bitumen of the samples. With increased maturity levels the H1 NMR analysis showed enrichment in aromatic molecules in relation to aliphatic, due to the bitumen aromatization process. Similarly, the asphaltenes molecular weight has higher values in samples characterized by elevated maturity levels. This confirms earlier studies that showed that asphaltenes may be utilized as maturity parameter of organic matter. (author)

  3. STCW 公约马尼拉修正案背景下对高职航海技术专业实践教学的思考%A Study on Practice Teaching Concerning Navigation Major in Vocational Colleges Based on Manila Amendments to the STCW Convention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟

    2013-01-01

      文章概述了 STCW 公约马尼拉修正案对航海技术专业修改的主要内容及影响,并从实践教学出发,分析了现阶段高职航海技术专业实践教学中师资队伍、教学实训设备、教学内容等方面存在的问题,提出了相应对策和建议,以期为履约过程中全面的教学改革提供思路。%Based on a brief introduction of the main content and influence of Manila amendments to the STCW Convention,this article analyzes the problems arising from current practice teaching concerning navigation major in vocational colleges from the angles of teaching staff,equipment and content of practice teaching. In addi-tion,it puts forward some countermeasures accordingly, which is expected to serve as a reference to all-round teaching reform in the process of implementing the convention.

  4. The costs of marketing slaughter cattle by computerized and conventional auction systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chieruzzi, Alice M., 1956-; Buccola, Steven T.

    1981-01-01

    by Alice M. Chieruzzi and Steven T. Buccola This report is based upon Alice Chieruzzi's Master's thesis, A Cost Comparison of Computerized and Conventional Auction Marketing Systems for Slaughter Cattle.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-05-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  6. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanam, Lakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hurkmans, Coen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brame, Scott; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Galvin, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, LaJolla, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter, E-mail: wbosch@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Advanced Technology Consortium, Image-guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  7. 9th Structural Engineering Convention 2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents research papers presented by academicians, researchers, and practicing structural engineers from India and abroad in the recently held Structural Engineering Convention (SEC) 2014 at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi during 22 – 24 December 2014. The book is divided into three volumes and encompasses multidisciplinary areas within structural engineering, such as earthquake engineering and structural dynamics, structural mechanics, finite element methods, structural vibration control, advanced cementitious and composite materials, bridge engineering, and soil-structure interaction. Advances in Structural Engineering is a useful reference material for structural engineering fraternity including undergraduate and postgraduate students, academicians, researchers and practicing engineers.

  8. Simulating a guitar with a conventional sonometer

    CERN Document Server

    Burstein, Zily; Varieschi, Gabriele U

    2011-01-01

    Musical acoustics is an interesting sub-field of physics which is usually able to engage students in a dual perspective, by combining science and art together. The physics principles involved in most musical instruments can be easily demonstrated with standard laboratory equipment and can become part of lecture or lab activities. In particular, we will show in this paper how to simulate a guitar using a conventional sonometer, in relation to the problem of the instrument intonation, i.e., how to obtain correctly tuned notes on a guitar or similar string instruments.

  9. Simulating a Guitar with a Conventional Sonometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Zily; Gower, Christina M.; Varieschi, Gabriele U.

    Musical acoustics is an interesting sub-field of physics which is usually able to engage students in a dual perspective, by combining science and art together. The physics principles involved in most musical instruments can be easily demonstrated with standard laboratory equipment and can become part of lecture or lab activities. In particular, we will show in this paper how to simulate a guitar using a conventional sonometer, in relation to the problem of the instrument intonation, i.e., how to obtain correctly tuned notes on a guitar or similar string instruments.

  10. National Convention on Family Life Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    This secretarial report gives brief comments on some discussion of topics at the National Convention on Family Life Education. Discussion included: 1) legalized prostitution as a means to reduce venereal disease; 2) family life education promotion by government and civic groups; 3) more authority for the Population Council; 4) more liberal abortion legislation than previously; 5) statutory notification of veneral disease by medical practitioners; 6) compensatory measures for working women with young children, and 7) the need for modernization of legislation pertaining to child health, adoption, paternity, the Persons Act, infant life preservation, drugs, age of consent, and the age of minority.

  11. Establishing linguistic conventions in task-oriented primeval dialogue

    CERN Document Server

    Bachwerk, Martin; 10.1007/978-3-642-25775-9_4

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we claim that language is likely to have emerged as a mechanism for coordinating the solution of complex tasks. To confirm this thesis, computer simulations are performed based on the coordination task presented by Garrod & Anderson (1987). The role of success in task-oriented dialogue is analytically evaluated with the help of performance measurements and a thorough lexical analysis of the emergent communication system. Simulation results confirm a strong effect of success mattering on both reliability and dispersion of linguistic conventions.

  12. Urban versus conventional agriculture, taxonomy of resource profiles: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Fernandez, John

    2016-01-01

    footprint reduction require further exploration. (3) Urban agriculture benefits to both food supply chains and urban ecosystems vary considerably with system type. To facilitate the comparison of urban agriculture systems we propose a classification based on (1) conditioning of the growing space and (2...... performance relative to conventional food production. Our main findings are as follows: (1) benefits, such as reduced embodied greenhouse gases, urban heat island reduction, and storm water mitigation, have strong support in current literature. (2) Other benefits such as food waste minimization and ecological...... and the larger material and energy regimes of cities (the “urban metabolism”)....

  13. Implementation of the Aarhus convention - A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Malis Sazdovska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Legislation on global and regional level in the field of environmental protection is characterized by the adoption of international conventions and agreements that attempt to regulate this matter legally. As an extremely important area, which exceeds the boundaries of nation-state and as a global environmental problem, the issues of environmental protection are a major concern to international organizations. It is directly linked to reducing the jurisdiction of the States and transfer of competences to international organizations and institutions in order to solve the problems in a global experience. In order to overcome the problems regarding the implementation of international documents, the creation of certain policies by international organizations and institutions is required to promote the idea of environmental protection as a basic mo$ o of the global world. Taking into account the recommendations of Brundtland Commission, humanity has a moral obligation to preserve natural resources for future generations. Main objective of this article is the presentation of research on the implementation of the Aarhus Convention and the proposal of measures for the creation of ideas and policies on improving access to information in the field. The research is done with the students from the faculty of Security which accessed the information in environmental matters.

  14. Conventional dental radiology; Konventionelle Dentalradiologie und Zukunftsperspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssefzadeh, S.; Gahleitner, A. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Bernhart, D.; Bernhart, T. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Zahnheilkunde, Wien (Austria)

    1999-12-01

    Until recently, conventional dental radiology was performed by dentists and orofacial surgeons. Due to the rapid development of radiological technique, the demand of radiological advice is increasing. The radiologists see more and more dental patients in their daily routine. The aim of this article is to give an overview on established dental radiology and a glimpse into the future. Conventional dental radiology and digital radiography are presently in use. Intraoral technique comprises dental films, bite-wing views and occlusal radiographs. Panoramic views and cephalometric radiographs are done with extraoral technique. Digital radiography lacks all processes in behalf of film development. It leads to dose reduction and enables image manipulation. (orig.) [German] Die konventionelle Radiologie in der Zahnheilkunde (Dentalradiologie) wurde hauptsaechlich von den niedergelassenen Zahnaerzten und Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgen betrieben. Aufgrund der rasanten Entwicklung in der radiologischen Methodik wird die fachaerztliche Unterstuetzung durch den Radiologen immer notwendiger, und die raschen Fortschritte erfordern eine zunehmende Zusammenarbeit dieser medizinischen Faecher. Die fachspezifische Anforderung an den Radiologen tritt immer haeufiger im Routinebetrieb auf. Ziel dieses Artikels ist die Aufstellung der derzeit eingesetzten Technik sowie ein Ausblick in die nahe Zukunft. Prinzipiell wird zwischen der konventionellen Dentalradiologie und der digitalen Radiographie unterschieden. Die Dentalradiologie setzt sich aus der intraoralen Technik (Zahnfilme, Bissfluegelaufnahmen, Aufbissaufnahme) und der extraoralen Technik (Panoramaaufnahmen, Panoramaschichtaufnahmen, Fernroentgen) zusammen. Die digitale Radiographie ermoeglicht die Umgehung der konventionellen Entwicklungsverfahren, eine Strahlendosisreduktion und bietet die Moeglichkeit der Bildverarbeitung. (orig.)

  15. Non conventional fuel resources in rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, G.; Dixit, S.; Tiwari, S.

    2006-03-15

    In India there is a shortage of energy resources. The conventional sources are incapable to mitigate this problem by providing sufficient amount of energy. The crisis is gradually becoming more acute particularly in the countryside thus hampering the economic growth. To deal with this problem some new strategies have been envisaged. Generation of energy to meet daily requirement from non-conventional sources is one of the steps in this regard. With the increasing popularity of biogas plants in rural as well as in urban areas of India, it has become essential to find various location specific organic substances that can be used as feed material in biogas plant. In this study we have concentrated on use of cow dung and water hyacinth as feed material in biogas plants. The objective of the study is to assess the suitability of using mixture of cow dung and water hyacinth as feed material in biogas plants. Attempt has been made to find out the optimum proportion of cow dung and water hyacinth. The 1:1 mixture of cow dung and water hyacinth is the optimum proportion as per the study conducted. (author)

  16. The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

  17. Comparing conventional and biotechnology-based pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest management has changed dramatically during the past 15 years by the introduction of transgenes into crops for the purpose of pest management. Transgenes for herbicide resistance or for production of one or more Bt toxins are the predominant pest management traits currently available. These two ...

  18. The EU Arbitration Convention : An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, Harm Mark

    2017-01-01

    The EU Arbitration Convention An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention Summary for non-experts The EU Arbitration Convention is a convention between EU Member States to eliminate double taxation arising from – for tax purposes – transfer pricing pro

  19. Coding conventions and principles for a National Land-Change Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2017-07-14

    This report establishes specific rules for writing computer source code for use with the National Land-Change Modeling Framework (NLCMF). These specific rules consist of conventions and principles for writing code primarily in the C and C++ programming languages. Collectively, these coding conventions and coding principles create an NLCMF programming style. In addition to detailed naming conventions, this report provides general coding conventions and principles intended to facilitate the development of high-performance software implemented with code that is extensible, flexible, and interoperable. Conventions for developing modular code are explained in general terms and also enabled and demonstrated through the appended templates for C++ base source-code and header files. The NLCMF limited-extern approach to module structure, code inclusion, and cross-module access to data is both explained in the text and then illustrated through the module templates. Advice on the use of global variables is provided.

  20. Differences between conventional and non-conventional MRI techniques in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglieri, Annalisa; Marino, Maria Adele; Morabito, Rosa; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Summary Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an in vivo assessment of cortical and subcortical regions affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD). This review summarizes the most important conventional and non-conventional MRI techniques applied in this field. Standard neuroimaging techniques have played a marginal role in the diagnosis and follow-up of PD, essentially being used only to discriminate atypical syndromes from PD, to exclude secondary causes such as vascular lesions, and to confirm the absence of specific imaging features found in atypical parkinsonisms. However, non-conventional MRI techniques, i.e. new neuroimaging approaches such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI, may allow the detection of structural, functional and metabolic changes useful not only for differential diagnosis, but also for early diagnosis and outcome and treatment monitoring in PD. In addition, we illustrate the advantages of high-field MRI over lower magnetic fields, highlighting the great potential of advanced neuroimaging techniques. PMID:24125556

  1. Application of ‘Urf In Islamic and Conventional Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi‘i Abdul Azeez Bello

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available  ‘Urf or Customary law is one of the most important supporting sources in Islamic law. This can be seen through many legal rulings (ahkam in Islamic law, which was based on ‘urf in which most of these ahkam will change according to the change of circumstances, place and time. As for basis of ‘urf or custom, it is the product of the nature of the people and their culture, it grows in strength and popularity by means of imitation that transfers and implants it in the lives of people. Moreover, Contemporary financial system poses great problem and even great challenges to Muslims. Muslims are not permitted by Islamic Law to indulge in ribā. Since contemporary financial system is based on interest, Muslims have great problems in participating in it. Therefore, this paper stands to explain the application of ‘urf in Islamic and conventional Bank. The concept and principle of ‘urf in Islamic law was critically analysed such as application of ‘urf in Islamic law, differences between ‘urf and consensus of jurists, also between ‘urf and adah, in addition, classification of ‘urf, conditions of valid ‘urf and so on. Furthermore, the application of ‘urf in deposit products under Islamic and Conventional bank were well examined, types of conventional deposit products as well as Islamic deposit products. In fact the product shows that a little different was in-between them which can be easily avoid.

  2. Application of ‘Urf In Islamic and Conventional Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi‘i Abdul Azeez Bello

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Urf or Customary law is one of the most important supporting sources in Islamic law. This can be seen through many legal rulings (ahkam in Islamic law, which was based on ‘urf in which most of these ahkam will change according to the change of circumstances, place and time. As for basis of ‘urf or custom, it is the product of the nature of the people and their culture, it grows in strength and popularity by means of imitation that transfers and implants it in the lives of people. Moreover, Contemporary financial system poses great problem and even great challenges to Muslims. Muslims are not permitted by Islamic Law to indulge in ribā. Since contemporary financial system is based on interest, Muslims have great problems in participating in it. Therefore, this paper stands to explain the application of ‘urf in Islamic and conventional Bank. The concept and principle of ‘urf in Islamic law was critically analysed such as application of ‘urf in Islamic law, differences between ‘urf and consensus of jurists, also between ‘urf and adah, in addition, classification of ‘urf, conditions of valid ‘urf and so on. Furthermore, the application of ‘urf in deposit products under Islamic and Conventional bank were well examined, types of conventional deposit products as well as Islamic deposit products. In fact the product shows that a little different was in-between them which can be easily avoid.

  3. HMI conventions for process control graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ruud N

    2012-01-01

    Process operators supervise and control complex processes. To enable the operator to do an adequate job, instrumentation and process control engineers need to address several related topics, such as console design, information design, navigation, and alarm management. In process control upgrade projects, usually a 1:1 conversion of existing graphics is proposed. This paper suggests another approach, efficiently leading to a reduced number of new powerful process graphics, supported by a permanent process overview displays. In addition a road map for structuring content (process information) and conventions for the presentation of objects, symbols, and so on, has been developed. The impact of the human factors engineering approach on process control upgrade projects is illustrated by several cases.

  4. CONVENTIONAL RENAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH GRANULOMATOUS REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available : Granulomatous inflammation is a distinctive pattern of chronic inflammatory reaction characterized by microscopic aggregation of activated macrophages which often develop epithelioid appearance and multinucleate giant cells. Granulomas are encountered in limited number of infectious and some non-infectious conditions. Granulomas have been described within the stroma of malignancies like carcinomas of the breast and colon, seminoma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma, where they represent T-cell-mediated reaction of the tumor stroma to antigens expressed by the tumor. Granulomatous reaction in association with renal cell carcinoma (RCC is uncommon, with only few published reports in the literature. We describe a case of conventional (clear cell RCC associated with epithelioid cell granulomas within the tumor parenchyma.

  5. Conventional radiological strategy of common gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Zhuo; Li; Pei-Hong; Wu

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the clinical characteristics and imaging features of common gastrointestinal(GI) neoplasms in terms of conventional radiological imaging methods. Barium studies are readily available for displaying primary malignancies and are minimallyor not at all invasive. A neoplasm may be manifested as various imaging findings, including mucosal disruption, soft mass, ulcer, submucosal invasion and lumen stenosis on barium studies. Benign tumors typically appear as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Malignant neoplasms most often appear as irregular infiltrative lesions on barium examination. Tumor extension to adjacent GI segments may be indistinct on barium images. Cross-sectional images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may provide more accurate details of the adjacent organ invasion, omental or peritoneal spread.

  6. Human right to water and conventionality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana N. Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanity faces the challenge of achieving the sustainability of water resources supply for the satisfaction of human needs and ofensuring the sustainability of the natural ecosystems for the achievement of sustainable human development and the quality of life of present and future generations. For this reason the recognition of access to water as a Human Right has fundamental significance. We proceed to analyze the international instruments that provide content and legal basis to the human right to water and the obligations of States. In this context, we deal with the constitutional reception of human right to water in Argentina in the constitutional reform of 1994 and the control of conventionality as guarantor of access to water, which has led to different domestic courts to consider cases in which a violation ofthe right to water was proved.

  7. Conventional frequency ultrasonic biomarkers of cancer treatment response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Falou, Omar; Tadayyon, Hadi; Al-Mahrouki, Azza; Tran, William; Papanicolau, Naum; Kolios, Michael C; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2013-06-01

    Conventional frequency quantitative ultrasound in conjunction with textural analysis techniques was investigated to monitor noninvasively the effects of cancer therapies in an in vivo preclinical model. Conventional low-frequency (∼7 MHz) and high-frequency (∼20 MHz) ultrasound was used with spectral analysis, coupled with textural analysis on spectral parametric maps, obtained from xenograft tumor-bearing animals (n = 20) treated with chemotherapy to extract noninvasive biomarkers of treatment response. Results indicated statistically significant differences in quantitative ultrasound-based biomarkers in both low- and high-frequency ranges between untreated and treated tumors 12 to 24 hours after treatment. Results of regression analysis indicated a high level of correlation between quantitative ultrasound-based biomarkers and tumor cell death estimates from histologic analysis. Applying textural characterization to the spectral parametric maps resulted in an even stronger correlation (r (2) = 0.97). The results obtained in this research demonstrate that quantitative ultrasound at a clinically relevant frequency can monitor tissue changes in vivo in response to cancer treatment administration. Using higher order textural information extracted from quantitative ultrasound spectral parametric maps provides more information at a high sensitivity related to tumor cell death.

  8. Petrophysical evaluation and its application to AVO based on conventional and CMR- MDT logs%岩石物理评价及其在基于常规与CMR-MDT测井数据的AVO分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕军; 刘堂宴; 刘向君

    2007-01-01

    Conventional loggings provide the essential data for AVO (Amplitude-Versus-Offset) analysis in rock physics, which can build a bridge linking petrophysics and seismic data. However, if some complex fluid systems, such as serious fluid invasion to formation,low resistivity response or complicated water salinity etc. exist in reservoirs, the conventional logs may fail to provide quality data, leading to calculated errors for elastic properties so worse that the AVO results cannot match the seismic data. To overcome such difficulties in Tertiary reservoirs of Bohai Gulf in China, we utilized both conventional logs and CMRMDT tool (Combinable Magnetic Resonance and Modular Formation Dynamics Tester) to perform formation evaluation and reservoir descriptions. Our research proposes, it allows petrophysicists to acquire reservoir parameters (e.g. porosity, permeability, water saturation,bound fluids and pore pressure etc), and then these results to combine with core analysis based on laboratory's measurements to carry out a further rock physics study and AVO analysis in seismic domain.%常规测井为AVO分析提供了基础的资料,成为联系岩石物理与地震资料的桥梁.然而如果储层存在有复杂的流体系统,如地层被严重地层流体侵入、电阻率响应低及盐水矿化度复杂等的现象,则常规测井无法提供高质量的测井资料,导致得出错误的弹性计算结果,使AVO结果与地震资料不吻合.中国渤海湾地区第三系裂缝性储层复杂,我们利用常规测井和核磁共振测井与模块地层动态测试相结合的组合仪完成了地层评价和储层描述.研究结果表明岩石物理学家利用上述方法技术可以获得诸如空隙度、渗透率、含水饱和度、束缚流体以及空隙压力等重要的储层参数并进一步综合应用这些结果和以实验室测量数据为基础的岩性分析结果进行在地震域岩石物理研究和AVO分析.

  9. Avaliação do Índice de Remanescente Adesivo utilizando braquetes com e sem tratamento na base e a interação com três sistemas de colagem Evaluation of Adhesive Remnant Index using conventional mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases and three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Maria Brisque Pignatta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o Índice de Remanescente Adesivo (IRA em dentes bovinos após a descolagem de braquetes com e sem tratamento na base. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados três sistemas de colagem ortodôntica para os dois padrões de base. Os dentes bovinos foram divididos em seis grupos de 40, de acordo com a base do braquete e o sistema de colagem. Vinte e quatro horas após a colagem foram realizados os testes de compressão em uma máquina de ensaios. A avaliação do IRA foi realizada em um estereomicroscópio por três examinadores calibrados. Foi utilizado o teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis, seguido do método de Dunn, para fazer as comparações múltiplas entre todos os grupos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: observou-se que o tratamento das bases dos braquetes com óxido de alumínio não foi determinante para o aumento da adesividade entre o braquete e o adesivo. O grupo em que se utilizou braquetes com tratamento na base e adesivo TXT (3M-Unitek + Transbond Plus SEP (3M-Unitek apresentou a maior parte das fraturas na interface dente-adesivo (escore 4.AIM: To assess the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI in bovine teeth after debonding mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases. METHODS: Were used three bonding systems for the two standards of base. The bovine teeth were divided into 6 groups of 40, according to the bracket base and to the bonding system. Twenty four hours after bonding they had been carried through shear bond strength tests in a universal testing machine. The assessment of ARI was performed in a stereomicroscopy by three calibrated examiners. It was used the non-parametric Kruskall-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's method, to do the multiple comparisons among all groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that the aluminum oxide sandblasting bracket bases was not determinative to the increase of the adhesiveness between bracket and adhesive. The group where it was used sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases and

  10. Comparison of conventional and non conventional methods of extraction of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devgun, Manish; Nanda, Arun; Ansari, Shahid H

    2012-01-01

    The renewed interest in plant-derived drugs has led to an increased need for efficient extraction methods. The present investigation was an attempt to evaluate and compare the conventional methods of extraction with non conventional methods of extraction, such as ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) methods. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. has been reported to contain bioactive phytochemicals, e.g., pterostilbene (3',5'-dimethoxy-4-stilbenol). The results showed that among the conventional extraction methods, percolation gave the highest yield. The non conventional methods were optimized. The extraction yield was the highest in case of MAE. The phytochemical screening of the extracts indicated similar groups of compounds in all the extracts. The thin layer chromatography showed the presence of pterostilbene in the extracts obtained by using percolation, MAE and UAE. In these extracts the quantification of pterostilbene was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography and the method was validated. The MAE method extracted significantly higher amount of pterostilbene.

  11. The Perilous Life of a Linguistic Genre Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchmann, Simon

    2014-01-01

    by using texts of a relatively new Danish journalistic genre nyhedsanalyse (news analysis). The secondary, empirical aim of the article is to present a corpus-based, linguistic analysis of central elements of the genre nyhedsanalyse within the Danish system of newspaper genres. Text linguistics is based...... not be accounted for as manifestations of linguistic rules, but as manifestation of social conventions. Furthermore, an account of the linguistic and organisational regularities presupposes an account of the social motives and the factors related to the motive, and vice versa. As Miller’s description...... of the dependency relations remains abstract on the textual levels, it is supplemented by Swales’s move-structure analysis. Swales’s analysis, on the other hand, is supplemented by focusing on the developmental history of the genre system, as illustrated by Bazerman, by incorporating psychological and...

  12. 非妇科领域应用液基细胞学与传统涂片细胞学参数的比较研究%Comparison study about cytological parameters determined by liquid-based preparation and conventional smear in non-gynecological application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓哲; 周宾; 曹志星; 谢亚峰; 许敏梅; 蔡宏贵; 赵晔

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过液基制片(LBP)方法在非妇科脱落细胞学胸腹水领域中的应用,探讨液基细胞学制片方法在非妇科脱落细胞领域制片的优缺点及其应用前景.方法 对本院25例胸腹水,应用液基制片,并同步与传统涂片进行了细胞形态学观察,免疫组化染色和荧光原位杂交(FISH)检测,并应用图像分析系统加以定量对比分析.结果 定性观察发现,液基制片的细胞明显比传统涂片的细胞变小,细胞形态也发生了一定的变化;免疫组化LCA、EMA、Vim和PCNA染色与传统涂片染色未见明显不同,FISH检测结果,除酶消化时间较传统涂片延长5 min外,其他未见明显不同;细胞定量结果发现,液基制片的细胞面积比传统制片的细胞面积减少了58.1%(P<0.01),细胞周长减少了42.7%(P<0.01),细胞等效直径缩短了37.5%(P<0.01),细胞长径缩短了37.4%(P<0.01),细胞短径也缩短了37.8%,细胞长短径之比未见明显差异(P>0.05).液基制片的细胞形状因子减小了18.12%(P<0.01),细胞圆形度增加了13.7%(P<0.01),细胞平均光度增加了57.1%(P<0.01),细胞积分光度减少了41.5%(P<0.01),细胞平均灰度未见明显差异(P>0.05).结论 液基细胞学制片明显缩小了目标细胞,其形态也发生了较明显改变,但不影响测试细胞进一步的免疫组化染色和FISH检测,在非妇科脱落细胞学领域的应用,对诊断医师具有较高适应训练要求,也仍具有进一步改进的空间.%Objective To explore the advantages and disadvantages of liquid -based preparations (LBP) in the field of non - gynecological exfoliated cytology based on the results of cytological examination of hy-drothorax and ascites. Methods 25 patients with hydrothorax or ascites treated in our hospital were included in this study. The exfoliated cells were detected by both liquid - based preparations (LBP) and conventional smear in parallel, and examined by routine light microscopy

  13. Post-newtonian analysis of precessing convention for spinning compact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    A precessing source frame, constructed using the Newtonian orbital angular momentum ${\\bf L_{\\rm N}}$, can be invoked to model inspiral gravitational waves from generic spinning compact binaries. An attractive feature of such a precessing convention is its ability to remove all spin precession induced modulations from the orbital phase evolution. However, this convention usually employs a post-Newtonian (PN) accurate precessional equation, appropriate for the PN accurate orbital angular momentum ${\\bf L}$, to evolve the ${\\bf L_{\\rm N}}$-based precessing source frame. This influenced us to develop inspiral waveforms for spinning compact binaries in a precessing convention that explicitly employ ${\\bf L}$ to describe the binary orbits. Our approach introduces certain additional 3PN order terms in the evolution equations for the orbital phase and frequency with respect to the usual ${\\bf L_{\\rm N}}$-based implementation of the precessing convention. We examine the practical implications of these additional term...

  14. Comparison of Conventional and ANN Models for River Flow Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.; Ganti, R.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrological models are useful in many water resources applications such as flood control, irrigation and drainage, hydro power generation, water supply, erosion and sediment control, etc. Estimates of runoff are needed in many water resources planning, design development, operation and maintenance activities. River flow is generally estimated using time series or rainfall-runoff models. Recently, soft artificial intelligence tools such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have become popular for research purposes but have not been extensively adopted in operational hydrological forecasts. There is a strong need to develop ANN models based on real catchment data and compare them with the conventional models. In this paper, a comparative study has been carried out for river flow forecasting using the conventional and ANN models. Among the conventional models, multiple linear, and non linear regression, and time series models of auto regressive (AR) type have been developed. Feed forward neural network model structure trained using the back propagation algorithm, a gradient search method, was adopted. The daily river flow data derived from Godavari Basin @ Polavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India have been employed to develop all the models included here. Two inputs, flows at two past time steps, (Q(t-1) and Q(t-2)) were selected using partial auto correlation analysis for forecasting flow at time t, Q(t). A wide range of error statistics have been used to evaluate the performance of all the models developed in this study. It has been found that the regression and AR models performed comparably, and the ANN model performed the best amongst all the models investigated in this study. It is concluded that ANN model should be adopted in real catchments for hydrological modeling and forecasting.

  15. An engineering study and concept design of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) for conventional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, L.S.

    1993-05-01

    The study objective was to evaluate several conventional equipment SCADA system architectural concepts and to recommend an approach for development. Each of the concepts given consideration had to satisfy the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) conventional equipment SCADA application requirements and the evaluation process determined which approach represented the best technical and most cost effective solution to the system requirements. Based on the results of the concept evaluation process, a personal computer based approach was recommended for the SSC conventional equipment SCADA application. Block diagrams and budgetary cost estimate for this approach were developed with specific recommendations with respect to the conventional equipment SCADA system architecture and development process.

  16. Determinents of profitability – a comparative analysis of islamic banks and conventional banks in ASEAN countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wahidudin, AHMAD Nazri; Subramaniam, ULAGANATHAN; Pg. Kamaluddin, PENGIRAN. Abd Mutalib

    2012-01-01

    The profit and loss sharing system allows bank to share risk with client in Islamic banks. Moreover Islamic banks are required to operate as per Islamic Rules and principles. Unlike Islamic banks, conventional banks operate based on interest. The income of conventional banks is the difference between interest paid to depositors and interest paid by borrowers. This is the common banking system around the world. This study will analyze determinants of profitability in Islamic banks will be co...

  17. Effects of Conventional and Cooperative Learning Strategies on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Conventional and Cooperative Learning Strategies on the Academic Performance of Senior ... Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... Also in the conventional class, there was no significant differences in the academic ...

  18. The Development of Toddlers' Moral and Conventional Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Braeges, Judith L.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the development of toddlers' moral and conventional judgments and effects of language development on such judgments. Rudimentary distinctions between familiar moral, social and conventional transgressions are made during the child's third year. (Author/BB)

  19. Understanding the substrate specificity of conventional calpains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorimachi, Hiroyuki; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Ono, Yasuko

    2012-09-01

    Calpains are intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent Cys proteases that play important roles in a wide range of biological phenomena via the limited proteolysis of their substrates. Genetic defects in calpain genes cause lethality and/or functional deficits in many organisms, including humans. Despite their biological importance, the mechanisms underlying the action of calpains, particularly of their substrate specificities, remain largely unknown. Studies show that certain sequence preferences influence calpain substrate recognition, and some properties of amino acids have been related successfully to substrate specificity and to the calpains' 3D structure. The full spectrum of this substrate specificity, however, has not been clarified using standard sequence analysis algorithms, e.g., the position-specific scoring-matrix method. More advanced bioinformatics techniques were used recently to identify the substrate specificities of calpains and to develop a predictor for calpain cleavage sites, demonstrating the potential of combining empirical data acquisition and machine learning. This review discusses the calpains' substrate specificities, introducing the benefits of bioinformatics applications. In conclusion, machine learning has led to the development of useful predictors for calpain cleavage sites, although the accuracy of the predictions still needs improvement. Machine learning has also elucidated information about the properties of calpains' substrate specificities, including a preference for sequences over secondary structures and the existence of a substrate specificity difference between two similar conventional calpains, which has never been indicated biochemically.

  20. Conventional and advanced imaging in neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Y; Sutton, I J; Ghadiri, M; Masters, L; Zivadinov, R; Barnett, M H

    2014-08-01

    Myelitis and optic neuritis are prototypic clinical presentations of both multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Once considered a subtype of multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, is now known to have a discrete pathogenesis in which antibodies to the water channel, aquaporin 4, play a critical role. Timely differentiation of neuromyelitis optica from MS is imperative, determining both prognosis and treatment strategy. Early, aggressive immunosuppression is required to prevent the accrual of severe disability in neuromyelitis optica; conversely, MS-specific therapies may exacerbate the disease. The diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica requires the integration of clinical, MR imaging, and laboratory data, but current criteria are insensitive and exclude patients with limited clinical syndromes. Failure to recognize the expanding spectrum of cerebral MR imaging patterns associated with aquaporin 4 antibody seropositivity adds to diagnostic uncertainty in some patients. We present the state of the art in conventional and nonconventional MR imaging in neuromyelitis optica and review the place of neuroimaging in the diagnosis, management, and research of the condition.

  1. On Self-adjustment of Social Conventions to Small Perturbations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi-Chuan

    2008-01-01

    @@ We present a model for self-adjustment of social conventions to small perturbations, and investigate how pertur-bations can influence the convergence of social convention in different situations.The experimental results show that the sensitivity of social conventions is determined by not only the perturbations themselves but also the agent adjustment functions for the perturbations; and social conventions are more sensitive to the outlier agent number than to the strategy fluctuation magnitudes and localities of perturbations.

  2. Uncertainty, Conventions and Co-ordination in the Business Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The paper presents the basic propositions of convention theory with special consideration to the analysis of uncertainty, the role of institutions and conventions, and the implications this perspective has for the analysis of the business enterprise......The paper presents the basic propositions of convention theory with special consideration to the analysis of uncertainty, the role of institutions and conventions, and the implications this perspective has for the analysis of the business enterprise...

  3. Adoption of protocols to amend the Paris convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy and the Brussels convention supplementary to the Paris convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. W.; Jang, K. H.; Oh, B. J.; Song, J. M.; Jung, M. M.; Kim, H. J. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    To keep in line with the world-wide tendency to strengthen the nuclear third party liability system after the Chernobyl accident, the Protocols to amend the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention was adopted on 12 February, 2004. The most important feature of the revised Paris Convention is an increase in the nuclear operator's liability amount from 15 million SDRs to a new minimum of 700 million Euros. For the additional compensation to those provided by the domestic liability regime, the revised Brussels Supplementary Convention will maintain its basic three-tier compensation system but with significantly increased amounts(As a result the total amount to be compensated according to the three tiers will be 15 billions Euros). The protocols to amend the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy will come into force when ratified by two thirds of the Signatory States, and the protocol to amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention will come into force when ratified by all the Brussels Supplementary Convention Signatory States.

  4. Convention on nuclear safety. Questions posted to Switzerland in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) on 31 October 1995. It ratified the Convention on 12 September 1996, which came into force on 11 December 1996. In accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, Switzerland has prepared and submitted 4 country reports for Review Meetings of Contracting Parties organised in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2006. These meetings at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna were attended by a Swiss delegation. Most of the requirements of the articles of the Convention were already standard practice in Switzerland. In the last years, all Swiss nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) built up documented quality management systems. The independence of HSK from licensing authorities is fulfilled on a technical level. In 2005, a new Nuclear Energy Act came into force requiring formal independence of the supervisory authorities from the licensing authorities. A separate act to legally settle the Inspectorate's fully independent status was adopted by Parliament. HSK participates in international co-operation and is represented in numerous nuclear safety working groups in order to ensure the exchange of scientific, technical and regulatory know-how. The regulatory processes applied to the licensing and safety surveillance of nuclear installations and their operation are up to date with the current state of science and technology. Deterministic and probabilistic safety evaluations guide and prioritise inspections and provide the basis for a graded approach to safety review and assessment. The surveillance of the NPPs' operating, control and safety systems, their component performance and integrity, their organisational and human aspects as well as the management, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste are permanent features of the supervisory authority's activities. Within the frame of a new integrated oversight process there is an annual systematic assessment of

  5. A comparative study on visual acuity and stereopsis outcomes between perceptual learning based on cloud services and conventional therapy for amblyopia%基于云服务技术的视知觉训练与传统综合训练对改善弱视患儿视力和立体视功能的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤玮玮; 王潇潇; 陶黎明

    2016-01-01

    Background Amblyopia is a developmental disorder of spatial vision that results in both monocular and binocular deficits.Conventional therapy for amblyopia which focuses on monocular training can improve visual acuity.However,how to improve the binocular function,especially stereopsis is rarely studied.Objective This study was to evaluate the outcome of perceptual learning based on cloud services of improving stcreopsis and visual acuity for amblyopia.Methods A randomized-controlled clinical study was performed.One hundred and seven amblyopic patients (178 eyes) with the age of 5-18 years old were recruited in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from July 2013 to March 2014.The patients were randomized into the perceptual learning group and the conventional therapy group.A perceptual learning based on cloud services with computer under the best corrected visual acuity was carried out in the perceptual learning group with 30-day duration as a course for 5-6 cycles,and training feedback data was obtained after each cycle for the regulation of following treatment.The dominant eye was covered during the training process.In the conventional therapy group,a training regimen of health eye covering that combined with eyesight training of amblyopic eye was performed.The stereopsis and visual acuity of the patients were estimated after training.Written informed consent was obtained from the parents or custodians of the children before entering the cohort.Results The total effective rate of visual acuity improvement is significantly higher in the perceptual learning group than that in the conventional therapy group after training (Z =6.368,P=0.012).The mean stereopsis value of the amblyopic eyes in the perceptual learning group and the conventional therapy group was (127±53)" and (174±67)" after training,which was significantly higher than (273 ±95)" and (311 ±103)" before training,respectively,and the increasing range of the mean stereopsis was

  6. The marriage of conventional cancer treatments and alternative cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Georgia M

    2008-06-01

    The terms "alternative" or "unconventional" have been used to describe any therapy used instead of conventional approaches. Conventional approaches, known as "standard" or "traditional" or "biomedical" approaches, have had broad application in Western medicine. Complementary and alternative medicine has been referred to as "integrative," "integrated," or "complementary" when therapies are combined with conventional approaches, such as those for cancer.

  7. 46 CFR 15.701 - Officers Competency Certificates Convention, 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Officers Competency Certificates Convention, 1936. 15... SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.701 Officers Competency Certificates Convention, 1936. (a) This section implements the Officers Competency Certificates Convention, 1936,...

  8. Prelingual deafness: Benefits from cochlear implants versus conventional hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Torre, Ana Adelina Giantomassi Della; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Brito, Rubens de

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The majority of patients with hearing loss, including those with severe hearing loss, benefits from the use of hearing aids. The cochlear implant is believed to achieve better results in a child with hearing loss in cases where the severity of disability renders hearing aids incapable of providing adequate sound information, as they require sufficient cochlear reserve so that acoustic detention occurs. Objective: To assess if cochlear implants provide more benefit than conventional hearing aids in prelingually deaf patients. Summary of the findings: The study was a systematic review of scientific papers selected by a search of the SciELO, Cochrane, MEDLINE, and LILACS-BIREME databases. Among the 2169 articles found, 12 studies proved relevant to the issue and presented an evidence strength rating of B. No publications rated evidence strength A. Seven of the studies analyzed were prospective cohorts and 5 were cross-sectional studies. Conclusion: Based on several studies, cochlear implants were demonstrated to be the best current alternative for bilateral severe or profound hearing loss, achieving better results in speech perception and development in prelingual children when compared to conventional hearing aids. PMID:25991962

  9. Performance evaluation of conventional and water saving taps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidar, A M; Memon, F A; Butler, D

    2016-01-15

    The rapid pace of urbanisation comes with considerable environmental implications including pressures on already stressed limited water resources. In urban areas, most of the water use is associated with water consumption in buildings. The second largest use of water is via taps. It is often assumed that water taps with low flow rates can contribute to reduced per capita water consumption. However, this is based on very little evidence. This paper presents the synthesis of a 13,000 high resolution observations made to investigate the actual water consumption of innovative (water saving) electronic taps and conventional mixer taps. High resolution flow-meters and data loggers were fitted into two washrooms in two different buildings of a higher education institution to record the water use through the basin taps. The recorded data provided information on duration, frequency of use and volume of water consumption per use. The data was helpful in identifying trends in hot and cold water use and therefore can be useful in estimating energy for producing hot water and associated greenhouse gas emissions. Analysis of the observed data suggests that the low flow taps have greater mean water consumption per event than the conventional taps and water consumption is more influenced by user behaviour rather than the technology.

  10. Analyzing performance determinants: Conventional versus Islamic Banks in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to empirically examine the bank-specific, financial, and macroeconomic determinants of performance of Islamic and conventional banks in Pakistan. To do this, we first constructed the financial performance index (FPI based on CAMELS' ratios and then run the computed index on the said determinants. We have used an unbalanced annual panel data covering the period 2006–2012. The GLS regression results show that operating efficiency, reserves, and overheads are significant determinants of conventional banks' performance, whereas, operating efficiency, deposits, and market concentration are significant in explaining performance of Islamic banks. We also show that the impact of GDP and the lending interest rate on performance is negative for both types of banks. Bank managers may focus on controlling overheads and operating costs to improve performance because, according the empirical results presented in the study, both of these variables are negatively related to the FPI. Our results suggest that advancements in overall management practices and new standards in operating efficiency and financial risk management are essential to enhance performance of banks.

  11. 乙醇固定法、液基细胞学法与传统细胞学法诊断胆总管恶性狭窄的对比研究%Diagnosis of malignant stricture of common bile duct: alcoholfixation, liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于剑锋; 郝建宇; 吴东方; 郎海波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of alcohol fixation and liquid-based cytology method for malignant stricture of common bile duct and to study the interval time between sampling and fixation for procedure of alcohol fixation.Methods Data of 82 patients were retrospectively studied,who were suspected of having malignant stricture of common bile duct underwent brushing through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP),and were confirmed by follow-up for 2 years or pathology after surgery from October 2008 to June 2013.These patients were randomly divided into alcohol fixation group (n =30),liquid-based cytology group (n =28) and conventional cytology group (n =24).The positive diagnostic rates of brush cytology in each group were compared.The alcohol fixation group were randomly divided into 2-minute group and 5-minute group according to the interval time between sampling and fixation.Positive diagnostic rates were also compared.Results The positive rates were 73.33% (alcohol fixation group,22/30),75.00% (liquid-based cytology group,21/28) and 20.83% (conventional cytology group,5/24),respectively.The positive rate of conventional cytology group was obviously lower than alcohol fixation group (x2 =21.525,P=0.000) and liquid-based cytology group (x2 =22.208,P =0.000) with statistical significance.But the positive rate of alcohol fixation group was similar to the liquid-based cytology group (x2 =0.683,P =0.898).In alcohol fixation group,the positive rate of 2-min group (88.24%,15/17) was significantly higher than the 5-min group (53.85%,7/13) with statistical significance (x2 =4.535,P =0.033).Conclusion Compared with conventional fixation,alcohol fixation and liquid-based cytology can improve positive diagnostic rate of brushing during ERCP.The alcohol fixation is more simple in procedure and low in cost than liquid-based cytology.The interval time between sampling and fixation should be reduced to no more than 2 minutes.%目的 探讨

  12. Can high resolution manometry parameters for achalasia be obtained by conventional manometry?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fernando; AM; Herbella; Marco; G; Patti

    2015-01-01

    High resolution manometry(HRM) is a new technology that made important contributions to the field of gastrointestinal physiology. HRM showed clear advan-tages over conventional manometry and it allowed the creation of different manometric parameters. On the other side, conventional manometry is still wild available. It must be better studied if the new technology made possible the creation and study of these parameters or if they were always there but the colorful intuitive panoramic view of the peristalsis from the pharynx to the stomach HRM allowed the human eyes to distinguish subtle parameters unknown or uncomprehend so far and if HRM parameters can be reliably obtained by conventional manometry and data from conventional manometry still can be accepted in achalasia studies. Conventional manometry relied solely on the residual pressure to evaluate lower esophageal sphincter(LES) relaxation while HRM can obtain the Integrated Relaxation Pressure. Esophageal body HRM parameters defines achalasia subtypes, the Chicago classification, based on esophageal pressurization after swallows. The characterization of each subtype is very intuitive by HRM but also easy by conventional manometry since only wave amplitudes need to be measured. In conclusion, conventional manometry is still valuable to classify achalasia according to the Chicago classification. HRM permits a better study of the LES.

  13. A naming convention for atmospheric organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B. N.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Pandis, S. N.

    2014-06-01

    While the field of atmospheric organic aerosol scientific research has experienced thorough and insightful progress over the last half century, this progress has been accompanied by the evolution of a communicative and detailed yet, at times, complex and inconsistent language. The menagerie of detailed classification that now exists to describe organic compounds in our atmosphere reflects the wealth of observational techniques now at our disposal as well as the rich information provided by state-of-the-science instrumentation. However, the nomenclature in place to communicate these scientific gains is growing disjointed to the point that effective communication within the scientific community and to the public may be sacrificed. We propose standardizing a naming convention for organic aerosol classification that is relevant to laboratory studies, ambient observations, atmospheric models, and various stakeholders for air-quality problems. Because a critical aspect of this effort is to directly translate the essence of complex physico-chemical phenomena to a much broader, policy-oriented audience, we recommend a framework that maximizes comprehension among scientists and non-scientists alike. For example, to classify volatility, it relies on straightforward alphabetic terms (e.g., semivolatile, SV; intermediate volatility, IV; etc.) rather than possibly ambiguous numeric indices. This framework classifies organic material as primary or secondary pollutants and distinguishes among fundamental features important for science and policy questions including emission source, chemical phase, and volatility. Also useful is the addition of an alphabetic suffix identifying the volatility of the organic material or its precursor for when emission occurred. With this framework, we hope to introduce into the community a consistent connection between common notation for the general public and detailed nomenclature for highly specialized discussion. In so doing, we try to maintain

  14. Reconsidering "The inappropriateness of conventional cephalometrics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstein, Fred L

    2016-06-01

    Of all the articles on cephalometrics this journal has published over the last half-century, the one most cited across the scientific literature is the 1979 lecture "The inappropriateness of conventional cephalometrics" by Robert Moyers and me. But the durable salience of this article is perplexing, as its critique was misdirected (it should have been aimed at the craniometrics of the early twentieth century, not merely the roentgenographic extension used in the orthodontic clinic) and its proposed remedies have all failed to establish themselves as methods of any broad utility. When problems highlighted by Moyers and me have been resolved at all, the innovations that resolved them owe to tools very different from those suggested in our article and imported from fields quite a bit farther from biometrics than we expected back in 1979. One of these tools was the creation de novo of a new abstract mathematical construction, statistical shape space, in the 1980s and 1990s; another was a flexible and intuitive new graphic, the thin-plate spline, for meaningfully and suggestively visualizing a wide variety of biological findings in these spaces. On the other hand, many of the complaints Moyers and I enunciated back in 1979, especially those stemming from the disarticulation of morphometrics from the explanatory styles and purposes of clinical medicine, remain unanswered even today. The present essay, a retrospective historical meditation, reviews the context of the 1979 publication, its major themes, and its relevance today. This essay is dedicated to the memory of Robert E. Moyers on the 100th anniversary of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics.

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Liquid-Based Cytology versus Conventional Cytology for Cervical Neoplasia: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials%液基细胞学对宫颈癌前病变的诊断价值:随机对照试验的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克敏; 尹如铁; 康德英; 伍伟伟; 文进

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for cervical neoplasia. Methods Such databases as PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CNKI and CBM were searched to collect the random control trials (RCTs) about evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for cervical neoplasia published before June, 2010. According to the inclusive and exclusive criteria, two assessors independently screened the studies, extracted the data, assessed the quality and conducted meta-analysis by using RevMan 5.0 and Metadisc 1.4 softwares. Results A total of five RCTS were eligible. With the ASCUS regarded as the abnormal critical value, there were significant differences between liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology in specificity for CIN 3+ (RR=0.97, 95%CI 0.97 to 0.97, P<0.000 01) and CIN 2+ of high risk population (RR=1.01, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.01, P<0.000 01), but no significant differences were found in other outcomes. Conclusion Based on the current evidence of evidence-based medicine, the liquid-based cytology is of neither more specificity nor more sensitivity for detecting high grade CIN than the convention cytology in the regular screening program, but it seems to be of more specificity in high risk group.%目的 系统评价液基细胞学与传统细胞学对宫颈癌前病变的诊断价值.方法 计算机检索PubMed、EMbase、Cochrane Library、Cochrane临床对照试验中心注册库、CNKI和CBM,检索时间均从建库至2010年6月,收集比较液基细胞学与传统细胞学诊断宫颈癌前病变的随机对照试验.由2位评价员独立根据纳入排除标准筛选文献、提取资料并评价质量后,采用RevMan 5.0软件和Metadisc l.4软件进行Meta分析.结果 共纳入5个随机对照试验,合计149287例研究对象.其中液基细胞学组69 785例,传统细胞学组79 537例.Meta分析结果

  16. The semantics of Chemical Markup Language (CML): dictionaries and conventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Rus