WorldWideScience

Sample records for conventional farming systems

  1. Comparison of landscape features in organic and conventional farming systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelt, van J.D.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Hendriks, K.

    1998-01-01

    Four organic (biodynamic) farms coupled with conventional farms from their neighbourhood in The Netherlands, Germany and Sweden, and 3 organic farms and 4 conventional farms from the West Friesean region in The Netherlands were evaluated to compare their impact on landscape diversity. Materials used

  2. Energy balance in olive oil farms: comparison of organic and conventional farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Meco, Ramón; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The viability of an agricultural production system not only depends on the crop yields, but especially on the efficient use of available resources. However, the current agricultural systems depend heavily on non-renewable energy consumption in the form of fertilizers, fossil fuels, pesticides and machinery. In developed countries, the economic profitability of different productive systems is dependent on the granting of subsidies of diverse origin that affect both production factors (or inputs) and the final product (or output). Leaving such external aids, energy balance analysis reveals the real and most efficient form of management for each agroclimatic region, and is also directly related to the economic activity and the environmental state. In this work we compare the energy balance resulting from organic and conventional olive oil farms under the semi-arid conditions of Central Spain. The results indicate that the mean energy supplied to the organic farms was sensitively lower (about 30%) in comparison with the conventional management, and these differences were more pronounced for the biggest farms (> 15 ha). Mean energy outputs were about 20% lower in the organic system, although organic small farms (ratio scarcely reached 25%. Human labor item only represented a very small amount of the total energy input in both cases (less than 1%). As conclusions, both management systems were efficient from an energy point of view. The value of the organic production should be focused on the environmental benefits it provides, which are not usually considered in the conventional management on not valuing the damage it produces to the environment. Organic farming would improve the energy efficiency in these environmental conditions, offering a sustainable production with minimal inputs.

  3. Comparing technical efficiency of farms with an automatic milking system and a conventional milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; Tauer, L W; Hogeveen, H; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2012-12-01

    Changing from a conventional milking system (CMS) to an automatic milking system (AMS) necessitates a new management approach and a corresponding change in labor tasks. Together with labor savings, AMS farms have been found to have higher capital costs, primarily because of higher maintenance costs and depreciation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that AMS farms differ from CMS farms in capital:labor ratio and possibly their technical efficiency, at least during a transition learning period. The current study used actual farm accounting data from dairy farms in the Netherlands with an AMS and a CMS to investigate the empirical substitution of capital for labor in the AMS farms and to determine if the technical efficiency of the AMS farms differed from the CMS farms. The technical efficiency estimates were obtained with data envelopment analysis. The 63 AMS farms and the 337 CMS farms in the data set did not differ in general farm characteristics such as the number of cows, number of hectares, and the amount of milk quota. Farms with AMS have significantly higher capital costs (€12.71 per 100 kg of milk) than CMS farms (€10.10 per 100 kg of milk). Total labor costs and net outputs were not significantly different between AMS and CMS farms. A clear substitution of capital for labor with the adoption of an AMS could not be observed. Although the AMS farms have a slightly lower technical efficiency (0.76) than the CMS farms (0.78), a significant difference in these estimates was not observed. This indicates that the farms were not different in their ability to use inputs (capital, labor, cows, and land) to produce outputs (total farm revenues). The technical efficiency of farms invested in an AMS in 2008 or earlier was not different from the farms invested in 2009 or 2010, indicating that a learning effect during the transition period was not observed. The results indicate that the economic performance of AMS and CMS farms are similar. What these results show is that

  4. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kremen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that biological diversification across ecological, spatial, and temporal scales maintains and regenerates the ecosystem services that provide critical inputs - such as maintenance of soil quality, nitrogen fixation, pollination, and pest control - to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity is sustained by diversified farming practices and it also supplies multiple ecosystem services to agriculture, thus reducing environmental externalities and the need for off-farm inputs. We reviewed the literature that compares biologically diversified farming systems with conventional farming systems, and we examined 12 ecosystem services: biodiversity; soil quality; nutrient management; water-holding capacity; control of weeds, diseases, and pests; pollination services; carbon sequestration; energy efficiency and reduction of warming potential; resistance and resilience to climate change; and crop productivity. We found that compared with conventional farming systems, diversified farming systems support substantially greater biodiversity, soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in surface soils, energy-use efficiency, and resistance and resilience to climate change. Relative to conventional monocultures, diversified farming systems also enhance control of weeds, diseases, and arthropod pests and they increase pollination services; however, available evidence suggests that these practices may often be insufficient to control pests and diseases or provide sufficient pollination. Significantly less public funding has been applied to agroecological research and the improvement of diversified farming systems than to conventional systems. Despite this lack of support, diversified farming systems have only somewhat reduced mean crop productivity relative to conventional farming systems, but they produce far fewer environmental and social harms. We recommend that more research and crop breeding be conducted to improve diversified farming

  5. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W; Kristensen, Troels; van der Zijpp, A J

    2012-01-01

    Organic dairy farmers in Denmark currently are implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) to save labour costs. As organic agriculture aims at sustainable production, the introduction of a new technology such as AMS should be evaluated regarding its economic viability, environmental impact...... conventional milking systems (CMS). Sustainability indicators were quantified for economic performance of the farm, on-farm eutrophication, on-farm biodiversity, animal welfare (including health), grazing time, milk composition and labour time. Milk yield per cow per year was higher for AMS farms (9021 kg...... was not due to the use of AMS but was caused by a higher export of manure by the CMS farms. The number of veterinary treatments per cow per year was unaffected by AMS use, but culling rate was higher for the AMS farms (38%) than for the CMS farms (32%). There was no difference between the AMS and CMS farms...

  6. Differences in sheep and goats milk fatty acid profile between conventional and organic farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Kotrotsios, Vaios; Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis; Zervas, George

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in chemical composition and particularly in fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, of milk obtained from conventional and organic dairy sheep and goats farms under the farming conditions practiced in Greece. Four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, representing common conventional production systems and another four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, organically certified, representing organic production and feeding systems were selected from all over Greece. One hundred and sixty two individual milk samples were collected from those farms in January-February 2009, about three months after parturition. The milk samples were analyzed for their main chemical constituents and their FA profile. The results showed that the production system affected milk chemical composition: in particular fat content was lower in the organic sheep and goats milk compared with the corresponding conventional. Milk from organic sheep had higher content in MUFA, PUFA, alpha-LNA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and omega-3 FA, whereas in milk from organic goats alpha-LNA and omega-3 FA content was higher than that in conventional one. These differences are, mainly, attributed to different feeding practices used by the two production systems. The results of this study show that the organic milk produced under the farming conditions practiced in Greece has higher nutritional value, due to its FA profile, compared with the respective conventional milk.

  7. Integrating soil physical and biological properties in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though soil physical and soil biological properties are intrinsically linked in the soil environment they are often studied separately. This work adds value to analyses of soil biophysical quality of tillage systems under organic and conventional farming systems by correlating physical and

  8. Sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems in Tuscany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Vazzana, C.; Wossink, G.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of Organic,

  9. Comparing milk yield, chemical properties and somatic cell count from organic and conventional mountain farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Bianchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of farming systems (organic vs. conventional, diet (hay/concentrate vs. pasture and their interaction on milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid (FA profile of dairy cows bred in mountainous areas. For this purpose four dairy farms (two organic and two conventional were chosen in the alpine territory of Aosta Valley (NW Italy; individual milk yield was recorded daily and bulk milk samples were collected monthly from February to September 2007 to cover dietary variations. Higher levels of milk production (P<0.05 and lower milk protein amounts (P<0.01 were observed in the organic farms with respect to the conventional ones, while no significant differences were noticed in milk fat and lactose contents and in somatic cell count. Concerning fatty acids, only small differences were detected between organic and conventional milk and such differences seemed to be related mainly to the stabled period. Diet affected almost all variables studied: pasture feeding provided a significant improvement in the fatty acid composition in both organic and conventional systems leading to lower hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, higher mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid amounts (P<0.001.

  10. Seed quality of common bean accessions under organic and conventional farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Medeiros Gindri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agrobiodiversity is essential for a sustainable food production, and the knowledge of the potential characteristics of landrace seeds may prompt farmers to adopt the habit of seed conservation for this species. This study aimed at categorizing landrace and commercial common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. accessions, according to the physiological quality (viability and vigor of seeds produced in the field, during two growing seasons, under organic and conventional farming systems. Germination percentage, field emergence, electrical conductivity, accelerated aging, cold test and seedling length were assessed. The landrace bean accessions exhibit diversity in the physiological seed quality, in terms of their viability and vigor. No differences were observed between the farming systems, in relation to the physiological quality of the seeds produced. The categorization of landrace common bean accessions allows to identify those with superior physiological seed quality.

  11. Differences in sheep and goats milk microbiological profile between conventional and organic farming systems in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malissiova, Eleni; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Kyriazi, Aikaterini; Mparda, Maria; Sakorafa, Christina; Katsioulis, Antonios; Katsiaflaka, Anna; Kyritsi, Maria; Zdragas, Antonios; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the microbiological profile and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from milk from organic and conventional sheep and goat farms. Twenty-five organic and 25 conventional sheep and goat farms in the region of Thessaly, Greece participated in this study. A standardised detailed questionnaire was used to describe farming practices. A total of 50 samples were collected and analysed for total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC) and somatic cell count (SCC), while Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were isolated using standard methods. Isolates were identified at species level by Api-test and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Susceptibility to a panel of 20 for E. coli and 16 for S. aureus antimicrobials was determined by the agar dilution method. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for S. aureus and E. coli isolates to determine predominant clones. Lower counts of TVC, TCC and SCC were identified in milk from the organic farms, possibly due to differences in the hygienic farming practices found on those farms. API-tests and MALDI-TOF MS showed no significant differences in the S. aureus and E. coli isolates. Overall, antimicrobial resistance rates were low, while a statistically higher percentage was estimated among strains originating from conventional farms in comparison with organic farms, possibly due to the restriction of antibiotic use in organic farming. PFGE revealed diversity among S. aureus and E. coli populations in both organic and conventional farms indicating circulation of 2-3 main clones changing slightly during their evolution. Consequently, there is evidence that milk from the organic farms presents a better microbiological profile when compared with milk from conventional farms.

  12. Impact of Organic and Conventional Systems of Coffee Farming on Soil Properties and Culturable Microbial Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken with an objective of evaluating the long-term impacts of organic (ORG) and conventional (CON) methods of coffee farming on soil physical, chemical, biological, and microbial diversity. Electrical conductivity and bulk density were found to increase by 34% and 21%, respectively, in CON compared to ORG system, while water holding capacity was found decreased in both the systems. Significant increase in organic carbon was observed in ORG system. Major nutrients, nitrogen and potassium, levels showed inclination in both ORG and CON system, but the trend was much more pronounced in CON system. Phosphorus was found to increase in both ORG and CON system, but its availability was found to be more with CON system. In biological attributes, higher soil respiration and fluorescein diacetate activity were recorded in ORG system compared to CON system. Higher soil urease activity was observed in CON system, while dehydrogenase activity does not show significant differences between ORG and CON systems. ORG system was found to have higher macrofauna (31.4%), microbial population (34%), and microbial diversity indices compared to CON system. From the present study, it is accomplished that coffee soil under long-term ORG system has better soil properties compared to CON system.

  13. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in onion roots from organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Guillermo A; Parádi, István; Burger, Karin; Baar, Jacqueline; Kuyper, Thomas W; Scholten, Olga E; Kik, Chris

    2009-06-01

    Diversity and colonization levels of naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in onion roots were studied to compare organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands. In 2004, 20 onion fields were sampled in a balanced survey between farming systems and between two regions, namely, Zeeland and Flevoland. In 2005, nine conventional and ten organic fields were additionally surveyed in Flevoland. AMF phylotypes were identified by rDNA sequencing. All plants were colonized, with 60% for arbuscular colonization and 84% for hyphal colonization as grand means. In Zeeland, onion roots from organic fields had higher fractional colonization levels than those from conventional fields. Onion yields in conventional farming were positively correlated with colonization level. Overall, 14 AMF phylotypes were identified. The number of phylotypes per field ranged from one to six. Two phylotypes associated with the Glomus mosseae-coronatum and the G. caledonium-geosporum species complexes were the most abundant, whereas other phylotypes were infrequently found. Organic and conventional farming systems had similar number of phylotypes per field and Shannon diversity indices. A few organic and conventional fields had larger number of phylotypes, including phylotypes associated with the genera Glomus-B, Archaeospora, and Paraglomus. This suggests that farming systems as such did not influence AMF diversity, but rather specific environmental conditions or agricultural practices.

  14. Soil microbiome is more heterogeneous in organic than in conventional farming system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupatini, Manoeli; Korthals, Gerard W.; de Hollander, Mattias; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2017-01-01

    Organic farming system and sustainable management of soil pathogens aim at reducing the use of agricultural chemicals in order to improve ecosystem health. Despite the essential role of microbial communities in agro-ecosystems, we still have limited understanding of the complex response of microbial

  15. To what extent does organic farming rely on nutrient inflows from conventional farming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Benjamin; Nesme, Thomas; Pellerin, Sylvain; David, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 63 farms. The farms were located in three French agricultural districts distributed over a gradient of farming activity defined by both the stocking rate and the ratio of the farm area under arable crops. Our results showed that on average, inflows from conventional farming were 23%, 73% and 53% for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. These inflows were strongly determined by the farm production systems. However, for farms similar in terms of production systems, the inflows also depended on the local context, such as the proximity of organic livestock farms: the reliance of organic farming on conventional farming was lower in mixed than in specialized districts. These results highlight the necessity to quantify the contribution of nutrient inflows from conventional farming when assessing organic farming and development scenarios. (letter)

  16. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Dionys; Andres, Christian; Verma, Rajeev; Zundel, Christine; Messmer, Monika M; Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010) of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton) management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st) crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008) for cotton (-29%) and wheat (-27%), whereas in the 2(nd) crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010) cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant) yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2). Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%), whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25%) due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11%) across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton and

  17. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionys Forster

    Full Text Available The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010 of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008 for cotton (-29% and wheat (-27%, whereas in the 2(nd crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010 cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2. Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%, whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25% due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11% across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton

  18. Nitrate leaching from organic and conventional crop production farms

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, J.E.; Berntsen, J.; Petersen, B.M.; Kristensen, I.S.

    2004-01-01

    Farm accounting data from the Institute of Food Economics and from Central Agricultural Registers in Denmark were used to define the import of nitrogen (N) to farmed fields on conventional and organic arable farms to 129 and 51 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Based on the recorded distribution of crops, a generalised crop rotation was defined for each of the two farming systems. The crop rotation for the organic farm had a high share of spring cereals and additionally 20% grass-clover in the ro...

  19. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellenberg, Lars; Granstedt, Artur

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA), consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.

  20. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L. Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kjellenberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA, consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.

  1. Evaluation of sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems: a farm and field-scale analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, G.C.; Wossink, G.A.A.; Vazzana, C.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of organic,

  2. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, Shirley; Stibuski, Rudinei Butka; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This study provides the characteristics of the conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based production systems used in Southern Brazil, and its consequences on production and milk quality. C-HI farms had larger farms and herds, annual pasture with higher inputs and milk yield, whereas O-LI had smaller farms and herds, perennial pastures with lowest input and milk yields; C-LI was in between. O-LI farms may contribute to eco-system services, but low milk yield is a major concern. Hygienic and microbiological milk quality was poor for all farms and needs to be improved. Abstract Pasture-based dairy production is used widely on family dairy farms in Southern Brazil. This study investigates conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based systems and their effects on quantity and quality of the milk produced. We conducted technical site visits and interviews monthly over one year on 24 family farms (n = 8 per type). C-HI farms had the greatest total area (28.9 ha), greatest percentage of area with annual pasture (38.7%), largest number of lactating animals (26.2) and greatest milk yield per cow (22.8 kg·day−1). O-LI farms had the largest perennial pasture area (52.3%), with the greatest botanical richness during all seasons. Area of perennial pasture was positively correlated with number of species consumed by the animals (R2 = 0.74). Milk from O-LI farms had higher levels of fat and total solids only during the winter. Hygienic and microbiological quality of the milk was poor for all farms and need to be improved. C-HI farms had high milk yield related to high input, C-LI had intermediate characteristics and O-LI utilized a year round perennial pasture as a strategy to diminish the use of supplements in animal diets, which is an important aspect in ensuring production sustainability. PMID:26479369

  3. Evaluation of Yield, Yield Components and Growth Indices of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. in Conventional and Organic Farming Systems

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    Mahdieh Hajghani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Application of organic fertilizers in sustainable agriculture systems improves yield sustainability of field crop. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is native to Middle East and belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is resistant to saline conditions, water stress, and can reach the deep-lying water of soil. The humic acid (HA mentioned as an environmentally friendly, organic matter with low levels of hormonal-like compounds is useful in improving agriculture production (Samavat and Malakuti 2006. The HA influence on plant growth depends on the source, concentration and molecular weight of the substance. Vermicompost is produced by earthworms, mainly Eisenia foetida, it has higher levels of available nutrients compared to the original materials of composts produced by other methods. Recent evidences suggest that using different amounts of vermicompost increased vegetative traits and concentration of minerals in sunflower. However, there has been little discussion about organic farming of safflower. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of organic treatments on yield, yield components, and growth indices of safflower and to compare it with conventional agriculture. Materials and methods This research was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station in Kerman, Iran during 2012–2013. It was carried out in a randomized complete block (RCB design and had three replications. The current research has been performed to investigate the effects of two different sources of organic fertilizer on spring safflower. Four levels of vermicompost (V: 0, 3, 6 and 9 t ha-1 were considered in the main plots. Liquid humic acid at four different concentrations (HA: 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm were examined and kept in the subplots. Humic acid as a foliar treatment on leaf surface was applied twice at the beginning of stem elongation and at flowering times. In this study, aimed to compare organic farming

  4. A Diagnosis of Biophysical and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Choice to Adopt Organic or Conventional Farming Systems for Cotton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riar, Amritbir; Mandloi, Lokendra S; Poswal, Randhir S; Messmer, Monika M; Bhullar, Gurbir S

    2017-01-01

    Organic agriculture is one of the most widely known alternative production systems advocated for its benefits to soil, environment, health and economic well-being of farming communities. Rapid increase in the market demand for organic products presents a remarkable opportunity for expansion of organic agriculture. A thorough understanding of the context specific motivations of farmers for adoption of organic farming systems is important so that appropriate policy measures are put in place. With an aim of understanding the social and biophysical motivations of organic and conventional cotton farmers for following their respective farming practices, a detailed farm survey was conducted in Nimar valley of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. The study area was chosen for being an important region for cotton production, where established organic and conventional farms operate under comparable circumstances. We found considerable variation among organic and conventional farmers for their social and biophysical motivations. Organic farmers were motivated by the sustainability of cotton production and growing safer food without pesticides, whereas conventional farmers were sensitive about their reputation in community. Organic farmers with larger holdings were more concerned about closed nutrient cycles and reducing their dependence on external inputs, whereas medium and small holding organic farmers were clearly motivated by the premium price of organic cotton. Higher productivity was the only important motivation for conventional farmers with larger land holdings. We also found considerable yield gaps among different farms, both under conventional and organic management, that need to be addressed through extension and training. Our findings suggest that research and policy measures need to be directed toward strengthening of extension services, local capacity building, enhancing availability of suitable inputs and market access for organic farmers.

  5. A Diagnosis of Biophysical and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers’ Choice to Adopt Organic or Conventional Farming Systems for Cotton Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritbir Riar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture is one of the most widely known alternative production systems advocated for its benefits to soil, environment, health and economic well-being of farming communities. Rapid increase in the market demand for organic products presents a remarkable opportunity for expansion of organic agriculture. A thorough understanding of the context specific motivations of farmers for adoption of organic farming systems is important so that appropriate policy measures are put in place. With an aim of understanding the social and biophysical motivations of organic and conventional cotton farmers for following their respective farming practices, a detailed farm survey was conducted in Nimar valley of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. The study area was chosen for being an important region for cotton production, where established organic and conventional farms operate under comparable circumstances. We found considerable variation among organic and conventional farmers for their social and biophysical motivations. Organic farmers were motivated by the sustainability of cotton production and growing safer food without pesticides, whereas conventional farmers were sensitive about their reputation in community. Organic farmers with larger holdings were more concerned about closed nutrient cycles and reducing their dependence on external inputs, whereas medium and small holding organic farmers were clearly motivated by the premium price of organic cotton. Higher productivity was the only important motivation for conventional farmers with larger land holdings. We also found considerable yield gaps among different farms, both under conventional and organic management, that need to be addressed through extension and training. Our findings suggest that research and policy measures need to be directed toward strengthening of extension services, local capacity building, enhancing availability of suitable inputs and market access for organic farmers.

  6. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.; Kristensen, T.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic dairy farmers in Denmark currently are implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) to save labour costs. As organic agriculture aims at sustainable production, the introduction of a new technology such as AMS should be evaluated regarding its economic viability, environmental impact, and

  7. Nitrogen Turnover on Organic and Conventional Mixed Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Halberg, Niels; Kristensen, Erik Steen; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak

    1995-01-01

    Separate focus on crop fertilization or feeding practices inadequately describes nitrogen (N) loss from mixed dairy farms because of (1) interaction between animal and crop production and between the production system and the manager, and (2) uncertainties of herd N production and crop N utilization. Therefore a systems approach was used to study N turnover and N efficiency on 16 conventional and 14 organic private Danish farms with mixed animal (dairy) and crop production. There were signifi...

  8. Comparison of Management Styles in Organic and Conventional Farming with Respect to Disruptive External Influences. The Case of Organic Dairy Farming and Conventional Horticulture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.; Gremmen, H.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional Dutch farming systems are constantly improving their technology to withstand disruptive external influences, while organic farming tends to focus on methods that stress conservation of natural and nonrenewable resources. We hypothesize that management styles to withstand disruptive

  9. No effect of the farming system (organic/conventional) on the bioavailability of apple (Malus domestica Bork., cultivar Golden Delicious) polyphenols in healthy men: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, Berenike A; Rüfer, Corinna E; Bub, Achim; Seifert, Stephanie; Weibel, Franco P; Kunz, Clemens; Watzl, Bernhard

    2010-08-01

    The organic food sales have been increasing during the recent years. It has been hypothesised that organically grown fruits are healthier based on their higher content of phytochemicals. However, data on the bioavailability of phytochemicals from organically or conventionally produced plant foods are scarce. Two human intervention studies were performed to compare the bioavailability of polyphenols in healthy men after ingestion of apples from different farming systems. The administered apples were grown organically and conventionally under defined conditions and characterised regarding their polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. No significant differences in the polyphenol content and the antioxidant capacity from the organic and conventional farming system were observed. In the short-term intervention study, six men consumed either organically or conventionally produced apples in a randomized cross-over study. After intake of 1 kg apples, phloretin (C (max) 13 + or - 5 nmol/l, t (max) 1.7 + or - 1.2 h) and coumaric acid (C (max )35 + or - 12 nmol/l, t (max) 3.0 + or - 0.8 h) plasma concentrations increased significantly (P farming systems. In the long-term intervention study, 43 healthy volunteers consumed organically or conventionally produced apples (500 g/day; 4 weeks) or no apples in a double-blind, randomized intervention study. In this study, 24 h after the last dosing regime, the apple intake did not result in increasing polyphenol concentrations in plasma and urine compared to the control group suggesting no accumulation of apple polyphenols or degradation products in humans. Our study suggests that the two farming systems (organic/conventional) do not result in differences in the bioavailability of apple polyphenols.

  10. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  11. Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions between Two Dairy Farm Systems (Conventional vs. Organic Management) in New Hampshire Using the Manure DNDC Biogeochemical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorich, C.; Contosta, A.; Li, C.; Brito, A.; Varner, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture contributes 20 to 25 % of the total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. These agricultural emissions are primarily in the form of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) with these GHG accounting for roughly 40 and 80 % of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively. Due to varied management and the complexities of agricultural ecosystems, it is difficult to estimate these CH4 and N2O emissions. The IPCC emission factors can be used to yield rough estimates of CH4 and N2O emissions but they are often based on limited data. Accurate modeling validated by measurements is needed in order to identify potential mitigation areas, reduce GHG emissions from agriculture, and improve sustainability of farming practices. The biogeochemical model Manure DNDC was validated using measurements from two dairy farms in New Hampshire, USA in order to quantify GHG emissions under different management systems. One organic and one conventional dairy farm operated by the University of New Hampshire's Agriculture Experiment Station were utilized as the study sites for validation of Manure DNDC. Compilation of management records started in 2011 to provide model inputs. Model results were then compared to field collected samples of soil carbon and nitrogen, above-ground biomass, and GHG fluxes. Fluxes were measured in crop, animal, housing, and waste management sites on the farms in order to examine the entire farm ecosystem and test the validity of the model. Fluxes were measured by static flux chambers, with enteric fermentation measurements being conducted by the SF6 tracer test as well as a new method called Greenfeeder. Our preliminary GHG flux analysis suggests higher emissions than predicted by IPCC emission factors and equations. Results suggest that emissions from manure management is a key concern at the conventional dairy farm while bedded housing at the organic dairy produced large quantities of GHG.

  12. Assessment of herd management on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, K E; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Richert, R; Schukken, Y H; Ruegg, P L; Gamroth, M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate management characteristics on organic and similarly sized conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from 192 organic farms (ORG), 64 conventional nongrazing farms (CON-NG), and 36 conventional grazing farms (CON-GR) were collected during farm visits and were size-matched and analyzed. The average lactation number of animals on ORG and CON-GR farms was 2.6 lactations, which was greater than that on CON-NG farms (2.3 lactations). A greater percentage of first-lactation heifers were found on conventional farms than on ORG farms. Facilities used by adult animals, including housing and milking facilities, did not differ among the grazing systems. Cattle on conventional farms were fed approximately twice as much grain as cattle on ORG farms and had greater milk production. Little difference was found for the average reported somatic cell count and standard plate count, suggesting that milk quality is not dependent on grazing system. Milking procedures were similar across all 3 grazing systems, indicating that an industry standard now exists for milking and that milk quality problems will need to be addressed with other management problems in mind. Although some disease prevention measures were commonly utilized on ORG farms, such as keeping a closed herd and having a written record of treatments administered to the animals, the use of outside support and vaccinations were found to be less prevalent on organic farms than on conventional farms. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Breeding birds on organic and conventional arable farms

    OpenAIRE

    Kragten, Steven

    2009-01-01

    As a result of agricultural intensification, farmland bird populations have been declining dramatically over the past decades. Organic farming is often mentioned to be a possible solution to stop these declines. In order to see whether farmland birds really benefit from organic farming a study was carried out comparing breeding bird densities, breeding success and bird food abundance between organic and conventional arable farms in Flevoland, the Netherlands. skylark (Alauda arvensis) and lap...

  14. Effect of farming systems on the yield, quality parameters and sensory properties of conventionally and organically grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazinskiene, V; Asakaviciute, R; Miezeliene, A; Alencikiene, G; Ivanauskas, L; Jakstas, V; Viskelis, P; Razukas, A

    2014-02-15

    The objectives of this two-year research were to study the impact of two different farming types, conventional and organic, on the yield and sensory properties of five Lithuanian varieties of potato tuber. The parameters and properties examined were: phenolic acids; dry matter and starch content; and the spread and intensity of Phytophthora infestans growth. It was determined that potato yield fluctuates with the variety, but for conventional farming it is significantly (p0.05) on the content of phenolic acids. No significant effect (p>0.05) of farming type on dry matter and starch content, or sensory properties was found. No significant relation (p>0.05) was found between the content of phenolic acids and P. infestans spread. The spread of P. infestans was faster and infection was heavier in organically grown potatoes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative evaluation of organic and conventional farming on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five samples of organic fruits with seal certification, organic fruits without seal certification and conventional fruits were acquired from supermarkets and farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Organic lime and orange showed higher mean values of acidity, being 4.5 and 34.8% higher, when compared to conventional fruit, ...

  16. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  17. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  18. Methods for assessing phosphorus overfeeding on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, M; Holtenius, K; Spörndly, R

    2014-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) losses from dairy farms can severely damage aquatic ecosystems, so it is important to have tools to assess overfeeding of P. This study screened P intake and faecal excretion of different P fractions in dairy cows on conventional and organic farms, compared the P feeding level of the herds against the recommendations and analysed different sampling and analysis methods for assessing the general status of P feeding on the farms. The organic (n=14) and conventional farms (n=15) were of comparable size and were located in southern Sweden. On each farm, feed intake was registered for 10 cows representing four different lactation stages and their P intake was calculated and related to current recommendations. Faecal samples taken from the same cows were analysed for total P (TP) and soluble P. Milk production data for the cows were obtained from the Swedish official milk recording scheme. TP was determined in one slurry sample per farm. More than 70% of the cows studied, representing both conventional and organic herds, consumed P in excess of the recommendations. Conventional herds had higher P content in the ration than organic herds, and lactating cows in conventional herds had higher faecal concentrations of total and soluble P than those in organic herds. However in dry cows, the P content of the ration and soluble P and TP in faeces did not differ between the two management systems. Soluble P was well correlated to TP in faeces, and both were good indicators of P overfeeding.

  19. Identifying sources of metal exposure in organic and conventional dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alonso, M; Rey-Crespo, F; Herrero-Latorre, C; Miranda, M

    2017-10-01

    In humans the main route of exposure to toxic metals is through the diet, and there is therefore a clear need for this source of contamination to be minimized, particularly in food of animal origin. For this purpose, the various sources of toxic metals in livestock farming (which vary depending on the production system) must be taken into account. The objectives of the present study were to establish the profile of metal exposure in dairy cattle in Spain and to determine, by chemometric (multivariate statistical) analysis, any differences between organic and conventional systems. Blood samples from 522 cows (341 from organic farms and 181 from conventional farms) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of 14 elements: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn. In conventional systems the generally high and balanced trace element concentrations in the mineral-supplemented concentrate feed strongly determined the metal status of the cattle. However, in organic systems, soil ingestion was an important contributing factor. Our results demonstrate that general information about the effects of mineral supplementation in conventional farming cannot be directly extrapolated to organic farming and special attention should be given to the contribution of ingestion of soil during grazing and/or ingestion of soil contaminated forage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spread of tetracycline resistance genes at a conventional dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKyselkova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry contributes to the worldwide problem of increasing antibiotic resistance in animal and human pathogens. Intensive animal production is considered an important source of antibiotic resistance genes released to the environment, while the contribution of smaller farms remains to be evaluated. Here we monitor the spread of tetracycline resistance (TC-r genes at a middle-size conventional dairy farm, where chlortetracycline (CTC, as intrauterine suppository is prophylactically used after each calving. Our study has shown that animals at the farm acquired the TC-r genes in their early age (1-2 weeks, likely due to colonization with TC-resistant bacteria from their mothers and/or the farm environment. The relative abundance of the TC-r genes tet(W, tet(Q and tet(M in fresh excrements of calves was about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher compared to heifers and dairy cows, possibly due to the presence of antibiotic residues in milk fed to calves. The occurrence and abundance of TC-r genes in fresh excrements of heifers and adult cows remained unaffected by intrauterine CTC applications, with tet(O, tet(Q and tet(W representing a ‘core TC-resistome’ of the farm, and tet(A, tet(M, tet(Y and tet(X occurring occasionally. The genes tet(A, tet(M, tet(Y and tet(X were shown to be respectively harbored by Shigella, Lactobacillus and Clostridium, Acinetobacter, and Wautersiella. Soil in the farm proximity, as well as field soil to which manure from the farm was applied, was contaminated with TC-r genes occurring in the farm, and some of the TC-r genes persisted in the field over 3 months following the manure application. Concluding, our study shows that antibiotic resistance genes may be a stable part of the intestinal metagenome of cattle even if antibiotics are not used for growth stimulation, and that smaller dairy farms may also contribute to environmental pollution with antibiotic resistance genes.

  1. Intensity of the production organisation in organic and conventional dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Malaga-Toboła

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the intensity of the production organization between dairy farms conducting agricultural activity in organic and conventional production systems. Study groups of farms were located in the southern (fifteen organic farms, central and eastern part of Poland (fifteen conventional farms. The study was conducted in the form of a directed interview in the marketing year 2010/2011. Area, structure of land use and crop, livestock and the size of plant and animal in the production global and commodity were specified. The analysis showed a lot of differences between the two systems of production, from the area of farm and structure of land use and finally the production outputs. Basic statistical analysis was also conducted. It showed a significant negative correlation between the area of agricultural land and a positive correlation between the livestock and intensity of organisation of production. However, the correlation coefficients between the studied variables in the analysed farm groups differed from each other.

  2. Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Grant, Ruth; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is considered an effective means of reducing nitrogen losses compared with more intensive conventional farming systems. However, under certain conditions, organic farming may also be susceptible to large nitrogen (N) losses. This i especially the case for organic .....

  3. Wind farm - A power source in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    wind turbines and wind farms, and then introduces the wind power development and wind farms. An optimization platform for designing electrical systems of offshore wind farms is briefed. The major issues related to the grid connection requirements and the operation of wind turbines/farms in power......The paper describes modern wind power systems, introduces the issues of large penetration of wind power into power systems, and discusses the possible methods of making wind turbines/farms act as a power source, like conventional power plants in power systems. Firstly, the paper describes modern...... systems are illustrated....

  4. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, NN

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research were : 1) to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2) to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3) to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4) to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performe...

  5. Conventional RF system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a conventional RF system is always complex and must fit the needs of the particular machine for which it is planned. It follows that many different design criteria should be considered and analyzed, thus exceeding the narrow limits of a lecture. For this reason only the fundamental components of an RF system, including the generators, are considered in this short seminar. The most common formulas are simply presented in the text, while their derivations are shown in the appendices to facilitate, if desired, a more advanced level of understanding. (orig.)

  6. Intensidade da cercosporiose da alface em cultivos convencionais e orgânicos em Pernambuco Intensity of Cercospora leaf spot of lettuce in conventional and organic farming systems in State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria André Gomes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados levantamentos da intensidade da cercosporiose da alface, causada por Cercospora longissima, em 25 plantios manejados no sistema convencional e 25 no sistema orgânico, em dois períodos de plantio, janeiro-abril (I e junho-setembro (II de 2002, no estado de Pernambuco. A prevalência da doença foi elevada (> 88% em todas as situações avaliadas. Nas áreas de cultivo convencional a severidade da cercosporiose variou de 0,0 a 16,9%, enquanto em cultivos orgânicos de 0,0 a 22,5%. Nos dois sistemas de cultivo a severidade da doença foi significativamente mais elevada no período I, quando a precipitação pluviométrica foi quase três vezes superior ao período II. No entanto, somente no período II foram constatadas diferenças significativas na severidade da doença entre os sistemas de cultivo, sendo superior no sistema orgânico. Não foram constatadas correlações significativas entre os níveis de severidade da cercosporiose nas áreas de plantio nos dois períodos avaliados, dentro de cada sistema de cultivo.Surveys of the intensity of cercospora leaf spot of lettuce caused by Cercospora longissima were performed in 25 conventional and 25 organic farming areas in 2 planting periods, January-April (I and June-September (II 2002, in State of Pernambuco (Brazil. Disease prevalence was high (> 88% in all evaluated situations. Disease severity ranged from 0.0 to 16.9% in conventional farming areas and from 0.0 to 22.5% in organic farming areas. In both systems, disease severity was significantly higher in period I when precipitation was almost 3 times higher to that in period II. However, only in period II, significant differences in disease severity were found between farming systems, with high values in the organic system. There were no significant correlations among disease severity levels in the areas in both evaluated periods inside each farming system.

  7. Environmental Implications of Eco-Labeling for Rice Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solhee Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change have forced countries to strengthen regulations, standards, and certifications related to greenhouse gas emissions. Various policies targeting farm products, such as carbon labeling and the Environmentally-Friendly Agricultural Product Certification (EFAPC for agricultural products, have been implemented in South Korea to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sector. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of the various certification systems for rice farming, including organic farming, non-pesticide farming, and low-pesticide farming. For this study, we constructed a life cycle inventory (LCI of rice farming systems including conventional, low-pesticide, non-pesticide, and organic farming systems in South Korea. Finally, we compared international farming systems in South Korea, the U.S., and the EU. The rice farming systems with eco-labeling certifications have reduced the environmental impacts. The environmental impacts of rice farming by country were highest in the U.S. (100.0, followed by the EU (53.7, and Korea’s conventional (48.6, low-pesticide (35.8, non-pesticide (28.9, and organic (16.7 farming practices. These results may be useful in proliferating and improving the methodology to evaluate eco-labeling and carbon labeling systems.

  8. PERSPECTIVES OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE LIGHT OF EMPIRICAL STUDY SURVEYED AMONG CONVENTIONAL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Kociszewski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the perspectives of development of organic food supply in Poland. The work contains the results of the nationwide survey which was carried out among conventional farms’ owners. It was evaluated that – according to farmers’ declaration – organic farms number can be equal to 6.8-24.2% of all Polish farms. The main incentives influencing conversion into organic farming methods are health and environment care, satisfaction from work and agri-environmental subsidies. The main identified barriers are limited sales possibilities, low profitability of production, high labour intensity, high production cost, and low yield. In a long run the development of organic market could be stimulated by the increase of demand. In the middle time period, there is a need for the increase of subsidies rates which should be combined with the improvement of certification and control system.

  9. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Hidayat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research were : 1 to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2 to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3 to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4 to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performed to conduct this research. Farming model chosen in this research was partial and average aggregate. Cobb-Douglas function were chosen to predict functional relationship. Result stated from this research were : 1 goat farming has a significant contribution in integrated farming system, 2 integrated farming (goat and paddy, goat and fish, and goat, fish and paddy in Banyumas district was economically efficient. 3 partially, factor affecting production level in goat farming was number of goat owned (P<0.01, factor affecting paddy production were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, TSP application (P<0.05 and man power (P<0.10. Furthermore, factor affecting fish farming were feed, breed and number of land owned (P<0.01; 4 aggregately, factor affecting integrated farming I were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, feed and number of land owned (P<0.01, number of goat owned (P<0.10 integrated farming II, where as in integrated farming III were number of paddy land area and breed (P<0.01 also number of goat owned (P<0.10; 5 integrated farming III (goat, paddy and fish farming gave the highest profit, which gave Rp 6.219.283,81 with relatively high efficiency. Therefore, goat farming could be an alternative solution to be developed in integrated farming and could be combined with other farming activities such as paddy and fish farming. (Animal Production 9(2: 105-110 (2007 Key Words : Goat, income, economic efficiency, survey, contribution

  10. What is the benefit of organically-reared dairy cattle? Societal perception towards conventional and organic dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inken Christoph-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, current systems in agriculture and food production have been topic in public discussions. Especially modern animal husbandry seems not to match consumers’ or societal needs any longer. This paper concentrates on the society’s perspective regarding dairy farming in general and diverting perceptions and expectations with respect to dairy cattle either reared organically or reared conventionally. It aims to give orientation to farmers as well as policymakers about the societal point of view of dairy farming.Six focus groups were carried out in three German cities to capture the scope of opinions and expectations among the population. Three of those groups consisted of participants buying mainly organic food while the other three comprised citizens buying mainly conventional food.With respect to society’s perception of today’s dairy farming results showed that participants put emphasis on the following topics: the space for each cow was considered as insufficient and not species-appropriate, assumed application of medications as too high, and in particular the prophylactic use of antibiotics as problematic.Asked about perceived differences between organic versus conventional farming it became obvious that organic in contrast to the conventional farming was perceived as more species-appropriate. More or less, all previously criticized aspects seem to be regarded as irrelevant in organic farming. Some participants showed a very romantic view of organic dairy farming. The most critical point was an assumed high rate of rogue traders among organic farmers.

  11. Do differences in food web structure between organic and conventional farms affect the ecosystem service of pest control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Gibson, Rachel; Polaszek, Andrew; Morris, Rebecca J; Craze, Paul G; Planqué, Robert; Symondson, William O C; Memmott, Jane

    2009-03-01

    While many studies have demonstrated that organic farms support greater levels of biodiversity, it is not known whether this translates into better provision of ecosystem services. Here we use a food-web approach to analyse the community structure and function at the whole-farm scale. Quantitative food webs from 10 replicate pairs of organic and conventional farms showed that organic farms have significantly more species at three trophic levels (plant, herbivore and parasitoid) and significantly different network structure. Herbivores on organic farms were attacked by more parasitoid species on organic farms than on conventional farms. However, differences in network structure did not translate into differences in robustness to simulated species loss and we found no difference in percentage parasitism (natural pest control) across a variety of host species. Furthermore, a manipulative field experiment demonstrated that the higher species richness of parasitoids on the organic farms did not increase mortality of a novel herbivore used to bioassay ecosystem service. The explanation for these differences is likely to include inherent differences in management strategies and landscape structure between the two farming systems.

  12. Analysing Production Technology and Risk in Organic and Conventional Dutch Arable Farming using Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Chavez Clemente, M.D.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper compares the production technology and production risk of organic and conventional arable farms in the Netherlands. Just–Pope production functions that explicitly account for output variability are estimated using panel data of Dutch organic and conventional farms. Prior

  13. Chlorinated pesticides in stream sediments from organic, integrated and conventional farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahpoury, Pourya; Hageman, Kimberly J.; Matthaei, Christoph D.; Magbanua, Francis S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine if current sheep/beef farming practices affect pesticide residues in streams, current-use and legacy chlorinated pesticides were quantified in 100 sediment samples from 15 streams on the South Island of New Zealand. The study involved five blocks of three neighboring farms, with each block containing farms managed by organic, integrated and conventional farming practices. Significantly higher concentrations of dieldrin, ∑ endosulfans, ∑ current-use pesticides, and ∑ chlorinated pesticides were measured in sediments from conventional farms compared to organic and integrated farms. However, streams in the latter two farming categories were not pesticide-free and sometimes contained relatively high concentrations of legacy pesticides. Comparison of measured pesticide concentrations with sediment quality guidelines showed that, regardless of farming practice, mean pesticide concentrations were below the recommended toxicity thresholds. However, up to 23% of individual samples contained chlorpyrifos, endosulfan sulfate, ∑ DDT, dieldrin, or ∑ chlordane concentrations above these thresholds. -- Highlights: •Pesticides were measured in streams in organic, integrated, and conventional farms. •Higher concentrations of some pesticides were found in conventional sites. •Streams in organic and integrated sites were not pesticide free. •Mean pesticide concentrations were below the recommended toxicity thresholds. -- Higher concentrations of several chlorinated pesticides were found in conventional farms; however, organic and integrated practices were not pesticide-free

  14. Breeding birds on organic and conventional arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, Steven

    2009-01-01

    As a result of agricultural intensification, farmland bird populations have been declining dramatically over the past decades. Organic farming is often mentioned to be a possible solution to stop these declines. In order to see whether farmland birds really benefit from organic farming a study was

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Mastitis on an Experimental Farm with Two Herds, One Managed Organically, the other Conventionally

    OpenAIRE

    Thatcher, A; Petrovski, K; Holmes, C; Dowson, K; Kelly, T; McLeod, K

    2008-01-01

    Mastitis in two herds managed as a comparison between organic and conventional dairy farming systems was monitored for 4 years utilising regular bacterial culture of milk samples, individual and bulk somatic cell counts and observation by farm staff. The objective was to develop strategies for the control of mastitis in organic cows without the use of antibiotics. The herds showed differences in clinical mastitis incidence, subclinical mastitis prevalence and bulk milk somatic cell count. Des...

  16. Conventional, organic and biodynamic farming: differences in polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of Batavia lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimler, Daniela; Vignolini, Pamela; Arfaioli, Paola; Isolani, Laura; Romani, Annalisa

    2012-02-01

    Lactuca sativa L. ssp. acephala L., cv. Batavia red Mohican plants were cultivated under intensive conventional, organic and biodynamic farming and were analyzed for their polyphenol content and antiradical activity in order to demonstrate the influence of farming on yield, polyphenol content and antiradical activity. The yield of plants from conventional farming was the highest (2.89 kg m⁻²), while polyphenol content, measured by spectrophotometry, of these plants was lower at P flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid contents. Flavonoid, hydroxycinnamic acid and anthocyan patterns were not affected by the type of cultivation, while quantitative differences were demonstrated and some differences were found between conventional farming and organic or biodynamic farming. The yield of conventionally grown salads was the highest. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Conventional, Partially Converted and Environmentally Friendly Farming in South Korea: Profitability and Factors Affecting Farmers’ Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saem Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While organic farming is well established in Europe a nd USA, it is still catching up in Asian countries. The government of South Korea has implemented environmentally friendly farming that encompasses organic farming. Despite the promotion of environmentally friendly farming, it still has a low share in South Korea and partially converted farming has emerged in some districts of South Korea. However, the partially converted farming has not yet been investigated by the government. Thus, our study implemented a financial analysis to compare the annual costs and net returns of conventional, partially converted and environmentally friendly farming in Gangwon Province. The result showed that environmentally friendly farming was more profitable with respect to farm net returns. To find out the factors affecting the adoption of environmentally friendly farming, multinomial logistic regression was implemented. The findings revealed that education and subsidy positively and significantly influenced the probability of farmers’ choice on partially converted and environmentally friendly farming. Farm size had a negative and significant relationship with only environmentally friendly farming. This study will contribute to future policy establishment for sustainable agriculture as recommended by improving the quality of fertilizers, suggesting the additional investigation associated with partially converted farmers.

  18. The effect of feed demand on greenhouse gas emissions and farm profitability for organic and conventional dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Lukas; Menzel, Friederike; Bahrs, Enno

    2014-12-01

    The reduction of product-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in milk production appears to be necessary. The reduction of emissions on an individual farm might be highly accepted by farm owners if it were accompanied by an increase in profitability. Using life cycle assessments to determine the product carbon footprints (PCF) and farm-level evaluations to record profitability, we explored opportunities for optimization based on analysis of 81 organic and conventional pasture-based dairy farms in southern Germany. The objective of the present study was to detect common determining factors for low PCF and high management incomes (MI) to achieve GHG reductions at the lowest possible operational cost. In our sample, organic farms, which performed economically better than conventional farms, produced PCF that were significantly higher than those produced by conventional farms [1.61 ± 0.29 vs. 1.45 ± 0.28 kg of CO₂ equivalents (CO₂eq) per kg of milk; means ± SD)]. A multiple linear regression analysis of the sample demonstrated that low feed demand per kilogram of milk, high grassland yield, and low forage area requirements per cow are the main factors that decrease PCF. These factors are also useful for improving a farm's profitability in principle. For organic farms, a reduction of feed demand of 100 g/kg of milk resulted in a PCF reduction of 105 g of CO₂eq/kg of milk and an increase in MI of approximately 2.1 euro cents (c)/kg of milk. For conventional farms, a decrease of feed demand of 100 g/kg of milk corresponded to a reduction in PCF of 117 g of CO₂eq/kg of milk and an increase in MI of approximately 3.1 c/kg of milk. Accordingly, farmers could achieve higher profits while reducing GHG emissions. Improved education and training of farmers and consultants regarding GHG mitigation and farm profitability appear to be the best methods of improving efficiency under traditional and organic farming practices.

  19. Differences in soil quality between organic and conventional farming over a maize crop season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Veiga, Adelcia; Puga, João; Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Ferreira, António

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation in agricultural areas is a major concern. The large number of mechanical interventions and the amount of inputs used to assure high crop productivity, such as fertilizers and pesticides, have negative impacts on soil quality and threaten crop productivity and environmental sustainability. Organic farming is an alternative agriculture system, based on organic fertilizers, biological pest control and crop rotation, in order to mitigate soil degradation. Maize is the third most important cereal worldwide, with 2008 million tons produced in 2013 (IGN, 2016). In Portugal, 120000 ha of arable land is devoted to maize production, leading to annual yields of about 930000 ton (INE, 2015). This study investigates soil quality differences in maize farms under organic and conventional systems. The study was carried out in Coimbra Agrarian Technical School (ESAC), in central region of Portugal. ESAC campus comprises maize fields managed under conventional farming - Vagem Grande (32 ha), and organic fields - Caldeirão (12 ha), distancing 2.8 km. Vagem Grande has been intensively used for grain maize production for more than 20 years, whereas Caldeirão was converted to organic farming in 2008, and is being used to select regional maize varieties. The region has a Mediterranean climate. The maize fields have Eutric Fluvisols, with gentle slopes (analyses. Additional soil samples were also collected with soil ring samplers (137 cm3) for bulk density analyses after sowing. Surface water infiltration was also measured with tension infiltrometer (membrane of 20cm), using different tensions (0 cm, -3cm, -6 cm e -15cm). Decomposition rate and litter stabilisation was assessed over a 3-month period through the Tea Bag Index (Keuskamp et al., 2013). The number and diversity of earthworms were also measured at the surface (0-20cm), through extraction, and at the subsurface (>20cm), using mustard solution.

  20. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2018-04-03

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  1. Optimization of Application of Nitrogen Fertilizers for Growth and Yield of Forage Sorghum under Low-Input and Conventional Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pourazizi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain sustainable agriculture and prevent excessive use of chemical fertilizers, supplying part of the plant needs by organic fertilizers is necessary. In this respect, effects of nitrogen (N source and rate on yield and yield components of forage sorghum was evaluated as a factorial experiment arranged in randomized complete blocks design with three replications at the Research Farm of Shahrekord University in 2010. Treatments consisted of three N sources (urea fertilizer, cow manure and equal combination of urea fertilizer + cow manure and three N levels 80, 160 and 240 kg/ha N, equivalent to 174, 348 and 522 kg/ha urea and 26.2, 52.5 and 78.7 Mg/ha of cow manure and equal combination of urea fertilizer + cow manure at each nitrogen level, respectively. The results showed that increase of N utilization, with increase in leaf, stem and panicle weights and stem diameter, caused a linear increase of forage yield in urea fertilizer and cow manure treatments and a quadratic increase in the combined fertilizer. The highest leaf, stem and panicle weight (600, 3789 and 823 g/m2 and also fresh forage yield (44 Mg/ha were observed in 240 kg/ha N treatment in combined treatment. But, there was no significant difference in forage yield between this treatment and the 160 kg/ha N treatment. Overall, the results indicated that the potential of sorghum production can be increased by conjunctive use of animal manure and chemical fertilizers, even in low levels of these fertilizers, or low-input agriculture.

  2. Differences in the Financial Management of Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlašicová Eliška

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The financial management of conventional, organic, and biodynamic farms was evaluated and compared. It is a highly specific issue filling in the gap namely in the area of economic research of biodynamic agriculture. Biodynamic agriculture is a less widespread concept of agriculture, the management of which meets the requirements of organic agriculture. Organic agriculture has still been gaining in importance in the Czech Republic, the number of organic farms has been growing, and availability of organic products has increased, too. Of the Czech farms receiving subsidies from the EU or state subsidies in 2007-2012, a total of 389 were selected for analysis (273 of which were conventional farms, 112 organic farms, and 4 farms were engaged in biodynamic agriculture. Subsidies, Total Costs, Operating Revenue, Profit and Gross Value Added indicators were selected for evaluation. The individual indicators within groups of companies were compared by means of a t-test. The analysis revealed significant differences in the economic indicators of individual types of farms. It was observed that organic enterprises have better economic results than conventional and biodynamic businesses. Subsidies help all types of farms achieve better results. We may hence assume dependence of these farms on subsidies.

  3. Modelling conventional and organic farming : a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acs, S.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Literature shows a significant development of organic farming in Europe but with considerable differences between countries. These depend on general agricultural policy (the set of regulations and laws), specific policy incentives, and also on differences in consumer behaviour. This paper reviews

  4. Nest success of Lapwings (Vanellus vanellus) on organic and conventional arable farms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, S.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing agricultural intensification has put farmland bird populations under great stress. Although organically managed farms tend to have higher densities of farmland birds than conventionally managed holdings, differences in crop management may also lead to differences in breeding success. With

  5. Heavy metals and other elements in serum of cattle from organic and conventional farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Bąkowska, Małgorzata; Pilarczyk, Renata; Wójcik, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, lead, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, nickel, aluminium and arsenium were analysed in blood serum of cattle from organic (n=20) and conventional (n=21) farms. The elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry using an Optima 2000 DV instrument (Perkin Elmer Inc.). Animals from the organic farm were characterised by significantly lower (Panimals from the conventional farm. The concentration of Cd was similar in animals from both organic and conventional farms. The concentration of toxic elements in cattle from organic and conventional farms studied was very low. The trace essential elements were generally within the adequate ranges except Zn and Cu, which were deficient. In organically reared animals, also serum Fe content was below the critical level for diagnosing iron deficiency. Pb was significantly correlated with Cd, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni. A significant positive correlation between the concentration of Cd and Zn, Cu and Ni concentrations was only observed in cows from the organic farm. The present results suggest that organically raised animals are less exposed to harmful environmental influences such as the environmental pollution with heavy metals. On the other hand, these animals are at a greater risk of mineral deficiency compared to animals kept on conventional farms.

  6. Comparing risk in conventional and organic dairy farming in the Netherlands: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentsen, P B M; Kovacs, K; van Asseldonk, M A P M

    2012-07-01

    This study was undertaken to contribute to the understanding of why most dairy farmers do not convert to organic farming. Therefore, the objective of this research was to assess and compare risks for conventional and organic farming in the Netherlands with respect to gross margin and the underlying price and production variables. To investigate the risk factors a farm accountancy database was used containing panel data from both conventional and organic representative Dutch dairy farms (2001-2007). Variables with regard to price and production risk were identified using a gross margin analysis scheme. Price risk variables were milk price and concentrate price. The main production risk variables were milk yield per cow, roughage yield per hectare, and veterinary costs per cow. To assess risk, an error component implicit detrending method was applied and the resulting detrended standard deviations were compared between conventional and organic farms. Results indicate that the risk included in the gross margin per cow is significantly higher in organic farming. This is caused by both higher price and production risks. Price risks are significantly higher in organic farming for both milk price and concentrate price. With regard to production risk, only milk yield per cow poses a significantly higher risk in organic farming. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prototyping and farm system modelling - Partners on the road towards more sustainable farm systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, B.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Leeuwis, C.; Wijnands, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    Farm system modelling and prototyping are two research methods proposed to enhance the process of developing sustainable farm systems. Farm system models provide means to formalize, expand and refine expert knowledge and to integrate this with scientific agro-ecological knowledge at the farm level.

  8. Spread of tetracycline resistance genes at a conventional dairy farm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Jirout, Jiří; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Schmitt, H.; Elhottová, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, may (2015), s. 536 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : antibiotic resistance spread * animal manure * cattle intestinal microflora * chlortetracycline * dairy cattle * dairy farm * heavy metals * tetracycline resistance genes Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.165, year: 2015

  9. Importance of bee pollination for cotton production in conventional and organic farms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane C. Pires

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the importance of wild bee and feral honeybee visits for cotton production on conventional and organic farms. Experiments were conducted in Brazil, on a conventional cotton farm in Mato Grosso state in the Amazon biome and on an organic farm in Paraíba state in the Caatinga biome. On the conventional farm, bee assemblage and cotton production were measured near to and far from natural vegetation. Bee richness, fibre fraction, seed number and yield (Kg/ha were higher by 57.14, 1.95, 17.77 and 18.44% respectively in plots near natural vegetation, but bee abundance did not vary with distance to natural vegetation. On the organic farm, because the cropping area is surrounded by natural vegetation, pollination deficit was evaluated using an exclusion experiment where cotton production of flowers bagged to prevent bee visitation (spontaneous self-pollination was compared to production of flowers open to bee visitation (open pollination. Open pollinated flowers had higher average boll weight, fibre weight and seed number. Although cotton is not directly dependent on bee pollination, bees increased cotton production on the organic farm by more than 12% for fibre weight and over 17% for seed number. Our data confirm the importance of maintaining communities of pollinators on cotton farms, especially for organic production.

  10. Treatment practices and quantification of antimicrobial drug usage in conventional and organic dairy farms in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, M; Ruegg, P L

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method to quantify antimicrobial drug usage and treatment practices on conventional and organic dairy farms that had been recruited to represent a broad spectrum of potential exposure to antimicrobial drugs. Data on disease prevalence and treatment practices of organic (n = 20) and conventional (n = 20) farms were obtained during a farm visit using a survey instrument. A standardized estimate of antimicrobial drug usage was developed using a defined daily dose (DDD) of selected compounds. Density of antimicrobial drug usage was expressed as the number of DDD per adult cow per year. Differences in prevalence and management of selected diseases between conventional and organic farms were identified. The overall estimated prevalence of selected diseases was greater for conventional farms compared with organic farms. Organic farmers reported use of a variety of nonantimicrobial compounds for treatment and prevention of disease. Conventional farmers reported that penicillin was the compound most commonly used for dry cow therapy and cephapirin was most commonly used for treatment of clinical mastitis. On conventional farms, the estimated overall exposure to antimicrobial drugs was 5.43 DDD per cow per year composed of 3.58 and 1.85 DDD of intramammary and parenteral antimicrobial drugs, respectively. Of total intramammary antimicrobial drug usage, treatment of clinical mastitis contributed 2.02 DDD compared with 1.56 DDD attributed to the use of dry cow therapy. Of total parenteral treatments, the distribution of exposure was 0.52 (dry cow therapy), 1.43 (clinical mastitis treatment), 0.39 (treatment of foot disease), 0.14 (treatment of respiratory disease), and 0.32 (treatment of metritis) DDD. For treatments of foot infections (0.33 DDD), respiratory infections (0.07 DDD), and metritis (0.19 DDD), the mean density of ceftiofur usage was significantly greater compared with other compounds.

  11. Devices used by automated milking systems are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting a representative milk sample compared with devices used by farms with conventional milk recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Dela Rue, B.; Turner, S.A.; Petch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information on accuracy of milk-sampling devices used on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) is essential for development of milk recording protocols. The hypotheses of this study were (1) devices used by AMS units are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting

  12. Comparison of alternative offshore wind farms and HVDC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, M. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Lilje, P.; Poeller, M. [DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen (Germany); Basteck, A. [Voith Turbo Wind GmbH und Co. KG, Crailsheim (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates the stability of offshore wind farms connected to the main power system via HVDC systems. Wind farms consisting of different ratios of directly connected synchronous machines and doubly-fed induction machines are considered. In addition, both conventional LCC- and VSC-type HVDC systems are considered. Furthermore, different control strategies are considered. Furthermore, different control strategies are considered for the VSC-based system, including constant frequency control and frequency regulation. The stability analysis is done by means of time-domain simulation. The maximum and minimum ratio of the two wind turbine technologies is found for each of the different HVDC systems. (orig.)

  13. An ecosystem approach to assess soil quality in organically and conventionally managed farms in Iceland and Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J. P.; Lehtinen, T.; Lair, G. J.; Bloem, J.; Hemerik, L.; Ragnarsdóttir, K. V.; Gísladóttir, G.; Newton, J. S.; de Ruiter, P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Intensive agricultural production can be an important driver for the loss of long-term soil quality. For this reason, the European Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network adopted four pairs of agricultural CZO sites that differ in their management: conventional or organic. The CZO sites include two pairs of grassland farms in Iceland and two pairs of arable farms in Austria. Conventional fields differed from the organic fields in the use of artificial fertilisers and pesticides. Soils of these eight farms were analysed in terms of their physical, chemical, and biological properties, including soil aggregate size distribution, soil organic matter contents, abundance of soil microbes and soil fauna, and taxonomic diversity of soil microarthropods. In Icelandic grasslands, organically farmed soils had larger mean weight diameters of soil aggregates than the conventional farms, while there were no differences on the Austrian farms. Organic farming did not systematically influence organic matter contents or composition, nor soil carbon and nitrogen contents. Also, soil food web structures, in terms of presence of trophic groups of soil organisms, were highly similar among all farms, indicating a low sensitivity of trophic structure to land use or climate. However, soil organism biomass, especially of bacteria and nematodes, was consistently higher on organic farms than on conventional farms. Within the microarthropods, taxonomic diversity was systematically higher in the organic farms compared to the conventional farms. This difference was found across countries and farm, crop, and soil types. The results do not show systematic differences in physical and chemical properties between organic and conventional farms, but confirm that organic farming can enhance soil biomass and that microarthropod diversity is a sensitive and consistent indicator for land management.

  14. Vertical farming increases lettuce yield per unit area compared to conventional horizontal hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touliatos, Dionysios; Dodd, Ian C; McAinsh, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Vertical farming systems (VFS) have been proposed as an engineering solution to increase productivity per unit area of cultivated land by extending crop production into the vertical dimension. To test whether this approach presents a viable alternative to horizontal crop production systems, a VFS (where plants were grown in upright cylindrical columns) was compared against a conventional horizontal hydroponic system (HHS) using lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. "Little Gem") as a model crop. Both systems had similar root zone volume and planting density. Half-strength Hoagland's solution was applied to plants grown in perlite in an indoor controlled environment room, with metal halide lamps providing artificial lighting. Light distribution (photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD) and yield (shoot fresh weight) within each system were assessed. Although PPFD and shoot fresh weight decreased significantly in the VFS from top to base, the VFS produced more crop per unit of growing floor area when compared with the HHS. Our results clearly demonstrate that VFS presents an attractive alternative to horizontal hydroponic growth systems and suggest that further increases in yield could be achieved by incorporating artificial lighting in the VFS.

  15. Feeding preference of Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae by broccoli leaves from natural, organic and conventional farming systems/ Preferência alimentar de Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae por folhas de brócolos cultivado em sistema natural, orgânico e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel O. J. Neves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-choice laboratory tests were achieved to compare feeding preference of Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. to leaves of broccoli (Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica from natural, conventional and organic farming systems. Natural farming systems included incorporation of the elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. Napier (50 ton/ha, Bokashi compost (1.5 ton/ha and spray of EM 4 (Natural 1, or the incorporation of the Bokashi compost (1.5 ton /ha and spray of EM 4 (Natural 2, and in the conventional, NPK + borax were incorporated in the planting + dressing N and organic compost (1 kg/ plant was incorporated in the organic system. Organic compost was prepared using crop residues of corn (Zea mays L., soybean [Glycine max (L. Mer.], and cattle manure. Leaf discs were collected and placed in cages in multiple-choice tests. Beetles preferred mostly broccoli leaves from conventional farming system than leaves from Natural (1 and 2 and Organic farming systems. Feeding on leaves from Natural 1, Natural 2 and Organic farming system were 68, 67 and 57% of the feeding on leaves from Conventional farming system.Testes de múltipla escola foram realizados para comparar a preferência alimentar de Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. por folhas de brócolos (Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica cultivado em sistema natural, convencional e orgânico. No sistema natural de cultivo houve a incorporação de capim elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. Napier (50 ton/ha, composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ha e pulverização de EM 4 (Natural 1, ou a incorporação do composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ha e pulverização do EM 4 (Natural 2, no sistema convencional houve a incorporação do NPK + borax + N em cobertura, e no sistema orgânico incorporouse composto orgânico (1 kg/planta. O composto orgânico foi preparado utilizando-se resíduos de milho (Zea mays L. e soja [Glycine max (L. Mer.] e esterco de gado. Folhas foram retiradas das plantas das quais foram separados

  16. Evaluation of conventional PCR for detection of Strongylus vulgaris on horse farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, M K; Wøhlk, C B M; Petersen, S L; Nielsen, M K

    2012-03-23

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses. Of these, the bloodworm Strongylus vulgaris is regarded as most pathogenic. Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in strongyle parasites has led to recommendations of decreased treatment intensities, and there is now a pronounced need for reliable tools for detection of parasite burdens in general and S. vulgaris in particular. The only method currently available for diagnosing S. vulgaris in practice is the larval culture, which is laborious and time-consuming, so veterinary practitioners most often pool samples from several horses together in one culture to save time. Recently, molecular tools have been developed to detect S. vulgaris in faecal samples. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with the traditional larval culture and furthermore test the performance of pooled versus individual PCR for farm screening purposes. Faecal samples were obtained from 331 horses on 18 different farms. Farm size ranged from 6 to 56 horses, and horses aged between 2 months and 31 years. Larval cultures and PCR were performed individually on all horses. In addition, PCR was performed on 66 faecal pools consisting of 3-5 horses each. Species-specific PCR primers previously developed were used for the PCR. PCR and larval culture detected S. vulgaris in 12.1 and 4.5% of individual horses, respectively. On the farm level, eight farms tested positive with the larval culture, while 13 and 11 farms were positive with the individual and pooled PCRs, respectively. The individual PCR method was statistically superior to the larval culture, while no statistical difference could be detected between pooled and individual PCR for farm screening. In conclusion, pooled PCR appears to be a useful tool for farm screening for S. vulgaris. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Conservation Farming and Changing Climate: More Beneficial than Conventional Methods for Degraded Ugandan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drake N. Mubiru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent of land affected by degradation in Uganda ranges from 20% in relatively flat and vegetation-covered areas to 90% in the eastern and southwestern highlands. Land degradation has adversely affected smallholder agro-ecosystems including direct damage and loss of critical ecosystem services such as agricultural land/soil and biodiversity. This study evaluated the extent of bare grounds in Nakasongola, one of the districts in the Cattle Corridor of Uganda and the yield responses of maize (Zea mays and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to different tillage methods in the district. Bare ground was determined by a supervised multi-band satellite image classification using the Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC. Field trials on maize and bean grain yield responses to tillage practices used a randomized complete block design with three replications, evaluating conventional farmer practice (CFP; permanent planting basins (PPB; and rip lines, with or without fertilizer in maize and bean rotations. Bare ground coverage in the Nakasongola District was 187 km2 (11% of the 1741 km2 of arable land due to extreme cases of soil compaction. All practices, whether conventional or the newly introduced conservation farming practices in combination with fertilizer increased bean and maize grain yields, albeit with minimal statistical significance in some cases. The newly introduced conservation farming tillage practices increased the bean grain yield relative to conventional practices by 41% in PPBs and 43% in rip lines. In maize, the newly introduced conservation farming tillage practices increased the grain yield by 78% on average, relative to conventional practices. Apparently, conservation farming tillage methods proved beneficial relative to conventional methods on degraded soils, with the short-term benefit of increasing land productivity leading to better harvests and food security.

  18. Exploring the multifunctional role of farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Noe, Egon; Halberg, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Public expectations of farming practices are changing from a demand for environmentally "sustainable farming practices" to farming making an "enhanced contribution to the development of the rural areas", the so-called multifunctionality. Based on our research model of including farmers...... in the development of eco-friendly farming systems, we propose that the achievement of these changed expectations could be facilitated through an appropriate research and development initiative in several European regions. Key elements in such a project sould include: (i) the establishment of platforms for dialogue...... makers and administrators, grassroots movements and research staff. It is expected that such a coordinated research initiative can revitalize the contribution of farming to rural development and yield important insight to be used by the individual farmer in coping with future challenges....

  19. Bee interactions with wild flora around organic and conventional coffee farms in Kiambu district, central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary W. Gikungu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Flower scarcity outside coffee flowering periods leads to a decline of pollinators’ abundance and diversity possibly through death or migration. The objective of this study was to assess whether other flowering plants within and around coffee farms act as alternative floral resources that may impact on abundance and diversity of pollinators of coffee flowers. Bee pollinators of coffee were assessed and identified for a period of 27 months. Their abundance and diversity were examined within and around organically and conventionally managed coffee farms in Kiambu District in Kenya. This study provides evidence that 42 plant species from 19 families were alternative floral resources for bees that pollinate coffee. Bee pollinators of coffee were observed to visit coffee flowers as well as other flowering plants close by. Significant relationship existed between plant species and bee species richness in the organic farming (R2=0.5918; P<0.0001 and in conventional farming (R2=0.6744; P<0.0001. Therefore in coffee monocultures, presence of other flowering plants should be encouraged to support bee pollinators when coffee is not flowering and to enhance abundance and diversity of bees visiting coffee flowers.

  20. Multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica isolated from conventional pig farms using antimicrobial agents in preventative medicine programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron-Veas, Karla; Fraile, Lorenzo; Napp, Sebastian; Garrido, Victoria; Grilló, María Jesús; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the presence of multidrug antimicrobial resistance (multi-AR) in Salmonella enterica in pigs reared under conventional preventative medicine programmes in Spain and the possible association of multi-AR with ceftiofur or tulathromycin treatment during the pre-weaning period. Groups of 7-day-old piglets were treated by intramuscular injection with ceftiofur on four farms (n=40 piglets per farm) and with tulathromycin on another four farms (n=40 piglets per farm). A control group of untreated piglets (n=30 per farm) was present on each farm. Faecal swabs were collected for S. enterica culture prior to treatment, at 2, 7 and 180days post-treatment, and at slaughter. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 14 antimicrobial agents, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and detection of resistance genes representing five families of antimicrobial agents were performed. Plasmids carrying cephalosporin resistant (CR) genes were characterised. Sixty-six S. enterica isolates were recovered from five of eight farms. Forty-seven isolates were multi-AR and four contained bla CTX-M genes harboured in conjugative plasmids of the IncI1 family; three of these isolates were recovered before treatment with ceftiofur. The most frequent AR genes detected were tet(A) (51/66, 77%), sul1 (17/66, 26%); tet(B) (15/66, 23%) and qnrB (10/66, 15%). A direct relation between the use of ceftiofur in these conditions and the occurrence of CR S. enterica was not established. However, multi-AR was common, especially for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline. These antibiotics are used frequently in veterinary medicine in Spain and, therefore, should be used sparingly to minimise the spread of multi-AR. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. 76 FR 34985 - Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the...

  2. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, Jean-Luc; de Greef, K; Bonneau, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two syste...

  3. Effect Of Intercropping System On Green Peach Aphid Dinamics On Organic Farming Of Potato In Karo Highland

    OpenAIRE

    Lamria Sidauruk; Darma Bakti; Retna Astuti Kuswardani; Chairani Hanum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae Sulzer on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as conventional farming semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of potato mon...

  4. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, J L; de Greef, K; Bonneau, M

    2014-12-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two systems). Data were collected with a questionnaire from nine breeding organisations providing animals and semen to the studied farming systems and from, on average, five farmers per farming system. The sustainability assessment of breeding activities was performed in four dimensions. The first dimension described whether the market for the product was well defined, and whether the breeding goal reflected the farming system and the farmers' demands. The second dimension described recording and selection procedures, together with genetic change in traits that were important in the system. The third dimension described genetic variation, both within and between pig breeds. The fourth dimension described the management of the breeding organisation, including communication, transparency, and technical and human resources. The results show substantial differences in the sustainability of breeding activities, both between farming systems within the same category and between different categories of farming systems. The breeding activities are assessed to be more sustainable for conventional systems than for differentiated systems in three of the four dimensions. In most differentiated farming systems, breeding goals are not related to the system, as these systems use the same genetic material as conventional systems. The breeds used in Traditional farming systems are important for genetic biodiversity, but the small scale of these systems renders them vulnerable. It is hoped that, by

  5. Farm management systems and the Future Internet era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaloxylos, A.; Eigenmann, R.; Teye, F.; Wolfert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Smart/precision farming systems are expected to play an important role in improving farming activities. During the past years, sophisticated farm management systems have emerged to replace outdated complex and monolithic farm systems and software tools. The latest trend is to enable these management

  6. 12 CFR 1400.1 - Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. 1400.1 Section 1400.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Organization and Functions § 1400.1 Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. The Farm Credit...

  7. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, J.; Axelsson, U.; Eriksson, E.; Salomonsson, D.; Bauer, P.; Czech, B.

    2010-01-01

    EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options

  8. SUSTAINABLE FARMS: INTEGRATION OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo Muñoz-Espinosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The inappropriate use of agrochemicals and technologies in farming systems can cause an accelerated deterioration of agricultural and soil pollution. Thus, agriculture and livestock are becoming an environmental problem in the world, which implies the need to assess the efficiency of agricultural production systems related to sustainability. The traditional peasant system is apparently unsustainable, while farm with an integral production approach have better opportunities for development over time as they tend to sustainability. This type of farms incorporate productive alternatives that improve as a whole, the system and the livelihood of the peasants. The trends towards sustainability of farms are mainly due to a better land use. As well as, implementing systems adapted to each soil and production type to ensure profitability and persistence, achieving the highest possible agricultural productivity. The urgency to produce food for a growing population is almost a paradigm that reinforces the imperative for maximum yield per unit area, and creates a vision of the rural world aimed at increasing profit at the expense of the attributes and core values of livelihood in rural areas. It can be concluded that the integrated farming articulate various subsystems, which working together could allow higher sustainability of agricultural production practices, environmentally friendly, safeguarding the food sovereignty of the population and improving the quality of life of farmers

  9. Shedding of cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli in pigs from conventional farms after early treatment with antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron-Veas, Karla; Moreno, Miguel A; Fraile, Lorenzo; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the dynamics of cephalosporin resistant (CR) E. coli populations during the life cycle of pigs treated early in life with ceftiofur or tulathromycin. The study was conducted at eight conventional pig farms; four for each treatment with ceftiofur or tulathromycin. At each farm, 70 7-day-old piglets were divided into two groups: a control group (n = 30) and a treatment group (n = 40). Faecal samples were collected on day 0 and on days 2, 7 and 180 post-treatment. Sows were also sampled on day 0. CR E. coli were selected on MacConkey agar with ceftriaxone. On five farms, 7-day-old piglets excreted CR E. coli before treatment associated with the presence of CR E. coli in sows. The occurrence of CR E. coli positive animals decreased with increasing piglet age. The remaining three farms tested negative for CR E. coli during the study period. Results demonstrated great variability in the frequency of CR E. coli positive animals between farms, independent of treatment. Treatment with ceftiofur resulted in a transitory increase in the counts of CR E. coli after 48 h. However, other risk factors including the presence of CR E. coli in sows and animal age were more important than antimicrobial treatment. Accordingly, intervention strategies targeting sows would likely have a beneficial effect in reducing the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in primary pig production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers’ background, attitudes and approach to farming. Six different livestock systems were identified: intensive beef cattle (2 farms; extensive beef cattle (12 farms; large sheep/goat farms (9 farms; small sheep/goat farms (6 farms; intensive dairy cattle (14 farms and extensive dairy cattle (22 farms. The intensive systems had larger herds, modern structures and equipment, and were strongly production oriented, whereas the extensive systems had smaller herds and productivity, with often traditional or obsolete structures and equipment, but showed a tendency to diversify production by means of on-farm cheese making and/or mixed farming of different livestock categories. The ability to maintain meadows and pastures was greater for the extensive systems, especially in steep areas, while the annual nitrogen output, estimated as kg N/ha, was lower. Data on the farmers’ background and attitudes were analysed with a non-hierarchical cluster procedure that clustered the farmers into 4 farming styles widely different in motivations to farming, innovative capability, and ability to diversify income sources and ensure farm economic viability. The farming styles were distributed across all livestock systems, indicating the lack of a linkage between the assignment of a farm to a livestock system and the way the farm is managed. This study demonstrates that in mountain areas variability of livestock systems may be high, and that they differ not only in production practices

  11. Impacts of Alternative Implementations of the Single Farm Payment on Organi-cally and Conventionally Producing Farms in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Erwin; Sinabell, Franz

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the Common Agricultural Policy underwent a substantial reform. Direct pay-ments that were linked to the production of certain crops and livestock were abolished. Alternatively, the Single Farm Payment was introduced in EU-15 Member States. We investigate the distributional consequences of alternative implementation choices for organic farms in Austria. Results show that net-returns of farms and the distribution of farm revenues depend on the particular implementation of the reform.

  12. Farm Typology in the Berambadi Watershed (India: Farming Systems Are Determined by Farm Size and Access to Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’ decisions regarding investing in irrigation and adopting cropping systems are inherently dynamic and must adapt to changes in climate and agronomic, economic and social, and institutional, conditions. To represent this diversity, we developed a typology of Indian farmers from a survey of 684 farms in Berambadi, an agricultural watershed in southern India (state of Karnataka. The survey provided information on farm structure, the cropping system and farm practices, water management for irrigation, and economic performances of the farm. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering were used to analyze relationships between observed factors and establish the farm typology. We identified three main types of farms: (1 large diversified and productivist farms; (2 small and marginal rainfed farms, and (3 small irrigated marketing farms. This typology represents the heterogeneity of farms in the Berambadi watershed.

  13. Farm management information systems: A case study on a German multifunctional farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husemann Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and easy to use Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS are of fundamental importance for a successful operational farm management. However, still today many farmers do not use FMISs for various reasons, like lack of knowledge and the complexity of many available FMISs. In particular for small to medium-sized farms and for multifunctional farms appropriate FMISs hardly exist. This paper aims on the deduction of a concrete FMIS from a general FMIS. The concrete FMIS has to focus on the needs of medium-sized and multifunctional farms. This means that the farmer has to be empowered to allocate the scarce resources of the farm. Therefore, we picked a German farm from the state North Rhine Westphalia as a case-study to apply a system analysis. The case study farm helps to identify and to analyze relevant material and information flows, production processes, and their interconnections and synergies.

  14. Yield gaps in Dutch arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Vieira da Silva, Joao; Reidsma, Pytrik; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Arable farming systems in the Netherlands are characterized by crop rotations in which potato, sugar beet, spring onion, winter wheat and spring barley are the most important crops. The objectives of this study were to decompose crop yield gaps within such rotations into efficiency, resource and

  15. Production and photosynthetic activity of Mimosa Verde and Mimosa Roxa lettuce in two farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mabel Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is the most commonly consumed leaf vegetable in the Brazilian diet, and it is a good source of vitamins and minerals. It is widely grown in the conventional farming system. However, the hydroponic farming system has been gaining importance in the market, wining confidence from consumers, who are becoming increasingly more demanding on food quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two lettuce cultivars on hydroponic and conventional farming systems for the production of fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM, photosynthesis, contents of chlorophyll and anthocyanin. The following two experiments were carried out: hydroponics farming (HF and conventional farming (CF, performed in protect and unprotect environments, respectively, in Florianópolis, SC. Mimosa Verde cultivar (MV showed greater fresh mass than Mimosa Roxa (MR, in both farming systems and the two cultivars presented better performance in the hydroponic system (287.7 g MV and 139.1 g MR than the conventional system (129.7 g MV and 111.8 g MR. Mimosa Verde cultivar presented lower average contents of total chlorophyll (7.7 mg g-¹ FM than Mimosa Roxa (11.8 mg g-¹FM, and both cultivars displayed higher means for this variable in the hydroponic farming system. Mimosa Roxa presented higher contents of anthocyanin in the conventional system (88.24 mg g-¹ FM than the ones in the hydroponic system (36.89 mg g-¹ FM. The best results for CO2 net assimilation rate regarded to photosyntheticaly active photon flux density were found in the hydroponic system, for both lettuce cultivars. Variation in the contents of chlorophyll were also found. Those variations were higher in the protected system than in the hydroponic system and contents of anthocyanin were higher in the conventional system.

  16. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pierik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options have the best performance for this wind farm size and distance: the AC system and the system with a DC connection to shore. EeFarm-II is a user friendly computer program for wind farm electrical and economic evaluation. It has been built as a Simulink Library in the graphical interface of Matlab-Simulink. EeFarm-II contains models of wind turbines, generators, transformers, AC cables, inductors, nodes, splitters, PWM converters, thyristor converters, DC cables, choppers and statcoms.

  17. CleverFarm - A superSCADA system for wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, A.; Hansen, K.G.; Giebhardt, J.

    2004-01-01

    The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farmoperators to prioritise their efforts, since the...

  18. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  19. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs and farm workers on conventional and antibiotic-free swine farms in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara C Smith

    Full Text Available Much uncertainty remains about the origin and public health implications of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and prevalence of MRSA in general and LA-MRSA in particular in pigs and farm workers in five states. We collected nasal swabs from pigs and farm workers at 45 swine herds (21 antibiotic-free herds; 24 conventional herds in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, North Carolina and Ohio. MRSA was isolated from 50 of 1085 pigs (4.6% and 31 of 148 (20.9% of farm workers. MRSA-positive pigs and people were clustered in four conventional swine farms in Iowa and Illinois. Based on genotyping, spa type t034, a common livestock associated variant, was predominant among both human and swine isolates. These results confirm the presence of LA-MRSA in pigs and swine farm workers in the USA, but the prevalence found is relatively low compared with European studies.

  20. Evolution of livestock farming systems and landscape changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifty years, the rural landscape of vast areas, historically modelled by livestock farming, has experienced radical changes. The marginalisation of traditional farming systems resulted in a shift towards intensive systems in the more favourable areas, and in the abandoning of farming in the less favourable areas. Consequences of these trends are numerous: intensification and abandoning concurred in determining the disappearance of traditional architectural styles and in disrupting the historical links between local landscape, way of farming, and variety of products; intensification of farming caused local excesses of nutrients releases and/or land degradation; abandoning has permitted an extensive natural reforestation, which in turn has greatly modified the aesthetic value and biodiversity richness of landscape. Research for a sustainable “livestock farming landscape” will need the ability to integrate a systemic and geographic description of the interactions of farming systems with landscape quality and biodiversity with the definition of consequent technologies and farm management options.

  1. Economic consequences of investing in sensor systems on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of investment in sensor systems on productivity change, using farm accounting data. Farm accounting data for the years 2008–2013 was available for 217 Dutch dairy farms. In addition, information was available on the adoption of sensor systems

  2. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  3. Effect of yield and price risk on conversion from conventional to organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acs, S.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although the benefits of organic farming are already well known, the conversion to organic farming does not proceed as the Dutch government expected. In order to investigate the conversion decisions of Dutch arable farms, a discrete stochastic dynamic utility-efficient programming (DUEP) model is

  4. Agro-ecological system analysis (AESA) and farm plannning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Nalunga, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Organic agriculture is based on knowledge, insight and whole farm approaches. The farming system must work for each farmer family. Crop rotation cycles must be based on planning ahead, sometimes more than 2 years, so that different elements of the farm can work together. Intercropping must be bas...

  5. Conventional vs. organic cropping systems: yield of crops and weeds in Mediterranean environment

    OpenAIRE

    Campiglia, Enio; Mancinelli , Roberto; Radicetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture must meet the twin challenge of feeding a growing population while simultaneously of minimizing its global environmental impacts. The organic farming, which is a system aimed at producing food with minimal harm to ecosystems, is often proposed as a possible solution. However, critics argue that organic agriculture may give lower yields and therefore more land is required in order to produce the same amount of food of the conventional farms, resulting in more widespread deforestati...

  6. CleverFarm - A SuperSCADA system for wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G [ed.; Juhl, A; Gram Hansen, K; Biebhardt, J [and others

    2004-08-01

    The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farm operators to prioritise their efforts, since they have a good view of the farm status from home. A large emphasis was placed on the integration of condition monitoring approaches in the central system, enabling estimates of the remaining lifetime of components, especially in the nacelle. During the 3,5 years of the project, software and hardware was developed and installed in two wind farms in Denmark and Germany. The connected hardware included two different condition monitoring systems based on vibration sensors from Gram&Juhl and ISET, plus a camera system developed by Overspeed. Additionally, short-term predictions of the wind farm output were delivered by DMI and Risoes Prediktor system throughout the period of the project. All these diverse information sources are integrated through a web interface based on Java Server Pages. The software was developed in Java, and is delivered as so-called CleverBeans. The main part of the software is open-sourced. The report contains the experiences and results of a one-year experimental period. This report is a slightly edited version of the final publishable report to the EU Commission as part of the requirements of the CleverFarm project.

  7. Interactions between conventional and organic farming for biocontrol services across the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Ives, A.R.; Schellhorn, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    While the area of organic crop production increases at a global scale, the potential interactions between pest management in organic and conventionally managed systems have so far received little attention. Here, we evaluate the landscape-level co-dependence of insecticide-based and natural

  8. Avaliação de indicadores biológicos de qualidade do solo sob sistemas de cultivo convencional e orgânico de frutas Evaluation of biological indicators of soil quality under conventional and organic fruit farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deusiane Batista Sampaio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os indicadores biológicos de qualidade do solo sob sistemas de cultivo convencional e orgânico de frutas no estado do Piauí. Amostras de solo foram coletadas na projeção da copa das plantas e nas entrelinhas nas profundidades de 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm em duas áreas: sistema orgânico com acerola (SO, sistema convencional com goiaba (SC. Uma área adjacente com vegetação nativa (AVN foi utilizada como referencial, sendo coletadas amostras de solo nas mesmas profundidades em toda área. As variáveis analisadas foram a respiração basal, carbono orgânico e microbiano e os quocientes respiratório e microbiano do solo. O maior valor de respiração basal foi observado no solo do SOcopa, na profundidade de 10-20 cm. Os solos amostrados na área de vegetação nativa (AVN e sob a copa das plantas no sistema de cultivo orgânico (SOcopa apresentaram teores elevados de Corg na superfície (0-10 cm e em profundidade (20-40 cm. Em relação ao solo da AVN, houve aumento no carbono da biomassa microbiana (Cmic, nas profundidades de 0-10 cm e 10-20 cm, para o SOcopa e SCcopa. A adoção do sistema orgânico aumentou a atividade microbiana e o conteúdo de carbono orgânico do solo, mostrando benefícios para esse sistema agrícola.The aim of this paper was to evaluate biological indicators of soil quality under conventional and organic farming systems of fruits in Piauí state. Soil samples were collected in the projection area of plant canopies and in the row at a 0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm depths in two areas: organic farming system with "acerola" orchards (SO, conventional farming system with guava orchards (SC. An adjacent area with native vegetation (AVN was used as referential, being collected soil samples in all area. The variables studied were soil basal respiration, organic and microbial carbon and respiratory and microbial quotients. The higher value of basal respiration was observed in soil of

  9. Systems of organic farming in spring vetch I: Biological response of sucking insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four systems of organic farming and a conventional farming system were studied over the period 2012-2014. The organic system trial variants included: I – an organic farming system without any biological products used (growth under natural soil fertility – Control; II – an organic farming system involving the use of a biological foliar fertilizer and a biological plant growth regulator (Polyversum+Biofa; III – an organic farming system in which a biological insecticide (NeemAzal T/S was used; IV – an organic farming system including a combination of three organic products: the foliar fertilizer, the plant growth regulator and the bioinsecticide (Polyversum+Biofa+NeemAzal T/S. Variant V represented a conventional farming system in which synthetic products were used in combination (foliar fertilizer, plant growth regulator and insecticide: Masterblend+Flordimex 420+Nurelle D. Treatment of vetch plants with the biological insecticide NeemAzal in combination with Biofa and Polyversum resulted in the lowest density of sucking pests, compared to all other organic farming methods tested (i.e. without NeemAzal, with NeemAzal alone, and its combination with Biofa and Polyversum. The greatest reduction in pest numbers during the vegetation period in that variant was observed in species of the order Thysanoptera (36.0-41.4%, followed by Hemiptera, and the families Aphididae (31.6-40.3% and Cicadellidae (27.3-28.6%. This combination showed an efficient synergistic interaction and an increase in biological efficacy as compared to individual application of NeemAzal. The highest toxic impact was found against Thrips tabaci, followed by Acyrthosiphon pisum. An analysis of variance regarding the efficacy against the species A. pisum, E. pteridis and T. tabaci showed that type of treatment had the most dominant influence and statistically significant impact.

  10. Interrill sediment enrichment of P and C from organically and conventionally farmed silty loams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.

    2012-04-01

    that the net P export from organically farmed soils is not reduced by a similar degree than soil erosion compared to conventional soil management. The enrichment of P and C in the interrill sediment was not directly related to SOC, P content of the soil and soil interrill erodibility. A comparison of soil and sediment properties indicates that crusting, P and C content as well as density and size of eroded aggregate fragments control P and C enrichment. Due to complex and dynamic interactions between P, SOC and interrill erosional processes, the nutrient and C status of sediments cannot be predicted based on soil P content, SOC or interrill erodibility alone. Clearly, further research on crust formation and the composition of fragments generated by aggregate breakdown and their transport in raindrop impacted flow under different rainfall conditions is required. Attaining this critical missing knowledge would enable a comprehensive assessment of the benefits of organic farming on nutrient budgets, off-site effects of interrill erosion and its role in the global C cycle.

  11. Soil Organic Matter Erosion by Interrill Processes from Organically and Conventionally farmed Devon Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E.; Ling, A.; Kuhn, N. J.

    2012-04-01

    that the net P export from organically farmed soils is not reduced by a similar degree than soil erosion compared to conventional soil management. The enrichment of P and C in the interrill sediment was not directly related to SOC, P content of the soil and soil interrill erodibility. A comparison of soil and sediment properties indicates that crusting, P and C content as well as density and size of eroded aggregate fragments control P and C enrichment. Due to complex and dynamic interactions between P, SOC and interrill erosional processes, the nutrient and C status of sediments cannot be predicted based on soil P content, SOC or interrill erodibility alone. Clearly, further research on crust formation and the composition of fragments generated by aggregate breakdown and their transport in raindrop impacted flow under different rainfall conditions is required. Attaining this critical missing knowledge would enable a comprehensive assessment of the benefits of organic farming on nutrient budgets, off-site effects of interrill erosion and its role in the global C cycle.

  12. Numerical simulations of flow fields through conventionally controlled wind turbines and wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Ali Emre; Meyers, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, an Actuator-Line Model (ALM) is implemented in our in-house pseudo-spectral LES solver SP-WIND, including a turbine controller. Below rated wind speed, turbines are controlled by a standard-torque-controller aiming at maximum power extraction from the wind. Above rated wind speed, the extracted power is limited by a blade pitch controller which is based on a proportional-integral type control algorithm. This model is used to perform a series of single turbine and wind farm simulations using the NREL 5MW turbine. First of all, we focus on below-rated wind speed, and investigate the effect of the farm layout on the controller calibration curves. These calibration curves are expressed in terms of nondimensional torque and rotational speed, using the mean turbine-disk velocity as reference. We show that this normalization leads to calibration curves that are independent of wind speed, but the calibration curves do depend on the farm layout, in particular for tightly spaced farms. Compared to turbines in a lone-standing set-up, turbines in a farm experience a different wind distribution over the rotor due to the farm boundary-layer interaction. We demonstrate this for fully developed wind-farm boundary layers with aligned turbine arrangements at different spacings (5D, 7D, 9D). Further we also compare calibration curves obtained from full farm simulations with calibration curves that can be obtained at a much lower cost using a minimal flow unit

  13. The farming system component of European agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Erling

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...... endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural...

  14. Parameters affecting the environmental impact of a range of dairy farming systems in Denmark, Germany and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerci, Matteo; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Bava, L.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact of 12 dairy farms in Denmark, Germany and Italy was evaluated using an LCA approach and the most important parameters influencing their environmental sustainability were identified. The farms represent different production methods (organic vs. conventional), summer feeding...... intensive Italian farming system with very similar environmental impact values. However, a sensitivity analysis showed that when emissions relating to direct land use change of soybean production were included in the assessment, the GWP changed considerably for the conventional farms due to the inclusion...... of conventional soymeal in the feed concentrate. There were strong and positive correlations between the four impact categories, and overall the results indicate that improving greenhouse gas emissions would improve the general environmental sustainability of the dairy farm. The land occupation was lowest...

  15. Impacts of large-scale offshore wind farm integration on power systems through VSC-HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The potential of offshore wind energy has been commonly recognized and explored globally. Many countries have implemented and planned offshore wind farms to meet their increasing electricity demands and public environmental appeals, especially in Europe. With relatively less space limitation......, an offshore wind farm could have a capacity rating to hundreds of MWs or even GWs that is large enough to compete with conventional power plants. Thus the impacts of a large offshore wind farm on power system operation and security should be thoroughly studied and understood. This paper investigates...... the impacts of integrating a large-scale offshore wind farm into the transmission system of a power grid through VSC-HVDC connection. The concerns are focused on steady-state voltage stability, dynamic voltage stability and transient angle stability. Simulation results based on an exemplary power system...

  16. Farming System Evolution and Adaptive Capacity: Insights for Adaptation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L. Dixon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of climate impacts on agriculture and adaptation often provide current or future assessments, ignoring the historical contexts farming systems are situated within. We investigate how historical trends have influenced farming system adaptive capacity in Uganda using data from household surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions and observations. By comparing two farming systems, we note three major findings: (1 similar trends in farming system evolution have had differential impacts on the diversity of farming systems; (2 trends have contributed to the erosion of informal social and cultural institutions and an increasing dependence on formal institutions; and (3 trade-offs between components of adaptive capacity are made at the farm-scale, thus influencing farming system adaptive capacity. To identify the actual impacts of future climate change and variability, it is important to recognize the dynamic nature of adaptation. In practice, areas identified for further adaptation support include: shift away from one-size-fits-all approach the identification and integration of appropriate modern farming method; a greater focus on building inclusive formal and informal institutions; and a more nuanced understanding regarding the roles and decision-making processes of influential, but external, actors. More research is needed to understand farm-scale trade-offs and the resulting impacts across spatial and temporal scales.

  17. Electrical system studies for the grid connection of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, K.; Hanson, J.; Hopp, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    2007-01-01

    Wind power is gaining momentum in the world's energy balance. Several issues have to be addressed whenever power-generating devices are connected to the grid. The paper describes studies needed to evaluate the influence of wind farms on the connected transmission system and how faults in the system impact on induction generators in a wind farm. Some generalized results of studies for an offshore wind farm in the North Sea and a Bulgarian wind farm show how studies can influence the layout of the internal network and the electrical equipment. (authors)

  18. Grain dust originating from organic and conventional farming as a potential source of biological agents causing respiratory diseases in farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta A; Cholewa, Grażyna; Krasowska, Ewelina; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Zwoliński, Jacek; Sobczak, Paweł

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural producers are exposed to a number of different health risks associated with their work environment. The objective of the study was to assess the degree of colonization by fungi in terms of quantity and in terms of variety of species the samples taken from the settled dust from combine threshing of rye cultivation from organic and conventional farms in the Province of Lublin. This paper is a preliminary quantitative assessment of the species of fungi colonizing the samples of settled dust collected during combine threshing from organic and conventional farms in the Province of Lublin. One of the stages of the project was the classification of biosafety BSL (biosafety level) of selected isolates and API ZYM tests to evaluate the potential ability of isolates to cause adverse health effects. To determine the concentration and composition of fungi in collected samples plate dilution method was used with two media: Malt Agar and Potato Dextrose Agar. MOST COMMONLY ISOLATED FUNGI IN SETTLED DUST SAMPLES COLLECTED DURING COMBINE THRESHING FROM ORGANIC FARMS, ON PDA MEDIUM WERE: Alternaria alternata and Aureobasidium pullulans. Cultures on MA medium were dominated by Alternaria alternata, Mycelia sterilia and Fusarium poae. In samples of dust from conventional crops, the predominant species was Alternaria alternata on PDA medium and on MA medium. The obtained results show a potential risk of people involved in agricultural work.

  19. Short communication: Prevalence of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bulk milk on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Belomestnykh, N; Gamroth, M; Ruegg, P L; Tikofsky, L; Schukken, Y H

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. in bulk tank milk samples from 288 organic and conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon from March 2009 to May 2011. Due to recent publications reporting the presence mecC (a mecA homolog not detected by traditional mecA-based PCR methods), a combination of genotypic and phenotypic approaches was used to enhance the recovery of methicillin-resistant organisms from bulk tank milk. In total, 13 isolates were identified as methicillin resistant: Staph. aureus (n=1), Staphylococcus sciuri (n=5), Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=3), Staphylococcus agnetis (n=1), and Macrococcus caseolyticus (n=1). The single methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus isolate was identified from an organic farm in New York, for an observed 0.3% prevalence at the farm level. The methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci prevalence was 2% in the organic population and 5% in the conventional population. We did not identify mecC in any of the isolates from our population. Of interest was the relatively high number of methicillin-resistant Staph. sciuri recovered, as the number of isolates from our study was considerably higher than those recovered from other recent studies that also assessed milk samples. Our research suggests that the presence of a potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus reservoir in milk, and likely the dairy farm population in the United States, is independent of the organic or conventional production system. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A decision support system for strategic planning on pig farms

    OpenAIRE

    Backus, Ge B.C.; Timmer, G. Th.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Eidman, V.R.; Vos, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reported on a decision support system (DSS) for strategic planning on pig farms. The DSS was based . on a stochastic simulation model of investment decisions (ISM). ISM described a farm with one loan and one building using 23 variables. The simulation model calculated the results of a strategic plan for an individual pig farm over a time horizon of a maximum of 20 years for a given scenario. For six distinct replacement strategies, regression metamodels were specified to describe t...

  1. Risk factors associated with bulk tank standard plate count, bulk tank coliform count, and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M; Richert, R; Ruegg, P L; Stiglbauer, K E; Schukken, Y H

    2013-01-01

    on organic farms. In all models except the organic CC model, we observed an association with the average reported somatic cell count from 3 mo before the herd visit, indicating that many of the regularly tested milk quality parameters are interconnected. In conclusion, we found that conventional and organic farms are similar in regard to overall herd management, but each grazing system faces unique challenges when managing milk quality. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Vazzana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  3. Economic evaluation of cereal cropping systems under semiarid conditions: minimum input, organic and conventional

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo,Gabriel; Aibar,Joaquín; Cavero,José; Zaragoza,Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Cropping systems like organic farming, selling products at a higher price and promoting environmental sustainability by reducing fertilizer and pesticides, can be more profitable than conventional systems. An economic evaluation of three cropping systems in a seven year period experiment was performed, using a common rotation (fallow-barley-vetch-durum wheat) in a semi-arid rainfed field of Spain. The minimum input system included mouldboard ploughing, cultivator preparation, sowing and harve...

  4. uFarm: a smart farm management system based on RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungsuk; Lee, Moonsup; Jung, Jonghyuk; Lee, Hyunwook; Kim, Taehyoun

    2007-12-01

    Recently, the livestock industry in Korea has been threatened by many challenges such as low productivity due to labor intensiveness, global competition compelled by the Free Trade Agreement (FTA), and emerging animal disease issues such as BSE or foot-and-mouth. In this paper, we propose a smart farm management system, called uFarm, which would come up with such challenges by automating farm management. First, we automate labor-intensive jobs using equipments based on sensors and actuators. The automation subsystem can be controlled by remote user through wireless network. Second, we provide real-time traceability of information on farm animals using the radio-frequency identification (RFID) method and embedded data server with network connectivity.

  5. Manual for prototyping integrated and ecological arable farming systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.

    1999-01-01

    A manual for prototyping Integrated and Ecological Arable Farming Systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms is presented. It concerns a comprehensive and consistent approach of 5 steps. Step 1 is establishing a hierarchy of objectives considering the shortcomings of current farming systems in

  6. Ecologically sound management: aspects of modern sustainable deer farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, A J; Drew, K R

    1998-01-01

    Modern deer farming systems have become increasingly intensive allowing strategic feeding for production and genetic improvement programmes. Meeting feeding standards that account for changing nutritional demands related to seasonality and reproductive state is critical. As the industry matures there is a growing awareness of the balance between retaining natural behaviour in producing breeding stock on larger extensive holdings and intensification systems for performance in young stock. Stocking rates are critical determinants of success as land use and capability needs are matched with an increasing stratification of stock type and purpose. Food product safety and welfare considerations of farmed deer are being driven by consumer demands. Farm quality assurance and codes of practice are developing to ensure that deer farming meets and exceeds international expectations of land use and deer welfare in modern deer farming systems.

  7. Simulation of interaction between wind farm and power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Janosi, L.

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic model of the wind farm Hagesholm has been implemented in the dedicated power system simulation program DIgSILENT. The wind farm con- sists of six 2MW NM2000/72 wind turbines from NEG-Micon. The model has been verified using simultaneous powerquality measurements on the 10 kV terminals...

  8. Overall Optimization for Offshore Wind Farm Electrical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Based on particle swarm optimization (PSO), an optimization platform for offshore wind farm electrical system (OWFES) is proposed in this paper, where the main components of an offshore wind farm and key technical constraints are considered as input parameters. The offshore wind farm electrical...... system is optimized in accordance with initial investment by considering three aspects: the number and siting of offshore substations (OS), the cable connection layout of both collection system (CS) and transmission system (TS) as well as the selection of electrical components in terms of voltage level...... that save 3.01% total cost compared with the industrial layout, and can be a useful tool for OWFES design and evaluation....

  9. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level.

  10. Effects of organic versus conventional arable farming on soil structure and organic matter dynamics in a marine loam in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulleman, M.M.; Jongmans, A.G.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Bouma, J.

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of conventional and organic arable farming on soil organic matter (SOM) content, soil structure, aggregate stability and C and N mineralization, which are considered important factors in defining sustainable land management. Within one soil series, three different farming

  11. Effects of switching between production systems in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing intensification of dairy farming in Europe has sparked an interest in studying the economic consequences of this process. However, empirically classifying farms as extensive or intensive is not a straightforward task. In recent papers, Latent Class Models (LCM have been used to avoid an ad-hoc split of the sample into intensive and extensive dairy farms. A limitation of current specifications of LCM is that they do not allow farms to switch between different productive systems over time. This feature of the model is at odds with the process of intensification of the European dairy industry in recent decades. We allow for changes of production system over time by estimating a single LCM model but splitting the original panel into two periods, and find that the probability of using the intensive technology increases over time. Our estimation proposal opens up the possibility of studying the effects of intensification not only across farms but also over time.

  12. ON-FARM MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jug

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The on-farm management systems under development in order to insure data collection, regular data processing needed on a farm as well as automatic data exchange between farm and computing centre. The core of information system presents relational database (RDBMS accompanied with tools developed in APIIS. A system analysis method has been done on two pig industrial units, on national selection program for swine in Slovenia, and compared with examples from other countries and species. Public domain software like PostgreSQL, Perl and Linux have been chosen for use on farms and can be replaced with commercial software like Oracle for more demanding central systems. The system contains at this stage applications for entering, managing, and viewing the data as well as transferring the information between local and central databases.

  13. Assessment of Farming Systems for Sustainability of Farming Activities in the Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moumenihelali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the fundamental issues in the agricultural sector in Iran is the absence of optimal water and soil resources utilization and lack of new agricultural science and technology adoption through major prevailing transformations in agricultural land exploitation system. The studies conducted in the history of agricultural development in Iran cast light on the fact that the farming system’s role in the agricultural development in Iran is of great importance. And water and soil resources utilization has been one of the fundamental issues of agriculture which has enjoyed major consideration after the implementation of land restructuring. The agriculture farming systems are referred to as the focus of all activities related to sustainable agricultural development in Iran and it is believed that the shift and transition from traditional agriculture to modern and profitable agriculture through appropriate, improved and newly developed agricultural establishments are the major activities which can increase productivity and improve the overall performance of the agricultural sector and thus contribute to sustainable development more than any other factor. Hence, such significance will be more evident when the small and scattered farmlands in many cases have imposed some limitations in the application of agricultural techniques and machinery, equipping and developing the infrastructure and efficient use of resources with appropriate performance forcing agricultural policymakersto be always looking for ways to deal with it. Therefore, identifying the relative advantage of any farming system specified for each area and region in the country seems important. Accordingly, the Mazandaran province is regarded as one of the production hubs in producing crops such as rice, wheat and canola in the country playing a major role in supplying food. With a detailed analysis of research literature, the economic, ecological, social, technical and policy

  14. Evaluation of an organic package of practice towards integrated management of Solanum tuberosum and its comparison with conventional farming in terms of yield, quality, energy efficiency and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antara Seal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken up during 2014-16 for evaluating the potential of an organic package of practice towards integrated crop production (green farming in comparison to conventional farmers’ practice in West Bengal, India. Under green farming, compost was integrated with chemical fertilizer for soil management while organic plant/ pest management was undertaken utilizing Inhana Rational Farming (IRF Technology. The study indicated higher yield (9.7 %, higher nutrient use efficiency and economic sustainability under green farming irrespective of study area or potato variety. Higher qualitative expression in terms of starch content, pulp pH, vitamin C etc. under green farming might be due to the organic plant management aimed at energization of plant biochemical functions. Soil quality development as noted under green farming might have been influenced by the on-farm produced compost containing rich self- generated micro flora (in order of 1016 per colony forming unit.. The study indicated that green farming may serve as an efficient substitute of conventional farming towards yield sustenance, abatement of food toxicity and quality end product; through higher use of renewable energy and activation of plant physiological functions.

  15. The effect of organic farming systems on species diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksono, Amin Setyo

    2017-11-01

    Organic farming systems have been well known to support the diversity of a wide range of taxa, including microorganisms, arable flora, invertebrates, birds, and mammals, which benefit from organic management leading to increases in abundance and/or species richness. The objective of this paper is to review the effect of organic farming on species diversity reported in several articles and compare this with the current study in Gondanglegi, Malang. A review of several studies showed that organic farming systems have been reported to increase species diversity, including that of mammals, birds, arthropods, vascular plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The researchers about arthropod groups consisted of carabid beetles, butterflies, wasps, predators, and bees. Agricultural landscape, habitat type, farming system, landscape composition and connectivity all contribute to explaining species biodiversity and richness. Moreover, based on current and relevant studies, the results showed that the application of refugia blocks has increased arthropod diversity and composition.

  16. Smallholder tree farming systems for livelihood enhancement and carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshetko, James Michael

    Smallholder agroforestry (tree farming) systems are prominent components of ‘trees outside the forest’. The hypothesis of this thesis is that smallholder tree-farming systems are viable agricultural and natural resources management systems that contribute significantly to global environmental goals...... and local economic objectives. The thesis supports the hypothesis by reviewing global and Asian trends of deforestation, human population growth, and demand for forest and tree products. The potential of smallholders’ treebased systems to expand regional forest resources, produce forest products...... development of smallholder systems, how genetic diversity of smallholder systems supports adaptation to climate change, and the capacity of smallholder systems to simultaneously produce marketable timber and agricultural crops....

  17. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  18. Carbon footprint from dairy farming system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Riva, A.; Kristensen, Troels; De Marchi1, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated. The res......Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated....... The results show 0.80 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in JE herd, while 0.96 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in HF herd. The main differences were due to the level of dry matter intake, milk yield and fertility traits. Indeed, JE herd showed a lower milk yield than HF herd, a lower DMI and better fertility, determining less production...

  19. Stability and control of wind farms in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, C.

    2006-10-15

    The Ph.D. project 'Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered in this project is limited to active-stall turbines and variable speed, variable pitch turbines with gearboxes and full-scale converter-connected synchronous generators. As a basis for the project, a study into the state of the art is conducted at the beginning of the project. Grid connection requirements that were in force, or published as drafts, at the time, and scientific literature related to the topic, are studied. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models used in this project were readily available prior to the project; the development of others is part of the project. The most extensive modelling work deals with the design of the electrical part of the variable speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models are connected to an aggregated model of the Nordic power system. For that purpose the Nordic power system model, which was available prior to the project, is extended with a realistic feeder configuration. It is commonly demanded from modern wind turbines, that they must not disconnect in case of transient faults. Therefore, controllers are designed that enable the two turbine types to ride through transient faults. With these transient fault controllers the wind turbines can stay connected to the grid, such that their generation capacity is

  20. Multi-method comparison of carrot quality from a conventional and three organic cropping systems with increasing levels of nutrient recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoletti, Flavio; Raffo´, Antonio; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a need to advance the study of the effects of organic and conventional systems on product quality. In particular, little is known about the importance of different farming practices concerning nutrient cycling and the use of external inputs within organic farming for the qual...

  1. Transient stability risk assessment of power systems incorporating wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Lu; Fang, Jiakun; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    fed induction generator has been established. Wind penetration variation and multiple stochastic factors of power systems have been considered. The process of transient stability risk assessment based on the Monte Carlo method has been described and a comprehensive risk indicator has been proposed......Large-scale wind farm integration has brought several aspects of challenges to the transient stability of power systems. This paper focuses on the research of the transient stability of power systems incorporating with wind farms by utilizing risk assessment methods. The detailed model of double....... An investigation has been conducted into an improved 10-generator 39-bus system with a wind farm incorporated to verify the validity and feasibility of the risk assessment method proposed....

  2. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Julia; Wingstrand, Anne; Nygaard Jensen, Annette; Kerouanton, Annaelle; Cibin, Veronica; Barco, Lisa; Denis, Martine; Aabo, Sören; Bengtsson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Organic pig production differs in many ways from conventional production of pigs, e.g., in antibiotic use, herd structure, feeding regimes, access to outdoor areas and space allowance per pig. This study investigated if these differences result in a lower occurrence of antibiotic resistance in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid or gentamicin was also significantly lower in the E. coli from organic pigs. Resistance to cefotaxime, was not found in any country. The percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to TET as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli was significantly lower in organic than in conventional pigs, except in Sweden where TET-resistance was equally low in both production types. There were also differences between countries within production type in the percentage resistance to individual antibiotics as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli with lower median proportions in Sweden and Denmark compared to France and Italy. The study shows that in each of the four countries resistance in intestinal E. coli was less common in organic than in conventional pigs, but that there were also large differences in resistance between countries within each production type, indicating that both country- and production-specific factors influence the occurrence of resistance.

  3. Risk Analysis on Organochlorine Pesticides Residue in Potato and Carrot from Conventional and Organic Farms in Citarum Watershed Area, West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphia Rahmawati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Six samples of carrot and potatoes were collected from conventional and organic farms. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs residue was analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction. The concentration of OCPs residue together with the consumption pattern were used to calculate the potential risk. Estimated Daily Intake (EDI of OCPs residue in carrots and potatoes both from conventional and organic farms were below the standard given in SNI 7313:2008 and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs from USEPA . Hazard quotient (HQ and Hazard Index (HI as effect analysis were below the unity, thus there may not be a concern for non-carcinogenic effect. Risk analysis on cancer effects indicated that potatoes samples were above the recommended risk by EPA (10-6. In addition, risk of potatoes samples from organic samples was higher compare to that of the conventional farm. Cancer risk analysis of carrot samples were found below the recommended risk by EPA. Cancer risk effect of carrot samples from conventional farm was slightly higher compare to that of the organic farm.

  4. The Analysis of Potato Farming Systems in Chencha, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersseh, Waga Mazengia; Gebresilase, Yenenesh Tadesse; Schulte, R.P.O.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    A household survey was conducted for mixed farming systems in Chencha, Ethiopia. Goals of the survey were to establish a baseline for the current production system, to quantify the variation in input and output, and to identify constraints hindering expansion of potato production. Descriptive

  5. Performance of conventional pcr for screening for strongylus vulgaris on horse farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne K.; Wøhlk, Chamilla B.M.; Petersen, Stig L.

      Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses. Of these, the bloodworm Strongylus vulgaris is regarded most pathogenic. Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in strongyle parasites has lead to recommendations of decreased treatment intensities, and there is now a pronounced need...... for reliable tools for detection of parasite burdens in general and S. vulgaris in particular. The only method currently available is the larval culture, which is laborious and time-consuming, so veterinary practitioners most often pool samples from several horses together in one culture to save time....... This raises doubts about the reliability of the method. Recently, molecular tools have been developed to detect S. vulgaris in fecal samples. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with the traditional larval culture and furthermore test...

  6. Interrill erosion of carbon and phosphorus from conventionally and organically farmed Devon silt soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J; Armstrong, Elizabeth K; Ling, Amy C

    2012-01-01

    particles by raindrop impacted flow. Resistance to interrill erosion varies between soils depending on their physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. In addition, significant changes in soil resistance to interrill erosion occur during storms as a result of changes in surface roughness, cohesion...... to conventional soil management. The enrichment of P and C in the interrill sediment was not directly related to SOC, P content of the soil and soil interrill erodibility. A comparison of soil and sediment properties indicates that crusting, P and C content as well as density and size of eroded aggregate......Globally, between 0.57 and 1.33 Pg of soil organic carbon (SOC) may be affected by interrill processes. Also, a significant amount of phosphorus (P) is contained in the surface soil layer transformed by raindrop impact, runoff and crust formation. In the EU, the P content of a crusted (2 mm...

  7. The Monitor System for the LHCb on-line farm

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb on-line farm Monitor System is to keep under control all the working indicators which are relevant for the farm operation, and to set the appropriate alarms whenever an error or a critical condition comes up. Since the most stressing tasks of the farm are the data transfer and processing, relevant indicators includes the CPU and the memory load of the system, the network interface and the TCP/IP stack parameters, the rates of the interrupts raised by the network interface card and the detailed status of the running processes. The monitoring of computers’ physical conditions (temperatures, fan speeds and motherboard voltages) are the subject of a separate technical note, since they are accessed in a different way, by using the IPMI protocol.

  8. Development of a generic wind farm SCADA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the project is to develop a 'Generic Wind Farm Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System' for the wind energy industry. A SCADA is a computer-based system that allows local and remote control of basic wind turbine functions and collects data from the wind farm that can be used to analyse and report on the operational performance. As wind farm size, complexity and remoteness of location increase an industry standard SCADA is vitally important to allow effective operation, monitoring, control and reporting. Turbine manufacturers offer a number of existing systems but these do not always fully meet the needs of wind farm operators and owners. Operators and owners who are involved with more than one turbine supplier end up with a number of incompatible systems. This causes operational difficulties and makes it hard to compared performance data from different turbines. This project aims to address these issues and develop a system that will communicate with all turbine types and calculate and store performance data in a consistent way. (Author)

  9. 12 CFR 614.4590 - Equitable treatment of OFIs and Farm Credit System associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... differences in credit risk and administrative costs to the Farm Credit Bank or agricultural credit bank. (c... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable treatment of OFIs and Farm Credit System associations. 614.4590 Section 614.4590 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT...

  10. Farming Systems of the African Savanna: A Continent in Crisis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Farmers in the parts of Africa where population growth is near, or has exceeded, the carrying capacity of the land at current technological levels face a serious crisis. This crisis is the result of the breakdown of traditional farming systems. The consequences are environmental deterioration on a massive scale, widespread ...

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  12. Economic Feasibility of Recirculating Aquaculture Systems in Pangasius Farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.A.N.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Le, T.C.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Bosma, R.H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the economic feasibility of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in pangasius farming in Vietnam. The study uses a capital budgeting approach and accounts for uncertainty in key parameters. Stochastic simulation is used to simulate the economic performance of medium and

  13. Economic Potential of Taungya Farming System in Edo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the economic potential of taungya system in Edo state, using of data obtained from both primary and secondary sources with the aid of well structured questionnaires administered to 230 respondents in eight the Local Government Areas practicing taungya farming in government reserved forests.

  14. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, agricultural practices have led to increase yields by means of the massive consumption on non-renewable fossil energy. However, the viability of a production system does not depend solely on crop yield, but also on its efficiency in the use of available resources. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture and in rotation with vetch, sunflower and fallow) on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the farming system effect, so crop rotations and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed and a 4-month summer drought period. Conventional farming included the use of moldboard plow for tillage, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Conservation farming was developed with zero tillage, direct sowing and chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Organic farming included the use of cultivator and no chemical fertilizers or herbicides. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). EI was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher in conservation (10.4 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional (11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1) than in organic farming (3.41 GJ ha-1

  15. A moral Operating System of livestock farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Societal views about livestock production systems in Europe are changing dramatically in a negative direction. Based on the tradition of pragmatism in applied philosophy I develop a Moral Operating System of animal production systems in cooperating a plurality of ethical views. This moral operating

  16. Evaluating environmental impacts of contrasting pig farming systems with life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourmad, J Y; Ryschawy, J; Trousson, T; Bonneau, M; Gonzàlez, J; Houwers, H W J; Hviid, M; Zimmer, C; Nguyen, T L T; Morgensen, L

    2014-12-01

    Environmental impacts of 15 European pig farming systems were evaluated in the European Union Q-PorkChains project using life cycle assessment. One conventional and two non-conventional systems were evaluated from each of the five countries: Denmark, The Netherlands, Spain, France and Germany. The data needed for calculations were obtained from surveys of 5 to 10 farms from each system. The systems studied were categorised into conventional (C), adapted conventional (AC), traditional (T) and organic (O). Compared with C systems, AC systems differed little, with only minor changes to improve meat quality, animal welfare or environmental impacts, depending on the system. The difference was much larger for T systems, using very fat, slow-growing traditional breeds and generally outdoor raising of fattening pigs. Environmental impacts were calculated at the farm gate and expressed per kg of pig live weight and per ha of land used. For C systems, impacts per kg LW for climate change, acidification, eutrophication, energy use and land occupation were 2.3 kg CO2-eq, 44.0 g SO2-eq, 18.5 g PO4-eq, 16.2 MJ and 4.1 m2, respectively. Compared with C, differences in corresponding mean values were +13%, +5%, 0%, +2% and +16% higher for AC; +54%, +79%, +23%, +50% and +156% for T, and +4%, -16%, +29%, +11% and +121% for O. Conversely, when expressed per ha of land use, mean impacts were 10% to 60% lower for T and O systems, depending on the impact category. This was mainly because of higher land occupation per kg of pig produced, owing to feed production and the outdoor raising of sows and/or fattening pigs. The use of straw bedding tended to increase climate change impact per kg LW. The use of traditional local breeds, with reduced productivity and feed efficiency, resulted in higher impacts per kg LW for all impact categories. T systems with extensive outdoor raising of pigs resulted in markedly lower impact per ha of land used. Eutrophication potential per ha was substantially

  17. Investment appraisal of automatic milking and conventional milking technologies in a pasture-based dairy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, J; Shalloo, L; Foley, C; Sleator, R D; O'Brien, B

    2016-09-01

    The successful integration of automatic milking (AM) systems and grazing has resulted in AM becoming a feasible alternative to conventional milking (CM) in pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to identify the profitability of AM in a pasture-based system, relative to CM herringbone parlors with 2 different levels of automation, across 2 farm sizes, over a 10-yr period following initial investment. The scenarios which were evaluated were (1) a medium farm milking 70 cows twice daily, with 1 AM unit, a 12-unit CM medium-specification (MS) parlor and a 12-unit CM high-specification (HS) parlor, and (2) a large farm milking 140 cows twice daily with 2 AM units, a 20-unit CM MS parlor and a 20-unit CM HS parlor. A stochastic whole-farm budgetary simulation model combined capital investment costs and annual labor and maintenance costs for each investment scenario, with each scenario evaluated using multiple financial metrics, such as annual net profit, annual net cash flow, total discounted net profitability, total discounted net cash flow, and return on investment. The capital required for each investment was financed from borrowings at an interest rate of 5% and repaid over 10-yr, whereas milking equipment and building infrastructure were depreciated over 10 and 20 yr, respectively. A supporting labor audit (conducted on both AM and CM farms) showed a 36% reduction in labor demand associated with AM. However, despite this reduction in labor, MS CM technologies consistently achieved greater profitability, irrespective of farm size. The AM system achieved intermediate profitability at medium farm size; it was 0.5% less profitable than HS technology at the large farm size. The difference in profitability was greatest in the years after the initial investment. This study indicated that although milking with AM was less profitable than MS technologies, it was competitive when compared with a CM parlor of similar technology. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy

  18. Weed species diversity in organic and integrated farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jastrzębska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological data were collected in 1994–1996 in plots (relevés at the Research Station for Organic Farming and Conservation Breeding of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Popielno included in a large-area experiment conducted according to the concept and method proposed by Prof. S. Nawrocki. In a four-field crop rotation (root crops – spring barley undersown with red clover and grasses – red clover/grass mixture – winter triticale, each field was divided into two management units, organic and integrated. Data were collected in relevés by the Braun-Blanquet method, each year at the peak of the growing season. Weed abundance (% cover in cultivated fields and the number of weed species (species richness in crops were determined, which provided a basis for calculating the Shannon-Wiener indices of species diversity and evenness, and the Rényi profiles. The qualitative (species and quantitative structure of weed communities was compared using the Sørensen index. A total of 115 weed taxa (species, subspecies and varieties were identified in the examined agro-phytocenoses. Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Thlaspi arvense and Stellaria media were the most abundant. Weed infestation was slightly higher in the organic farming system than in the integrated system. Organic farming contributed to higher weed species diversity in root crops, red clover/grass mixtures and winter triticale. Weed species richness was reduced in red clover/grass stands, while root crops and – to a lesser degree – spring barley undersown with red clover and grasses decreased weed species diversity. The species composition and in particular the quantitative structure of weeds were affected by crop species and cultivation regime rather than by the farming system. Weed communities of crops grown under organic and integrated farming systems were more similar with regard to species composition

  19. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  20. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  1. Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, B.; Barbier, M.; Cerf, M.; Grin, J.

    2012-01-01

    How can the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run be addressed? We argue that sustainable agro-food systems cannot be developed through a simple improvement of existing systems, but will require a transition. Therefore, we focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and

  2. Efficiency of liquid culture systems over conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common methods of micropropagation involve the proliferation of shoots via a semi solid system. While such semi solid systems have been moderately to highly successful in terms of multiplication yields, it has become increasingly important to improve productivity and reduce the time taken to multiply ...

  3. Effect of farming system on colour components of wheat noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lacko-Bartosova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colour of noodles is definitely a key element of a consumer's buying decisions. It can be influenced by many factors. Conditions, under which is winter wheat grown, can be considered as one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate colour of noodles that were prepared from winter wheat grown in ecological and integrated arable farming systems, after different forecrops with two levels of fertilization (fertilized and unfertilized during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Winter wheat noodles were prepared from white flour and wholegrain flour and its colour was evaluated using the spectro-colorimeter. Colour was measured by three coordinates: lightness L*, red/ green value a* and yellow/ blue value b*. Wholegrain noodles had lower L* value, so they were darker than white flour noodles, with higher redness and higher yellowness. Colour of white flour noodles and wholegrain noodles was significantly influenced by crop nutrition (fertilized and unfertilized variants, farming system and meteorological conditions during experimental years. Wholegrain noodles from ecological system were darker, with lower lightness and higher redness compared to noodles from integrated system. White flour noodles from ecological system were also darker compared to noodles from integrated system. Fertilization decreased lightness of white flour noodles, on the contrary, fertilization increased the lightness and decreased the redness of wholegrain noodles. In non-fertilized treatment, ecological wheat noodles were darker, with higher redness and yellowness than noodles prepared from winter wheat grown in integrated arable farming system.

  4. THE INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM FOR RESOURSES ADMINISTRATION IN FISH FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The informational system for aquaculture activities provide a financial planning and analysis tool.The software can also be of assistance to land-based farmers who want to more thoroughly utilizetheir water resources by developing small-scale fish farm systems to provide supplementary income.Informational model has been enhanced to produce a comprehensive software package foraquaculture feasibility modeling, financial planning, sales and harvesting planning and managementinformation tools.

  5. Farming Systems of the African Savanna

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is impossible to thank all those farmers, researchers, and others who have ..... Farmers using this method aim to maintain or even increase the OM content of the soil by ... (Some types of fertilizer may damage the seed or young plants if placed in ..... The structure of a system is defined by the quantitative and qualitative ...

  6. Soil Microbial Activity in Conventional and Organic Agricultural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero F.V. Carneiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate microbial activity in soils under conventional and organic agricultural system management regimes. Soil samples were collected from plots under conventional management (CNV, organic management (ORG and native vegetation (AVN. Soil microbial activity and biomass was significantly greater in ORG compared with CNV. Soil bulk density decreased three years after adoption of organic system. Soil organic carbon (SOC was higher in the ORG than in the CNV. The soil under organic agricultural system presents higher microbial activity and biomass and lower bulk density than the conventional agricultural system.

  7. Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

    2011-11-01

    United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage

  8. Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) occurrence and infestation behaviour as influenced by farm type, cropping systems and soil management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabi, Samuel; Karungi, Jeninah; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    into the trend. A biological monitoring study that covered 150 pineapple farms was conducted in 2012 and 2013. Farms were categorised under organic and conventional systems. Mealybug population densities (mealybugs/plant) were recorded in relation to seed bed types, cropping system and soil management practices......Occurrence of pineapple mealybug (Dysmicoccus brevipes) has been increasing at an alarming rate on pineapple in Uganda. The cause of the epidemic is unknown. This study was set out to establish whether prevailing cropping systems, production and management practices could provide an insight...... used on each farm. Mealybug population densities were lower in pineapple–banana intercrop system (27.8) than in a sole pineapple crop (81.8) across seasons. Earthed-up seed beds registered higher mealybug densities (84.1) than flat seed beds (31). Earthed-up seed beds created more favourable...

  9. From conventional software based systems to knowledge based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologna, S.

    1995-01-01

    Even if todays nuclear power plants have a very good safety record, there is a continuous search for still improving safety. One direction of this effort address operational safety, trying to improve the handling of disturbances and accidents partly by further automation, partly by creating a better control room environment, providing the operator with intelligent support systems to help in the decision making process. Introduction of intelligent computerised operator support systems has proved to be an efficient way of improving the operators performance. A number of systems have been developed worldwide, assisting in tasks like process fault detection and diagnosis, selection and implementation of proper remedial actions. Unfortunately, the use of Knowledge Based Systems (KBSs), introduces a new dimension to the problem of the licensing process. KBSs, despite the different technology employed, are still nothing more than a computer program. Unfortunately, quite a few people building knowledge based systems seem to ignore the many good programming practices that have evolved over the years for producing traditional computer programs. In this paper the author will try to point out similarities and differences between conventional software based systems, and knowledge based systems, introducing also the concept of model based reasoning. (orig.) (25 refs., 2 figs.)

  10. Climate change adaptability of cropping and farming systems for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justes, Eric; Rossing, Walter; Vermue, Anthony

    systems to CC through a gradient of adaptation strategies. Methods: The adaptation strategies are evaluated at cropping and farming systems as well as regional levels for nine “Adaptation Pilots” along a North-South climate gradient in the EU. Three categories of strategies are evaluated: i) Resistance...... and foster learning in participatory co-design workshops. Results and expectations: The expected results of the Climate-CAFE on-going project will produce an overview of potential CC adaptation measures for selected sites across the EU, along with mutual learning experiences for improved understanding......Introduction: Prospective studies showed that the European agriculture will be impacted by climate change (CC) with different effects depending on the geographic region. The ERA-Net+ project Climate-CAFE (call of FACCE-JPI) aims to improve the “adaptive capacity” of arable and forage based farming...

  11. An overview of farming system typology methodologies and its use in the study of pasture-based farming system: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madry, W.; Mena, Y.; Roszkowska, B.; Gozdowski, D.; Hryniewski, R.; Castel, J. M.

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of the paper is to do a critic study of the use of typology methodologies within pasture-based farming systems (PBFS), especially those situated in less favoured areas, showing in each case the more relevant variables or indicators determining the farming system classification. Another objective is to do an overview of the most used farming system typology methodologies in general. First some considerations about the concept of farming system and approaches to its study have been done. Next, the farming system typology methodologies have been showed in general to different farming systems, but addressed preferably to PBFS. The different tools integrated in these methodologies have been considered: sampling methods, sources of data, variables or indicators obtained from available data and techniques of analysis (statistical or not). Methods for farming system classification have been presented (expert methods, analytical methods or a combination of both types). Among the statistical methods, the multivariate analysis has been overall treated, including the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis. Finally, the use of farming system typology methodologies on different pasture-based farming systems has been presented. The most important aspects considered are following: the main objective of the typology, the main animal species, the employed methods of classification and the main variables involved in this classification. (Author) 56 refs.

  12. Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shan; Ying Guangguo; Zhang Ruiquan; Zhou Lijun; Lai Huajie; Chen Zhifeng

    2012-01-01

    Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (< LOQ for estrone) to 8100 ± 444 ng/g (progesterone), in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (estrone) to 20,700 ± 1490 ng/L (androsterone), in suspended particles with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (17β-trenbolone) to 778 ± 82.1 ng/g (5α-dihydrotestosterone) in the six farms, respectively. The steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. - Highlights: ► 28 steroids were investigated in three swine farms and three cattle farms. ► Eight detected synthetic steroids were from exogenous usage. ► Lagoon systems were more effective in removing steroids than sedimentation tanks. ► The steroids via swine and human sources were mainly from wastewater. ► The steroids via cattle were mainly originated from feces. - The swine and cattle farms contribute higher steroids masses to the environment than the human sources.

  13. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: Steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Department Bioscience Engineering, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Meul, Marijke [University College Ghent, Department of Biosciences and Landscape Architecture, Campus Schoonmeersen, Building C, Schoonmeersstraat 52, 9000, Gent (Belgium)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  14. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Passel, Steven; Meul, Marijke

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: ► We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. ► SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. ► Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. ► We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  15. Do differences in food web structure between organic and conventional farms affect the ecosystem service of pest control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macfadyen, S.; Gibson, R.; Polaszek, A.; Morris, R.J.; Craze, P.G.; Planque, R.; Symondson, W.O.C.; Memmott, J.

    2009-01-01

    While many studies have demonstrated that organic farms support greater levels of biodiversity, it is not known whether this translates into better provision of ecosystem services. Here we use a food-web approach to analyse the community structure and function at the whole-farm scale. Quantitative

  16. Genetic traits of relevance to sustainability of smallholder sheep farming systems in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molotsi, Annelin; Dube, Bekezela; Oosting, Simon; Marandure, Tawanda; Mapiye, Cletos; Cloete, Schalk; Dzama, Kennedy

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable livestock production is important to ensure continuous availability of resources for future generations. Most smallholder livestock farming systems in developing countries have been perceived to be environmentally, socially and economically unsustainable. Farming with livestock that is

  17. Integration of large wind farms into weak power grids. Emphasis on the Ethiopian interconnected system (ICS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bantyirga Gessesse, Belachew

    2013-07-18

    The impact of increased wind power on the steady state and dynamic behavior of the Ethiopian power system is the main focus of this thesis. The integration of wind power to the existing grid with conventional generators introduces new set of challenges regarding system security and operational planning, the main cause of the difference arising from the uncertainty of the primary source of energy and the response time following a disturbance. For incorporating wind turbine models into the overall dynamic model of the system and investigating the effect of wind on the dynamic behavior of the wind first models of wind turbine components were put together by reviewing the current state of the art in wind turbine modeling and control concepts. The theoretical insight thus gained was applied to the Ethiopian power system as a case study. Since the models of the installed turbines were either not available or incomplete, an alternative modeling approach based on generic models was adopted. The generic model, in addition to obviating the need for technology or manufacturer specific models, reduces the complexity the dynamic model. Using this procedure, generic dynamic models for wind farm in the system were developed. The capability of dynamic models to reproduce the dynamic response of the system has been verified by comparing simulation results obtained with a detailed and generic wind farm model. It could be shown that the generic wind turbine model is simple, but accurate enough to represent any wind turbine types or entire wind farms for power system stability analysis. The next task was the study of the effect of increased wind power level on the general behavior of the Ethiopian system. It is observed that overall the impact of wind turbines on the operational indices of the system was -as could be expected- more pronounced in the vicinity of the wind farm. But the power angle oscillation following a disturbance was observed across the whole system. Further, as a

  18. Comparing ELISA test-positive prevalence, risk factors and management recommendations for Johne's disease prevention between organic and conventional dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David

    2015-11-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, infectious disease in cattle. Between 2010 and 2013, a voluntary JD control program was successfully launched in Ontario, Canada, including a Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) and JD ELISA testing of the entire milking herd. Over the last decade, the organic dairy sector has been growing. However, organic farming regulations and philosophies may influence the risk for JD transmission on Ontario organic dairy farms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in JD ELISA test positive prevalence, risk factors for JD and recommendations for JD prevention between organic and conventional dairy herds in Ontario. RAMP results (i.e. RAMP scores and recommendations) and ELISA results were available for 2103 dairy herds, including 42 organic herds. If available, additional data on milk production, milk quality, and herd characteristics were gathered. Organic and conventional herds had a similar herd-level JD ELISA test-positive prevalence (26.2% and 27.2%, respectively). Organic herds (4.2%) had a higher within-herd JD ELISA test-positive prevalence compared to conventional herds (2.3%) if they had at least one JD test-positive animal on the farm. Organic farms had lower risk scores for biosecurity (9 points lower), and higher scores in the calving (7 points higher) and the calf-rearing management areas (4 points higher). After accounting for RAMP score, organic farms received fewer recommendations for the calving management area (Odds Ratio=0.41) and more recommendations in the adult cow management area (Odds Ratio=2.70). A zero-inflated negative binomial model was built with purchase of animals and the herd size included in the logistic portion of the model. Herd type (organic or conventional), colostrum and milk feeding practices, average bulk tank somatic cell count, and presence of non-Holstein breeds were included in the negative binomial portion of the model. Organic farms had a higher number of

  19. Goat farming systems in Martinique: management and breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, G; Leimbacher, F; Maurice, O; Domarin, D; Naves, M; Mandonnet, N

    2009-04-01

    To be successful, initiatives to improve farmer's goat production should directly address the needs and objectives of the keepers while promoting rational use of local genetic resources. A survey was carried out to implement a genetic policy governing meat goat farming in Martinique (11,400 heads and 33,400 ha arable land). The questionnaire comprised a total of 27 items with 306 modalities, and included questions on farm structure, crop and animal productions, management of feeding, reproduction and health control. The sample consisted of 33 farmers with 644 ha and 2,680 goats (1,286 does and 52 bucks), 97% of does in the studied sample were crossbred, 56% of bucks were" imported" breeds (Boer or Anglo-Nubian). The number of goats per farm varied from 16 to 582. The feeding system was predominantly grazing, according to a rotation (55% of cases) or continuous grazing system (42%). On 62% of farms, the males remained with the females permanently, also 83% of farmers did not resort to methods of controlled-mating. The first criteria used for choosing animals (80 to 90% of answers) of both sex, were development and conformation. Assuming that adaptive together with productive traits are important in tropical zones, it is advisable to better define the maternal lineage of the local livestock (presently very sparse records), to improve reproduction management and culling strategies (poor and inadequate management practices do not support any genetic improvement programme), and to guide the farmers in their decisions by employing concerted interprofessional actions (choice of meat breed, market studies).

  20. Nurturing Diversified Farming Systems in Industrialized Countries: How Public Policy Can Contribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Iles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If diversified farming systems (DFS are to thrive again in the United States, policies and preferences must evolve to reward the environmental and social benefits of sustainable farming and landscape management. Compared with conventional agricultural policies, policies aiding ecological diversification are underdeveloped and fragmented. We consider several examples of obstacles to the adoption and spread of diversified farming practices in the U.S. industrialized agricultural system. These include the broader political economic context of industrialized agriculture, the erosion of farmer knowledge and capacity, and supply chain and marketing conditions that limit the ability of farmers to adopt sustainable practices. To overcome these obstacles and nurture DFS, policy makers, researchers, industry, farmers, consumers, and local communities can play pivotal roles to transform agricultural research, develop peer-to-peer learning processes, support the recruitment and retention of new farmers through access to credit and land, invest in improved agricultural conservation programs, provide compensation for provision of ecological services in working landscapes, and develop links to consumer and institutional markets.

  1. Matching breeding goals with farming systems to enhance the sustainability of fish farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Fish farming is growing but is also facing challenges regarding economic viability and environmental sustainability. Selective breeding could enhance the sustainability of fish farming by changing animal performances. Thus, our aim was to develop sustainable breeding goals by using economic (EV)

  2. Brazilian Citizens’ Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Yunes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat. Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle, 82% (poultry, 81% (laying hens, and 60% (swine. A large majority (79% stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The

  3. Brazilian Citizens' Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Maria C; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Hötzel, Maria J

    2017-09-28

    The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their "social license to operate"; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat). Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle), 82% (poultry), 81% (laying hens), and 60% (swine). A large majority (79%) stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The preference for free

  4. Effect of structural animal health planning on antimicrobial use and animal health variables in conventional dairy farming in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, David C; Graveland, Haitske; Eijck, Ineke A J M; Schepers, René W M; Heederik, Dick J J; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    Widespread veterinary use of antimicrobials might contribute to the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance. Despite many successful efforts to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands, antimicrobial use on a substantial number of farms has remained relatively high over the past few years. Farm-specific solutions are required to further lower antimicrobial use on these farms. Reducing the burden of animal diseases at the farm level by means of a structured approach to animal health planning could be promising. This intervention study aimed to evaluate the main effects of an animal health planning program developed by an advisory team consisting of a dairy farmer, his veterinarian, and his feed adviser under the guidance of a professional facilitator. During an initial farm visit, the advisory team developed a farm-specific animal health planning program with support from the facilitator. After 1 yr, the effects of this program on animal health, production parameters, and antimicrobial use were evaluated and compared with control farms that did not have a facilitated animal health planning program. Antimicrobial use on intervention farms was significantly reduced between the start and the end of the study period; however, no significant differences in the rate of reduction between the intervention and control groups could be observed (-19% and -14%, respectively). Reduced antimicrobial use did not result in negative effects on animal health and production parameters during the study period in both groups. On intervention farms, a significant positive relationship was found between the percentage of completed action points at farm level and the percentage reduction in antimicrobial use. The level of compliance with action points and the quality of collaboration between farmer and advisers were positively associated with the accomplishment of corresponding objectives. However, the total number of objectives was negatively associated with the level

  5. Productivity of organic and conventional arable cropping systems in long-term experiments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ambreen; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2017-01-01

    manure there was a tendency for increased DM yield over time at all sites, whereas little response was seen in N yield. In the O4 rotation DM and N yields tended to increase at Foulum over time, but there was little change at Flakkebjerg. The DM yield gap between organic and conventional systems in the 3......A field experiment comparing different arable crop rotations was conducted in Denmark during 1997–2008 on three sites varying in climatic conditions and soil types, i.e. coarse sand (Jyndevand), loamy sand (Foulum), and sandy loam (Flakkebjerg). The crop rotations followed organic farm management......, and from 2005 also conventional management was included for comparison. Three experimental factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) crop rotation (organic crop rotations varying in use of whole-year green manure (O1 and O2 with a whole-year green manure, and O4 without...

  6. Productivity and cost of conventional understory biomass harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas E. Miller; Thomas J. Straka; Bryce J. Stokes; William Watson

    1987-01-01

    Conventional harvesting equipment was tested for removing forest understory biomass (energywood) for use as fuel. Two types of systems were tested--a one-pass system and a two-pass system. In the one-pass system, the energywood and pulpwood were harvested simultaneously. In the two-pass system, the energywood was harvested in a first pass through the stand, and the...

  7. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, D.C.; Ribeiro, F.C.A.; Conti, C.C.; Loureiro, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra and 228 Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for 226 Ra, 0.55 for 228 Ra and 0.24 for 238 U (Bq kg -1 dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10 -4 to 10 -2 for 238 U and from 10 -2 to 10 -1 for 228 Ra

  8. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)], E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br; Ribeiro, F.C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN), Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 200, Cidade Universitaria Recife, PE, CEP 50740-540 (Brazil); Conti, C.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Loureiro, F.A. [Estacao Experimental de Nova Friburgo, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Pesagro (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for {sup 226}Ra, 0.55 for {sup 228}Ra and 0.24 for {sup 238}U (Bq kg{sup -1} dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -2} for {sup 238}U and from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra.

  9. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, D C; Ribeiro, F C A; Conti, C C; Loureiro, F A

    2009-02-01

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for (226)Ra, 0.55 for (228)Ra and 0.24 for (238)U (Bq kg(-1) dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10(-4) to 10(-2) for (238)U and from 10(-2) to 10(-1) for (228)Ra.

  10. Effect of organic and conventional rearing system on the mineral content of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Donghua; Yang, Shuming

    2016-08-01

    Dietary composition and rearing regime largely determine the trace elemental composition of pigs, and consequently their concentration in animal products. The present study evaluates thirteen macro- and trace element concentrations in pork from organic and conventional farms. Conventional pigs were given a commercial feed with added minerals; organic pigs were given a feed based on organic feedstuffs. The content of macro-elements (Na, K, Mg and Ca) and some trace elements (Ni, Fe, Zn and Sr) in organic and conventional meat samples showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Several trace element concentrations in organic pork were significantly higher (Ppork: Cr (808 and 500μg/kg in organic and conventional pork, respectively), Mn (695 and 473μg/kg) and Cu (1.80 and 1.49mg/kg). The results showed considerable differences in mineral content between samples from pigs reared in organic and conventional systems. Our results also indicate that authentication of organic pork can be realized by applying multivariate chemometric methods such as discriminant analysis to this multi-element data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon footprint of conventional and organic beef production systems: An Italian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, C; Fantozzi, F; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E; Chiorri, M; Cecchini, L

    2017-01-15

    Beef cattle production is a widespread activity in Italy in the agricultural field and determines an important impact on environment and resources consumption. Carbon footprint evaluation is thus necessary to evaluate the contributions of the different stages and the possible improvements of the production chain. In this study, two typical Italian beef production systems, a conventional and an organic one are investigated in order to evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions from "cradle to gate farm" by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach; the carbon footprint (CF) per 1kg of live weight meat is calculated. The contributions from feed production, enteric fermentation, and manure management are taken into account, in order to compare the life cycle of the two productions; also the carbon balance in soil is evaluated, in order to verify the impact in a life cycle perspective. The results of CF calculation of the two farms show that organic system (24.62kgCO 2eq /kg live weight) produce more GHG emissions than the conventional one (18.21kgCO 2eq /kg live weight) and that the enteric fermentation is the more heavy contribution, with a range of 50-54% of the global CF value. Improvements of the production chain could be realized by accurate feeding strategies, in order to obtain reduction of methane emissions from enteric digestion of cattles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Discrete event simulation versus conventional system reliability analysis approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Discrete Event Simulation (DES) environments are rapidly developing and appear to be promising tools for building reliability and risk analysis models of safety-critical systems and human operators. If properly developed, they are an alternative to the conventional human reliability analysis models...... and systems analysis methods such as fault and event trees and Bayesian networks. As one part, the paper describes briefly the author’s experience in applying DES models to the analysis of safety-critical systems in different domains. The other part of the paper is devoted to comparing conventional approaches...

  13. Access to justice in the Convention on Rights system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, J.H.; Glas, L.R.

    2017-01-01

    The numerous reforms to the Convention system of the past two decades have unquestionably had an effect on applicants’ means to access justice in the system. It is, however, open to question how these changes should be evaluated: with reference to the individual right to petition, or with reference

  14. Effect of short-term versus long-term grassland management and seasonal variation in organic and conventional dairy farming on the composition of bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S A; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Govasmark, E

    2013-01-01

    Bulk tank milk from 28 dairy farms was sampled every second month for 2 yr to assess the effects of grassland management, production system and season on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins, Se, and milk sensory quality. Grassland management varied in terms of...... feeding periods had potential health benefits due to FA composition. In contrast, the higher milk-fat proportions of saturated FA in milk from ORG farms may be perceived as negative for human health.......:0 and C18:1 cis-9 associated with higher forage proportion and differences in concentrations of FA in concentrates. Compared with the outdoor-feeding periods, the indoor feeding periods yielded milk fat with higher proportions of most short-chain and medium-chain FA and lower proportions of most C18-FA....... In conclusion, grassland management had minor effects on milk composition, and differences between ORG farms and CON farms may be explained by differences in concentrate intake and concentrate FA concentrations. Milk produced on ORG farms versus CON farms and milk produced during the outdoor versus indoor...

  15. Designing generalized conic concentrators for conventional optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Generalized nonimaging concentrators can be incorporated into conventional optical systems in situations where flux concentration rather than imaging is required. The parameters of the concentrator for maximum flux concentration depend on the design of the particular optical system under consideration. Rationale for determining the concentrator parameters is given for one particular optical system and the procedure used for calculation of these parameters is outlined. The calculations are done for three concentrators applicable to the optical system.

  16. Grid connection of active stall wind farms using a VSC based DC transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements...... are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection...

  17. Holstein-Friesian milk performance in organic farming in North Spain: Comparison with other systems and breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Rodríguez-Bermúdez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic systems are highly dependent on the environment and require animals well adapted to local conditions. In Spain, organic dairy farmers are not satisfied with the productive performance of their herds and ask for technical advice to obtain suitable animals for organic systems. The milk productive performance (milk yield, nutritional composition, and somatic cell count of Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming in North Spain compared with conventional farms has been analysed. When breed diversity was present in the same organic farm, Holstein-Friesian milk performance was compared with other breeds and/or crosses. Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming produce slightly less milk than grazing conventional cows, but milk was similar in composition and somatic cell count across systems. The limited data from organic farms where breed diversity exists indicate that Holstein-Friesian cows produce numerically more milk than other breeds and crosses but with statistically lower protein content. Considering that in Spain organic milk production is mostly used for liquid milk consumption and that the payment system is based only on milk volume, Holstein-Friesian cows would better fit the farmer interests than other breeds or crosses. However, in addition to productive performance, reproductive efficiency, animal health and consumer’s preferences should be fully considered when selecting a breed for organic production. If Holstein-Friesian was the selected breed, efforts should be made to identify cows within the breed that are best adapted to organic conditions. New productive, reproductive, nutritional and economic studies would be needed to develop a genetic merit index for organic systems.

  18. Longitudinal Study of the Persistence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter Strains in Distinct Swine Production Systems on Farms, at Slaughter, and in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Hayashi, Macarena P.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare and characterize the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Campylobacter in conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF) production systems on farms, at slaughter, and in the environment. Fecal and environmental samples were collected from ABF farms (pigs, 1,239; environment, 797) and conventional farms (pigs, 1,650; environment, 1,325). At slaughter, we collected samples from carcasses, including postevisceration swabs, postchill swabs, and mesenteric lymph nodes from ABF systems (postevisceration swabs, 182; postchill swabs, 199; mesenteric lymph nodes, 184) and conventional systems (postevisceration swabs, 272; postchill swabs, 271; mesenteric lymph nodes, 255) at separate processing facilities. We also sampled the processing plant environment, including truck and lairage floor swab samples (ABF, 115; conventional, 90). Overall, a total of 2,908 Campylobacter isolates, including Campylobacter coli (farm, 2,557, 99.8%; slaughter, 341, 98.3%) and Campylobacter jejuni (farm, 4, 0.2%; slaughter, 6, 1.7%), were isolated in the study. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Campylobacter between ABF and conventionally raised pigs (farrowing, P = 0.20; nursery, P = 0.06; finishing, P = 0.24) and the environment (P = 0.37). At slaughter, Campylobacter was isolated from all of the stages, including postchill. The highest frequencies of resistance were exhibited against tetracycline (ABF, 48.2%; conventional, 88.3%). Ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli isolates were observed in conventionally raised (17.1%) and ABF (1.2%) pigs (P = 0.11). Antimicrobial use data from conventional farms indicated significant associations between oxytetracycline use and tetracycline resistance in the nursery pigs (P = 0.01), between tiamulin exposure and azithromycin and erythromycin resistance in nursery (P < 0.01) and finishing (P < 0.01) pigs, and between enrofloxacin exposure and ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in

  19. Effect of structural animal health planning on antimicrobial use and animal health variables in conventional dairy farming in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, David C; Graveland, Haitske; Eijck, Ineke A J M; Schepers, René W M; Heederik, Dick J J; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    Widespread veterinary use of antimicrobials might contribute to the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance. Despite many successful efforts to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands, antimicrobial use on a substantial number of farms has remained relatively high over the past

  20. Effect of structural animal health planning on antimicrobial use and animal health variables in conventional dairy farming in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, David C.; Graveland, Haitske; Eijck, Ineke A.J.M.; Schepers, René W.M.; Heederik, Dick J J; Verheij, Theo J.M.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2017-01-01

    Widespread veterinary use of antimicrobials might contribute to the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance. Despite many successful efforts to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands, antimicrobial use on a substantial number of farms has remained relatively high over the past

  1. Effect of structural animal health planning on antimicrobial use and animal health variables in conventional dairy farming in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, David C.; Graveland, Haitske; Eijck, Ineke A.J.M.; Schepers, René W.M.; Heederik, Dick J.J.; Verheij, Theo J.M.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2017-01-01

    Widespread veterinary use of antimicrobials might contribute to the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance. Despite many successful efforts to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands, antimicrobial use on a substantial number of farms has remained relatively high over the

  2. Conventional external beam radiotherapy for central nervous system malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, E.C.; Burger, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Fractionated external beam photon radiotherapy is an important component of the clinical management of malignant disease of the central nervous system. The practicing neurologist or neurosurgeon frequently relies on the consultative and treatment skills of a radiotherapist. This article provides a review for the nonradiotherapist of the place of conventional external beam radiotherapy in neuro-oncology. 23 references

  3. National Ignition Facility system design requirements conventional facilities SDR001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hands, J.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Requirements (SDR) document specifies the functions to be performed and the minimum design requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) site infrastructure and conventional facilities. These consist of the physical site and buildings necessary to house the laser, target chamber, target preparation areas, optics support and ancillary functions

  4. FSSIM, a bio-economic farm model for simulating the response of EU farming systems to agricultural and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louhichi, K.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Flichman, G.; Blanco, M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Heckelei, T.; Berentsen, P.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The disciplinary nature of most existing farm models as well as the issue specific orientation of most of the studies in agricultural systems research are main reasons for the limited use and re-use of bio-economic modelling for the ex-ante integrated assessment of policy decisions. The objective of

  5. Environmental influence of willow coppice systems on farm land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledin, S.

    1997-01-01

    As for all cultivated crops, there are numerous environmental influences when growing willows. These influences are connected with additions to the soil, management measures and changes caused by the developing crop. As a perennial crop with good root penetration into the soil, high water use and efficient nutrient uptake over a long growing season, short rotation forests with willows have an influence on the environment that differs from the influence of annual farm crops. Also the landscape is affected differently by the dense willow stand with a height of seven meters before harvest. There is usually less use of herbicides in the perennial woody crop. Due to larger amounts of litter from the willow plantation and no tillage, there is with time an increase of the humus content in the soil. In relation to this, the soil fauna, using organic material for food, prosper in the short rotation forest. Considerably more cadmium is taken up by the willows than by conventional annual crops. This could be used to clean the soil of cadmium, but more knowledge is needed for the optimisation of this procedure. Willows are usually efficient in taking up nutrients, including nitrogen, but when used as vegetation filters it is important to assess the actual ability of a stand to take up N. This ability varies considerably with the development stage of the plantation and also with site conditions. (au) 30 refs

  6. Analyzing farming systems diversity: a case study in south-western France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choisis, J. P.; Thevenet, C.; Girbon, A.

    2012-11-01

    The huge changes in agricultural activities, which may be amplified by the forthcoming Common Agriculture Policy reform, call the future of crop-livestock systems into question and hence the impact of these changes on landscapes and biodiversity. We analyzed relationships between agriculture, landscape and biodiversity in south-western France. The study area covered about 4,000 ha and included four villages. We conducted a survey of 56 farms. Multivariate analysis (multiple factor analysis and cluster analysis) were used to analyze relationships between 25 variables and to build a typology. The type of farming (beef and/or dairy cattle, cash crops), size (area and workforce) and cultivation practices, among others, were revealed as differentiating factors of farms. Six farming types were identified (1) hillside mixed crop-livestock farms, (2) large corporate farms, (3) extensive cattle farms, (4) large intensive farms on the valley sides, (5) small multiple-job holdings, and (6) hobby farms. The diversity of farming systems revealed the variable impact of the main drivers of change affecting agricultural development, particularly the enlargement and modernization of farms along with the demography of agricultural holdings. (Author) 41 refs.

  7. Optimising biological N2 fixation by legumes in farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardarson, Gudni; Atkins, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Whether grown as pulses for grain, as green manure, as pastures or as the tree components of agro-forestry systems, the value of leguminous crops lies in their ability to fix atmospheric N 2 , so reducing the use of expensive fertiliser N and enhancing soil fertility. N 2 fixing legumes provide the basis for developing sustainable farming systems that incorporate integrated nutrient management. By exploiting the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N, it has been possible to reliably measure rates of N 2 fixation in a wide range of agro-ecological field situations involving many leguminous species. The accumulated data demonstrate that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among legumes and their Rhizobium symbionts which can be used to enhance N 2 fixation. Practical agronomic and microbiological means to maximise N inputs by legumes have also been identified. (author)

  8. Utilization of inoculum of AM fungi produced on-farm for the production of Capsicum annuum: a summary of 7 years of field trials on a conventional vegetable farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilization of arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculum has been encouraged as a way for vegetable farmers to better utilize the AM symbiosis. On-farm systems can economically produce inoculum that has been shown to increase the yield of specific crops. We conducted seven years of field studies...

  9. Phosphorus management in cropping systems of the Paris Basin: From farm to regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Noë, Julia; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    The sustainability of phosphorus (P) fertilization in cropping systems is an important issue because P resources on earth are limited and excess P in soils can lead to ecological damage such as eutrophication. Worldwide, there is an increasing interest in organic farming (OF) due to its good environmental performance. However, organic cropping systems are suspected of generating negative P budgets, which questions their ability to provide sustainable P management. The design of agricultural systems at a broader scale also largely influences the shape of the P cycle and the possibility of its recycling to cropland. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of (i) OF versus conventional farming (CF) practices and (ii) the structure of agro-food systems at the regional scale, on P cycling and availability on cropland. For this purpose, we examined P budgets and soil P status of 14 organic and conventional cropping systems in commercial farms located in the Paris Basin. Available P was analyzed using two different methods: resin P and Olsen P. The results revealed no significant differences between CF and OF in available P stocks. Phosphorus budgets were always negative and significantly lower in CF systems, indicating that P was mined from soil reserves. In parallel, we estimated P budgets over cropland in all French regions for two distinct periods, 2004-2014 and 1970-1981, and showed that specialized intensive cropping systems in the Paris Basin led to a high, positive P budget in the latter period. However, this trend was reversed in the 2004-2014 period due to a sharp reduction of the mineral fertilizer application rate. The shift from very high P budgets to much lower and sometimes negative P budgets would not be a threat for agriculture due to the current high level of Olsen P in these regions, which was consistent with our measurements at the plot scale. Overall, these results suggest that OF would not lead to more P deficiency

  10. The potential of the fresh-water fern Azolla in aquatic farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Werf, vd, Adrie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Brouwer, Paul; Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Hellgardt, Klaus; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2014-05-01

    With aquatic farming systems a new avenue in agriculture is explored, in which the competition with conventional arable land is avoided. The aquatic, ubiquitous, floating fern Azolla is not yet widely explored as potential crop in such farming systems, despite its high potential because it grows in many natural systems under low-light intensities, has an enormous annual yield, and has special biomass qualities for applications in food, feed and specialty chemical industries. But, what makes Azolla particularly interesting as cost-effective crop is its capability to take up atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria Anabaena azollae. This makes Azolla independent of nitrogen fertilization. In order to explore the potential of Azolla as a crop for a suite of applications, we have assembled a team of expertise: AZOFAST, consisting of agricultural engineers, plant physiologists, chemical engineers and organic chemists. Our growth experiments reveal high annual production yields with constant harvest. We are developing a germination and spore collecting/preservation protocol as a first step to domestication. Finally we have explored the biomass quality of different species of extant Azolla. We performed organic chemical analyses on lipid and tannin extracts, and quantified yields of specific compounds within these fractions. In our presentation we will present some of our results to show the potential of Azolla as a new, sustainable aquatic crop serving all kinds of industrial streams from protein feed to platform chemicals.

  11. Ideal and conventional feedback systems for RWM suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2002-01-01

    Feedback suppression of resistive wall modes (RWM) is studied analytically using a model based on a standard cylindrical approximation. Two feedback systems are compared: 'ideal', creating only the field necessary for RMW suppression, and 'conventional', like that used in the DIII-D tokamak and considered as a candidate for ITER. The widespread opinion that the feedback with poloidal sensors is better than that with radial sensors is discussed. It is shown that the 'conventional' feedback with radial sensors can be effective only in a limited range, while using the input signal from internal poloidal sensors allows easy fulfilment of the stability criterion. This is a property of the 'conventional' feedback, but the 'ideal' feedback would stabilise RWM in both cases. (author)

  12. Ideal and conventional feedback systems for RWM suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2002-01-01

    Feedback suppression of resistive wall modes (RWM) is studied analytically using a model based on a standard cylindrical approximation. Two feedback systems are compared: 'ideal', creating only the field necessary for RMW suppression, and 'conventional', like that used in the DIII-D tokamak and considered as a candidate for ITER. The widespread opinion that the feedback with poloidal sensors is better than that with radial sensors is discussed. It is shown that the 'conventional' feedback with radial sensors can be effective only in a limited range, while using the input signal from internal poloidal sensors allows easy fulfilment of the stability criterion. This is a property of the 'conventional' feedback, but the 'ideal' feedback would stabilise RWM in both cases. (author)

  13. Identifying key entry-points for strategic management of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa using the dynamic farm-scale simulation model NUANCES-FARMSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Tittonell, P.A.; Rufino, M.C.; Herrero, M.; Pacini, C.; Ridder, de N.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    African smallholder farming systems are complex, dynamic systems with many interacting biophysical subcomponents. In these systems the major inputs and outputs are managed by human agency ¿ the farmers. To analyse potential developmental pathways of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa

  14. Qualification of the adaptive capacities of livestock farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Dedieu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring what is covered by « adapting to last » with a farming systems approach. Long term dynamics can be analysed as adaptive cycles, the system being permanently exposed to disturbances and shocks. Mobilizing the concept of resilience, we analyse the factors that differentiate the principles for long term action the livestock farmers have, principles which give consistency to the family - farms trajectories. With the concept of operational flexibilty, we qualify the sources of flexibility the livestock farmers maintain to cope with hazards. They are internal, related to the production process regulation properties, to the technical (adaptive or rigid specifications, to the sales policies, or external related to the information and commercial networks. Understanding the production process regulation properties require livestock farming systems models (i.e. combining decisional and biological sub-systems that can simulate how herd dynamics operate under fluctuant rules or productive parameters. It also require to evaluate the room for manoeuvre the work organization let to the farmer. All these aspects are illsutrated with on farm studies in herbivore systems (sheep, dairy, beef.Este artigo busca explorar "adaptações a mudanças" sob a ótica de sistemas de produção animal. Dinâmicas de longo prazo podem ser analisadas como ciclos adaptativos, sendo o sistema permanentemente exposto a distúrbios e choques. Utilizando o conceito de resiliência, analisam-se os fatores que diferenciam os princípios para ações de longo prazo tomadas por produtores rurais, princípios estes que dão consistência à família - trajetórias da propriedade rural. Com o conceito de flexibilidade operacional, qualificam-se as fontes de flexibilidade que os produtores mantêm para lidar com riscos. Eles são internos, relacionados a propriedades de regulação do processo produtivo, a especificações técnicas (adaptáveis ou rígidas, a

  15. Developing novel farming systems: effective use of nutrients from cover crops in intensive organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Koopmans, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    On-farm nitrogen fixation is a driving force in organic agriculture. The efficiency with which this nitrogen is used can be increased by using alfalfa or grass-clover crops directly as fertilizer on other fields: cut-and-carry fertilizers. In two crops in two years, the use of several types of

  16. Analysis of small-scale biogas utilization systems on Ontario cattle farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Andrew J.; Kirk, Donald W.; Graydon, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The production of biogas through the anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and its subsequent use in the generation of electricity on larger farms in Ontario is currently economically attractive. This is a result of the Ontario Feed-In Tariff (FIT) program, which provides incentivized rates for the production of electricity from biogas. Although larger farms can take advantage of the higher rates for electricity, there are substantially more smaller farms for which individually designed and engineered biogas systems would be prohibitively expensive. By employing the concept of modular biogas plants, this analysis evaluates the economics of small-scale biogas utilization systems. Dairy farms with at least 33 animals and beef farms with at least 78 animals can operate economically attractive biogas systems. This analysis shows that approximately 9000 additional Ontario cattle farms would be able to take advantage of the FIT program, which would add 120 MW e of renewable energy capacity to the Ontario electrical grid. (author)

  17. Assessing the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development in rural Costa Rican children living in organic and conventional coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chensheng; Essig, Christa; Root, Christa; Rohlman, Diane S; McDonald, Tom; Sulzbacher, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development among rural Costa Rican children in a cross-sectional study. Study participants aged 4-10 years included 17 children whose parents worked in La Amistad organic coffee plantation and 18 Las Mellizas children whose parents worked in their own small conventional coffee farms. Two spot-urine samples were collected from each participant and analyzed for organophosphorus and pyrethroids pesticide metabolites. We administered the computerized Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS), a figure-drawing task, and a long-term memory test to evaluate study participant's cognitive development. Although urinary pesticide metabolite levels did not vary considerably between these two groups of children, we found that Las Mellizas children performed better in BARS and the figure drawing tests than did La Amistad. The results from the linear mixed-effects models suggested that family socioeconomic status (SES) might be a significant contributor to the variation of the outcomes of the neurobehavioral tests. The effect of pesticide exposure, however, as measured in a snapshot fashion, did not play a significant role to the performance of the cognitive development evaluation. Regardless of the study limitations, needed effort should be devoted to the improvement of the SES on the La Amistad families so that their children's cognitive development would not be compromised further. Additionally, future studies should focus on addressing the limitations imposed on the snapshot assessment of pesticide exposure and on conducting cognitive development evaluation so the link between childhood pesticide exposure and their cognitive development can be thoroughly investigated.

  18. Risk factors for clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia in dairy cattle on organic and small conventional farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, R M; Cicconi, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

    2013-07-01

    The US regulations for production of organic milk include a strict prohibition against the use of antimicrobials and other synthetic substances. The effect of these regulations on dairy animal health has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to characterize disease detection and identify risk factors for selected diseases on organic (ORG) and similarly sized conventional (CON) farms. Dairy herds (n=292) were enrolled across 3 states (New York, Oregon, Wisconsin) with CON herds matched to ORG herds based on location and herd size. During a single herd visit, information was collected about herd management practices and animal disease occurring in the previous 60 d, and paperwork was left for recording disease occurrences during 60 d after the visit. For analysis, CON herds were further divided into grazing and nongrazing. Poisson regression models were used to assess risk factors for rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of clinical mastitis was associated with use of CON management, use of forestripping, presence of contagious pathogens in the bulk tank culture, proactive detection of mastitis in postpartum cows, and stall barn housing. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of ketosis was associated with having a more sensitive definition of ketosis, using stall barn housing, and feeding a greater amount of concentrates. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of pneumonia was associated with a lack of grazing, small or medium herd size, and Jersey as the predominant breed. Overall, disease definitions and perceptions were similar among grazing systems and were associated with the rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of disease. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reliability centered maintenance pilot system implementation 241-AP-tank farm primary ventilation system final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOORE TL

    2001-01-01

    When the Hanford Site Tank Farms' mission was safe storage of radioactive waste in underground storage tanks, maintenance activities focused on time-based preventive maintenance. Tank Farms' new mission to deliver waste to a vitrification plant where the waste will be processed into a form suitable for permanent storage requires a more efficient and proactive approach to maintenance. Systems must be maintained to ensure that they are operational and available to support waste feed delivery on schedule with a minimum of unplanned outages. This report describes the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) pilot system that was implemented in the 241-AP Tank Farm Primary Ventilation System under PI-ORP-009 of the contract between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CHG). The RCM analytical techniques focus on monitoring the condition of operating systems to predict equipment failures so that maintenance activities can be completed in time to prevent or mitigate unplanned equipment outages. This approach allows maintenance activities to be managed with minimal impact on plant operations. The pilot demonstration provided an opportunity for CHG staff-training in RCM principles and tailoring of the RCM approach to the Hanford Tank Farms' unique needs. This report details the implementation of RCM on a pilot system in Tank Farms

  20. Analysis of economics of investment in a wind-farm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F; Nayyar, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    With the constant increase in the cost of generating electricity through conventional means, there is a growing need to look for other sources of energy. Renewable energy resources with their zero-emission features provide us with a good alternative. Of all the renewable energy resources, wind has proved to be the most promising one, chiefly due to its cost effectiveness and ability to provide grid-quality power. In Pakistan, the concept of using renewable energy for power generation is not new. However, the lack of support from the Government proved to be a major hurdle in developing Renewable Energy resources. Nevertheless, only recently the Government of Pakistan has taken concrete steps to develop renewable energy resources, one of which is a wind-mapping/charting program being carried out in the coastal areas of Balochistan and Sindh. The wind mapping program would eventually determine the wind-power potential of Pakistan and sizes of the wind-farm systems to be set up here. This study aims to estimate the cost of generating electricity using wind-energy and a suitable tariff-rate that may be set to attract foreign/local investment in this sector. This study also lays out policy recommendations that may help to attract investment to develop wind farm systems. (author)

  1. Energy and economic analysis of an On-grid PV/T system in a dairy farm in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coca-Ortegón, Adriana; Atienza-Márquez, Antonio; Coronas, Alberto; Merino, Gabriel; Gontupi, Jorge; Salazar, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of an on-grid PV/T system in a dairy farm located in Osorno (Chile), operated under the Net-Metering scheme. All equipment installed in the farm is driven by electricity and the daily average electric consumption is 235 kWh. The study analyses first the existing installation, second a conventional solar installation (with photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies), and third a photovoltaic installation plus a photovoltaic-thermal hybrid installation. We did a sensibility analysis of the solar contribution factor to the self-consumption (electric and thermal), by varying the mass flow rate in the solar thermal circuit, and the energy storage size. This analysis allowed to optimize the sizing and the operation of the solar systems. The systems are compared in terms of annual energy production per unit area, unit price of energy produced and percentage of energy exported to the grid. (author)

  2. Soil organism in organic and conventional cropping systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettiol, Wagner; Ghini, Raquel; Galvão, José Abrahão Haddad; Ligo, Marcos Antônio Vieira; Mineiro, Jeferson Luiz de Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Despite the recent interest in organic agriculture, little research has been carried out in this area. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare, in a dystrophic Ultisol, the effects of organic and conventional agricultures on soil organism populations, for the tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) and corn (Zea mays) crops. In general, it was found that fungus, bacterium and actinomycet populations counted by the number of colonies in the media, were similar for the two cropping systems. C...

  3. A multileaf collimator field prescription preparation system for conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, M.N.; Yu, C. X.; Symons, M.; Yan, D.; Taylor, R.; Matter, R.C.; Gustafson, G.; Martinez, A.; Wong, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a prescription preparation system for efficient field shaping using a multileaf collimator that can be used in community settings as well as research institutions. The efficiency advantage of the computer-controlled multileaf collimator, over cerrobend blocks, to shape radiation fields has been shown in conformal treatments, which typically require complete volumetric computerized tomographic data for three-dimensional radiation treatment planning--a utility not readily available to the general community. As a result, most patients today are treated with conventional radiation therapy. Therefore, we believe that it is very important to fully use the same efficiency advantage of multileaf collimator as a block replacement in conventional practice. Methods and Material: The multileaf collimator prescription preparation system developed by us acquires prescription images from different sources, including film scanner and radiation treatment planning systems. The multileaf collimator angle and leaf positions are set from the desired field contour defined on the prescription image, by minimizing the area discrepancies. Interactive graphical tools include manual adjustment of collimator angle and leaf positions, and definition of portions of the field edges that require maximal conformation. Data files of the final leaf positions are transferred to the multileaf collimator controller via a dedicated communication link. Results: We have implemented the field prescription preparation system and a network model for integrating the multileaf collimator and other radiotherapy modalities for routine treatments. For routine plan evaluation, isodose contours measured with film in solid water phantom at prescription depth are overlaid on the prescription image. Preliminary study indicates that the efficiency advantage of the MLC over cerrobend blocks in conformal therapy also holds true for conventional treatments. Conclusion: Our

  4. Factors affecting farmers' adoption of integrated rice-fish farming systems in the Mekong delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Nhan, D.K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Kaymak, U.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the determinants of the adoption of improved rice–fish farming systems in the Mekong delta to support policy making, agricultural land-use planning and extension of integrated rice–fish farming. Recently these systems have been referred to as adaptations to climate change,

  5. Adding a soil fertility dimension to the global farming systems approach, with cases from Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaling, E.M.A.; Dixon, J.

    2006-01-01

    The global farming systems (GFS) approach is extended by adding a soil fertility and nutrient management dimension for Africa's forest-based, maize mixed, cereal¿root crop mixed, and agro-pastoral millet/sorghum farming systems. Use is made of sustainable livelihood concepts, translated into farmer

  6. Exposure to Inhalable Dust, Endotoxin, and Total Volatile Organic Carbons on Dairy Farms Using Manual and Automated Feeding Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Cronin, Garvin; Hogan, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Agricultural workers tend to have high exposures to organic dusts which may induce or exacerbate respiratory disorders. Studies investigating the effect of work tasks and farm characteristics on organic dust exposures among farm workers suggest that handling of animal feed is an imp...... feeding. Until effective permanent engineering controls are established farm workers should be encouraged to wear respiratory protective equipment during these tasks....... of exposure to these agents depend on the applied feeding system in the farms. Methods: Thirty-eight personal exposure measurements were collected from farmers across seven dairy farms. The farms used manual, loft, or semi-automated feeding systems. Information on worker tasks and farm characteristics...

  7. A survey on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in feeds and sera collected in conventional and organic poultry farms in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavallarin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey has been conducted on conventional and organic poultry farms located in northern Italy in order to investigate the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA in feeds and sera in 2006. Ten poultry farms were monitored by taking 20 samples of feed and 94 samples of blood. OTA was assessed through immunoaffinity column purification and HPLC analysis. For in-house validation, recovery experiments, carried out on the spiked samples in the range of 1.0-10.0 μg OTA kg-1 and 0.3-3.0 ng OTA ml-1 for the feed and serum samples, respectively, led to overall recovery averages of 80.6% (RDS=7.3%, n=9 and 83.3% (RDS=3.1%, n=9, respectively. All the feed samples were contaminated by OTA with values ranging from 0.04 to 6.50 μg kg-1. Fiftythree percent of the sera samples were positive, with values ranging from 0.003- 0.165 ng ml-1. None of the feed samples was above the limits set by the European Union on OTA contamination in poultry feeds. No statistically significant differences in OTA contamination of feed or sera were observed either between the organic vs conventional group or between the laying hens vs broiler group.

  8. Impact of Conventional and Integrated Management Systems on the Water-Soluble Vitamin Content in Potatoes, Field Beans, and Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Sabine; Verrall, Susan R; Pont, Simon D A; McRae, Diane; Sungurtas, Julia A; Palau, Raphaëlle; Hawes, Cathy; Alexander, Colin J; Allwood, J William; Foito, Alexandre; Stewart, Derek; Shepherd, Louise V T

    2018-01-31

    The reduction of the environmental footprint of crop production without compromising crop yield and their nutritional value is a key goal for improving the sustainability of agriculture. In 2009, the Balruddery Farm Platform was established at The James Hutton Institute as a long-term experimental platform for cross-disciplinary research of crops using two agricultural ecosystems. Crops representative of UK agriculture were grown under conventional and integrated management systems and analyzed for their water-soluble vitamin content. Integrated management, when compared with the conventional system, had only minor effects on water-soluble vitamin content, where significantly higher differences were seen for the conventional management practice on the levels of thiamine in field beans (p water-soluble vitamin content of the crops analyzed here.

  9. Automatic Voltage Control System with Market Price Employing Large Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans

    2018-01-01

    of the voltage control service provided by the power plant owners. The benefit of employing the large offshore wind farms in this AVC system is investigated. The simulation based on the measurement data from the Danish electricity control center demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approach in terms...... of the cost minimization. The gained profit by employing the wind farms can be an argument to purchase the voltage control service provided by these wind farms....

  10. Livestock Farming Systems in the Northern Tablelands of NSW: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alford, Andrew R.; Griffith, Garry R.; Davies, Lloyd

    2003-01-01

    The Northern Tablelands region of New South Wales covers an area of approximately 3.12 million hectares including 2.11 million hectares occupied by some 2300 agricultural establishments producing agricultural commodities valued at more than $220 million. Sheep and wool production and cattle production are the dominant agricultural enterprises. In this Report, a whole-farm model of a representative livestock farming system in the Northern Tablelands is developed. Whole-farm economic models of ...

  11. On Farm Feeding Poultry Trial: Wholegrain Wheat in the Commercial System

    OpenAIRE

    Nelder, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Organic systems aim to operate in an ecological and economic way. Importing cereals grown thousands of miles away, processed at a mill and then transported again to our farms is costly in oil and therefore money. It is neither ecologically nor economically sustainable. British farms are capable of producing a large amount of high quality cereal, the majority of which is usually sold. Transportation and processing of the grain uses oil and leaves farms vulnerable to market prices. If farmer...

  12. 77 FR 76356 - Disclosure to Investors in System-wide and Consolidated Bank Debt Obligations of the Farm Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 630 RIN 3052-AC77 Disclosure to Investors in System-wide and Consolidated Bank Debt Obligations of the Farm Credit System; System Audit Committee; Effective... Corporation System Audit Committee and the Farm Credit System annual report to investors. In accordance with...

  13. Optimized dispatch of wind farms with power control capability for power system restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Yunyun; Liu, Changsheng; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    As the power control technology of wind farms develops, the output power of wind farms can be constant, which makes it possible for wind farms to participate in power system restoration. However, due to the uncertainty of wind energy, the actual output power can’t reach a constant dispatch power...... in all time intervals, resulting in uncertain power sags which may induce the frequency of the system being restored to go outside the security limits. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the dispatch of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Considering that the probability...... distribution function (PDF) of transient power sags is hard to obtain, a robust optimization model is proposed in this paper, which can maximize the output power of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Simulation results demonstrate that the security constraints of the restored system can...

  14. Life cycle assessment of different sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Xu, Kefeng

    2015-12-01

    The life cycle assessment was employed to evaluate the environmental impacts of three farming systems (indoor intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems) of sea cucumber living near Qingdao, China, which can effectively overcome the interference of inaccurate background parameters caused by the diversity of economic level and environment in different regions. Six indicators entailing global warming potential (1.86E + 04, 3.45E + 03, 2.36E + 02), eutrophication potential (6.65E + 01, -1.24E + 02, -1.65E + 02), acidification potential (1.93E + 02, 4.33E + 01, 1.30E + 00), photochemical oxidant formation potential (2.35E-01, 5.46E -02, 2.53E-03), human toxicity potential (2.47E + 00, 6.08E-01, 4.91E + 00) and energy use (3.36E + 05, 1.27E + 04, 1.48E + 03) were introduced in the current study. It was found that all environmental indicators in the indoor intensive farming system were much higher than those in semi-intensive and extensive farming systems because of the dominant role of energy input, while energy input also contributed as the leading cause factor for most of the indicators in the semi-intensive farming system. Yet in the extensive farming system, infrastructure materials played a major role. Through a comprehensive comparison of the three farming systems, it was concluded that income per unit area of indoor intensive farming system was much higher than those of semi-intensive and extensive farming systems. However, the extensive farming system was the most sustainable one. Moreover, adequate measures were proposed, respectively, to improve the environmental sustainability of each farming system in the present study.

  15. The influence on biogas production of three slurry-handling systems in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Coppolecchia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Handling systems can influence the production of biogas and methane from dairy farm manures. A comparative work performed in three different Italian dairy farms showed how the most common techniques (scraper, slatted floor, flushing can change the characteristics of collected manure. Scraper appears to be the most neutral choice, as it does not significantly affect the original characteristics of manure. Slatted floor produces a manure that has a lower methane potential in comparison with scraper, due to: a lower content of volatile solids caused by the biodegradation occurring in the deep pit, and a lower specific biogas production caused by the change in the characteristics of organic matter. Flushing can produce three different fluxes: diluted flushed manure, solid separated manure and liquid separated manure. The diluted fraction appears to be unsuitable for conventional anaerobic digestion in completely stirred reactors (CSTR, since its content of organic matter is too low to be worthwhile. The liquid separated fraction could represent an interesting material, as it appears to accumulate the most biodegradable organic fraction, but not as primary substrate in CSTR as the organic matter concentration is too low. Finally, the solid-liquid separation process tends to accumulate inert matter in the solid separated fraction and, therefore, its specific methane production is low.

  16. Antibiotic use by farmers to control mastitis as influenced by health advice and dairy farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poizat, A; Bonnet-Beaugrand, F; Rault, A; Fourichon, C; Bareille, N

    2017-10-01

    Mastitis is a bacterial disease common in dairy farms. Although knowledge about mastitis and its optimal technical management and treatment is now available, some dairy farmers still use antibiotics in inappropriate ways. Antibiotic use by farmers can be influenced by personal restraints and motivations, but it can be assumed that external drivers are also influential. The main purpose of this article is thus to analyse the choices of antibiotic and alternative medicine use for mastitis treatment and investigate the possible influence of two unexplored external drivers in dairy farms: (i) the health advice offered to farmers by farm advisors and veterinarians, (ii) the dairy farming system, as defined by combining the market valuation chosen for the milk, the level of intensification, and the perceived pressure related to investments. Research was based on 51 individual semi-structured interviews with farmers and their corresponding veterinarians and farm advisors. Based on verbatim, the use of antibiotics and alternative medicine by farmers for mastitis treatment, the vet-farmers interactions, and the dairy farming systems are described. The advisory relationships between farmers and farm advisors and between farmers and veterinarians influenced the implementation of selective dry cow therapy, but had very little effect on the use of alternative medicines by farmers, who were more willing to experiment alternative medicines than their advisors. The dairy farming system had very little influence on antibiotic use: some misuse of antibiotics was found whatever the farming system. Systematic dry cow therapy was also a widespread habit in all dairy farming systems except organic. The use of alternative medicine was common in all farming systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morpho structure of Spanish goat breeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Herrera, M.; Luque, M.; Rodero, E.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morpho structure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malaguena) raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semiextensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed. (Author)

  18. Co-development of climate smart flooded rice farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Neergaard, Andreas; Stoumann Jensen, Lars; Ly, Proyuth; Pandey, Arjun; Duong Vu, Quynh; Tariq, Azeem; Islam, Syed; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Sander, Bjoern Ole; de Tourdonnet, Stephane; Van Mai, Trinh; Wassmann, Reiner

    2017-04-01

    Mid-season drainage in flooded rice is known to reduce CH4 emission, while effects on N2O emission are more variable. Banning of crop-residue burning, and growing markets for organically fertilized rice, are resulting in systems with larger reactive C input, and potentially larger methane emissions. Tight farming systems with 2 or 3 annual crops are effective in mitigating emissions, in that the land sparing value is high, but put serious constraints on mitigation options under increased C input scenarios. In a series of field (Cambodia, Philippines and Vietnam) and greenhouse experiments, we investigated the effect of a variety of organic amendments and wetting and drying cycles on yield and GHG emissions. Specifically we have tested the effect of inserting very early, or even-pre-planting drainage, as a means to accelerate turnover of straw or other C sources, and reduce methane emission later in the season. Overall, our results showed that drying periods had minimal impact on yields, while reducing overall GHG emission. Methane emission was strongly controlled by C availability in the substrate (on equal total C-input basis), increasing in the order: biochar-composts-animal manure-fresh material. Nitrous oxide emissions generally increased with draining cycles, but did not lead to overall increase in GHG emissions as its contribution was balanced by lowered CH4 emissions. Growth chamber experiments showed that methane emission was significantly reduced for extended periods after re-flooding, hence the idea of early drainage was developed. Meanwhile, Cambodian farmers expressed concerns over re-supply of water after drainage. In response to that, we tested if early-season drainage could replace mid-season drainage. With addition of labile carbon substrates (straw) duration of early season drainage was more important for reducing GHG emissions, than duration of mid-season drainage, and had the highest potential for total emission reduction. In a farmers

  19. Soil erosion measurements under organic and conventional land use treatments and different tillage systems using micro-scale runoff plots and a portable rainfall simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Steffen; Goebes, Philipp; Song, Zhengshan; Wittwer, Raphaël; van der Heijden, Marcel; Scholten, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major environmental problem of our time and negatively affects soil organic matter (SOM), aggregate stability or nutrient availability for instance. It is well known that agricultural practices have a severe influence on soil erosion by water. Several long-term field trials show that the use of low input strategies (e.g. organic farming) instead of conventional high-input farming systems leads to considerable changes of soil characteristics. Organic farming relies on crop rotation, absence of agrochemicals, green manure and weed control without herbicides. As a consequence, SOM content in the top soil layer is usually higher than on arable land under conventional use. Furthermore, the soil surface is better protected against particle detachment and overland flow due to a continuous vegetation cover and a well-developed root system increases soil stability. Likewise, tillage itself can cause soil erosion on arable land. In this respect, conservation and reduced tillage systems like No-Till or Ridge-Till provide a protecting cover from the previous year's residue and reduce soil disturbance. Many studies have been carried out on the effect of farming practices on soil erosion, but with contrasting results. To our knowledge, most of those studies rely on soil erosion models to calculate soil erosion rates and replicated experimental field measurement designs are rarely used. In this study, we performed direct field assessment on a farming system trial in Rümlang, Switzerland (FAST: Farming System and Tillage experiment Agroscope) to investigate the effect of organic farming practises and tillage systems on soil erosion. A portable single nozzle rainfall simulator and a light weight tent have been used with micro-scale runoff plots (0.4 m x 0.4 m). Four treatments (Conventional/Tillage, Conventional/No-Tillage, Organic/Tillage, Organic/Reduced-tillage) have been sampled with 8 replications each for a total of 32 runoff plots. All plots have been

  20. Waste management of shrimp farms as starting point to develop integrated farming systems (case study: Kuwaru Coast, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Saiya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensive waste management is a solution to maintain an area of ecological harmony but still can produce economic benefits that are beneficial to social welfare. So in this research, waste of shrimp farms which was just processed by using zeolite, was treated again with a few treatments, i.e. simple filters, constructed wetlands, shell, fish and composting. Simple filters were composed of stone, gravel, coral, charcoal, sand and coconut fibers. Constructed wetland system used was hybrid type which combines type of horizontal flow and type of vertical flow. The shell used was Polymesoda erosa. The fish used was Tilapia. In the composting sediment activator, biang kompos was used with the composting time of one month. The results indicated that the system of simple filters, constructed wetlands, shells and fish proved to be quite effective to reduce levels of pollutants in wastewater and will be more effective if treatment was accompanied with a proper aeration. While, the sediment composted into fertilizer needed to be composted with a longer time than normal composting time. This was because the composted materials were derived from waste having a very low nutrient, so it took longer to restore nutrients. The results also indicated the potential of shrimp farm waste of PT. IBD to be processed into clean water and fertilizer. With the appropriate policies and strategies, this can lead to the development of an integrated farming system to support sustainable coastal ecologically, economically and socially.

  1. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations. In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder units. The dominant cropping systems are based on maize (Zea mays L.), either as monocrop or intercropped with roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Continuous cropping, and unbalanced fertilizer management systems with an...

  2. Evaluation of Crop-Livestock Integration Systems among Farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    This study evaluated the level of access to knowledge, farm assets and inputs .... with an optimal allocation of scarce resources, leads to sustainable production. Combining ecological sustainability and economic viability, the integrated.

  3. Agricultural Innovation Systems and Farm Technology Adoption: Findings from a Study of the Ghanaian Plantain Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyori, Alirah Emmanuel; Amare, Mulubrhan; Garming, Hildegard; Waibel, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We assess farm technology adoption in an integrated analysis of social networks and innovation in plantain production in Ghana. The paper explores the strength of social networks in the agricultural innovation systems (AISs) and the effect of AISs on adoption of improved farm technology. Methodology/Approach: The paper uses social network…

  4. Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming systems in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migose, S.A.; Bebe, B.O.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Oosting, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location

  5. Application of genetic algorithm in electrical system optimization for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, M.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been widely used in solving optimization problem in different areas. This paper illustrates the application of GA in the electrical system design for offshore wind farms, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input...

  6. Can Organic Farming Reduce Vulnerabilities and Enhance the Resilience of the European Food System? A Critical Assessment Using System Dynamics Structural Thinking Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Brzezina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In a world of growing complexity and uncertainty, food systems must be resilient, i.e., able to deliver sustainable and equitable food and nutrition security in the face of multiple shocks and stresses. The resilience of the European food system that relies mostly on conventional agriculture is a matter of genuine concern and a new approach is called for. Does then organic farming have the potential to reduce vulnerabilities and improve the resilience of the European food system to shocks and stresses? In this paper, we use system dynamics structural thinking tools to identify the vulnerabilities of the conventional food system that result from both its internal structure as well as its exposure to external disturbances. Further, we evaluate whether organic farming can reduce the vulnerabilities. We argue here that organic farming has some potential to bring resilience to the European food system, but it has to be carefully designed and implemented to overcome the contradictions between the dominant socio-economic organization of food production and the ability to enact all organic farming’s principles—health, ecology, fairness and care—on a broader scale.

  7. OPTIMISASI SISTEM USAHA TANI UNTUK PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN DI KAWASAN PESISIR BALI UTARA (Optimization of Farming System Towards Sustainable Agriculture in North Coastal Plain Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Budiasa

    2007-11-01

    system development (FSD on poor fertile soil with limited water source can lead to trade-off between economic benefit in the short run and environmental problems in the long run. As environmental degradation increases and inefficient in resources allocation, farming system will become unsustainable. This study aims to optimize irrigated farming system model and to assess its sustainability. By using linear programming analysis, local farmer in north coastal plain of Bali was optimal in resources allocation indicated from optimal solution of conventional farming system model which conforms to observed behavior. By several adjustments, conventional farming system model can be extended to sustainable farming system model. It is found that the sustainable farming system is better than the conventional farming system. Since all components and indicators of sustainability were considered into model and all criteria of sustainability were fulfilled by optimal results, the extended farming system model also guarantees that irrigated farming system development at household level will become sustaipable. To make the sustainable farming system at household level, the farmer should be able to allocate the groundwater less than or equal to 8.547 Lis, to add the organic fertilizer from manure more than or equal to 5 t/ha/yr, to continue the mixed-farming system and crops rotation, to consider minimum household expenditure, and to put the sustainable value in the use of water in approximately Rp I ,218.29/CM into effect. The sustainable farming system model generated from this study passed validated process. Thus, it can be contributed to scientific development. Also, its results can become best management practices by local farmers on their farms.

  8. Transfer of Biogas Technology to Support Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya

    Mixed crop and livestock (MCL) farming systems has been applied for many years to manage the limited resources owned by smallholder farmers. This farming practice is considered as the best practice to cultivate the limited resources by adopting an integrated life cycle approach within crop...... and livestock production. However, within this farming system, some externalities may appear because of the untreated livestock waste which may pollute air and the surrounding water environment at the farm. This may also affect greenhouse gas emission that potentially contributes to an increase of global...... such as reduction of air and water pollution and gas emission caused by manure. However, despite its multiple benefits, the biogas technology transfer is facing a slow rate of diffusion in most farm households in developing countries. This phenomenon calls for identification of reasons in order to develop solutions...

  9. Factors affecting phosphorus transport at a conventionally-farmed site in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1992-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Land and Water Conservation of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a cooperative study to determine the effects of manure application and antecedent soil-phosphorus concentrations on the transport of phosphorus from the soil of a typical farm site in Lancaster County, Pa., from September 1992 to March 1995. The relation between concentrations of soil phosphorus and phosphorus transport needs to be identified because excessive phosphorus concentrations in surface-water bodies promote eutrophication.The objective of the study was to quantify and determine the significance of chemical, physical, and hydrologic factors that affected phosphorus transport. Three study plots less than 1 acre in size were tilled and planted in silage corn. Phosphorus in the form of liquid swine and dairy manure was injected to a depth of 6-8 inches on two of the three study plots in May 1993 and May 1994. Plot 1 received no inputs of phosphorus from manure while plots 2 and 3 received an average of 56 and 126 kilograms of phosphorus per acre, respectively, from the two manure applications. No other fertilizer was applied to any of the study plots. From March 30, 1993, through December 31, 1993, and March 10, 1994, through August 31, 1994 (the study period), phosphorus and selected cations were measured in precipitation, manure, soil, surface runoff, subsurface flow (at 18 inches below land surface), and corn plants before harvest. All storm events that yielded surface runoff and subsurface flow were sampled. Surface runoff was analyzed for dissolved (filtered through a 0.45-micron filter) and total concentrations. Subsurface flow was only analyzed for dissolved constituents. Laboratory soil-flask experiments and geochemical modeling were conducted to determine the maximum phosphate retention capacity of sampled soils after manure applications and primary mineralogic controls in the soils that affect phosphate

  10. On-farm welfare assessment systems: what are the recording costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2007-01-01

    To illustrate that different approaches lead to different costs a cost calculation on four different welfare assessment systems for four different animal species has been carried out; an integrated pig herd (450 sows), a dairy cattle herd with automatic milking (90 cows), an organic egg production...... system (3000 layers) and a mink farm (1000 mink). We calculated the cost to be: E 375 per annum for the mink farm and E 2205, E 2430 and E 2435 for the egg production system, the AMS dairy herd and the integrated pig farm, respectively. The costs can be reduced by: reducing the number of indicators and...

  11. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schüepp

    Full Text Available It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity, as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  12. Operation and control of a DC-grid offshore wind farm under DC transmission system faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    . Consequently, the protection and control strategies of dc systems need to be established. This paper studies a dc-grid offshore wind farm, where the wind power collection system and power transmission system adopt dc technology. In this paper, the redundancy of the HVDC transmission system under faults...... is studied, and a fault ridethrough strategy for the dc-grid offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed strategy can effectively minimize the impacts of the power transmission system disturbance on the offshore wind farm, and on the ac grid. A dc-grid offshore wind farm example is simulated with PSCAD....../EMTDC, and the results validate the feasibility of the presented redundancy configuration and operation approach, and the fault ridethrough control strategy....

  13. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  14. Flexible Exchange of Farming Device Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in the farming business is to replace conventional farming devices with computerized farming devices. Accordingly, numerous computer-based farming devices for logging, processing and exchanging data have recently been installed on moving farm machinery such as tractors. The exchange o......-directional data exchange as well as efficient requirements change management through a graphical user interface. The paper also demonstrates the use of the proposed solution based on a farming case study and open source technologies....... and systems to exchange data based on a predefined set of rules. In consequence, many hand-coded data exchange solutions have been developed in the farming business. Although efforts regarding incorporating data exchange standards have been made, their actual usage so far has been limited, due to the fact...

  15. Quantum Phase Transitions in Conventional Matrix Product Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing-Min; Huang, Fei; Chang, Yan

    2017-02-01

    For matrix product states(MPSs) of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains, we investigate a new kind of conventional quantum phase transition(QPT). We find that the system has two different ferromagnetic phases; on the line of the two ferromagnetic phases coexisting equally, the system in the thermodynamic limit is in an isolated mediate-coupling state described by a paramagnetic state and is in the same state as the renormalization group fixed point state, the expectation values of the physical quantities are discontinuous, and any two spin blocks of the system have the same geometry quantum discord(GQD) within the range of open interval (0,0.25) and the same classical correlation(CC) within the range of open interval (0,0.75) compared to any phase having no any kind of correlation. We not only realize the control of QPTs but also realize the control of quantum correlation of quantum many-body systems on the critical line by adjusting the environment parameters, which may have potential application in quantum information fields and is helpful to comprehensively and deeply understand the quantum correlation, and the organization and structure of quantum correlation especially for long-range quantum correlation of quantum many-body systems.

  16. Assessing the sustainability of EU dairy farms with different management systems and husbandry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, Katharine; Gerrard, Catherine; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    on farm management practices collected in face to face interviews with farmers were entered and the tool then calculated a composite score for each of 11 separate “spurs” or dimensions contributing to sustainability. The results can be used to stimulate discussion between farmers and point to areas where......The EU funded SOLID project supports research which will contribute to the competitiveness of organic and low input dairy systems, and increase their sustainability. There are many aspects of the sustainability of dairy farms, relating to economic, environmental and social dimensions, and methods...... of animal husbandry can affect all of these. A UK spreadsheet based tool for rapid assessment of the whole farm was adapted for application on a range of organic and low input dairy farms across the EU. This tool was used to assess approximately ten organic dairy farms in each of four EU countries. Data...

  17. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.

    In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in

  18. System Safety Program Plan for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    This System Safety Program Plan (SSPP) outlines the safety analysis strategy for project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.'' Project W-314 will provide capital improvements to Hanford's existing Tank Farm facilities, with particular emphasis on infrastructure systems supporting safe operation of the double-shell activities related to the project's conceptual Design Phase, but is planned to be updated and maintained as a ''living document'' throughout the life of the project to reflect the current safety analysis planning for the Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations upgrades. This approved W-314 SSPP provides the basis for preparation/approval of all safety analysis documentation needed to support the project

  19. Effect Of Intercropping System On Green Peach Aphid Dinamics On Organic Farming Of Potato In Karo Highland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamria Sidauruk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae Sulzer on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as conventional farming semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of potato monoculture potato with cabbage potato with mustard potato with celery potato with cabbage and mustard potato with cabbage and celery potato with mustard and celery potato with cabbage mustard and celery. Research carried out for two planting season. The first at May-August and the second at September-December. The results showed that M. persicae was consistently at different densities in different intercropping system on potato. The aphid was first recorded at three week until planting. The kind of intercroppingculture plants significantly reduced the number of aphid at two planting season. Intercropping system decrease population of M. persicae at potato. At 9 weeks after planting the decreased are respectively at intercropping potato with mustard 3.97 aphidleaf potato with cabbage and mustard 4.43 aphidleaf and potato with celery 4.45 aphidleaf. At 11 weeks after planting the decreased are respectively at intercropping potato with mustard 2.99 aphid per leaf potato with cabbage 3.10 aphidleaf and potato with cabbage and mustard 3.60 aphidleaf. At 7 weeks after planting the highest population of natural enemies Braconid wasp was found on intercropping potato with cabbage2.62 braconid waspplant and at 9 weeks was found on intercropping potato with cabbage mustard and celery 2.38 braconid waspplant. The highest population of Coccinellidae found on intercropping potato with cabbage mustard and celery 1.80plant at 11 weeks after planting.

  20. Structural and economic dynamics in diversified Italian farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salvioni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this work is to investigate the structural change and economic dynamics of farms pursuing diversification and differentiation strategies in Italy. The analysis was performed on a panel of data built on the basis of information collected by the Italian FADN between 2003-2009. For the purpose of the analysis, we divided the population of commercial Italian farms into a five-fold farm typology based on size and the extent of diversification and differentiation strategies adopted by the farms. In detail, farms are defined as differentiated when they make use of a system of quality certification, while they are defined as diversified when they take up non farming activities (agritourism, social farms etc.. The findings show that conventional farms remain by far the largest category within the population of Italian commercial farms, while only 13% of the total commercial farms are classified as differentiated and/or diversified. Farms adopting product differentiation strategies are found to have an income growth path similar to that of conventional farms. Yet the category of diversified farms is the only one showing an upward trend with regard to income per worker in the observed years, while farms relying entirely on agricultural products appear to perform poorly in terms of labour productivity.

  1. Organic farming benefits local plant diversity in vineyard farms located in intensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  2. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans

  3. Genomics of high molecular weight plasmids isolated from an on-farm biopurification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martini, Maria C.; Wibberg, Daniel; Lozano, Mauricio; Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Albicoro, Francisco J.; Jaenicke, Sebastian; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Petroni, Alejandro; Pilar Garcillan-Barcia, M.; de la Cruz, Fernando; Schlueter, Andreas; Puehler, Alfred; Pistorio, Mariano; Lagares, Antonio; Del Papa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of biopurification systems (BPS) constitutes an efficient strategy to eliminate pesticides from polluted wastewaters from farm activities. BPS environments contain a high microbial density and diversity facilitating the exchange of information among bacteria, mediated by mobile genetic

  4. Multicriteria performance and sustainability in livestock farming systems: Functional diversity matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tichit, M.; Puillet, L.; Sabatier, R.; Teillard, F.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification drastically reduces diversity at different scales of livestock farming systems (LFS). This homogenization process leads to environmental degradation and ignores the fact that multiple performance criterions often come in conflict. Taking advantage of diversity at

  5. Verification of Egg Farming Systems from The Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M; van Ruth, Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam

    2015-09-30

    Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine the isotopic variability of organic and conventional feeds and to assess trophic effects of these corresponding feeds and barn, free range, and organic farming regimens on corresponding egg albumen. A further 52 brands of New Zealand eggs were sampled from supermarket shelves in 2008 (18), 2010 (30), and 2014 (4) to characterize and monitor changes in caged, barn, free range, and organic egg farming regimens. Stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes of 49 commercial poultry feeds and their corresponding egg albumens reveals that Dutch poultry are fed exclusively on a plant-based feed and that it is possible to discriminate between conventional and organic egg farming regimens in The Netherlands. Similarly, it is possible to discriminate between New Zealand organic and conventional egg farming regimens, although in the initial screening in 2008, results showed that some organic eggs had isotope values similar to those of conventional eggs, suggesting hens were not exclusively receiving an organic diet. Dutch and New Zealand egg regimens were shown to have a low isotopic correlation between both countries, because of different poultry feed compositions. In New Zealand, both conventional and organic egg whites have higher δ(15)N values than corresponding Dutch egg whites, due to the use of fishmeal or meat and bone meal (MBM), which is banned in European countries. This study suggests that stable isotopes (specifically nitrogen) show particular promise as a screening and authentication tool for organically farmed eggs. Criteria to assess truthfulness in labeling of organic eggs were developed, and we propose that Dutch organic egg whites should have a minimum

  6. The role of a fish pond in optimizing nutrient flows in integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nhan, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong delta, the Vietnamese government promoted integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems as an example of sustainable agriculture. An important advantage of IAA-farming is the nutrient linkage between the pond and terrestrial components within a farm, which allows to improve resource use efficiency and income while reducing environmental impacts. This study monitored and analyzed water use in and nutrient flows through ponds that are part of an IAA-farming system. Th...

  7. Organic versus Conventional Cropping Sustainability: A Comparative System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. Fess

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We are at a pivotal time in human history, as the agricultural sector undergoes consolidation coupled with increasing energy costs in the context of declining resource availability. Although organic systems are often thought of as more sustainable than conventional operations, the lack of concise and widely accepted means to measure sustainability makes coming to an agreement on this issue quite challenging. However, an accurate assessment of sustainability can be reached by dissecting the scientific underpinnings of opposing production practices and crop output between cropping systems. The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth and comprehensive evaluation of modern global production practices and economics of organic cropping systems, as well as assess the sustainability of organic production practices through the clarification of information and analysis of recent research. Additionally, this review addresses areas where improvements can be made to help meet the needs of future organic producers, including organic-focused breeding programs and necessity of coming to a unified global stance on plant breeding technologies. By identifying management strategies that utilize practices with long-term environmental and resource efficiencies, a concerted global effort could guide the adoption of organic agriculture as a sustainable food production system.

  8. Conventional vs. unconventional enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzebisashvili, K.; Breede, K.; Liu, X.; Falcone, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    Enhanced (or Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS) have evolved from the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept, implemented for the first time at Fenton Hill in 1977, and subsequently through the Stimulated Geothermal System, the Deep Heat Mining and finally the Deep Earth Geothermal. All of these systems usually imply petro-thermal processes. The term EGS has evolved to include conduction dominated, low permeability resources in sedimentary and basement formations, as well as geopressured, magma, and low-grade, unproductive hydrothermal resources. Co-produced hot water from hydrocarbon wells has also been included by some in the definition of EGS, which constitutes a considerable divergence from the original concept. Four decades on from the first EGS implementation, this paper highlights the lessons learned from 'conventional' systems and contrasts the 'unconventional' solutions that have been proposed. Examples of unconventional EGS include single-well solutions, downhole heat exchangers, engineered well profiles and using circulation fluids other than water. Perhaps some of the ideas proposed in the past, which would be considered unconventional, have remained dormant or never made it to a commercial stage for field implementation, but they may yet open doors to the future generations of EGS. (orig.)

  9. Farming systems and food security in Kwale District, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, van C.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines agricultural production and off-farm employment among the rural population in Kwale District Kenya. Research was carried out in two villages, located in different agro-ecological zones: Kibandaongo, in the low-potential livestock-millet zone, inhabited by the Duruma; and Bongwe,

  10. Building student capacity to lead sustainability transitions in the food system through farm-based authentic research modules in sustainability sciences (FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate courses provide valuable opportunities to train and empower students with the knowledge, skills, and motivation to advance society in more sustainable directions. This article emphasizes the value of bridging primary scientific research with undergraduate education through the presentation of an integrated experiential learning and primary research model called Farm-based Authentic Research Modules in Sustainability Sciences (FARMS. FARMS are collaboratively designed with agricultural stakeholders through a community needs assessment on pressing food system issues and opportunities with the objective for faculty and students to jointly identify evidence-based management solutions. We illustrate the implementation of FARMS in an undergraduate course in Ecological Agriculture at Dartmouth College, NH where students assessed various agroecological solutions for managing plant vitality, weeds, soil quality, pests, pollinators, and biodiversity at the Dartmouth Organic Farm. Student reflections indicate that the FARMS course component was beneficial for understanding agroecological theories and concepts while also motivating involvement in sustainability sciences despite the challenges of primary research. Educator reflections noted that the FARMS pedagogical approach facilitated achieving course objectives to develop students’ ability for systems thinking, critical thinking, and interdisciplinarity while fostering students’ collaboration skills and overall motivation for creating change. Adopting the FARMS model should enable faculty in the sustainability sciences to serve as bridges between the learning, practicing, and scientific communities while supporting educational programming at student and community farms. Ultimately, it is expected that the implementation of FARMS will increase student capacity and prepare the next generation of leaders to address complex challenges of the food system using an evidence-based approach.

  11. Variability of African Farming Systems from Phenological Analysis of NDVI Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Anton; deBeurs, K. M.; Brown, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    Food security exists when people have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food at all times to meet their dietary needs. The natural resource base is one of the many factors affecting food security. Its variability and decline creates problems for local food production. In this study we characterize for sub-Saharan Africa vegetation phenology and assess variability and trends of phenological indicators based on NDVI time series from 1982 to 2006. We focus on cumulated NDVI over the season (cumNDVI) which is a proxy for net primary productivity. Results are aggregated at the level of major farming systems, while determining also spatial variability within farming systems. High temporal variability of cumNDVI occurs in semiarid and subhumid regions. The results show a large area of positive cumNDVI trends between Senegal and South Sudan. These correspond to positive CRU rainfall trends found and relate to recovery after the 1980's droughts. We find significant negative cumNDVI trends near the south-coast of West Africa (Guinea coast) and in Tanzania. For each farming system, causes of change and variability are discussed based on available literature (Appendix A). Although food security comprises more than the local natural resource base, our results can perform an input for food security analysis by identifying zones of high variability or downward trends. Farming systems are found to be a useful level of analysis. Diversity and trends found within farming system boundaries underline that farming systems are dynamic.

  12. Security region-based small signal stability analysis of power systems with FSIG based wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Zeng, Yuan; Yang, Yang; Cui, Xiaodan; Xu, Xialing; Li, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Based on the Security Region approach, the impact of fixed-speed induction generator based wind farm on the small signal stability of power systems is analyzed. Firstly, the key factors of wind farm on the small signal stability of power systems are analyzed and the parameter space for small signal stability region is formed. Secondly, the small signal stability region of power systems with wind power is established. Thirdly, the corresponding relation between the boundary of SSSR and the dominant oscillation mode is further studied. Results show that the integration of fixed-speed induction generator based wind farm will cause the low frequency oscillation stability of the power system deteriorate. When the output of wind power is high, the oscillation stability of the power system is mainly concerned with the inter-area oscillation mode caused by the integration of the wind farm. Both the active power output and the capacity of reactive power compensation of the wind farm have a significant influence on the SSSR. To improve the oscillation stability of power systems with wind power, it is suggested to reasonably set the reactive power compensation capacity for the wind farm through SSSR.

  13. Analysis of losses within SMES system for compensating output fluctuation of wind power farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. I.; Kim, J. H.; Le, T. D.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y. S. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Shin Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, K. Y. [Dept. of lectrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Output fluctuation which is generated in wind power farm can hinder stability of total power system. The electric energy storage (EES) reduces unstable output, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) of various EESs has the proper performance for output compensation of wind power farm since it charges and discharges large scale power quickly with high efficiency. However, because of the change of current within SMES, the electromagnetic losses occur in the process of output compensation. In this paper, the thermal effect of the losses that occur in SMES system while compensating in wind power farm is analyzed. The output analysis of wind power farm is processed by numerical analysis, and the losses of SMES system is analyzed by 3D finite element analysis (FEA) simulation tool.

  14. Analysis of losses within SMES system for compensating output fluctuation of wind power farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. I.; Kim, J. H.; Le, T. D.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H. M.; Yoon, Y. S.; Yoon, K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Output fluctuation which is generated in wind power farm can hinder stability of total power system. The electric energy storage (EES) reduces unstable output, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) of various EESs has the proper performance for output compensation of wind power farm since it charges and discharges large scale power quickly with high efficiency. However, because of the change of current within SMES, the electromagnetic losses occur in the process of output compensation. In this paper, the thermal effect of the losses that occur in SMES system while compensating in wind power farm is analyzed. The output analysis of wind power farm is processed by numerical analysis, and the losses of SMES system is analyzed by 3D finite element analysis (FEA) simulation tool.

  15. Optimisation of electrical system for offshore wind farms via genetic algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Menghua; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    An optimisation platform based on genetic algorithm (GA) is presented, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input parameters and the electrical system design of the wind farm is optimised in terms of both production cost and system reliability....... The power losses, wind power production, initial investment and maintenance costs are considered in the production cost. The availability of components and network redundancy are included in the reliability evaluation. The method of coding an electrical system to a binary string, which is processed by GA......, is developed. Different GA techniques are investigated based on a real example offshore wind farm. This optimisation platform has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for offshore wind farm design and evaluation....

  16. Identifying Conventionally Sub-Seismic Faults in Polygonal Fault Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C.; Dix, J.

    2017-12-01

    Polygonal Fault Systems (PFS) are prevalent in hydrocarbon basins globally and represent potential fluid pathways. However the characterization of these pathways is subject to the limitations of conventional 3D seismic imaging; only capable of resolving features on a decametre scale horizontally and metres scale vertically. While outcrop and core examples can identify smaller features, they are limited by the extent of the exposures. The disparity between these scales can allow for smaller faults to be lost in a resolution gap which could mean potential pathways are left unseen. Here the focus is upon PFS from within the London Clay, a common bedrock that is tunnelled into and bears construction foundations for much of London. It is a continuation of the Ieper Clay where PFS were first identified and is found to approach the seafloor within the Outer Thames Estuary. This allows for the direct analysis of PFS surface expressions, via the use of high resolution 1m bathymetric imaging in combination with high resolution seismic imaging. Through use of these datasets surface expressions of over 1500 faults within the London Clay have been identified, with the smallest fault measuring 12m and the largest at 612m in length. The displacements over these faults established from both bathymetric and seismic imaging ranges from 30cm to a couple of metres, scales that would typically be sub-seismic for conventional basin seismic imaging. The orientations and dimensions of the faults within this network have been directly compared to 3D seismic data of the Ieper Clay from the offshore Dutch sector where it exists approximately 1km below the seafloor. These have typical PFS attributes with lengths of hundreds of metres to kilometres and throws of tens of metres, a magnitude larger than those identified in the Outer Thames Estuary. The similar orientations and polygonal patterns within both locations indicates that the smaller faults exist within typical PFS structure but are

  17. Development of a decision support system for assessing farm animal welfare in relation to husbandry systems: Strategy and prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Due to increasing empirical information on farm animal welfare since the 1960s, the prospects for sound decisionmaking concerning welfare have improved. This paper describes a strategy to develop a decision-making aid, a decision support system, for assessment of farm-animal welfare based on

  18. Water Use Efficiency under Different Tillage and Irrigation Systems for Tomato Farming in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhering, S. B.; Fernandes, N. F.; Macedo, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    highly degrade the environment, applied without practices of soil and water conservation. Such production systems are associated with a variety of environmental problems, such as soil erosion, the extensive pumping of groundwater, the partial obstruction of surface drainage to form artificial lakes, the contamination of groundwater, among others. The environmental impacts generated by all these problems assume a greater importance due to the complete absence of monitoring the continuous lowering of the water table and the changes in water quality. We consider that the main management strategies for developing sustainable production systems for the tomato farming in this area should be based on monitoring water use efficiency, increasing water availability in the root zone and also preventing runoff, leaching and evaporation of water from the soil. Therefore, techniques were applied as green manures with legumes without incorporation of the biomass, non-mechanized and curve-level soil preparation, planting in level, soil cover with crop residues, fertirrigation with solid fertilization of low value, the conduct of tomato especially supported by plastic string attached to a trellis, drip irrigation, and monitoring soil water potential (SWP) with Watermak sensors. At the end of the tomato cycle, water use efficiency and the productivity were compared at 8 micro-plots installed in the 3 studied production systems: conventional tillage (CT-H), minimum tillage (MT-H), both with "wetting irrigation with garden hose", and no-tillage with drip irrigation (NT-D). For each production system, soil physical properties were characterized and soil water potential (SWP) and soil temperature were continuously monitored at different depths (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm), as well as the total water volume used in each irrigation. In parallel, we also compared the development of the root system and the final productivity for each one of the three production systems. The results obtained in this

  19. Knowledge of Chemical Indicators of Eggs from Hens Reared in Conventional and Free Range System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Iuliana Cotfas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Many consumers prefer nowadays eggs from alternative production systems because of their concerns about its own food safety and welfare of laying hens (Anderson. K. E., 2009. According to the regulations, a free range egg is obtained in poultry farms were laying hens have access to outdoor paddock, where they can show all the instincts of physiological and ethological (Usturoi M.G., 2004. Aims: The aim of this research was the correct information on the quality of these products and comparative study of chemical characteristics of eggs obtain from different production systems (conventional and free range. Materials and Methods: Chemical indicators’ determination was made through specific methods, in according with actual standards and consists in establishing of water, proteins, fats, ash and non-nitrogenous extractive substances contents. The biological material was represented by 90 eggs produced by Lohmann Brown laying hens aged 33 weeks: 45 gathered from birds exploited in free range system and 45 from birds reared in cages agreed by EU. Results: Egg obtained from free range system have a slightly higher content of protein (10.35±0.12 % vs. 9.97±0.03 % compared with conventional system, from albumen and from yolk (17.46±0.00 % vs. 17.19±0.01 %, this fact was happened because of aport of green grass from the outside paddock (Morris T.R., 2004. Comparative with conventional system, eggs from free range system have a higher content of lipids of yolk with 2.23%.Chemical analysis of melange from studied eggs showed a higher rate of dry matter at free range eggs (23.374% vs. 22.969%, but also for proteins (12.952% vs. 12.520% and lipids (7.676% vs. 7.398%. Conclusions: The increase in freedom of laying hens (free range caused a qualitative improvement of dry components of both the egg components (yolk and albumen but also the quantitative one, and eggs obtained has a high nutritional value  

  20. Reliability Assessment of Wind Farm Electrical System Based on a Probability Transfer Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hejun Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrical system of a wind farm has a significant influence on the wind farm reliability and electrical energy yield. The disconnect switch installed in an electrical system cannot only improve the operating flexibility, but also enhance the reliability for a wind farm. Therefore, this paper develops a probabilistic transfer technique for integrating the electrical topology structure, the isolation operation of disconnect switch, and stochastic failure of electrical equipment into the reliability assessment of wind farm electrical system. Firstly, as the traditional two-state reliability model of electrical equipment cannot consider the isolation operation, so the paper develops a three-state reliability model to replace the two-state model for incorporating the isolation operation. In addition, a proportion apportion technique is presented to evaluate the state probability. Secondly, this paper develops a probabilistic transfer technique based on the thoughts that through transfer the unreliability of electrical system to the energy transmission interruption of wind turbine generators (WTGs. Finally, some novel indices for describing the reliability of wind farm electrical system are designed, and the variance coefficient of the designed indices is used as a convergence criterion to determine the termination of the assessment process. The proposed technique is applied to the reliability assessment of a wind farm with the different topologies. The simulation results show that the proposed techniques are effective in practical applications.

  1. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FARM DATA SYSTEM IN AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namig SHALBUZOV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Scarce information on production costs and farms profitability, in line with the lack of adequate institutional arrangements between the institutions collecting, processing and analyzing information are serious obstacles to the preparation of relevant analyses. The establishment of FDMS will address these problems and allow to collect, process and analyze information on small and medium farms level, which produce more than 90 percent of agricultural products in Azerbaijan Republic. Establishment process of FDMS is analysed and recommendations for improvement are put forward in this article. This can also be in interest of Republic of Moldova which has signed the association agreement with EU and is going to enter this organisation in future. Because, establishment of FADN is one of the most important terms obligatory for EU member states.

  2. Coordination Control of a Novel Wind Farm Configuration Including a Hydrogen Storage System and a Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihua Xuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel configuration that combines wind turbines, an electrolyzer, and a gas turbine with the corresponding generator. A control strategy for this configuration is also proposed. The purpose of this configuration and its control strategy is to make the wind farm work like a conventional power plant from a grid’s point of view. The final proposed configuration works properly with the proposed control strategy, the three times per revolution (3p oscillation frequency is removed and the output power fluctuations caused by wind fluctuation are compensated. The final power output of the proposed configuration is constant like that of a conventional power plant, and it can change according to the different requirements of the transmission system operator.

  3. The role of a fish pond in optimizing nutrient flows in integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhan, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong delta, the Vietnamese government promoted integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems as an example of sustainable agriculture. An important advantage of IAA-farming is the nutrient linkage between the pond and terrestrial components within a farm, which allows to

  4. Diversity in the dry land mixed system and viability of dairy sheep farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rivas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Castilla La Mancha is a Spanish region where sheep farming system is traditionally pasture-based. Recently, this territory has undergone a recession of dairy sheep activity, which changed the type and intensity of land utilization and led to environmental and landscape degradation. The present study analyzed the diversity and viability of dairy sheep of mixed systems. Multivariate analysis was conducted on 157 dairy sheep farms, factor analysis selected 3 productivity factors (level of intensification, land use, size and family labour, and cluster analysis classified farms into three groups. Group 1, smallholders – with the smallest size (405.5 ewes and 564.7 ha, lowest area in ownership (1.5%, and agriculture activity (6.5% crops area: family farms (90.8% highly dependent on external inputs. Group 2, large-scale farms (1058.7 ewes and 1755.1 ha – with the lowest stocking rate (0.14 livestock unit/ha and productivity: nonfamily farms (39.1% with low area in ownership (4.1% and agriculture activity (7.6%. Group 3, mixed-technified – with the highest levels of technology and least use of family labour (27.0%: large-scale farms (1387.4 ewes and 955.8 ha, combining milk production with agricultural activities (55.7% crops area, with the highest area in ownership (63.1% and the best productivity performance. In conclusion, the dry land mixed system of Castilla La Mancha showed diversity of farms. Improving viability requires a systemic approach where the key tool is grazing, allowing the mixed system to be consolidated as a model that enhances the positive impact of livestock on the environment in the Mediterranean basin.

  5. Environmental Implications of Eco-Labeling for Rice Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Solhee Kim; Taegon Kim; Timothy M. Smith; Kyo Suh

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about climate change have forced countries to strengthen regulations, standards, and certifications related to greenhouse gas emissions. Various policies targeting farm products, such as carbon labeling and the Environmentally-Friendly Agricultural Product Certification (EFAPC) for agricultural products, have been implemented in South Korea to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sector. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of the various certific...

  6. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  7. Hydrological and Farming System Impacts of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in North Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, O.P.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater over-exploitation is a common phenomenon in many arid and semi arid regions of the world. Within India, north Gujarat is one of such intensively exploited regions. Groundwater supports irrigated crop production and intensive dairy farming in the region. Well irrigation is critical to the region’s rural economy and livelihoods. The overall objective of the study was to examine the water demand management interventions on farming system, livelihood patterns, food and nutritional s...

  8. Robotic systems for the high level waste tank farm replacement project at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, A.; White, D.; Thompson, B.; Christensen, M.

    1993-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is specifying and designing a new high level waste tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The farm consists of four underground storage tanks, which replace the existing tanks. The new facility includes provisions for remote operations. One of the planned remote operations is robotic inspection of the tank from the interior and exterior. This paper describes the process used to design the robotic system for the inspection tasks

  9. Consumer perception and communication on welfare in organic laying hen farming

    OpenAIRE

    Heerkens, Jasper; Tuyttens, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A major reason for increased societal popularity of organic production systems is the growing general discontent with intensive farming practices. However, urbanization leads to limited knowledge of farming and farm animal welfare. Consumers believe organic farming leads to better animal welfare, although most health and welfare issues seen in conventional systems are also found in organic poultry systems. The majority of consumers do not translate attitude and good intention into action, the...

  10. Ammonia emission model for whole farm evaluation of dairy production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C Alan; Montes, Felipe; Hafner, Sasha D; Heber, Albert J; Grant, Richard H

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) emissions vary considerably among farms as influenced by climate and management. Because emission measurement is difficult and expensive, process-based models provide an alternative for estimating whole farm emissions. A model that simulates the processes of NH formation, speciation, aqueous-gas partitioning, and mass transfer was developed and incorporated in a whole farm simulation model (the Integrated Farm System Model). Farm sources included manure on the floor of the housing facility, manure in storage (if used), field-applied manure, and deposits on pasture (if grazing is used). In a comprehensive evaluation of the model, simulated daily, seasonal, and annual emissions compared well with data measured over 2 yr for five free stall barns and two manure storages on dairy farms in the eastern United States. In a further comparison with published data, simulated and measured barn emissions were similar over differing barn designs, protein feeding levels, and seasons of the year. Simulated emissions from manure storage were also highly correlated with published emission data across locations, seasons, and different storage covers. For field applied manure, the range in simulated annual emissions normally bounded reported mean values for different manure dry matter contents and application methods. Emissions from pastures measured in northern Europe across seasons and fertilization levels were also represented well by the model. After this evaluation, simulations of a representative dairy farm in Pennsylvania illustrated the effects of animal housing and manure management on whole farm emissions and their interactions with greenhouse gas emissions, nitrate leaching, production costs, and farm profitability. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. A Simulation Software for the Analysis of Cropping Systems in Livestock Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Maggiore

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models can support quantitative and integrated analyses of agricultural systems. In this paper we describe VA.TE., a computer program developed to support the preparation and evaluation of nitrogen fertilising plans for livestock farms in the Lombardy region (northern Italy. The program integrates the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst with several regional agricultural databases, and provides the users with a simple framework for applying the model and interpreting results. VA.TE. makes good use of available data, integrating into a single relational database existing information about soils, climate, farms, animal breeds, crops and crop managements, and providing estimates of missing input variables. A simulation engine manages the entire simulation process: choice of farms to be simulated, model parameterisation, creation of model inputs, simulation of scenarios and analysis of model outputs. The program permits to apply at farm scale a model originally designed for the lower scale of homogeneous land parcel. It manages alternative simulation scenarios for each farm, helping to identify solutions to combine low nitrate losses and satisfactory crop yields. Example simulation results for three farms located on different soils and having varying levels of nitrogen surplus show that the integrated system (model + database can manage various simulations automatically, and that strategies to improve N management can be refined by analysing the simulated amounts and temporal patterns of nitrogen leaching.We conclude by discussing the issues regarding the integration of existing regional databases with simulation models.

  12. Assessment of Primary Production of Horticultural Safety Management Systems of Mushroom Farms in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzingirayi, Garikayi; Korsten, Lise

    2016-07-01

    Growing global consumer concern over food safety in the fresh produce industry requires producers to implement necessary quality assurance systems. Varying effectiveness has been noted in how countries and food companies interpret and implement food safety standards. A diagnostic instrument (DI) for global fresh produce industries was developed to measure the compliancy of companies with implemented food safety standards. The DI is made up of indicators and descriptive grids for context factors and control and assurance activities to measure food safety output. The instrument can be used in primary production to assess food safety performance. This study applied the DI to measure food safety standard compliancy of mushroom farming in South Africa. Ten farms representing almost half of the industry farms and more than 80% of production were independently assessed for their horticultural safety management system (HSMS) compliance via in-depth interviews with each farm's quality assurance personnel. The data were processed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and are represented in frequency tables. The diagnosis revealed that the mushroom farming industry had an average food safety output. The farms were implementing an average-toadvanced HSMS and operating in a medium-risk context. Insufficient performance areas in HSMSs included inadequate hazard analysis and analysis of control points, low specificity of pesticide assessment, and inadequate control of suppliers and incoming materials. Recommendations to the industry and current shortcomings are suggested for realization of an improved industry-wide food safety assurance system.

  13. A Simulation Software for the Analysis of Cropping Systems in Livestock Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bechini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models can support quantitative and integrated analyses of agricultural systems. In this paper we describe VA.TE., a computer program developed to support the preparation and evaluation of nitrogen fertilising plans for livestock farms in the Lombardy region (northern Italy. The program integrates the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst with several regional agricultural databases, and provides the users with a simple framework for applying the model and interpreting results. VA.TE. makes good use of available data, integrating into a single relational database existing information about soils, climate, farms, animal breeds, crops and crop managements, and providing estimates of missing input variables. A simulation engine manages the entire simulation process: choice of farms to be simulated, model parameterisation, creation of model inputs, simulation of scenarios and analysis of model outputs. The program permits to apply at farm scale a model originally designed for the lower scale of homogeneous land parcel. It manages alternative simulation scenarios for each farm, helping to identify solutions to combine low nitrate losses and satisfactory crop yields. Example simulation results for three farms located on different soils and having varying levels of nitrogen surplus show that the integrated system (model + database can manage various simulations automatically, and that strategies to improve N management can be refined by analysing the simulated amounts and temporal patterns of nitrogen leaching.We conclude by discussing the issues regarding the integration of existing regional databases with simulation models.

  14. Transient stability probability evaluation of power system incorporating with wind farm and SMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Miao, Lu; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    Large scale renewable power generation brings great challenges to the power system operation and stabilization. Energy storage is one of the most important technologies to face the challenges. This paper proposes a method for transient stability probability evaluation of power system with wind farm...... and SMES. Firstly, a modified 11-bus test system with both wind farm and SMES has been implemented. The wind farm is represented as a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). Then a stochastic-based approach to evaluate the probabilistic transient stability index of the power system is presented. Uncertain...... the probability indices. With the proposed method based on Monte-Carlo simulation and bisection method, system stability is "measured". Quantitative relationship of penetration level, SMES coil size and system stability is established. Considering the stability versus coil size to be the production curve...

  15. Centralized configuration system for a large scale farm of network booted computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestrero, S.; Brasolin, F.; Dârlea, G.-L.; Dumitru, I.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Twomey, M. S.; Vâlsan, M. L.; Zaytsev, A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition online farm is composed of nearly 3,000 computing nodes, with various configurations, functions and requirements. Maintaining such a cluster is a big challenge from the computer administration point of view, thus various tools have been adopted by the System Administration team to help manage the farm efficiently. In particular, a custom central configuration system, ConfDBv2, was developed for the overall farm management. The majority of the systems are network booted, and are running an operating system image provided by a Local File Server (LFS) via the local area network (LAN). This method guarantees the uniformity of the system and allows, in case of issues, very fast recovery of the local disks which could be used as scratch area. It also provides greater flexibility as the nodes can be reconfigured and restarted with a different operating system in a very timely manner. A user-friendly web interface offers a quick overview of the current farm configuration and status, allowing changes to be applied on selected subsets or on the whole farm in an efficient and consistent manner. Also, various actions that would otherwise be time consuming and error prone can be quickly and safely executed. We describe the design, functionality and performance of this system and its web-based interface, including its integration with other CERN and ATLAS databases and with the monitoring infrastructure.

  16. Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.; Vaarst, Mette

    2008-01-01

    was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured...... for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms......A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems.  A questionnaire...

  17. PERFORMANCES COMPARISON BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL PIG FARMING SYSTEMS IN MANOKWARI, WEST PAPUA PROVINCE INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desni Triana Ruli Saragih

    2015-10-01

    were no differences in household members, experience, average pig owned, working hours, selling period, litter size and number of farrowing. There are nine point of pig farming improvement that should be done to sustain pig farming systems in Manokwari Papua. Education may be improved by provide informal and skillful education. Pig ownership should be increased. Working hours must be increased. Pig keeping in the pens should be done by farmers. Managing pigs with additional time is important so that pigs will be maintained well. Litter sizes both in urban and rural are low, therefore further improvements are needed. Recording pig productivities must be done by every farmer. (Key words: Arfak pig farmers, Pig performance, Rural pig farming, Urban pig farming

  18. FUNCTIONING OF A FARM ADVISORY SYSTEM ACCORDING TO THE FARMERS OF THE OPOLE VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Sokołowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Farm advisory system is a unique form of long-lasting education of framers and rural area dwellers. This attribute is significant as far as a transformation of European agriculture is concerned which resulted in creating a farm advisory system for the territorial scope Europe. The effectiveness of the system depends on many factors mainly, however, on active trust of farmers in the knowledge they acquire. The case study uses a questionnaire data collecting method in the households of the Opole voivodeship. On their basis the place and aim of a farm advisory organisation in the system of both agricultural knowledge and information have been determined as well as kinds of knowledge sought by farmers. The respondents’ evaluation of the significance of this institutional structure in the development of households and in the local development has also been presented. A question of the use of regional internet platforms in the realisation of farm advisory system tasks has been considered. The case study ends with conclusions and recommendation referring to the challenges to be faced by the regional structures of a farm advisory system.

  19. The Effect of GST on Farm Management Information Systems and Business Management Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Lewis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1989 New Zealand farmers were confronted by the introduction of a GST. Despite the short to medium term difficulties, many farmers have benefited from the experience. The introduction of the GST forced many New Zealand farmers to improve their record systems as they were required to submit more extensive and accurate information to comply with their new GST requirements. This increase in sophistication of their record systems also meant that farmers had a larger store of more accurate information available to support their farm business management decision-making. It is expected that the introduction of GST and PAYG reporting requirements in Australia is also acting as a catalyst in the evolution of dairy farm record systems and increase in dairy farmer’s store of business management skills. This paper reports the results of a survey that describes the characteristics of dairy farm management information systems and indicates the business management skills that dairy farmers perceive they need to acquire in the short term in order to improve their farm management information systems and comply with their GST requirements. Overall, the importance of bookkeeping/ accounting skills is strongly related to BAS. However, the results also show that as the level of sophistication of dairy farm record systems grows the demand for business skills shifts from accounting/ bookkeeping skills to computer and analytical skills.

  20. Dynamic performance of a novel offshore power system integrated with a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlandini, Valentina; Pierobon, Leonardo; Schløer, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Offshore wind technology is rapidly developing and a wind farm can be integrated with offshore power stations. This paper considers as case study a futuristic platform powered by a wind farm and three combined cycle units consisting of a gas turbine and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) module....... The first aim of this paper is to identify the maximum amount of wind power that can be integrated into the system, without compromising the electric grid balance. The stability of the grid is tested using a dynamic model of the power system based on first principles. Additionally, the dynamics...... of the system is compared with a simplified plant consisting of three gas turbines and a wind farm, in order to identify benefits of the installation of the ORC system. The maximum allowable wind power is 10 MW for a nominal platform load of 30 MW. The results show that the presence of the ORC system allows...

  1. The Complexity Of Government Communication System In Ettawa Crossbed (Ec Goat Farming In Purworejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Handaka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to determine the complexity of the environment that is faced by the government communication system and regulation that was used to resolve the issue. The theory used is communication system in the perspective of Niklas Luhmann. The research method used is ethnography. The population of the study are in Purworejo which becomes center of crossbreed Ettawa goat farming. Data collection technique is conducted throught interviews and observations. The results of data analysis show that the government communication system has made regulations to resolve the real problems of crossbreed Ettawa goat farming that is done by breeders. When the government communication system produces the regulation, environmental issue has grown more complex. So the regulation that was made becomes irrelevant to the demands and challenge in the crossbreed Ettawa goat farming. The government communication system is slow in reducing the complexity of the environment and producing regulation.

  2. Dynamic performance of a novel offshore power system integrated with a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlandini, Valentina; Pierobon, Leonardo; Schløer, Signe

    2016-01-01

    of the system is compared with a simplified plant consisting of three gas turbines and a wind farm, in order to identify benefits of the installation of the ORC system. The maximum allowable wind power is 10 MW for a nominal platform load of 30 MW. The results show that the presence of the ORC system allows......Offshore wind technology is rapidly developing and a wind farm can be integrated with offshore power stations. This paper considers as case study a futuristic platform powered by a wind farm and three combined cycle units consisting of a gas turbine and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) module....... The first aim of this paper is to identify the maximum amount of wind power that can be integrated into the system, without compromising the electric grid balance. The stability of the grid is tested using a dynamic model of the power system based on first principles. Additionally, the dynamics...

  3. Optimal Control of a Wind Farm Group Using the WindEx System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kacejko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present achievements obtained in implementing the framework project N R01 0021 06 in the Power System Department of Lublin University of Technology. The result of the work was “A system of optimal wind farm power control in the conditions of limited transmission capabilities of power networks”, which one of two main modules is a state estimator. The featured wind farm control system was integrated with a SCADA dispatcher system WindEx using the WebSVC service.

  4. Environmental and economic comparisons of manure application methods in farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Kleinman, P J A; Dell, C J; Veith, T L; Beegle, D B

    2011-01-01

    Alternative methods for applying livestock manure to no-till soils involve environmental and economic trade-offs. A process-level farm simulation model (Integrated Farm System Model) was used to evaluate methods for applying liquid dairy (Bos taurus L.) and swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure, including no application, broadcast spreading with and without incorporation by tillage, band application with soil aeration, and shallow disk injection. The model predicted ammonia emissions, nitrate leaching, and phosphorus (P) runoff losses similar to those measured over 4 yr of field trials. Each application method was simulated over 25 yr of weather on three Pennsylvania farms. On a swine and cow-calf beef operation under grass production, shallow disk injection increased profit by $340 yr(-1) while reducing ammonia nitrogen and soluble P losses by 48 and 70%, respectively. On a corn (Zea mays L.)-and-grass-based grazing dairy farm, shallow disk injection reduced ammonia loss by 21% and soluble P loss by 76% with little impact on farm profit. Incorporation by tillage and band application with aeration provided less environmental benefit with a net decrease in farm profit. On a large corn-and-alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-based dairy farm where manure nutrients were available in excess of crop needs, incorporation methods were not economically beneficial, but they provided environmental benefits with relatively low annual net costs ($13 to $18 cow). In all farming systems, shallow disk injection provided the greatest environmental benefit at the least cost or greatest profit for the producer. With these results, producers are better informed when selecting manure application equipment.

  5. Vertical farming monitoring system using the internet of things (IoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yap Shien; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    Vertical farming had become a hot topic among peak development countries. However, vertical farming is hard to practice because minor changes on the surrounding would leave big impact to the productivity and quality of farming activity. Thus, the aim of this project is to provide a vertical farming monitoring system to help keeping track on the physical conditions of crops. In this system, varieties of sensors will be used to detect current physical conditions, and send the data to BeagleBone Black (BBB) microcontroller either in analog or digital input. Then, the data will be processed by BBB and upload to the Thingspeak Cloud. Furthermore, the system will record the position of equipment in used, which make it easier for maintenance when there is equipment broken down. The system also provide basic remote function where users could turn on/off the watering system, and the LED light via web-based application. The web-based application will also be designed to analyze and display data gathered in the form of graphs, charts or figures, for better understanding. With the improvement implemented on the vertical farming culture, it is expected that the productivity and quality of crops would increase significantly.

  6. Appreciation to Organic Agriculture Function: Case Study of Rice Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinjung Mary Prihtanti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activities are not only producing the visible (tangible output in the form of food but also the non-visible output (non-marketable goods/non-tangible services. Non-visible output refers to a multifunctionality to supply food to ensure the food sufficiency of farmer household and job opportunities at rural area. The article aims to compare the capability of organic rice farming to conventional, to ensure the food sufficiency of farmer household, the economic value of rice farming to produce food, and the economic estimation of rice farming to its function as an job opportunities. The data for the research is collected in Gentungan Village, Mojogedang District, Karanganyar Regency during the crop year of 2015. In order to study the differences of two rice farming systems, the total of 60 farmers, 30 farmers are dealing with organic farming and other 30 farmers from conventional farming, are subjected for the interview in this research. The results found that the food security of organic farming is higher than conventional farming. The organic rice farming gives the economic value as the food producing and the labor-absorbing function in the study area is higher than the  conventional farming.

  7. Evaluation of Technological, Economic and Social Indicators for Different Farming Practices in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Galnaitytė

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic and integrated farming practices contribute to protecting biodiversity, reducing environmental pollution, improving soil quality, and providing high-quality raw material for food industry. The objective of the article is to establish the methodology and evaluate the system of indicators, which enables answering the question which farming practice has more advantages: organic or integrated? Multi-criteria analysis methods were used to achieve this objective. When being compared with between conventional and integrated farming practices, organic farming practice achieves higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Organic farming reveals to be either superior, or similar to integrated farming practices in environmental terms. Potatoes, fruits and berries under both conventional and integrated farming practices have obtained the same rank (1–2 according to the selected criterions (yield, share of sold product, expenses on plant protection, production cost, price and labour input. Organic farming practice has shown worse rank. Organic farming practice has appeared to be the most suitable for vegetables.

  8. NEW RESEARCHES REGARDING THE FEEDING SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR HOLSTEIN-FRISIAN CATTLE FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MOISE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the organization and development of production activity, which has like result economical efficiency into a cattle farm, the application of viable breeding technologies it’s the best way to obtain positives results.The feeding system of Holstein-Frisian cattle, applied in the Dambovita farms it’s a model can be extended and applied in all the cattle farms, in the same climate and soil conditions, even if the farm dimensions and working organization are different.At the studied farms the cattle don’t paste; the arable land it’s used for perennial and annual fodder culture, that assure the necessary in green forage during the summer and raw material for fibroses and silo-forage preparing. At these farms it isn’t a practice to feed the cattle only with green fodder in the summer period (for milk production but with a balanced quantity of dry substances represented by fibrouses, industrial succulent and wet corn, near by green fodder.One of the reason that assure a big quantity of milk of Holstein-Frisian cattle it is represented by different feeding, depending on milk quantity and physical estate of each cow.An essential condition for a profitable activity of cattle farms is the presence of arable land to assure, at least, the production of base forage, respectively green and succulent forage, silo corn and hay; without this surfaces can’t speak about efficient breeding of cattle in a farm or agricultural exploitation.

  9. Generation Ratio Availability Assessment of Electrical Systems for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    An availability index, Generation Ratio Availability (GRA), is proposed to evaluate the electrical system of offshore wind farms (OWF). The GRA is the probability that at least a certain percent of wind power could be transferred to the grid system through the concerned electrical system. The GRA....... Comprehensive studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of the network design, component parameters, and wind-speed regimes on the GRA. The analysis presented in this paper is useful for both future wind farm planning and existing OWF evaluation....

  10. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morphostructure of Spanish goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gonzalez-Martinez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morphostructure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malagueña raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semi-extensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed.

  11. Standardized facility record and report model system (FARMS) for material accounting and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Hideo; Ihara, Hitoshi; Hisamatsu, Yoshinori.

    1990-07-01

    A facility in which nuclear materials are handled maintains a facility system of accounting for and control of nuclear material. Such a system contains, as one of key elements, a record and report system. This record and report information system is a rather complex one because it needs to conform to various requirements from the national or international safeguards authorities and from the plant operator who has to achieve a safe and economical operation of the plant. Therefore it is mandatory to computerize such information system. The authors have reviewed these requirements and standardized the book-keeping and reporting procedures in line with their computerization. On the basis of this result the authors have developed a computer system, FARMS, named as an acronym of standardized facility record and report model system, mainly reflecting the requirements from the national and international safeguards authorities. The development of FARMS has also been carried out as a JASPAS - Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards - project since 1985 and the FARMS code was demonstrated as an accountancy tool in the regional SSAC training courses held in Japan in 1985 and 1987. This report describes the standardization of a record and report system at the facility level, its computerization as a model system and the demonstration of the developed system, FARMS. (author)

  12. Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migose, S A; Bebe, B O; de Boer, I J M; Oosting, S J

    2018-03-28

    We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location (MRL, n = 11) in between 20 and 50 km west of Nakuru and extreme rural location (ERL, n = 9) beyond 50 km west and south-west of Nakuru. In-depth interviews with farmers and focus group discussions with eight groups of stakeholders were held to collect narratives and data about market quality, production factors, farm performance and functions of dairy cattle. We applied thematic content analysis to qualitative information by clustering narratives according to predefined themes and used ANOVA to analyse farm data. In UL, markets were functional, with predominantly informal market chains, with a high milk price (US $ 45.1/100 kg). Inputs were available in UL markets, but prices were high for inputs such as concentrates, fodder, replacement stock and hired labour. Moreover, availability of grazing land and the high opportunity costs for family labour were limiting dairy activities. In UL, milk production per cow (6.9 kg/cow/day) and per farm (20.1 kg/farm/day) were relatively low, and we concluded that farm development was constrained by scarcity of inputs and production factors. In rural locations (MRL and ERL), markets were functional with relatively low prices (average US $ 32.8/100 kg) for milk in both formal and informal market chains. Here, concentrates were relatively cheap but also of low quality. Fodder, replacement stock and labour were more available in rural locations than in UL. In rural locations, milk production per cow (average 7.2 kg/cow/day) and per farm (average 18.5 kg/farm/day) were low, and we concluded that farm development was constrained by low quality of concentrates and low price of milk. In all locations, production for

  13. Strategic Maintenance Scheduling of an Offshore Wind Farm in a Deregulated Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mazidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for strategic maintenance scheduling of offshore wind farms (SMSOWF in a deregulated power system. The objective of the model is to plan the maintenance schedules in a way to maximize the profit of the offshore wind farm. In addition, some network constraints, such as transmission lines capacity, and wind farm constraints, such as labor working shift, wave height limit and wake effect, as well as unexpected outages, are included in deterministic and stochastic studies. Moreover, the proposedmodel provides theability to incorporate information from condition monitoring systems. SMSOWF is formulated through a bi-level formulation and then transformed into a single-level through Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions. The model is validated through a test system, and the results demonstrate applicability, advantages and challenges of harnessing the full potential of the model.

  14. A "typodont" study of rate of orthodontic space closure: self-ligating systems vs. conventional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, I; Butti, A C; Salvato, A; Biagi, R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of space closure of two bracket systems, self-ligating and conventional ones, considering two systems with the same design and prescription. The experimental model of this study aims to identify in general if one type of system is more suitable for planning the extractive therapy, without considering the clinical aspect necessary for an adequate orthodontic approach. A resin maxilla without the first premolars was used to test the self-ligating and conventional brackets system. Space closure was achieved on 0.016x0.022" in stainless steel wires with nickel-titanium coil springs 150 grams in strength and 10 mm in length. Two experiment settings have been prepared. The first setting was made bonding conventional bracket on the right side and self-ligating on the left; the last one was made bonding self-ligating bracket on the right side and conventional on the left. All measurements (runs) have been repeated seven times for both settings. During the closing phase of extraction spaces both systems are equable since there are no significant statistical differences (P=0.70). Our typodont model showed no significant difference in the efficiency of space closure between the self-ligating bracket and conventional bracket tied with stainless steel ligatures.

  15. Analysis to develop a program for energy-integrated farm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.; Johnson, K.I.

    1981-09-01

    A program to use renewable energy resources and possibly develop decentralization of energy systems for agriculture is discussed. The purpose of the research presented is to establish the objective of the program and identify guidelines for program development. The program's objective is determined by: (1) an analysis of the technologies that could be utilized to transform renewable farm resources to energy by the year 2000, (2) the quantity of renewable farm resources that are available, and (3) current energy-use patterns. Individual research, development, and demonstration projects are fit into a national program of energy-integrated farm systems on the basis of: (1) market need, (2) conversion potential, (3) technological opportunities, and (4) acceptability. Quantification of these factors for the purpose of establishing program guidelines is conducted using the following four precepts: (1) market need is identified by current use of energy for agricultural production; (2) conversion potential is determined by the availability of renewable resources; and (3) technological opportunities are determined by the state-of-the-art methods, techniques, and processes that can convert renewable resources into farm energy. Each of these factors is analyzed in Chapters 2 to 4. Chapter 5 draws on the analysis of these factors to establish the objective of the program and identify guidelines for the distribution of program funds. Chapter 6 then discusses the acceptability of integrated farm systems, which can not be quantified like the other factors.

  16. Life cycle assessment of Chinese shrimp farming systems targeted for export and domestic sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Diana, James S; Keoleian, Gregory A; Lai, Qiuming

    2011-08-01

    We conducted surveys of six hatcheries and 18 farms for data inputs to complete a cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance for intensive (for export markets in Chicago) and semi-intensive (for domestic markets in Shanghai) shrimp farming systems in Hainan Province, China. The relative contribution to overall environmental performance of processing and distribution to final markets were also evaluated from a cradle-to-destination-port perspective. Environmental impact categories included global warming, acidification, eutrophication, cumulative energy use, and biotic resource use. Our results indicated that intensive farming had significantly higher environmental impacts per unit production than semi-intensive farming in all impact categories. The grow-out stage contributed between 96.4% and 99.6% of the cradle-to-farm-gate impacts. These impacts were mainly caused by feed production, electricity use, and farm-level effluents. By averaging over intensive (15%) and semi-intensive (85%) farming systems, 1 metric ton (t) live-weight of shrimp production in China required 38.3 ± 4.3 GJ of energy, as well as 40.4 ± 1.7 t of net primary productivity, and generated 23.1 ± 2.6 kg of SO(2) equiv, 36.9 ± 4.3 kg of PO(4) equiv, and 3.1 ± 0.4 t of CO(2) equiv. Processing made a higher contribution to cradle-to-destination-port impacts than distribution of processed shrimp from farm gate to final markets in both supply chains. In 2008, the estimated total electricity consumption, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions from Chinese white-leg shrimp production would be 1.1 billion kW·h, 49 million GJ, and 4 million metric tons, respectively. Improvements suggested for Chinese shrimp aquaculture include changes in feed composition, farm management, electricity-generating sources, and effluent treatment before discharge. Our results can be used to optimize market-oriented shrimp supply chains and promote more

  17. Forage management to improve on-farm feed production, nitrogen fluxes and greenhouse gas emissions from dairy systems in a wet temperate region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, J; Villar, A.; Moros, R

    2018-01-01

    characteristic forage systems according to field management based on grazing, zero-grazing, conserved forages and growth of maize. The semi-dynamic whole farm model FarmAC was used to characterize a model farm representing an average farm in each of the forage systems including field area and use, number of cows...

  18. Cassava and soil fertility in intensifying smallholder farming systems of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Cost-benefits, Crop management, Farming systems, Fertilizer, Food security, Generalizations, Income, Labour, Land pressure, Niche, Rainfall, Sub-Saharan Africa, System analysis, Yield gap.
    Cassava is an important crop in Africa. This thesis focuses on cassava production in the mid

  19. Socioeconomic impact of widespread adoption of precision farming and controlled traffic systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2012-01-01

    and the Danish society as a whole. At the farm level, the findings from the study indicate that an implementation of CTF systems may have a significant impact on fuel savings due to a reduced overlap with auto guidance systems and easier movement with tractors and tools in the field. The PF site-specific weed...

  20. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  1. Systems of organic farming in spring vetch II: Biological response of Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall and Coccinella septempunctata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of four systems of organic farming of spring vetsch on Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae and Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae population density and the toxicity of several products on predatory insects were studied. The variants were: Control (without using any biological products; combined treatment with Polyversum (biological foliar fertilizer and Biofa (biological plant growth regulator; treatment with NeemAzal T/S (biological insecticide, a.i. azadirachtin and treatment with a combination of NeemAzal with Polyversum and Biofa. Variant V was a conventional farming system in which a combination of Nurelle D (synthetic insecticide, Masterblend (foliar fertilizer and Flordimex 420 (growth regulator was used as a standard treatment. In the organic farming system that included treatment of plants with the biological insecticide NeemAzal (azadirachtin, the reduction in A. intermedius abundance was 20.7% when it was applied alone and 24.6 % in combination with the organic products Polyversum and Biofa. NeemAzal achieved a lower reduction in the counts of predatory ladybirds C. septempunctata, from 14.9% (alone to 21.9% (combination. The biological insecticide, applied alone or in combination, was mostly harmless and rarely harmful to A. intermedius. NeemAzal manifested harmlessness to C. septempunctata as its toxic action did not exceed 25%. An analysis of variance regarding product toxicity to A. intermedius and C. septempunctata demonstrated that the type of treatment (the application of insecticides alone or in combination had the strongest effect on product toxicity. Тhe use of neem-based insecticides can be a substantial contribution towards preservation of biodiversity in ecosystems.

  2. Performance and operational experience with the heterogeneous farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system.

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connectivities, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we will present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We will describe a graphical tool to show, control, modify and balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon which provides a high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information, and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  3. Performance and Operational Experience with the Heterogeneous Farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connections, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We describe a graphical tool to balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon that provides high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  4. Quality of raw milk from a farm with automatic milking system in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumíra Janštová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the quality of raw cow’s milk from an automatic milking system. Samples of milk (48 were analyzed chemically and microbiologically and the somatic cell count, freezing point and inhibitor residues were determined. For comparison purposes, milk analysis data from two farms using conventional machine milking and 2008 milk analysis report data for the Czech Republic were used. All physical and chemical characteristics of the study samples were within the established limits. The average content (% of chemical indicators was following: fat 3.79 ± 0.18, protein 3.46 ± 0.06, casein 2.67 ± 0.09, lactose 4.82 ± 0.04 and NFS 8.96 ± 0.11. The values for freezing point and somatic cells count were 221 ± 46.103·ml-1 and -0.521 ± 0.003 °C respectively. No inhibitor residue was detected in any of the samples. Microbiological values were lower than the limits: the total microbial count (2.3·104 CFU·ml-1, psychrotrophic count (6.3·103 CFU·ml-1, coliform count (2.4·101 CFU·ml-1, Escherichia coli count (3.2·101 CFU·ml-1, enterococci count (8.5·101 CFU·ml-1 and Staphylococcus aureus count (1.1·101 CFU·ml-1. The study provides a comprehensive view on the quality of milk produced by robotic milking. The automatic milking system seems to be excellent in terms of milking and milk hygiene.

  5. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of organic and conventional arable farming systems was conducted in The Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils from thirteen accredited organic farms and conventionally managed neighboring

  6. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  7. An aggregate model of grid-connected, large-scale, offshore wind farm for power stability investigations-importance of windmill mechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, H.

    2002-01-01

    . Because the shaft system gives a soft coupling between the rotating wind turbine and the induction generator, the large-scale wind farm cannot always be reduced to one-machine equivalent and use of multi-machine equivalents will be necessary for reaching accuracy of the investigation results....... This will be in cases with irregular wind distribution over the wind farm area. The torsion mode of the shaft systems of large wind turbines is commonly in the range of 1-2 Hz and close to typical values of the electric power grid eigenfrequencies why there is a risk of oscillation between the wind turbines...... and the entire network. All these phenomena are different compared to previous experiences with modelling of conventional power plants with synchronous generators and stiff shaft systems....

  8. Characterization of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes on an Ecological Farm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern worldwide about the prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs on the farm. In this study, we investigated the distribution of seven antibiotics and ten ARGs in fresh and dried pig feces, in biogas slurry, and in grape-planting soil from an ecological farm. Antibiotics including sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline were detected in these samples (except for sulfamethoxazole in dried feces. In general, antibiotics levels in samples were in the sequence: biogas slurry > fresh feces > soil or dried feces. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that among the seven antibiotics chlortetracycline showed the highest ecological risk. Among the ten ARGs, sulI and tetO were the most prevalent on this ecological farm. There were positive correlations between certain ARGs and the corresponding antibiotics on this ecological farm. Therefore, continuous monitoring of antibiotics and their corresponding ARGs should be conducted in the agroecosystem near the concentrated animal farming operation systems.

  9. Simulation of interaction between wind farm and power system[Flicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.; Hansen, A.; Janosi, L.; Bech, J.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2001-12-01

    A dynamic model of the wind farm Hagesholm has been implemented in the dedicated power system simulation program DIgSILENT. The wind farm consists of six 2MW NM2000/72 wind turbines from NEG-Micon. The model has been verified using simultaneous power quality measurements on the 10 kV terminals of a single wind turbine and power performance measurements on two wind turbines. The verification shows a generally good agreement between simulations and measurements, although the simulations at higher wind speeds seem to underestimate the power and voltage fluctuations. A way to improve the simulation at higher wind speeds is suggested. (au)

  10. Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming systems in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Migose, S.A.; Bebe, B.O.; Boer, de, I.J.M.; Oosting, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location (MRL, n = 11) in between 20 and 50 km west of Nakuru and extreme rural location (ERL, n = 9) beyond 50 km west and south-west of Nakuru. In-depth interviews with farmers and focus group discussions w...

  11. Energy Flow in Conventional Dairy Farms with Emphasis on CO2 Emission from Electricity Generation and Use of Technical Equipment and Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Bayani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Energy is one of the most important commodities that make up a large proportion of international trade. Among all the countries in the world, Iran is known as semi-industrial developing country which is rich in energy such as non-renewable energy in particular fossil fuel. Use of energy affects the environment in various forms of pollution. In the agricultural sector, the FAO report states that livestock production has a major contribution to the world’s environmental problem (Sutton et al., 2011. Materials and methods This study analyzes energy flow and greenhouse gas emission in conventional dairy farms in Mazandaran province. The required data for this study was collected by conducting interviews and filling up questionnaires from 26 cattlemen. From the questionnaires, information on five inputs such as labor, livestock feeding, diesel fuel, electricity and technical equipment and machines as well as milk product for 159 dairy cattle was collected. Finally, energy productivity, efficiency and emissions of greenhouse gases were calculated for Methane (CH4, Nitrous Oxid (N2O and Carbon Dioxide (CO2. Results and discussion The results indicated that total energy which has been used to produce one liter of milk was 27.745 Mega Jul. Livestock feeding and fuel were energy inputs that has been extensively consumed. In this relation, 47.4% and 28.5% of the total energy consumption were drawn from the livestock feeding and fuel, respectively. In the study conducted by Sainz (2003, livestock feeding with 70% of the total energy consumption was also found as the largest input in terms of consuming energy. Technical equipment with 22.8% of the total energy consumption was found the third place. A low proportion (0.8% of the total energy consumption was drawn from labor. Electric power with 0.5% of the total energy consumption was placed at the last. Energy efficiency was measured at 0.257. The proportion of renewable and non

  12. Combined analysis of climate, technological and price changes on future arable farming systems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Kros, J.; Webber, H.; Zhao, G.; Britz, W.; Reinds, G.J.; Ewert, F.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compare the relative importance of climate change to technological, management, price and policy changes on European arable farming systems. This required linking four models: the SIMPLACE crop growth modelling framework to calculate future yields under climate change for arable

  13. Vulnerability and adaptation to climate variability and change in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurinda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Climate change; Increased climate variability; Vulnerability; Smallholder farmers; Adaptation

    Climate change and increased climate variability are currently seen as the major constraints to the already stressed smallholder farming livelihood system in

  14. Aligning strategy and performance management systems : the case of the wind-farm industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, R.; O'Dwyer, B.; Schneider, R.

    This article presents a case study examining the problems and possibilities of performance management in a wind-farm company. Drawing on Ferreira and Otley’s recently developed performance management systems (PMSs) framework, the study demonstrates how the framework facilitates in-depth, holistic,

  15. Optimizing soil and water management in dryland farming systems in Cabo Verde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Baptista Costa, Dos I.

    2016-01-01

    “Optimizing Soil and Water Management in Dryland Farming Systems in Cabo Verde”

    Isaurinda Baptista

    Summary

    Soil and land degradation poses a great challenge for sustainable development worldwide and, in Cabo Verde, has strongly affected both

  16. Diagnosis for ecological intensification of maize-based smallholder farming systems in the Costa Chica, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Sanchez, D.; Kleine Koerkamp-Rabelista, J.; Navarro-Garza, H.; Lantinga, E.A.; Groot, J.C.J.; Kropff, M.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced utilization of ecological processes for food and feed production as part of the notion of ecological intensification starts from location-specific knowledge of production constraints. A diagnostic systems approach which combined social-economic and production ecological methods at farm and

  17. Decision support for mastitis on farms with an automatic milking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.

    2010-01-01

    For an optimal mastitis management on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS), two individual cow decisions are important. First, there is a need for decision support on which mastitis alerts have the highest priority for visual checking for clinical mastitis (CM). In essence, all cows with

  18. Agricultural marketing systems and sustainability : study of small scale Andean hillside farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaño, J.

    2001-01-01

    A better understanding of the way in which marketing systems can contribute to the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (ASAP) on small-farms constitutes the aim of this study. In particular, the study examines the contribution of vertical

  19. Co-learning cycles to support the design of innovative farm systems in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconnier, Gatien N.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Mourik, Van Thomas A.; Adam, Myriam; Sogoba, Bougouna; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Farm systems were re-designed together with farmers during three years (2013–2015) in Southern Mali with the aim to improve income without compromising food self-sufficiency. A cyclical learning model with three steps was used: Step 1 was the co-design of a set of crop/livestock technical

  20. On-farm impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Evidence and knowledge gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, E.D.; Glover, D.B.A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2015-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is being promoted worldwide, but relatively little is yet known about its impacts at farm level. This article reviews available evidence on the impact of SRI practices in terms of yield and productivity. Adoption of SRI practices necessarily changes the mix

  1. Upscaling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Related Agroecosystems Services in Smallholder Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruru, Marjorie Bonareri; Njeru, Ezekiel Mugendi

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems form unique ecosystems that can protect beneficial soil biota and form an important source of useful genetic resources. They are characterized by high level of agricultural diversity mainly focused on meeting farmers' needs. Unfortunately, these systems often experience poor crop production mainly associated with poor planning and resource scarcity. Soil fertility is among the primary challenges faced by smallholder farmers, which necessitate the need to come up with affordable and innovative ways of replenishing soils. One such way is the use of microbial symbionts such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a beneficial group of soil microbiota that form symbiotic associations with majority of cultivated crops and play a vital role in biological soil fertility, plant nutrition, and protection. AMF can be incorporated in smallholder farming systems to help better exploit chemical fertilizers inputs which are often unaffordable to many smallholder farmers. The present review highlights smallholder farming practices that could be innovatively redesigned to increase AMF symbiosis and related agroecosystem services. Indeed, the future of global food security depends on the success of smallholder farming systems, whose crop productivity depends on the services provided by well-functioning ecosystems, including soil fertility. PMID:26942194

  2. Soil quality improvement under an ecologically based farming system in northwest Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecologically based farming conserves and improves the soil resource and protects environmental quality by using organic or natural resources without application of synthetic chemicals. Soil quality assessment indicates the ability of management systems to optimize soil productivity and to maintain i...

  3. Effects of climate change and adaptation on the livestock component of mixed farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, Katrien; Zijlstra, Mink; Masikati, Patricia; Crespo, Olivier; Homann-Kee Tui, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Large uncertainties about the impacts of climate change and adaptation options on the livestock component of heterogeneous African farming systems hamper tailored decision making towards climate-smart agriculture. This study addressed this knowledge gap through the development and use of a

  4. Sustainable intensification of smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia : what roles can scattered trees play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sida, Tesfaye Shiferaw

    2018-01-01

    Scattered trees dominate smallholder agricultural landscapes in Ethiopia, as in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). While the integration of scattered trees with crops could provide a viable pathway for sustainable intensification of these farming systems, they also lead to trade- offs.

  5. Agro-ecological indicators (AEIs) for dairy and mixed farming systems classification: Identifying alternatives for the Cuban livestock sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funes Monzote, F.R.; Monzote, M.; Lantinga, E.A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Sánchez, J.E.; Keulen, van H.

    2009-01-01

    Attainment of acceptable levels of land and labor productivity and low external input use is not a mutually exclusive proposition. This study examines characteristics of a range of current specialized dairy farming systems (DFS) and mixed (crop-livestock) farming systems (MFS) in Cuba to determine

  6. Livestock production & marketing: interaction between farming system, supply chain, and context - a systems perspective with examples from the dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationships between animal product value chains and the farming systems these are produced by. Starting from a description of these production and marketing systems and their environment, this paper takes a general look at the dynamics within and between these systems. It

  7. Methodological Aspects of On-Farm Monitoring of Cropping Systems Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bechini

    Full Text Available To conduct agro-environmental assessments at field and farm scale, detailed management data of crop and animal production systems are needed. However, this type of data is only rarely collected by public administrations. In the period 2005-2006, we made an experience of on-farm monitoring of cropping systems management, within a larger project aimed at assessing sustainability of agricultural systems in Italian Parks. In this paper, we describe and discuss the steps taken to carry out periodic face-to-face interviews in farms in the Sud Milano Agricultural Park (northern Italy. The first step was the selection of seven farms, which we identified by applying cluster analysis at a large database describing 733 farms of the Park. After having identified the most relevant agro-environmental issues in the studied area, we established a list of simple but sound indicators to evaluate the effects of agricultural management on the environment. The criteria used to select the indicators were that they should: be calculated on easily available data, not be based on direct measurements, make a synthesis of different aspects of reality, and be easily calculated and understood. The indicators selected evaluate nutrient management, fossil energy use, pesticide toxicity, soil management, and economic performance. Subsequently, we designed a data model to store input data used to calculate the indicators (farm configuration, flows of materials and money through the farm gate, animals and their rations, history of crop cultivation, crop management. The data model that we obtained is relatively complex, but adequate to store and analyse the large amount of data acquired during the two-year project. A questionnaire was developed to fully comply with the indicators selected and the data model. The questionnaire was used to carry out approximately six interviews per farm each year, with an investment of time of 1-2 hours per interview. Appropriate double checks of

  8. Soil microbial biomass in organic farming system Biomassa microbiana do solo em sistemas orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production systems have to combine management practices in order to sustain soil's profitability and quality. Organic farming is gaining worldwide acceptance and has been expanding at an annual rate of 20% in the last decade, accounting for over 24 million hectares worldwide. Organic practices avoid applications of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, rely on organic inputs and recycling for nutrient supply, and emphasize cropping system design and biological processes for pest management, as defined by organic farming regulation in the world. In comparison with conventional farming, organic farming has potential benefits in improving food quality and safety. Plant production in organic farming mainly depends on nutrient release as a function of mineralization processes in soils. The build-up of a large and active soil microbial biomass is important pool of accessible nutrients, therefore, is an important priority in organic farming. In organic farming, there is positive effect of quantity and quality of inputs of organic residues on soil microbial biomass. In this way, the organic systems are extremely important for the increase of the soil fertility and the maintenance of the environmental sustainability.A produção agrícola tem de combinar práticas para prover a sustentabilidade do solo. A agricultura orgânica está ganhando aceitação mundial e cresce à taxa anual de 20% na última década, contabilizando mais de 24 milhões de hectares. As práticas orgânicas evitam o uso de fertilizantes sintéticos e pesticidas, enfatiza a aplicação de matéria orgânica, como também a reciclagem de nutrientes e de processos biológicos para manejo de pragas, através das regras dos sistemas orgânicos no mundo. Em comparação com a agricultura convencional, os sistemas orgânicos têm potencial de melhorar a qualidade e a segurança dos alimentos. A produção das plantas no sistema orgânico depende da liberação de nutrientes

  9. Profile and Role of Woman Involvement in Dry System Pig Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartoko Hartoko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was purposed to study the profile and role of woman involvement in dry system pig farming (pig housing with mattress from grass, pig manure, vegetable waste and kitchen waste.  The research was carried out from August to November 2003.  Pig housing areas were located on eight villages of Kertek District in Wonosobo Regency (Central Java.  The method applied was survey with intensive observation.  Sample were randomly selected, involved 180 respondents (15 percent of total pig farmers, while the locations of the sample were selected based on purposive sampling method.  The result showed that respondents were in productive age, with low formal education level. Most of all are Moslems (98% and they have small family size.  The level of woman involvement in pig farming was high, approximately 85 percent.  They have other income source and they involve in pig farming to help their husbands in generating income.  Experience in the dry system pig farming was quite long (more than 10 years and skill come from imitating their neighbours otherwise of autodidact. (Animal Production 6(1: 23-29 (2004   Key Words: Pig, Dry System, Woman Profile and Role

  10. Conventional Systems of Classroom Discipline (the Patriarchy Speaks).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld-Jones, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    Considers traditional classroom discipline systems as patriarchal moral systems focused on hyperindividuality and dependent upon rules, consequences, and principles focused through authoritarian structures. Critiques the Assertive Discipline, Control Theory, and Discipline with Dignity discipline systems, and proposes an alternative model for…

  11. Comparative analysis on antibiotic resistance characteristics of Listeria spp. and Enterococcus spp. isolated from laying hens and eggs in conventional and organic keeping systems in Bavaria, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, K; Schmied, E-M V; Bauer, J

    2010-05-01

    By investigating the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance characteristics of Gram-positive bacteria from organic and conventional keeping systems of laying hens, it was to be determined to what extent these properties are influenced by the different systems. For this purpose, a total of 799 cloacal swabs and 800 egg samples were examined. Prevalences for all selected bacteria from cloacal swabs were much the same for both organic and caged birds: Listeria spp.1.3%[org] versus 1.6%[con]; Enterococcus spp. 95.5%[org] versus 97.5%[con]. Egg contents and eggshells were generally contaminated to a lesser extent, primarily with Enterococcus spp. Listeria isolates were susceptible to almost all tested antibiotics, only three Listeria innocua from conventional keepings were resistant to clindamycin; one isolate additionally to imipenem. High percentages of Enterococcus faecalis were resistant to doxycycline and macrolides. Enterococcus faecium proved to have high resistance rates to clindamycin, fosfomycin and erythromycin; 9.1% were even resistant to the reserve antibiotic synercid. Further, Enterococcus spp. showed higher resistance rates to doxycycline, erythromycin, fosfomycin and rifampicin. No glycopeptide resistant enterococci were detected. A correlation between keeping system and resistance/susceptibility rates could be demonstrated. In detail, E. faecalis from organic laying hen husbandries showed significant lower resistance prevalences to tylosin, streptomycin and doxycycline; susceptibility rates were higher for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Rifampicin and imipenem were more effective in isolates from conventional keepings (P < 0.05). The amounts of resistant isolates of the Enterococcus raffinosus from organic farms were significantly lower, the amounts of sensitive isolates were significantly higher than from conventional farms concerning eight antibiotics (P < 0.05). When comparing the susceptibility/resistance rates, as well as the mean minimum

  12. Requirements Verification Report AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System for Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This Requirements Verification Report (RVR) for Project W-314 ''AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System'' package provides documented verification of design compliance to all the applicable Project Development Specification (PDS) requirements. Additional PDS requirements verification will be performed during the project's procurement, construction, and testing phases, and the RVR will be updated to reflect this information as appropriate

  13. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwan Hwang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation.

  14. Studies of Sub-Synchronous Oscillations in Large-Scale Wind Farm Integrated System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liu; Hang, Mend

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development and construction of large-scale wind farms and grid-connected operation, the series compensation wind power AC transmission is gradually becoming the main way of power usage and improvement of wind power availability and grid stability, but the integration of wind farm will change the SSO (Sub-Synchronous oscillation) damping characteristics of synchronous generator system. Regarding the above SSO problem caused by integration of large-scale wind farms, this paper focusing on doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind farms, aim to summarize the SSO mechanism in large-scale wind power integrated system with series compensation, which can be classified as three types: sub-synchronous control interaction (SSCI), sub-synchronous torsional interaction (SSTI), sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). Then, SSO modelling and analysis methods are categorized and compared by its applicable areas. Furthermore, this paper summarizes the suppression measures of actual SSO projects based on different control objectives. Finally, the research prospect on this field is explored.

  15. Anaerobic digester systems (ADS) for multiple dairy farms: A GIS analysis for optimal site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Ethan; Wang, Qingbin; Li, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    While anaerobic digester systems (ADS) have been increasingly adopted by large dairy farms to generate marketable energy products, like electricity, from animal manure, there is a growing need for assessing the feasibility of regional ADS for multiple farms that are not large enough to capitalize their own ADS. Using geographical information system (GIS) software, this study first identifies potential sites in a dairy region in Vermont, based on geographical conditions, current land use types, and energy distribution infrastructure criteria, and then selects the optimal sites for a given number of ADS, based on the number of dairy farms to be served, the primary energy input to output (PEIO) ratio of ADS, and the existing transportation network. This study suggests that GIS software is a valid technical tool for identifying the potential and optimal sites for ADS. The empirical findings provide useful information for assessing the returns of alternative numbers of ADS in this region, and the research procedures can be modified easily to incorporate any changes in the criteria for this region and can be applied in other regions with different conditions and criteria. - Highlights: • This study examines the feasibility of regional ADS for multiple dairy farms. • GIS is used to identify candidate sites and optimal locations for ADS in a dairy region. • Model includes environmental, social, infrastructure, and energy return criteria. • Empirical analysis provides scenario results on 1–15 ADS in the study region. • Method could be applied to other regions with different conditions and criteria

  16. Typology of the noir de bigorre pig farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Justine Faure; Alexandre Fonseca; Florence Garcia-Launay

    2016-01-01

    Intensive pig production systems are facing economic and environmental challenges that outdoor systems relying on local pig breeds may overcome. The Noir de Bigorre (NDB) pork chain located in South West of France is organized as a cooperative including farmers and processers.

  17. Stability and control of wind farms in power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens

    is part of the project. The mostextensive modelling work deals with the design of the electrical part of the variable speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models are connected to an aggregated model of the Nordic power system. For thatpurpose the Nordic...... through transient faults. With these transient fault controllers the wind turbines can stay connected to the grid, such that their generation capacity is sustained, and normal gridoperation can resume, after the fault is cleared. Transient faults in the transmission system often cause power system...... oscillations. To further support the grid, a situation is assumed, where in future, wind turbines will be required to contribute to thedamping of these power system oscillations. Power system oscillations are counteracted with a controlled injection of oscillating active power. With an active-stall turbine...

  18. An Implementation of the Salt-Farm Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jonggil; Park, Ingon; Lee, Yongwoong; Cho, Jongsik; Cho, Hyunwook; Yoe, Hyun; Shin, Changsun

    In producing solar salt, natural environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind direction, wind speed and rain are essential elements which influence on the productivity and quality of salt. If we can manage the above mentioned environmental elements efficiently, we could achieve improved results in production of salt with good quality. To monitor and manage the natural environments, this paper suggests the Salt-Farm Monitoring System (SFMS) which is operated with renewable energy power. The system collects environmental factors directly from the environmental measure sensors and the sensor nodes. To implement a stand-alone system, we applied solar cell and wind generator to operate this system. Finally, we showed that the SFMS could monitor the salt-farm environments by using wireless sensor nodes and operate correctly without external power supply.

  19. Conventional hamiltonian for first-order differential systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Lagrangian systems corresponding to a given set of 2n first-order ordinary differential equations are singular ones. In despite this, it is shown that these systems can be put into a Hamiltonian form in the usual manner. (Author) [pt

  20. Conventional estimating method of earthquake response of mechanical appendage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Suzuki, Kohei

    1981-01-01

    Generally, for the estimation of the earthquake response of appendage structure system installed in main structure system, the method of floor response analysis using the response spectra at the point of installing the appendage system has been used. On the other hand, the research on the estimation of the earthquake response of appendage system by the statistical procedure based on probability process theory has been reported. The development of a practical method for simply estimating the response is an important subject in aseismatic engineering. In this study, the method of estimating the earthquake response of appendage system in the general case that the natural frequencies of both structure systems were different was investigated. First, it was shown that floor response amplification factor was able to be estimated simply by giving the ratio of the natural frequencies of both structure systems, and its statistical property was clarified. Next, it was elucidated that the procedure of expressing acceleration, velocity and displacement responses with tri-axial response spectra simultaneously was able to be applied to the expression of FRAF. The applicability of this procedure to nonlinear system was examined. (Kako, I.)

  1. Assessing the users’ need for a spatial decision support system of smallholder farming in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Teucher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate data of the natural conditions and agricultural systems with a good spatial resolution are a key factor to tackle food insecurity in developing countries. A broad variety of approaches exists to achieve precise data and information about agriculture. One system, especially developed for smallholder agriculture in East Africa, is the Farm Management Handbook of Kenya. It was first published in 1982/83 and fully revised in 2012, now containing 7 volumes. The handbooks contain detailed information on climate, soils, suitable crops and soil care based on scientific research results of the last 30 years. The density of facts leads to time consuming extraction of all necessary information. In this study we analyse the user needs and necessary components of a system for decision support for smallholder farming in Kenya based on a geographical information system (GIS. Required data sources were identified, as well as essential functions of the system. We analysed the results of our survey conducted in 2012 and early 2013 among agricultural officers. The monitoring of user needs and the problem of non-adaptability of an agricultural information system on the level of extension officers in Kenya are the central objectives. The outcomes of the survey suggest the establishment of a decision support tool based on already available open source GIS components. The system should include functionalities to show general information for a specific location and should provide precise recommendations about suitable crops and management options to support agricultural guidance on farm level.

  2. The optimal access system for future far-offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obdam, T.S.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Savenije, L.B. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Operation and maintenance (O and M) of offshore wind turbines is one of the main cost drivers of offshore wind energy. One of the aspects critical for an efficient and cost-effective O and M strategy is the selection of the access system which is used to transfer technicians and, optionally, small spare parts. Currently, most offshore wind farms are located close to shore, and their size is relatively small. For these farms the typical access system consists of catamaran-like workboats, which are used to transfer both technicians and small spare parts. As wind farms move further offshore this O and M concept might no longer be cost-effective. Currently, different alternative O and M concepts are being considered for the future far-offshore sites. In this paper an extensive and holistic comparison of different O and M concepts including different access system solutions is presented. This analysis has been performed using the OMCECalculator, ECN's software for advanced O and M cost modelling. Different sites have been considered, which are typical for the future offshore wind farms that will be commissioned during the next five years. The results of the performed analyses indicate that when moving further offshore harbour-based O and M strategies are no longer economical, even when helicopters are added to the mix. Looking at farm-based O and M concepts a supply vessel with a compensated access gangway offers great potential. However, the calculations also indicate that its ability to transfer small spare parts, in addition to technicians, is crucial.

  3. Root system-based limits to agricultural productivity and efficiency: the farming systems context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Kirkegaard, John

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been renewed global interest in both genetic and management strategies to improve root system function in order to improve agricultural productivity and minimize environmental damage. Improving root system capture of water and nutrients is an obvious strategy, yet few studies consider the important interactions between the genetic improvements proposed, and crop management at a system scale that will influence likely success. Scope To exemplify these interactions, the contrasting cereal-based farming systems of Denmark and Australia were used, where the improved uptake of water and nitrogen from deeper soil layers has been proposed to improve productivity and environmental outcomes in both systems. The analysis showed that water and nitrogen availability, especially in deeper layers (>1 m), was significantly affected by the preceding crops and management, and likely to interact strongly with deeper rooting as a specific trait of interest. Conclusions In the semi-arid Australian environment, grain yield impacts from storage and uptake of water from depth (>1 m) could be influenced to a stronger degree by preceding crop choice (0·42 t ha–1), pre-crop fallow management (0·65 t ha–1) and sowing date (0·63 t ha–1) than by current genetic differences in rooting depth (0·36 t ha–1). Matching of deep-rooted genotypes to management provided the greatest improvements related to deep water capture. In the wetter environment of Denmark, reduced leaching of N was the focus. Here the amount of N moving below the root zone was also influenced by previous crop choice or cover crop management (effects up to 85 kg N ha–1) and wheat crop sowing date (up to 45 kg ha–1), effects which over-ride the effects of differences in rooting depth among genotypes. These examples highlight the need to understand the farming system context and important G × E × M interactions in studies on proposed genetic improvements to root systems for improved

  4. An Assessment of Direct on-Farm Energy Use for High Value Grain Crops Grown under Different Farming Practices in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek Maraseni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have quantified the energy consumption associated with crop production in various countries. However, these studies have not compared the energy consumption from a broad range of farming practices currently in practice, such as zero tillage, conventional tillage and irrigated farming systems. This study examines direct on-farm energy use for high value grain crops grown under different farming practices in Australia. Grain farming processes are identified and “typical” farming operation data are collected from several sources, including published and unpublished literature, as well as expert interviews. The direct on-farm energy uses are assessed for 27 scenarios, including three high value grain crops―wheat, barley and sorghum―for three regions (Northern, Southern and Western Australia under three farming conditions with both dryland (both for conventional and zero-tillage and irrigated conditions. It is found that energy requirement for farming operations is directly related to the intensity and frequency of farming operations, which in turn is related to tillage practices, soil types, irrigation systems, local climate, and crop types. Among the three studied regions, Western Australia requires less direct on-farm energy for each crop, mainly due to the easily workable sandy soils and adoption of zero tillage systems. In irrigated crops, irrigation energy remains a major contributor to the total on-farm energy demand, accounting for up to 85% of total energy use.

  5. Development of a decision support system for individual dairy farms in mixed irrigated farming systems in the Nile Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabana, A.

    2000-01-01

    The principal animal production system in Egypt is the mixed crop-livestock production system with a semi-intensive/semi-commercial orientation. The development strategies emphasized in this study contribute to the development and implementation of improved

  6. Agro-environmental evaluation of vineyard management using organic farming and integrated plant production systems

    OpenAIRE

    FORGET, D.; LACOMBE, J.; DURAND, A.

    2009-01-01

    Organic farming is often considered to be the most environmentally-friendly crop management system, even if integrated production also aims at decreasing the impact of agriculture on the natural environment. In order to establish references for the agro-environmental evaluation of these two production systems in relation to grape growing, INRA carried out an initial study from 2001 to 2004 at the plot scale. This study focused on two grape varieties (Merlot N and Cabernet Sauvignon) in its Co...

  7. Evaluation of glandular dose in conventional and digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, Celia Maria Campos

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to estimate the average glandular dose (D g ) for patients undergoing mammography and to report the distribution of incident air kerma (K i ), patient age, compressed breast thickness and glandular tissue content. From 1183 cranio caudal mammograms clinical data were collected and doses were measured. The survey data included mammograms from six mammography equipment: two screen/film units (SFM), two computed radiography units (CR) and two full-field digital (DR). Mean value for patient age and compressed breast thickness were 57 +-12 y and 5.4 +-1.4 cm, respectively. To investigate the importance of technical characteristics of three different mammography systems and breast glandularity, K i and D g were measured for individual breast of 392 patients from the original sample with compressed breast thickness in the range of 5.5 cm to 6.5 cm using tissue-equivalent phantoms of different glandularities manufactured in this study to mimic both the attenuation and the density of breast tissues. Mean K i value was 10.0 +-3.6 mGy for SFM systems, 12.0 +-3.6 mGy for CR systems and 4.9 +-1.3 mGy for DR systems. Mean D g value was 1.4 +-0.5 mGy for S/F systems, 1.7 +-0.5 mGy for CR systems and 0.9 +-0.2 mGy for D R systems. Statistical analysis for differences in mean values of K i and D g between mammography systems showed significant effect of their technical characteristics (p i and D g , it was observed statistically significant differences between the group of patients with 0 to 50% glandularity and the group of patients with 50 to 100% glandularity. (author)

  8. Diversity of flower-visiting bees in cereal fields: Effects of farming system, landscape composition and regional context.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzschuh, A.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Kleijn, D.; Tscharntke, T.

    2007-01-01

    1. Agri-environment schemes promote organic farming in an attempt to reduce the negative effects of agricultural intensification on farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services such as pollination. Farming system, landscape context and regional differences may all influence biodiversity, but their

  9. Targeting resources within diverse, heterogeneous and dynamic farming systems: Towards a ‘uniquely African green revolution’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Misiko, M.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are highly diverse and heterogeneous, often operating in complex socio-ecological environments. Much of the heterogeneity within the farming systems is caused by spatial soil variability, which results in its turn from the interaction between inherent

  10. The Design of HVAC System in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, G. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2007-01-01

    The HVAC systems for conventional facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center consist of 3 systems : accelerator building HVAC system, beam application building HVAC system and miscellaneous HVAC system. We designed accelerator building HVAC system and beam application research area HVAC system in the conventional facilities of Proton Accelerator research center. Accelerator building HVAC system is divided into accelerator tunnel area, klystron area, klystron gallery area, accelerator assembly area. Also, Beam application research area HVAC system is divided into those of beam experimental hall, accelerator control area, beam application research area and Ion beam application building. In this paper, We described system design requirements and explained system configuration for each systems. We presented operation scenario of HVAC system in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

  11. Wind farm fuzzy modelling for adequacy evaluation of power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeini-Aghtaie, M.; Abbaspour, A.; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Center of Excellence in Power System Management and Control

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented details of a fuzzy logic-based active learning method (ALM) designed to model variations in wind speed. A pattern-based approach was used to model system behaviour. The ALM was algorithmically modelled on the information-handling processes of the human brain. Wind data were gathered and projected on different data planes. The horizontal axis of each data plane was one of the inputs, while the vertical axis was the output. An ink drop spread (IDS) processing engine was used to look for behaviour curves on each data plane. A fuzzy interpolation method was used to derive a smooth curve among the data points. Sequential Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) were used to evaluate power systems based on hourly random simulations. After the hourly wind speed was generated, wind turbine generator outputs were calculated by considering the nonlinear relationship between the estimated wind speed and the wind turbine output. The developed algorithm was validated on a 6-bus reliability test system. Results of the study can be used by power system schedulers to develop power system reliability guidelines. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  12. Replacement inhibitors for tank farm cooling coil systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    Sodium chromate has been an effective corrosion inhibitor for the cooling coil systems in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks for over 40 years. Due to their age and operating history, cooling coils occasionally fail allowing chromate water to leak into the environment. When the leaks spill 10 lbs. or more of sodium chromate over a 24-hr period, the leak incidents are classified as Unusual Occurrences (UO) per CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act). The cost of reporting and cleaning up chromate spills prompted High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) to initiate a study to investigate alternative tank cooling water inhibitor systems and the associated cost of replacement. Several inhibitor systems were investigated as potential alternatives to sodium chromate. All would have a lesser regulatory impact, if a spill occurred. However, the conversion cost is estimated to be $8.5 million over a period of 8 to 12 months to convert all 5 cooling systems. Although each of the alternative inhibitors examined is effective in preventing corrosion, there is no inhibitor identified that is as effective as chromate. Assuming 3 major leaks a year (the average over the past several years), the cost of maintaining the existing inhibitor was estimated at $0.5 million per year. Since there is no economic or regulatory incentive to replace the sodium chromate with an alternate inhibitor, HLWE recommends that sodium chromate continue to be used as the inhibitor for the waste tank cooling systems

  13. Game farming as a supplementary farming activity in the Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game farming as a supplementary farming activity in the Karoo. ... Veld management in a game farming situation poses problems due to the ineffectiveness of rotational grazing systems. Simplification of natural ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Fuzzy-Based Control Schemes for Small Power System with High-Penetration Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind is a clean, abundant, and inexhaustible source of energy. However, wind power is not constant, as windmill output is proportional to the cube of wind speed. As a result, the generated power of wind turbine generators (WTGs fluctuates significantly. Power fluctuation leads to frequency deviation and voltage flicker inside the system. This paper presents a new methodology for controlling system frequency and power. Two decentralized fuzzy logic-based control schemes with a high-penetration non-storage wind–diesel system are studied. First, one is implemented in the governor of conventional generators to damp frequency oscillation, while the other is applied to control the pitch angle system of wind turbines to smooth wind output power fluctuations and enhance the power system performance. A genetic algorithm (GA is employed to tune and optimize the membership function parameters of the fuzzy logic controllers to obtain optimal performance. The effectiveness of the suggested controllers is validated by time domain simulation for the standard IEEE nine-bus three-generator test system, including three wind farms. The robustness of the power system is checked under normal and faulty operating conditions.

  15. Tank Farm Contractor Waste Remediation System and Utilization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan updates the operating scenario and plans for the delivery of feed to BNFL Inc., retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases I and II of the privatization of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent tank-by-tank inventory and sludge washing data. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the impact or benefits of proposed changes to the BNFL Inc. contract and to evaluate a risk-based SST retrieval strategy

  16. Sostenibilidad de sistemas agrícolas Sustainability of farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiva Fabio R.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Las actividades agrícolas pueden tener impactos negativos sobre el ambiente, con efectos dentro y fuera de los predios. El presente artículo pretende contribuir al avance de la agricultura sostenible con énfasis en países en vías de desarrollo. Se revisan y analizan los conceptos de sostenibilidad y agricultura sostenible, incluyendo los diferentes puntos de vista en el debate sobre sostenibilidad'. El artículo examina los impactos ambientales debidos a las actividades agrícolas, destacando la importancia de fortalecer la investigación, con publicación de resultados, sobre la relación agricultura y medio ambiente. La complejidad de los factores que determinan la sostenibilidad agrícola exige una concepción de sistemas, integradora, participativa y holística. El uso de indicadores tiene un gran potencial en la evaluación de la sostenibilidad de sistemas productivos. La práctica de agricultura sostenible requiere tener en cuenta las condiciones ambientales, sociales y económicas en las cuales
    se desenvuelve la agricultura.Farming activities have the potential to affect the farming system itself and the offfarm environment. This paper attempts to contribute to the development of sustainable agriculture with emphasis in developing countries. The concepts of sustainability and sustainable agriculture are reviewed and discussed, including the different viewpoints in the sustainability debate. Environmental impacts due to farming activities are examined emphasising the need of promoting further research and publication of findings on the links between environment and agriculture. The complexity of the factors that determine farming sustainability requires
    a systematic, holistic, participative and integrated approach. Indicators are likely to contribute to the development of sustainable farming systems. Understanding environmental, social and economic circumstances is required to promote sustainability.

  17. Grid-connection of offshore wind farms using VSC-HVDC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xiaofan; Dessaint, Louis A. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Gagnon, Richard [Hydro-Quebec Research Institute, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the structure of variable speed PMSG-based offshore wind farms connected to the grid through VSC-HVDC link is presented. And the system models are developed. Also, the corresponding control strategy for this system is proposed. The control objective of the generator side VSC is to achieve the optimal wind power by adjusting the speed of permanent magnet synchronous generator, while the grid side VSC is to maintain DC voltage constant. Furthermore, a case study of 100MW offshore wind farm consisting of 50 individual 2MW PSMG-based wind turbines is developed in MATLAB/SimPowerSystems. Simulation results show the proposed scheme works well. (orig.)

  18. Design and Simulation of Dairy Farm Photovoltaic System for a Rural Area in Tlemcen, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufi Aicha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy in agriculture is a research knows that considerable development in the last decade. In this paper we scrutinized optimal sizing of solar array and battery in a stand-alone photovoltaic (SPV system to provide the required electricity for a dairy cow farm located in Terny Beni hdiel in Tlemcen, Algeria. Solar radiation data measured in an hourly time-series format are used based on 22 years. Average between 1983 and 2005. The PVSYST software tool was used for simulation of the system. The study is addressed to loads in the small dairy farm with energy consumption levels of around 121 kWh per day. The stand-alone PV system consists of a Solar panel, DC-DC Converter, Maximum Power Point Tracker, DC/AC Inverter, and Battery.

  19. Offshore Wind Farms and HVDC Grids Modeling as a Feedback Control System for Stability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidadfar, Ali; Saborío-Romano, Oscar; Altin, Müfit

    The low impedance characteristics of DC transmission lines cause the voltage source converter (VSC) in HVDC networks to become electrically closer together and increase the risk of severe interactions between the converters. Such interactions, in turn, intensify the implementation of the grid...... control schemes and may lead the entire system to instability. Assessing the stability and adopting complex coordinated control schemes in an HVDC grid and wind farm turbines are challenging and require a precise model of the HVDC grid, wind farm, and the controllers. In this paper, a linear multivariable...... feedback control system (FCS) model is proposed to represent the dynamic characteristics of HVDC grids and their controllers. The FCS model can be used for different dynamic analyses in time and frequency domains. Moreover, using the FCS model the system stability is analyzed in both open- and closed...

  20. Developing an Indicator System for Measuring the Social Sustainability of Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzay-An Shiau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s government has promoted investment in an offshore wind power farm, and local fishermen have protested. A social impact assessment (SIA has examined the impact of the proposed offshore wind power farm on all stakeholders. The main objective of the present study was to develop an indicator system for measuring the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms; this study also reports on the particular case of Taiwan’s offshore wind power project. This study began by defining 35 social sustainability indicators and selecting 23 representative indicators by using rough set theory. Subsequently, 14 key indicators were constructed using the social construction of technology (SCOT method. Finally, we developed a social impact index for evaluating the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms by using the analytic network process and Dempster-Shafer theory. Our social impact index yields a total score of 0.149 for Taiwan’s pilot offshore wind power project; this result indicates that the pilot project is socially sustainable. A substantial contradiction exists between the fishermen’s protest and the results of the social impact assessment. The findings can assist the government in building a coordination platform for the investors and the fishermen. Government regulation is necessary to set boundaries for fishing areas that protect both the fishermen’s and investors’ rights.

  1. Discrete event systems in dioid algebra and conventional algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Declerck, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This book concerns the use of dioid algebra as (max, +) algebra to treat the synchronization of tasks expressed by the maximum of the ends of the tasks conditioning the beginning of another task - a criterion of linear programming. A classical example is the departure time of a train which should wait for the arrival of other trains in order to allow for the changeover of passengers.The content focuses on the modeling of a class of dynamic systems usually called "discrete event systems" where the timing of the events is crucial. Events are viewed as sudden changes in a process which i

  2. Sustainable Farming Systems in the Sub-Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso - Key Factors Sustainable Farming Systems in the Sub-Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso - Key Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. - Hien

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth and climatic change threatens the sustainability of natural resources. Farming practices can mitigate environmental change and degradation. The aim of this research conducted in Yatenga region was to describe and to analyse manure practices management. In 2005, a survey was carried out to assess the evolution of farming practices. A survey was initially conducted with a sample of 44 farmers, selected randomly in the three neighbouring villages. Subsequently, 18 farms were selected for in-depth interviews. The grain yield was measured and the different practices of soil and water conservation developed by farmers were compared. According to the enquiries, two practices, called “zaï” and “djengo”, were largely used in cereals production. The “zaï” practice, known as a traditional technique for restoration of degraded soil, is characterized by the capture of runoff by micro-watersheds and a localized organic matter supply at the soil-plant system scale. The “djengo” practice is based on the same principle of the “zaï” practice but was applied on the sandy soil as traditionally “zaï” concerned the degraded and crusty soils. The two practices could increase grain crop production but moreover could limit the risk of crops failure. In addition, our observations also showed that frequent tree regenerations occurred in plots and watersheds where “zaï” or “djengo” practices were used. This study highlights the necessity of better controlling soil, water and organic matter to improve agrosystem sustainability in sub Saharan Africa.Rapid population growth and climatic change threatens the sustainability of natural resources. Farming practices can mitigate environmental change and degradation. The aim of this research conducted in Yatenga region was to describe and to analyse manure practices management. In 2005, a survey was carried out to assess the evolution of farming practices. A survey was

  3. Development and advances in conventional high power RF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1995-06-01

    The development of rf systems capable of producing high peak power (hundreds of megawatts) at relatively short pulse lengths (0.1--5 microseconds) is currently being driven mainly by the requirements of future high energy linear colliders, although there may be applications to industrial, medical and research linacs as well. The production of high peak power rf typically involves four basic elements: a power supply to convert ac from the ''wall plug'' to dc; a modulator, or some sort of switching element, to produce pulsed dc power; an rf source to convert the pulsed dc to pulsed rf power; and possibly an rf pulse compression system to further enhance the peak rf power. Each element in this rf chain from wall plug to accelerating structure must perform with high efficiency in a linear collider application, such that the overall system efficiency is 30% or more. Basic design concepts are discussed for klystrons, modulators and rf pulse compression systems, and their present design status is summarized for applications to proposed linear colliders

  4. Work plan for SY Farm Integrated Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-2a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, R.P.; Katz, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The SY Farm currently has a temporary Data Acquisition ampersand Control System (DACS) housed in a mobile trailer. The system is currently referred to as DACS-1. It was designed and configured to support engineers and scientists conducting the special performance evaluation and testing program for the safety mitigation test equipment located in waste tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY). It is currently being maintained and utilized by engineering personnel to monitor and control the 101-SY mitigation pump activities. Based upon the results of the mitigation testing program, some of the temporary test mitigation equipment (such as mixing pump) will be replaced with longer-term ''operational'' mitigation equipment. This is resulting in new requirements for the Data Acquisition and Control System which will be full-filled by a newer control facility referred to as the DACS-2. A teaming between Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been established for the SY farm mitigation program in order to develop and implement the ''next generation'' of the data acquisition and control system for the mitigation pump operations. The new system will be configured for use by the tank farm operational personnel. It will support the routine operations necessary for safety mitigation and the future waste retrieval of Project W-211. It is intended to replace the existing DACS-1 and provide the necessary control room space for future integration of W-211

  5. Remote sensing and monitor system for a large poultry farm based on Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongwu; Teng, Guanghui; Ma, Liang; Li, Zhizhong; Yuan, Zhengdong; Li, Minzan; Yang, Xiuslayerg

    2005-09-01

    A remote sensing and monitor system for a large poultry layer farm is developed based on distributed data acquisition and internet control. The supervising system applied patent techniques known as arc orbit movable vidicon, wireless video transmission and telecommunications. It features supervising at all orientations, and digital video telecommunicating through internet. All measured and control information is sent to a central computer, which is in charge of storing, displaying, analyzing and serving to internet, where managers can monitor real time production scene anywhere and customers can also see the healthy layers through internet. This paper primarily discusses how to design the remote sensing and monitor system (RSMS), and its usage in a large poultry farm, Deqingyuan Healthy Breeding Ecological Garden, Yanqing County, Beijing, China. The system applied web service technology and the middleware using XML language and Java language. It preponderated in data management, data exchange, expansibility, security, and compatibility. As a part of poultry sustainable development management system, it has been applied in a large farm with 1,200,000 layers. Tests revealed that there was distinct decline in the death ratio of chicken with 2. 2%, as the surroundings of layers had been ameliorated. At the same time, there was definite increase in the laying ratio with 3. 5%.

  6. Synthetic Topological Qubits in Conventional Bilayer Quantum Hall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maissam Barkeshli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of topological quantum computation is to build powerful and robust quantum computers with certain macroscopic quantum states of matter called topologically ordered states. These systems have degenerate ground states that can be used as robust “topological qubits” to store and process quantum information. In this paper, we propose a new experimental setup that can realize topological qubits in a simple bilayer fractional quantum Hall system with proper electric gate configurations. Our proposal is accessible with current experimental techniques, involves well-established topological states, and, moreover, can realize a large class of topological qubits, generalizing the Majorana zero modes studied in recent literature to more computationally powerful possibilities. We propose three tunneling and interferometry experiments to detect the existence and nonlocal topological properties of the topological qubits.

  7. Monitoring of Aquatic Biota in Intensive Fish Farming System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Mareš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to conduct a detailed research of aquatic invertebrates in the intensive breeding system of salmonid fish in order to determine the taxonomic composition of the community and its seasonal dynamics, and to identify those species that may be hosts of parasitic disease agents. To date, this issue has not been studied at all in the Czech Republic. Monitoring was conducted on the Danish type recirculation system near the municipality of Pravíkov in the Highlands of the Czech Republic from April till November 2015. A total of 9 series of samples were taken. Macrozoobenthos was evaluated in terms of taxonomic composition and abundance. Basic physicochemical properties of water (temperature, oxygen concentration, pH and conductivity were also measured. In total, 69 taxa of aquatic invertebrates were noted, with the wall being the richest with a mean abundance of 756 pcs/m2. Permanent groups predominated; the most numerous group was the subphylum Crustaceae, represented by a single species, Asellus aquticus.

  8. Classification of Maize in Complex Smallholder Farming Systems Using UAV Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Hall

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Yield estimates and yield gap analysis are important for identifying poor agricultural productivity. Remote sensing holds great promise for measuring yield and thus determining yield gaps. Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are commonly characterized by small field size, intercropping, different crop species with similar phenologies, and sometimes high cloud frequency during the growing season, all of which pose real challenges to remote sensing. Here, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system based on a quadcopter equipped with two consumer-grade cameras was used for the delineation and classification of maize plants on smallholder farms in Ghana. Object-oriented image classification methods were applied to the imagery, combined with measures of image texture and intensity, hue, and saturation (IHS, in order to achieve delineation. It was found that the inclusion of a near-infrared (NIR channel and red–green–blue (RGB spectra, in combination with texture or IHS, increased the classification accuracy for both single and mosaic images to above 94%. Thus, the system proved suitable for delineating and classifying maize using RGB and NIR imagery and calculating the vegetation fraction, an important parameter in producing yield estimates for heterogeneous smallholder farming systems.

  9. Optimization of Electrical System for Offshore Wind Farms via a Genetic Algorithm Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua

    , and the LTC limitation of transformers, the power generation limits and the voltage operation range are considered as the constraints. The optimization method combined with probabilistic analysis is used to obtain the capacity of a given wind farm site. The OES-OWF is approached by Genetic Algorithm (GA...... to very different costs, system reliability, power quality, and power losses etc. Therefore, the optimization of electrical system design for offshore wind farms becomes more and more necessary. There are two tasks in this project: 1) the first one is to construct an algorithm for finding the capacity......). This platform is based on a knowledge database, and composed of several functional modules such as cost calculation, reliability evaluation, losses calculation, AC-DC integrated load flow algorithm etc. All these modules are based on a spreadsheet database which provides an interface for users to input...

  10. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Bibliography. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    This volume contains all of the technical references found in Volumes 1-7 concerning the development of guidelines for the verification and validation of expert systems, knowledge-based systems, other AI systems, object-oriented systems, and conventional systems

  11. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Bibliography. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This volume contains all of the technical references found in Volumes 1-7 concerning the development of guidelines for the verification and validation of expert systems, knowledge-based systems, other AI systems, object-oriented systems, and conventional systems.

  12. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clair Jorge Olivo; Carlos Alberto Agnolin; Priscila Flôres Aguirre; Cláudia Marques de Bem; Tiago Luís da Ros de Araújo; Michelle Schalemberg Diehl; Gilmar Roberto Meinerz

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant gra...

  13. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving.

  14. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving

  15. Offshore Wind Farms and HVDC Grids Modeling as a Feedback Control System for Stability Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bidadfar, Ali; Saborío-Romano, Oscar; Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2017-01-01

    The low impedance characteristics of DC transmission lines cause the voltage source converter (VSC) in HVDC networks to become electrically closer together and increase the risk of severe interactions between the converters. Such interactions, in turn, intensify the implementation of the grid control schemes and may lead the entire system to instability. Assessing the stability and adopting complex coordinated control schemes in an HVDC grid and wind farm turbines are challenging and require ...

  16. Assessment of tillage systems in organic farming: influence of soil structure on microbial biomass. First results

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Jean François; Peigné, Joséphine; Chaussod, Rémi; Roger-Estrade, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Soil tillage modifies environmental conditions of soil microorganisms and their ability to release nitrogen. We compare the influence of reduced tillage (RT) and mouldboard ploughing (MP) on the soil microbial functioning in organic farming. In order to connect soil structure generated by these tillage systems on the soil microbial biomass we adopt a particular sampling scheme based on the morphological characterisation of the soil structure by the description of the soil profile. This method...

  17. Software configuration management plan, 241-AY and 241-AZ tank farm MICON automation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    This document establishes a Computer Software Configuration Management Plan (CSCM) for controlling software for the MICON Distributed Control System (DCS) located at the 241-AY and 241-AZ Aging Waste Tank Farm facilities in the 200 East Area. The MICON DCS software controls and monitors the instrumentation and equipment associated with plant systems and processes. A CSCM identifies and defines the configuration items in a system (section 3.1), controls the release and change of these items throughout the system life cycle (section 3.2), records and reports the status of configuration items and change requests (section 3.3), and verifies the completeness and correctness of the items (section 3.4). All software development before initial release, or before software is baselined, is considered developmental. This plan does not apply to developmental software. This plan applies to software that has been baselined and released. The MICON software will monitor and control the related instrumentation and equipment of the 241-AY and 241-AZ Tank Farm ventilation systems. Eventually, this software may also assume the monitoring and control of the tank sludge washing equipment and other systems as they are brought on line. This plan applies to the System Cognizant Manager and MICON Cognizant Engineer (who is also referred to herein as the system administrator) responsible for the software/hardware and administration of the MICON system. This document also applies to any other organizations within Tank Farms which are currently active on the system including system cognizant engineers, nuclear operators, technicians, and control room supervisors

  18. Competitiveness of Small Farms and Innovative Food Supply Chains: The Role of Food Hubs in Creating Sustainable Regional and Local Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giaime Berti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the economic, social and environmental sustainability of the conventional agri-food system has and continues to be contested within both academic and public institutions. For small farms, the unsustainability of the food system is even more serious; farms’ declining share of profit and the cost-price squeeze of commodity production has increased barriers to market access with the inevitable effect of agricultural abandonment. One way forward to respond to the existing conventional agri-food systems and to create a competitive or survival strategy for small family farms is the re-construction of regional and local agri-food systems, aligning with Kramer and Porter’s concept of shared value strategy. Through a critical literature review, this paper presents “regional and local food hubs” as innovative organizational arrangements capable of bridging structural holes in the agri-food markets between small producers and the consumers—individuals and families as well as big buyers. Food hubs respond to a supply chain (or supply network organizational strategy aiming at re-territorialising the agri-food systems through the construction of what in the economic literature are defined as values-based food supply chains.

  19. Network systems and cloud applications in livestock farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Herd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Der Einsatz von Automatisierungstechnik und von Sensoren zur Tierüberwachung wächst und damit auch die Datenmenge aus der Tierhaltung. Die Herausforderungen an die Datenanalyse und einfache Informationsdarstellung steigen. Die Beispiele aus Wissenschaft und Praxis zeigen Lösungsmöglichkeiten. Dabei müssen Anlagen unterschiedlicher Hersteller gekoppelt und Daten zielgerichtet ausgewertet werden. Während in wissenschaftlich orientierten Projekten meist Systeme unterschiedlicher Hersteller vertreten sind, um z. B. die Kommunikation und Kooperation zu stärken sowie komplexe Fragestellungen zu beantworten, wird dies in herstellerspezifischen Projekten eher vermieden, da hier der konkrete Anwendervorteil im Vordergrund steht. Anhand ausgewählter Beispiele wird dargestellt, dass mobile Anwendungen als Frühwarnsysteme für Gesundheitsveränderungen in Beständen oder zur Anlagensteuerung implementiert und genutzt werden. Insgesamt ist deutlich zu erkennen, dass sich die Datenauswertung und –nutzung in die Cloud verschiebt. Mit diesen Cloudsystemen erweitert sich das Spektrum der Datenauswertung dahingehend, dass komplexe Algorithmen und mobile Services (Apps, Webberatung oder soziale Netzwerke umgesetzt werden.

  20. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant grass was established singularly in rows spaced 1.4 m from each other. Organic and chemical fertilizers were applied at 150 kg of N/ha/year with in the pastures under agroecological and conventional systems, respectively. Lactating Holstein cows which received 5.0 kg/day supplementary concentrate feed were used for evaluation. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two treatments (agroecological and conventional systems two replications (paddocks and independent evaluations (grazing cycles. The pastures were used during the whole year for the agroecological system and for 195 days in the conventional year. The average values of forage mass were 3.5 and 4.2 t/ha and the stocking rates were 2.08 and 3.23 AU/ha for the respective systems. The results suggest that the use of the elephant grass under the agroecological system allows for best distribution of forage and stocking rate to be more uniform throughout the year than the use of elephant grass in conventional system.

  1. Developing mechanisms for estimating carbon footprint in farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Romero, María; Fernández Luque, José Enrique; Rodríguez Merino, Alejandro; José Moreno Delgado, Juan; Rodado, Concepción Mira; Romero Vicente, Rafael; Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable land management is critical to avoid land degradation and to reclaim degraded land for its productive use and for reaping the benefits of crucial ecosystem services and protecting biodiversity. It also helps in mitigating and adapting to climate change. Land and its various uses are affected severely by climate change too (flooding, droughts, etc.). Existing tools and technologies for efficient land management need to be adapted and their application expanded. A large number of human livelihoods and ecosystems can benefit from these tools and techniques since these yield multiple benefits. Disseminating and scaling up the implementation of sustainable land management approaches will, however, need to be backed up by mobilizing strong political will and financial resources. The challenge is to provide an integral decision support tool that can establish relationships between soil carbon content, climate change and land use and management aspects that allow stakeholders to detect, cope with and intervene into land system change in a sustainable way. In order to achieve this goal an agro-ecological meta-model called CarboLAND will be calibrated in several plots located in Andalusia region, Southern Spain, under different scenarios of climate and agricultural use and management. The output will be the CLIMALAND e-platform, which will also include protocols in order to support stakeholders for an integrated ecosystem approach, taking into account biodiversity, hydrological and soil capability, socio-economic aspects, and regional and environmental policies. This tool will be made available at the European context for a regional level, providing user-friendly interfaces and a scientifically-technical platform for the assessment of sustainable land use and management.

  2. Farm batch system and Fermi inter-process communication and synchronization toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrichenko, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Farms Batch System (FBS) was developed as a batch process management system for off-line Run II data processing at Fermilab. FBS will manage PC farms composed of up to 250 nodes and scalable to 1000 nodes with disk capacity of up to several TB. FBS allows users to start arrays of parallel processes on multiple computers. It uses a simplified resource counting method load balancing. FBS has been successfully used for more than a year at Fermilab by fixed target experiments and will be used for collider experiment off-line data processing. Fermi Inter-Process Communication toolkit (FIPC) was designed as a supplement product for FBS that helps establish synchronization and communication between processes running in a distributed batch environment. However, FIPC is an independent package, and can be used with other batch systems, as well as in a non-batch environment. FIPC provides users with a variety of global distributed objects such as semaphores, queues and string variables. Other types of objects can be easily added to FIPC. FIPC has been running on several PC farms at Fermilab for half a year and is going to be used by CDF for off-line data processing

  3. Renewable Energy Use in Smallholder Farming Systems: A Case Study in Tafresh Township of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shabanali Fami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate use of renewable energy and materials in smallholder farming system of the Tafresh township of Iran. The population of the study consisted of 2,400 small farmers working in the smallholder farming systems of the area, in which 133 people were selected as sample using Cochran formula and simple random sampling technique. In order to gather the information, a questionnaire was developed for the study and validated by the judgment of the experts in agricultural development and extension. The reliability of the main scales of the questionnaire was examined by Cronbach Alpha coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 0.93, indicating the tool of study is reliable. The findings revealed that the majority of the respondents use renewable energy and materials directly in its traditional forms without enabling technologies, and they lack the access to renewable technologies to improve the efficiency of energy use. They preferred fossil energy for many activities due to its lower cost and ease of access. The overall conclusion is that there are potentials and capacities for using renewable energies and materials in the farming systems of the Tafresh township. The government has to support and encourage the adoption of renewable technologies and abandon fossil fuels wherever possible.

  4. Optimization of a polygeneration system for energy demands of a livestock farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančić Marko V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A polygeneration system is an energy system capable of providing multiple utility outputs to meet local demands by application of process integration. This paper addresses the problem of pinpointing the optimal polygeneration energy supply system for the local energy demands of a livestock farm in terms of optimal system configuration and optimal system capacity. The optimization problem is presented and solved for a case study of a pig farm in the paper. Energy demands of the farm, as well as the super-structure of the polygeneration system were modelled using TRNSYS software. Based on the locally available resources, the following polygeneration modules were chosen for the case study analysis: a biogas fired internal combustion engine co-generation module, a gas boiler, a chiller, a ground water source heat pump, solar thermal collectors, photovoltaic collectors, and heat and cold storage. Capacities of the polygeneration modules were used as optimization variables for the TRNSYS-GenOpt optimization, whereas net present value, system primary energy consumption, and CO2 emissions were used as goal functions for optimization. A hybrid system composed of biogas fired internal combustion engine based co-generation system, adsorption chiller solar thermal and photovoltaic collectors, and heat storage is found to be the best option. Optimal heating capacity of the biogas co-generation and adsorption units was found equal to the design loads, whereas the optimal surface of the solar thermal array is equal to the south office roof area, and the optimal surface of the PV array corresponds to the south facing animal housing building rooftop area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42006: Research and development of energy and environmentally highly effective polygeneration systems based on using renewable energy sources

  5. Evaluation of a whole-farm model for pasture-based dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, P C; Palliser, C C; Macdonald, K A; Lancaster, J A S; Levy, G; Thorrold, B S; Wastney, M E

    2008-06-01

    In the temperate climate of New Zealand, animals can be grazed outdoors all year round. The pasture is supplemented with conserved feed, with the amount being determined by seasonal pasture growth, genetics of the herd, and stocking rate. The large number of factors that affect production makes it impractical and expensive to use field trials to explore all the farm system options. A model of an in situ-grazed pasture system has been developed to provide a tool for developing and testing novel farm systems; for example, different levels of bought-in supplements and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer application, to maintain sustainability or environmental integrity and profitability. It consists of a software framework that links climate information, on a daily basis, with dynamic, mechanistic component-models for pasture growth and animal metabolism, as well as management policies. A unique feature is that the component models were developed and published by other groups, and are retained in their original software language. The aim of this study was to compare the model, called the whole-farm model (WFM) with a farm trial that was conducted over 3 yr and in which data were collected specifically for evaluating the WFM. Data were used from the first year to develop the WFM and data from the second and third year to evaluate the model. The model predicted annual pasture production, end-of-season cow liveweight, cow body condition score, and pasture cover across season with relative prediction error pasture and supplement intake were predicted with acceptable accuracy, suggesting that the metabolic conversion of feed to fat, protein, and lactose in the mammary gland needs to be refined. Because feed growth and intake predictions were acceptable, economic predictions can be made using the WFM, with an adjustment for milk yield, to test different management policies, alterations in climate, or the use of genetically improved animals, pastures, or crops.

  6. Towards a New Information System for Farm Management: Changing the Accounting System for Better Environmental Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Bremmers, Harry J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper aims at confronting traditional (fiscal) reporting with the administrative requirements in modern farm management. It aims especially at formulating leading indicators for management and control with respect to environmental issues.

  7. Co-innovation of family farm systems: A systems approach to sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogliotti Moro, S.; García, M.C.; Peluffo, S.; Dieste, J.P.; Pedemonte, A.J.; Bacigalupe, G.F.; Scarlato, M.; Alliaume, F.; Alvarez, J.; Chiappe, M.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Meeting the goals of sustainable growth of food production and reducing rural poverty requires assisting family farmers to develop more productive, profitable, resource efficient and environmentally friendly farms. Faced with decreasing product prices and increasing production costs during the last

  8. Modelling and transient stability of large wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2003-01-01

    by a physical model of grid-connected windmills. The windmill generators ate conventional induction generators and the wind farm is ac-connected to the power system. Improvements-of short-term voltage stability in case of failure events in the external power system are treated with use of conventional generator...... technology. This subject is treated as a parameter study with respect to the windmill electrical and mechanical parameters and with use of control strategies within the conventional generator technology. Stability improvements on the wind farm side of the connection point lead to significant reduction...

  9. Evaluating the Effects of Farming Systems on Potato Production Factors Productivity; a Case Study in Kordesatan and Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nasibeh zarei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the effects of farming systems on potato production factors productivity were investigated in the 2011-2012. The data were collected using two stages cluster sampling and preparing 208 questionnaires submitted to farmers in the Koredestan and Hamedan Provinces. The efficacy of farming systems computed using dummy variable, and to select the best produce function, flexible and non-flexible functions were studied. Results indicated that production function Cobb-Douglas is better than the other tested functions. In addition, the effect of ownership farming system on production factors productivity was positive while the effect of other farming systems was found to be negative. Therefore, it is recommended that Ministry of Jahad-e-Agriculture encourage farmers to buy rental land and wells over the long-term period by giving low interest loans.

  10. Applying a transdisciplinary process to define a research agenda in a smallholder irrigated farming system in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Defining an agenda is critical to a research process, and a transdisciplinary approach is expected to improve relevance of an agenda and resultant research outputs. Given the complexity of farming systems, farmer differences and the involvement...

  11. About assessment of carbon accumulation potential in the Kazakhstan soils under conditions of transition to ecological farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, Yu.M.

    1997-01-01

    Processes of carbon oxidation of soil humus as well as possible adsorption of CO 2 from atmosphere and its bonding in soils in capacity of organic forms under condition of transition to ecological farming systems are considered. (author)

  12. Evolution of nitrate level in green lettuce conventional grown under natural conditions and aquaponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Flavius Blidariu; Drasovean Alexandru; Grozea Adrian; Radulov Isidora; Lalescu Dacian

    2013-01-01

    Aquaponics integrates growing plants without soil technology with aquaculture, having an important role in recovery of nutrients from effluents. The research aimed to evaluate nitrates level in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) conventional grown under natural conditions and in integrated aquaponic system with a recirculated aquaculture system designed for pikeperch growth (Sander lucioperca). Conventional production (54 plants) has been obtained in the field without fertilizer or pesticide management...

  13. A system-level cost-of-energy wind farm layout optimization with landowner modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Le; MacDonald, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model the role of landowners in determining the success of wind projects. • A cost-of-energy (COE) model with realistic landowner remittances is developed. • These models are included in a system-level wind farm layout optimization. • Basic verification indicates the optimal COE is in-line with real-world data. • Land plots crucial to a project’s success can be identified with the approach. - Abstract: This work applies an enhanced levelized wind farm cost model, including landowner remittance fees, to determine optimal turbine placements under three landowner participation scenarios and two land-plot shapes. Instead of assuming a continuous piece of land is available for the wind farm construction, as in most layout optimizations, the problem formulation represents landowner participation scenarios as a binary string variable, along with the number of turbines. The cost parameters and model are a combination of models from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Windustry. The system-level cost-of-energy (COE) optimization model is also tested under two land-plot shapes: equally-sized square land plots and unequal rectangle land plots. The optimal COEs results are compared to actual COE data and found to be realistic. The results show that landowner remittances account for approximately 10% of farm operating costs across all cases. Irregular land-plot shapes are easily handled by the model. We find that larger land plots do not necessarily receive higher remittance fees. The model can help site developers identify the most crucial land plots for project success and the optimal positions of turbines, with realistic estimates of costs and profitability

  14. 76 FR 53362 - Approval of Farm Credit System Lending Institutions in FHA Mortgage Insurance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... marketing activities, and to farm-related businesses. The Farm Credit banks collectively issue debt... institutions. The four farm credit banks, one agricultural credit bank (hereinafter collectively referred to as the Farm Credit banks), and their direct lender associations (the Agricultural Credit Associations...

  15. Effect of inter-annual variability in pasture growth and irrigation response on farm productivity and profitability based on biophysical and farm systems modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Iris; Mackay, Alec; Vibart, Ronaldo; Rendel, John; Beautrais, Josef; Dennis, Samuel

    2016-09-15

    Farm system and nutrient budget models are increasingly being used in analysis to inform on farm decision making and evaluate land use policy options at regional scales. These analyses are generally based on the use of average annual pasture yields. In New Zealand (NZ), like in many countries, there is considerable inter-annual variation in pasture growth rates, due to climate. In this study a modelling approach was used to (i) include inter-annual variability as an integral part of the analysis and (ii) test the approach in an economic analysis of irrigation in a case study within the Hawkes Bay Region of New Zealand. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) was used to generate pasture dry matter yields (DMY) for 20 different years and under both dryland and irrigation. The generated DMY were linked to outputs from farm-scale modelling for both Sheep and Beef Systems (Farmaxx Pro) and Dairy Systems (Farmax® Dairy Pro) to calculate farm production over 20 different years. Variation in DMY and associated livestock production due to inter-annual variation in climate was large, with a coefficient of variations up to 20%. Irrigation decreased this inter-annual variation. On average irrigation, with unlimited available water, increased income by $831 to 1195/ha, but when irrigation was limited to 250mm/ha/year income only increased by $525 to 883/ha. Using pasture responses in individual years to capturing the inter-annual variation, rather than the pasture response averaged over 20years resulted in lower financial benefits. In the case study income from irrigation based on an average year were 10 to >20% higher compared with those obtained from individual years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Remotely controlled reagent feed system for mixed waste treatment Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, D.K.; Bowers, J.S.; Reed, R.K.

    1995-02-01

    LLNL has developed and installed a large-scale. remotely controlled, reagent feed system for use at its existing aqueous low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment facility (Tank Farm). LLNL's Tank Farm is used to treat aqueous low-level and mixed wastes prior to vacuum filtration and to remove the hazardous and radioactive components before it is discharged to the City of Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP) via the sanitary sewer in accordance with established limits. This reagent feed system was installed to improve operational safety and process efficiency by eliminating the need for manual handling of various reagents used in the aqueous waste treatment processes. This was done by installing a delivery system that is controlled either remotely or locally via a programmable logic controller (PLC). The system consists of a pumping station, four sets of piping to each of six 6,800-L (1,800-gal) treatment tanks, air-actuated discharge valves at each tank, a pH/temperature probe at each tank, and the PLC-based control and monitoring system. During operation, the reagents are slowly added to the tanks in a preprogrammed and controlled manner while the pH, temperature, and liquid level are continuously monitored by the PLC. This paper presents the purpose of this reagent feed system, provides background related to LLNL's low-level/mixed waste treatment processes, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans

  17. Integration and control of wind farms in the Danish electricity system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak-Jensen, B. (ed.); Suwannarat, A.; Chen, Z. (Aalborg Univ.. Dept. of Energy Technology, Aalborg (Denmark)) (and others)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this project have been to establish and develop a generic model for power balancing studies of the Danish power system as is expected to look like in 2025, with a lot of new wind farms integrated. That is, the objective has been to describe the wind-farms interaction with other power generating units, and the wind farms ability to act as a power plant with regard to the power control and the wind farms ability to maintain the power system stability. Therefore, a dynamic model has been set up, which can reflect the active power balancing in case of wind power fluctuations in the system with a huge wind farm penetration. The set up of the Danish network grid includes the interconnections to Norway, Sweden and Germany and takes into account the power production from the central power plants, the decentralized combined heat and power plants, the power production from the wind turbines on-land as well as off-shore and the load. Also the new Great Belt link is simulated; to see how the usage of this link could optimize the power balance situation. The power production from the different units is controlled by an automatic generation controller, where the different units are controlled by use of a so called participation factor, which determines how the power producing units participate in balancing the power. The participations factors should reflect the market behavior and the unit commitment for the power plants. Therefore, the participation factors are made time dependent, to be able to reflect this market behavior in the future use of the model. Further, the possibility to use balance, delta and gradient control in the wind farms is included together with the possibility to include planned power production from the thermal units. In this report different scenarios have been set up, to show the different possibilities with the model. The primary focus has been to see what could happen if a storm is coming up, and the wind turbines suddenly disconnects

  18. Ecological concepts in organic farming and their consequences for an organic crop ideotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Struik, P.C.; Jacobsen, E.

    2002-01-01

    Currently, organic farmers largely depend on varieties supplied by conventional plant breeders and developed for farming systems in which artificial fertilizers and agro-chemicals are widely used. The organic farming system differs fundamentally in soil fertility, weed, pest and disease management,

  19. Compatibility of switchgrass as an energy crop in farming systems of the southeastern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bransby, D.I.; Rodriguez-Kabana, R.; Sladden, S.E. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to examine the compatibility of switchgrass as an energy crop in farming systems in the southeastern USA, relative to other regions. In particular, the issues addressed are (1) competition between switchgrass as an energy crop and existing farm enterprises, based primarily on economic returns, (2) complementarity between switchgrass and existing farm enterprises, and (3) environmental benefits. Because projected economic returns for switchgrass as an energy crop are highest in the Southeast, and returns from forestry and beef pastures (the major existing enterprises) are low, there is a very strong economic incentive in this region. In contrast, based on current information, economic viability of switchgrass as an energy crop in other regions appears doubtful. In addition, switchgrass in the southeastern USA would complement forage-livestock production, row crop production and wildlife and would provide several additional environmental benefits. It is concluded that the southeastern USA offers the greatest opportunity for developing switchgrass as an economically viable energy crop.

  20. Coordinated Control Strategies for Offshore Wind Farm Integration via VSC-HVDC for System Frequency Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yujun; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Coordinated control strategies to provide system inertia support for main grid from offshore wind farm that is integrated through HVdc transmission is the subject matter of this paper. The strategy that seeks to provide inertia support to the main grid through simultaneous utilization of HVdc...... capacitors energy, and wind turbines (WTs) inertia without installing the remote communication of two HVdc terminals is introduced in details. Consequently, a novel strategy is proposed to improve system inertia through sequentially exerting dc capacitors energy and then WTs inertia via a cascading control...

  1. The Study on Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC System Connecting with Offshore Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan

    furnish the VSC-HVDC connected wind farm with a fast and reliable LVRT ability. The voltage fluctuation caused by the intermittent wind power is another important challenge to the system stability. As in the case of the LCC-HVDC links, their stable operations are highly dependent on the AC side voltage...... with the short electrical distance. And consequently, a so-called Multi-Infeed Direct Current (MIDC) transmission system is formed. On the other hand, as the fast growing of wind power in electrical grids, the Voltage Source Converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) links have becoming a favorable choice for connecting...

  2. European organic dairy farmers' preference for animal health management within the farm management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, F J S; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-11-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management and resources may be allocated to other more preferred areas. Veterinary advisors may experience this as non-compliant with their advice. To explore the preferences of European Union (EU) organic dairy farmers for improved animal health management relative to other farm management areas an adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) was performed. A total of 215 farmers participated originating from organic dairy farms in France (n = 70), Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 28) and Sweden (n = 57). The management areas udder health and claw health represented animal health management whereas barn, calf and pasture management represented potential conflicting management areas. Results indicate that EU organic dairy farmers differ in their preferences for improved animal health management within the farming system. In general, improved calf management was the most preferred area and improved claw health management was found to be least preferred, the remaining areas were of intermediate interest. Cluster analyses on claw health measures and udder health measures resulted in respectively seven and nine distinct preference profiles. The results indicate a high degree of variation in farmers' preference, which cannot be explained by the typical herd characteristics. With the individual preferences revealed by ACA, a veterinary advisor can now find out whether his intended advice is directed at a favourable or unfavourable management area of the farmer. If the latter is the case the veterinarian should first create awareness of the problem to the farmer. Insights in individual farmers preferences will allow veterinary advisors to better understand why farmers were incompliant with their advice

  3. Equally increased hypercoagulability irrespective of using minimized or conventional ECC systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbrüchel, Ann S; Johansson, Pär I; Rafiq, Sulman

    2012-01-01

    Minimized extracorporeal circulation systems in coronary artery bypass may have less impairing effect on hematological parameters and bleeding compared to conventional systems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of mini systems does result in an increased postoperative...

  4. A drought resistance-promoting microbiome is selected by root system under desert farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Marasco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional agro-systems in arid areas are a bulwark for preserving soil stability and fertility, in the sight of "reverse desertification". Nevertheless, the impact of desert farming practices on the diversity and abundance of the plant associated microbiome is poorly characterized, including its functional role in supporting plant development under drought stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the structure of the microbiome associated to the drought-sensitive pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L. cultivated in a traditional Egyptian farm, focusing on microbe contribution to a crucial ecosystem service, i.e. plant growth under water deficit. The root system was dissected by sampling root/soil with a different degree of association to the plant: the endosphere, the rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil that were compared to the uncultivated soil. Bacterial community structure and diversity, determined by using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, differed according to the microhabitat, indicating a selective pressure determined by the plant activity. Similarly, culturable bacteria genera showed different distribution in the three root system fractions. Bacillus spp. (68% of the isolates were mainly recovered from the endosphere, while rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil fractions were dominated by Klebsiella spp. (61% and 44% respectively. Most of the isolates (95% presented in vitro multiple plant growth promoting (PGP activities and stress resistance capabilities, but their distribution was different among the root system fractions analyzed, with enhanced abilities for Bacillus and the rhizobacteria strains. We show that the C. annuum rhizosphere under desert farming enriched populations of PGP bacteria capable of enhancing plant photosynthetic activity and biomass synthesis (up to 40% under drought stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Crop cultivation provides critical ecosystem services in arid lands with the

  5. Monitoring commercial conventional facilities control with the APS control system: The Metasys-to-EPICS interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocki, G.J.; Seaver, C.L.; Kowalkowski, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    As controls needs at the Advanced Photon Source matured from an installation phase to an operational phase, the need to monitor the existing conventional facilities control system with the EPICS-based accelerator control system was realized. This existing conventional facilities control network is based on a proprietary system from Johnson Controls called Metasys. Initially read-only monitoring of the Metasys parameters will be provided; however, the ability for possible future expansion to full control is available. This paper describes a method of using commercially available hardware and existing EPICS software as a bridge between the Metasys and EPICS control systems

  6. Rural Poverty and Diversification of Farming Systems in Upper Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Dufumier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In northeast Thailand, 85% of the farmers are smallholders who are unable to meet their basic needs from agricultural production only. These tiny farms survive thanks to non-farm income, which faces increased difficulties as other economic sectors ran out of steam during the recent economic crisis of the late 1990s. In this context, farmers have to rely more on their agricultural production activity and income. But how can this be made possible in a region well-known for its very constraining soil and climatic conditions? To answer this question, and to examine the whole complexity of agricultural development issues, this article proposes an analysis of recent agrarian transformations and an understanding of farmers’ current practices and strategies. A diagnostic analysis of a village agrarian system located in Khon Kaen Province in upper northeast Thailand was carried out in 2002 by using a combination of field observations, interviews with key witnesses of the local history, and a farm survey of 26 diverse households. The recent history illustrates that farmers have shown a high adaptability to rapid changes in their economic environment, such as changing market demand for agricultural products and labour. The differentiation among farming households has led to different types of farmers with different resources, practices, and strategies. Families belonging to the most frequent type have a very tiny holding and their members are permanently or seasonally involved in unskilled off-farm activities. Their low and unstable total cash income is often insufficient to meet the family’s basic needs and they become deeply indebted. As efforts to improve water availability are being made, many Isarn families could improve their living conditions by diversifying their agricultural production systems with more small-scale fruit, vegetable, fish, or livestock production to improve household food security and cash income, eventually combined with non

  7. Comparison between Conventional OCDMA and Subcarrier Multiplexing SAC OCDMA System Based on Single Photodiode Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad N. A. A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the comparison between conventional OCDMA system and subcarrier multiplexing (SCM SAC-OCDMA system by applying Recursive Combinatorial (RC code based on single photodiode detection (SPD. SPD is used in the receiver part to reduce the effect of multiple access interference (MAI which contributes as a dominant noise in incoherent SAC-OCDMA systems. From this analysis, the performance of SCM OCDMA network could be improved by using lower data rates and higher received power. The hybrid SCM OCDMA system shows better performance compare to conventional OCDMA system although the number of users involved is very high. This is because, for hybrid SCM OCDMA system, the number of users can be increased by increasing the number of subcarriers without affect the number of code length and optical codes. Increasing the number of subcarriers will enhance the power consumption by applying hybrid SCM system in OCDMA compared to the conventional OCDMA system. This is because increasing the number of users for hybrid SCM system does not affects the number of code length and the number of optical codes but only increase the number of subcarriers. Thus, hybrid SCM OCDMA system has to increase spectral efficiency and produce better performance compared to conventional of OCDMA system.

  8. Communicating complexity: Integrated assessment of trade-offs concerning soil fertility management within African farming systems to support innovation and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Tittonell, P.A.; Rufino, M.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Zingore, S.; Mapfumo, P.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Herrero, M.; Chikowo, R.; Corbeels, M.; Rowe, E.C.; Baijukya, F.P.; Mwijage, A.; Smith, J.; Yeboah, E.; Burg, van der W.J.; Sanogo, O.; Misiko, M.; Ridder, de N.; Karanja, S.; Kaizzi, C.K.; K'ungu, J.; Mwale, M.; Nwaga, D.; Pacini, C.; Vanlauwe, B.

    2011-01-01

    African farming systems are highly heterogeneous: between agroecological and socioeconomic environments, in the wide variability in farmers’ resource endowments and in farm management. This means that single solutions (or ‘silver bullets’) for improving farm productivity do not exist. Yet to date

  9. Aggregating field-scale knowledge into farm-scale models of African smallholder systems: Summary functions to simulate crop production using APSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikowo, R.; Corbeels, M.; Tittonell, P.A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Whitbread, A.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency with which applied resources are utilized in sub-Saharan African cropping systems is especially critical as the resources are generally scarce. Research efforts to improve farm productivity increasingly focus on resource interactions and trade-offs operating at farm-scale. Farm-scale

  10. Field evaluation of piglet vaccination with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin as compared to a ready-to-use product including porcine circovirus 2 and M. hyopneumoniae in a conventional French farrow-to-finish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duivon, Didier; Corrégé, Isabelle; Hémonic, Anne; Rigaut, Martial; Roudaut, David; Jolie, Rika

    2018-01-01

    A controlled randomized trial was performed on a well-managed conventional French 180-sow farm. The trial compared the growth performances of piglets vaccinated at weaning (single shot) either with a commercial monovalent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin vaccine or with a commercial bivalent vaccine (Porcilis® PCV M Hyo) against M. hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). The farm's porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome status was stable, and most diseases (enzootic pneumonia, atrophic rhinitis, post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome) were controlled by routine vaccination. During the post-weaning phase, the growth performances of the piglets vaccinated with the bivalent vaccine were not significantly different from those vaccinated with the monovalent vaccine. However, during the fattening phase the group vaccinated with the bivalent vaccine had a significantly improved ADG (+34 g/d, p  = 0. 047), resulting in a 5-day earlier shipment to slaughter. The group also had a shorter and lower PCV2 load in serum during the fattening period, and an improved lung lesions score. In both groups, three pigs died during the peak PCV2 viraemia (16-23 weeks of age). Immunohistochemistry of the lymph nodes showed that in the group vaccinated with the bivalent vaccine, none of these pigs had PCV2-like lesions, while 2 out of the 3 from the other group did. Results suggest that the added PCV2 valence in the vaccination protocol helps countering the negative impact of subclinical PCV2 infection on growth. The calculated return on investment of the added PCV2 vaccine valence was €1.7 extra revenue per slaughtered pig (€ 39 additional revenue per sow and per year), despite the fact that the cost of the bivalent vaccine was higher than the monovalent M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. In this healthy conventional sow farm, the combined M. hyopneumoniae and PCV2 vaccination was efficacious, convenient to administer and profitable.

  11. An assessment of underground and aboveground steam system failures in the SRS waste tank farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.C.; Shurrab, M.S.; Wiersma, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    Underground steam system failures in waste tank farms at the Savannah River Site (SRS) increased significantly in the 3--4 year period prior to 1995. The primary safety issues created by the failures were the formation of sub-surface voids in soil and the loss of steam jet transfer and waste evaporation capability, and the loss of heating and ventilation to the tanks. The average annual cost for excavation and repair of the underground steam system was estimated to be several million dollars. These factors prompted engineering personnel to re-consider long-term solutions to the problem. The primary cause of these failures was the inadequate thermal insulation utilized for steam lines associated with older tanks. The failure mechanisms were either pitting or localized general corrosion on the exterior of the pipe beneath the thermal insulation. The most realistic and practical solution is to replace the underground lines by installing aboveground steam systems, although this option will incur significant initial capital costs. Steam system components, installed aboveground in other areas of the tank farms have experienced few failures, while in continuous use. As a result, piecewise installation of temporary aboveground steam systems have been implemented in F-area whenever opportunities, i.e., failures, present themselves

  12. Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Hao [The University of Texas at Austin; Hamilton, Mark F. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Bhalla, Rajan [Science Applications International Corporation; Brown, Walter E. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Hay, Todd A. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Whitelonis, Nicholas J. [The University of Texas at Austin; Yang, Shang-Te [The University of Texas at Austin; Naqvi, Aale R. [The University of Texas at Austin

    2013-09-30

    Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

  13. Development of new heat transfer media for improving efficiency in energy systems : conventional fluids and nanofluids

    OpenAIRE

    Cabaleiro Alvarez, David

    2016-01-01

    This PhD Thesis aims to characterize different conventional thermal fluids and propose new nanofluids based on their thermophysical, rheological, (solid-liquid) phase equilibria and their capability to heat transfer or heat storage. The selected conventional fluids are commonly used in the majority of heat transfer systems such as ethylene glycol (EG), propylene glycol (PG), a (ethylene glycol + water) mixture at 50 vol.% (EG+W), or the (diphenyl ether + biphenyl) mixtures. The nanofluids wer...

  14. Prospective study of irradiation and magnification on a pelvic imaging: EOS system versus conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, Loic

    2015-01-01

    The pelvic x-ray is essential for the orthopedic practise. Recently, EOS system has been developed with technology to limit irradiation and theoretically not create magnification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the EOS system realizing a pelvic x-ray. All patients who underwent hip replacement between September 2014 and April 2015 have benefited pelvis radiograph with the 2 techniques, after surgery. The size of the head was measured with both techniques and compared to the established size. Irradiation of each technique was listed. A correlation study was carried out with the body mass index (BMI) of the patient. Irradiation was significantly greater with conventional radiography than with the EOS system: PDS of conventional radiography = 15.0 (10.5; 25.2) against the EOS system PDS = 8.2 (7.1; 9.7), p ≤0.0001. It was found a significant correlation between BMI and irradiation, particularly with conventional radiography. About expansion, the EOS system not create any except in 4 cases, unlike the conventional radiograph. The EOS system significantly decreases irradiation in all patients, compared to the conventional radiography, and it do not create magnification when realizing a pelvic x-ray, even in overweight patients [fr

  15. Power Electronic Systems for Switched Reluctance Generator based Wind Farms and DC Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo

    enable various renewable energy sources, such as Photovoltaic (PV) and wind, to produce dc power directly. In addition, battery-based energy storage systems inherently operate with dc power. Hence, dc network (dc-grid) systems which connect these dc sources and storages directly using dc networks...... are gaining much attention again. The dc network system has a great potential to outdo the traditional ac systems in many technical challenges and could be highly profitable especially for offshore wind farm applications, where the size and weight of the components are crucial to the entire system costs......Wind power technology, as the most competitive renewable energy technology, is quickly developing. The wind turbine size is growing and the grid penetration of wind power is increasing rapidly. Recently, the developments on wind power technology pay more attentions on efficiency and reliability...

  16. Economic/Environmental power dispatch for power systems including wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen BEN JAOUED

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the Economic/Environmental power Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind energies. The power flow model for a stall regulated fixed speed wind generator (SR-FSWG system is discussed to assess the steady-state condition of power systems with wind farms. Modified Newton-Raphson algorithm including SR-FSWG is used to solve the load flow equations in which the state variables of the wind generators are combined with the nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the entire network. The EED problem is a nonlinear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, two competing fuel cost and pollutant emission objectives should be minimized simultaneously while satisfying certain system constraints. In this paper, the resolution is done by the algorithm multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus test system and using MATLAB software package.

  17. Dynamics and control of multi-terminal HVDC systems for off-shore wind farm integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciapessoni, E.; Cirio, D.; Gatti, A.; Pitto, A. [Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico SpA (RSE), Milan (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    This paper addresses dynamic modelling aspects concerning the operation of VSC-based MTDC networks connecting large offshore wind farms to mainland AC system. In particular, stability issues of the AC-DC system under severe contingencies such as AC fault on mainland side, DC cable faults, and loss of offshore VSC terminal are analysed, and possible stabilising controls are identified. The propose model includes the basic and control strategies for converters on mainland and offshore side, and an additional global control which simulates the action of SPS-Special Protection System. Simulations are performed on a test system implemented in DIgSILENT Power Factory platform, including the proposed control systems and detailed models of wind turbine DFIGs. The work has been carried out within the FP7 European research project ''TWENTIES''. (orig.)

  18. Fish production and some traits of meat quality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss farmed in different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Stoyanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, an important species in Bulgarian aquaculture, is farmed in different production systems as raceways, net cages etc. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two different rearing systems on fish production, survival rate, meat chemical, mineral composition and farming economic efficiency of culticated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. The information from a survey on fish production and economic efficiency traits was collected from two national rainbow trout farms using the two commonest fish farming systems: in raceways, Happy Fish Ltd fish farm and in net cages, Forest Group Ltd fish farm. The average individual weight gain (g, total weight gain (kg, feed conversion ratio, production costs of 1 kg fish and the economic efficiency coefficients were determined for the two studied fish farms. The final live weight of rainbow trout in net cages was 0.30 kg vs 0.35 kg in raceways. The average individual weight gain was higher in raceways farming system (0.30 kg than in net cages farm (0.26 kg. The mortality rate of fish in raceways was considerably lower: only 1% as compared to that in net cages (4%. The feed conversion ratio at the end of the experiment showed identical values for trout in both farms 1.01. The meat water content of fish reared in raceways and net cages was 77.46±0.65% and 74.52±0.52% respectively (P≤0.01.The protein content of fish meat was higher in fish farmed in net cages 18.84±0.29% as compared to fish cultivated in raceways 17.60±0.49% (P 0.05. Meat fat content of rainbow trout, reared in the net cage system was also considerably higher (5.26±0.30% than the respective parameter in fish farmed in ponds (3.60±0.15% (P≤0.001. The content of Ca and P was higher in rainbow trouts reared in raceways (138.96±1.12 mg.kg and 2844.32±39.31 mg.kg 1 -1 -1 compared with the values of these parameters of fish in net cages (134.46±1.96 mg.kg and 2690.31±42

  19. Development and Design of a Flexible Measurement System for Offshore Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Arana Aristi, Iván; Hjerrild, Jesper

    The development process of a flexible measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term offshore data logging is described in this paper. This covers the complete design taking into account precise synchronisation, electromagnetic compatibility, software development and sensor...... calibration. The presented measurement set-up was tested in a rough offshore environment. Results from measurement campaigns at Avedøre and Gunfleet Sands offshore wind farms including synchronisation precision and accuracy, electromagnetic interference of power electronic devices are briefly presented....

  20. Development and Design of a Flexible Measurement System for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Arana Aristi, Ivan; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The development process of a flexible measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term offshore data logging is described in this paper. This covers the complete design taking into account precise synchronisation, electromagnetic compatibility, software development and sensor...... calibration. The presented measurement set-up was tested in a rough offshore environment. Results from measurement campaigns at Avedøre and Gunfleet Sands offshore wind farms including synchronisation precision and accuracy, electromagnetic interference of power electronic devices are briefly presented....

  1. Survey of egg farmers regarding the ban on conventional cages in the EU and their opinion of alternative layer housing systems in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, L M; Ampe, B A; Van Gansbeke, S; Van den Bogaert, T; D'Haenens, E; Heerkens, J L T; Tuyttens, F A M

    2016-03-01

    On 1 January 2012, conventional cages for laying hens were banned in the European Union (EU); all egg farmers must now use alternative hen housing systems. In total, 218 Flemish egg farmers were surveyed in 2013 to 2014 regarding which housing systems they currently use, their degree of satisfaction with the system, and how they experienced the transition from conventional cages to an alternative system. The response rate was 58.3% (127 respondents). Of these, 43 (33.9%) were no longer active as an egg farmer, mainly due to the ban on conventional cages. The respondents who were active as egg farmers both before and after the transition (84, 66.1%) mainly judged the ban as negative for their own finances and for the competitive position of the Belgian egg industry, but were neutral or positive regarding the general consequences for their own business. Most respondents' hens were housed in either aviary systems (47.7%) or in alternative cage systems (38.2%). When choosing a new system, the fit into the farm and consumer demand were the most important factors. Consumer demand was the main reason for choosing a system with free-range access. In general, egg farmers were satisfied with the system they chose, although this differs between systems. When asked to compare the alternative systems to conventional cages, alternatives were judged to be better for hen welfare and consumer demand, but similar or worse for all other aspects, especially labor. Egg farmers previously using conventional cages judged alternative systems more negatively than those who had no prior experience with conventional cages. Farmers who had experience with free-range systems judged these more positively than those without this experience, e.g., for egg consumer demand, profitability, and hen welfare. These results can possibly be extrapolated to other EU countries in which conventional cages were the most common housing system until 2012, and lessons can be drawn from the farmers' experiences

  2. Access to Justice in the European Convention on Human Rights System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, L.R.; Gerards, J.H.

    2017-01-01

    The numerous reforms to the Convention system of the past two decades have unquestionably had an effect on applicants’ means to access justice in the system. It is, however, open to question how these changes should be evaluated: with reference to the individual right to petition, or with reference

  3. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J.

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  4. Emissions of nitrous oxide from arable organic and conventional cropping systems on two soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, N.; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Albert, Kristian Rost

    2010-01-01

    Conventional cropping systems rely on targeted short-term fertility management, whereas organic systems depend, in part, on long-term increase in soil fertility as determined by crop rotation and management. Such differences influence soil nitrogen (N) cycling and availability through the year...

  5. Some comments about the comparison between a conventional and a solar powered absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, O.D.; Garibotti, C.R.

    1983-08-01

    Two statements about the performance of solar refrigeration systems are discussed. First, concepts of efficiency and coefficient of performance are studied. Second, the influence of inflation and rise of fuel prices are considered, in relation to the comparison between solar and conventional refrigeration systems. (author)

  6. Production components and yield of bushing snap bean in conventional and organic production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Renato Gomes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Production systems influence crops differently, mainly in terms of yield. However, there are few studies that have evaluated different bushing snap bean genotypes in different systems. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the production components and yield of bushing snap beans in conventional and organic production systems. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, in a factorial 6 × 2 arrangement, corresponding to six genotypes and two production systems, with three replications. The genotypes Isla Manteiga Baixo®, Isla Macarrão Baixo®, Feltrin Vicenza Amarelo Baixo®, and Feltrin Macarrão Napoli®, UEL 1, and UEL 2 were submitted to the following determinations: days to flowering; plant height; medium number of pods per plant; average pod mass, length, and diameter; and yield of commercial pods. A joint analysis of variance was conducted by applying the F test, with mean comparison performed using the Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. Anthesis of the genotypes Feltrin Vicenza Amarelo Baixo, UEL 2, Isla Macarrão Baixo, and Feltrin Macarrão Napoli is anticipated in the conventional production system. The genotype UEL 2 shows higher precocity in anthesis within the conventional system. The genotypes Isla Manteiga Baixo and UEL 1 produce more pods per plant in the conventional system. In the organic system, the genotype Feltrin Macarrão Napoli produces double the number of pods per plant compared with Isla Manteiga Baixo. The organic system leads to greater plant height and average mass, length, and diameter of pods in relation to the conventional system. The commercial pod yield of bushing snap bean is not altered by differences in the production system or genotype.

  7. A group-based spatial decision support system for wind farm site selection in Northwest Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsevski, Pece V.; Cathcart, Steven C.; Mirzaei, Golrokh; Jamali, Mohsin M.; Ye, Xinyue; Gomezdelcampo, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the benefits of applying a spatial decision support system (SDSS) framework for evaluating the suitability for wind farm siting in Northwest Ohio. The multiple criteria evaluation (MCE) prototype system is intended for regional planning but also for promoting group decision making that could involve participants with different interests in the development of decision alternatives. The framework integrates environmental and economic criteria and builds a hierarchy for wind farm siting using weighted linear combination (WLC) techniques and GIS functionality. The SDSS allows the multiple participants to interact and develop an understanding of the spatial data for assigning importance values to each factor. The WLC technique is used to combine the assigned values with map layers, which are standardized using fuzzy set theory, to produce individual suitability maps. The maps created by personal preferences from the participants are aggregated for producing a group solution using the Borda method. Sensitivity analysis is performed on the group solution to examine how small changes in the factor weights affect the calculated suitability scores. The results from the sensitivity analysis are intended to aid understanding of compromised solutions through changes in the input data from the participant's perspective. - Highlights: ► We present a prototype tool that we developed for wind farm site selection. ► Multiple participants rank the factors for promoting group-based decision making. ► The factors are aggregated by WLC technique to generate maps from participants. ► Group-based solution uses Borda method to aggregate the maps from participants. ► Sensitivity analysis is performed on the group solution to examine solution affects

  8. Choosing CPUs in an Open Market: System Performance Testing for the BaBar Online Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, Tomas J

    1998-01-01

    BABAR is a high-rate experiment to study CP violation in asymmetric e + e - collisions. The BABAR Online Farm is a pool of workstations responsible for the last layer of event selection, as well as for full reconstruction of selected events and for monitoring functions. A large number of machine architectures were evaluated for use in this Online Farm. We present an overview of the results of this evaluation, which include tests of low-level OS primitives, tests of memory architecture, and tests of application-specific CPU performance. Factors of general interest to others making hardware decisions are highlighted. Performance of current BABAR reconstruction (written in C++) is found to scale fairly well with SPECint95, but with some noticeable deviations. Even for machines with similar SPEC CPU ratings, large variations in memory system performance exist. No single operating system has an overall edge in the performance of its primitives. In particular, freeware operating systems perform no worse overall than the commercial offerings

  9. Using Ecophysiology to Improve Farm Efficiency: Application in Temperate Dairy Grazing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Chapman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Information on the physiological ecology of grass-dominant pastures has made a substantial contribution to the development of practices that optimise the amount of feed harvested by grazing animals in temperate livestock systems. However, the contribution of ecophysiology is often under-stated, and the need for further research in this field is sometimes questioned. The challenge for ecophysiolgists, therefore, is to demonstrate how ecophysiological knowledge can help solve significant problems looming for grassland farming in temperate regions while also removing constraints to improved productivity from grazed pastures. To do this, ecophysiological research needs to align more closely with related disciplines, particularly genetics/genomics, agronomy, and farming systems, including systems modelling. This review considers how ecophysiological information has contributed to the development of grazing management practices in the New Zealand dairy industry, an industry that is generally regarded as a world leader in the efficiency with which pasture is grown and utilised for animal production. Even so, there are clear opportunities for further gains in pasture utilisation through the refinement of grazing management practices and the harnessing of those practices to improved pasture plant cultivars with phenotypes that facilitate greater grazing efficiency. Meanwhile, sub-optimal persistence of new pastures continues to constrain productivity in some environments. The underlying plant and population processes associated with this have not been clearly defined. Ecophysiological information, placed in the context of trait identification, grounded in well-designed agronomic studies and linked to plant improvements programmes, is required to address this.

  10. System Level Design of Reconfigurable Server Farms Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processor Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangook Moon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As today’s hardware architecture becomes more and more complicated, it is getting harder to modify or improve the microarchitecture of a design in register transfer level (RTL. Consequently, traditional methods we have used to develop a design are not capable of coping with complex designs. In this paper, we suggest a way of designing complex digital logic circuits with a soft and advanced type of SystemVerilog at an electronic system level. We apply the concept of design-and-reuse with a high level of abstraction to implement elliptic curve crypto-processor server farms. With the concept of the superior level of abstraction to the RTL used with the traditional HDL design, we successfully achieved the soft implementation of the crypto-processor server farms as well as robust test bench code with trivial effort in the same simulation environment. Otherwise, it could have required error-prone Verilog simulations for the hardware IPs and other time-consuming jobs such as C/SystemC verification for the software, sacrificing more time and effort. In the design of the elliptic curve cryptography processor engine, we propose a 3X faster GF(2m serial multiplication architecture.

  11. Statistical analysis and dimensioning of a wind farm energy storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waśkowicz Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth in renewable power generation and more strict local regulations regarding power quality indices will make it necessary to use energy storage systems with renewable power plants in the near future. The capacity of storage systems can be determined using different methods most of which can be divided into either deterministic or stochastic. Deterministic methods are often complicated with numerous parameters and complex models for long term prediction often incorporating meteorological data. Stochastic methods use statistics for ESS (Energy Storage System sizing, which is somewhat intuitive for dealing with the random element of wind speed variation. The proposed method in this paper performs stabilization of output power at one minute intervals to reduce the negative influence of the wind farm on the power grid in order to meet local regulations. This paper shows the process of sizing the ESS for two selected wind farms, based on their levels of variation in generated power and also, for each, how the negative influences on the power grid in the form of voltage variation and a shortterm flicker factor are decreased.

  12. Sustainable integrated farming system: A solution for national food security and sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, M.; Fathurrahman

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of literature related to food security. The world food crisis is a threat to all countries, including Indonesia. The problem of food security in Indonesia is still happening, particularly, aspects of production and increasingly unbalanced food availability. Due to the increasing rate of population growth, land functional shift, degradation of land resources and water, as well as environmental pollution and climate change. Food production has not been able to meet the needs of the population continuously. Therefore, the food policy paradigm applied in Indonesia must change from food security to food independence. Thus, Indonesia is not dependent on other countries. Food diversification is one of the best policies to be implemented in achieving food independence and anticipating the food crisis. Food diversification utilizes land optimally by developing an integrated farming system. The integrated farming system is an efficient and environmentally agricultural system. It is able to utilize sustainable agriculture development, followed by the development of participatory technology (Participatory Technology Development) which refers to the local wisdom of the community.

  13. Cost comparison of dry-type and conventional cooling systems for representative nuclear generating plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossie, J.P.; Cecil, E.A.; Young, R.O.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of studies comparing the use of dry-type cooling towers with conventional cooling methods for representative pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants. The studies were based on the hypothetical use of dry-type cooling towers for three nuclear power plants now under construction which were designed and are being built to use conventional cooling methods. One of the plants is located in the northeastern United States, one in the Southeast and one in the West. The report also presents the results of comparisons based on a hypothetical plant at a typical eastern United States site. The three electric utilities which participated in these studies have furnished actual construction cost information for the conventional cooling systems being constructed, and the authors have made construction estimates for economically optimum dry cooling systems which might have been built in place of the conventional cooling systems being constructed. The report compares the physical and operating characteristics of dry-type and conventional cooling systems as well as the relative economics of the different cooling methods. The effect of dry cooling on the bus-bar cost of power has been computed for the three selected plants and for the typical eastern plant

  14. Extension Activity Support System (EASY: A Web-Based Prototype for Facilitating Farm Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pettit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to disparate advances in delivering spatial information to support agricultural extension activities, the Extension Activity Support System (EASY project was established to develop a vision statement and conceptual design for such a system based on a national needs assessment. Personnel from across Australia were consulted and a review of existing farm information/management software undertaken to ensure that any system that is eventually produced from the EASY vision will build on the strengths of existing efforts. This paper reports on the collaborative consultative process undertaken to create the EASY vision as well as the conceptual technical design and business models that could support a fully functional spatially enabled online system.

  15. A survey of dairy calf management practices among farms using manual and automated milk feeding systems in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano-Galarza, Catalina; LeBlanc, Stephen J; DeVries, Trevor J; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Rushen, Jeffrey; Marie de Passillé, Anne; Haley, Derek B

    2017-08-01

    Dairy calves in North America traditionally are housed individually and fed by manual milk feeding (MMF) systems with buckets or bottles. Automated milk feeders (AMF) allow for more natural milk feeding frequencies and volumes, and calves are usually housed in groups. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of various milk-fed calf management and feeding practices and (2) compare these practices between dairy farms using MMF and AMF systems. A national online survey was performed from January to May 2015 to quantify management practices for the care of milk-fed dairy calves in Canada. A total of 670 responses were received (6% of all dairy farms in Canada). Among respondents, 16% used AMF and 84% used MMF. Seventy percent of the farms using AMF had freestall barns compared with only 48% of those using MMF. A greater proportion of AMF farms (30%) also had automatic milking systems (AMS) compared with MMF farms (8%). Among tiestall farms, a herd size of >80 milking cows was associated with having an AMF [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-11.4]. For freestall or bedded-pack farms, a herd size of >80 milking cows (OR = 3.5; CI: 1.8-6.6), having an AMS (OR = 3.1; CI: 1.6-5.7), and use of cow brushes (OR = 3.1; CI: 1.3-6.9) were associated with having an AMF. Calves fed with AMS typically were housed in groups of 10 to 15, whereas almost 76% of the farms with MMF housed calves individually. Although both AMF and MMF farms fed similar amounts of milk in the first week of life (median = 6 L/d), the cumulative volume fed in the first 4 wk differed significantly, with a median of 231 versus 182 L for AMF and MMF, respectively. Median peak milk allowance was higher for AMF than for MMF (10 vs. 8 L/d, respectively). In summary, farms using AMF were larger, provided more milk to calves, and used more automation in general (i.e., in other areas of their operation). These data provide insights into calf-rearing practices across

  16. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagenberg, C P A; de Haas, Y; Hogeveen, H; van Krimpen, M M; Meuwissen, M P M; van Middelaar, C E; Rodenburg, T B

    2017-10-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance of current livestock production systems may help to formulate strategies for future systems. Our study provides a systematic overview of differences between conventional and organic livestock production systems on a broad range of sustainability aspects and animal species available in peer-reviewed literature. Systems were compared on economy, productivity, environmental impact, animal welfare and public health. The review was limited to dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broilers and laying hens, and to Europe, North America and New Zealand. Results per indicators are presented as in the articles without performing additional calculations. Out of 4171 initial search hits, 179 articles were analysed. Studies varied widely in indicators, research design, sample size and location and context. Quite some studies used small samples. No study analysed all aspects of sustainability simultaneously. Conventional systems had lower labour requirements per unit product, lower income risk per animal, higher production per animal per time unit, higher reproduction numbers, lower feed conversion ratio, lower land use, generally lower acidification and eutrophication potential per unit product, equal or better udder health for cows and equal or lower microbiological contamination. Organic systems had higher income per animal or full time employee, lower impact on biodiversity, lower eutrophication and acidification potential per unit land, equal or lower likelihood of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and higher beneficial fatty acid levels in cow milk. For most sustainability aspects, sometimes conventional and sometimes organic systems performed better, except for productivity, which was

  17. On-farm research in Western Siberia: Potential of adapted management practices for sustainable intensification of crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühling, Insa; Trautz, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Western Siberia is of global significance in terms of agricultural production, carbon sequestration and biodiversity preservation. Abandonment of arable land and changes in the use of permanent grasslands were triggered by the dissolution of the Soviet Union in and the following collapse of the state farm system. The peatlands, forests and steppe soils of Western Siberia are one of the most important carbon sinks worldwide. These carbon stocks are, if deteriorated, an important source of radiative forcing even in comparison to anthropogenic emissions. This situation is aggravated by recent and future developments in agricultural land use in the southern part of Western Siberia, in particular in Tyumen province. The increase of drought risk caused by climate change will led to more challenges in these water-limited agricultural production systems. The German-Russian interdisciplinary research project "SASCHA" aims to provide sustainable land management practices to cope with these far-reaching changes for Tyumen province. In particular, on farm scale agricultural strategies are being developed for increased efficiencies in crop production systems. Therefore a 3-factorial field trial with different tillage and seeding operations was installed with spring wheat on 10 ha under practical conditions in 2013. Within all combinations of tillage (no-till/conventional), seed rate (usual/reduced) and seed depth (usual/shallower) various soil parameters as well as plant development and yield components were intensively monitored during the growing seasons. Results after 2-years show significant impacts of the tillage operation on soil moisture and soil temperature. Also a higher trend in nitrogen mineralization could be observed without tillage. Plant development in terms of phenological growth stages took place simultaneously in all variants. Under no-till regime we measured slightly higher grain yields and significant advantages in protein yields. In conjunction with

  18. Oscillation Performance and Wide‐area Coordination Control of Power System with Large‐scale Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi

    and residue identification. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this damping controller under different operating conditions of the SSSC. Influence of a direct‐drive‐full‐convertor based wind farm ancillary frequency control and voltage control on power system oscillation performance is investigated...... oscillation mode damping ratio, respectively. The former controller is implemented in individual wind turbines; the latter controller is implemented in the wind farm level as a supplementary damping controller. Finally, the coordinating selection and parameter design strategy for PSS is extended for all types...... to this problem need to be implemented in the power systems. On the other hand, wind power especially largescale wind farms are increasingly integrated into modern power systems and bring new challenges to power system operation and control. The influence of wind power integration on system oscillation...

  19. Collection System Cable Routing and Wake Losses Optimization in Offshore Wind Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragoso Rodrigues, S.M.; Bauer, P.; Bosman, P.A.N.; Pierik, J.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind farms with high installed capacities and located further from the shore are starting to be built by northern European countries. Furthermore, it is expected that by 2020, several dozens of large offshore wind farms will be built in the Baltic, Irish and North seas. These wind farms

  20. Boiler feedwater quality improvement by replacing conventional pre-treatment with advanced membrane systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Bernhard [Process Systems Pall GmbH, Dreieich (Germany). Marketing; Venkatadri, Ramraj [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States). Global Marketing Energy

    2013-09-01

    Two case studies in different application fields highlight significant economical and operational improvements that were achieved by replacing conventional water treatment technologies by highly-sophisticated membrane systems. The first case study deals with boiler feedwater in a power plant, focusing on the challenges faced as well as the direct and indirect benefits gained by the new system within a utility station. The second case study deals with the conventional water treatment scheme for groundwater from 13 wells at a major oil sands facility. Operational performance as well as the cost improvements gained in both cases will be presented. (orig.)

  1. Development of Organic Farming in Europe at the Crossroads: Looking for the Way Forward through System Archetypes Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Brzezina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, policymakers and stakeholders in the European Union (EU have put considerable effort into increasing the adoption of organic farming, with the overall objective of its sustainable development. However, the growth of the organic sector has come with many challenges that jeopardize its sustainability. The question then is how to move organic farming in Europe forward and at the same time capitalize on its potential contribution to sustainability? Organic farming in the EU is a highly complex and dynamic food system and as such this question cannot be answered in isolation using a one-dimensional mind-set and tools of the past. In this paper, we use three system archetypes—Limits to Growth, Shifting the Burden and Eroding Goals—to sharpen our ability: (1 to analyze and anticipate difficulties in the development of organic farming in the EU under the current policy measures; and (2 to find effective ways to address these difficulties. A system archetype consists of a generic system structure that leads to unintended behavior over time and effective strategies for changing the structure into one that generates desirable behavior. The analysis reveals that in order to move forward, policymakers and stakeholders should reemphasize fundamental solutions rather than quick fixes that often generate unintended consequences. Specifically, Limits to Growth shows us that the leverage for moving organic farming out of the niche does not necessarily lie in increasing subsidies that push engines of growth, but rather in anticipating and managing its limits arising from, for instance, market dynamics or intrinsic environmental motivation. In turn, Shifting the Burden brings to attention how easily and unnoticeably the EU’s organic farming system can become dependent on third countries thereby undermining its own sustainability. Finally, Eroding Goals highlights that is it important to continuously improve regulatory standards

  2. Planning and costing of agricultural adaptation in the the integrated hill farming systems of Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudel, Bikash; Tamang, B.B.; Lamsal, Krishna; Paudel, Pratima

    2011-09-15

    Despite an existing information gap in scientific evidence regarding the effects of future changes in climate patterns and options for the future, the community-based adaptation process should nevertheless be initiated. This requires community involvement through participatory planning in order to make use of local experiences and knowledge. The existing technologies at the community level, and among researchers supporting communities in undertaking adaptations to climate change, are currently inadequately disseminated. While the generation of additional technologies is regarded as a priority in the long term, transfer of already available technologies to the user community should be the immediate priority. The local adaptation plan of action (LAPA) is an effective means to mainstream adaptation options in national and local governmental plans, and to support local communities in planning for adaptation. Although the initial costs of defining this methodology are high, they will decrease as soon as it is evolved and scaled up. Hence, the adaptation costs and resulting benefits will also remain at the local level. The majority of the adaptation actions identified for the hill farming system in Nepal are long-term actions. In order to achieve sustainability, the adaptation actions should not be part of any project or one-time investment, but must be integrated into the regular agricultural development process. Adaptation priorities for the hill farming system of Nepal mainly incorporate improved practices for integrated soil, land, hedgerow and water management – for instance, through water harvesting and small-scale irrigation measures.

  3. Role of Pigeonpea Cultivation on Soil Fertility and Farming System Sustainability in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adjei-Nsiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the smallholder farming system in Ghana is under threat due to soil fertility decline. Mineral fertilizer is sparingly being used by smallholder farmers because of prohibitive cost. Grain legumes such as pigeonpea can play a complementary or alternative role as a source of organic fertilizer due to its ability to enhance soil fertility. Despite its importance, the potential of pigeonpea as a soil fertility improvement crop has not been exploited to any appreciable extent and the amount of land cultivated to pigeonpea in Ghana is vey negligible. This paper synthesizes recent studies that have been carried out on pigeonpea in Ghana and discusses the role of pigeonpea cultivation in soil fertility management and its implication for farming system sustainability. The paper shows that recent field studies conducted in both the semi-deciduous forest and the forest/savanna transitional agro-ecological zones of Ghana indicate that pigeonpea/maize rotations can increase maize yield by 75–200%. Barrier to widespread adoption of pigeonpea include land tenure, market, and accessibility to early maturing and high yielding varieties. The paper concludes among other things that in order to promote the cultivation of pigeonpea in Ghana, there is the need to introduce varieties that combine early maturity with high yields and other desirable traits based on farmers preferences.

  4. TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN PLANT PROTECTION IN THE PRECISION FARMING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Jurišić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic premise of precision farming as a larger amount of information is its availability to the farmer in making decision. Direct comparison of perennial parameters obtained from the plot results in purposefully, argumentative and optimal use of resources for work (while keeping in mind the ecological impact. Today, the development of satellite navigation technology and monitoring of agricultural machinery, and reducing the cost of these devices again revived the question of the precision agriculture application. Advanced farmers in developed agricultural countries already regularly apply some of the technological possibilities of precision farming. Precision agriculture and plant protection allow the farmer realizing high incomes while keeping safe natural resources. Using modern GIS technology machines collect data directly from the plot using sensors and integrate themselves into the data processing system. Processed information is used by a farmer taking GreenStar system for the new planned operation and achieving significant time and money spare. Precision agriculture offers the possibility of optimal care of each plant, not just the average, or the entire field. Low risk investments are one of the main factors of choice precise plant protection. The use of pilotless aircrafts remote sensing allow fast and economical obtaining data and sufficient precision information. Using modern technology such as Variable Rate Application (applying a variable volume and GreenStar software package it is possible to regulate the amount of care and protection.

  5. Dairy cattle; Farming system; Animal feeding; Milk; Productivity; Work organization; Role of women; India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Alary

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To satisfy Indian consumers’ rising demand for milk products, Indian breeders will have to boost their production rapidly, especially through improved feeding practices. Many experts point out that currently used crop by-products will not be sufficient to meet increasing feed requirements from cow and buffalo herds and that it will be necessary to turn to grains such as wheat and maize. But other experts think that grain will not be enough and that the increasing animal consumption of grain will affect human consumption, unless India decides on massive grain imports, putting pressure on the world grain market. The present survey carried out in two districts of Haryana showed that grain was not an essential feed for cattle and buffaloes, and that improving cotton and mustard by-products, and green fodder had great potential. A second finding was that wealthier farmers tended to underuse the genetic potential of milk cows and buffaloes. Moreover, biotechnical management of the herd, in particular the feeding system, was closely related to the socioeconomic management of the family farming system; family strategies aimed at ensuring sufficient milk production for the family in larger farms and to provide a regular income in smaller ones. This paper also stressed out the need to design, implement, and monitor development programs that integrate sociocultural and, especially, gender issues, to facilitate technological innovation with respect to forage storage.

  6. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.

  7. A New Skid Trail Pattern Design for Farm Tractors Using Linear Programing and Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Gumus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm tractor skidding is one of the common methods of timber extraction in Turkey. However, the absence of an optimal skidding plan covering the entire production area can result in time loss and negative environmental impacts. In this study, the timber extraction by farm tractors was analyzed, and a new skid trail pattern design was developed using Linear Programming (LP and Geographical Information Systems (GIS. First, a sample skidding operation was evaluated with a time study, and an optimum skidding model was generated with LP. Then, the new skidding pattern was developed by an optimum skidding model and GIS analysis. At the end of the study, the developed new skid trail pattern was implemented in the study area and tested by running a time study. Using the newly developed “Direct Skid Trail Pattern (DSTP” model, a 16.84% increase in working time performance was observed when the products were extracted by farm tractors compared to the existing practices. On the other hand, the average soil compaction value measured in the study area at depths of 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm was found to be greater in the sample area skid trails than in the control points. The average density of the skid trails was 281 m/ha, while it decreased to 187 m/ha by using the developed pattern. It was also found that 44,829 ton/ha of soil losses were prevented by using the DSTP model; therefore, environmental damages were decreased.

  8. Sustainable Farming Systems in the Sub-Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso - Key Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. - Hien

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth and climatic change threatens the sustainability of natural resources. Farming practices can mitigate environmental change and degradation. The aim of this research conducted in Yatenga region was to describe and to analyse manure practices management. In 2005, a survey was carried out to assess the evolution of farming practices. A survey was initially conducted with a sample of 44 farmers, selected randomly in the three neighbouring villages. Subsequently, 18 farms were selected for in-depth interviews. The grain yield was measured and the different practices of soil and water conservation developed by farmers were compared. According to the enquiries, two practices, called “zaï” and “djengo”, were largely used in cereals production. The “zaï” practice, known as a traditional technique for restoration of degraded soil, is characterized by the capture of runoff by micro-watersheds and a localized organic matter supply at the soil-plant system scale. The “djengo” practice is based on the same principle of the “zaï” practice but was applied on the sandy soil as traditionally “zaï” concerned the degraded and crusty soils. The two practices could increase grain crop production but moreover could limit the risk of crops failure. In addition, our observations also showed that frequent tree regenerations occurred in plots and watersheds where “zaï” or “djengo” practices were used. This study highlights the necessity of better controlling soil, water and organic matter to improve agrosystem sustainability in sub Saharan Africa.

  9. Comparison of carbon sequestration potential in agricultural and afforestation farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinsu Lin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, many forests have been cut down to make room for cultivation and to increase food or energy crops production in developing countries. In this study, carbon sequestration and wood production were evaluated on afforested farms by integrating the Gaussian diameter distribution model and exponential diameter-height model derived from sample plots of an afforested hardwood forest in Taiwan. The quantity of sequestrated carbon was determined based on aboveground biomass. Through pilot tests run on an age-volume model, an estimation bias was obtained and used to correct predicted volume estimates for a farm forest over a 20-year period. An estimated carbon sequestration of 11,254 t C was observed for a 189ha-hardwood forest which is equivalent to 41,264 t CO2. If this amount of carbon dioxide were exchanged on the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX market, the income earned would be 821 US$ ha- 1. Carbon sequestration from rice (Oryza sativa or sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum production is discharged as a result of straw decomposition in the soil which also improves soil quality. Sugarcane production does not contribute significantly to carbon sequestration, because almost all the cane fiber is used as fuel for sugar mills. As a result of changing the farming systems to hardwood forest in this study area, carbon sequestration and carbon storage have increased at the rate of 2.98 t C ha- 1 year- 1. Net present value of afforestation for a 20-year period of carbon or wood management is estimated at around US$ 30,000 given an annual base interest rate of 3 %.

  10. Review of magnetic refrigeration system as alternative to conventional refrigeration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezaal, N. A.; Osintsev, K. V.; Zhirgalova, T. B.

    2017-10-01

    The refrigeration system is one of the most important systems in industry. Developers are constantly seeking for how to avoid the damage to the environment. Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging, environment-friendly technology based on a magnetic solid that acts as a refrigerant by magneto-caloric effect (MCE). In the case of ferromagnetic materials, MCE warms as the magnetic moments of the atom are aligned by the application of a magnetic field. There are two types of magnetic phase changes that may occur at the Curie point: first order magnetic transition (FOMT) and second order magnetic transition (SOMT). The reference cycle for magnetic refrigeration is AMR (Active Magnetic Regenerative cycle), where the magnetic material matrix works both as a refrigerating medium and as a heat regenerating medium, while the fluid flowing in the porous matrix works as a heat transfer medium. Regeneration can be accomplished by blowing a heat transfer fluid in a reciprocating fashion through the regenerator made of magnetocaloric material that is alternately magnetized and demagnetized. Many magnetic refrigeration prototypes with different designs and software models have been built in different parts of the world. In this paper, the authors try to shed light on the magnetic refrigeration and show its effectiveness compared with conventional refrigeration methods.

  11. Comparison between Conventional OCDMA and Subcarrier Multiplexing SAC OCDMA System Based on Single Photodiode Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad N. A. A; Junita M. N; Aljunid Syed Alwi; Che Beson Mohd Rashidi; Endut Rosdisham

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the comparison between conventional OCDMA system and subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) SAC-OCDMA system by applying Recursive Combinatorial (RC) code based on single photodiode detection (SPD). SPD is used in the receiver part to reduce the effect of multiple access interference (MAI) which contributes as a dominant noise in incoherent SAC-OCDMA systems. From this analysis, the performance of SCM OCDMA network could be improved by using lower data rates and higher received...

  12. Energy efficiency of conventional, organic, and alternative cropping systems for food and fuel at a site in the U.S. Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Robertson, G Philip

    2010-05-15

    The prospect of biofuel production on a large scale has focused attention on energy efficiencies associated with different agricultural systems and production goals. We used 17 years of detailed data on agricultural practices and yields to calculate an energy balance for different cropping systems under both food and fuel scenarios. We compared four grain and one forage systems in the U.S. Midwest: corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) rotations managed with (1) conventional tillage, (2) no till, (3) low chemical input, and (4) biologically based (organic) practices, and (5) continuous alfalfa (Medicago sativa). We compared energy balances under two scenarios: all harvestable biomass used for food versus all harvestable biomass used for biofuel production. Among the annual grain crops, average energy costs of farming for the different systems ranged from 4.8 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the organic system to 7.1 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the conventional; the no-till system was also low at 4.9 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) and the low-chemical input system intermediate (5.2 GJ ha(-1) y(-1)). For each system, the average energy output for food was always greater than that for fuel. Overall energy efficiencies ranged from output:input ratios of 10 to 16 for conventional and no-till food production and from 7 to 11 for conventional and no-till fuel production, respectively. Alfalfa for fuel production had an efficiency similar to that of no-till grain production for fuel. Our analysis points to a more energetically efficient use of cropland for food than for fuel production and large differences in efficiencies attributable to management, which suggests multiple opportunities for improvement.

  13. Development of a tilting system for electric multiple unit to speed up on conventional lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sung Il; Kim, Nam Po; Lee, Soo Gil; Kim, Seok Won

    2008-01-01

    An advanced tilting system for KTT (Korean Tilting Train) was developed and a performance test of the system has been completed. KTT has been constructed to speed up and promise a significant enhancement in service quality on a conventional line. KTT is an electric multiple unit composed of 6 cars running at the design speed of 200 km/h. The tilting system is the core technology of KTT and combined with the conventional bogie system. It has a self-steering mechanism and a swing link. The self-steering mechanism of Z-bar type is free to rotate on the curve and stable to run on a straight line. The swing link mechanism of the bolster enables the carbody to tilt up to 8 .deg.. A tilting control system detects a curve with sensors and commands the electro-mechanical actuators to move the bolster through the computer network system. GPS collaborates with the tilting system to perceive the curve previously and enables gradual tilting so as not to violate passenger comfort. The performance of the tilting system has been verified by a trial test running of KTT on a commercial conventional line. The tilting system is ready for commercial use

  14. The Design of Compressed air system in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, G. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Cho, S. W.; Min, Y. S.; Mun, K. J.; Cho, J. S.; Nam, J. M.; Park, S. S.; Jo, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The Compressed Air System (CA) supplies compressed air for all air operated devices and instruments, pneumatic equipment and other miscellaneous air user points in the Conventional Facilities of Proton Engineering Frontier Project. CA System consist of the Instrument Air System and the Service air System. The Instrument Air System supplies oil-free, dried, filtered, and compressed instrument air for the air operated control devices and instruments in the Accelerator and Beam Application Building, Ion Beam Application Building, Utility Building and etc.. The Service air System supplies compressed air for pneumatic equipment and other services

  15. The Social Dimensions of Sustainability and Change in Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Bacon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems are embedded in wider social-ecological processes that must be considered in any complete discussion of sustainable agriculture. Just as climatic profiles will influence the future viability of crops, institutions, i.e., governance agreements, rural household and community norms, local associations, markets, and agricultural ministries, to name but a few, create the conditions that foster sustainable food systems. Because discussions of agricultural sustainability often overlook the full range of social dimensions, we propose a dual focus on a broad set of criteria, i.e., human health, labor, democratic participation, resiliency, biological and cultural diversity, equity, and ethics, to assess social outcomes, and on institutions that could support diversified farming systems (DFS. A comparative analysis of case studies from California's Central Valley, Mesoamerican coffee agroforestry systems, and European Union agricultural parks finds that DFS practices are unevenly adopted within and among these systems and interdependent with institutional environments that specifically promote diversified farming practices. Influential institutions in these cases include state policies, farmers' cooperatives/associations, and organized civic efforts to influence agroenvironmental policy, share knowledge, and shape markets for more 'sustainable' products. The Californian and Mesoamerican cases considers organic and fair trade certifications, finding that although they promote several DFS practices and generate social benefits, they are inadequate as a single strategy to promote agricultural sustainability. The complex governance and multifunctional management of Europe's peri-urban agricultural parks show unexpected potential for promoting DFS. Unless DFS are anchored in supportive institutions and evaluated against an inclusive set of social and environmental criteria, short-term investments to advance diversified agriculture could

  16. Climate change-related risks and adaptation strategies as perceived in dairy cattle farming systems in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajer Amamou

    Full Text Available The perception of risks due to climate change by farmers and the measures they take to address those risks are of paramount importance in policy-making if the implementations of targeted adaptation and mitigation strategies are to be economically and environmentally sustainable. This study focused on Tunisian dairy farmers’ perceptions of the risks and the actions taken to cope with changes attributable to climate change. Using a bottom-up approach, 566 surveys were carried out randomly among dairy farmers throughout Tunisia. A total of 70 diagnostic variables relating to farm characteristics, resources, management, performances and profit, in addition to climate change risk perception and adaptation strategies, were identified and analyzed. Using multivariate statistical analysis, four dairy farming groups were identified. The largest proportions of farmers belonged to the two above-ground dairy systems: without utilized agricultural areas; and with non-dairy utilized agricultural areas (Clusters 1 and 2. A minority of farmers belonged to medium-sized and large farms that specialized in milk production (Clusters 3 and 4 and has access to sufficient land, water and capital resources. In all the clusters, almost all the farmers perceived that the greatest impact of climate change would be on cow performance and forage production. The attitudes of the farmers towards adaptation to climate change are associated with farm typology. They focused mainly on increasing water capacity for livestock and crop production and improving livestock and housing conditions. The knowledge obtained from this study could be helpful for decision-makers and stakeholders in efforts to develop policies for farm management practices that address climate change and can be adapted to the country’s diverse farming systems. Keywords: Dairy farming system, Typology, Adaptation, Climate change

  17. Evolution of nitrate level in green lettuce conventional grown under natural conditions and aquaponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavius Blidariu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics integrates growing plants without soil technology with aquaculture, having an important role in recovery of nutrients from effluents. The research aimed to evaluate nitrates level in lettuce (Lactuca sativa conventional grown under natural conditions and in integrated aquaponic system with a recirculated aquaculture system designed for pikeperch growth (Sander lucioperca. Conventional production (54 plants has been obtained in the field without fertilizer or pesticide management. Aquaponics productions (54 plants/production had ponds effluents as a nutritional support from the breeding of pikeperch, tanks were arranged with 255 numbers of pikeperch, each tank of 85 individuals, with a total of fish biomass of 30.76 kg. Fish individual body weight in the experiment was between 66 and 238 grams with an average of 120. 69 g. Chemical analyses were carried out to determine the level of nitrates in 5 plants grown in aquaponic system and respectively, conventional technology. The results have shown that the nitrate level is higher in the salad obtained from the aquaponic system than in conventional technology, however not exceeding the maximum permitted limits..

  18. Subjective image quality comparison between two digital dental radiographic systems and conventional dental film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Ajmal

    2014-10-01

    Recommendations: Improved software and hardware for digital imaging systems are now available and these improvements may now yield images that are comparable in quality to conventional film. However, we recommend that studies still use more observers and other statistical methods to produce ideal results.

  19. Application of integrative genomics and systems biology to conventional and in vitro reproductive traits in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne S.; de Oliveira Junior, Gerson A.

    2017-01-01

    by both conventional and ARTs such as OPU-IVP. The integration of systems biology information across different biological layers generates a complete view of the different molecular networks that control complex traits and can provide a strong contribution to the understanding of traits related to ARTs....

  20. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R

    2001-02-01

    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  1. A survey analysis of indigenous goat production in communal farming systems of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monau, P I; Visser, C; Nsoso, S J; Van Marle-Köster, E

    2017-08-01

    A total of 153 communal farmers in four agro-ecological regions of Botswana were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The aims of the survey were to characterise existing communal goat production systems, evaluate the importance of goats to farmers and identify breeding practices and constraints encountered in goat production in Botswana. Data was collected on socio-economic parameters, general and breeding management practices and major constraints limiting goat production in Botswana. All respondents were small-scale communal farmers with 63% respondents practising mixed crop-livestock farming and 37% keeping livestock as their primary activity. The majority (33%) of respondents were older than 60 years. Over 80% of the farmers kept goats for cash required for tuition, school uniforms and household commodities as well as re-stocking of animals. Most farmers (62%) kept indigenous crossed genotypes. Generally, uncontrolled mating was practised with the majority of farmers (41%) using on-farm reared bucks for more than two years of breeding and communal bucks (36%) as an alternative. The major constraints limiting goat productivity in communal areas included uncontrolled breeding, predators, theft and diseases. Issues raised by farmers should be considered in designing and implementing effective breeding programs for goats to improve their overall productivity and contribution to poverty alleviation in these communities.

  2. Land Capability Analysis on Farming System at Serang Sub-Watershed Kedung Ombo Reservoir Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Suyana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil conservation in principle is using the land according to its capability and keep them from damage. This study aims at assessing the land capability classes of farming systems at Serang sub-watershed and evaluate their usages. The results showed that the land capability dominated by Class II (12,096.90 ha, 40.6%, followed by Class III (11,598.92 ha, 38.9%, Class IV (2,879.11 ha, 9.7%, Class I (1,333.14 ha, 4.5%, Class VIII (712.57 ha, 2.4%, Class VII (684.97 ha, 2.3% and Class VI (512.84 ha, 1.7%. The main resistance factors are slope and soil deepth for class II; slope, soil deepth, drainage and erosion for class III; slope and erosion for class IV; and slope for class VIII, VII and VI. The results showed that 94% farm lands at Serang sub-watershed was suitable to its land capability and only 6.0% were not suitable.

  3. Using Deep Learning to Predict Complex Systems: A Case Study in Wind Farm Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Torres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Making every component of an electrical system work in unison is being made more challenging by the increasing number of renewable energies used, the electrical output of which is difficult to determine beforehand. In Spain, the daily electricity market opens with a 12-hour lead time, where the supply and demand expected for the following 24 hours are presented. When estimating the generation, energy sources like nuclear are highly stable, while peaking power plants can be run as necessary. Renewable energies, however, which should eventually replace peakers insofar as possible, are reliant on meteorological conditions. In this paper we propose using different deep-learning techniques and architectures to solve the problem of predicting wind generation in order to participate in the daily market, by making predictions 12 and 36 hours in advance. We develop and compare various estimators based on feedforward, convolutional, and recurrent neural networks. These estimators were trained and validated with data from a wind farm located on the island of Tenerife. We show that the best candidates for each type are more precise than the reference estimator and the polynomial regression currently used at the wind farm. We also conduct a sensitivity analysis to determine which estimator type is most robust to perturbations. An analysis of our findings shows that the most accurate and robust estimators are those based on feedforward neural networks with a SELU activation function and convolutional neural networks.

  4. Risks, resources and reason: understanding smallholder decisions around farming system interventions in Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens M. Grünbühel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of new cattle management practices by Indonesian smallholders occurs less as a ‘technology transfer’ in the classical sense but rather as a series of conscious decisions by farming households weighing risks and resources as well as matching innovations to livelihood strategies. This paper uncovers the context of decisions and communication of innovations by way of social networks. The research looks at two geographically distinct cases where new cattle management practices have been introduced. We apply the lens of a common sense framework initially introduced by Clifford Geertz. Smallholder decisions are analysed within a socio-cultural context and a particular set of resources, risks and livelihood objectives. We show that the respective value placed on land, cattle and food security is central to adoption of new cattle management techniques. Far from accepting everything novel, smallholders are selective and willing to make changes to their farming system if they do not conflict with livelihood strategies. Innovations are communicated through a range of existing social networks and are either matched to existing livelihood strategies or perceived as stepping-stones out of agriculture.

  5. Implementation of a Wind Farm Turbine Control System with Short-Term Grid Faults Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    restrictions for the wind turbines behavior especially under grid faults. Wind turbines are requested to stay connected even during faults. These new requirements are challenging the control of the wind turbines and new control strategies are required to meet the target. This paper dealt...... with the implementation of a control strategy in order to stay connected under grid faults. The method aimed to ensure that a wind farm turbine remains connected and no electric power is delivered to the grid during the fault period. The overall system was modelled and simulated by using the software Matlab/Simulink.......The increased penetration of wind power in the grid has led to important technical barriers that limit the development, where the stability of the system plays a key issue. Grid operators in different countries are issuing new grid requirements, the so-called grid codes that impose more...

  6. [Energy flow characteristics of the compound agriculture-fruit farming system in Xipo Village, Shaanxi, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fa-Qi; Zhu, Li; Wang, Hong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Taking the crop-fruit farming system in Xipo Village in Chunhua, Shaanxi Province as a case, the energy flow path, input and output structure, and the indices of energy cycle for the agriculture, fruit, stockbreeding and human subsystems were compared between 2008 and 2010. Results showed that during the study period the total investment to the agriculture-fruit farming system (CAF) decreased by 1.6%, while the total output increased by 56.7%, which led to a 59.4% increase of the output/input ratio. Energy output/input ratio of the agriculture, fruit, stockbreeding, human subsystems increased by 36.6%, 21.0%, 10.0% and 3.8%, respectively. The Xipo Village still needed to stabilize the agriculture, develop stockbreeding and strengthen fruit to upgrade the compound agriculture-fruit farming system.

  7. Rainwater harvesting potential for farming system development in a hilly watershed of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariqul Islam, Md.; Mohabbat Ullah, Md.; Mostofa Amin, M. G.; Hossain, Sahadat

    2017-09-01

    Water resources management is an important part in farming system development. Agriculture in Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh is predominantly rainfed with an average 2210 mm monsoonal rain, but rainfall during dry winter period (December-February) is inadequate for winter crop production. The natural soil water content (as low as 7 %) of hillslope and hilltop during the dry season is not suitable for shallow-rooted crop cultivation. A study was conducted to investigate the potential of monsoonal rainwater harvesting and its impact on local cropping system development. Irrigation facilities provided by the managed rainwater harvesting reservoir increased research site's cropping intensity from 155 to 300 %. Both gravity flow irrigation of valley land and low lift pumping to hillslope and hilltop from rainwater harvesting reservoir were much more economical compared to forced mode pumping of groundwater because of the installation and annual operating cost of groundwater pumping. To abstract 7548 m3 of water, equivalent to the storage capacity of the studied reservoirs, from aquifer required 2174 kWh energy. The improved water supply system enabled triple cropping system for valley land and permanent horticultural intervention at hilltop and hillslope. The perennial vegetation in hilltop and hillslope would also conserve soil moisture. Water productivity and benefit-cost ratio analysis show that vegetables and fruit production were more profitable than rice cultivation under irrigation with harvested rainwater. Moreover, the reservoir showed potentiality of integrated farming in such adverse area by facilitating fish production. The study provides water resource managers and government officials working with similar problems with valuable information for formulation of plan, policy, and strategy.

  8. Improving efficiency assessments using additive data envelopment analysis models: an application to contrasting dairy farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Diomedes Soteriades

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying holistic indicators to assess dairy farm efficiency is essential for sustainable milk production. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA has been instrumental for the calculation of such indicators. However, ‘additive’ DEA models have been rarely used in dairy research. This study presented an additive model known as slacks-based measure (SBM of efficiency and its advantages over DEA models used in most past dairy studies. First, SBM incorporates undesirable outputs as actual outputs of the production process. Second, it identifies the main production factors causing inefficiency. Third, these factors can be ‘priced’ to estimate the cost of inefficiency. The value of SBM for efficiency analyses was demonstrated with a comparison of four contrasting dairy management systems in terms of technical and environmental efficiency. These systems were part of a multiple-year breeding and feeding systems experiment (two genetic lines: select vs. control; and two feeding strategies: high forage vs. low forage, where the latter involved a higher proportion of concentrated feeds where detailed data were collected to strict protocols. The select genetic herd was more technically and environmentally efficient than the control herd, regardless of feeding strategy. However, the efficiency performance of the select herd was more volatile from year to year than that of the control herd. Overall, technical and environmental efficiency were strongly and positively correlated, suggesting that when technically efficient, the four systems were also efficient in terms of undesirable output reduction. Detailed data such as those used in this study are increasingly becoming available for commercial herds through precision farming. Therefore, the methods presented in this study are growing in importance.

  9. Cover Crops and Fertilization Alter Nitrogen Loss in Organic and Conventional Conservation Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rebecca E.; Jacobsen, Krista L.; McCulley, Rebecca L.

    2018-01-01

    Agroecosystem nitrogen (N) loss produces greenhouse gases, induces eutrophication, and is costly for farmers; therefore, conservation agricultural management practices aimed at reducing N loss are increasingly adopted. However, the ecosystem consequences of these practices have not been well-studied. We quantified N loss via leaching, NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and N retention in plant and soil pools of corn conservation agroecosystems in Kentucky, USA. Three systems were evaluated: (1) an unfertilized, organic system with cover crops hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), or a mix of the two (bi-culture); (2) an organic system with a hairy vetch cover crop employing three fertilization schemes (0 N, organic N, or a fertilizer N-credit approach); and (3) a conventional system with a winter wheat cover crop and three fertilization schemes (0 N, urea N, or organic N). In the unfertilized organic system, cover crop species affected NO3-N leaching (vetch > bi-culture > wheat) and N2O-N emissions and yield during corn growth (vetch, bi-culture > wheat). Fertilization increased soil inorganic N, gaseous N loss, N leaching, and yield in the organic vetch and conventional wheat systems. Fertilizer scheme affected the magnitude of growing season N2O-N loss in the organic vetch system (organic N > fertilizer N-credit) and the timing of loss (organic N delayed N2O-N loss vs. urea) and NO3-N leaching (urea >> organic N) in the conventional wheat system, but had no effect on yield. Cover crop selection and N fertilization techniques can reduce N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing yield, thereby enhancing N conservation in both organic and conventional conservation agriculture systems. PMID:29403512

  10. Cover Crops and Fertilization Alter Nitrogen Loss in Organic and Conventional Conservation Agriculture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Shelton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroecosystem nitrogen (N loss produces greenhouse gases, induces eutrophication, and is costly for farmers; therefore, conservation agricultural management practices aimed at reducing N loss are increasingly adopted. However, the ecosystem consequences of these practices have not been well-studied. We quantified N loss via leaching, NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and N retention in plant and soil pools of corn conservation agroecosystems in Kentucky, USA. Three systems were evaluated: (1 an unfertilized, organic system with cover crops hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, or a mix of the two (bi-culture; (2 an organic system with a hairy vetch cover crop employing three fertilization schemes (0 N, organic N, or a fertilizer N-credit approach; and (3 a conventional system with a winter wheat cover crop and three fertilization schemes (0 N, urea N, or organic N. In the unfertilized organic system, cover crop species affected NO3-N leaching (vetch > bi-culture > wheat and N2O-N emissions and yield during corn growth (vetch, bi-culture > wheat. Fertilization increased soil inorganic N, gaseous N loss, N leaching, and yield in the organic vetch and conventional wheat systems. Fertilizer scheme affected the magnitude of growing season N2O-N loss in the organic vetch system (organic N > fertilizer N-credit and the timing of loss (organic N delayed N2O-N loss vs. urea and NO3-N leaching (urea >> organic N in the conventional wheat system, but had no effect on yield. Cover crop selection and N fertilization techniques can reduce N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing yield, thereby enhancing N conservation in both organic and conventional conservation agriculture systems.

  11. Differences between elemental composition of orange juices and leaves from organic and conventional production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turra, C.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.; Franca, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive sampling of organic and conventional oranges was carried out in Bebedouro, an important citrus producing region of Brazil. The soils, leaves and fruits of the variety Valencia (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) budded on Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) were analyzed. The chemical characterization was accomplished by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Indications for a difference between organic and conventional orange juices and leaves were obtained by applying univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. There were differences between samples for Br, Co, Cs, La and Rb from both systems. (author)

  12. Energy productivity and efficiency of the ‘gher’ (prawn-fish-rice) farming system in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sanzidur; Barmon, Basanta K.

    2012-01-01

    ‘Gher’ farming is a unique system that incorporates the joint operation of three enterprises: freshwater prawn, fish and HYV rice, and is expanding rapidly in the coastal regions of Bangladesh because of its proven high income earning potential. In this paper, the sustainability of this system is evaluated by analysing its performance in terms of energy use by applying a stochastic distance function approach which revealed interesting and unexpected results. The prawn enterprise which is the key income earning component is found to be technically inefficient while the rice enterprise is found to be efficient. The net energy balance and the energy use efficiency of the ‘gher’ farming system is estimated at 18,510 MJ ha −1 and 1.72 respectively. The ‘gher’ farmers are operating at a very high level of technical (energy) efficiency (92%). Diversification amongst enterprises is associated with technical (energy) inefficiency. However, larger operation size enhances efficiency. The key policy implication is that the ‘gher’ farming system can be sustained in the long run provided that productivity from the rice enterprise remains high. Also, policies to support the expansion of ‘gher’ farm sizes will improve efficiency. -- Highlights: ► Sustainability of gher farming system is evaluated in terms of energy use. ► The prawn enterprise is technically inefficient while rice enterprise is efficient. ► The net energy balance is 18,510 MJ ha -1 and energy use efficiency is 1.72. ► The overall technical (energy) efficiency is very high (92%). ► The gher farming system can be sustained if rice productivity remains high.

  13. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Andrade, Horasa Lima; de Andrade, Luciano Pires; Muniz, Lauana Souza; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of birds' interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK) of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers' knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas.

  14. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luciano Pires; Muniz, Lauana Souza; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Farmers’ perceptions of birds’ interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK) of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers’ knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas. PMID:27243222

  15. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horasa Lima Silva-Andrade

    Full Text Available Farmers' perceptions of birds' interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers' knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas.

  16. Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebanyat, P.; Ridder, de N.; Jager, de A.; Delve, R.J.; Bekunda, M.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone changes in land use, productivity and sustainability. Understanding of the drivers that have led to changes in land use in these systems and factors that influence the systems’ sustainability is useful to guide appropriate targeting of

  17. Falta Petroleo! Perspectives on the emergence of a more ecological farming and food system in post-crisis Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: ecological / organic / agriculture / transition / farming systems / co-operatives / Cuba / food security / food system / institutional learning / crisis / rural livelihoods / coping strategies / localisation

    This research takes as its

  18. Agroforestry versus farm mosaic systems - Comparing land-use efficiency, economic returns and risks under climate change effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Carola; Weber, Michael; Knoke, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Increasing land-use conflicts call for the development of land-use systems that reconcile agricultural production with the provisioning of multiple ecosystem services, including climate change mitigation. Agroforestry has been suggested as a global solution to increase land-use efficiency, while reducing environmental impacts and economic risks for farmers. Past research has often focused on comparing tree-crop combinations with agricultural monocultures, but agroforestry has seldom been systematically compared to other forms of land-use diversification, including a farm mosaic. This form of diversification mixes separate parcels of different land uses within the farm. The objective of this study was to develop a modelling approach to compare the performance of the agroforestry and farm mosaic diversification strategies, accounting for tree-crop interaction effects and economic and climate uncertainty. For this purpose, Modern Portfolio Theory and risk simulation were coupled with the process-based biophysical simulation model WaNuLCAS 4.0. For an example application, we used data from a field trial in Panama. The results show that the simulated agroforestry systems (Taungya, alley cropping and border planting) could outperform a farm mosaic approach in terms of cumulative production and return. Considering market and climate uncertainty, agroforestry showed an up to 21% higher economic return at the same risk level (i.e. standard deviation of economic returns). Farm compositions with large shares of land allocated to maize cultivation were also more severely affected by an increasing drought frequency in terms of both risks and returns. Our study demonstrates that agroforestry can be an economically efficient diversification strategy, but only if the design allows for economies of scope, beneficial interactions between trees and crops and higher income diversification compared to a farm mosaic. The modelling approach can make an important contribution to support

  19. Adoption of Farm Management Systems for Cross Compliance - An empirical case in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Ulrike; Amjath-Babu, T S; Knierim, Andrea

    2018-08-15

    In Germany, Farm Management Systems (FMS) have been introduced as a support to farmers' compliance with environmental and other regulations, aiming at the increase of farm level performance and sustainable farming practices. Different kinds of FMS were developed and promulgated with various approaches, determined by each federal state's