WorldWideScience

Sample records for convention on the physical protection of nuclear materials

  1. Bill project authorizing the approval of the amendment to the Convention on the physical protection of nuclear materials; Projet de loi autorisant l'approbation de l'amendement a la convention sur la protection physique des matieres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juppe, Alain [Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres et Europeennes, 37 Quai d' Orsay, 75007 Paris (France); Fillon, Francois [Premier ministre, Hotel de Matignon, 57, rue de Varenne, 75700 Paris (France)

    2011-12-01

    This document deals with the amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials which has been adopted in July 2005. This amendment notably extended the Convention's scope, objectives, relation with other international instruments and content (regarding cooperation, sanctions, and so on). After the text of this amendment, this document contains the bill project which reports an impact study (estimated economic, financial, environmental, and legal consequences of the amendment implementation), comments the penal and criminal cooperation defined in the Convention. A table indicates the impact of the amendment's articles on the French law

  2. The physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, J.; Bartak, L. [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Senovazne nam. 9, 110 00 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2003-07-01

    The paper describes comprehensively past and present of physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials in the Czech Republic, particularly: the changes made in ensuring and legislation of physical protection following the political changes in 1989; the basic concept and regulation in physical protection and the effort made to strengthen the national regulatory programmes, as well as a brief survey of the nuclear facilities in the Czech Republic; experience in design, operation, inspection and licensing of the integrated physical protection system for nuclear power plants with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors; the role of the police as a response force and the role of the new private security companies; the upgrading of the physical protection systems at the different types of the nuclear installations to fulfill the more strict requirements of the new Atomic Law No. 18/1997 Coll. and Regulation No. 144/1997 Coll., on physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities; the follow up actions in connection with IAEA IPPAS missions carried out in 1998 and 2002 are given.

  3. Class notes from the first international training course on the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrington, P.B. (ed.)

    1979-05-01

    The International Training Course on Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials was intended for representatives from the developing countries who are responsible for preparing regulations and designing and assessing physical protection systems. The first part of the course consists of lectures on the objectives, organizational characteristics, and licensing and regulations requirements of a state system of physical protection. Since the participants may have little experience in nuclear energy, background information is provided on the topics of nuclear materials, radiation hazards, reactor systems, and reactor operations. Transportation of nuclear materials is addressed and emphasis is placed on regulations. Included in these discussions are presentations by guest speakers from countries outside the United States of America who present their countries' threat to nuclear facilities. Effectiveness evaluation methodology is introduced to the participants by means of instructions which teach them how to use logic trees and the EASI (Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption) program. The following elements of a physical protection system are discussed: barriers, protective force, intrusion detection systems, communications, and entry-control systems. Total systems concepts of physical protection system design are emphasized throughout the course. Costs, manpower/technology trade-offs, and other practical considerations are discussed. Approximately one-third of the course is devoted to practical exercises during which the attendees participatein problem solving. A hypothetical nuclear facility is introduced, and the attendees participate in the conceptual design of a physical protection system for the facility.

  4. 20th International Training Course (ITC-20) on the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials evaluation report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Amanda Ann

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this evaluation report is to provide the information necessary to improve the effectiveness of the ITC provided to the International Atomic Energy Agency Member States. This report examines ITC-20 training content, delivery methods, scheduling, and logistics. Ultimately, this report evaluates whether the course provides the knowledge and skills necessary to meet the participants needs in the protection of nuclear materials and facilities.

  5. Summary report on transportation of nuclear fuel materials in Japan : transportation infrastructure, threats identified in open literature, and physical protection regulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Ouchi, Yuichiro (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan); Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of three detailed studies of the physical protection systems for the protection of nuclear materials transport in Japan, with an emphasis on the transportation of mixed oxide fuel materials1. The Japanese infrastructure for transporting nuclear fuel materials is addressed in the first section. The second section of this report presents a summary of baseline data from the open literature on the threats of sabotage and theft during the transport of nuclear fuel materials in Japan. The third section summarizes a review of current International Atomic Energy Agency, Japanese and United States guidelines and regulations concerning the physical protection for the transportation of nuclear fuel materials.

  6. Physics and technology of nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ursu, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Physics and Technology of Nuclear Materials presents basic information regarding the structure, properties, processing methods, and response to irradiation of the key materials that fission and fusion nuclear reactors have to rely upon. Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with selectively several fundamentals of nuclear physics. Subsequent chapters focus on the nuclear materials science; nuclear fuel; structural materials; moderator materials employed to """"slow down"""" fission neutrons; and neutron highly absorbent materials that serve in reactor's power control. Other chapters exp

  7. Program for upgrading nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting at all facilities within the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuferev, V.; Zhikharev, S.; Yakimov, Y. [All-Russian Inst. of Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Department of Energy-Russian program for strengthening nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A), plans have now been formulated to install an integrated MPC and A system at all facilities containing large quantities of weapons-usable nuclear material within the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF, Arzamas-16) complex. In addition to storage facilities, the complex houses a number of critical facilities used to conduct nuclear physics research and facilities for developing procedures for disassembly of nuclear weapons.

  8. POSSIBILITIES FOR ASSESSMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF NPP PHYSICAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS IN UKRAINE ON THE BASIS OF NUCLEAR SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbinin, Konstantin

    2011-10-01

    The design requirements for physical protection systems currently adopted at Ukrainian NPPs were established in the middle of the nineties on the basis of deterministic analyses and expert evaluations of the vulnerabilities of reactor facilities. At the present time the in-depth assessment of the nuclear safety of Ukrainian NPPs with VVER-1000/B320 reactors has been completed using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). PSA has established and provided a qualitative assessment of the significance of the equipment for maintaining the integrity of a reactor core and preventing an abnormal radioactive release. The availability of qualitative assessments of the importance of equipment for nuclear safety allows one to assess the existing physical protection system using (1) comparative analysis: to determine whether all equipment and zones that may be affected, as established by the nuclear safety assessment, are actually included into the vital zones protected by the existing physical protection system; (2) specific analysis of dominant contributors: since nuclear safety analyses provide qualitative assessment of the equipment’s importance for safety, it is easy to select a limited group of essential equipment that makes the major contribution to safety, and (3) specific equipment analysis included in dominant emergency sets: part of the components might not be included in the essential equipment group, but it might be included in the dominant emergency sets. If some equipment is found not to be covered by the physical protection system, it is possible, using qualitative assessment of the importance of this equipment for safety, to assess the required degree of enhancement of physical protection. Such analysis will permit an assessment of the sufficiency of the existing physical protection system, to define the "tight" system areas and, therefore, to develop a justified optimization of a PPS with the objective of implementing priority upgrades to enhance safety, and

  9. Enhancement of the physical protection of waste storages. A step to maintain the nuclear security regime in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmyak, Ihor; Kravtsov, Valery [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kushka, Victor [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive wastes are unavoidable by-products in the use of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources and concurrently pose the threat to radiation safety. Ukraine has an advanced infrastructure of nuclear power engineering and is attaching great importance to nuclear security and particularly physical protection of not only nuclear facilities and nuclear materials but radioactive wastes as well. Furthermore, Ukraine has unique practices of ensuring nuclear safety and security of radioactive wastes and fuel-containing materials generated after the accident at Chornobyl NPP and during its decommissioning. To this end, the continuous improvement of physical protection systems for storages of radioactive wastes of industrial, medical and scientific origin, Chornobyl facilities containing radioactive materials, including the Shelter, takes place in our country. Such activities in synergy with nuclear and radiation safety measures are of great significance for implementation and maintenance of nuclear security regime in Ukraine. This paper is dedicated to activities on modernization of physical protection systems for radioactive wastes and some other radioactive materials and concise review of nuclear security regime status in Ukraine. (orig.)

  10. Modernization of physical protection educational laboratories in the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraskin, N. I.; Krasnoborodko, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-proliferation of nuclear materials includes, in addition to accounting and control, the Physical Protection (PP) of one. The paper considers the experience by MEPhI in application the practical educational in the area of PP technical systems. The following aspects are discussed in the paper: specific features graduate program in nuclear security area; overview of the practical course curricula in the special laboratory.

  11. Application of nuclear-physics methods in space materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, L. S.; Voronina, E. N.; Galanina, L. I.; Chirskaya, N. P.

    2017-07-01

    The brief history of the development of investigations at the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in the field of space materials science is outlined. A generalized scheme of a numerical simulation of the radiation impact on spacecraft materials and elements of spacecraft equipment is examined. The results obtained by solving some of the most important problems that modern space materials science should address in studying nuclear processes, the interaction of charged particles with matter, particle detection, the protection from ionizing radiation, and the impact of particles on nanostructures and nanomaterials are presented.

  12. 78 FR 31821 - Physical Protection of Byproduct Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 20, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 51, 71, and 73 RIN 3150-AI12 Physical Protection of Byproduct Material Correction In rule document 2013-5895 appearing on pages 16922-17022 in the...

  13. 75 FR 33901 - Physical Protection of Byproduct Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Commission 10 CFR Parts 30, 32, 33, et al. Physical Protection of Byproduct Material; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Byproduct Material AGENCY: U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S... requirements for the use and transport of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material, which...

  14. 78 FR 16921 - Physical Protection of Byproduct Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... of Byproduct Material; Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 53 / Tuesday, March 19, 2013..., 39, 51, 71, and 73 RIN 3150-AI12 Physical Protection of Byproduct Material AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... quantities of radioactive material. The NRC considers these quantities to be risk significant and, therefore...

  15. Upgrade of the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System at the VNIIEF Industrial Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, J.C.; Maltsev, V.; Singh, S.P.

    1999-09-20

    The Industrial Zone at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center/All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC/VNEEF) consists of ten guarded areas with twenty two material balance areas (A and As). The type of facilities in the Industrial Zone include storage sites, machine shops, research facilities, and training facilities. Modernization of the Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) System at the Industrial Zone started in 1997. This paper provides a description of, the methodology/strategy used in the upgrade of the MFC and A system.

  16. Adoption of protocols to amend the Paris convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy and the Brussels convention supplementary to the Paris convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. W.; Jang, K. H.; Oh, B. J.; Song, J. M.; Jung, M. M.; Kim, H. J. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    To keep in line with the world-wide tendency to strengthen the nuclear third party liability system after the Chernobyl accident, the Protocols to amend the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention was adopted on 12 February, 2004. The most important feature of the revised Paris Convention is an increase in the nuclear operator's liability amount from 15 million SDRs to a new minimum of 700 million Euros. For the additional compensation to those provided by the domestic liability regime, the revised Brussels Supplementary Convention will maintain its basic three-tier compensation system but with significantly increased amounts(As a result the total amount to be compensated according to the three tiers will be 15 billions Euros). The protocols to amend the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy will come into force when ratified by two thirds of the Signatory States, and the protocol to amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention will come into force when ratified by all the Brussels Supplementary Convention Signatory States.

  17. Liability for nuclear damage: an international perspective. Reflections on the revision of the Vienna Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopuski, J.

    1993-12-31

    This book deals with deals of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on his experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may not be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed the Committee`s work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world`s public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussions no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structure of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issue, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author).

  18. Proceedings of the symposium on frontier nuclear physics (FRONP99)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi [ed.

    2000-01-01

    The symposium on Frontier Nuclear Physics (FRONP99), organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, under close cooperation with the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University and High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on August 2 to 4, 1999. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of fields such as hyper nuclear physics, lepton nuclear physics, quark nuclear physics, unstable nuclear physics, superheavy elements and heavy-ion physics. Three talks on the joint project between JAERI (Neutron Science Research Center) and KEK (JHF) were presented in a public session. Thirty three talks on these topics presented at the symposium aroused lively discussions among approximately 70 participants. This report contains 26 papers submitted from the lecturers. (author)

  19. The project of the Spanish Nuclear Industry Forum to develop an interactive educational material on Radiological Protection; El Proyecto de Foro de la Industria Nuclear espanola para elaborar un material didactico interactivo sobre Proteccion Radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, A.; Cruz, T. de la; Girona, L.; Montesinos, L.; Sanchez, P.

    2012-07-01

    The Training Department of the Spanish Nuclear Industry Forum has undertaken a new project to develop an interactive educational material on Radiological Protection. The objective was to develop an attractive, comprehensive and interactive material, to facilitate students and teachers of Elementary, Middle and High schools, to become familiar with ionising radiations. The novelly of the project, is that based on the European framework of key competencies for file long learning, which are defined as a set of knowledge, skills and altitudes that all individuals need for personal fulfilment and employment. The material presented in this paper, is based in an integrated structure of tasks, activities and exercises, which will facilitate the acquisition of as may key competencies as possible. Besides, the material also includes reference texts, links to pertinent web sites and videos. Students, through the development of a specific task (and related activities and exercises), will learn the differences between ionizing and non ionising radiation, the origin, characteristics and types of types of ionising radiation, how to detect and measure them, the potential detrimental health effects, the principles of radiation protection and the beneficial applications can have for man. The material is freely available in www.rinconeducativo.org. (Author) 4 refs.

  20. Ireland and the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Seán

    2010-12-01

    Ratification by Ireland of the 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage will not be able to take place until after enactment of additional domestic legislation. The reasons for this are examined in the context of Ireland's legal system. Since 1987 Ireland has had extensive legal protection for underwater cultural heritage, but the jurisdictional aspects of the Convention are key to understanding why additional legislation is necessary. Issues relating to salvage law are also considered. The 2001 Convention is placed in the context of development of Irish policy on underwater cultural heritage.

  1. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  2. International law problems for realisation of the IAEA conventions on notification and assistance in the case of a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, M.M.

    1993-12-31

    The Chernobyl accident underscored the need for an early warning system and international assistance plan in case of a nuclear accident. Shortly after Chernobyl, two conventions were adopted under the auspices of the IAEA. The convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, in force since 1986, establishes an early warning system for all nuclear accidents whose effects might cross national boundaries. Under the convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear accident or radiological Emergency,in force since 1987, countries must facilitate prompt assistance in case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, to minimize it`s consequences. Issues with the conventions are described.

  3. The role of nuclear law in nuclear safety after Fukushima; El rol del derecho nuclear en seguridad nuclear luego de Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, Diva E. Puig, E-mail: d.puig@adinet.com.uy [International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2013-07-01

    The paper contains the following topics: nuclear law, origin and evolution, role of the legal instruments on nuclear safety, nuclear safety the impact of major nuclear accidents: Chernobyl and Fukushima. The response of the nuclear law post Fukushima. Safety and security. International framework for nuclear safety: nuclear convention joint convention on safety on spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. The Fukushima World Conference on Nuclear Safety. Convention on Prompt Notification and Assistance in case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Plan of Action for Nuclear Safety. IAEA recommendations for the safety transport of radioactive material. International framework for nuclear security. Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. International Convention for the Suppression of Acts Against Nuclear Terrorism. Resolution No. 1540 of the Security Council of United Nations (2004). Measures to strengthen international safety. Code of conduct on the safety research reactor.

  4. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Second national report on the implementation by france of the obligations of the Convention; Convention sur la surete nucleaire. Deuxieme rapport national sur la mise en oeuvre par la France des obligations de la Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-15

    The first national report on the implementation by france of the obligation under the Convention is structured along its Articles. the french Nuclear safety Authority ensured the co ordination of the report, with contributions from other regulators and nuclear operators. this report was distributed at the middle of April 2003 to the other Contracting party (on 3 november to 14, 2003 at the IAEA headquarters. (author)

  5. Implementation of the obligations of the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The first Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This report is issued according to Article 5 of the International Convention on Nuclear Safety. It has been produced by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate. Before submission to the Federal Department of Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication, the report has been commented by the Federal Office of Energy (BFE/OFEN), the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission (KSA/CSA), and the Swiss nuclear power plants of Beznau, Leibstadt and Muehleberg. The Goesgen nuclear power plant has chosen not to comment on the report. The introduction to the report provides general information about Switzerland, a brief political history of nuclear power and an overview of the nuclear facilities in Switzerland. In the subsequent sections, numbered after the Articles 6 to 19 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, key aspects are commented on in such a way as to give a clear indication on how the various duties imposed by the Convention are fulfilled in Switzerland.

  6. Towards a Convention on Geological Heritage (CGH) for the protection of Geological Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    2 V & C Semeniuk Research Group; 21 Glenmere Rd., Warwick, WA, 6024 The history of the biological conservation essentially began with the IUCN and the global awakening following publication of "The Silent Spring". Since then the IUCN has been active in species conservation and later, when recognising the importance of biodiversity, in the development of a Convention on Biological Diversity. However, even in a framework of Convention on Biological Diversity, there are organisations, political systems/parties, and personnel that strive to subjugate and control nature and biology and use nature for profit or to benefit humankind (e.g., genetically modified foods, use of terrain for food production, use of forests as a resource, managed ecosystems, construction of luxury resorts and tourist resorts in wildernesses). This has been the same for geology, in that geological materials are fundamental to industrialisation in the use of metals, building materials, other commodities, and fossil fuels, and have been exploited often regardless of their geoheritage values. The history of geology and its conservation actually predates the focus on conservation of biology - Siccar Point, numerous palaeontologic sites, and other iconic geological sites serve as examples. But in spite of their recognition as iconic geological sites, areas such as Siccar Point, Cliefden Caves, Hallett Cove, and the Kimberley are still under threat. Given that firstly there is an importance to geological features of the Earth per se and, secondly, geological features as geodiversity underpin and sustain biological systems, there is a critical need to develop a convention, similar to the Convention on Biological Diversity, that recognises the importance of geology as a part of Nature. The scope of Geoheritage and the diversity of Geology is such that it involves all sub-disciplines of Geology (e.g., palaeontology, mineralogy, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic geology, structural geology, hydrology

  7. Using virtual reality in the training of security staff and evaluation of physical protection barriers in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Silas C.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Mol, Pedro C.; Sales, Douglas S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: silas@ien.gov.br, e-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, e-mail: pedro98@gmail.com, e-mail: dsales@ien.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The physical security of facilities containing radioactive objects, an already important matter, now has a new aggravating factor: the existence of groups intending to obtain radioactive materials for the purpose of intentionally induce radioactive contamination incidents, as for example the explosion of dirty bombs in populated regions, damaging both people and environment. In this context, the physical security of such facilities must be reinforced so to reduce the possibilities of such incidents. This paper presents a adapted game engine used as a virtual reality system, enabling the modeling and simulation of scenarios of nuclear facilities containing radioactive objects. In these scenarios, the physical protection barriers, as fences and walls, are simulated along with vigilance screens. Using a computer network, several users can participate simultaneously in the simulation, being represented by avatars. Users can play the roles of both invaders and security staff. The invaders have as objective to surpass the facility's physical protection barriers to steal radioactive objects and flee. The security staff have as objective to prevent and stop the theft of radioactive objects from the facility. The system can be used to analysis simulated scenarios and train vigilance/security staff. A test scenario was already developed and used, and the preliminary tests had satisfactory results, as they enabled the evaluation of the physical protection barriers of the virtual facility, and the training of those who participated in the simulations in the functions of a security staff. (author)

  8. The Effect of Lucite Glass Reinforcement on the Properties of Conventional Glass-Ionomer Filling Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haleh Kazemi Yazdi; Richard van Noort; Mona Mansouri

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The usage of glass ionomer cements (GICs) restorative materials are very limited due to lack of flexural strength and toughness. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using a leucite glass on a range of mechanical and optical properties of commercially available conventional glass ionomer cement. Materials and Method: Ball milled 45μm leucite glass particles were incorporated into commercial conventional GIC, Ketac-Molar Easymix (KMEm...

  9. Circular from January 26, 2004, taken for the enforcement of the by-law from January 26, 2004, relative to the national defense secrecy protection in the domain of nuclear materials protection and control; Circulaire du 26 janvier 2004 prise pour l'application de l'arrete du 26 janvier 2004 relatif a la protection du secret de la defense nationale dans le domaine de la protection et du controle des matieres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-15

    The by-law of January 26, 2004 gives a regulatory foundation to the classification of sensible informations relative to the security and physical protection of nuclear materials. This circular recalls, in this framework, the conditions of implementation of the regulation relative to the protection of national defense secrecies in the domain of the protection of nuclear facilities and materials. (J.S.)

  10. Sixth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Brazil has presented periodically its National Report prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities related to nuclear safety. Due to the implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, an Extraordinary National Report was presented in 2012. This Sixth National Report is an update of the Fifth National Report in relation to the Convention on Nuclear Safety articles and also an update of the Extraordinary Report with respect to the action taken related to lesson learned from the Fukushima accident. It includes relevant information for the period of 2010/2012. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations.

  11. Implementation of the obligations of the convention on nuclear safety. Fifth Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS). In accordance with Article 5 of CNS, Switzerland has submitted 4 country reports for Review Meetings of Contracting Parties. This 5{sup th} report by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) provides an update on compliance with CNS obligations. The report attempts to give appropriate consideration to issues that aroused particular interest at the 4{sup th} Review Meeting. It starts with general political information on Switzerland, a brief history of nuclear power and an overview of Swiss nuclear facilities. This is followed by a comprehensive overview of the status of nuclear safety in Switzerland (as of July 2010) which indicates how Switzerland complies with the key obligations of the Convention. ENSI updated a substantial proportion of its guidelines which are harmonised with the safety requirements of the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) based on IAEA Safety Standards. On 1{sup st} January 2009, ENSI became formally independent of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. It is now a stand-alone organisation controlled by its own management board. Switzerland recently started a process to select a site for the disposal of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. The first generation of NPPs in Switzerland has been the subject of progressive back-fitting. The second generation of NPPs incorporated various safety and operating improvements in their initial design. All Swiss NPPs have undergone the safety review process required under the Convention and have incorporated the improvements identified in the respective safety review reports. The Swiss policy of continuous improvements to NPPs ensures a high level of safety. The legislation and regulatory framework for nuclear installations is well established. It provides the formal basis for the supervision and the continuous improvement of nuclear installations. The Nuclear Energy Act and its ordinance came into force

  12. The physical protection in the nuclear power plants; La proteccion fisica en las instalaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Zorilla, A.; Lardiez, P.

    2008-07-01

    Although from the time it was born the nuclear industry has hard a substantial level of physical protection, it has been since the creation of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear when specific national rules and regulations have begun to be enacted and when a progressive strengthening of this class of protection has taken place in Spain. This is especially true of recent years, when terrorist attacks of major consequences and ecologist actions of a certain importance have caused major concern in both Regulatory Body and the Sector itself. This is no doubt that this course of action to improve protective measures is going to be a constant feature in both the operation of existing installations and in the design and operation of newly built plants. (Author)

  13. On the physical interpretation of the nuclear molecular orbital energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charry, Jorge; Pedraza-González, Laura; Reyes, Andrés

    2017-06-07

    Recently, several groups have extended and implemented molecular orbital (MO) schemes to simultaneously obtain wave functions for electrons and selected nuclei. Many of these schemes employ an extended Hartree-Fock approach as a first step to find approximate electron-nuclear wave functions and energies. Numerous studies conducted with these extended MO methodologies have explored various effects of quantum nuclei on physical and chemical properties. However, to the best of our knowledge no physical interpretation has been assigned to the nuclear molecular orbital energy (NMOE) resulting after solving extended Hartree-Fock equations. This study confirms that the NMOE is directly related to the molecular electrostatic potential at the position of the nucleus.

  14. Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) (see 3.1.11) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms. 1.2 Dependable operation of SNM radiation monitors rests on selecting appropriate monitors for the task, operating them in a hospitable environment, and conducting an effective program to test, calibrat...

  15. Implementation of the obligations of the convention on nuclear safety. Fourth Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    . Emergency drills are conducted at regular intervals. The international alerting system is also in a mature stage. The first generation of NPPs in Switzerland has been the subject of progressive back-fitting. The second generation of NPPs incorporated various safety and operating improvements in their initial design. All Swiss NPPs have undergone the safety review process required under the Convention and have incorporated the improvements identified in the respective safety review reports. The Swiss policy of continuous improvements to NPPs ensures a high level of safety. The legislation and regulatory framework for nuclear installations is well established. It provides the formal basis for the supervision and the continuous improvement of nuclear installations. The supervisory authority conducts inspections and technical discussions with the utilities to ensure that operators assume full responsibility for the safety of their installations. All NPPs have implemented programmes to improve their safety culture. Plant-specific full scope replica simulators are operating at all Swiss NPPs. The Inspectorate's organisation includes staff members dealing with human aspects, NPP organisation, and safety culture. Considerable attention is paid to human factor aspects of operator support systems, including procedures, guidelines and checklists. The review and assessment procedure includes an evaluation of the safety analysis report, safety-relevant systems, design-basis accident analyses, probabilistic safety analysis and reports on ageing surveillance programmes. An Ageing Surveillance Programme is in place for all NPPs in order to maintain safety margins and safety functions of structures, systems and components throughout the plant lifetime. Concerning the radiation protection, the supervisory and control methods currently applied by the inspectorate are in compliance with the Convention's requirement to keep radioactive doses to the public and the environment as low as

  16. Systems Thinking Safety Analysis: Nuclear Security Assessment of Physical Protection System in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical assessment has been performed in the aspect of the nuclear power plants (NPPs security. The physical protection system (PPS is constructed by the cyber security evaluation tool (CSET for the nuclear security assessment. The systems thinking algorithm is used for the quantifications by the Vensim software package. There is a period of 60 years which is the life time of NPPs' operation. The maximum possibility happens as 3.59 in the 30th year. The minimum value is done as 1.26 in the 55th year. The difference is about 2.85 times. The results of the case with time delay have shown that the maximum possibility of terror or sabotage incident happens as 447.42 in the 58th year and the minimum value happens as 89.77 in the 51st year. The difference is about 4.98 times. Hence, if the sabotage happens, the worst case is that the intruder can attack the target of the nuclear material in about one and a half hours. The general NPPs are modeled in the study and controlled by the systematic procedures.

  17. The European Convention on Human Rights and the Protection of the Roma as Controversial Case of Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Henrard

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Roma are often the victims of systemic discrimination which is closely related to the prejudices against them and their particular way of life, their own minority identity. When studying to what extent the Roma and their own way of life are protected on the basis of individual human rights in the European Convention on Human Rights, it becomes clear that slowly but surely the European Court of Human Rights acknowledges the vulnerable position of the Roma and their concomitant need of special protection. While significant developments have taken place concerning the preliminary issues of non-discrimination and the protection of physical integrity, the actual protection concerning language rights or educational rights is still rather meagre. Nevertheless, the gradual emergence of a right to an own way of life for Roma and the ensuing positive state obligations might very well enhance the latter incipient protection. The overall tendency of the latest judgements of the Court is to increasingly restrict the margin of appreciation of states, also in the sensitive domain of minority protection.

  18. The Status of Development on a Web-Based Nuclear Material Accounting System at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byungdoo; Kim, Inchul; Lee, Seungho; Kim, Hyunjo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The Integrated Safeguards (IS) has been applied to 10 nuclear facilities and 1 location outside facility (LOF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since July 2008. One of the major changes in the implementation of safeguards under the IS is to apply the concept of a Random Interim Inspection (RII) instead of an interim inspection. The RII plan is notified within a few hours under the IS. It is thus difficult for facility operators to prepare the inspection documents within a short time if they do not periodically manage and process the nuclear material accounting data at each facility. To resolve these issues, KAERI developed a Web-based accounting system with the function of a near real-time accounting (NRTA) system to effectively and efficiently manage the nuclear material accounting data produced at the nuclear facilities and cope with a short notice inspection under the IS, called KASIS (KAeri Safeguards Information treatment System). The facility operators must input the accounting data on the inventory changes, which are the transfers of nuclear materials among the nuclear facilities and the chemical/physical composition changes, into the KASIS. KAERI also established an RFID system for controlling and managing the transfer of nuclear material and/or radioactive materials between the nuclear facilities for the purpose of nuclear safety management, and developed the nuclear material accounting system with the functions of inventory management of nuclear material at the facility level.

  19. Progress in high energy physics and nuclear safety : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Safe Nuclear Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Polański, Aleksander; Begun, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The book contains recent results on the progress in high-energy physics, accelerator, detection and nuclear technologies, as well as nuclear safety in high-energy experimentation and in nuclear industry, covered by leading experts in the field. The forthcoming experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and cosmic-ray experiments are highlighted. Most of the current high-energy experiments and their physical motivation are analyzed. Various nuclear energy safety aspects, including progress in the production of new radiation-resistant materials, new and safe nuclear reactor designs, such as the slowly-burning reactor, as well as the use of coal-nuclear symbiotic methods of energy production can be found in the book.

  20. Proceedings of the 28. Workshop on nuclear physics in Brazil. Program and abstracts; Anais do 28. Reuniao de trabalho sobre fisica nuclear no Brasil. Programa e resumos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    These proceedings cover the abstracts presented on the 28. Workshop on Nuclear Physics in Brazil, in the areas of nuclear reactions, high energy physics, hadronic physics, theoretical and experimental nuclear structure, nuclear matter, instrumentation, spectroscopy and thermonuclear reactions.

  1. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

  2. Optimal Physical Protection against Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Doyoung; Kim, ChangLak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    There is no attempt with nuclear weapons to attack any places for terror or military victory since the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People have obviously experienced horrible destructive power of nuclear weapons and continuously remembered a terrible tragedy, lots of organizations and experts express their concerns about the nuclear terrorism and try to interchange opinions for prevention of deadly weapons. The purpose of this paper is to provide the information of nuclear terrorism and what the potential risk of Republic of Korea is and how to do the efficient physical protection. Terror is from the old French terreur, which is derived from Latin verb terror meaning 'great fear'. This is a policy to suppress political opponents through using violence and repression. Many scholars have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term 'terrorism.' In 1988, a proposed academic consensus definition: 'Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. These attacks showed that particular terrorists groups sought to cause heavy casualties and extreme terrorists were spontaneously prepared to make sacrifices for completion of that ultimate goal. Creation of nuclear weapons was like opening Pandora's box. Barack Obama has called nuclear terrorism 'the greatest danger we face'. Nuclear terror is one of the lethal risks. Using nuclear weapons or materials from terrorist groups is a fatal catastrophe to a targeting state though there is no accident similar like that. South

  3. Implementation of the obligations of the convention on nuclear safety. Fifth Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS). In accordance with Article 5 of CNS, Switzerland has submitted 4 country reports for Review Meetings of Contracting Parties. This 5{sup th} report by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) provides an update on compliance with CNS obligations. The report attempts to give appropriate consideration to issues that aroused particular interest at the 4{sup th} Review Meeting. It starts with general political information on Switzerland, a brief history of nuclear power and an overview of Swiss nuclear facilities. This is followed by a comprehensive overview of the status of nuclear safety in Switzerland (as of July 2010) which indicates how Switzerland complies with the key obligations of the Convention. ENSI updated a substantial proportion of its guidelines which are harmonised with the safety requirements of the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) based on IAEA Safety Standards. On 1{sup st} January 2009, ENSI became formally independent of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. It is now a stand-alone organisation controlled by its own management board. Switzerland recently started a process to select a site for the disposal of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. The first generation of NPPs in Switzerland has been the subject of progressive back-fitting. The second generation of NPPs incorporated various safety and operating improvements in their initial design. All Swiss NPPs have undergone the safety review process required under the Convention and have incorporated the improvements identified in the respective safety review reports. The Swiss policy of continuous improvements to NPPs ensures a high level of safety. The legislation and regulatory framework for nuclear installations is well established. It provides the formal basis for the supervision and the continuous improvement of nuclear installations. The Nuclear Energy Act and its ordinance came into force

  4. [Protective care of children in the Czech Republic and the Convention on Children's Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunovský, J

    2003-01-01

    Protective Care of Children is one of the oldest activities aimed at the defence and maintenance of life. It represents a set of actions, activities, and interventions directed to every child, attempting to provide sufficient defence against unfavourable effects on its existence and development. It includes also the knowledge how to prevent them. At the same time attention of workers engaged in the children care is aimed at problems and their solution of developing impairments, disabilities and abnormalities of individual children and the whole child population. It requires an ability to recognize and eliminate endogenous, exogenous or combined adverse effects causing impairments of the children's life. It means treatment and rehabilitation to recover the positive state. The most important role in all such affords have parents and the family. To estimate the level and characteristics of children preventive care in CR, the first (1997) and second (2003) report on evaluation of the Committee on the Rights of the Child and the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child was used. The first evaluation concerned mainly the general problems of children; the second evaluation was focused on individual groups of children in special circumstances. As most important, the Committee found excellent level of health and educational care (though in the second evaluation it found some imperfections in education), the foundation of telephone Childline line for consultation of children in stress and preparation of several laws concerning the family and children. In both evaluations the Committee repeatedly reproached imperfections in the implementation of the most important principles of Covention--the best interest in children, no discrimination, respects to the children's opinion, the right of parents to have children and vice versa, problem of institutionalization. Next problems reproached concerned the not having founded the Coordination organ for the complex

  5. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  6. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  7. Implementation of the obligations of the convention on nuclear safety. Fourth Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    . Emergency drills are conducted at regular intervals. The international alerting system is also in a mature stage. The first generation of NPPs in Switzerland has been the subject of progressive back-fitting. The second generation of NPPs incorporated various safety and operating improvements in their initial design. All Swiss NPPs have undergone the safety review process required under the Convention and have incorporated the improvements identified in the respective safety review reports. The Swiss policy of continuous improvements to NPPs ensures a high level of safety. The legislation and regulatory framework for nuclear installations is well established. It provides the formal basis for the supervision and the continuous improvement of nuclear installations. The supervisory authority conducts inspections and technical discussions with the utilities to ensure that operators assume full responsibility for the safety of their installations. All NPPs have implemented programmes to improve their safety culture. Plant-specific full scope replica simulators are operating at all Swiss NPPs. The Inspectorate's organisation includes staff members dealing with human aspects, NPP organisation, and safety culture. Considerable attention is paid to human factor aspects of operator support systems, including procedures, guidelines and checklists. The review and assessment procedure includes an evaluation of the safety analysis report, safety-relevant systems, design-basis accident analyses, probabilistic safety analysis and reports on ageing surveillance programmes. An Ageing Surveillance Programme is in place for all NPPs in order to maintain safety margins and safety functions of structures, systems and components throughout the plant lifetime. Concerning the radiation protection, the supervisory and control methods currently applied by the inspectorate are in compliance with the Convention's requirement to keep radioactive doses to the public and the environment as low as

  8. The Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and its impact on Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal, Kinga

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ratification of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM by almost all the countries in the region a clear legal standard is in force that has to be implemented. Therefore, the importance of the FCNM monitoring system has to be stressed. It is hoped that the overall protection of human rights will gain a great deal both on international and domestic level from the work of the FCNM Advisory Committee.

  9. 10 CFR 73.51 - Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or activities within, the protected area; (iv) Provide timely communication to a designated response... retain a copy of the effective physical protection plan as a record for 3 years or until termination of... penetration of two physical barriers, one barrier at the perimeter of the protected area and one barrier...

  10. Expanding Kenya's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity to maximize coverage of plant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Curran, Michael; Alvarez, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is highly valuable and critically threatened by anthropogenic degradation of the natural environment. In response, governments have pledged enhanced protected-area coverage, which requires scarce biological data to identify conservation priorities. To assist this effort, we mapped conservation priorities in Kenya based on maximizing alpha (species richness) and beta diversity (species turnover) of plant communities while minimizing economic costs. We used plant-cover percentages from vegetation surveys of over 2000 plots to build separate models for each type of diversity. Opportunity and management costs were based on literature data and interviews with conservation organizations. Species richness was predicted to be highest in a belt from Lake Turkana through Mount Kenya and in a belt parallel to the coast, and species turnover was predicted to be highest in western Kenya and along the coast. Our results suggest the expanding reserve network should focus on the coast and northeastern provinces of Kenya, where new biological surveys would also fill biological data gaps. Meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% terrestrial coverage by 2020 would increase representation of Kenya's plant communities by 75%. However, this would require about 50 times more funds than Kenya has received thus far from the Global Environment Facility. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. The Effect of Lucite Glass Reinforcement on the Properties of Conventional Glass-Ionomer Filling Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Kazemi Yazdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: The usage of glass ionomer cements (GICs restorative materials are very limited due to lack of flexural strength and toughness. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using a leucite glass on a range of mechanical and optical properties of commercially available conventional glass ionomer cement. Materials and Method: Ball milled 45μm leucite glass particles were incorporated into commercial conventional GIC, Ketac-Molar Easymix (KMEm. The characteristics of the powder particles were observed under scanning electron microscopy. The samples were made for each experimental group; KMEm and lucite- modified Ketac-Molar easy Mix (LMKMEm according to manufacturer’s instruction then were collected in damp tissue and stored in incubator for 1 hour. The samples were divided into two groups, one stored in distilled water for 24 hours and the others for 1 week.10 samples were made for testing biaxial flexural strength after 1 day and 1 week, with a crosshead speed of 1mm/min, calculated in MPa. The hardness (Vickers hardness tester of each experimental group was also tested. To evaluate optical properties, 3 samples were made for each experimental group and evaluated with a spectrophotometer. The setting time of modified GIC was measured with Gillmore machine. Result: The setting time in LMKMEm was 8 minutes. The mean biaxial flexural strength was LMKMEm/ 1day: 24.13±4.14 MPa, LMKMEm/ 1 week: 24.22±4.87 MPa KMEm/1day:28.87±6.31 MPa and KMEm/1 week: 26.65±5.82 MPa which were not statistically different from each other. The mean Vickers hardness was LMKMEm: 403±66 Mpa and KMEm: 358±22 MPa; though not statistically different from each other. The mean total transmittance (Tt was LMKMEm: 15.9±0.7, KMEm: 22.3±1.2, the mean diffuse transmittance (Td was LMKMEm: 12.2±0.5, KMEm: 18.0±0.5 which were statistically different from each other. Conclusion: Leucite glass can be incorporated with a

  12. TEI Piraeus students' knowledge on the beneficial applications of nuclear physics: Nuclear energy, radioactivity - consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Pilakouta, Mirofora

    2011-01-01

    The recent nuclear accident in Japan revealed the confusion and the inadequate knowledge of the citizens about the issues of nuclear energy, nuclear applications, radioactivity and their consequences In this work we present the first results of an ongoing study which aims to evaluate the knowledge and the views of Greek undergraduate students on the above issues. A web based survey was conducted and 131 students from TEI Piraeus answered a multiple choice questionnaire with questions of general interest on nuclear energy, nuclear applications, radioactivity and their consequences. The survey showed that students, like the general population, have a series of faulty views on general interest nuclear issues. Furthermore, the first results indicate that our educational system is not so effective as source of information on these issues in comparison to the media and internet

  13. Amendment of APPRE for Ratification of the International Conventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ho Sik; Kwak, Sung Woo; Chang, Sung Soon; Seo, Hyung Min; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Both the international community and the IAEA have been making efforts to strengthen the global regime on nuclear security. As a result of these efforts, two conventions regarding nuclear security were issued by the UN and IAEA. The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (NTC) and the Amendment to Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNMNF). The NTC entered into force in 2007, but the CPPNMNF still has not yet been enacted. In the work plan released after the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit (which was held in Washington D.C) these conventions were mentioned as important tools against nuclear terrorism. The purpose of these conventions was to prevent malicious acts against radioactive materials and nuclear facilities. The article also specifies strong penal provisions. Many countries which had ratified these conventions had to revise or change their domestic acts or laws in order conform to these new international regimes. The ROK signed these two conventions in 2005: however, it has not ratified them yet. The government has a plan to ratify them before the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit, which will be held in the ROK. Each article in the conventions should be reviewed thoroughly in terms of their effects on the domestic legal and institutional systems. The penal provisions regulating the conventions should especially be carefully scrutinized since their effects are considerable. In this paper, we compared the penal provisions in the conventions with the ROK's laws and selected the provisions that are not specified in the ROK's legal system. The proposed articles for amendment to the APPRE are also suggested

  14. Perspectives on the International and Internal Nuclear Security Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Soon [Korea Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The term, 'Nuclear Security' became more familiar to Korean public after the government hosted 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit. Nuclear Security is prevention of, detection of and response to criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities. Nuclear Security includes physical protection, security of radioactive sources, nuclear forensics, nuclear smuggling prevention, border monitoring, and cyber security with regard to nuclear and other radiological materials. This abstract will review recent international trends and discuss the nuclear security regime in the Republic of Korea (ROK). The international Nuclear Security Regime has been strengthened. The upcoming Chicago Summit in 2016 and the entry into force of the Amendment of Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (CPPNM) will bring major changes in nuclear security. The Republic of Korea hosted the 2012 Seoul Summit and strengthened domestic regime to meet international standards. The ROK has worked hard to contribute to the international security regime and to establish a robust domestic security regime against terrorist threats. Even if the nuclear security regime is robust, Risk-informed Nuclear Security management should be established to meet international standards and to implement effective as well as an efficient nuclear security regime.

  15. Physical protection of nuclear facilities. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, L.D. (ed.)

    1977-07-01

    The physical protection of nuclear facilities program consists of four major areas--evaluation methodology development, path generation/selection methodology, facility characterization, and component functional performance characterization. Activities in each of these areas for the second quarter of FY 77 are summarized.

  16. International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. [Excepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This excerpt focuses on the laws concerning the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and members of their families. The excerpt takes into account the principles contained in the basic instruments of the UN about human rights; particularly, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Emphasized is the law stating that migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to receive medical care that is required for the preservation of their life or the avoidance of irreparable harm to their health on the basis of equality of treatment, along with nationals. It also grants migrant workers equality of treatment, along with nationals, with regard to access to social and health services, provided that the requirements for participation in the respective schemes are met.

  17. Constitutional protection of the economic, social and cultural rights of article 26 of the American Convention on Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Abramovich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to suggest an interpretation of article 26 of the American Convention of Human Rights which allows the protection of certain economic, social and cultural rights within the Inter-American System. This interpretation seeks to mediate between those positions which consider article 26 as a non operative rule, and those which regard it as the key to the full protection of those rights. Finally, authors try to establish the list of the rights that article 26 protects.

  18. The fundamental principles of the physical protection, the group of six point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claeys, M.; Carnas, L.; Robeyns, G. [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (Belgium); Rommevaux, G. [Controle des Matieres Nucleaires, CMN (France); Venot, R. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Fechner, J.B. [Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Germany); Hagemann, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Cologne (Germany); Fontaneda Gonzalez, A. [Nuclear Energy Div., Directorate General of Energy, Policy and Mines Ministry of Economy (Spain); Gimenez Gonzalez, S. [Nuclear Safety Council (Spain); Isaksson, S.G. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden); Wager, K. [Dept. of Trade and Industry (United Kingdom); Price, C. [Office for Civil Nuclear Security (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the joint experience of the Group of Six in the field of physical protection against the theft or unauthorized removal of nuclear material and against the sabotage of nuclear material and nuclear facilities, which emerged from the joint discussion. Several fundamental principles stem from this experience. Of course the particular terms and conditions of the implementation of these principles are specific to each country. (authors)

  19. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  20. Physical Protection System Effectiveness Evaluation Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Whether the performance meets regulation requirements is a key point to physical protection system (PPS) of nuclear material and nuclear facility. To develop PPS effectiveness evaluation methodology and to use risk analysis based on Design Basis

  1. The Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarewicz, J

    2013-01-01

    We explore the unique and fascinating structure of neutron stars. Although neutron stars are of interest in many areas of Physics, our aim is to provide an intellectual bridge between Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. We argue against the naive perception of a neutron star as a uniform assembly of neutrons packed to enormous densities. Rather, by focusing on the many exotic phases that are speculated to exist in a neutron star, we show how the reality is different and far more interesting.

  2. On the computational capabilities of physical systems ; 2, relationship with conventional computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Wolpert, D H

    2000-01-01

    In the first of this pair of papers, it was proven that that no physical computer can correctly carry out all computational tasks that can be posed to it. The generality of this result follows from its use of a novel definition of computation, ``physical computation''. This second paper of the pair elaborates the mathematical structure and impossibility results associated with physical computation. Analogues of Chomsky hierarcy results concerning universal Turing Machines and the Halting theorem are derived, as are results concerning the (im)possibility of certain kinds of error-correcting codes. In addition, an analogue of algorithmic information complexity, ``prediction complexity'', is elaborated. A task-independent bound is derived on how much the prediction complexity of a computational task can differ for two different universal physical computers used to solve that task, a bound similar to the ``encoding'' bound governing how much the algorithm information complexity of a Turing machine calculation can...

  3. Radiation Protection in Medical Physics : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Radiation Protection in Medical Physics Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental aspects of Radiation Protection in Medical Physics and covers three main themes: General Radiation Protection Principles; Radiobiology Principles; Radiation Protection in Hospital Medical Physics. Each of these topics is developed by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, quality and safety aspects, clinical performance and recent advances in the field. Some issues specific to the individual techniques are also treated, e.g. calculation of patient dose as well as that of workers in hospital, optimisation of equipment used, shielding design of radiation facilities, radiation in oncology such as use of brachytherapy in gynecology or interventional procedures. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehensive introduction to the field as well as a reliable overview of the most recent developments.

  4. Second national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention - September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This National Report was prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities in the field of nuclear safety, aiming the fulfilling the Convention of Nuclear Energy obligations. The Report contains a description of the Brazilian policy and programme on the safety of nuclear installations, and an article by article description of the measures Brazil is undertaking in order to implement the obligations described in the Convention. The chapter 6 describes plans and future activities to further enhance the safety of nuclear installations in Brazil.

  5. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Beth A; Allison, Jerry D; Clements, Jessica B; Coffey, Charles W; Fahey, Frederic H; Gress, Dustin A; Kinahan, Paul E; Nickoloff, Edward L; Mawlawi, Osama R; MacDougall, Robert D; Pizzutiello, Robert J

    2015-09-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear  medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics  Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to:• Estimate the demand for board-certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5-10 years,• Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, and• Identify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists.As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face-to-face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission.

  6. Performance evaluation of the conventional Brazilian industries radiation protection in the small industrial gauges and industrial radiography areas; Sistema de avaliacao de desempenho em radioprotecao das industrias convencionais brasileiras nas areas de medidores nucleares e radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joyra Amaral dos

    1999-08-01

    This works evaluates by punctuation the performance in conventional Brazilian industries radiation protection area which make use of small industrial gauges and industrial radiography. It proposes, procedures for industry self-evaluation, besides a new radiation protection plans pattern for the small industrial gauges area. The data source where inspection reports of Dosimetry Radiation Protection Institute/Nuclear Energy Commission conventional Brazilian industries' radiation protection plans, beyond visitation to the inspection place. The performance evaluation has been realized both in the administrative and operational aspects of the industries. About of 60% of the industries have a satisfactory register control which does not happen to the operational control. The performance evaluation advantage is that industries may self-evaluate, foreseeing Dosimetry Radiation Protection Institute's regulation inspections, correcting its irregularities, automatically improving its services. The number of industries which have obtained satisfactory performance in both areas is below 70%, both in administrative and operational aspects. Such number can be considered a low one as it is radiation protection. The procedures propose in this work aim to improve such a situation. (author)

  7. Drafting an International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hune, S

    1987-01-01

    The open-ended Working Group (WG) completed its 3rd session of the 2nd reading on the Elaboration of an International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families during September 24-October 3, 1986 in New York. In this session, the WG elaborated a "dictionary" of terms related to the migrant worker and members of the family of the migrant worker that, when ratified, will be viewed as international standards. The WG also approved 8 articles primarily relating to civil and political rights. These included articles regarding the rights of migrant workers and their families to 1) leave any State, including their State of origin; 2) life; 3) be excluded from forced or compulsory labor except under specific conditions; 4) the freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; 5) hold opinions without interference and the freedom of expression, subject only to certain restrictions; and 6) liberty and security of person. The Convention's intention was to ensure the application of human rights to migrant workers. There were nearly 60 participating states in attendance, with 1/3 of them from African states. African and Arab states played a very active role in the discussions. The number of women delegates has increased with each session. Future issues include 1) economic and cultural rights, and 2) the additional rights of migrant workers and their families in a regular situation of lawful status.

  8. Nuclear medicine physics the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    For decades this classic reference has been the book to review to master the complexities of nuclear-medicine physics. Part of the renowned The Basics series of medical physics books, Nuclear Medicine Physics has become an essential resource for radiology residents and practitioners, nuclear cardiologists, medical physicists, and radiologic technologists. This thoroughly revised Seventh Edition retains all the features that have made The Basics series a reliable and trusted partner for board review and reference. This handy manual contains key points at the end of each chapter that help to underscore principal concepts. You'll also find review questions at the end of each chapter—with detailed answers at the end of the book—to help you master the material. This edition includes useful appendices that elaborate on specific topics, such as physical characteristics of radionuclides and CGS and SI Units.

  9. On The Computational Capabilities of Physical Systems. Part 2; Relationship With Conventional Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In the first of this pair of papers, it was proven that there cannot be a physical computer to which one can properly pose any and all computational tasks concerning the physical universe. It was then further proven that no physical computer C can correctly carry out all computational tasks that can be posed to C. As a particular example, this result means that no physical computer that can, for any physical system external to that computer, take the specification of that external system's state as input and then correctly predict its future state before that future state actually occurs; one cannot build a physical computer that can be assured of correctly "processing information faster than the universe does". These results do not rely on systems that are infinite, and/or non-classical, and/or obey chaotic dynamics. They also hold even if one uses an infinitely fast, infinitely dense computer, with computational powers greater than that of a Turing Machine. This generality is a direct consequence of the fact that a novel definition of computation - "physical computation" - is needed to address the issues considered in these papers, which concern real physical computers. While this novel definition does not fit into the traditional Chomsky hierarchy, the mathematical structure and impossibility results associated with it have parallels in the mathematics of the Chomsky hierarchy. This second paper of the pair presents a preliminary exploration of some of this mathematical structure. Analogues of Chomskian results concerning universal Turing Machines and the Halting theorem are derived, as are results concerning the (im)possibility of certain kinds of error-correcting codes. In addition, an analogue of algorithmic information complexity, "prediction complexity", is elaborated. A task-independent bound is derived on how much the prediction complexity of a computational task can differ for two different reference universal physical computers used to solve that task

  10. The impact of biologic and conventional therapy on physical function in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    Callhoff, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: For patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, preservation of functional capacity is an important issue. This work investigates the effect on physical function of biologics in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, the effect of TNFα inhibitors on patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and that of oral prednisolone in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods: Two meta-analyses were conducted to assess the efficacy of biologics resp. TNFα inhibitors in RA and axSpA. These co...

  11. Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War. Papers Based on a Symposium of the Forum on Physics and Society of the American Physical Society, (Washington, D.C., April 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Philip; And Others

    Three papers on nuclear weapons and nuclear war, based on talks given by distinguished physicists during an American Physical Society-sponsored symposium, are provided in this booklet. They include "Caught Between Asymptotes" (Philip Morrison), "We are not Inferior to the Soviets" (Hans A. Bethe), and "MAD vs. NUTS" (Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky).…

  12. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARI, R.; ET AL.

    2006-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: (1) System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. (2) Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. (3) Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  13. Evaluation Methodology For Proliferation Resistance And Physical Protection Of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; R. Nishimura; P. Peterson; J. Roglans; D. Bley; J. Cazalet; G.G.M. Cojazzi; P. Delaune; M. Golay; G. Rendad; G. Rochau; M. Senzaki; I. Therios; M. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: 1.System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. 2.Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. 3.Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  14. Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access.

  15. Indicators for the 'Convention on biodiversity 2010'. Coverage protected areas : factsheet

    OpenAIRE

    Melman, T.C.P.; Willemen, J.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Definition Areas are considered as protected, when they are: • protected by legislation (EU, national); • designated as nature reserve by spatial policy; • owned by a nature conservation body; • managed on behalf of an agri-environmental scheme; • designated according to the Ramsar convention.

  16. Nuclear material management: challenges and prospects; La gestion des matieres nucleaires: defis et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieu, J. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Besnainou, J. [Areva, Dir. du Secteur Aval, 75 - Paris (France); Leboucher, I.; Chiguer, M. [Areva, Dir. International et Marketing, 75 - Paris (France); Capus, G.; Greneche, D. [Areva, 75 - Paris (France); Durret, L.F. [Areva, Dir. de la Business Unit Enrichissement, 75 - Paris (France); Carbonnier, J.L.; Delpech, M. [CEA Saclay, Dir. du Developpement et de l' Innovation Nucleares (DEN/DDIN), 91 - Gif Sur Yvette (France); Loaec, Ch. [CEA Saclay (DEN/DANS/ITESE), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G. [AREVA NC, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Granger, S. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Devid, S.; Bidaud, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Jalouneix, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DEND), 92 - Clamart (France); Toubon, H. [Areva/Canberra, Dir. du Developpement, 75 - Paris (France); Pochon, E. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel (DSNP), 91 (France); Bariteau, J.P.; Bernard, P.; Krellmann, J. [Areva NC, Business Unit Recyclage, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Sicard, B. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2008-05-15

    The articles in this dossier were derived from the papers of the yearly S.F.E.N. convention, which took place in Paris, 12-13 March 2008. They deal with the new challenges and prospects in the field of nuclear material management, throughout the nuclear whole fuel cycle, namely: the institutional frame of nuclear materials management, the recycling, the uranium market, the enrichment market, the different scenarios for the management of civil nuclear materials, the technical possibilities of spent fuels utilization, the option of thorium, the convention on the physical protection of nuclear materials and installations, the characterisation of nuclear materials by nondestructive nuclear measurements, the proliferation from civil installations, the use of plutonium ( from military origin) and the international agreements. (N.C.)

  17. Pathway Aggregation in the Risk Assessment of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) of Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldemir, Tunc [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Denning, Richard [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Catalyurek, Umit [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Yilmaz, Alper [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Yue, Meng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cheng, Lap-Yan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-23

    The framework for Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR & PP) evaluation is to define a set of challenges, to obtain the system responses, and to assess the outcomes. The assessment of outcomes heavily relies on pathways, defined as sequences of events or actions that could potentially be followed by a State or a group of individuals in order to achieve a proliferation objective, with the defined threats as initiating events. There may be large number of segments connecting pathway stages (e.g. acquisition, processing, and fabrication for PR) which can lead to even larger number of pathways or scenarios through possible different combinations of segment connections, each with associated probabilities contributing to the overall risk. Clustering of these scenarios in specified stage attribute intervals is important for their tractable analysis and outcome assessment. A software tool for scenario generation and clustering (OSUPR) is developed that utilizes the PRCALC code developed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory for scenario generation and the K- means, mean shift and adaptive mean shift algorithms as possible clustering schemes. The results of the study using the Example Sodium Fast Breeder as an example system show that clustering facilitates the probabilistic or deterministic analysis of scenarios to identify system vulnerabilities and communication of the major risk contributors to stakeholders. The results of the study also show that the mean shift algorithm has the most potential for assisting the analysis of the scenarios generated by PRCALC.

  18. Research on a laser ultrasound method for testing the quality of a nuclear radiation protection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuanshuang; Zhou, Zhenggan; Ma, Liyin

    2017-02-01

    Laser ultrasonics has been investigated for inspecting the quality of a nuclear radiation protection structure. A possibility is proposed to improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of a laser ultrasonic inspection system. Then, a nuclear radiation protection structure composed of an AISI 1045 steel sheet connected with a lead alloy sheet by using an epoxy resin adhesive was manufactured with simulated defects. A non-contact laser ultrasonic inspection system, where the measured signals were filtered using a wavelet threshold de-noising method, was established to conduct a series of experiments. The proposed signal processing method can significantly improve the SNR of measured laser ultrasound signals on a rough solid surface. Compared with the SNR of original ultrasonic signals measured in transmission and reflection, the SNR of processed transmitted and reflected signals is improved by 13.8 and 16.6 dB, respectively. Moreover, laser ultrasonic C-scans based on the transmission and pulse-echo method can detect the simulated de-bonding defects, and the relative deviation between the measured sizes and design values is below 9%. Therefore, the laser ultrasonic method combined with effective signal processing can achieve the quantitative characterization of de-bonding defects in nuclear radiation protection structures.

  19. Increasing Uncertainty: The Dangers of Relying on Conventional Forces for Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    threat of assured retaliation to convince an enemy not to attack. Some people have the misconception that deterrence did not come into existence until...posture. Foreign Perspective The security environment has changed dramatically in the five years since the NPR’s publication —but not for the better, as...a long tradition in the former Soviet Union and continues in mod- ern Russia. Prior to the US-led “reset” in US-Russia relations in 2009, Russian

  20. Physics through the 1990s: Nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The volume begins with a non-mathematical introduction to nuclear physics. A description of the major advances in the field follows, with chapters on nuclear structure and dynamics, fundamental forces in the nucleus, and nuclei under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and spin. Impacts of nuclear physics on astrophysics and the scientific and societal benefits of nuclear physics are then discussed. Another section deals with scientific frontiers, describing research into the realm of the quark-gluon plasma; the changing description of nuclear matter, specifically the use of the quark model; and the implications of the standard model and grand unified theories of elementary-particle physics; and finishes with recommendations and priorities for nuclear physics research facilities, instrumentation, accelerators, theory, education, and data bases. Appended are a list of national accelerator facilities, a list of reviewers, a bibliography, and a glossary.

  1. Advances in nuclear particle dosimetry for radiation protection and medicine - Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry (Editorial Material, English)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoetelief, J; Bos, A J.; Schuhmacher, H; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schultz, F W.; Pihet, P

    2004-12-15

    The Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry has been expanded to cover not only neutron radiation but heavy charged particle dosimetry as well. The applications are found in such fields as radiation protection, aircrew dosimetry, medicine, nuclear power and accelerator health physics. Scientists from many countries from around the world presented their work, and described the latest developments in techniques and instrumentation.

  2. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    nuclear reactors and radiation protection, thermal physics, physical chemistry and technology of liquid metal coolants, and physics of radiation-induced defects, and radiation materials science. The activity of the institute is aimed at solving matters concerned with technological development of large-scale nuclear power engineering on the basis of a closed nuclear fuel cycle with the use of fast-neutron reactors (referred to henceforth as fast reactors), development of innovative nuclear and conventional technologies, and extension of their application fields.

  3. PREFACE: 11th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics: Shell Model and Nuclear Structure - achievements of the past two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The 11th International Seminar on Nuclear Physics was held in Ischia from May 12 to May 16, 2014. This Seminar was dedicated to Aldo Covello, who has been the promoter of this series of meetings, which started in Sorrento in 1986 and continued with meetings held every two or three years in the Naples area. Aldo's idea was to offer to a group of researchers, actively working in selected fields of Nuclear Physics, the opportunity to confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. The choice for the period of the year, Spring, as well as the sites chosen reflected this intent. The first meeting was of a purely theoretical nature, but it was immediately clear that the scope of these conferences needed to be enlarged calling into play the experimental community. Then, starting from the second meeting, all the following ones have been characterized by fruitful discussion between theoretical and experimental researchers on current achievements and future developments of nuclear structure. This may be read, in fact, as one of the motivating factors for Aldo's election as Fellow of the American Physical Society in 2008 "... for his outstanding contributions to the international nuclear physics community by providing, for over two decades, a venue for theorists and experimentalists to share their latest ideas." The present meeting, organized by Aldo's former students and with the benefit of his suggestions, has maintained this tradition. The title "Shell model and nuclear structure: achievements of the past two decades" recalls that of the 2nd International Spring Seminar "Shell Model and Nuclear Structure: where do we stand?". The main aim of this 11th Seminar was, in fact, to discuss the changes of the past two decades on our view of nuclei in terms of shell structure as well as the perspectives of the shell model, which has been one of the key points in Aldo's research. This point is well accounted by the Opening Speech of Igal Talmi, one of the fathers of the

  4. A Uniform Framework of Global Nuclear Materials Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, S.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Sanders, T.L; Sellers, T.A.

    1999-04-20

    Global Nuclear Materials Management (GNMM) anticipates and supports a growing international recognition of the importance of uniform, effective management of civilian, excess defense, and nuclear weapons materials. We expect thereto be a continuing increase in both the number of international agreements and conventions on safety, security, and transparency of nuclear materials, and the number of U.S.-Russian agreements for the safety, protection, and transparency of weapons and excess defense materials. This inventory of agreements and conventions may soon expand into broad, mandatory, international programs that will include provisions for inspection, verification, and transparency, To meet such demand the community must build on the resources we have, including State agencies, the IAEA and regional organizations. By these measures we will meet the future expectations for monitoring and inspection of materials, maintenance of safety and security, and implementation of transparency measures.

  5. THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF MATERIALS IN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES FOR VARIOUS PROLIFERATION AND THEFT SCENARIOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, C. G.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Collins, Brian A.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Hase, Kevin R.; Robel, Martin; Wallace, R. K.; Bradley, Keith S.; Ireland, J. R.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Johnson, M. W.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Smith, Brian W.

    2012-08-29

    We must anticipate that the day is approaching when details of nuclear weapons design and fabrication will become common knowledge. On that day we must be particularly certain that all special nuclear materials (SNM) are adequately accounted for and protected and that we have a clear understanding of the utility of nuclear materials to potential adversaries. To this end, this paper examines the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing SNM and alternate nuclear materials associated with the plutonium-uranium reduction extraction (Purex), uranium extraction (UREX), coextraction (COEX), thorium extraction (THOREX), and PYROX (an electrochemical refining method) reprocessing schemes. This paper provides a set of figures of merit for evaluating material attractiveness that covers a broad range of proliferant state and subnational group capabilities. The primary conclusion of this paper is that all fissile material must be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a state and must be provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by subnational groups; no 'silver bullet' fuel cycle has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. The work reported herein has been performed at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for, the nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security is discussed.

  6. Study on the fire-protection-system for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel and transportation ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. O; Choi, M. H.; Lee, S. C. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    This study consists of : the fire risk and it's fire protection for the storage facilities and transportation equipments of dangerous goods, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the dangerous goods transportation ships, the necessary equipment for safety of ships and regulations of fire fighting equipment for ships, technical specification of spent nuclear fuel transportation ships which are operated in foreign countries, draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, inspection items of fire fighting equipment, scope of education and training. On the basis of the aforementioned, a draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel is proposed and the regulations for ship engaged in the a carrage of dangerous goods that should be considered in design and operation stage are proposed.

  7. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Generation: Nuclear vs. Conventional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, John J., Ed.

    This minicourse, partially supported by the Division of Nuclear Education and Training of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, is an effort to describe the benefit-to-risk ratio of various methods of generating electrical power. It attempts to present an unbiased, straightforward, and objective view of the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear…

  8. The Attractiveness of Materials in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles for Various Proliferation and Theft Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, C. G.; Wallace, R. K.; Ireland, J. R.; Johnson, M. W.; Hase, Kevin R.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Bradley, Keith S.; Collins, Brian A.; Smith, Brian W.; Prichard, Andrew W.

    2010-09-01

    This paper is an extension to earlier studies1,2 that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) and alternate nuclear materials (ANM) associated with the PUREX, UREX, COEX, THOREX, and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study extends the figure of merit (FOM) for evaluating attractiveness to cover a broad range of proliferant state and sub-national group capabilities. The primary conclusion of this study is that all fissile material needs to be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a state and provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by sub-national groups; no “silver bullet” has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. This series of studies has been performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of "attractiveness levels" that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities.3 The expanded methodology and updated findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security are discussed.

  9. The attractiveness of materials in advanced nuclear fuel cycles for various proliferation and theft scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, Charles G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ireland, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, M W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hase, Kevin R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B [LLNL; Sleaford, Brad A [LLNL; Bradley, Keith S [LLNL; Collins, Brian W [PNNL; Smith, Brian W [PNNL; Prichard, Andrew W [PNNL

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an extension to earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) and alternate nuclear materials (ANM) associated with the PUREX, UREX, COEX, THOREX, and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study extends the figure of merit (FOM) for evaluating attractiveness to cover a broad range of proliferant state and sub-national group capabilities. The primary conclusion of this study is that all fissile material needs to be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a state and provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by sub-national groups; no 'silver bullet' has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. This series of studies has been performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The expanded methodology and updated findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security are discussed.

  10. Comparing the Protective Effect of the Conventional Pasteurized and Lactobacillus Acidophilus-fortified Pasteurized Yoghurts on Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problems: Candida species are the most common fungal pathogen in human’s body. Therefore an accurate and immediate treatment seems to be necessary. Nowadays, alternative treatments, such as probiotics, are considered because of the adverse side effects of chemical medications. Probiotics are alive organisms which can be used for medical purposes and are added to different kinds of diary such as yoghurt. Lactobacill Acidophilus (LA was detected form human’s recourses many years ago and nowadays can be found in special kinds of milk, yoghurt, juice and food complementories. Purpose: In this study we are to compare the effect of conventional pasteurized and lactobacillus acidophilus- fortified pasteurized yoghurt on Candida Albicans in vitro.Materials and Method: Candida Albicans was isolated from 30 oral candidasis patients, cultured and prepared as standard suspension. Probiotic powder of LA in MRS Media after 24hrs led to 5×109 lactobacillus. LA- fortified yoghurt was prepared via adding lactobacills into 250 ml of pasteurized boiled milk after 8hrs in 37oc. We prepared 3 tubes and added standard suspension of Candida in each of them. Adding sterile yoghourt, conventional pasteurized yoghurt and LA-fortified yoghurt to the tubes respectively, we put them in 35oc incubator for 48 hrs. We added the content of each tube in Sabouraud agar media and incubated in 25oc for 72 hrs and then counted the colonies.Results: There was a significant difference between the mean of colonies in each group during 5 days ( p = 0, df = 4 and also on each day ( p = 0, df = 2.Conclusion: L.A. can inhibit colonization of Candida in vitro. In this study the most of Candida colonies were in the sterile yoghurt and the least of them were in LA fortified yoghurt.

  11. Fourth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention. Sep. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This Fourth National Report of Brazil is a new update to include relevant information of the period of 2004-2007. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations

  12. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faessler, Amand

    2003-04-01

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics will develop quite fast: (1) Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region. (2) Nuclear structure at the limits. (3) High energy heavy ion collisions. (4) Nuclear astrophysics. (5) Neutrino physics. (6) Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: (1) The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon Σ-term. (2) VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renaissance. (3) Measurement of important astrophysical nuclear reactions in the Gamow peak. (4) The solar neutrino problem. As examples for testing new physics beyond the standard model by rare processes I had prepared to speak about the measurement of the electric neutron dipole moment and of the neutrinoless double beta decay. But the time is limited and so I have to skip these points, although they are extremely interesting.

  13. Evaluation of conventional and digital radiography capacities for distinguishing dental materials on radiograms depending on the present radiopacifying agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacgroun/Aim. The radiopacity of an endodontic material can considerably vary as measured on film and a digital sensor. Digital radiography offers numerous advantages over convential film-based radiography in dental clinical practice regarding both diagnostic capabilities and postintervention procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of conventional and charge-conpled device (CCD based digital radiography to detect material on radiograph depending on the radio-pacifying agent present in the material. Methods. Experimental cements were formulated by mixing Portland cement with the following radiopacifying agents: zinc oxide (ZnO, zirconium oxide (ZrO2, titanium dioxide (TiO2, barium sulphate (BaSO4, iodoform (CHI3, bismuth oxide (Bi2O3 and ytterbium trifluoride (YbF3. In addition, 5 endodontic materials comprising Endomethasone®, Diaket®, N2®, Roth 801® and Acroseal® were investigated to serve as control. Per three specimens of each material were radiographed alongside an aluminum step wedge on film (Eastman Kodak Company®, Rochester, NY and a CCD-based digital sensor (Trophy Radiologie®, Cedex, France. Radiopacity values were calculated by converting the radiographic densities of the specimens expressed as a mean optical densities or mean grey scale values into equivalent thickness of aluminum. Results. Twoway ANOVA detected no significant differences with respect to the imaging system (p > 0.05, but the differences were significant with respect to radiopacifier (p < 0.001 and the interaction of the two factors (p < 0.05. Paired ttest revealed significant differences between the methods used for pure Portland cement, all concentrations of BaSO4 and CHI3, 10% and 20% additions of ZrO2 and Bi2O3 and 10% and 30% addition of YbF3 (p < 0.05. Conclusion. The materials which incorporate CHI3 or BaSO4 as radiopacifying agents are expected to be significantly more radiopaque on a digital sensor than on film. During clinical

  14. Methodology for categorization of nuclear material in pyroprocessing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chanki; Choi, Sungyeol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Min Su; Jeong, Yon Hong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    For the pyroprocessing facility to be commercialized in future, current regulations should be evaluated and developed in advance, based on the new types of nuclear materials in the facility. Physical protection system, especially, requires reasonable and reliable categorization of nuclear materials, to prevent from the theft of nuclear materials. In this paper, therefore, current categorization methods of nuclear material are investigated and applied to the pyroprocessing facility. After inconsistencies and gaps are found among methods, they are compared and discussed based on eight considering points (i.e, degrees of attractiveness, levels of category, discount factor, physical barriers, chemical barriers, isotopic barriers, radiological barriers, and capabilities of adversaries), to roughly suggest a new method for categorization. Current categorization methods of nuclear material, including IAEA's INFCIRC/225, U.S. DOE's method, newly expected U.S. NRC's method, FOM, and Bunn's approach, are different and can bring inconsistencies of physical protection requirements. The gap among methods will be significant if advanced fuel cycles are applied to them for the future. For example, the categorization results of 5 target materials in pyroprocessing facility show clear inconsistencies, while TRU ingot is considered the most attractive material. To resolve inconsistencies, it is necessary to determine new method suitable to pyroproessing facility, by considering the effects of eight points (i.e, degrees of attractiveness, levels of category, discount factor, physical barriers, chemical barriers, isotopic barriers, radiological barriers, and capabilities of adversaries)

  15. Analysis of the Scope of "Protected Persons" in the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN GUANZHU

    2011-01-01

    @@ As the core of the International Humanitarian Law, the Geneva Conventions of 1949 have just celebrated their 61st anniversary.Here after a brief historic background introduction, the writer detailed analyzed the definition,exceptions, extension and deprivation of "Protected Persons" of the Convention (Ⅳ) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War with the reference of the text and commentaries of the Convention, precedents of international tribunals, teachings and others.

  16. The impact of conventional and nuclear industries on the population A comparative study of the radioactive and chemical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Coulon, R; Anguenot, F

    1988-01-01

    This study was carried out to make it possible to assess and localize in an objective manner the extent of the hazards and associated detrimental effects which are inherent in nuclear and non-nuclear industrial activities, among all the hazards to which the population of a given region is exposed. Rather than carry out a purely theoretical and speculative study a region was chosen as a basis to carry out a full- scale exercise, taking into account the existing real situation. The region chosen is situated in the south-east of France (Greater Rhone Delta) where almost all industrial activities can be found: electricity generating industries (thermal and nuclear power stations), the activities associated with them (extraction, processing, storage of waste, etc.) and industrial activities which are sources of pollution (refineries, chemical industries, etc.). To put the risks of all these activities (to workers, the public and the environment) in perspective, the case of other sources of risk, such as certain ag...

  17. Protecting Socio-Economic Rights Through the European Convention on Human Rights : Trends and Developments in the European Court of Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Palmer (Ellie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis article is concerned with jurisprudential trends and developments in the protection of socio-economic rights through the interpretation of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It focuses on the potential to gain access to health care and welfare services, and the financia

  18. Protecting Socio-Economic Rights Through the European Convention on Human Rights : Trends and Developments in the European Court of Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Palmer (Ellie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis article is concerned with jurisprudential trends and developments in the protection of socio-economic rights through the interpretation of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It focuses on the potential to gain access to health care and welfare services, and the

  19. Nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    International cooperation in nuclear industries requires nuclear control as prerequisites. The concept of nuclear control is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) plays central role in implementing nuclear control. Nuclear control consists of nuclear safeguards, physical protection, and export/import control. Each member state of NPT is subject to the IAEA`s safeguards by concluding safeguards agreements with the IAEA. IAEA recommends member states to implement physical protection on nuclear materials by `The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` and `The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` of IAEA. Export/Import Control is to deter development of nuclear weapons by controlling international trade on nuclear materials, nuclear equipments and technology. Current status of domestic and foreign nuclear control implementation including recent induction of national inspection system in Korea is described and functions of recently set-up Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) under the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) are also explained. 6 tabs., 11 refs. (Author).

  20. The Physics and Chemistry of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, Joel I.; Smith, Frederick W.

    2001-06-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the structure, properties, and applications of materials This title provides the first unified treatment for the broad subject of materials. Authors Gersten and Smith use a fundamental approach to define the structure and properties of a wide range of solids on the basis of the local chemical bonding and atomic order present in the material. Emphasizing the physical and chemical origins of material properties, the book focuses on the most technologically important materials being utilized and developed by scientists and engineers. Appropriate for use in advanced materials courses, The Physics and Chemistry of Materials provides the background information necessary to assimilate the current academic and patent literature on materials and their applications. Problem sets, illustrations, and helpful tables complete this well-rounded new treatment. Five sections cover these important topics: * Structure of materials, including crystal structure, bonding in solids, diffraction and the reciprocal lattice, and order and disorder in solids * Physical properties of materials, including electrical, thermal, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties * Classes of materials, including semiconductors, superconductors, magnetic materials, and optical materials in addition to metals, ceramics, polymers, dielectrics, and ferroelectrics * A section on surfaces, thin films, interfaces, and multilayers discusses the effects of spatial discontinuities in the physical and chemical structure of materials * A section on synthesis and processing examines the effects of synthesis on the structure and properties of various materials This book is enhanced by a Web-based supplement that offers advanced material together with an entire electronic chapter on the characterization of materials. The Physics and Chemistry of Materials is a complete introduction to the structure and properties of materials for students and an excellent reference for scientists and

  1. Fundamentals of nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Takigawa, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the current understanding of the fundamentals of nuclear physics by referring to key experimental data and by providing a theoretical understanding of principal nuclear properties. It primarily covers the structure of nuclei at low excitation in detail. It also examines nuclear forces and decay properties. In addition to fundamentals, the book treats several new research areas such as non-relativistic as well as relativistic Hartree–Fock calculations, the synthesis of super-heavy elements, the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram, and nucleosynthesis in stars, to convey to readers the flavor of current research frontiers in nuclear physics. The authors explain semi-classical arguments and derivation of its formulae. In these ways an intuitive understanding of complex nuclear phenomena is provided. The book is aimed at graduate school students as well as junior and senior undergraduate students and postdoctoral fellows. It is also useful for researchers to update their knowledge of diver...

  2. Study on the establishment of effective nuclear export system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Koo; So, Dong Sup; Baik, Dae Hyun; Kwack, Eun Ho; Shin, Jang Soo; Yoon, Wan Ki; Park, Wan Soo; Kim, Hyun Tae

    1997-02-01

    To improve Korean nuclear export control system, the modification of the present export license procedure for the nuclear equipment and materials and the classification of control items and their related technologies are required. And it is also necessary to make a database of the original countries who have the right of prior consent. For the efficient export control of LWR items to DPRK, it is desirable to manage the export license scheme of nuclear reactor facility as a total package, and to prepare a control regime for the retransfer of nuclear reactor component such as reactor coolant pump and nuclear fuel whose technologies are not self-reliant. It is especially essential to prepare a systematic procedure for the supply of nuclear equipment and materials to DPRK in order to meet international guidelines of NSG and others through an accord on the nuclear cooperation between Republic of Korea (ROK) and DPRK. The principal elements to be included in the accord are the range of cooperation, the restriction within the peaceful uses, prior consent right in case of retransfer of important nuclear reactor components and of storage, transfer and changes of nuclear fuels, application of safeguards to the supplied Trigger list items, physical protection of nuclear material, requirement of the return of nuclear equipment and materials, and restriction right for the suspension or termination of the agreement. (author). 40 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  3. Requirements of climate protection with regard to the quality of ecosystems: use of synergies between the framework convention of climate change and the convention on biological diversity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, A.; Eberle, U.; Ploetz, C.; Scholz, S.

    2001-07-01

    The report identifies synergies and conflicts in the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Ramsar Convention on the protection of wetlands and the international forest process. Currently discussed options for climate change mitigation under the FCCC include land-use, land-use change and forestry activities, which can have both positive or negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems. On the other hand, activities undertaken under the CBD can have an impact on the ability of ecosystems to provide climate-relevant services like carbon sequestration, regulation of N2O and CH4 emissions, water cycling and the energy budget. Synergies between climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation can be reached in the areas of conservation of old-growth forests and wetlands. Clear conflicts could arise e.g. from the introduction of exotic species for carbon sequestration, the construction of hydroelectric dams or from the implementation of so-called 'hard' adaptation technologies under the Kyoto Protocol. Most mitigation and adaptation activities discussed under the Kyoto Protocol, however, have ambivalent effects on biodiversity and climate-relevant processes that depend largely on the ecosystem type and the management practices chosen. The report discusses instruments such as guidelines, indicators, impact assessments, positive lists or participation of stakeholders that could promote the consistence between climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation. The report also presents recommendations for improved cooperation between the conventions in the areas of monitoring, reporting, protected areas, financial resources, the financial mechanisms of the conventions and further research needs. (orig.)

  4. Three Types of Programed Learning and the Conventional Teaching of the Nuclear Chemistry Portion of the High School Chemistry Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnowski, Vincent S.

    Compared was the learning and retention of facts and principles of nuclear chemistry in the high school chemistry course using three forms of programed materials, and the conventional lecture-demonstration method of teaching. Groups using the programs gained significantly more than the control group, and among the three forms of programs, the…

  5. Nuclear medicine physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima, Joao Jose

    2011-01-01

    Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr

  6. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, A

    2002-01-01

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics willdevelop quite fast: A. Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region; B. Nuclear structure at the limits; C. High energy heavy ion collisions; D. Nuclear astrophysics; E. Neutrino physics; F. Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: 1. The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon $\\Sigma$-term, 2. VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renais...

  7. A Transferrable Belief Model Representation for Physical Security of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gerts

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzed various probabilistic methods such as classic statistics, Bayesian inference, possibilistic theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions for the potential insight offered into the physical security of nuclear materials as well as more broad application to nuclear non-proliferation automated decision making theory. A review of the fundamental heuristic and basic limitations of each of these methods suggested that the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions may offer significant capability. Further examination of the various interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, such as random set, generalized Bayesian, and upper/lower probability demonstrate some limitations. Compared to the other heuristics, the transferrable belief model (TBM), one of the leading interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, can improve the automated detection of the violation of physical security using sensors and human judgment. The improvement is shown to give a significant heuristic advantage over other probabilistic options by demonstrating significant successes for several classic gedanken experiments.

  8. ASN annual report 2007 - ASN report abstracts on the state of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection in France in 2007; ASN rapport annuel 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The 2007 annual report of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) presents the highlights of the year in the domain of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France. The year 2007 was marked by the implementation of a new legislative and regulatory framework created by the 13 June 2006 Act on transparency and security in the nuclear field (TSN) and the 28 June Act on the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. As in the previous two years, the year was relatively satisfactory from the nuclear safety viewpoint and slightly less so with regard to small-scale nuclear activities. For two years now, the medical field has been marked by the declaration to ASN of a number of serious radiotherapy accidents which have led to several deaths or the need for extensive surgery. The following main topics are reviewed in the document: 1 - the decrees implementing the 'TSN' act and the 'Waste' act; 2 - the new ASN, one year on; 3 - ASN regulatory actions in the field of radiotherapy; 4 - regulation of new installations; 5 - the key issues for regulation of existing installations; 6 - nuclear safety and radiation protection research; 7 - policy for management of the post-accident phase of a radiological emergency; 8 - sites and soils polluted by radioactive materials; 9 - international harmonization of nuclear safety and radiation protection.

  9. National report of Brazil: nuclear safety convention - September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This National Report was prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities in the field of nuclear safety, aiming the fulfilling the Convention of Nuclear Energy obligations. The Report contains a description of the Brazilian policy and programme on the safety of nuclear installations, and an article by article description of the measures Brazil is undertaking in order to implement the obligations described in the Convention. The last chapter describes plans and future activities to further enhance the safety of nuclear installations in Brazil.

  10. Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics 2003 Relativistic Heavy Ion Parallel Session Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Nagle, J L

    2003-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) came online in 2000, and the last three years have provided a wealth of new experimental data and theoretical work in this new energy frontier for nuclear physics. The transition from quarks and gluons bound into hadrons to a deconfined quark-gluon plasma is expected to occur at these energies, and the effort to understand the time evolution of these complex systems has been significantly advanced. The heavy ion parallel session talks from the Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics (CIPANP) 2003 are posted at: http://www.phenix.bnl.gov/WWW/publish/nagle/CIPANP/. We provide a brief summary of these sessions here.

  11. Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident: experiences of the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, T; Takahara, S; Kimura, M; Kinase, S

    2015-06-01

    Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident are discussed in this paper based on the experiences following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The criteria for use in nuclear emergencies in the Japanese emergency preparedness guide were based on the recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 60 and 63. Although the decision-making process for implementing protective actions relied heavily on computer-based predictive models prior to the accident, urgent protective actions, such as evacuation and sheltering, were implemented effectively based on the plant conditions. As there were no recommendations and criteria for long-term protective actions in the emergency preparedness guide, the recommendations of ICRP Publications 103, 109, and 111 were taken into consideration in determining the temporary relocation of inhabitants of heavily contaminated areas. These recommendations were very useful in deciding the emergency protective actions to take in the early stages of the Fukushima accident. However, some suggestions have been made for improving emergency preparedness and response in the early stages of a severe nuclear accident.

  12. Nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, David (Bishop Luffa Comprehensive School, Chichester (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Physics covers the aspects of radioactivity and nuclear physics dealt with in the syllabuses of all the A-level examination boards; in particular, it provides detailed coverage of the Joint Matriculation Board option in nuclear physics. It deals with the discovery of the atomic nucleus, the physics of nuclear processes, and nuclear technology. (author).

  13. Handbook explaining the fundamentals of nuclear and atomic physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlen, D. F.; Morse, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Indoctrination document presents nuclear, reactor, and atomic physics in an easy, straightforward manner. The entire subject of nuclear physics including atomic structure ionization, isotopes, radioactivity, and reactor dynamics is discussed.

  14. Integrating the stabilization of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, H.F. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In response to Recommendation 94-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, the Department of Energy committed to stabilizing specific nuclear materials within 3 and 8 years. These efforts are underway. The Department has already repackaged the plutonium at Rocky Flats and metal turnings at Savannah River that had been in contact with plastic. As this effort proceeds, we begin to look at activities beyond stabilization and prepare for the final disposition of these materials. To describe the plutonium materials being stabilize, Figure 1 illustrates the quantities of plutonium in various forms that will be stabilized. Plutonium as metal comprises 8.5 metric tons. Plutonium oxide contains 5.5 metric tons of plutonium. Plutonium residues and solutions, together, contain 7 metric tons of plutonium. Figure 2 shows the quantity of plutonium-bearing material in these four categories. In this depiction, 200 metric tons of plutonium residues and 400 metric tons of solutions containing plutonium constitute most of the material in the stabilization program. So, it is not surprising that much of the work in stabilization is directed toward the residues and solutions, even though they contain less of the plutonium.

  15. The Nuclear Safety Council's Instruction IS-30 on program requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plants; La instruccion IS-30 del consejo de Seguridad Nuclear sobre requisitos del programa de proteccion contraincendios en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peco, J.

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Councils Instrumentation IS-30 is the standard that establishes the fire protection program requirements for the Spanish nuclear power plants with operating license in order to satisfy the two fire protection objectives, which are the adoption of the defense-in-depth principle for fire protection and, by fire area confinement, to ensure that one train of components needed to achieve and maintain the safe shutdown conditions is free of fire damage, and that radioactive liberation is minimized. (Author)

  16. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  17. Draft Convention on the Exemption from Taxes of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, The Representatives of Member States on the Council of the Organization, the Director-General and the Members of the Staff of the European Organization for Nuclear Research

    CERN Document Server

    European Organization for Nuclear Research

    1955-01-01

    Draft Convention on the Exemption from Taxes of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, The Representatives of Member States on the Council of the Organization, the Director-General and the Members of the Staff of the European Organization for Nuclear Research

  18. Basic research for nuclear energy. y Study on the nuclear materials technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk, I. H.; Lee, H. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Sung, K. W.; Han, J. H.; Lee, J. T.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, S. J.; Kang, H. S.; An, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. D.; Han, C. H.; Jung, M. K.; Oh, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. H.; Back, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lim, K. S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Na, J. W.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    A study on the nuclear materials technologies which are necessary to establish the base for alloy development was performed. - The feasibility study on the application of Zircaloy scrap waste for hydrogen storage - The development of metal hydride battery for energy storage system - The establishment of transmission electron microscopy database for nuclear materials - The basic technology for the development of cladding materials for high burnup - The water chemistry technology for secondary system pH control and the photocatalysis technology for decomposition and removal of organics. - Improvement of primary component integrity of PWR by Zinc injection. (author). 175 refs., 58 tabs., 262 figs.

  19. Nuclear characteristics of the endometrial cytology: liquid-based versus conventional preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, Yoshiaki; Shigematsu, Yumie; Sakamoto, Shingo; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Yanoh, Kenji; Kawanishi, Namiki; Kobayashi, Tadao K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the utility of liquid-based cytologic preparation (LP) compared with conventional preparation (CP) for the assessment of nuclear findings in endometrial glandular and stromal breakdown (EGBD) which may be misdiagnosed as carcinoma in EGBD cases. The material consists of cytologic smears including 20 cases of proliferative endometrium (PE), 20 cases of EGBD, and 20 cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma grade1 (G1) for which histopathological diagnosis was obtained by endometrial curettage at the JA Suzuka General Hospital. Nuclear findings were examined in PE cells, EGBD-stromal cells, EGBD-metaplastic cells, and G1 cells, respectively. It was examined about the following items; (1) nuclear shape; (2) A long/minor axis ratio in cell nuclei; (3) an area of cell nuclei; (4) overlapping nuclei. Results are as follows: (1) nuclear shape; as for the reniform shape of EGBD-stromal cells and spindle shape of EGBD-metaplastic cells, the ratio of the LP method was a higher value than the CP method. (2) The long axis and area of cell nuclei; LP in all groups was a recognizable tendency for nuclear shrinkage. (3) The long/minor axis ratio in cell nuclei; only EGBD-metaplastic cells recognize a significant difference between CP and LP. (4) Overlapping nuclei; LP was a higher value in comparison with CP in the other groups except PE cells, and the degree of overlapping nuclei was enhanced about three times. Therefore, although a cell of LP has a shrinking tendency, (1) it is excellent that LP preserves a characteristic of nuclear shape than CP; (2) a cellular characteristic becomes clearer, because three-dimensional architecture of LP is preserved of than CP. As for the standard preparation method for endometrial cytology samples, we considered that a concrete introduction of the LP method poses no problems.

  20. Effect of conventional and experimental gingival retraction solutions on the tensile strength and inhibition of polymerization of four types of impression materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Sábio; Paulo Afonso Franciscone; José Mondelli

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, two types of tests (tensile strength test and polymerization inhibition test) were performed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of four impression materials [a polysulfide (Permlastic), a polyether (Impregum), a condensation silicone (Xantopren) and a polyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil) ,3; when polymerized in contact with of one conventional (Hemostop) and two experimental (Vislin and Afrin) gingival retraction solutions. For the tensile strength test, the i...

  1. Study on interface between nuclear material accounting system and national nuclear forensic library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yonhong; Han, Jae-Jun; Chang, Sunyoung; Shim, Hye-Won; Ahn, Seungho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The implementation of nuclear forensics requires physical, chemical and radiological characteristics with transport history to unravel properties of seized nuclear materials. For timely assessment provided in the ITWG guideline, development of national response system (e.g., national nuclear forensic library) is strongly recommended. Nuclear material accounting is essential to obtain basic data in the nuclear forensic implementation phase from the perspective of nuclear non-proliferation related to the IAEA Safeguards and nuclear security. In this study, the nuclear material accounting reports were chosen due to its well-established procedure, and reviewed how to efficiently utilize the existing material accounting system to the nuclear forensic implementation phase In conclusion, limits and improvements in implementing the nuclear forensics were discussed. This study reviewed how to utilize the existing material accounting system for implementing nuclear forensics. Concerning item counting facility, nuclear material properties can be obtained based on nuclear material accounting information. Nuclear fuel assembly data being reported for the IAEA Safeguards can be utilized as unique identifier within the back-end fuel cycle. Depending upon the compulsory accountability report period, there exist time gaps. If national capabilities ensure that history information within the front-end nuclear fuel cycle is traceable particularly for the bulk handling facility, the entire cycle of national nuclear fuel would be managed in the framework of developing a national nuclear forensic library.

  2. 10 CFR 73.55 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... necessary based upon site-specific analyses, assessments, or other performance indicators. (iii) By... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage. 73.55 Section 73.55 Energy NUCLEAR...

  3. Non-destructive research methods applied on materials for the new generation of nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Veterníková, J.; Sojak, S.; Petriska, M.; Bouhaddane, A.

    2014-06-01

    The paper is aimed on non-destructive experimental techniques applied on materials for the new generation of nuclear reactors (GEN IV). With the development of these reactors, also materials have to be developed in order to guarantee high standard properties needed for construction. These properties are high temperature resistance, radiation resistance and resistance to other negative effects. Nevertheless the changes in their mechanical properties should be only minimal. Materials, that fulfil these requirements, are analysed in this work. The ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels and ODS steels are studied in details. Microstructural defects, which can occur in structural materials and can be also accumulated during irradiation due to neutron flux or alpha, beta and gamma radiation, were analysed using different spectroscopic methods as positron annihilation spectroscopy and Barkhausen noise, which were applied for measurements of three different FM steels (T91, P91 and E97) as well as one ODS steel (ODS Eurofer).

  4. On the use of the Discrete Variable Representation Basis in Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgac, Aurel

    2013-01-01

    The discrete variable representation (DVR) basis is nearly optimal for numerically representing wave functions in nuclear physics: Suitable problems enjoy exponential convergence, yet the Hamiltonian remains sparse. We show that one can often use smaller basis sets than with the traditional harmonic oscillator basis, and still benefit from the simple analytic properties of the DVR basis which requires no overlap integrals, simply permit using various Jacobi coordinates, and admit straightforward analyses of the UV and IR convergence properties.

  5. Convention on nuclear safety. Questions posted to Switzerland in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) on 31 October 1995. It ratified the Convention on 12 September 1996, which came into force on 11 December 1996. In accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, Switzerland has prepared and submitted 4 country reports for Review Meetings of Contracting Parties organised in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2006. These meetings at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna were attended by a Swiss delegation. Most of the requirements of the articles of the Convention were already standard practice in Switzerland. In the last years, all Swiss nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) built up documented quality management systems. The independence of HSK from licensing authorities is fulfilled on a technical level. In 2005, a new Nuclear Energy Act came into force requiring formal independence of the supervisory authorities from the licensing authorities. A separate act to legally settle the Inspectorate's fully independent status was adopted by Parliament. HSK participates in international co-operation and is represented in numerous nuclear safety working groups in order to ensure the exchange of scientific, technical and regulatory know-how. The regulatory processes applied to the licensing and safety surveillance of nuclear installations and their operation are up to date with the current state of science and technology. Deterministic and probabilistic safety evaluations guide and prioritise inspections and provide the basis for a graded approach to safety review and assessment. The surveillance of the NPPs' operating, control and safety systems, their component performance and integrity, their organisational and human aspects as well as the management, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste are permanent features of the supervisory authority's activities. Within the frame of a new integrated oversight process there is an annual systematic assessment of

  6. The protection of children refugees in brazil by the control of conventionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria D´Ávila Lopes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to show the importance of AO No. 21/2014 of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, via control of conventionality, as a way to ensure the protection of the refugee children's rights in Brazil. To this end, a bibliographical and documentary research on international and national doctrine, legislation and jurisprudence was made. It was found that only after the Second World War, the rights of refugees began to receive international attention. So, too, it was found that the right to asylum is a fundamental right, whose interpretation should be performed via control of conventionality, in the light of international human rights, such as the Convention Relating of the status of Refugees, adopted in 1951, and the OC nº 21/2014  of the Inter-American Court of Human rights. It was concluded, from the analysis of a Brazilian court decision, it is still needed greater knowledge about the control of conventionality by the Brazilian authorities in order to better protect the rights of children refugees.

  7. Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, E E

    2008-01-01

    This new streamlined text offers a one-semester treatment of the essentials of how the fission nuclear reactor works, the various approaches to the design of reactors, and their safe and efficient operation. The book includes numerous worked-out examples and end-of-chapter questions to help reinforce the knowledge presented. This textbook offers an engineering-oriented introduction to nuclear physics, with a particular focus on how those physics are put to work in the service of generating nuclear-based power, particularly the importance of neutron reactions and neutron behavior. Engin

  8. Essentials of nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Powsner, Rachel A; Powsner, Edward R

    2013-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basic concepts of nuclear medicine physics This Third Edition of Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation expands the finely developed illustrated review and introductory guide to nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation. Along with simple, progressive, highly illustrated topics, the authors present nuclear medicine-related physics and engineering concepts clearly and concisely. Included in the text are introductory chapters on relevant atomic structure, methods of radionuclide production, and the interaction of radiation with matter. Fu

  9. Cooperation Between the Russia Federation and the United States to Enhance the Existing Nuclear-Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Systems at Mayak Production Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahalane, P.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; James, L.T.; Jarrett, J.H.; Lundgren, R.A.; Manatt, D.R.; Niederauer, G.F.; Olivos, J.D.; Prishchepov, A.I.; Starodubtsev, G.S.; Suda, S.C.; Tittemore, G.W.; Zatorsky, Y.M.

    1999-07-19

    The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (Mayak) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by lylINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC&A systems at Mayak. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC&A systems at two of the plants operated by Mayak that work with proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials.

  10. Third national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-15

    This document presents an activity report during the year of 2004, covering the following activities: corporate governance, sustainable development, internal control, controls and procedures for official financial information, evaluation of the controls and procedures by the internal audit, and financial statements.

  11. The world's nuclear future - built on material success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Sue

    2010-07-01

    In our energy hungry world of the twenty-first century, the future of electricity generation must meet the twin challenges of security of supply and reduced carbon emissions. The expectations for nuclear power programmes to play a part in delivering success on both counts, grows ever higher. The nuclear industry is poised on a renaissance likely to dwarf the heady days of the 1960s and early 1970s. Global supply chain and project management challenges abound, now just as then. The science and engineering of materials will be key to the successful deployment and operation of a new generation of reactor systems and their associated fuel cycles. Understanding and predicting materials performance will be key to achieving life extension of existing assets and underpinning waste disposal options, as well as giving confidence to the designers, their financial backers and governments across the globe, that the next generation of reactors will deliver their full potential.

  12. A very long engagement: The Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the 1993 Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Couzens

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the intercountry adoptions provisions contained in Chapter 16 of the Children’s Act 38 of 2005, against the standards of the Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Intercountry Adoptions, 1993. After a brief overview of the two leading South African cases on intercountry adoption, which stress the importance of having this institution statutorily regulated, the author proceeds to analyse the most significant clauses pertaining to intercountry adoptions contained in the Act, in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses in this new statutory framework. The author concludes that the Children’s Act is a dramatic improvement on the current regime of intercountry adoptions and that it has the potential to make this institution work in the best interests of children.

  13. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most elements are synthesized, or ""cooked"", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book

  14. Concept for the Emergency Protection in the Vicinity of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In 1991, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) issued a concept of the regulations for the cloud phase 1 of an nuclear power plant accident in Switzerland valid at that time in co-operation with the Federal Commission for AC Protection (KOMAC) and the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission (KSA). This concept replaced the version of 1977, which then formed the basis for emergency preparedness in Switzerland. Legal changes, such as the civil protection legislation and the ordinance on the distribution of iodine tablets to the population, as well as experience gained from the emergency exercises necessitated a revision of the existing concept. The present concept is issued by the Federal Commission for AC Protection (KOMAC) and deals with all phases of an accident sequence in a Swiss nuclear power plant focussing on the pre- and cloud phase. It also gives an overview of responsibilities and alert procedures for accidents at foreign nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations, as well as of accidents in connection with transportation of radioactive materials. The concept is designed to help the federal and cantonal authorities in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in charge of emergency protection in preparing their emergency procedure specifications, and in the realisation of the readiness for emergencies. Furthermore, it shall serve the cantons as a guideline for the preparation of emergency specifications for the communities. The concept is based on the assumption that the executive bodies and emergency forces provided for the general civil protection are employed in case of an accident at a nuclear power plant. (authors)

  15. The physical chemistry of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This book presents methods for synthesizing and characterizing adsorbents, ion exchangers, ionic conductors, heterogeneous catalysts, and permeable porous materials. The material properties and their applications in chemical, sustainable energy, and pollution abatement are discussed.

  16. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Material Chemistry in Nuclear Environment (MATERIAL CHEMISTRY '02, MC '02); March 13-15, 2002, Tsukuba

    OpenAIRE

    MC'02企画委員会

    2003-01-01

    The volume contains all presented papers during the the 3rd International Symposium on Material Chemistry in Nuclear Environment: MATERIAL CHEMISTRY '02 (MC'02), held March 13-15, 2002. The purpose of this symposium is to provide an international forum for the discussion of recent progress in the field of materials chemistry in nuclear environments. This symposium intends to build on the success of the previous symposiums held in Tsukuba in 1992 and 1996. The topics discussed in the symposium...

  17. The effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); King, F

    1999-07-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages has been comprehensively reviewed. The comparison of corrosion of the various materials was compared in three distinct environments: Environment A; Mg{sup 2+}-enriched brines in which hydrolysis of the cation produces acidic environments and the Mg{sup 2+} interferes with the formation of protective films; Environment B; saline environments with a low Mg{sup 2+} content which remain neutral; Environment C; moist aerated conditions.The reference design of nuclear waste package for emplacement in the proposed waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, employs a dual wall arrangement, in which a 2 cm thick nickel alloy inner barrier is encapsulated within a 10 cm thick mild steel outer barrier. It is felt that this arrangement will give considerable containment lifetimes, since no common mode failure exists for the two barriers. The corrosion performance of this waste package will be determined by the exposure environment established within the emplacement drifts. Key features of the Yucca Mountain repository in controlling waste package degradation are expected to be the permanent availability of oxygen and the limited presence of water. When water contacts the surface of the waste package, its gamma radiolysis could produce an additional supply of corrosive agents. the gamma field will be produced by the radioactive decay of radionuclides within the waste form, and its magnitude will depend on the nature and age of the waste form as well as the material and wall thickness of the waste package.

  18. 10th meeting of the International Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Masahito; Kimoto, Yugo; Protection of Materials and Structures From the Space Environment

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the 10th International Space Conference onProtection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-10J, since its inception in 1992, have been to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials, including aspects of LEO, GEO and Deep Space environments, ground-based qualification, and in-flight experiments and lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of the atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences. The knowledge of environmental conditions on and around the Moon, Mars, Venus and the low Earth orbit as well as other possible candidates for landing such as asteroids have become an important issue, and protecting both hardware and human life from the effects of space environments has taken on a new meaning in light of the increased interest in space travel and colonization of other planets.  And while many materia...

  19. Convention on Nuclear Safety - CNS. Report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the sixth review conference in March/April 2014; Uebereinkommen ueber nukleare Sicherheit. Bericht der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die Sechste Ueberpruefungstagung im Maerz/April 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the sixth review conference (Convention on Nuclear Safety - CNS) in March/April 2014 covers the following issues: reappraisal of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany; measures as consequence of the reactor accident in the nuclear power plant Fukushima; safety regulations; execution of the IRRS follow-up mission in Germany; safety management and technical qualification of the occupational personnel; safety surveillance; radiation protection, overview on important safety topics; events and incidents larger INES 0. Assessment of the existing nuclear facilities; progress and changes since 2011; future activities.

  20. Subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse;Calculo de subcriticidad del almacen del material nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia M, T.; Mazon R, R., E-mail: teodoro.garcia@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work the subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse of the Reactor TRIGA Mark III labyrinth in the Mexico Nuclear Center is presented. During the adaptation of the nuclear warehouse (vault I), the fuel was temporarily changed to the warehouse (vault II) and it was also carried out the subcritical calculation for this temporary arrangement. The code used for the calculation of the effective multiplication factor, it was the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended code known as MCNPX, developed by the National Laboratory of Los Alamos, for the particles transport. (Author)

  1. Tours Symposium on Nuclear Physics III. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Lewitowicz, M. [GANIL (France); Oganessian, Y.T. [FLNR-JINR (Russia); Ohta, M.; Utsunomiya, H.; Wada, T. [Konan University (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Tours symposium on Nuclear Physics held in Tours, France in September, 1997. The symposium was devoted to three fields of nuclear physics: (1) synthesis of superheavy elements including studies of fusion{minus}fission dynamics and sub{minus}barrier fusion; (2) physics of exotic nuclei; and (3) astronuclear physics. Some of the specific topics discussed include, nuclear models, gamma spectroscopy with radioactive beams, double giant resonance states, inelastic proton scattering of unstable nuclei, thermonuclear reactions and neutrino astrophysics. There were 63 papers presented at the Symposium and out of these, 5 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  2. Nuclear Science Outreach in the World Year of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Margaret

    2006-04-01

    The ability of scientists to articulate the importance and value of their research has become increasingly important in the present climate of declining budgets, and this is most critical in the field of nuclear science ,where researchers must fight an uphill battle against negative public perception. Yet nuclear science encompasses important technical and societal issues that should be of primary interest to informed citizens, and the need for scientists trained in nuclear techniques are important for many applications in nuclear medicine, national security and future energy sources. The NSAC Education Subcommittee Report [1] identified the need for a nationally coordinated effort in nuclear science outreach, naming as its first recommendation that `the highest priority for new investment in education be the creation by the DOE and NSF of a Center for Nuclear Science Outreach'. This talk will review the present status of public outreach in nuclear science and highlight some specific efforts that have taken place during the World Year of Physics. [1] Education in Nuclear Science: A Status Report and Recommendations for the Beginning of the 21^st Century, A Report of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee Subcommittee on Education, November 2004, http://www.sc.doe.gov/henp/np/nsac/docs/NSACCReducationreportfinal.pdf.

  3. The sixth Conference on Advanced Topics in the Interdisciplinary Fields of Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The sixth Conference on Advanced Topics in the Interdisciplinary Fields of Particle Paysics.Nuclear Paysic8and Cosmology was held on July 22-27,2007 in Lijiang,Yunan Province.Over 70 scientists who were activelv working in the fields attended the conference and 42 physicists gave talks.9 papers have been selected to be published in the proceedings.

  4. Data on the physical and mechanical properties of soilcrete materials modified with metakaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G. Asteris

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades eco-friendly, low-cost, sustainable construction materials for utilization in civil engineering projects have attracted much attention. To this end, soilcretes are non-conventional construction materials produced by mixing natural soil such as natural clay or limestone sand with a hydraulic binder and are recently under detailed and in-depth investigation by many researchers. In this paper the results of the physical and mechanical characteristics of a large set of cylindrical specimens under uniaxial compression, are presented. Specifically, two types of soils such as sand and clay with metakaolin as a mineral additive have been used. This database can be extremely valuable for better understanding of the behavior of soilcrete materials. Furthermore, the results presented herein expected to be of great interest for researchers who deal with the prediction of mechanical properties of materials using soft computing techniques such as artificial intelligence (AI techniques.

  5. Developmental neurotoxicity: methylmercury and prenatal exposure protection in the context of the Minamata Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boischio, Ana

    2015-09-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant of public environmental health concern due to its long-range atmospheric distribution, environmental distribution, and neurotoxic effects. Following biological methylation, methylmercury (MeHg) can be un-evenly bioaccumulated within aquatic food chains. Fish consumption can be a significant route of human exposure to MeHg. MeHg exposure in the prenatal stage, at relatively low levels, has recently been established as harmful during neurological development, potentially leading to intellectual disability. The Minamata Convention on Mercury is a global agreement, currently under ratification, to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds. The resolution regarding the role of the World Health Organization and ministries of health in the implementation of the Convention includes protection of human health from critical exposures to MeHg. Riverside populations living in areas with artisanal small-scale gold mining, and relying heavily on fish consumption, have been identified as the most vulnerable population in terms of MeHg exposure and developmental neurotoxicity. This article focuses on the proper design and dissemination of fish advisories within the context of implementation of the Convention.

  6. Development of the national report of the Mexican United States for the Convention on Nuclear Safety of the IAEA; Desarrollo del informe nacional de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos para la Convencion sobre seguridad nuclear del OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz L, P. [Jefe del Area de Ingenieria, Departamento de Evaluacion, Gerencia de Seguridad Nuclear, Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work the content of the National Report of the Mexican United States in it revision 2 is presented, which was presented for it exam by the member countries of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, in April, 2005. The conclusion of this Report, with base in the existent objective evidence, is that the Laguna Verde Central continues maintaining a level of similar safety to that of other nuclear power plants of its type, not existing conditions at the moment that they can be identified as adverse for a sure operation and that, therefore, plans don't exist to advance the closing of this installation, before the end of its useful life. The questions that the member countries formulated to the Report of Mexico, the answers that were provided to these questions, as well as the conclusions of the 3 Exam Meeting of April, 2005 are also included. The next National Report, in it revision 3, it will cover the period from the January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2006, it was developed from January to August, 2007, it delivered to the IAEA on September of the same year and it was presented in the IAEA Headquarters (IAEA) in the 4 Exam Meeting on April, 2008. (Author)

  7. Effect of conventional and experimental gingival retraction solutions on the tensile strength and inhibition of polymerization of four types of impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sábio, Sérgio; Franciscone, Paulo Afonso; Mondelli, José

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, two types of tests (tensile strength test and polymerization inhibition test) were performed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of four impression materials [a polysulfide (Permlastic), a polyether (Impregum), a condensation silicone (Xantopren) and a polyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil)] when polymerized in contact with of one conventional (Hemostop) and two experimental (Vislin and Afrin) gingival retraction solutions. For the tensile strength test, the impression materials were mixed and packed into a steel plate with perforations that had residues of the gingival retraction solutions. After polymerization, the specimens were tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine. For the polymerization inhibition test, specimens were obtained after taking impressions from a matrix with perforations that contained 1 drop of the gingival retraction solutions. Two independent examiners decided on whether or not impression material remnants remained unpolymerized, indicating interference of the chemical solutions. Based on the analysis of the results of both tests, the following conclusions were reached: 1. The tensile strength of the polysulfide decreased after contact with Hemostop and Afrin. 2. None of the chemical solutions inhibited the polymerization of the polysulfide; 3. The polyether presented lower tensile strength after polymerization in contact with the three gingival retraction agents; 4. The polyether had its polymerization inhibited only by Hemostop; 5. None of the chemical solutions affected the tensile strength of the condensation silicone; 6. Only Hemostop inhibited the polymerization of the condensation silicone; 7. The polyvinylsiloxane specimens polymerized in contact with Hemostop had significantly lower tensile strength; 8. Neither of the chemical solutions (Afrin and Vislin) affected the tensile strength of the polyvinylsiloxane and the condensation silicone; 9. Results of the tensile strength and polymerization

  8. Effect of conventional and experimental gingival retraction solutions on the tensile strength and inhibition of polymerization of four types of impression materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Sábio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, two types of tests (tensile strength test and polymerization inhibition test were performed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of four impression materials [a polysulfide (Permlastic, a polyether (Impregum, a condensation silicone (Xantopren and a polyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil ,3; when polymerized in contact with of one conventional (Hemostop and two experimental (Vislin and Afrin gingival retraction solutions. For the tensile strength test, the impression materials were mixed and packed into a steel plate with perforations that had residues of the gingival retraction solutions. After polymerization, the specimens were tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine. For the polymerization inhibition test, specimens were obtained after taking impressions from a matrix with perforations that contained 1 drop of the gingival retraction solutions. Two independent examiners decided on whether or not impression material remnants remained unpolymerized, indicating interference of the chemical solutions. Based on the analysis of the results of both tests, the following conclusions were reached: 1. The tensile strength of the polysulfide decreased after contact with Hemostop and Afrin. 2. None of the chemical solutions inhibited the polymerization of the polysulfide; 3. The polyether presented lower tensile strength after polymerization in contact with the three gingival retraction agents; 4. The polyether had its polymerization inhibited only by Hemostop; 5. None of the chemical solutions affected the tensile strength of the condensation silicone; 6. Only Hemostop inhibited the polymerization of the condensation silicone; 7. The polyvinylsiloxane specimens polymerized in contact with Hemostop had significantly lower tensile strength; 8. Neither of the chemical solutions (Afrin and Vislin affected the tensile strength of the polyvinylsiloxane and the condensation silicone; 9. Results of the tensile strength

  9. THE PROTECTION OF CULTURAL GOODS FROM THE ROERICH PACT TO THE HAGUE CONVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN MIHĂILĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study premises and objectives: The idea found at the basis of the discovery of a real value of cultural goods is underlined by the knowledge of their origins and history and of an environmental frame in which these have been produced. This theory could also be applied in regulations provided with certain newly introduced elements as: the absolute interdiction of thefts; the interdiction of destruction and execution of enemy property; the warning of before a terrestrial bombing with naval forces of ports, cities, villages, buildings or houses which are not defended The purpose on this paper is based on the following question: “Which of the gaps of humanitarian international law regarding cultural goods are surfacing?” The research models used are: the interpretative method, the structuralist-systematic method necessary for the knowledge of rules of organization and functioning of law as a system of social organization; the epistemological method, with an important role in the verification of an authentic meaning, fully manifesting the exigency regarding the protection of cultural property. The result of the study is obtained by offering an answer which as argued in this paper, concluding on one side that the discrepancies appeared between provisions (or dispositions of the Hague Convention of 1907 and the events of the First World War have led to an improved idea and to a completion of these norms. Conclusions: The preoccupation for the protection of cultural goods, of the people’s cultural patrimony, thus continues, even if, despite all acts adopted, we observe that certain states destroy willingly the treasures of other peoples. We have thus reached the conclusion that more drastic measures must be adopted more severe sanctions must be applied to states that neglect the norms of humanitarian international law and the existent gaps must be eliminated. For this reason the Second Protocol of The Hague Convention of 1954 has been promoted

  10. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... within one hour after recovery of or accounting for such lost shipment in accordance with the provisions... with no intermediate stops to load or unload other cargo and with no carrier or vehicle transfers or... discovery of the loss of the shipment and within one hour after recovery of or accounting for such...

  11. Integration of conventional and nuclear: What does it mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzo, Vincent A. [Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C. (United States); Miles, Aaron R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-04

    In October 2015, Secretary of Defense Carter called for NATO to better integrate conventional and nuclear deterrence. Four months later, Assistant Secretary of Defense Robert Scher stated in Senate testimony that the DoD is "working to ensure an appropriate level of integration between nuclear and conventional planning and operations."

  12. The Spanish system of Physical Security of the facilities, activities and radioactive nuclear fuels; El sistema Espanol de Seguridad Fisica de las instalaciones, actividades y materiales nucleares radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, E.; Gutierrez, M.

    2008-07-01

    The use of nuclear and radioactive materials has, from the very beginning, been characterized by the implementation of significant safety measures that are developed in parallel to the technology itself. The two facets of nuclear safety technological and physical have evolved at the same time as the technological advances, and also in terms of the social environment and awareness. Thus, the TMI and Chernobyl accidents were an important incentive for the evolution of technological safety, and the new context of the need for overall safety is providing the impetus for the evolution of physical security around the world. In Spain this impetus has materialized in the design and implementation of a physical security system for nuclear and radioactive installations, activities and materials, and putting it into practice has required the joint efforts of the public authorities and the private sector. The system is developed on the basis of three main components: installation protection, crime prevention, and preparation of the response to emergency situations caused by criminals acts. It is complemented by a series of horizontal actions aimed at improving institutional coordination, international collaboration, training of the agents involved in its implementation, and updating of the applicable regulatory framework. (Author)

  13. A database for transmutation of nuclear materials on internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Utsumi, Misako; Noda, Tetsuji [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    A database system on Internet for nuclear material design and selection used in various reactors are developed in NRIM site of `Data-Free-Way`. In order to retrieve and maintain the database, the user interface for the data retrieval was developed where special knowledge on handling of the database or the machine structure is not required for end-user. It is indicated that using the database, the possibility of nuclides and radioactivity in a material can be easily retrieved though the evaluation is qualitatively. (author)

  14. The materials physics companion

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Materials Physics: Structure of matter. Solid state physics. Dynamic properties of solids. Dielectric Properties of Materials: Dielectric properties. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. Dielectric breakdown. Applications of dielectrics. Magnetic Properties of Materials: Magnetic properties. Magnetic moment. Spontaneous magnetization. Superconductivity.

  15. Handbook on interdisciplinary use of European nuclear physics facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This handbook is intended to collect together, in an accessible way, the most pertinent information which might be needed by anyone contemplating the use of nuclear physics accelerators for research in other disciplines, or for industrial, biomedical, solid-state or other applications. Information for the publication was supplied by each laboratory represented here, and this was edited and supplemented where it was thought necessary, by additional material, often derived from the facilities' web-sites. The reader will find for each facility a technical description concerning the accelerator itself and its experimental equipment, followed by a 'what can be made there' section. 'at a glance' page contains a summary of contact names and addresses, transport, access and accommodation offered that will be of a great use for prospective user. 26 facilities in 12 European countries (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands) are presented.

  16. Safeguards-by-Design: Early Integration of Physical Protection and Safeguardability into Design of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Bjornard; R. Bean; S. DeMuth; P. Durst; M. Ehinger; M. Golay; D. Hebditch; J. Hockert; J. Morgan

    2009-09-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities has the potential to minimize proliferation and security risks as the use of nuclear energy expands worldwide. This paper defines a generic SBD process and its incorporation from early design phases into existing design / construction processes and develops a framework that can guide its institutionalization. SBD could be a basis for a new international norm and standard process for nuclear facility design. This work is part of the U.S. DOE’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), and is jointly sponsored by the Offices of Non-proliferation and Nuclear Energy.

  17. PREFACE: XXXIV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof

    2011-10-01

    In the present volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the 'XXXIV Symposium on Nuclear Physics', which was held from 4-7 January 2011 at the Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico. The proceedings consist of 19 contributions that were presented as invited talks at the meeting. The abstracts of all contributions, plenary talks and posters were published in the Conference Handbook. The Symposium on Nuclear Physics has a long and distinguished history. From the beginning it was intended to be a relatively small meeting designed to bring together some of the leading nuclear scientists in the field. Its most distinctive feature is to provide a forum for specialists in different areas of nuclear physics, both theorists and experimentalists, students, postdocs and senior scientists, in a relaxed and informal environment providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas. From the first meeting in Oaxtepec in 1978, the Symposium has been organized every year without interruption, which makes the present Symposium the 34th in a row. The scientific program consisted of 27 invited talks and 17 posters on a wide variety of hot topics in contemporary nuclear physics, ranging from the traditional fields of nuclear structure (Draayer, Pittel, Van Isacker, Fraser, Lerma, Cejnar, Hirsch, Stránský and Rath) and nuclear reactions (Aguilera, Gómez-Camacho, Scheid, Navrátil and Yennello) to radioactive beams (Padilla-Rodal and Galindo-Uribarri), nuclear astrophysics (Aprahamian, Civitarese and Escher), hadronic physics (Bijker, Valcarce and Hess), fundamental symmetries (Liu, Barrón-Palos and Baessler) and LHC physics (Menchaca-Rocha and Paic). The high quality of the talks, the prestige of the speakers and the broad spectrum of subjects covered in the meeting, shows that nuclear physics is a very active area at the frontier of scientific research which establishes bridges between many different disciplines. Libertad Barr

  18. Enforced disappearance : determining state responsibility under the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In late 2010, the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (ICPPED) entered into force. The present study addresses the question of determining state responsibility under the ICPPED, based on a framework that harmonises the protection afforded by this

  19. International Conference-Session of the Section of Nuclear Physics of the Physical Sciences Division of RAS

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    From November 17 to 21, 2014 the Section of Nuclear Physics of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI will hold in MEPhI, Moscow, the International Conference-Session of SNP PSD RAS "Physics of Fundamental Interactions". The program of the session covers basic theoretical and experimental aspects of particle physics and related problems of nuclear physics and cosmology, and will consist of 30-minute highlight and review talks as well as 10-15-minute contributed reports. All highlight talks and part of contributed reports will be presented at plenary sessions of the conference. The remaining reports will be presented at the sections which will be formed after receiving of abstracts. On the recommendation of the Organizing Committee reports and talks containing new unpublished results will be published in special issues of journals "Nuclear Physics" and "Nuclear Physics and Engineering". For the institutions belonging to the Rosatom s...

  20. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactions in stars is a major topic in the field of nuclear astrophysics, and deals with the topics of how precisely stars generate their energy through nuclear reactions, and how these nuclear reactions create the elements the stars, planets and - ultimately - we humans consist of. The present book treats these topics in detail. It also presents the nuclear reaction and structure theory, thermonuclear reaction rate formalism and stellar nucleosynthesis. The topics are discussed in a coherent way, enabling the reader to grasp their interconnections intuitively. The book serves bo

  1. Legal content of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, adopted by the united nations general assembly by resolution 45/158 of 18 December 1990.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author makes a detailed analysis of the legal contents of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant workers and their Families, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in the Resolution 45/158 of December 1990. The objectives of the Convention, the personal spehere of application, the Human Rights of all migrant workers and their families wether they be regular of iregular are presented throughout the article. Finally, the practical effectiveness of the Convention is analyzed concluding with the importance of its ratification by the largest number of States possible.

  2. The effect of air permeability of chemical protective clothing material on clothing vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Vuister, R.; Wammes, L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems associated with Chemical Warfare Protective Clothing (CW) is the additional heat load created by the garments. For CW-overgarments, research in the direction of reducing material thickness and thus heat and vapour resistance have not resulted in major improvements. The

  3. The objective and the prospects of creating certified reference materials of fire protection substances and materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Dubinin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the state of things in the field of production and use of fire protection materials. The need to develop certified reference materials of fire protection materials is justified.

  4. A Study on Current Status of Detection Technology and Establishment of National Detection Regime against Nuclear/Radiological Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Sung Woo; Jang, Sung Soon; Lee, Joung Hoon; Yoo, Ho Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Since 1990s, some events - detection of a dirty bomb in a Russian nation park in 1995, 9/11 terrorist attack to WTC in 2001, discovery of Al-Qaeda's experimentation to build a dirty bomb in 2003 etc - have showed that nuclear or radiological terrorism relating to radioactive materials (hereinafter 'radioactive materials' is referred to as 'nuclear material, nuclear spent fuel and radioactive source') is not incredible but serious and credible threat. Thus, to respond to the new threat, the international community has not only strengthened security and physical protection of radioactive materials but also established prevention of and response to illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. In this regard, our government has enacted or revised the national regulatory framework with a view to improving security of radioactive materials and joined the international convention or agreement to meet this international trend. For the purpose of prevention of nuclear/radiological terrorism, this paper reviews physical characteristics of nuclear material and existing detection instruments used for prevention of illicit trafficking. Finally, national detection regime against nuclear/radiological terrorism based on paths of the smuggled radioactive materials to terrorist's target building/area, national topography and road networks, and defence-in-depth concept is suggested in this paper. This study should contribute to protect people's health, safety and environment from nuclear/radiological terrorism.

  5. Impact of Implementing 1991 Act of the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuhong

    2006-01-01

    The Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants is abbreviated as UPOV. The Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants has 1961/1972 Act ,1978 Act and 1991 Act. China is member of UPOV and its regulations of protection of new varieties of plants conform to 1978 Act. At present, there is big debate whether China accedes to 1991 Act. This paper mainly discussed advantages and possibilities that China accedes to 1991 Act, and concluded that it is highly desirable that China should consider acceding to 1991 Act in order to contribute to development of system on protection of new varieties of plants.

  6. Effect of various endodontic irrigants on the push-out bond strength of biodentine and conventional root perforation repair materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Akbulut, Makbule Bilge; Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various endodontic irrigants on the push-out bond strength of Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fossés, France) in comparison with contemporary root perforation repair materials. Midroot dentin of canine teeth was horizontally sectioned into 1-mm-thick slices. The canal space of each dentin slice was enlarged with a diamond bur to 1.4 mm in diameter. The samples were divided into 5 groups (n = 40), and the following materials were placed, respectively: Biodentine, ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK), amalgam, Dyract AP (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany), and intermediate restorative material (IRM, Dentsply DeTrey). The samples were wrapped in wet gauze for 10 minutes and divided into 3 subgroups (n = 10) to be immersed into 3.5% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), or saline for 30 minutes. No irrigation was performed in the controls (n = 10), and a wet cotton pellet was placed over each test material. After incubation for 48 hours, the dislodgement resistance of the samples was measured using a universal testing machine. The samples were examined under a stereomicroscope to determine the nature of the bond failures. Biodentine showed significantly higher push-out bond strength than MTA (P amalgam ≥ IRM ≥ Biodentine > MTA. The push-out bond strength of Dyract AP, amalgam, IRM, and Biodentine was not significantly different when immersed in NaOCl, CHX, and saline solutions, whereas MTA lost strength when exposed to CHX. Biodentine showed considerable performance as a perforation repair material even after being exposed to various endodontic irrigants, whereas MTA had the lowest push-out bond strength to root dentin. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and Physical Property of Multi-Functional Siloxane Protective Coating Materials Applicable for Electronic Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Hyun; Cho, Hyeon Mo; Lee, Myong Euy [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Four multialkoxy-functionalized siloxane base-polymers were synthesized through either hydro-silylation or condensation reactions in order to prepare multi-networked siloxane polymers having appropriate physical properties for protective coating in fabrications of electronics. Formulations of 4 base-polymers gave coating materials and. Product A showed well-controlled flowing and leveling properties, and product A-2 was successfully applied to protective insulating coating for junction areas of connectors and chips in PDP controller. Tack free time, extrusion rate, dielectric breakdown voltage, hardness, thermal stability, water resistance and flame resistance of products and were examined.

  8. The effect of specifi c relationship between material and coating on tribological and protective features of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sovilj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, parts and tools are increasingly made of composite materials. Realization of specifi c connection between basic material and coating is very important. The quality of coating on products, in terms of wear and resistance to destruction, has a large impact on productivity and reliability of production processes, in particular their life. In this paper, based on experimental investigations, the effect of specific relationship between the base material and coating on tribological and protective features of the product is analyzed.

  9. Supervision of Waste Management and Environmental Protection at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, M

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in 2001. A summary of the inspections and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given.The inspections during 2001 have focused on theme inspections of waste management, environmental inspections considering the environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities and review safety analysis and research programs from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations

  10. Recent Experimental Results on Nuclear Cluster Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, C

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on nuclear cluster physics has increased considerably since the pioneering discovery of 12C+12C resonances half a century ago and nuclear clustering remains one of the most fruitful domains of nuclear physics, facing some of the greatest challenges and opportunities in the years ahead. The occurrence of "exotic" shapes and/or Bose-Einstein alpha condensates in light N-Z alpha-conjugate nuclei is investigated. Evolution of clustering from stability to the drip-lines examined with clustering aspects persisting in light neutron-rich nuclei is consistent with the extension of the "Ikeda-diagram" to non alpha-conjugate nuclei.

  11. The Study on Progression for Consolidating the Nuclear Security Legislative System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae San; Jung, Myung Tak [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    One is the International Convention for Suppressing Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (ICSANT) and the other is amendment to the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM). ICSANT and CPPNM were proposed by the UN and IAEA, respectively to strengthen the international framework of nuclear security. The ICSANT was entered into force in 2007, but CPPNM amendment is pending in force because the shortage of countries who ratify it. For going into effect this convention, it needs the two-thirds of the States Parties to the CPPNM. It is not completed, yet. So, various initiatives such as nuclear security summit, GICNT, UN ministerial conference, etc. treated that those two conventions were the primary basis to strengthen the global nuclear security architecture. The Republic of Korea (ROK) continuously has made an effort to consolidate the nuclear security legislative framework since the 2010. The purpose of this paper is to provide what we did to strengthen the nuclear security legal framework and what should we do next.

  12. Convention on Nuclear Safety - CNS. Report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the seventh review conference in March/April 2017; Uebereinkommen ueber nukleare Sicherheit. Bericht der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die Siebte Ueberpruefungstagung im Maerz/April 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-22

    The CNS (Convention on Nuclear Safety) report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the seventh review conference in March/April 2017 covers the following topics: Summary of the most important results since the sixth review conference: existing nuclear facilities, frame for legislation and execution, licensing system, regulatory authority, governmental organizations, responsibility of the licensee, priority of safety, financing and personnel, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment, radiation protection, emergency preparedness, site selection for nuclear facilities, design and construction, operation.

  13. FEL development at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, N. A.

    1993-07-01

    There are three different FEL projects at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics: 1) the FEL on the VEPP-3 storage ring which operates in the visible and ultraviolet region; 2) the high power FEL using a racetrack microtron recuperator (this machine will provide an average power of about tens of kilowatt in the infrared region); and 3) the compact infrared FEL project, using a microton, and a powerful FEL on a dedicated superconducting storage ring, which is under consideration now.

  14. "Securing our survival (SOS": non-state actors and the campaign for a nuclear weapons convention through the prism of securitisation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata H. Dalaqua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the security practices of the anti-nuclear movement in the post-Cold War period through the prism of securitisation theory. By exploring Buzan and Wæver's conceptual developments on macrosecuritisations, the practices involved in the struggle against the Bomb are interpreted as securitising moves, in which the anti-nuclear movement is the leading securitiser. In the capacity of securitising actors, nuclear abolition activists argue that nuclear disarmament, under a Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC, would be the only way to protect humankind from the threat posed by the existence of nuclear weapons. The empirical analysis of these non-state actors and their campaign for a NWC shows that, despite uttering security, the anti-nuclear movement has so far failed to achieve the proposed security measure, that is, nuclear disarmament. Nonetheless, securitisation has been instrumental for these non-state actors as a way of raising an issue on the agenda of decision-makers and urging them to take action.

  15. US-Russian collaboration for enhancing nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting at the Elektrostal uranium fuel-fabrication plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Allentuck, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Barham, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bishop, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wentz, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Steele, B.; Bricker, K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cherry, R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Snegosky, T. [Dept. of Defense, Washington, DC (United States). Defense Nuclear Agency

    1996-09-01

    In September 1993, an implementing agreement was signed that authorized collaborative projects to enhance Russian national materials control and accounting, physical protection, and regulatory activities, with US assistance funded by the Nunn-Lugar Act. At the first US-Russian technical working group meeting in Moscow in February 1994, it was decided to identify a model facility where materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) and regulatory projects could be carried out using proven technologies and approaches. The low-enriched uranium (LEU or RBMK and VVER) fuel-fabrication process at Elektrostal was selected, and collaborative work began in June 1994. Based on many factors, including initial successes at Elektrostal, the Russians expanded the cooperation by proposing five additional sites for MPC and A development: the Elektrostal medium-enriched uranium (MEU or BN) fuel-fabrication process and additional facilities at Podolsk, Dmitrovgrad, Obninsk, and Mayak. Since that time, multilaboratory teams have been formed to develop and implement MPC and A upgrades at the additional sites, and much new work is underway. This paper summarizes the current status of MPC and A enhancement projects in the LEU fuel-fabrication process and discusses the status of work that addresses similar enhancements in the MEU (BN) fuel processes at Elektrostal, under the recently expanded US-Russian MPC and A cooperation.

  16. Global nuclear material control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-05-01

    The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of a disposition program for special nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool that treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. Such a tool must represent the fundamental data, information, and capabilities of the fuel cycle including an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, and a framework supportive of national or international perspective. They have developed a prototype global nuclear material management and control systems analysis capability, the Global Nuclear Material Control (GNMC) model. The GNMC model establishes the framework for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material.

  17. Physics and radiobiology of nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Gopal B

    2013-01-01

    The Fourth Edition of Dr. Gopal B. Saha’s Physics and Radiobiology of Nuclear Medicine was prompted by the need to provide up-to-date information to keep pace with the perpetual growth and improvement in the instrumentation and techniques employed in nuclear medicine since the last edition published in 2006. Like previous editions, the book is intended for radiology and nuclear medicine residents to prepare for the American Board of Nuclear Medicine, American Board of Radiology, and American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine examinations, all of which require a strong physics background. Additionally, the book will serve as a textbook on nuclear medicine physics for nuclear medicine technologists taking the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board examination.

  18. IMPACT OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISSOLUTION ON VESSEL CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.; Clifton, B.

    2012-10-01

    Different nuclear materials require different processing conditions. In order to maximize the dissolver vessel lifetime, corrosion testing was conducted for a range of chemistries and temperature used in fuel dissolution. Compositional ranges of elements regularly in the dissolver were evaluated for corrosion of 304L, the material of construction. Corrosion rates of AISI Type 304 stainless steel coupons, both welded and non-welded coupons, were calculated from measured weight losses and post-test concentrations of soluble Fe, Cr and Ni.

  19. 75 FR 43945 - Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation AGENCY: Department of... for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation'') (42 U.S.C. 17373). Section 934 implements the... (e.g., nuclear reactors, fuel storage facilities) as a means to evaluate items based on...

  20. The Science of Nuclear Materials Detection using gamma-ray beams: Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    An atomic nucleus is excited by absorption of incident photons with an energy the same as the excitation energy of the level, and subsequently a gamma-ray is emitted as it de-excites. This phenomenon is called Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence and mostly used for studies on Nuclear Physics field. By measuring the NRF gamma-rays, we can identify nuclear species in any materials because the energies of the NRF gamma-rays uniquely depend on the nuclear species. For example, 235U has an excitation level at 1733 keV. If we irradiate a material including 235U with a gamma-ray tuned at this excitation level, the material absorbs the gamma-ray and re-emits another gamma-ray immediately to move back towards the ground state. Therefore we can detect the 235U by measuring the re-emitted (NRF) gamma-rays. Several inspection methods using gamma-rays, which can penetrate a thick shielding have been proposed and examined. Bertozzi and Ledoux have proposed an application of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) by using bremsstrahlung radiations. However the signal-to-noise (SN) ratio of the NRF measurement with the bremsstrahlung radiation is, in general, low. Only a part of the incident photons makes NRF with a narrow resonant band (meV-eV) whereas most of incident radiation is scattered by atomic processes in which the reaction rate is higher than that of NRF by several orders of magnitudes and causes a background. Thus, the NRF with a gamma-ray quasi-monochromatic radiation beam is proposed. The monochromatic gamma-rays are generated by using laser Compton scattering (LCS) of electrons and intense laser photons by putting a collimator to restrict the gamma-ray divergence downstream. The LCS gamma-ray, which is energy-tunable and monochromatic, is an optimum apparatus for NRF measurements We have been conducted NRF experiment for nuclear research, especially with high linear polarized gamma-ray generated by LCS, to survey the distribution of M1 strength in MeV region in LCS

  1. On evaluated nuclear data for beta-delayed gamma rays following of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mencarini, Leonardo de H.; Caldeira, Alexandre D., E-mail: mencarini@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.b [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of information available in ENDF is discussed. During a consistency check of the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 performed at the Nuclear Data Subdivision of the Institute for Advanced Studies, the size of the files for some materials drew the attention of one of the authors. Almost 94 % of all available information for these special nuclear materials is used to represent the beta-delayed gamma rays following fission. This is the first time this information is included in an ENDF version. (author)

  2. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikulski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1992-12-31

    The research program at the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry of the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics is described. The Department consist of three laboratories. First - Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Separation Processes on which the activity is concentrated on separation of radioactive isotopes from particle bombarded target. The main interest is production and separation of neutron deficient isotopes for medical diagnostic and therapy. The investigation program includes measurements of nuclear reaction cross sections,, band resolution technique, preparation of radioactive sources, detection of non-radioactive trace elements. An independent project on desulphurization of flue gases is also carried out in the Laboratory. In the second one - Laboratory of Chemistry and Radiochemistry - the systematic studies of physicochemical properties of transition elements in solutions are carried out. The results of the performed experiments were used for the elaboration of new rapid and selective methods for various elements. Some of these results have been applied for separation of trans actinide elements at U-400 cyclotron of JINR Dubna. The third one laboratory - Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory -conducts continuous monitoring of radioactivity contamination of atmosphere. The investigation of different radionuclides concentration in natural environment, mainly in the forest had been carried out. (author).

  3. Research on effectiveness assessment programs for physical protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Janghoon; Yoo, Hosik; Ham, Taekyu [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    PPS (Physical Protection System) is an integrated set of procedures, installation and human resources to protect valuable assets from physical attack of potential adversaries. Since nuclear facilities or radioactive materials can be attractive targets for terrorists, PPS should be installed and maintained throughout the entire lifecycle of nuclear energy systems. One of key ingredients for effective protection is a reliable assessment procedure of the PPS capability. Due to complexity of possible threat categories and pathways, several pathway analysis programs have been developed to ease analysis or visualization. ASSESS using ASD approach runs fast and adopts a relatively simple modeling process for facility elements. But uncertainty due to assumptions used in modeling might complicate the interpretation of results. On the other hand, 2D pathway program such as TESS can utilize more self-consistent detection probability and delay time since actual pathway on 2D map is available. Also, this pathway visualization helps users understand analysis result more intuitively. But, in general, 2D pathway programs require strong computational power and careful optimization. Another possible difference between two approaches is response force deployment and RFT.

  4. Study on effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity of betavoltaic nuclear battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badrianto, Muldani Dwi; Riupassa, Robi D.; Basar, Khairul, E-mail: khbasar@fi.itb.ac.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear batteries have strategic applications and very high economic potential. One Important problem in application of nuclear betavoltaic battery is its low efficiency. Current efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery reaches only arround 2%. One aspect that can influence the efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery is the geometrical configuration of radioactive source. In this study we discuss the effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity in betavoltaic nuclear battery system. received by the detector. By obtaining the optimum configurations, the optimum usage of radioactive materials can be determined. Various geometrical configurations of radioactive source material are simulated. It is obtained that usage of radioactive source will be optimum for circular configuration.

  5. PREFACE: XXXIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof; Fossion, Ruben; Lizcano, David

    2010-04-01

    The attached PDF gives a full listing of contributors and organisation members. In the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the "XXXIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics", that was held from January 5-8, 2010 at the Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico. The proceedings contain the plenary talks that were presented during the conference. The abstracts of all contributions, plenary talks and posters, were published in the Conference Handbook. The Symposium on Nuclear Physics has a long and distinguished history. From the beginning it was intended to be a relatively small meeting designed to bring together some of the leading nuclear scientists in the field. Its most distinctive feature is to provide a forum for specialists in different areas of nuclear physics, both theorists and experimentalists, students, postdocs and senior scientists, in a relaxed and informal environment providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas. After the first meeting in Oaxtepec in 1978, the Symposium was organized every year without interruption which makes the present one the 33rd in a row. This year's meeting was dedicated to the memory of Marcos Moshinsky, who passed away on April 1, 2009. Dr. Moshinsky was the most distinguished pioneer and promoter of nuclear physics in Mexico and Latin America and holds the record of 31 (out of 32) participations at the Symposium. In the inaugural session, Alejandro Frank (ICN-UNAM), Peter Hess (ICN-UNAM) and Jorge Flores (IF-UNAM) spoke in his honor and recalled the virtues that characterized him as a teacher, scientist, founder of schools and academic institutions, colleague and friend. His generosity, excellence and honesty were emphasized as the personal qualities that characterized both his personal and academic life. moshinksky_photo "Marcos Moshinsky (1921-2009)" The scientific program consisted of 26 invited talks and 20 posters on a wide variety of hot topics in contemporary nuclear

  6. Big data-based data mining modeling for nuclear security analysis in the modified physical protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Systemix Global Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the social networking-related strategies have been developed to prepare against the terror. The conventional PPS is composed of detection, delay, and response. In the systems, each stage has particular characteristics where the detection state is to find out the intrusion and unauthorized behavior by some devices, the delay stage is to slow the malicious acts by some barriers, and finally the response stage is to interrupt the actions by several kinds of methods like the arms response. It is said there are some data mining activities by the department of homeland security in the United States. The Automated Targeting System (ATS) compares several factors like traveler, cargo, and conveyance information against intelligence and other enforcement data, which is managed by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and includes modules for inbound (ATS-N) and outbound (ATS-AT) cargo, land border crossings (ATS-L), and passengers (ATS-P). The Data Analysis and Research for Trade Transparency System (DARTTS) analyzes possible data like the trade and financial stuff, which is administered by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).The modeling has accomplished successfully the random number generation-based quantifications for nuclear security incorporated with several complex algorithms, which is one of popular strategies in the technological-social science areas. In the calculations, the data are processed in every 7.5 minutes in which this means the calculation is done as 8 times in one hour. So, the graph has 100 hours with 800 times data processing. This means that 35,673.516 graphs are available by the big data processing. That is, 1 tera byte = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes = 800 2,500,000,000 bytes So, it is needed to process 2,500,000,000 bytes more for 1 tera byte. In the similar way, 2,500,000,000 bytes are done for 8 times in 1 hour. Then, 312,500,000 bytes are done for 24 hours in 1 day. Then, 13,020,833.33 bytes are done for 365 days in 1 year

  7. Heat treatments in a conventional steel to reproduce the microstructure of a nuclear grade steel; Tratamientos termicos en un acero convencional para reproducir la microestructura de un acero grado nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosalio G, M.

    2014-07-01

    The ferritic steels used in the manufacture of pressurized vessels of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) suffer degradation in their mechanical properties due to damage caused by the neutron fluxes of high energy bigger to a Mega electron volt (E> 1 MeV) generated in the reactor core. The materials with which the pressurized vessels of nuclear reactors cooled by light water are built correspond to low alloy ferritic steels. The effect of neutron irradiation on these steels is manifested as an increase in hardness, mechanical strength, with the consequent decrease in ductility, fracture toughness and an increase in temperature of ductile-brittle transition. The life of a BWR is 40 years, its design must be considered sufficient margin of safety because pressure forces experienced during operation, maintenance and testing of postulated accident conditions. It is necessary that under these conditions the vessel to behave ductile and likely to propagate a fracture is minimized. The vessels of light water nuclear reactors have a bainite microstructure. Specifically, the reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (Veracruz, Mexico) are made of a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1. At present they are carrying out some welding tests for the construction of a model of a BWR, however, to use nuclear grade steel such as Astm A-533 to carry out some of the welding tests, is very expensive; perform these in a conventional material provides basic information. Although the microstructure present in the conventional material does not correspond exactly to the degree of nuclear material, it can take of reference. Therefore, it is proposed to conduct a pilot study to establish the thermal treatment that reproduces the microstructure of nuclear grade steel, in conventional steel. The resulting properties of the conventional steel samples will be compared to a JRQ steel, that is a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1, provided by IAEA. (Author)

  8. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  9. Proclaiming Migrants Rights. The New International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. Churches' Committee for Migrants in Europe Briefing Papers No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Council of Churches, Geneva (Switzerland).

    In December 1990, the United Nations General Assembly approved the new International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. This international agreement broadly defines the rights of migrant workers and their families and offers some means to review the compliance of nations in upholding…

  10. An overview of the Nuclear Materials Focus Area research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROBERSON,GARY D.; POLANSKY,GARY F.; OSBORNE,KEN K.; RANDALL,VIRGINIA

    2000-02-25

    The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) is responsible for providing comprehensive needs identification, integration of technology research and development activities, and technology deployment for stabilization, packaging, and interim storage of surplus nuclear materials within the DOE complex. The NMFA was chartered in April 1999 by the Office of Science and Technology (OST), an organizational component of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). OST manages a national program to conduct basic and applied research, and technology development, demonstration, and deployment assistance that is essential to completing a timely and cost-effective cleanup of the DOE nuclear weapons complex. DOE/EM provides environmental research results, as well as cleanup technologies and systems, to meet high-priority end-user needs, reduce EM's major cost centers and technological risks, and accelerate technology deployments. The NMFA represents the segment of EM that focuses on technological solutions for re-using, transforming, and disposing excess nuclear materials and is jointly managed by the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office and the DOE Idaho Operations Office.

  11. [The text of the Articles of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families which the Working Group Provisionally Agreed during the First Reading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This preamble documents the 91 Articles of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrants and Their Families. This defines and covers the rights of all migrant workers and their families which can be ratified by as many countries as possible. The status and fundamental rights of migrant workers and their families have not been sufficiently recognized everywhere and therefore require appropriate international protection. The 8 parts are: 1) scope and definitions, 2) fundamental human rights of all migrant workers and members of their families, 3) additional rights of migrant workers and members of their families in a regular situation, 4) provisions applicable to particular categories of migrant workers and members of their families, 5) promotion of sound, equitable and humane conditions in connection with lawful international migration of workers and their families, 6) application of the Convention, 7) general provisions, and 8) final provisions.

  12. Comparison between the measured and calculated reactivity in measuring the effectiveness of the emergency protection at the stage of physical start-up of unit no. 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavun, O. Yu.; Popykin, A. I.; Shevchenko, R. A.; Shevchenko, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents comparisons between the effectiveness of the emergency protection under both stationary and nonstationary formulations calculated with the use of the RADUGA-7.5 package [1] and experimental data obtained in measuring the "weight" of the emergency protection in the process of physical start-up of the VVER-1000 reactor of unit no. 3 of the Kalinin NPP. On the basis of the results obtained, recommendations are given on comparing the measured and calculated reactivity and parameters determined by using its value.

  13. 某核电厂常规岛循环水管道外加电流阴极保护设计%Design of Impressed Current Cathodic Protection for Conventional Island Circulating Water Pipeline in a Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李川; 赵志军

    2016-01-01

    The conventional island circulating water pipeline in a nuclear power plant uses heavy corrosion protection coating and impressed current cathodic protection. The paper introduces the theory,the design principle,main pa-rameters and material selection of impressed current cathodic protection,among other techniques,hoping to provide reference for other coastal power plants.%某核电厂常规岛循环水管道采用重防腐涂料与外加电流阴极保护联合防护。本文对其选择外加电流阴极保护的理论依据,以及其外加电流技术的设计原则、主要参数选取以及设备材料选型等技术要点进行介绍,以供其他滨海电厂循环水系统管道防腐设计参考。

  14. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikulski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The research program at the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry of the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics is described. The Department consist of three laboratories. First - Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Separation Processes on which the activity is concentrated on production and separation of neutron deficient isotopes for medical diagnostic. Recently, the main interest was in {sup 111} In which is a promising tracer for cancer diagnostic. To increase the effectiveness of production of indium {sup 111} In the reaction with deuterons on the enriched cadmium target was carried out instead of the previously used one with alpha particles on natural silver. In the second one - Laboratory of Chemistry and Radiochemistry - the systematic studies of physicochemical properties of transition elements in solutions are carried out. The results of the performed experiments were used for the elaboration of new rapid and selective methods for various elements. Some of these results have been applied for separation of trans actinide elements at U-400 cyclotron of JINR Dubna. The third one laboratory -Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory - conducts continuous monitoring of radioactivity contamination of atmosphere. The investigation of different radionuclides concentration in natural environment, mainly in the forest had been carried out.

  15. Fundamental Studies of the Role of Grain Boundaries on Uniform Corrosion of Advanced Nuclear Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Mitra [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Marquis, Emmanuelle [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-05-20

    The main objective of this proposal is to develop fundamental understanding of the role of grain boundaries in stable oxide growth. To understand the process of oxide layer destabilization, it is necessary to observe the early stages of corrosion. During conventional studies in which a sample is exposed and examined after removal from the autoclave, the destabilization process will normally have already taken place, and is only examined post facto. To capture the instants of oxide destabilization, it is necessary to observe it in situ; however, significant questions always arise as to the influence of the corrosion geometry and conditions on the corrosion process. Thus, a combination of post facto examinations and in situ studies is proposed, which also combines state-of-the-art characterization techniques to derive a complete understanding of the destabilization process and the role of grain boundaries.

  16. Special Issue on "Neutrino Oscillations: Celebrating the Nobel Prize in Physics 2015" in Nuclear Physics B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Tommy

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Takaaki Kajita from the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration and Arthur B. McDonald from the SNO Collaboration "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass". Furthermore, the Daya Bay, K2K and T2K, KamLAND, SNO, and Super-Kamiokande Collaborations shared the Fundamental Physics Breakthrough Prize the same year. In order to celebrate this successful and fruitful year for neutrino oscillations, the editors and the publisher of Nuclear Physics B decided to publish a Special Issue on neutrino oscillations. We invited prominent scientists in the area of neutrino physics that relates to neutrino oscillations to write contributions for this Special Issue, which was open to both original research articles as well as review articles. The authors of this Special Issue consist of e.g. the two Nobel Laureates, International Participants of the Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics at Haga Slott in Enköping, Sweden (August 19-24, 2004), selected active researchers, and members from large experimental collaborations with major results in the last ten years. In total, this Special Issue consists of 28 contributions. Please note that the cover of this Special Issue contains a figure from each of the 26 contributions that have figures included.

  17. Effect of organic and conventional crop rotation, fertilization, and crop protection practices on metal contents in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Julia; Sanderson, Roy; Cakmak, Ismail; Ozturk, Levent; Shotton, Peter; Carmichael, Andrew; Haghighi, Reza Sadrabadi; Tetard-Jones, Catherine; Volakakis, Nikos; Eyre, Mick; Leifert, Carlo

    2011-05-11

    The effects of organic versus conventional crop management practices (crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management strategies) on wheat yields and grain metal (Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations were investigated in a long-term field trial. The interactions between crop management practices and the season that the crop was grown were investigated using univariate and redundancy analysis approaches. Grain yields were highest where conventional fertility management and crop protection practices were used, but growing wheat after a previous crop of grass/clover was shown to partially compensate for yield reductions due to the use of organic fertility management. All metals except for Pb were significantly affected by crop management practices and the year that the wheat was grown. Grain Cd and Cu levels were higher on average when conventional fertility management practices were used. Al and Cu were higher on average when conventional crop protection practices were used. The results demonstrate that there is potential to manage metal concentrations in the diet by adopting specific crop management practices shown to affect crop uptake of metals.

  18. Inventory of nuclear materials in case of emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portugal, J.L.; Zanetti, S. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Recherches en Securite, 13 - Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2001-07-01

    The crisis situations for nuclear materials in nuclear facilities are provided for in the French regulation, as the decree of 12 May 1981 specifies that 'In any circumstance, the Ministry of Industry can order a physical inventory of the materials and its comparison with the accountancy records'. Such an inventory can be ordered in facilities holding category I nuclear materials, in case of a theft for example. The operators must be able to establish quickly if the stolen materials come from their facility. To test the organization set at the operators and competent authority levels respectively, five exercises of increasing complexity have already been carried out. These exercises have permitted the validation of procedures, composition of the various crisis centers, methodology for such an inventory and use of protected communication means. The authority crisis center includes members of the competent Authority and it's technical support body: staff members of the IPSN. It is in charge of the national managing of the operations, in relation with one or several site crisis centers. The site crisis center is the interface between the authorities and the facility crisis center. The operations of inventory are carried out from the roughest checking to the finest ones. To be efficient during the first hours of the crisis, the authority crisis center must have data bases at the disposal of its experts, containing information about physical protection and accountancy of the nuclear materials detained by the site and the relevant facilities. (authors)

  19. Analytic study for physical protection system (PPS) in nuclear power plants (NPPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho, E-mail: thw@snu.ac.kr

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The physical protection system (PPS) is investigated. • General NPPs are modeled in the study. • Possible terror cases, likelihood, and consequence are studied. • PPS is constructed by analytical methods. - Abstract: The nuclear safeguard is analyzed in the aspect of the physical protection system (PPS) in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The PPS is reviewed and its related terror scenarios are investigated. The PPS is developed using analytical methods. In the terror scenarios, there are 8 possible cases for the terror attacks to the NPPs. Then, the likelihood of terror is classified by the general terror incidents. The consequence of terror is classified by Design Basis Threat (DBT) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) scale. The physical protection method is suggested by defense-in-depth constraints and severe accident countermeasures. Finally, the advanced PPS is constructed, which could be used for the preparation for the possible terror attacks in the NPPs.

  20. The impact of QCD and light-cone quantum mechanics on nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, S J; Brodsky, Stanley J; Schlumpf, Felix

    1994-01-01

    We discuss a number of novel applications of Quantum Chromodynamics to nuclear structure and dynamics, such as the reduced amplitude formalism for exclusive nuclear amplitudes. We particularly emphasize the importance of light-cone Hamiltonian and Fock State methods as a tool for describing the wavefunctions of composite relativistic many-body systems and their interactions. We also show that the use of covariant kinematics leads to nontrivial corrections to the standard formulae for the axial, magnetic, and quadrupole moments of nucleons and nuclei.

  1. White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics and Low Energy Nuclear Physics - Part 1. Nuclear Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcones, Almudena [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, Jutta E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Others, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-04

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21 - 23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9 - 10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). The white paper is furthermore informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12 - 13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. With the developments outlined in this white paper, answers to long-standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade.

  2. Comparative study on stiffness properties of WOODCAST and conventional casting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhonen, Eija; Pärssinen, Antti; Pelto, Mika

    2013-08-01

    Plaster-of-Paris and synthetic materials (e.g. fibreglass) have been in clinical use as casting materials for decades. An innovative casting material, WOODCAST, brings interesting alternatives to the traditional materials. The aim of this study was to compare the stiffness properties of the WOODCAST material to traditional casting materials. In immobilization by casting, materials with variable stiffness properties are required. Ring stiffness of cylindrical samples correlates well with cast rigidity. For load-bearing structures, the use of the WOODCAST Splint is recommended as equally high stiffness was obtained with the WOODCAST Splint as was with fibreglass. The WOODCAST 2 mm product is optimal for structures where some elasticity is required, and WOODCAST Ribbon can be used in any WOODCAST structure where further reinforcement is needed. The results show that WOODCAST material can be used in replacing traditional casting materials used in extremity immobilization. The mechanical properties of casting material play an important role in safe and effective fracture immobilization. Stiffness properties of the WOODCAST casting material and conventional materials - fibreglass and plaster-of-Paris - were analysed in this study. The WOODCAST Splint appears to compare favorably with traditional materials such as Scotchcast.

  3. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

  4. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

  5. Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Fourth National Report on Compliance with the Joint Convention Obligations. France; Convention commune sur la surete de la gestion du combustible use et sur la surete de la gestion des dechets radioactifs. Quatrieme rapport national sur la mise en oeuvre des obligations de la Convention commune. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, hereinafter referred to as the 'Joint Convention', is the result of international discussions that followed the adoption of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, in 1994. France signed the Joint Convention at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held on 29 September 1997, the very first day the Joint Convention was opened for signature. She approved it on 22 February 2000 and filed the corresponding instruments with the IAEA on 27 April 2000. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001. For many years, France has been taking an active part in the pursuit of international actions to reinforce nuclear safety and considers the Joint Convention to be a key step in that direction. The fields covered by the Joint Convention have long been part of the French approach to nuclear safety. This report is the fourth of its kind. It is published in accordance with Article 32 of the Joint Convention and presents the measures taken by France to meet each of her obligations set out in the Convention. The facilities and radioactive materials covered by the Joint Convention are much diversified in nature and are controlled in France by different regulatory authorities (see Section E). Over and above a specific threshold of radioactive content, a facility is referred to as a 'basic nuclear facility' (installation nucleaire de base - INB) and placed under the control of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorite de surete nucleaire - ASN). Below that threshold and provided that the facility involved falls under a category of the nomenclature of classified facilities for other purposes than their radioactive materials, any facility may be considered as a 'classified facility on environmental-protection grounds' (installation classee pour la protection de l'environnement - ICPE) and placed under the

  6. Overview of Opportunities in Underground Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nigel

    2016-09-01

    The field of deep underground nuclear physics is within an exciting and burgeoning phase, demonstrated by the recent award of the 2105 Nobel Prize in physics for the observation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino flavor change, with new detector systems in construction and deployment to further develop this scientific field. This talk will overview the current status of the fields within deep underground nuclear physics, focusing on the study of astrophysical neutrino sources, the intrinsic nature of the neutrino, and nuclear astrophysics. The opportunities available in these fields in the near-future will also be discussed.

  7. Bio-safe: Assessing the impact of physical reconstruction on protected and endangered species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, R.J.W. de; Lenders, H.J.R.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Blust, G. de; Geilen, N.; Goldschmidt, B.; Muller, S.; Poudevigne, I.; Nienhuis, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Assessing actual and potential biodiversity of river-floodplain ecosystems on the basis of policy and legislation concerning endangered and protected species is necessary for consistency between different policy goals. It is thus a prerequisite to sustainable and integrated river management. This

  8. A treaty on the cutoff of fissile material for nuclear weapons - What to cover? How to verify?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaper, A. [Peace Research Inst., Frankfurt (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Since 1946, a cutoff has been proposed. In 1993, the topic was placed on the agenda of the CD. The establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee in the CD with a mandate to negotiate a fissile material cutoff treaty struggled with difficulties for more than a year. The central dispute was whether the mandate should refer to existing un-safeguarded stockpiles. The underlying conflict of the CTBT negotiations can be summarized as nuclear disarmament versus nuclear nonproliferation The same conflict is now blocking progress with FMCT negotiations in the CD. At the center of technical proliferation concerns is direct use material that can be used for nuclear warheads without any further enrichment or reprocessing. Those materials are plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU). A broader category of materials is defined as all those containing any fissile isotopes, called special fissionable materials. In order ta verify that no direct use materials are abused for military purposes, also special fissionable materials must be controlled. An even broader category is simply called nuclear materials. Pu and HEU can be distinguished into the following categories of utilisation: 1. military direct use material in operational nuclear weapons and their logistics pipeline, 2. military direct use material held in reserve for military purposes, in assembled weapons or in other forms, 3. military direct use material withdrawn from dismantled weapons, 4. military direct use material considered excess and designated for transfer into civilian use, 5. military direct use material considered excess and declared for transfer into civilian use, 6. direct use material currently in reactors or their logistics pipelines and storages, and 7. irradiated Pu and HEU in spent fuel from reactors, or in vitrified form for final disposal. Large quantities of materials are neither inside weapons nor declared excess. So far, there are no legal obligations for NWS for limitations, declarations, or

  9. Physical protection of nuclear facilities. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1978. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, L.D. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    Major activities during the fourth quarter of FY78 included (1) the vital area analysis of operational reactors and characterization of the Standardized Nuclear Unit Power Plant System (SNUPPS), (2) the algorithm development of a new pathfinding computer code, (3) the completion of contractor-supported work for the component generic data base, (4) the refinement of tests related to human parameters modeling, and (5) the addition of improvements to and demonstration of the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE), Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP), and Fixed-Site Neutralization Model (FSNM) methodologies.

  10. A comparison of the dimensional accuracy of microwave and conventionally polymerized denture base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A; Huggett, R; Zissis, A; Vowles, R W

    1993-01-01

    This study compares the dimensional changes of microwave and conventionally polymerized denture bases and also establishes the degree of monomer conversion using gas-liquid chromatography. Dimensional changes of three denture base materials were assessed using an optical comparator and the results showed no significant differences between the materials employed or the curing method used. Efficient monomer conversion was demonstrated with levels of residual monomer of less than 1% for all materials.

  11. Comments of European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental or other scientific purposes ETS 123

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanisav; Herman

    2005-01-01

    PreambleIn1997,the Council of Europe(CoE)establishedfour expert groups.The groups were to advise the CoE Working Partyon whether,howandto what extentAppendix Aof the Convention ETS123(European Conventionfor theProtection of Vertebrate Animals usedfor Experimental and otherScientific Purposes,1986)needed revision.Main goals of newcommissions:basic laboratory housing should meet the behavioural and physical needs of the animals...the graphs for minimumcage dimensions(figs.1-7Appendix A,1986)andfor maximumstoc...

  12. Whither the legal control of nuclear energy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Peter [Leicester School of Law (United Kingdom). Environmental Law Unit

    1995-12-31

    International nuclear trade is governed by the regime of legal control of nuclear energy, nuclear materials, knowledge of nuclear processes and weapons. Nuclear trade is under pinned by international agreements concerning physical protection and safeguards, the control of nuclear weapons, the protection of nuclear materials from terrorist action and third part liability. The political and geographical boundary changes of the past two years have significantly altered the background against which this regime has developed. Such changes have affected nuclear trade. The paper summarised the legal control of nuclear energy between States, identifies the areas of change which may affect this regime and the consequences for international trade. Conclusions are drawn as to the development of the international legal control of nuclear energy. (author). 21 refs.

  13. Theoretical nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blatt, John M

    2010-01-01

    A classic work by two leading physicists and scientific educators endures as an uncommonly clear and cogent investigation and correlation of key aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. It is probably the most widely adopted book on the subject. The authors approach the subject as ""the theoretical concepts, methods, and considerations which have been devised in order to interpret the experimental material and to advance our ability to predict and control nuclear phenomena.""The present volume does not pretend to cover all aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. Its coverage is restricted to

  14. PREFACE: XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Rodal, E.; Bijker, R.

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo The XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics was held at Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico from January 3-6 2012. Conceived in 1978 as a small meeting, over the years and thanks to the efforts of various organizing committees, the symposium has become a well known international conference on nuclear physics. To the best of our knowledge, the Mexican Symposium on Nuclear Physics represents the conference series with longest tradition in Latin America and one of the longest-running annual nuclear physics conferences in the world. The Symposium brings together leading scientists from all around the world, working in the fields of nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, physics with radioactive ion beams, hadronic physics, nuclear astrophysics, neutron physics and relativistic heavy-ion physics. Its main goal is to provide a relaxed environment where the exchange of ideas, discussion of new results and consolidation of scientific collaboration are encouraged. To celebrate the 35th edition of the symposium 53 colleagues attended from diverse countries including: Argentina, Australia, Canada, Japan, Saudi Arabia and USA. We were happy to have the active participation of Eli F Aguilera, Eduardo Andrade, Octavio Castaños, Alfonso Mondragón, Stuart Pittel and Andrés Sandoval who also participated in the first edition of the Symposium back in 1978. We were joined by old friends of Cocoyoc (Stuart Pittel, Osvaldo Civitarese, Piet Van Isacker, Jerry Draayer and Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri) as well as several first time visitors that we hope will come back to this scientific meeting in the forthcoming years. The scientific program consisted of 33 invited talks, proposed by the international advisory committee, which nicely covered the topics of the Symposium giving a balanced perspective between the experimental and the theoretical work that is currently underway in each line of research. Fifteen posters complemented the scientific sessions giving the opportunity

  15. Summaries of FY 1978 research in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Programs funded in Fiscal Year 1978 by the Division of Nuclear Physics Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, U.S. Department of Energy are briefly summarized. Long-range goals and major objectives of nuclear physics are stated. Research projects are listed alphabetically by institution under the following headings: medium-energy nuclear physics--research; medium-energy nuclear physics--operations; heavy-ion nuclear physics--research; heavy-ion nuclear physics--operations; and nuclear theory. (RWR)

  16. Abrasion test of flexible protective materials on hydraulic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin WANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, several kinds of flexible protective materials sprayed with polyurea elastomers (hereinafter referred to as polyurea elastomer protective material were adopted to meet the abrasion resistance requirement of hydraulic structures, and their abrasion resistances against the water flow with suspended load or bed load were studied systematically through tests. Natural basalt stones were adopted as the abrasive for simulation of the abrasion effect of the water flow with bed load, and test results indicate that the basalt stone is suitable for use in the abrasion resistance test of the flexible protective material. The wear process of the polyurea elastomer protective material is stable, and the wear loss is linear with the time of abrasion. If the wear thickness is regarded as the abrasion resistance evaluation factor, the abrasion resistance of the 351 pure polyurea is about twice those of pure polyurea with a high level of hardness and aliphatic polyurea, and over five times that of high-performance abrasion-resistant concrete under the abrasion of the water flow with suspended load. It is also about 50 times that of high-performance abrasion-resistant concrete under the abrasion of the water flow with bed load. Overall, the abrasion resistance of pure polyurea presented a decreasing trend with increasing hardness. Pure polyurea with a Shore hardness of D30 has the best abrasion resistance, which is 60 to 70 times that of high-performance abrasion-resistant concrete under the abrasion of the water flow with bed load, and has been recommended, among the five kinds of pure polyurea materials with different hardness, in anti-abrasion protection of hydraulic structures.

  17. Application of nuclear physics in medical physics and nuclear medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear physics has a long history of influencing and advancing medical fields. At TRIUMF we use the applications of nuclear physics to diagnose several diseases via medical isotopes and treat cancer by using proton beams. The Life Science division has a long history of producing Positron Emission Tomography (PET) isotopes but we are also investigating the production of SPECT and PET isotopes with a potential shortage for clinical operation or otherwise limited access to chemists, biologists and medical researchers. New targets are being developed, aided by a simulation platform investigating the processes inside a target under proton irradiation - nuclear, thermodynamic, and chemical. Simulations also aid in the development of new beam-shaping devices for TRIUMF's Proton Therapy facility, Canada's only proton therapy facility, as well as new treatment testing systems. Both promise improved treatment delivery for cancer patients.

  18. Alteration kinetics of a simplified nuclear glass in an aqueous medium: effects of solution chemistry and of protective gel properties on diminishing the alteration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégou, C.; Gin, S.; Larché, F.

    2000-07-01

    The alteration kinetics of the French SON 68 nuclear glass simplified to its three major constituent elements (Si, B and Na) were investigated by static experiments at 90°C in order to deconvolute the effects of the solution chemistry and of the protective properties of the alteration gel on the diminishing alteration rate over time. A glass dissolution experiment in static conditions showed that the initial rate r0 was maintained even after silicon saturation of the solution. As the reaction progressed, the glass alteration rate gradually diminished over time. These results show that the driving force behind the alteration of this glass cannot be defined by the difference from saturation with respect to amorphous silica, and that reaching saturation is not a criterion for the end of alteration. The drop in the dissolution rate observed at a high degree of reaction progress is correlated with the formation of the silica gel that develops at the glass/solution interface. Confronting the experimental data with a model taking into account a diffusion boundary layer shows that the conventional tools of chemical thermodynamics are ill adapted to describing the formation and development of the silica gel layer over time. This study reveals that only a dynamic process of hydrolysis and condensation of silicon at the glass/gel interface can account for the formation of the gel layer. The glass alteration rate under silica saturation conditions would thus be highly dependent on the silicon recondensation rate in this `dynamic percolation' concept.

  19. New conservation materials on the base of colza oil for the steel protection against atmospheric corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    V.I. VIGDOROVICH; TSYGANKOVA L.E.; TANYGINA E.D.; TANYGIN A.YU.; SHEL N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Protective efficiency of the composition on the base of low erucic colza oil has been studied against the carbon steel corrosion in the salt solution (3 % NaCl), thermo-moisture chamber and the natural conditions. The following compositions have been used: 1. Colza oil (CO) and its components without the inhibiting additives; 2. CO with the synthetic fat acids bottoms (SFAB) additive (1-10 wt.%); 3. CO with the anticorrosion additive IFHAN 29-A (20 wt.%); 4. CO with zinc micro powder filler (...

  20. Physics and radiobiology of nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Gopal B

    2010-01-01

    From a distinguished author comes this new edition for technologists, practitioners, residents, and students in radiology and nuclear medicine. Encompassing major topics in nuclear medicine from the basic physics of radioactive decay to instrumentation and radiobiology, it is an ideal review for Board and Registry examinations. The material is well organized and written with clarity. The book is supplemented with tables and illustrations throughout. It provides a quick reference book that is concise but comprehensive, and offers a complete discussion of topics for the nuclear medicine and radi

  1. Safe Handling of Radioactive Materials. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed to help users of radioactive materials to handle the radioactive material without exposing themselves or others to radiation doses in excess of maximum permissible limits. The discussion of radiation levels is in terms of readings from dosimeters and survey instruments. Safety in the handling of radioactive materials in…

  2. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The nuclear shield in the 'thirty-year war' of physicists against ignorant criticism of modern physical theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizgin, Vladimir P.

    1999-12-01

    This article deals with the almost 'thirty-year war' led by physicists against the authorities' incompetent philosophical and ideological interference with science. The 'war' is shown to have been related to the history of Soviet nuclear weapons. Theoretical milestones of 20th century physics, to wit, theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, suffered endless 'attacks on philosophical grounds'. The theories were proclaimed idealistic as well as unduly abstract and out of touch with practice; their authors and followers were labelled 'physical idealists', and later, in the 1940s and 1950s, even 'cosmopolitans without kith or kin'. Meanwhile, quantum and relativistic theories, as is widely known, had become the basis of nuclear physics and of the means of studying the atomic nucleus (charged particle accelerators, for instance). The two theories thus served, to a great extent, as a basis for both peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy, made possible by the discovery of uranium nuclear fission under the action of neutrons. In the first part, the article recounts how prominent physicists led the way to resisting philosophical and ideological pressure and standing up for relativity, quantum theories and nuclear physics, thus enabling the launch of the atomic project. The second part contains extensive material proving the point that physicists effectively used the 'nuclear shield' in the 1940s and 1950s against the 'philosophical-cosmopolitan' pressure, indeed saving physics from a tragic fate as that of biology at the Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) session in 1948.

  3. THE ROLE OF BELARUS NATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE MINIMIZATION OF CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Stozharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus National Commission on Radiation Protection was established in 1991, based on the former Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Supreme Council Resolution. The Commission works out recommendations on the radiation protection to submit to the state authorities, state institutions under the Republic of Belarus Government and state research institutions, reviews and assesses scientific data in the field of radiation protection and makes suggestions in regards of the implementation of the achieved developments. The Commission engages leading scientists and practitioners from Belarus, involved in the provision of the radiation protection and safety in the state. The methodological cornerstone for the Commission activities was chosen to be the committment to the worldwide accepted approach of the nature and magnitude of the undertaken protective measures justification in the field of radiation safety. The Commission adheres the ALARA optimization criteria as the core of the aforementioned approach. The Commission has also submited to the Government a number of developments which were crucial in the highest level managerial decisions elaboration. The latter impacted directly the state tactics and strategy in the environmental, health and social consequences of the Chernobyl disaster minimization. Following the recommendations of the international institutions (ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR, FAO/WHO, developments of the colleagues in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the local regional experience, the Commission proceeds with the expert observation of the ongoing protective measures to reduce the radiation impact and population exposure resulted from the Chernobyl accident, is actively occupied in the radiation safety ensuring at the Belarussian nuclear power plant being under construction, much contributes to elaboration of the new version of the state Law “On Radiation Protection of Population” and other regulatory documents.

  4. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute's regulations concerning the final management of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste - with background and comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This report presents and comments on the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute's Regulations concerning the Protection of Human Health and the Environment in connection with the Final Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel or Nuclear Waste, SSI FS 1998: 1.

  5. Transactions of the fifth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these paper include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  6. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  7. A Laser-Deposition Approach to Compositional-Spread Discovery of Materials on Conventional Sample Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Hans M [ORNL; Okubo, Isao [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Lowndes, Douglas H [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Parallel (multi-sample) approaches, such as discrete combinatorial synthesis or continuous compositional-spread (CCS), can significantly increase the rate of materials discovery and process optimization. Here we review our generalized CCS method, based on pulsed-laser deposition, in which the synchronization between laser firing and substrate translation (behind a fixed slit aperture) yields the desired variations of composition and thickness. In situ alloying makes this approach applicable to the non-equilibrium synthesis of metastable phases. Deposition on a heater plate with a controlled spatial temperature variation can additionally be used for growth-temperature-dependence studies. Composition and temperature variations are controlled on length scales large enough to yield sample sizes sufficient for conventional characterization techniques (such as temperature-dependent measurements of resistivity or magnetic properties). This technique has been applied to various experimental studies, and we present here the results for the growth of electro-optic materials (Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1-x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) and magnetic perovskites (Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}RuO{sub 3}), and discuss the application to the understanding and optimization of catalysts used in the synthesis of dense forests of carbon nanotubes.

  8. A laser-deposition approach to compositional-spread discovery of materials on conventional sample sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Hans M.; Ohkubo, Isao; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Jellison, Gerald E., Jr.; Puretzky, Alex A.; Geohegan, David B.; Lowndes, Douglas H.

    2005-01-01

    Parallel (multi-sample) approaches, such as discrete combinatorial synthesis or continuous compositional-spread (CCS), can significantly increase the rate of materials discovery and process optimization. Here we review our generalized CCS method, based on pulsed-laser deposition, in which the synchronization between laser firing and substrate translation (behind a fixed slit aperture) yields the desired variations of composition and thickness. In situ alloying makes this approach applicable to the non-equilibrium synthesis of metastable phases. Deposition on a heater plate with a controlled spatial temperature variation can additionally be used for growth-temperature-dependence studies. Composition and temperature variations are controlled on length scales large enough to yield sample sizes sufficient for conventional characterization techniques (such as temperature-dependent measurements of resistivity or magnetic properties). This technique has been applied to various experimental studies, and we present here the results for the growth of electro-optic materials (SrxBa1-xNb2O6) and magnetic perovskites (Sr1-xCaxRuO3), and discuss the application to the understanding and optimization of catalysts used in the synthesis of dense forests of carbon nanotubes.

  9. Laboratory Investigations of the High Temperature Corrosion of Various Materials in Simulated oxy-fuel and Conventional Coal Firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkeson, N.; Pettersson, J.; Svensson, J.E. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Hjornhede, A. [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden); Montgomery, M. [Vattenfall Heat Nordic/DTU Mekanik (Denmark); Bjurman, M. [Vattenfall Research and Development AB (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Laboratory exposures in horizontal tube furnaces were conducted to test various materials for corrosion resistance in simulated oxy-fuel firing and conventional coal firing environments. Two different exposures were done at 630 C for 672 hours. The reaction atmosphere, consisting of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, was mixed to resemble that of oxy-fuel firing in the first exposure and that of conventional coal firing in the second exposure (N{sub 2} was added during the second exposure only). Four different materials were tested in the first exposure; Sanicro 63, Alloy 800HT, 304L and 304HCu. In the second exposure four different materials were tested; 304L, Alloy 800HT, Kanthal APMT and NiCrAl. Apart from cleaned sample coupons, some samples pre-exposed in a test rig under oxy-fuel conditions with lignite as fuel and some pre-exposed with bituminous coal as fuel were investigated in the first exposure. In the second exposure some samples were pre-exposed in a rig under conventional firing conditions with lignite as fuel. The corrosion attack on the investigated samples was analysed by gravimetry, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray (EDX). The SEM/EDX analysis was made on both the sample envelope and metallographic cross sections of the samples. The results show that there is small difference in the corrosion attack between the two environments. There was also little difference in oxide morphology and composition between cleaned samples and pre-exposed samples of the same material. The austenitic chromia former 304HCu suffered the most extensive corrosion attack in the oxy-fuel environment. In the conventional air firing environment 304L showed the highest mass gain. Chromia formers with higher chromium concentrations performed better, especially the super austenitic Alloy 800HT, with its high chromium concentration, formed a thin and protective corundum type oxide. The nickel based

  10. Second Mexican School of Nuclear Physics: Notes; Segunda Escuela Mexicana de Fisica Nuclear: Notas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, E.F. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Chavez L, E.R. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Hess, P.O. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The II Mexican School of Nuclear Physics which is directed to those last semesters students of the Physics career or post-graduate was organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Mexican Physics Society, carrying out at April 16-27, 2001 in the installations of the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Nuclear Sciences, both in the UNAM, and the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). A first school of a similar level in Nuclear Physics, was carried out in Mexico at 1977 as Latin american School of Physics. This book treats about the following themes: Interactions of radiation with matter, Evaluation of uncertainty in experimental data, Particle accelerators, Notions of radiological protection and dosimetry, Cosmic rays, Basis radiation (environmental), Measurement of excitation functions with thick targets and inverse kinematics, Gamma ray technique for to measure the nuclear fusion, Neutron detection with Bonner spectrometer, Energy losses of alpha particles in nickel. It was held the practice Radiation detectors. (Author)

  11. Susceptibility of green and conventional building materials to microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah-Attipoe, J; Reponen, T; Salmela, A; Veijalainen, A-M; Pasanen, P

    2015-06-01

    Green building materials are becoming more popular. However, little is known about their ability to support or limit microbial growth. The growth of fungi was evaluated on five building materials. Two green, two conventional building materials and wood as a positive control were selected. The materials were inoculated with Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium brevicompactum, in the absence and presence of house dust. Microbial growth was assessed at four different time points by cultivation and determining fungal biomass using the N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) enzyme assay. No clear differences were seen between green and conventional building materials in their susceptibility to support microbial growth. The presence of dust, an external source of nutrients, promoted growth of all the fungal species similarly on green and conventional materials. The results also showed a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.81 to 0.88 between NAHA activity and culturable counts. The results suggest that the growth of microbes on a material surface depends on the availability of organic matter rather than the classification of the material as green or conventional. NAHA activity and culturability correlated well indicating that the two methods used in the experiments gave similar trends for the growth of fungi on material surfaces.

  12. The effect of a self-constructed material on children’s physical activity during recess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Méndez-Giménez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze whether an intervention supported by free play with a self-constructed material increases the level of physical activity of students during recess. METHODS The participants were 166 children of third to sixth grade, between nine and 12 years old (average = 10.64; SS = 1.13. An experimental project was conducted with pre-test and post-test measurement, and a control group. Experimental group participants built cardboard paddles (third and fourth and flying rings (fifth and sixth, a material they used freely for one week during recess. ActiGraph-GT3X accelerometers were used to measure physical activity. An ANOVA of repeated measures was used to find differences between groups and genders. RESULTS Significant intervention effects were found in the analyzed variables: sedentary activity (F = 38.19; p < 0.01, light (F = 76.56; p < 0.01, moderate (F = 27.44; p < 0.01, vigorous (F = 61.55; p < 0.01, and moderate and vigorous (F = 68.76; p < 0.01. Significant gender differences were shown (time × group × gender for moderate (F = 6.58; p < 0.05 and vigorous (F = 5.51; p < 0.05 activity. CONCLUSIONS The self-constructed material is effective to increase the physical activity levels of children during recess; it decreases sedentary activity and light physical activity and increases the time devoted to moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity, both in boys and in girls. The boys had an increase in vigorous physical activity and the girls in moderate physical activity. Due to its low cost, this strategy is recommended for administrators and teachers to increase the physical activity of children during recess.

  13. Effects of Conventional and Cooperative Learning Strategies on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Conventional and Cooperative Learning Strategies on the Academic Performance of Senior ... Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... Also in the conventional class, there was no significant differences in the academic ...

  14. Influence of strain on the physical properties of materials at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Mohan Prasad

    At the nanoscale, materials properties differ substantially from that at the bulk scale, opening new avenues for technological applications and basic science research. Such size effects arise from dimensional and microstructural constraints, especially when specimen size coincides with the critical fundamental length scales for various physical properties. While the state of the art practice is to investigate the size effects on 'individual' properties (mechanical or electrical or thermal and so on), the focus of this research is to explore the size effects on the 'coupling' among these domains. In particular, the effect of mechanical strain on various physical properties of materials at the nanoscale is studied. This is motivated by the hypothesis that very small elastic strain could be engineered in micro and nanoscale systems to 'tune' materials properties, which is not possible at the bulk scale using strain as a parameter. The objective of this research is to study the influence of strain on various material properties at the nanoscale, such as crystal structure, thermal and electrical conductivity, electronic bandgap and tribological properties through experimental characterization. While characterization of nanoscale materials in single domains remains the state of the art, coupled domain studies usher even stiffer challenges. This is because in addition to the difficulties in nanoscale specimen preparation, handling and properties measurement, meticulous attention has to be given to the boundary conditions for each of the domains. Another desired feature of the experimental setup is the capability for in situ high resolution microscopy so that microstructural details as well as experimental accuracy are achieved. A major contribution of this research is the development of microfabricated integrated systems to perform coupled domain characterization of small scale specimens in situ in thermal (infra-red), micro-Raman and electron microscopes. In addition

  15. Randomized comparison of distal protection versus conventional treatment in primary percutaneous coronary intervention: the drug elution and distal protection in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (DEDICATION) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, Henning; Terkelsen, Christian J; Helqvist, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of distal protection during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in native coronary vessels. BACKGROUND: Embolization of material from the infarct-related lesion during PCI may...... result in impaired myocardial perfusion and worsen the prognosis. Previous attempts to protect the microcirculation during primary PCI have had conflicting results. METHODS: We randomly assigned 626 patients with STEMI referred within 12 h to have PCI performed with (n = 312) or without (n = 314) distal.......87) or maximum creatine kinase-MB (185 microg/l and 184 microg/l, p = 0.99), and no difference in median WMI (1.70 vs. 1.70, p = 0.35). The rate of major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE) 1 month after PCI was 5.4% with distal protection and 3.2% with conventional treatment (p = 0.17). CONCLUSIONS...

  16. The Atomic and Nuclear Physics of Atomic EDMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Atomic Electric-Dipole-Moment (EDM) measurements employ low-energy atomic and precision-measurement techniques to measure the effects of elementary particle forces that affect the distribution of charge and mass in the nucleus, which is probed by the atomic electrons. Experiments and their interpretation strongly overlap atomic and nuclear physics in the experimental and theoretical problems presented. On the experimental side, the atomic EDM couples to electric fields while the magnetic dipole moment couples to magnetic fields requiring exquisite control and characerization of the magnetic fields. Measuring the tiny frequency shifts requires clock-comparisons and a large signal-to-noise ratio for frequency resolution much smaller than the linewidths, which are lmitied by observation times. To address the experimental challenges, I will discuss systematic effects related to magnetic fields and techniques of magnetometry and co-magntometery as well as optical pumping and related techniques that enhance signal-to-noise. I will also address the interpretation of atomic EDMs in terms of a set of low-energy parameters that relate to effective-field-theory coefficients, and I will empshaize the need for improved calculations from both atomic-theory and nuclear theory.

  17. Physics for radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, James E

    2013-01-01

    A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

  18. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  19. The Conventional and Unconventional about Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.; Bishop, Malachy; Mpofu, Elias

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in relation to prior United Nations conventions on disability and U.S. disability policy law with a view to identifying the conventional and also the incremental advances of the CRPD. Previous United Nations conventions related to…

  20. 2nd Symposium on applied nuclear physics and innovative technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Symposium on Applied Nuclear Physics and Innovative Technologies will be held for the second time at Collegium Maius, the oldest building of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, the same building where Nicolaus Copernicus has studied astronomy. Symposium is organized in the framework of the MPD programme carried out by the Foundation for Polish science based on the European Structural Funds. The aim of this conference is to gather together young scientists and experts in the field of applied and fundamental nuclear as well as particle physics. Aiming at interplay of fundamental and applied science the conference will be devoted to the following topics: * Medical imaging and radiotherapy * New materials and technologies in radiation detection * Fission, fusion and spallation processes * High-performance signal processing and data analysis * Tests of foundations of physics and search for a new kind of sub-atomic matter

  1. Nuclear fission as a tool to contrast the contraband of special nuclear material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Viesti Giuseppe; Cester Davide; Nebbia Giancarlo; Stevanato Luca; Neri Francesco; Petrucci Stefano; Selmi Simone; Tintori Carlo

    2015-09-01

    An integrated mobile system for port security is presented. The system was designed to perform passive measurements of neutrons and -rays to search and identify radioactive and special nuclear materials as well as for the active investigations by using the tagged neutron inspection technique of suspect dangerous materials. The discrimination between difficult-to-detect uranium samples and high materials as lead was specifically studied. The system has been employed in laboratory detection tests and in a seaport field test.

  2. White paper on nuclear astrophysics and low energy nuclear physics Part 1: Nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcones, Almudena; Bardayan, Dan W.; Beers, Timothy C.; Bernstein, Lee A.; Blackmon, Jeffrey C.; Messer, Bronson; Brown, B. Alex; Brown, Edward F.; Brune, Carl R.; Champagne, Art E.; Chieffi, Alessandro; Couture, Aaron J.; Danielewicz, Pawel; Diehl, Roland; El-Eid, Mounib; Escher, Jutta E.; Fields, Brian D.; Fröhlich, Carla; Herwig, Falk; Hix, William Raphael; Iliadis, Christian; Lynch, William G.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Meyer, Bradley S.; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Nunes, Filomena; O'Shea, Brian W.; Prakash, Madappa; Pritychenko, Boris; Reddy, Sanjay; Rehm, Ernst; Rogachev, Grigory; Rutledge, Robert E.; Schatz, Hendrik; Smith, Michael S.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Steiner, Andrew W.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Timmes, F. X.; Townsley, Dean M.; Wiescher, Michael; Zegers, Remco G. T.; Zingale, Michael

    2017-05-01

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21-23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9-10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). The white paper is furthermore informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12-13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. With the developments outlined in this white paper, answers to long standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade.

  3. NUCLEAR MATERIAL ATTRACTIVENESS: AN ASSESSMENT OF MATERIAL ASSOCIATED WITH A CLOSED FUEL CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, C. G.; Ebbinghaus, B.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Wallace, R. K.; Collins, Brian A.; Hase, Kevin R.; Robel, Martin; Jarvinen, G. D.; Bradley, Keith S.; Ireland, J. R.; Johnson, M. W.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Smith, Brian W.

    2010-06-11

    This paper examines the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with the various processing steps required for a closed fuel cycle. This paper combines the results from earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of SNM associated with the processing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel by various reprocessing schemes and the recycle of plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in LWR with new results for the final, repeated burning of SNM in fast-spectrum reactors: fast reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS). The results of this paper suggest that all reprocessing products evaluated so far need to be rigorously safeguarded and provided moderate to high levels of physical protection. These studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of "attractiveness levels" that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and key findings will be presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance (e.g. by increasing impediments to the diversion, theft, or undeclared production of SNM for the purpose of acquiring a nuclear weapon), and how they could be used to help inform policy makers, will be discussed.

  4. Evolution of nuclear security regulatory activities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Luiz A. de; Monteiro Filho, Joselio S.; Belem, Lilia M.J.; Torres, Luiz F.B. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioprotecao e Segurania Nuclear. Coordenacao de Salvaguardas e Protecao Fisica], e-mail: gpf@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The changing of the world scenario in the last 15 years has increased worldwide the concerns about overall security and, as a consequence, about the nuclear and radioactive material as well as their associated facilities. Considering the new situation, in February 2004, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), decided to create the Nuclear Security Office. This Office is under the Coordination of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, in the Directorate for Safety, Security and Safeguards (Regulatory Directorate). Before that, security regulation issues were dealt in a decentralized manner, within that Directorate, by different licensing groups in specific areas (power reactors, fuel cycle facilities, radioactive facilities, transport of nuclear material, etc.). This decision was made in order to allow a coordinated approach on the subject, to strengthen the regulation in nuclear/radioactive security, and to provide support to management in the definition of institutional security policies. The CNEN Security Office develops its work based in the CNEN Physical Protection Regulation for Nuclear Operational Units - NE-2.01, 1996, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and the IAEA Nuclear Security Series . This paper aims at presenting the activities developed and the achievements obtained by this new CNEN office, as well as identifying the issues and directions for future efforts. (author)

  5. Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Lattice QCD is making good progress toward calculating the structure and properties of light nuclei and the forces between nucleons. These calculations will ultimately refine the nuclear forces, particularly in the three- and four-nucleon sector and the short-distance interactions of nucleons with electroweak currents, and allow for a reduction of uncertainties in nuclear many-body calculations of nuclei and their reactions. After highlighting their importance, particularly to the Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics experimental programs, I discuss the progress that has been made toward achieving these goals and the challenges that remain.

  6. On the Floquet–Magnus expansion: Applications in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane, E-mail: emananga@gradcenter.cuny.edu [Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Physics, Department of Radiology, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Charpentier, Thibault, E-mail: thibault.charpentier@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Service interdisciplinaire sur les systèmes moléculaires et matériaux, CEA/CNRS UMR 3299, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-01-22

    Theoretical approaches are useful and powerful tools for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation to understand experiments and devising new RF pulse sequence in nuclear magnetic resonance. Solid-state NMR is definitely a timely topic or area of research, and not many papers on the respective theories are available in the literature of nuclear magnetic resonance or physics reports. This report presents the power and the salient features of the promising theoretical approach called Floquet–Magnus expansion that is helpful to describe the time evolution of the spin system at all times in nuclear magnetic resonance. The report presents a broad view of algorithms of spin dynamics, based on promising and useful theory of Floquet–Magnus expansion. This theory provides procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Major applications of the Floquet–Magnus expansion are illustrated by simple solid-state NMR and physical applications such as in nuclear, atomic, molecular physics, and quantum mechanics, NMR, quantum field theory and high energy physics, electromagnetism, optics, general relativity, search of periodic orbits, and geometric control of mechanical systems. The aim of this report is to bring to the attention of the spin dynamics community, the bridge that exists between solid-state NMR and other related fields of physics and applied mathematics. This review article also discusses future potential theoretical directions in solid-state NMR.

  7. Experimental investigations of the laser cladding of protective coatings on preheated base material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzejewski, Rafal; Sliwinski, Gerard; Conde, Ana; Navas, Carmen; de Damborenea, Juan J.

    2004-06-01

    The laser cladding technique was applied to obtain Co-based stellite SF6 coatings on the chromium steel base. The coatings were prepared by means of a direct cladding of metal powder using a 1.2 kW cw CO2 laser stand with a controlled preheating of the substrate material. Results of the metallographic tests revealed a fine-grained, dendritic microstructure and proper metallic bonding between substrate and coating. A nearly constant concentration of mian elements at different areas of the coating cross-section indicated on homogeneous chemical composition of the laser-cladded SF6 alloy samples. A significant decrease of the micro-crack number with increasing temperature of the base preheating was observed. This was accompanied by a drop of the wear and corrosion resistance.

  8. PERFORMANCE OF CONVENTIONAL PCRs BASED ON PRIMERS DIRECTED TO NUCLEAR AND MITOCHONDRIAL GENES FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Leishmania spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOPES, Estela Gallucci; GERALDO, Carlos Alberto; MARCILI, Arlei; SILVA, Ricardo Duarte; KEID, Lara Borges; OLIVEIRA, Trícia Maria Ferreira da Silva; SOARES, Rodrigo Martins

    2016-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the detection of the agent is of paramount importance to identify reservoirs of infection. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic attributes of PCRs based on primers directed to cytochrome-B (cytB), cytochrome-oxidase-subunit II (coxII), cytochrome-C (cytC), and the minicircle-kDNA. Although PCRs directed to cytB, coxII, cytC were able to detect different species of Leishmania, and the nucleotide sequence of their amplicons allowed the unequivocal differentiation of species, the analytical and diagnostic sensitivity of these PCRs were much lower than the analytical and diagnostic sensitivity of the kDNA-PCR. Among the 73 seropositive animals, the asymptomatic dogs had spleen and bone marrow samples collected and tested; only two animals were positive by PCRs based on cytB, coxII, and cytC, whereas 18 were positive by the kDNA-PCR. Considering the kDNA-PCR results, six dogs had positive spleen and bone marrow samples, eight dogs had positive bone marrow results but negative results in spleen samples and, in four dogs, the reverse situation occurred. We concluded that PCRs based on cytB, coxII, and cytC can be useful tools to identify Leishmania species when used in combination with automated sequencing. The discordance between the results of the kDNA-PCR in bone marrow and spleen samples may indicate that conventional PCR lacks sensitivity for the detection of infected dogs. Thus, primers based on the kDNA should be preferred for the screening of infected dogs. PMID:27253743

  9. Upholding the Convention on the Rights of the Child: A Quandary in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joanne Elaine; McAloney, Kareena

    2010-01-01

    Put in place to protect the rights of the child, the Convention on the Rights of the Child is a set of non-negotiable standards. A core principle underpinning the Convention is the child's right to participate fully in social arenas and to access sources of social support without excessive interference. Juxtaposing this is the right of the child…

  10. Journal of Materials Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Rare Earth on Corrosion Resistance of Trivalent Chromium Color Passivation Film onElects'opiated Zinc Coaling LIU Yah, ZHANG Jian-gang, FENG Li-ming( School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 ). Cailiao Baohu 2012,45 ( 04 ), 01 -04 (Ch). Rare earth elements ( La^3 + , Ce^3 + and Ce^4 + ) were introduced into trivalent chromium passivation fluid. The effect of rare earth content on the corrosion resistance of the color passivafion film on electro- plated Ni coating was investigated by dripping test of aqueous lead acetate, measurement of Tafel curves, and saline water soaking test. It was found that the addition of rare earth contributed to improved corrosion resistance of trivalent Cr passivation Fdm even in the absence of sealing, and Ce^4+ was the most effective in improving the corrosion resistance.

  11. The U.S. national nuclear forensics library, nuclear materials information program, and data dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brisson, Marcia [DOE-IN; Curry, Michael [DEPT. OF STATE

    2011-02-17

    Nuclear forensics assessments to determine material process history requires careful comparison of sample data to both measured and modeled nuclear material characteristics. Developing centralized databases, or nuclear forensics libraries, to house this information is an important step to ensure all relevant data will be available for comparison during a nuclear forensics analysis and help expedite the assessment of material history. The approach most widely accepted by the international community at this time is the implementation of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, which would be developed and maintained by individual nations. This is an attractive alternative toan international database since it provides an understanding that each country has data on materials produced and stored within their borders, but eliminates the need to reveal any proprietary or sensitive information to other nations. To support the concept of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, the United States Department of Energy has developed a model library, based on a data dictionary, or set of parameters designed to capture all nuclear forensic relevant information about a nuclear material. Specifically, information includes material identification, collection background and current location, analytical laboratories where measurements were made, material packaging and container descriptions, physical characteristics including mass and dimensions, chemical and isotopic characteristics, particle morphology or metallurgical properties, process history including facilities, and measurement quality assurance information. While not necessarily required, it may also be valuable to store modeled data sets including reactor burn-up or enrichment cascade data for comparison. It is fully expected that only a subset of this information is available or relevant to many materials, and much of the data populating a National Nuclear Forensics library would be process analytical or material accountability

  12. Detection of special nuclear materials with the associate particle technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasco, Cédric; Deyglun, Clément; Pérot, Bertrand; Eléon, Cyrille; Normand, Stéphane; Sannié, Guillaume; Boudergui, Karim; Corre, Gwenolé; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Pras, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the French trans-governmental R&D program against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRN-E) threats, CEA is studying the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation with fast neutrons produced by an associated particle sealed tube neutron generator. The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction produces an alpha particle and a 14 MeV neutron almost back to back, allowing tagging neutron emission both in time and direction with an alpha particle position-sensitive sensor embedded in the generator. Fission prompt neutrons and gamma rays induced by tagged neutrons which are tagged by an alpha particle are detected in coincidence with plastic scintillators. This paper presents numerical simulations performed with the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo computer code and with post processing software developed with the ROOT data analysis package. False coincidences due to neutron and photon scattering between adjacent detectors (cross talk) are filtered out to increase the selectivity between nuclear and benign materials. Accidental coincidences, which are not correlated to an alpha particle, are also taken into account in the numerical model, as well as counting statistics, and the time-energy resolution of the data acquisition system. Such realistic calculations show that relevant quantities of SNM (few kg) can be distinguished from cargo and shielding materials in 10 min acquisitions. First laboratory tests of the system under development in CEA laboratories are also presented.

  13. The influence of mixing methods and disinfectant on the physical properties of alginate impression materials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreesen, K.; Kellens, A.; Wevers, M.; Thilakarathne, P.J.; Willems, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this in vitro study were to quantify the effect of manual versus automatic mixing and of using a disinfectant on mechanical properties of three different alginate impression materials. Two of the three alginates tested were especially developed for orthodontic use: Orthotrace(R) and Orth

  14. Impact of radiation protection means on the dose to the lens of the eye while handling radionuclides in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruchmann, Iris; Szermerski, Bastian; Geworski, Lilli [Medical School Hannover (Germany). Dept. for Radiation Protection and Medical Physics; Behrens, Rolf [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The human eye lens appears to be more radiosensitive than previously assumed. The reduction of the limit for the dose to the lens of the eye to 20 mSv per year has been passed in the current Euratom Directives (2013). Therefore, in this work the impact of laboratory glasses and X-ray protective goggles was investigated and reciprocal attenuation factors (i.e. transmission factors) for different nuclides (Tc-99m, I-131, Y-90, F-18 and Ga-68) were determined. The radionuclides in typical geometry (syringe, applicator) were positioned at a distance of 50 cm to the eyes of four Alderson-Head-Phantoms. Different dosemeters measuring H{sub p}(3) respective H{sub p}(0.07) were fixed to the eyes of the phantoms, either behind the glasses or without any protection means, respectively. The mean reciprocal attenuation factors were determined to be between unity for F-18 and I-131 using laboratory glasses (no attenuation effect) and < 0.01 for Y-90 using X-ray protective goggles. All other results were between these extremes. It has been shown, that prospective doses to the lens of the eye can be reduced significantly by using appropriate radiation protection means, especially for those dose-relevant beta radiation emitting nuclides such as Y-90.

  15. The harmonic oscillator and nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional harmonic oscillator plays a central role in nuclear physics. It provides the underlying structure of the independent-particle shell model and gives rise to the dynamical group structures on which models of nuclear collective motion are based. It is shown that the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator features a rich variety of coherent states, including vibrations of the monopole, dipole, and quadrupole types, and rotations of the rigid flow, vortex flow, and irrotational flow types. Nuclear collective states exhibit all of these flows. It is also shown that the coherent state representations, which have their origins in applications to the dynamical groups of the simple harmonic oscillator, can be extended to vector coherent state representations with a much wider range of applicability. As a result, coherent state theory and vector coherent state theory become powerful tools in the application of algebraic methods in physics.

  16. The Effect of Different Storage Conditions on the Physical Properties of Pigmented Medical Grade I Silicone Maxillofacial Material

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different storage solutions that simulate acidic, alkaline, and sebum conditiions on the physical properties of pigmented (colorant elastomer) cosmesil M511 maxillofacial prosthetic material. Materials and Methods. Sixty specimens were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions and were tested before and after immersion of different storage conditions for six months at 37 °C. The following tests were performed: color changes (gr...

  17. The nuclear physics of the hydrogen burning in the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formicola, Alba [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, INFN, L' Aquila (Italy); Corvisiero, Pietro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova (Italy); INFN, Genova (Italy); Gervino, Gianpiero [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Torino (Italy); INFN, Torino (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Underground nuclear astrophysics focuses its efforts towards a deeper knowledge of the nuclear reactions that rule stellar evolution processes and enable the synthesis of the elements of the periodic table. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, the cross-sections of the key reactions of the hydrogen burning have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained by the LUNA Collaboration are reviewed, and their contributions to the solution of the solar neutrino problem and to the age of the globular cluster are discussed. (orig.)

  18. The nuclear physics of the hydrogen burning in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Alba; Corvisiero, Pietro; Gervino, Gianpiero

    2016-04-01

    Underground nuclear astrophysics focuses its efforts towards a deeper knowledge of the nuclear reactions that rule stellar evolution processes and enable the synthesis of the elements of the periodic table. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, the cross-sections of the key reactions of the hydrogen burning have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained by the LUNA Collaboration are reviewed, and their contributions to the solution of the solar neutrino problem and to the age of the globular cluster are discussed.

  19. 3. Mexican school of nuclear physics; 3. Escuela Mexicana de Fisica Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez L, E.R. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Hess, P.O. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Martinez Q, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The III Mexican School of Nuclear Physics which is directed to those post graduate in Sciences and those of last semesters students of the Physics career or some adjacent career was organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Mexican Physics Society, carrying out at November 18-29, 2002 in the installations of the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Nuclear Sciences both in the UNAM, and the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). In this as well as the last version its were offered 17 courses, 9 of them including laboratory practices and the rest were of theoretical character only. This book treats about the following themes: Nuclear physics, Electrostatic accelerators, Cyclotrons, Thermonuclear reactions, Surface barrier detectors, Radiation detection, Neutron detection, Bonner sphere spectrometers, Radiation protection, Biological radiation effects, Particle kinematics, Nucleosynthesis, Plastics, Muons, Quadrupoles, Harmonic oscillators, Quantum mechanics among many other matters. (Author)

  20. Annual report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snover, K.; Fulton, B. [eds.

    1996-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington has for over 40 years supported a broad program of experimental physics research. Some highlights of the research activities during the past year are given. Work continues at a rapid pace toward completion of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in January 1997. Following four years of planning and development, installation of the acrylic vessel began last July and is now 50% complete, with final completion scheduled for September. The Russian-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) has completed a successful {sup 51}Cr neutrino source experiment. The first data from {sup 8}B decay have been taken in the Mass-8 CVC/Second Class Current study. The analysis of the measured barrier distributions for Ca-induced fission of prolate {sup 192}Os and oblate {sup 194}Pt has been completed. In a collaboration with a group from the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre they have shown that fission anisotropies at energies well above the barrier are not influenced by the mass asymmetry of the entrance channel relative to the Businaro-Gallone critical asymmetry. They also have preliminary evidence at higher bombarding energy that noncompound nucleus fission scales with the mean square angular momentum, in contrast to previous suggestions. The authors have measured proton and alpha particle emission spectra from the decay of A {approximately} 200 compound nuclei at excitation energies of 50--100 MeV, and used these measurements to infer the nuclear temperature. The investigations of multiparticle Bose-Einstein interferometry have led to a new algorithm for putting Bose-Einstein and Coulomb correlations of up to 6th order into Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-relativistic collision events, and to a new fast algorithm for extracting event temperatures.

  1. PROCEEDINGS OF THE RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON LARGE SCALE COMPUTATIONS IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS USING THE QCDOC, SEPTEMBER 26 - 28, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AOKI,Y.; BALTZ,A.; CREUTZ,M.; GYULASSY,M.; OHTA,S.

    2002-09-26

    The massively parallel computer QCDOC (QCD On a Chip) of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RI3RC) will provide ten-teraflop peak performance for lattice gauge calculations. Lattice groups from both Columbia University and RBRC, along with assistance from IBM, jointly handled the design of the QCDOC. RIKEN has provided $5 million in funding to complete the machine in 2003. Some fraction of this computer (perhaps as much as 10%) might be made available for large-scale computations in areas of theoretical nuclear physics other than lattice gauge theory. The purpose of this workshop was to investigate the feasibility and possibility of using a supercomputer such as the QCDOC for lattice, general nuclear theory, and other calculations. The lattice applications to nuclear physics that can be investigated with the QCDOC are varied: for example, the light hadron spectrum, finite temperature QCD, and kaon ({Delta}I = 1/2 and CP violation), and nucleon (the structure of the proton) matrix elements, to name a few. There are also other topics in theoretical nuclear physics that are currently limited by computer resources. Among these are ab initio calculations of nuclear structure for light nuclei (e.g. up to {approx}A = 8 nuclei), nuclear shell model calculations, nuclear hydrodynamics, heavy ion cascade and other transport calculations for RHIC, and nuclear astrophysics topics such as exploding supernovae. The physics topics were quite varied, ranging from simulations of stellar collapse by Douglas Swesty to detailed shell model calculations by David Dean, Takaharu Otsuka, and Noritaka Shimizu. Going outside traditional nuclear physics, James Davenport discussed molecular dynamics simulations and Shailesh Chandrasekharan presented a class of algorithms for simulating a wide variety of femionic problems. Four speakers addressed various aspects of theory and computational modeling for relativistic heavy ion reactions at RHIC. Scott Pratt and Steffen Bass gave general overviews of

  2. Research progress on thermal protection materials and structures of hypersonic vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ya-zheng; YANG Jia-ling; FANG Dai-ning

    2008-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicles represent future trends of military equipments and play an important role in future war. Thermal protection materials and structures, which relate to the safety of hypersonic vehicles, are one of the most key techniques in design and manufacture of hypersonic vehicles. Among these materials and structures, such as metallic temperature protection structure, the temperature ceramics and carbon/carbon composites are usually adopted in design. The recent progresses of research and applica- tion of ultra-high temperature materials in preparation, oxidation resistance, mechanical and physical characterization are summarized.

  3. The Thrill of Discovery: Nuclear Physics Research in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, J. S.

    2005-04-01

    To many people outside our field, both scientists and the general public, nuclear physics is no longer regarded as being at the forefront of scientific endeavour. Indeed it is often met with outright hostility. Other physicists will point out that the last time a Nobel Prize was awarded in the field was in 1975 . This paper, based on a lecture delivered during an Open Plenary Session of the recent International Nuclear Physics Conference INPC2004, which was aimed at a non-specialist audience, will seek to dispel this myth. Nuclear physics is currently enjoying a period of rapid advances. Many new discoveries have been made in the past few years, from neutron halos and nuclear molecules to a new form of radioactive decay via two protons; from hints of a new particle consisting of five quarks to new 'superheavy' elements. This talk will give a personal perspective on why, far from looking with envy at our neighbours in areas of physics that currently enjoy a higher media profile, we have more than enough to keep us busy and excited in the 21st century. to Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson for their work on models of nuclear structure. This author would argue, however, that the 2004 prize was also for nuclear physics: to Gross, Politzer and Wilczek for "the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction".

  4. Protective effects of the nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on experimental testicular torsion and detorsion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabay, Sahin; Ozden, Hilmi; Guven, Gul; Burukoglu, Dilek; Ustuner, Mehmet Cengiz; Topal, Fatma; Gunes, Hasan Veysi; Ustuner, Derya; Ozbayer, Cansu

    2014-08-01

    Testicular torsion results with the damage of the testis and it is a surgical emergency. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a low-molecular-weight antioxidant and potent inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PDTC to testicular torsion-detorsion (T/D) injury. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups. A sham operation was performed in group I. In group II, torsion is performed 2 hours by 720 degree extravaginally testis. In group III, 4 h reperfusion of the testis was performed after 2 h of testicular torsion. In group IV, after performing the same surgical procedures as in group III, PDTC (100 mg/kg, intravenous's) was administered before 30 min of detorsion. The testes tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) level was evaluated. Histological evaluations were performed after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Testicular tissue MDA levels were the highest in the T/D groups compared with treatment group. Administration of PDTC prevented a further increase in MDA levels. Significant decrease occurred in CAT and SOD levels in treatment group compared with the control group. The rats in the treatment group had normal testicular architecture. The results suggest that PDTC can be a potential protective agent for preventing the biochemical and histological changes related to oxidative stress in testicular injury caused by testis torsion.

  5. Foundations of nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Donnelly, T William; Holstein, Barry R; Milner, Richard G; Surrow, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    This textbook brings together nuclear and particle physics, presenting a balanced overview of both fields as well as the interplay between the two. The theoretical as well as the experimental foundations are covered, providing students with a deep understanding of the subject. In-chapter exercises ranging from basic experimental to sophisticated theoretical questions provide an important tool for students to solidify their knowledge. Suitable for upper undergraduate courses in nuclear and particle physics as well as more advanced courses, the book includes road maps guiding instructors on tailoring the content to their course. Online resources including color figures, tables, and a solutions manual complete the teaching package. This textbook will be essential for students preparing for further study or a career in the field who require a solid grasp of both nuclear and particle physics.

  6. Material control and accounting in the Department of Energy's nuclear fuel complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-01-01

    Material control and accounting takes place within an envelope of activities related to safeguards and security, as well as to safety, health, and environment, all of which need to be managed to assure that the entire nuclear fuel complex can operate in a societally accepted manner. Within this envelope the committee was directed to carry out the following scope of work: (1) Review the MCandA systems in use at selected DOE facilities that are processing special nuclear material (SNM) in various physical and chemical forms. (2) Design and convene a workshop for senior representatives from each of DOE's facilities on the flows and inventories of nuclear materials. (3) Plan and conduct a series of site visits to each of the facilities to observe first hand the processing operations and the related MCandA systems. (4) Review the potential improvement in overall safeguard systems effectiveness, as measured by expected reduction in inventory difference control limits and inventory differences for materials balance accounts and facilities, or other criteria as appropriate. Indicate how this affects the relative degree of uncertainty in the system. (5) Review the efficiency of operating the MCandA system with and without the upgrading options and assess whether upgrading will contribute further efficiencies in operation, which may reduce many of the current operations costs. Determine if the current system is cost-effective. (6) Recommend the most promising technical approaches for further development by DOE and further study as warranted.

  7. A state of the art on electrochemical noise technique. Assessment of corrosion characteristics and development of remedial technology in nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Lim, Yun Soo; Yi, Yong Sun; Chung, Man Kyo

    2003-02-01

    The studies for the application of electrochemical noise technique were reviewed in terms of principle, analysing method and application examples of this technique. Because 4% of the economic damage of industry is caused by metallic corrosion, it is important to find and protect corrosive materials and location. By corrosion monitoring of industrial facilities such as nuclear power plant using Electrochemical Noise Measurement(ENM), corrosion attack can be detected and furthermore it can be indicated whether the attacked materials is replaced by new one or not. According to development of control and electronic technology, it was easy to apply ENM to the industry and the interest in ENM also increased. As corrosion is produced on a metal under corrosive environment, local anode(oxidation) and cathode(reduction) are formed. Hence, there is potential difference and current flow between the anode and cathode. ENM is monitoring the potential difference and the current flow with time by high impedance load voltmeter and Zero Resistance Ammeter(ZRA), respectively. The potential difference and current flow generated spontaneously without any application of current and potential between electrodes are monitored by electrochemical noise technique, Thereby ENM can be regarded as the most ideal corrosion monitoring method for the industrial facility and nuclear power plant having corrosion damage and difficulty in access of human body. Moreover, it is possible to obtain the spontaneous and reliable results from the metals damaged by ununiform and localized corrosion such as pitting and SCC using ENM while it is difficult to obtain the reliable result using traditional linear polarization and ac-impedance measurement. In many countries, there are extensive works concerned with application of electrochemical noise technique to corrosion monitoring of nuclear power plant and other industrial facilities, whereas there is little work on this field in Korea. Systematic study for

  8. A Vision of Nuclear and Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Hugh E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This paper will consist of a selected, personal view of some of the issues associated with the intersections of nuclear and particle physics. As well as touching on the recent developments we will attempt to look at how those aspects of the subject might evolve over the next few years.

  9. Current status and prospects of nuclear physics research based on tracking techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V. A.; Alexandrov, A. B.; Bagulya, A. V.; Chernyavskiy, M. M.; Goncharova, L. A.; Gorbunov, S. A.; Kalinina, G. V.; Konovalova, N. S.; Okatyeva, N. M.; Pavlova, T. A.; Polukhina, N. G.; Shchedrina, T. V.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Vladymirov, M. S.; Volkov, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Results of nuclear physics research made using track detectors are briefly reviewed. Advantages and prospects of the track detection technique in particle physics, neutrino physics, astrophysics and other fields are discussed on the example of the results of the search for direct origination of tau neutrino in a muon neutrino beam within the framework of the international experiment OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus) and works on search for superheavy nuclei in nature on base of their tracks in meteoritic olivine crystals. The spectra of superheavy elements in galactic cosmic rays are presented. Prospects of using the track detection technique in fundamental and applied research are reported.

  10. The 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was a pleasure to welcome all delegates and accompanying persons to Adelaide for the 26th International Conference in Nuclear Physics, INPC2016. As the major meeting in our field, it was a wonderful opportunity to catch up with colleagues from around the world, learn about the very latest developments and share ideas. We were grateful for the support of the Commission on Nuclear Physics, C12, of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), which chose Adelaide to host this meeting. We were also honoured that the President of IUPAP, Prof. Bruce McKellar was present at the meeting to welcome delegates and participate in the proceedings. We acknowledge the financial support for the conference which was made available by a number of organisations. We were especially grateful to the major sponsors, the Adelaide Convention Bureau, the University of Adelaide, the Australian National University and ANSTO, as well as IUPAP, the ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale (CoEPP) and several of the world's major nuclear physics laboratories, BNL, GSI, JLab and TRIUMF. As a result of these contributions we were able to offer support to attend the conference to more than 50 international students. Not only did we have a superb scientific program but, consistent with IUPAP guidelines, more than 40% of the invited plenary talks were presented by women. In order to reach out to the local community, Cynthia Keppel (from JLab) presented a public lecture on Hadron Beam Therapy on Tuesday evening, September 13th. As presenting a talk is now often a condition for financial support to attend an international conference, there were 11 simultaneous parallel sessions with more than 350 presentations. We are especially grateful to the International Advisory Committee, the Program Committee and the Conveners whose advice and hard work made it possible for all this to come together. I would also like to acknowledge the work of the Local Organising

  11. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    The 12 Festival of Science "Theory-knowledge-experience...". Fest will be located on the traditional Main Square, which is visited by thousands of citizens and tourists. Institute of Nuclear Physics as usual participates in this annual event. Our visitors will learn the secrets of the CERN experiments on the Large Hadron Collider - ATLAS, LHCb, ALICE, CMS, find out more about the Higgs particles, antimatter quark-gluon plasma (beeing guided by our scientists and PhD students). One of the attractions will be ATLAS Control Room Virtual Visit. Visiting people will have an opportunity to see how ATLAS is controlled and operated to collect its exciting data and ask questions to scientists and engineers involved in LHC program at CERN. Institute of Nuclear Physics has prepared also several interactive demonstrations of Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Resonance, Hadron Therapy and Crystal Physics. The Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences carries out basic and applied research in physics, ...

  12. Physical protection evaluation methodology program development and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Janghoon; Yoo, Hosik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    It is essential to develop a reliable physical protection evaluation methodology for applying physical protection concept to the design stage. The methodology can be used to assess weak points and improve performance not only for the design stage but also for nuclear facilities in operation. Analyzing physical protection property of nuclear facilities is not a trivial work since there are many interconnected factors affecting overall performance. Therefore several international projects have been organized to develop a systematic physical protection evaluation methodology. INPRO (The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles) and GIF PRPP (Generation IV International Forum Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection) methodology are among the most well-known evaluation methodologies. INPRO adopts a checklist type of questionnaire and has a strong point in analyzing overall characteristic of facilities in a qualitative way. COMPRE program has been developed to help general users apply COMPRE methodology to nuclear facilities. In this work, COMPRE program development and a case study of the hypothetical nuclear facility are presented. The development of COMPRE program and a case study for hypothetic facility is presented in this work. The case study shows that COMPRE PP methodology can be a useful tool to assess the overall physical protection performance of nuclear facilities. To obtain meaningful results from COMPRE PP methodology, detailed information and comprehensive analysis are required. Especially, it is not trivial to calculate reliable values for PPSE (Physical Protection System Effectiveness) and C (Consequence), while it is relatively straightforward to evaluate LI (Legislative and Institutional framework), MC (Material Control) and HR (Human Resources). To obtain a reliable PPSE value, comprehensive information about physical protection system, vital area analysis and realistic threat scenario assessment are required. Like

  13. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  14. The Major Trends of Research on Physical Activity in Japan Viewed From the Reports Presented at the JSPE Annual Conventions During Past 25 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshizuka, Tetsuo

    1978-01-01

    The major research trends over the past 25 years in Japanese physical education are analyzed using oral reports of the Japanese Society of Physical Education. Topics for analysis include: philosophy, sociology, history, administration, psychology, growth and development, health education, teaching methodology, biomechanics, measurement and…

  15. PREFACE: XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics (or XXXVII RTFNB 2014) gave continuity to a long sequence of workshops held in Brazil, devoted to the study of the different aspects of nuclear physics. The meeting took place in the Maresias Beach Hotel, in the town of Maresias (state of São Paulo) from 8th to 12th September 2014. Offering gentle weather, a charming piece of green land of splendid natural beauty with beach and all amenities, the place had all the conditions for very pleasant and fruitful discussions. The meeting involved 162 participants and attracted undergraduate and graduate students, Brazilian and South American physicists and invited speakers from overseas (USA, Italy, Spain, France, England, Switzerland, Germany and South Corea). In the program we had plenary morning sessions with review talks on recent developments in theory, computational techniques, experimentation and applications of the many aspects of nuclear physics. In the parallel sessions we had a total of 58 seminars. This volume contains 60 written contributions based on these talks and on the poster sessions. Evening talks and poster sessions gave still more insight and enlarged the scope of the scientific program. The contributed papers, representing mainly the scientific activity of young physicists, were exhibited as posters and are included in the present volume. Additional information about the meeting can be found at our website: http://www.sbfisica.org.br/~rtfnb/xxxvii-en Support and sponsorship came from brazilian national agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnoógico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); Sociedade Brasileira de Física (SBF) and Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (IFUSP). We honored Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo, who completed

  16. The wisdom of sages: nuclear physics education, knowledge-inquiry, and wisdom-inquiry

    CERN Document Server

    Cottey, A Alan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I address the difference between knowledge-inquiry and wisdom-inquiry (concepts introduced by N. Maxwell) in nuclear physics education, specifically in senior-level textbooks for first-degree physics students. Following on from an earlier study of 57 such textbooks, I focus here on a remarkable use of literary quotations in one of them. The nuclear physics textbook Particles and Nuclei: an Introduction to the Physical Concepts, by B. Povh et al opens with a (German) quotation from Max und Moritz which has been rendered, in the celebrated translation by C. T. Brooks, as "Not alone to solve the double/ Rule of Three shall man take trouble;/ But must hear with pleasure Sages/ Teach the wisdom of the ages." What the student gets however is technical material followed abruptly at the very end by the advice (from The Book of Jeremiah) "And it shall be, when thou hast made an end of reading this book, that thou shalt bind a stone to it, and cast it into the midst of Euphrates". From a study of these an...

  17. Development of Computer-Aided Learning Programs on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The fulfillment of international norms for nuclear nonproliferation is indispensable to the promotion of nuclear energy. The education and training for personnel and mangers related to the nuclear material are one of crucial factors to avoid unintended non-compliance to international norms. Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) has been providing education and training on nuclear control as its legal duty. One of the legally mandatory educations is 'nuclear control education' performed since 2006 for the observation of the international norms on nuclear nonproliferation and the spread of the nuclear control culture. The other is 'physical protection education' performed since 2010 for maintaining the national physical protection regime effectively and the spread of the nuclear security culture. The 2010 Nuclear Security Summit was held in Washington, DC to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism. During the Summit, the South Korea was chosen to host the second Nuclear Summit in 2012. South Korean President announced that South Korea would share its expertise and support the Summit's mission by setting up an international education and training center on nuclear security in 2014. KINAC is making a full effort to set up the center successfully. An important function of the center is education and training in the subjects of nuclear nonproliferation, nuclear safeguards, nuclear security, and nuclear export/import control. With increasing importance of education and training education on nuclear nonproliferation and control, KINAC has been developing computer-aided learning programs on nuclear nonproliferation and control to overcome the weaknesses in classroom educations. This paper shows two learning programs. One is an e-learning system on the nuclear nonproliferation and control and the other is a virtual reality program for training nuclear material accountancy inspection of light water

  18. Evaluation of the physical protection system of the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, Antonio C.A.; Conti, Thadeu das N., E-mail: acavaz@ipen.br, E-mail: tnconti@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The '09/11' in New York and the accident at the Fukushima power plant are two events that served as worldwide reference to review some aspects of the Physical Protection System (PPS) in nuclear areas. The nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 has followed this new world order and improved the protection systems that are directly related to detection (CCTV, sensors, alarms, etc), delay (turnstile, gates, barriers, etc) and response (communication systems, response force, etc), for operation against malicious act, seeking always to avoid or minimize any possibility of threat, theft and sabotage. These actions were performed to prevent and to mitigate the consequence on the environment, economy and society from damages caused by natural hazard, as well. This study evaluates the PPS of the IEA-R1 regarding the weaknesses, strengths,and impacts of the changes resulting from the system implanted. The analyses were based on methodology developed by security experts from SANDIA National Laboratories in Texas - U.S.A, allowing the evaluation of the system through probabilistic and hypothetical analysis. (author)

  19. Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ebel, P.E. [BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy`s program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC&A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC&A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC&A Programs.

  20. Methodical Instructions For Solutions of Problems in Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Troitskaya, N I

    2005-01-01

    This is a set of methodical instructions for solutions of problems in Nuclear Physics. It is written on the basis of seminars to the course of lectures on``Nuclear Physics'' delivered at the Physical and Mechanical Faculty of the St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University for the students of the 4th Course in ``Technical Physics'' and ``Medical Physics''. The main aim of these methodical instructions is to develop the experience of students in scientific approaches to solutions of practical problems in Nuclear Physics.

  1. [International regulation of ethics committees on biomedical research as protection mechanisms for people: analysis of the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, concerning Biomedical Research of the Council of Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lecuona, Itziar

    2013-01-01

    The article explores and analyses the content of the Council of Europe's Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning Biomedical Research regarding the standard legal instrument in biomedical research, issued by an international organization with leadership in bioethics. This implies ethics committees are mechanisms of protection of humans in biomedical research and not mere bureaucratic agencies and that a sound inescapable international regulatory framework exists for States to regulate biomedical research. The methodology used focuses on the analysis of the background, the context in which it is made and the nature and scope of the Protocol. It also identifies and analyses the characteristics and functions of ethics committees in biomedical research and, in particular, the information that should be provided to this bodies to develop their functions previously, during and at the end of research projects. This analysis will provide guidelines, suggestions and conclusions for the awareness and training of members of these committees in order to influence the daily practice. This paper may also be of interest to legal practitioners who work in different areas of biomedical research. From this practical perspective, the article examines the legal treatment of the Protocol to meet new challenges and classic issues in research: the treatment of human biological samples, the use of placebos, avoiding double standards, human vulnerability, undue influence and conflicts of interest, among others. Also, from a critical view, this work links the legal responses to develop work procedures that are required for an effective performance of the functions assigned of ethics committees in biomedical research. An existing international legal response that lacks doctrinal standards and provides little support should, however, serve as a guide and standard to develop actions that allow ethics committees -as key bodies for States- to advance in

  2. Cooperative efforts of the materials protection control and accounting program at the electrochemical plant (Krasnoyarsk-45) in Russia-011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.

    1998-07-22

    The USDOE Material Protection Control and Accountability Program (MPC&A) has established a Project Team with the goal of providing the Russian Electrochemical Plant (ECP) with equipment and training to enable ECP to evaluate, develop, and implement a comprehensive plan and systems for physical protection, material controls, and accountancy upgrades. The MPC&A project will provide for improvements such as risk assessments, access control upgrades, computerized MC&A, communications systems upgrades, building perimeter surveillance and intrusion detection upgrades, vault upgrades, metal and nuclear material detection upgrades, along with mass measurement and non- destructive analysis (NDA) instrumentation. This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A project at the Electrochemical Plant.

  3. The Wisdom of Sages: Nuclear Physics Education, Knowledge-Inquiry, and Wisdom-Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the difference between knowledge-inquiry and wisdom-inquiry in nuclear physics education. In the spirit of an earlier study of 57 senior-level textbooks for first-degree physics students, this work focuses here on a remarkable use of literary quotations in one such book. "Particles and Nuclei: an introduction to the physical…

  4. Semiconductor surface protection material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, R. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method and a product for protecting semiconductor surfaces is disclosed. The protective coating material is prepared by heating a suitable protective resin with an organic solvent which is solid at room temperature and converting the resulting solution into sheets by a conventional casting operation. Pieces of such sheets of suitable shape and thickness are placed on the semiconductor areas to be coated and heat and vacuum are then applied to melt the sheet and to drive off the solvent and cure the resin. A uniform adherent coating, free of bubbles and other defects, is thus obtained exactly where it is desired.

  5. The influence of modified water chemistries on metal oxide films, activity build-up and stress corrosion cracking of structural materials in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, K.; Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    The primary coolant oxidises the surfaces of construction materials in nuclear power plants. The properties of the oxide films influence significantly the extent of incorporation of actuated corrosion products into the primary circuit surfaces, which may cause additional occupational doses for the maintenance personnel. The physical and chemical properties of the oxide films play also an important role in different forms of corrosion observed in power plants. This report gives a short overview of the factors influencing activity build-up and corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, the most recent modifications in the water chemistry to decrease these risks are discussed. A special focus is put on zinc water chemistry, and a preliminary discussion on the mechanism via which zinc influences activity build-up is presented. Even though the exact mechanisms by which zinc acts are not yet known, it is assumed that Zn may block the diffusion paths within the oxide film. This reduces ion transport through the oxide films leading to a reduced rate of oxide growth. Simultaneously the number of available adsorption sites for {sup 60}Co is also reduced. The current models for stress corrosion cracking assume that the anodic and the respective cathodic reactions contributing to crack growth occur partly on or in the oxide films. The rates of these reactions may control the crack propagation rate and therefore, the properties of the oxide films play a crucial role in determining the susceptibility of the material to stress corrosion cracking. Finally, attention is paid also on the novel techniques which can be used to mitigate the susceptibility of construction materials to stress corrosion cracking. (orig.) 127 refs.

  6. The 'atom-splitting' moment of synthetic biology: Nuclear physics and synthetic biology share common features

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, Alex J; Kleinert, Aleysia; Verdier, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology and nuclear physics share many commonalities in terms of public perception and funding. Synthetic biologists could learn valuable lessons from the history of the atomic bomb and nuclear power.

  7. Virtual dosimetry applied to the physical security of a nuclear installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santo, Andre Cotelli do E.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Machado, Daniel M.; Chelles, Daniel R.; Goncalves, Deise G.S., E-mail: cotelli.andre@gmail.com, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, E-mail: machado.mol@gmail.com, E-mail: daniel.chelles@gmail.com, E-mail: deise.galvao@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An important activity to be held in radiation protection is the location of radioactive sources. The present work was devoted to the development of a virtual dosimetry tool for locating and detecting such sources. To this end, was created a three-dimensional virtual model of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - IEN, endowed with virtual characters (avatars), capable of move and interact with the environment, radiation detectors (fixed and mobile) and radioactive sources. Aiming to assist in planning physical security of nuclear installations, the tool developed allows the detection simulation of individuals carrying radioactive sources through detectors installed at strategic points of the site. In addition, it is possible to detect and locate sources by handling portable detectors, operated by characters within the virtual environment. The results obtained show the behavior of the radiation detectors on continuous profile of radioactive sources, allowing calculate the dose rate at any position of the virtual environment. Thus, this work can assist in the training of security officers, as well as in evaluating the radiological safety of the nuclear site. (author)

  8. [Nuclear energy and public health, the mission of OPRI (Office of Protection from Ionizing Radiation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisné, M R

    1995-03-15

    In the domain of the use of ionising radiation for medical purposes and in the nuclear industry, the protection of man and his environment is primordial. Such protection is defined in European Community countries by the Directives of the Euratom Council, applied as national law. In France, the "Office de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants" oversees the application of laws and rules relating to protection from radiation and determines the inspections and analyses required to ensure the protection of the population against ionising radiation.

  9. Nuclear Physics Meets the Sources of the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncioli, Denise; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Winter, Walter

    2017-07-07

    The determination of the injection composition of cosmic ray nuclei within astrophysical sources requires sufficiently accurate descriptions of the source physics and the propagation - apart from controlling astrophysical uncertainties. We therefore study the implications of nuclear data and models for cosmic ray astrophysics, which involves the photo-disintegration of nuclei up to iron in astrophysical environments. We demonstrate that the impact of nuclear model uncertainties is potentially larger in environments with non-thermal radiation fields than in the cosmic microwave background. We also study the impact of nuclear models on the nuclear cascade in a gamma-ray burst radiation field, simulated at a level of complexity comparable to the most precise cosmic ray propagation code. We conclude with an isotope chart describing which information is in principle necessary to describe nuclear interactions in cosmic ray sources and propagation.

  10. Development of the advanced nuclear materials -A study on the polymer catalyst process technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Il Hyun; Jung, Heung Suk; Lee, Han Soo; An, Doh Heui; Kang, Heui Suk; Baek, Seung Woo; Lee, Sung Hoh; Sung, Kee Woong; Kim, Kwang Lak; Kim, Jong Hoh; Koo, Je Hyoo; Park, Tae Keun; Kim, Sang Hwan; Yoo, Ryong; Song, Myung Jae; Son, Soon Hwan; Choi, Jung Kil; Lee, Jae Choon; Jung, Moon Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Heavy water is used as moderator and coolant in pressurized heavy water power plants. According to the governmental long-term plan for power supply, Korea is scheduled to construct new four pressurized heavy water power plants till the year 2006. Total heavy water make-up for these plants would be 22 Mg/a from the year 2006. Reformed hydrogen processes is considered best suited to Korea. Hydrophobic catalysts for this process were manufactured and the performance of hydrogen isotope exchange was investigated. The overall mass transfer coefficients varied between 0.004 and 2.295 m3 HD/m3 Bed.sec. and heavy water separation processes using the catalysts were optimized. 66 figs, 62 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  11. Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Van Brutzel, Laurent; Chartier, Alan; Gueneau, Christine; Mattsson, Ann E.; Tikare, Veena; Bartel, Timothy; Besmann, T. M.; Stan, Marius; Van Uffelen, Paul

    2010-10-01

    We review the state of modeling and simulation of nuclear fuels with emphasis on the most widely used nuclear fuel, UO2. The hierarchical scheme presented represents a science-based approach to modeling nuclear fuels by progressively passing information in several stages from ab initio to continuum levels. Such an approach is essential to overcome the challenges posed by radioactive materials handling, experimental limitations in modeling extreme conditions and accident scenarios, and the small time and distance scales of fundamental defect processes. When used in conjunction with experimental validation, this multiscale modeling scheme can provide valuable guidance to development of fuel for advanced reactors to meet rising global energy demand.

  12. The effect of a self-constructed material on children's physical activity during recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Cecchini, José-Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier

    2017-06-26

    To analyze whether an intervention supported by free play with a self-constructed material increases the level of physical activity of students during recess. The participants were 166 children of third to sixth grade, between nine and 12 years old (average = 10.64; SS = 1.13). An experimental project was conducted with pre-test and post-test measurement, and a control group. Experimental group participants built cardboard paddles (third and fourth) and flying rings (fifth and sixth), a material they used freely for one week during recess. ActiGraph-GT3X accelerometers were used to measure physical activity. An ANOVA of repeated measures was used to find differences between groups and genders. Significant intervention effects were found in the analyzed variables: sedentary activity (F = 38.19; p sexo. Se encontraron efectos de intervención significativos en las variables analizadas: actividad sedentaria (F = 38,19; p sexo (tiempo x grupo x sexo) para la actividad moderada (F = 6,58; p < 0,05) y vigorosa (F = 5,51; p < 0,05). El material autoconstruido es eficaz para aumentar los niveles de actividad física de los niños en el recreo; disminuye la actividad sedentaria y la actividad física ligera, y aumenta el tiempo dedicado a la actividad física moderada y actividad física vigorosa, tanto en varones como en mujeres. Los varones aumentaron más la actividad física vigorosa y las mujeres, la actividad física moderada. Por su bajo coste, se recomienda esta estrategia a gestores y profesores para incrementar la actividad física de los niños durante el recreo.

  13. Strategic special nuclear material Inventory Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    This sixteenth periodic semiannual report of Inventory Differences (ID) covers the last six months of fiscal year 1984 (April 1, 1984, through September 30, 1984), for the Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor facilities possessing significant quantities of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM). Inventory Differences are simply the differences between the amount of material shown in the accounting records and the amount of material reported in the physical inventory. These differences are generally due to errors in estimating material in unmeasurable form at the time of an inventory, unmeasurable holdup in equipment, measurement imprecisions, inaccuracies in initial determinations of SSNM produced or used in nuclear reactors, and inventory or bookkeeping errors. Both DOE and contractors operating DOE facilities carefully maintain, analyze, and investigate ID data. Inventory Differences are expected in nuclear material processing and are not, in and of themselves, evidence of lost or stolen material. On the other hand, ID analysis provides valuable information on the effectiveness of the safeguards system's physical protection and material control measures as well as a check on the process controls and material management procedures. If necessary, an operation may be shut down until an ID is resolved.

  14. PREFACE: XIV Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2014-07-01

    This volume contains the invited and contributed papers presented at the 14th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 29-31 October, 2013. The meeting was held at the Palazzone, an elegant Renaissance Villa, commissioned by the Cardinal Silvio Passerini (1469-1529), Bishop of Cortona, and presently owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennial Conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of nuclear physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to stimulate new ideas and promote collaborations between different research groups. The Conference was attended by 46 participants, coming from 13 Italian Universities and 11 Laboratories and Sezioni of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - INFN. The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on the following main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems Nuclear Structure Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions and Quark-Gluon Plasma Nuclear Astrophysics Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited review talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Giacomo De Angelis from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the INFN SPES radioactive ion beam project. Sara Pirrone, INFN Sezione di Catania, gave a talk on the symmetry energy and isospin physics with the CHIMERA detector. Finally, Mauro Taiuti (Università di Genova), National Coordinator of the INFN-CSN3 (Nuclear Physics Experiments), reported on the present status and future challenges of experimental nuclear physics in Italy. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of INFN who helped make the conference possible. I Bombaci, A Covello

  15. Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: V Dinucleons, published in The Physical Review , v93 n4 p908-909, 15 Feb 1954; Concentration of a Cyclotron Beam by Strong Focusing Lenses...published in The Review of Scientific Instruments, v25 n4 p365-367, Apr 1954; and Photon Splitting in a Nuclear Electrostatic Field, published in The Physical Review , v94 n2 p367-368, 15 Apr 1954.

  16. Symposium on Highlights from 14 years of LEAR Physics : "Nuclear Physics" by T. von Egidy

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    Symposium on Highlights from 145 years of LEAR Physics hold at CERN, commemorating the closure of LEAR and giving a topical review of the impact of experiments with low energy antiprotons in their respective fields

  17. Lattice QCD Calculations in Nuclear Physics towards the Exascale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Balint

    2017-01-01

    The combination of algorithmic advances and new highly parallel computing architectures are enabling lattice QCD calculations to tackle ever more complex problems in nuclear physics. In this talk I will review some computational challenges that are encountered in large scale cold nuclear physics campaigns such as those in hadron spectroscopy calculations. I will discuss progress in addressing these with algorithmic improvements such as multi-grid solvers and software for recent hardware architectures such as GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi, Knights Landing. Finally, I will highlight some current topics for research and development as we head towards the Exascale era This material is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office Of Science, Offices of Nuclear Physics, High Energy Physics and Advanced Scientific Computing Research, as well as the Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  18. A Characterization of the Ship-Effect in a Maritime Environment and Special Nuclear Material Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    radiation from the decay of man-made radioactive isotopes , whether related to weapons, nuclear power, or industrial/ medical sources. Each of these four...48  VI List of Figures Figure 2-1 USS Barry Moored at the Washington DC Navy Yard in the Anacostia River ( image from Google Earth...as plutonium, uranium-233, or uranium enriched in the isotopes of uranium-233 or uranium-235. The importance of protecting this material has been

  19. Future prospects in nuclear physics and the Japanese hadron facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metag, V. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Giessen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.

    1998-05-01

    The Japanese Hadron Facility (JHF) will provide new perspectives for a broad research program covering nuclear and particle physics, condensed matter physics, material sciences, and life sciences. In this talk, the future prospects of nuclear physics, as they are discussed within the community, are addressed. Recommendations worked out by the study groups, evaluating the long term perspectives of GSI, have hereby been used as a guideline. Nuclear physics is considered here in a broad sense as the physics of extended structured objects bound by the strong interaction, i.e. mesons, baryons, and nuclei. Preference is given to those subfields which would benefit most from the new experimental possibilities to the JHF. Consequently, the structure of exotic nuclei and hypernuclei, the properties of compressed hadronic matter and medium modifications of hadrons, spectroscopy of mesons, glueballs and baryons, and the parton structure of the nucleon are addressed and analyzed with regard to their future physics potential. (orig.)

  20. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    the CISG applies; • Freedom of contract under Article 6; • Interpretation of the Convention and of CISG contracts; • Sales contract formation, validity, defenses to enforcement; • Obligations of the parties, including conforming delivery & notice of non-conformity; • Liability and remedies for breach......Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win...... acceptance on a worldwide scale. The current list of some 77 Contracting States includes 11 of the G-12 Group, as well as China and Russia. These CISG States account for more than two-thirds of all world trade. The importance of the CISG in the international arena is underlined by thousands of reported...

  1. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  2. NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, A. V.; Denikin, A. S.; Naumenko, M. A.; Alekseev, A. P.; Rachkov, V. A.; Samarin, V. V.; Saiko, V. V.; Zagrebaev, V. I.

    2017-07-01

    The paper describes the principles of organization and operation of the NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics (http://nrv.jinr.ru/) which integrates a large amount of digitized experimental data on the properties of nuclei and nuclear reaction cross sections with a wide range of computational programs for modeling of nuclear properties and various processes of nuclear dynamics which work directly in the browser of a remote user. The paper also gives an overview of the current situation in the field of application of network information technologies in nuclear physics. The features of the NRV knowledge base are illustrated in detail on the example of the analysis of nucleon transfer reactions within the distorted wave Born approximation.

  3. PREFACE: XXXVI Symposium on Nuclear Physics (Cocoyoc 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Morales-Agiss, Irving; Martínez-Quiroz, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    logo The XXXVI Symposium on Nuclear Physics, organized by the Division of Nuclear Physics of the Mexican Physical Society, took place from 7-10 January, 2013. As it is customary, the Symposium was held at the Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Conference photograph This international venue with many years of tradition was attended by outstanding physicists, some of them already regulars to this meeting and others who joined us for the first time; a total of 45 attendees from different countries (Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico and the United States). A variety of topics related to nuclear physics (nuclear reactions, radioactive beams, nuclear structure, fundamental neutron physics, sub-nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics, among others) were presented in 26 invited talks and 10 contributed posters. Local Organizing Committee Libertad Barrón-Palos (IF-UNAM)) Enrique Martínez-Quíroz (ININ)) Irving Morales-Agiss (ICN-UNAM)) International Advisory Committee Osvaldo Civitarese (UNLP, Argentina) Jerry P Draayer (LSU, USA)) Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri (ORNL, USA)) Paulo Gomes (UFF, Brazil)) Piet Van Isacker (GANIL, France)) James J Kolata (UND, USA)) Reiner Krücken (TRIUMF, Canada)) Jorge López (UTEP, USA)) Stuart Pittel (UD, USA)) W Michael Snow (IU, USA)) Adam Szczepaniak (IU, USA)) Michael Wiescher (UND, USA)) A list of participants is available in the PDF

  4. Strangeness nuclear physics: a critical review on selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, Elena; Garbarino, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    Selected topics in strangeness nuclear physics are critically reviewed. This includes production, structure and weak decay of $\\Lambda$--Hypernuclei, the $\\bar K$ nuclear interaction and the possible existence of $\\bar K$ bound states in nuclei. Perspectives for future studies on these issues are also outlined.

  5. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    with international sales contracts and sales contract disputes will obtain an excellent overview of the Convention, as well as valuable information as to all its 101 Articles, compromising key topic areas such as the following: • Determining when the CISG applies; • Freedom of contract under Article 6......Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win...... acceptance on a worldwide scale. The current list of some 85 Contracting States accounts for more than three-fourths of all world trade. The importance of the CISG in the international arena is underlined by thousands of reported decisions where the CISG has been held to apply, thus evidencing the conduct...

  6. Enrico Fermi and the Physics and Engineering of a nuclear pile: the retrieval of novel documents

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, S

    2008-01-01

    We give a detailed account of the recent retrieval of a consistent amount (about 600 pages) of documents written by Enrico Fermi and/or his collaborators, coming from different sources previously unexplored. These documents include articles, patents, reports, notes on scientific and technical meetings and other papers, mainly testifying Fermi's activity in the 1940s about nuclear pile physics and engineering. All of them have been carefully described, pointing out the relevance of the given papers for their scientific or even historical content. From the analysis of these papers, a number of important scientific and technical points comes out, putting a truly new light on the Fermi's (and others') scientific activity about nuclear piles and their applications. Quite unexpectedly intriguing historical remarks, such as those regarding the relationships between U.S. and Britain, just after the end of the war, about nuclear power for pacific and/or military use, or even regarding long term physics research and po...

  7. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina

    2014-03-01

    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  8. ON HEALTH PROTECTION AND HEALTH RELATED PHYSICAL CULTURE TRAININGS OF FIRST YEAR STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Fotynyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess health protection and health related physical culture trainings of first year students. Material: in the research first year students (n=121; 86 boys and 35girls of age 16 - 19 years, participated. Results: components of students’ individual health were found. Situation with health related physical culture trainings, ensuring students’ sound health and optimal functional potentials of their organisms were determined. It was found that leading role shall be played by formation of health world vision values, knowledge about formation of practical skills in healthy life style. Motivation tendency for realization of intentions and practicing of health related physical culture trainings were found in students. Conclusions: the received results prove students’ tendency to pay insufficient attention to individual health. It was found that health related physical culture trainings require modern renewal of education’s content, forms and methods of physical education. The basis of such trainings shall be health related orientation.

  9. Development of Nuclear Materials and Degradation Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Sang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heung Bae [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    There are about 440 operating nuclear power reactors in the world including 20 units from Korea. The average age of the reactors is more than 20 years and many of them are approaching to their original 30 or 40 years licensing terms. Even though some failures were reported in components or pipes of nuclear power plants (NPPs), these NPPs are considered to be too valuable to stop their operation at the end of design life. Therefore, the long-term operation of NPPs has become a worldwide trend based on technical and economic consideration. In order to ensure safe long-term operation of NPPs, it is increasingly necessary to adopt new approaches to deal with nuclear materials aging and degradation. Proactive Material Degradation Assessment (PMDA) is one of the key elements of these new approaches. Many kinds of background information such as materials and degradation history of components or piping in NPP plant are also needed for PMDA by the experts. Nuclear Materials and Degradation Database is being developed as a part of Nuclear Technology Revolution Project (NTRP) funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE)

  10. The IRSN Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety Cadarache Center; L'IRSN Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire Centre de Cadarache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The research programs of the IRSN in the Cadarache Center concern the nuclear safety (reactor safety, nuclear fuels behavior during accidents, fires in nuclear installations), the protection and the control of radioactive materials, the human and the environment protection. The programs are presented and discussed. This presentation includes also the regional impact of the Institute at Cadarache (economical impact, relations with the universities and international meetings). (A.L.B.)

  11. The Nuclear Physics Programme at CERN (1/3)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    This lecture series will focus on the two major facilities at CERN for nuclear physics: ISOLDE and nToF. ISOLDE is one of the world's leading radioactive beam facilities which can produce intense beams of unstable nuclei. Some of these beams can also be re-acclerated to energies around the Coulomb barrier and undergo nuclear reactions in turn. ISOLDE can address a wide range of Physics from nuclear structure to nuclear astrophysics (the origin of the chemical elements) and fundamental physics. The second major facility is nToF which is a neutron time-of-flight facility. Intense neutron beams are used to study nuclear reactions important both for nuclear astrophysics and for present and future reactor cycles. An overview will be given of these two facilities including highlights of their Physics programmes and the perspectives for the future.

  12. A review: applications of the phase field method in predicting microstructure and property evolution of irradiated nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang; Sun, Xin; Stan, Marius

    2017-04-14

    Complex microstructure changes occur in nuclear fuel and structural materials due to the extreme environments of intense irradiation and high temperature. This paper evaluates the role of the phase field (PF) method in predicting the microstructure evolution of irradiated nuclear materials and the impact on their mechanical, thermal, and magnetic properties. The paper starts with an overview of the important physical mechanisms of defect evolution and the significant gaps in simulating microstructure evolution in irradiated nuclear materials. Then, the PF method is introduced as a powerful and predictive tool and its applications to microstructure and property evolution in irradiated nuclear materials are reviewed. The review shows that 1) FP models can correctly describe important phenomena such as spatial dependent generation, migration, and recombination of defects, radiation-induced dissolution, the Soret effect, strong interfacial energy anisotropy, and elastic interaction; 2) The PF method can qualitatively and quantitatively simulate 2-D and 3-D microstructure evolution, including radiation-induced segregation, second phase nucleation, void migration, void and gas bubble superlattice formation, interstitial loop evolution, hydrate formation, and grain growth, and 3) The FP method correctly predicts the relationships between microstructures and properties. The final section is dedicated to a discussion of the strengths and limitations of the PF method, as applied to irradiation effects in nuclear materials.

  13. Proceedings of the LAMPF workshop on physics with polarized nuclear targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleson, G.; Gibbs, W.; Hoffmann, G.; Jarmer, J.J.; Tanaka, N. (eds.)

    1986-08-01

    Topics of discussion included static and dynamic methods for polarizing nuclei, proton and pion nucleus scattering experiments, and possible future experiments at LAMPF. Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 papers in this report. (DWL)

  14. Experimental results on the irradiation of nuclear fusion relevant materials at the dense plasma focus ‘Bora’ device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Gribkov, V. A.; Niemela, J.; Tuniz, C.; Zanolli, C.; Chernyshova, M.; Demina, E. V.; Latyshev, S. V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Talab, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    Samples of materials counted as perspective ones for use in the first-wall and construction elements in nuclear fusion reactors (FRs) with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement (W, Ti, Al, low-activated ferritic steel ‘Eurofer’ and some alloys) were irradiated in the dense plasma focus (DPF) device ‘Bora’ having a bank energy of ⩽5 kJ. The device generates hot dense (T ˜ 1 keV, n ˜ 1019 cm-3) deuterium plasma, powerful plasma streams (v ˜ 3 × 107 cm s-1) and fast (E ˜ 0.1 … 1.0 MeV) deuterons of power flux densities q up to 1010 and 1012 W cm-2 correspondingly. ‘Damage factor’ F = q × τ0.5 ensures an opportunity to simulate radiation loads (predictable for both reactors types) by the plasma/ion streams, which have the same nature and namely those parameters as expected in the FR modules. Before and after irradiation we provided investigations of our samples by means of a number of analytical techniques. Among them we used optical and scanning electron microscopy to understand character and parameters of damageability of the surface layers of the samples. Atomic force microscopy was applied to measure roughness of the surface after irradiation. These characteristics are quite important for understanding mechanisms and values of dust production in FR that may relate to tritium retention and emergency situations in FR facilities. We also applied two new techniques. For the surface we elaborated the portable x-ray diffractometer that combines x-ray single photon detection with high spectroscopic and angular resolutions. For bulk damageability investigations we applied an x-ray microCT system where x-rays were produced by a Hamamatsu microfocus source (150 kV, 500 µA, 5 µm minimum focal spot size). The detector was a Hamamatsu CMOS flat panel coupled to a fibre optic plate under the GOS scintillator. The reconstruction of three-dimensional data was run with Cobra 7.4 and DIGIX CT software while VG Studio Max 2.1, and Amira 5.3 were used for

  15. Archaeometry: nuclear and conventional techniques applied to the archaeological research; Arqueometria: tecnicas nucleares y convencionales aplicadas a la investigacion arqueologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza L, R.; Cardenas G, E. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The book that now is presented is formed by twelve articles that approach from different perspective topics as the archaeological prospecting, the analysis of the pre hispanic and colonial ceramic, the obsidian and the mural painting, besides dating and questions about the data ordaining. Following the chronological order in which the exploration techniques and laboratory studies are required, there are presented in the first place the texts about the systematic and detailed study of the archaeological sites, later we pass to relative topics to the application of diverse nuclear techniques as PIXE, RBS, XRD, NAA, SEM, Moessbauer spectroscopy and other conventional techniques. The multidisciplinary is an aspect that highlights in this work, that which owes to the great specialization of the work that is presented even in the archaeological studies including in the open ground of the topography, mapping, excavation and, of course, in the laboratory tests. Most of the articles are the result of several years of investigation and it has been consigned in the responsibility of each article. The texts here gathered emphasize the technical aspects of each investigation, the modern compute systems applied to the prospecting and the archaeological mapping, the chemical and physical analysis of organic materials, of metal artifacts, of diverse rocks used in the pre hispanic epoch, of mural and ceramic paintings, characteristics that justly underline the potential of the collective works. (Author)

  16. Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kumano, S

    2016-01-01

    We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrino-oscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function $b_1$ is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact ...

  17. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Cary; La Tessa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The transport of the so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E) through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. HZE particles are usually considered those having Z > 1, though sometimes Z > 2 is meant. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss) and nuclear. Models of transport, such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus-nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus-nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable solar energetic particles (SEPs). GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we, therefore, exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus-nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk

  18. PREFACE: Rutherford Centennial Conference on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Sean

    2012-09-01

    Just over one hundred years ago, Ernest Rutherford presented an interpretation of alpha-particle scattering experiments, performed a couple of years earlier by Geiger and Marsden, to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. The work was summarised shortly afterwards in a paper in the Philosophical Magazine. He postulated that a dense speck of matter must exist at the centre of an atom (later to become known as the nucleus) if the details of the experiments, particularly the yield of alpha particles scattered through large angles, were to be explained. The nuclear hypothesis, combined with the experimental work by Moseley on X-rays and Bohr's theoretical ideas, both also initiated at the Victoria University of Manchester, established our view of atomic structure and gave birth to the field of nuclear physics. The Rutherford Centennial Conference on Nuclear Physics was held at The University of Manchester in August 2011 to celebrate this anniversary by addressing the wide range of contemporary topics that characterise modern nuclear physics. This set of proceedings covers areas including nuclear structure and astrophysics, hadron structure and spectroscopy, fundamental interactions studied within the nucleus and results of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We would like to thank all those who presented their recent research results at the conference; the proceedings stand as a testament to the excitement and interest that still pervades the pursuit of this field of physics. We would also like to thank those who contributed in other ways to the conference. To colleagues at the Manchester Museum of Science and Industry for putting together an exhibition to coincide with the conference that included the manuscript of the 1911 paper, letters, notebooks and equipment used by Rutherford. These items were kindly loaned by Cambridge and Manchester Universities. Winton Capital generously supported this exhibition. We would also like to thank Professor Mary Fowler

  19. 10 CFR 73.46 - Fixed site physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... special nuclear material, other than alloys, fuel elements or fuel assemblies, shall: (i) Be stored in a... control over, more than one of the redundant elements of a physical protection subsystem if such... fitness training program on a continuing basis. (i) The elements of the physical fitness training...

  20. Laboratory studies on the consolidation and protection of calcareous materials in the Cathedral of Oviedo. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi, Carlota

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of some consolidating and protecting products, to be applied to the deteriorated calcareous stones of the Cathedral of Oviedo, is presented. A proposed procedure and methodology for evaluating that suitability is also described. The studied stones, limestones and dolomites, have been experimentally subjected in laboratory to some treatment products: ethyl silicate, oligomeric silane and silicon resin. Some physical properties of those stones were evaluated before and after the treatments with the mentioned products. Those properties (porosity, water absorption, compressive strength and deformability, mechanical microfissuration threshold, acoustic emission, etc. were selected according to the significative role they play on the process of stone alteration or in supporting the proposed conclusions.

    Se presenta una metodología de trabajo encaminada a evaluar la idoneidad de ciertos productos consolidantes y protectores aplicados a piedras monumentales deterioradas. Para ello, en esta 1.ª parte, se determinan una serie de propiedades físicas, antes y después de aplicar los tratamientos. Dichas propiedades han sido seleccionadas por su incidencia en los mecanismos de alteración. Las piedras ensayadas proceden de la Catedral de Oviedo, son rocas calcáreas: calizas y dolomías. Los productos de tratamiento empleados han sido: silicato de etilo, silano oligomérico y resina silicónica. Se concluye con la comparación de las variaciones en las propiedades determinadas, antes y después del tratamiento, según el producto empleado.

  1. Physical cryptographic verification of nuclear warheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, R. Scott; Danagoulian, Areg; Macdonald, Ruaridh R.; Vavrek, Jayson R.

    2016-08-01

    How does one prove a claim about a highly sensitive object such as a nuclear weapon without revealing information about the object? This paradox has challenged nuclear arms control for more than five decades. We present a mechanism in the form of an interactive proof system that can validate the structure and composition of an object, such as a nuclear warhead, to arbitrary precision without revealing either its structure or composition. We introduce a tomographic method that simultaneously resolves both the geometric and isotopic makeup of an object. We also introduce a method of protecting information using a provably secure cryptographic hash that does not rely on electronics or software. These techniques, when combined with a suitable protocol, constitute an interactive proof system that could reject hoax items and clear authentic warheads with excellent sensitivity in reasonably short measurement times.

  2. Environmental protection and international law: the case of nuclear energy; La protection de l'environnement et le droit international: cas de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagicour, F

    2002-03-15

    Given the very hazardous nature of its activity, the nuclear industry has often been considered to be without a future. Concerns over climate change and increasing international energy needs have, however, shone a new light on the positive aspects of nuclear energy. As the only clean, stable and inexpensive energy source, available, nuclear energy promises a constant supply of electricity while protecting the atmosphere. This new relationship between the environment and nuclear energy calls for an analysis of the international regulation of the risks posed by nuclear energy production. Since the beginning of the nuclear age, the long term, unknown, and large geographic scope of the risks and effects of this activity have led to the adoption of a set of normative rules outside of the scope of international environmental law. The norms that now regulate this new, ultra-hazardous activity resulted in a set of rules aimed at protecting the environment in the face of high risk activities that now form the heart of international environmental law. Unwilling relinquish national sovereignty, States adopted a system of non-binding regulation to protect the environment and promote the nuclear industry. The Chernobyl accident later pointed to the weakness of this approach. Despite this weakness, the adoption of a soft law approach has led to progress in environmental protection in an area where States have been loathe to give up their sovereignty. (author)

  3. A study on the establishment of national nuclear foreign policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Kwang Suk; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Byung Woon; Choi, Yung Lok; Koh, Han Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    This study is composed mainly of the current status of international non-proliferation, the NPT extension, IAEA Status, the circumstances of nuclear export control system, and the Vienna convention and London convention. The recent circumstances of the NPT have been analyzed. We established counter measures and strategies on the NPT extension conference. After reviewing the international export control system of NSG members, we suggested the factors which should be involved in the nuclear export control system. Also, U.S. systems on retransferring were intensively reviewed. In connection with the challenges coped with by the IAEA, several agenda have been reviewed and analyzed: the financing status of the Agency; the program 93+2 for the strengthening of effectiveness and improving of efficiency in the safeguards system. In connection with the amendment work of the Vienna Convention, we studied the major contents of four proposals which were suggested. In the case of the London Convention, the causes of maritime pollution and the kinds of sea dumping material were investigated. 3 figs, 13 tabs, 66 refs. (Author).

  4. The Geometry of Conventionality

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2013-01-01

    Hans Reichenbach famously argued that the geometry of spacetime is conventional in relativity theory, in the sense that one can freely choose the spacetime metric so long as one is willing to postulate a "universal force field". Here we make precise a sense in which the field Reichenbach defines fails to be a "force". We then argue that there is an interesting and perhaps tenable sense in which geometry is conventional in classical spacetimes. We conclude with a no-go result showing that the variety of conventionalism available in classical spacetimes does not extend to relativistic spacetimes.

  5. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington.

  6. The s Process: Nuclear Physics, Stellar Models, Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kaeppeler, Franz; Bisterzo, Sara; Aoki, Wako

    2010-01-01

    Nucleosynthesis in the s process takes place in the He burning layers of low mass AGB stars and during the He and C burning phases of massive stars. The s process contributes about half of the element abundances between Cu and Bi in solar system material. Depending on stellar mass and metallicity the resulting s-abundance patterns exhibit characteristic features, which provide comprehensive information for our understanding of the stellar life cycle and for the chemical evolution of galaxies. The rapidly growing body of detailed abundance observations, in particular for AGB and post-AGB stars, for objects in binary systems, and for the very faint metal-poor population represents exciting challenges and constraints for stellar model calculations. Based on updated and improved nuclear physics data for the s-process reaction network, current models are aiming at ab initio solution for the stellar physics related to convection and mixing processes. Progress in the intimately related areas of observations, nuclear...

  7. Development of ion beam techniques for the study of special nuclear materials related problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggiore, C.J.; Tesmer, J.R.; Martz, J.C. [and others

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The scientific objective of this project was to develop the ion beam techniques for the characterization of actinides and their effects on other materials. It was designed to enhance their ability to quantitatively understand the oxidation, corrosion, diffusion, stability, and radiation damage of actinides and the materials with which they are in contact. The authors developed and applied several low-energy nuclear techniques (resonant and nonresonant backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, and particle-induced x-ray emission) to the quantitative study of the near surfaces of actinide and tritide materials, and determined the absolute accuracy and precision of ion beam measurements on these materials. They also demonstrated the use of variable-energy alpha beams for the study of accelerated aging of polymeric materials in contact with actinide materials.

  8. Criticality calculation of the nuclear material warehouse of the ININ; Calculo de criticidad del almacen del material nuclear del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, T.; Angeles, A.; Flores C, J., E-mail: teodoro.garcia@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In this work the conditions of nuclear safety were determined as much in normal conditions as in the accident event of the nuclear fuel warehouse of the reactor TRIGA Mark III of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The warehouse contains standard fuel elements Leu - 8.5/20, a control rod with follower of standard fuel type Leu - 8.5/20, fuel elements Leu - 30/20, and the reactor fuel Sur-100. To check the subcritical state of the warehouse the effective multiplication factor (keff) was calculated. The keff calculation was carried out with the code MCNPX. (Author)

  9. Radioactivity impacts of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident on the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W.; Chen, L.; Yu, W.; Ma, H.; Zeng, Z.; Lin, J.; Zeng, S.

    2015-02-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Accident (FNA) resulted in a large amount of radionuclides released into the atmosphere and dispersed globally, which has greatly raised public concerns. The state of the art for source terms of 19 kinds of radionuclides derived from the FNA was comprehensively collected and compared with levels of the global fallout and the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident (CNA). The atmospheric impacts of the FNA were evaluated from three aspects including radioactive baseline of the atmosphere, the concentration limits in standards and radiological protection. The FNA should not impose significant radiological risk on the public members in the countries excluding Japan. A conceptual scheme of Fukushima-derived radionuclides with physical and physicochemical insights on different temporal-spatial timescales was discussed and illustrated to understand their fates in the atmosphere.

  10. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... loss of primary power. (f) Testing and maintenance. Each licensee shall test and maintain intrusion... activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  11. Retrieval system of nuclear data for transmutation of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Utsumi, Misako; Noda, Tetsuji [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A database storing the data on nuclear reaction was built to calculate for simulating transmutation behaviours of materials /1/-/3/. In order to retrieve and maintain the database, the user interface for the data retrieval was developed where special knowledge on handling of the database or the machine structure is not required for end-user. It is indicated that using the database, the possibility of He formation and radioactivity in a material can be easily retrieved though the evaluation is qualitatively. (author)

  12. National Report presented by the Mexican United States to satisfy the compromises of the Nuclear Safety Convention; Informe Nacional que presentan los Estados Unidos Mexicanos para satisfacer los compromisos de la Convencion de Seguridad Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, Mexico City (Mexico); Federal Commission for Electricity, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In order to satisfy to the compromises derived of the ratification by part of the Mexican Government for the Nuclear Safety Convention it is presented this National Report which is based on the directives proposed as a result of the preparatory meetings held in the IAEA Headquarters in the city of Vienna, Austria. This National Report represents a document summary and activities realized at present in relation with the only nuclear facility in Mexico: the Nuclear Power Plant in Laguna Verde, Veracruz. This report consists of two parts: In the first one it is described how have been satisfied each one of the compromises. The second one talks about the Laws and Regulations on nuclear activities in the country. (Author)

  13. Competing Effects Of Electronic And Nuclear Energy Loss On Microstructural Evolution In Ionic-covalent Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanwen [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Varga, Tamas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ishimaru, Manabu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan); Edmondson, P. D. [Univ. of Oxford, (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Xue, H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Liu, Peng [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); School of Physics, Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation, Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Moll, Sandra [TN International/AREVA, Montigny Le Bretonneux (France); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Hardiman, Christopher M. [North Carolina State Univ. (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Shannon, Steven [North Carolina State Univ. (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Weber, William J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-05-01

    on the growth rate is observed under Si and Au irradiations. While grain shrinkage and amorphization are observed in the nano-engineered 3C SiC with a high-density of stacking faults embedded in nanosize columnar grains, significantly enhanced radiation resistance is attributed to stacking faults that promote efficient point defect annihilation. Moreover, competing effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss on the damage accumulation and annihilation are observed in crystalline 4H-SiC. Systematic experiments and simulation effort are needed to understand the competitive or synergistic effects. energy loss may, however, produce additional damage or anneal pre-existing defect. At intermediate transit energies where electronic and nuclear energy losses are both significant, synergistic, additive or competitive processes may evolve that affect the dynamic response of materials to irradiation. The response of crystalline and nanostructured CeO2 and SiC to ion irradiation are studied under different nuclear and electronic stopping powers to describe some general material response in this transit energy regime. Although fast radiation-induced grain growth in CeO2 is evident with no phase transformation, different fluence and dose dependence on the growth rate is observed under Si and Au irradiations. While grain shrinkage and amorphization are observed in the nano-engineered 3C SiC with a high-density of stacking faults embedded in nanosize columnar grains, significantly enhanced radiation resistance is attributed to stacking faults that promote efficient point defect annihilation. Moreover, competing effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss on the damage accumulation and annihilation are observed in crystalline 4H-SiC. Systematic experiments and simulation effort are needed to understand the competitive or synergistic effects.

  14. Comprehensive nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Todd; Stoller, Roger; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Nuclear Materials encapsulates a panorama of fundamental information on the vast variety of materials employed in the broad field of nuclear technology. The work addresses, in five volumes, 3,400 pages and over 120 chapter-length articles, the full panorama of historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. It synthesizes the most pertinent research to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  15. Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1992 to October 31, 1993 under Contract Number DE-FG05-88ER40459. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focussed on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and the University of Pennsylvania.

  16. Identification of unknown nuclear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaou, G. [University of Thrace, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laboratory of Nuclear Technology, Kimmerria Campus, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Aim: provenance determination of unknown nuclear material: - demonstrated for spent nuclear fuel; - information sought for unknown: fuel type, reactor type where fuel was irradiated, final burnup; Using an isotopic finger-printing method: - U, Pu or Pu isotopics or fission products; - simulations of fuel evolution during irradiation, using ORIGEN; - multivariate statistical tools. Fuel considered: simulated commercial spent fuel for a range of burnups: - PWR UO{sub 2} 3.1% and 3.5% {sup 235}U, - PWR thermal MOX, - BWR UO{sub 2} 3.2% {sup 235}U, - CANDU-N natural U, - CANDU-S UO{sub 2} 3.2% {sup 235}U, - fast Reactor MOX; simulated commercial spent fuel for a range of burnups: - PWR UO{sub 2} 3.1% and 3.5% {sup 235}U, - PWR thermal MOX, - BWR UO{sub 2} 3.2% {sup 235}U, - CANDU-N natural U, - CANDU-S UO{sub 2} 3.2% {sup 235}U, - fast Reactor MOX; 'unknown' spent fuel: - PWR 1: UO{sub 2} 3.1% {sup 235}U (26 GWd/t), - PWR 2: UO{sub 2} 3.1% {sup 235}U (32 GWd/t). Procedures: U, Pu or Pu isotopic compositions or fission products: - isotopic composition of unknown spent fuel, - simulated for commercial spent fuel from a range of nuclear power reactors {yields} comparison of compositions through factor analysis {yields} unknown has the provenance of the commercial spent fuel with which it exhibits the most similar composition. In conclusion: different reactor-fuel types well resolved; fuel and reactor type accurately predicted; burnup predicted to within 5% of declared; different reactor-fuel types. (authors)

  17. Particle physics contribution to the elimination of nuclear waste

    CERN Document Server

    Revol, Jean Pierre Charles

    2000-01-01

    Progress in particle accelerator technology makes it possible to use a proton accelerator to eliminate nuclear waste efficiently. The Energy Amplifier (EA) proposed by C. Rubbia and his group is a subcritical system driven by a proton accelerator. It is particularly attractive for destroying, through fission, transuranic elements produced by present nuclear reactors. The EA could also transform efficiently and at minimal cost long-lived fission fragments using the concept of Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) recently tested at CERN with the TARC experiment. The ARC concept can be extended to several other application domains (radioactive isotopes production for medicine and industry, neutron research applications, etc.).

  18. Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S. [CDA/INCRA Joint Advisory Group, Greenwich, CT (USA)

    1990-06-01

    This report combines six work units performed in FY`85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Tom W. Bonner Prize in Nuclear Physics Lecture: The limits of nuclear landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    2012-03-01

    Understanding nuclei is a quantum many-body problem of incredible richness and diversity and studies of nuclei address some of the great challenges that are common throughout modern science. Nuclear structure research strives to build a unified and comprehensive microscopic framework in which bulk nuclear properties, nuclear excitations, and nuclear reactions can all be described. A new and exciting focus in this endeavor lies in the description of exotic and short-lived nuclei at the limits of proton-to-neutron asymmetry, mass, and angular momentum. In this talk, advances in the nuclear density functional theory will be reviewed in the context of the main scientific questions, experimental developments, and the advent of extreme-scale computing platforms.

  20. Development of an Origin Trace Method based on Bayesian Inference and Artificial Neural Network for Missing or Stolen Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin, Yim Ho; Min, Lee Seung; Min, Kim Kyung; Jeong, Hong Yoon; Kim, Jae Kwang [Nuclear Security Div., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Thus, 'to put nuclear materials under control' is an important issue for prosperity mankind. Unfortunately, numbers of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials have been increased for decades. Consequently, security of nuclear materials is recently spotlighted. After the 2{sup nd} Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul in 2012, the president of Korea had showed his devotion to nuclear security. One of the main responses for nuclear security related interest of Korea was to develop a national nuclear forensic support system. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published the document of Nuclear Security Series No.2 'Nuclear Forensics Support' in 2006 to encourage international cooperation of all IAEA member states for tracking nuclear attributions. There are two main questions related to nuclear forensics to answer in the document. The first question is 'what type of material is it?', and the second one is 'where did the material come from?' Korea Nuclear Forensic Library (K-NFL) and mathematical methods to trace origins of missing or stolen nuclear materials (MSNMs) are being developed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control (KINAC) to answer those questions. Although the K-NFL has been designed to perform many functions, K-NFL is being developed to effectively trace the origin of MSNMs and tested to validate suitability of trace methods. New fuels and spent fuels need each trace method because of the different nature of data acquisition. An inductive logic was found to be appropriate for new fuels, which had values as well as a bistable property. On the other hand, machine learning was suitable for spent fuels, which were unable to measure, and thus needed simulation.

  1. The Thrill of Discovery: Nuclear Physics Research in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khalili, J.S. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-18

    To many people outside our field, both scientists and the general public, nuclear physics is no longer regarded as being at the forefront of scientific endeavour. Indeed it is often met with outright hostility. Other physicists will point out that the last time a Nobel Prize was awarded in the field was in 1975. This paper, based on a lecture delivered during an Open Plenary Session of the recent International Nuclear Physics Conference INPC2004, which was aimed at a non-specialist audience, will seek to dispel this myth. Nuclear physics is currently enjoying a period of rapid advances. Many new discoveries have been made in the past few years, from neutron halos and nuclear molecules to a new form of radioactive decay via two protons; from hints of a new particle consisting of five quarks to new 'superheavy' elements. This talk will give a personal perspective on why, far from looking with envy at our neighbours in areas of physics that currently enjoy a higher media profile, we have more than enough to keep us busy and excited in the 21st century.

  2. Static slot testing of conventional lost circulation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Behr, V.L.; Wilde, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the utility of conventional lost circulation materials and testing methods was performed using a modified API slot tester. Five lost circulation materials were evaluated in 266 tests at both room temperature and temperature-aged conditions simulating expected geothermal environments. A large variation in the maximum pressure (or sealing pressure) the plug could withstand was attributed to nonrepeatability in plug strengths. Plugs were composed to multiple or single particle bridges, with the latter providing stronger, better sealing plugs. Seals occurred on the upstream surface of the slots in all cases. Sealing pressures generally decreased with increasing slot widths and decreasing solids concentration. When the slot width was less than the size of the largest rigid particle in the lost circulation slurry, sealing pressure was maximized. When the slot width was greater than three times the maximum rigid particle size, no significant sealing ability was observed with the conventional materials tested. Additionally, cellulosic lost circulation materials are severely degraded by temperature aging. Mud gellation provided no significant improvement in lost circulation material sealing ability.

  3. Proceedings of the Thirty-year celebration symposium of the Applied Nuclear Physics Lab. from UEL; Anais do simposio comemorativo dos 30 anos do Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada da UEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This Symposium was held from October 18-23, 2007 to celebrate 30 years of the Laboratory for Applied Nuclear Physics from UEL-University of Londrina, State of Parana, Brazil. It comprised: eight major conferences; two talks; a mini-course about 'X-ray fluorescence and its applications with a portable equipment', and results from 45 research works carried out by scientific groups from various Brazilian R and D institutions - five of these scientific works were chosen to be presented as oral communications. The main topics of the research works were thus distributed: 17% in materials science, 15% about application of isotopes and radiation sources, 15% in analytical chemistry, 11% in environmental sciences, 11% in mathematical methods and computing, 11% in engineering (studies of specific nuclear reactors), 2% in geosciences, 2% in radiology and nuclear medicine, a few in radiation protection and dosimetry, and others in instrumentation related to nuclear science and technology.

  4. NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, V.; Denikin, A. S.; Alekseev, A. P.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Rachkov, V. A.; Naumenko, M. A.; Saiko, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Principles underlying the organization and operation of the NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics (http://nrv.jinr.ru) are described. This base includes a vast body of digitized experimental data on the properties of nuclei and on cross sections for nuclear reactions that is combined with a wide set of interconnected computer programs for simulating complex nuclear dynamics, which work directly in the browser of a remote user. Also, the current situation in the realms of application of network information technologies in nuclear physics is surveyed. The potential of the NRV knowledge base is illustrated in detail by applying it to the example of an analysis of the fusion of nuclei that is followed by the decay of the excited compound nucleus formed.

  5. Top reviewers for the Journal of Nuclear Materials 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was, Gary

    2017-01-01

    The Journal of Nuclear Materials achieves its scientific excellence through several familiar editorial activities. Manuscripts are submitted by authors describing their research methods and results, a constructive refereeing process is generously provided by peer reviewers, and the many steps and decisions of the editorial process are carried out by the Editors with assistance from the Advisory Editorial Board. With the exception of peer reviewers, the names of the people within these groups are published in the pages of the Journal. Thereby they receive recognition in the community for their work. However, all of us Journal constituents owe a large debt of gratitude to reviewers. They dedicate time, energy and remarkable depth of expertise to evaluate submitted manuscripts. As a result of their work most manuscripts are substantively improved. We also recognize the fact that many times the underlying research itself is advanced by the recommendations of our reviewers. Because the Journal maintains a strict policy of anonymous peer review, we do not make known the names of reviewers in association with particular manuscripts. Within this constraint the Editors and Publisher wish to find ways to recognize our reviewers. We recently instituted a top reviewer honor for a single individual, awarded at the NuMat conference (http://www.nuclearmaterialsconference.com).

  6. Effect of conventional chemical treatment on the microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bereschenko, L.A.; Prummel, H.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van

    2011-01-01

    The impact of conventional chemical treatment on initiation and spatiotemporal development of biofilms on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was investigated in situ using flow cells placed in parallel with the RO system of a full-scale water treatment plant. The flow cells got the same feed (extensivel

  7. Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E. (California State Univ., Hayward, CA (United States). Foundation)

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs.

  8. Carnitine protects the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans from glucose-induced reduction of survival depending on the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deusing, Dorothé Jenni, E-mail: Dorothe.J.Deusing@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de; Beyrer, Melanie, E-mail: m.beyrer@web.de; Fitzenberger, Elena, E-mail: Elena.Fitzenberger@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de; Wenzel, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.wenzel@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de

    2015-05-08

    Besides its function in transport of fatty acids into mitochondria in order to provide substrates for β-oxidation, carnitine has been shown to affect also glucose metabolism and to inhibit several mechanisms associated with diabetic complications. In the present study we used the mev-1 mutant of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans fed on a high glucose concentration in liquid media as a diabetes model and tested the effects of carnitine supplementation on their survival under heat-stress. Carnitine at 100 μM completely prevented the survival reduction that was caused by the application of 10 mM glucose. RNA-interference for sir-2.1, a candidate genes mediating the effects of carnitine revealed no contribution of the sirtuin for the rescue of survival. Under daf-12 RNAi rescue of survival by carnitine was abolished. RNA-interference for γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase 2, encoding the key enzyme for carnitine biosynthesis did neither increase glucose toxicity nor prevent the rescue of survival by carnitine, suggesting that the effects of carnitine supplementation on carnitine levels were significant. Finally, it was demonstrated that neither the amount of lysosomes nor the proteasomal activity were increased by carnitine, excluding that protein degradation pathways, such as autophagy or proteasomal degradation, are involved in the protective carnitine effects. In conclusion, carnitine supplementation prevents the reduction of survival caused by glucose in C. elegans in dependence on a nuclear hormone receptor which displays high homologies to the vertebrate peroxisomal proliferator activated receptors. - Highlights: • Carnitine protects from glucose-induced reduction of stress-resistance. • Carnitine acts via the PPAR homolog DAF-12 on glucose toxicity. • Carnitine protects from glucose toxicity independent of protein degradation.

  9. Development of a Pedestrian Special Nuclear Material Radiation Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Special nuclear material (SNM) monitor equipped at the exits of a protected SNM area can offer a rapid, effective means to search and prevent from unauthorized movement of SNM. In order to apply the detecting technique for SNM to nuclear field and improve the ability to nuclear material control, a pedestrian SNM monitor and a vehicle SNM monitor both with plastic scintillate detector will be developed during the years from 2001 to 2005. The overall design of the pedestrian SNM monitors, the design of relative electronics and control unit and relative mechanical design and machining has been performed in the year 2001. This equipment will be established by the end

  10. Competing effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss on microstructural evolution in ionic-covalent materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Varga, Tamas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ishimaru, Dr. Manabu [Osaka University; Edmondson, Dr. Philip [University of Oxford; Xue, Haizhou [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Peng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Moll, Sandra [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette; Namavar, Fereydoon [University of Nebraska Medical Center; Hardiman, Chris [North Carolina State University; Shannon, Prof. Steven [North Carolina State University; Weber, William J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Ever increasing energy needs have raised the demands for advanced fuels and cladding materials that withstand the extreme radiation environments with improved accident tolerance over a long period of time. Ceria (CeO2) is a well known ionic conductor that is isostructural with urania and plutonia-based nuclear fuels. In the context of nuclear fuels, immobilization and transmutation of actinides, CeO2 is a model system for radiation effect studies. Covalent silicon carbide (SiC) is a candidate for use as structural material in fusion, cladding material for fission reactors, and an inert matrix for the transmutation of plutonium and other radioactive actinides. Understanding microstructural change of these ionic-covalent materials to irradiation is important for advanced nuclear energy systems. While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic energy loss may, however, produce additional damage or anneal pre-existing defect. At intermediate transit energies where electronic and nuclear energy losses are both significant, synergistic, additive or competitive processes may evolve that affect the dynamic response of materials to irradiation. The response of crystalline and nanostructured CeO2 and SiC to ion irradiation are studied under different nuclear and electronic stopping powers to describe some general material response in this transit energy regime. Although fast radiation-induced grain growth in CeO2 is evident with no phase transformation, different fluence and dose dependence on the growth rate is observed under Si and Au irradiations. While grain shrinkage and amorphization are observed in the nano-engineered 3C SiC with a high-density of stacking faults embedded in nanosize columnar grains, significantly enhanced radiation resistance is

  11. Experiences in certification of packages for transportation of fresh nuclear fuel in the context of new safety requirements established by IAEA regulations (IAEA-96 regulations, ST-1) for air transportation of nuclear materials (requirements to C-type packages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudai, V.I.; Kovtun, A.D.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Nilulin, V.M.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Yakushev, V.A.; Bobrovsky, V.S.; Rozhkov, V.V.; Agapov, A.M.; Kolesnikov, A.S. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' MSZ' ' , Electrostal (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' NPCC' ' , Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Minatom of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Gosatomnadzor of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Every year in Russia, a large amount of domestic and international transportation of fresh nuclear fuel (FNF) used in Russian and foreign energy and research atomic reactors and referred to fissile materials based on IAEA Regulations is performed. Here, bulk transportation is performed by air, and it concerns international transportation in particular. According to national ''Main Regulations for Safe Transport and physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (OPBZ- 83)'' and ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Regulations), nuclear and radiation security under normal (accident free) and accident conditions of transport must be completely provided by the package design. In this context, high requirements to fissile packages exposed to heat and mechanical loads in transport accidents are imposed. A long-standing experience in accident free transportation of FM has shown that such approach to provide nuclear and radiation security pays for itself completely. Nevertheless, once in 10 years the International Atomic Energy Agency on every revision of the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' places more stringent requirements upon the FM and transportation thereof, resulting from the objectively increasing risk associated with constant rise in volume and density of transportation, and also strained social and economical situation in a number of regions in the world. In the new edition of the IAEA Regulations (ST-1), published in 1996 and brought into force in 2001 (IAEA-96 Regulations), the requirements to FM packages conveyed by aircraft were radically changed. These requirements are completely presented in new Russian ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' (PBTRM- 2004) which will be brought into force in the time ahead.

  12. International Nuclear Safety Center database on thermophysical properties of reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.K.; Sofu, T.; Ley, H.

    1997-08-01

    The International Nuclear Safety Center (INSC) database has been established at Argonne National Laboratory to provide easily accessible data and information necessary to perform nuclear safety analyses and to promote international collaboration through the exchange of nuclear safety information. The INSC database, located on the World Wide Web at http://www.insc.anl.gov, contains critically assessed recommendations for reactor material properties for normal operating conditions, transients, and severe accidents. The initial focus of the database is on thermodynamic and transport properties of materials for water reactors. Materials that are being included in the database are fuel, absorbers, cladding, structural materials, coolant, and liquid mixtures of combinations of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Zr, stainless steel, absorber materials, and concrete. For each property, the database includes: (1) a summary of recommended equations with uncertainties; (2) a detailed data assessment giving the basis for the recommendations, comparisons with experimental data and previous recommendations, and uncertainties; (3) graphs showing recommendations, uncertainties, and comparisons with data and other equations; and (4) property values tabulated as a function of temperature.

  13. The Path to Deep Nuclear Reductions. Dealing with American Conventional Superiority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, D.M.

    2009-07-01

    The transformation of the U.S. conventional capabilities has begun to have a substantial and important impact on counter-force strike missions particularly as they affect counter-proliferation requirements. So too have improvements in ballistic missile defense programs, which are also critically central to U.S. counter-proliferation objectives. These improved conventional capabilities come at a time when thinking about the prospects of eventually achieving a nuclear disarmed world has never been so promising. Yet, the path toward achieving that goal, or making substantial progress towards it, is fraught with pitfalls, including domestic political, foreign, and military ones. Two of the most important impediments to deep reductions in U.S. and Russian nuclear arsenals - no less a nuclear disarmed world - are perceived U.S. advantages in conventional counter-force strike capabilities working in combination with even imperfect but growing missile defense systems. The Barack Obama administration has already toned down the George W. Bush administration's rhetoric surrounding many of these new capabilities. Nevertheless, it is likely to affirm that it is a worthy goal to pursue a more conventionally oriented denial strategy as America further weans itself from its reliance on nuclear weapons. The challenge is to do so in the context of a more multilateral or collective security environment in which transparency plays the role it once did during the Cold War as a necessary adjunct to arms control agreements. Considerable thought has already been devoted to assessing many of the challenges along the way to a nuclear-free world, including verifying arsenals when they reach very low levels, more effective management of the civilian nuclear programs that remain, enforcement procedures, and what, if anything, might be needed to deal with latent capacities to produce nuclear weapons.1 But far less thought has been expended on why Russia - whose cooperation is absolutely

  14. Analytics of Radioactive Materials Released in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egarievwe, Stephen U. [Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science Center, Alabama A and M University, Huntsville, AL (United States); Nuclear Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Coble, Jamie B.; Miller, Laurence F. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan resulted in the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere, the nearby sea, and the surrounding land. Following the accident, several meteorological models were used to predict the transport of the radioactive materials to other continents such as North America and Europe. Also of high importance is the dispersion of radioactive materials locally and within Japan. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Convention on Early Notification of a nuclear accident, several radiological data sets were collected on the accident by the Japanese authorities. Among the radioactive materials monitored, are I-131 and Cs-137 which form the major contributions to the contamination of drinking water. The radiation dose in the atmosphere was also measured. It is impractical to measure contamination and radiation dose in every place of interest. Therefore, modeling helps to predict contamination and radiation dose. Some modeling studies that have been reported in the literature include the simulation of transport and deposition of I-131 and Cs-137 from the accident, Cs-137 deposition and contamination of Japanese soils, and preliminary estimates of I-131 and Cs-137 discharged from the plant into the atmosphere. In this paper, we present statistical analytics of I-131 and Cs-137 with the goal of predicting gamma dose from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. The data sets used in our study were collected from the IAEA Fukushima Monitoring Database. As part of this study, we investigated several regression models to find the best algorithm for modeling the gamma dose. The modeling techniques used in our study include linear regression, principal component regression (PCR), partial least square (PLS) regression, and ridge regression. Our preliminary results on the first set of data showed that the linear regression model with one variable was the best with a root mean square error of 0.0133 μSv/h, compared

  15. Resource Letter FNP-1: Frontiers of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, G. F.

    2004-08-01

    This Resource Letter provides a bibliography of the current research activities in nuclear physics and also a guide for finding useful nuclear data. The major areas included are nuclear structure and reactions, symmetry tests, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, high-density matter, and nuclear instrumentation.

  16. International Training Course on Physical Protection (ITC-25) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overholt, Michelle Jungst [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this evaluation repor t is to provide the informa tion necessary to improve the effectiveness of the ITC provided to the In ternational Atomic Energy Agency Member States. This report examines ITC-25 training content, delivery me thods, scheduling, and logistics. Ultimately, this report evaluates whether the course pr ovides the knowledge and skills necessary to meet the students' needs in the protection of nuclear materials and facilities.

  17. List of Nuclear Materials Licensing Actions Received

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A catalog of all Materials Licensing Actions received for review. The catalog lists the name of the entity submitting the license application, their city and state,...

  18. The Study on Domestic and Foreign Cases for Decommissioning of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Ye Ji; Hhu, Joo Youn; Lee, Jung Hyun; Hwang, Yong Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study was able to analyze domestic and foreign cases, and collect data on the approximate amount of waste and time required time; however, data on applied technology, input manpower, required cost, and waste disposal method was insufficient. DPRK activities such as nuclear weapon development or nuclear testing not only threaten our country's security but also have an adverse effect on nuclear nonproliferation and security in the international society. Therefore, denuclearization of the DPRK is prior task that is essential to peace on the Korean Peninsula. The fundamental purpose of denuclearization of the DPRK is to safely decommission facilities related to developing nuclear weapons and to depose related radioactive waste and nuclear materials. Understanding descriptive references and physical properties of the facility and its purpose important for decommissioning nuclear facilities. Although it was impossible to collect data on DPRK nuclear facilities to perform complete decommissioning, we were able to understand the process used at DPRK nuclear facilities with open source data. This study has been conducted to establish overall measures for decommissioning DPRK nuclear facilities. DPRK nuclear facilities in this study include a IRT- 2000 type nuclear research reactor, a 5 MWe graphite moderated reactor, nuclear fuel fabrication facility, and a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility, which are considered as facilities that produce or manufacture nuclear materials needed for nuclear weapons or related to such activities.

  19. CHANGE IN DEFORMATION PROPERTIES MODELING OF CONCRETE IN PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES OF NUCLEAR REACTOR BY IONIZING RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Agakhanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of studying the effect impact of elementary particles impact on the strength and deformation materials properties used in protective constructions nuclear reactors and reactor technology has been stipulated. A nuclear reactor pressure vessel from prestressed concrete, combining the functions of biological protection is to be considered. The neutron flux problem distribution in the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor has been solved. The solution is made in axisymmetric with the finite element method using a flat triangular finite element. Computing has been conducted in Matlab package. The comparison with the results has been obtained using the finite difference method, as well as the graphs of changes under the influence of radiation exposure and the elastic modulus of concrete radiation deformations have been constructed. The proposed method allows to simulate changes in the deformation properties of concrete under the influence of neutron irradiation. Results of the study can be used in the calculation of stress-strain state of structures, taking into account indirect heterogeneity caused by the physical fields influence.

  20. Applied nuclear physics in support of SBSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strottman, D.

    1995-10-01

    Since the advent of the 800-MeV proton linear accelerator over 3 decades ago, the facilities on the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) mesa have pioneered many developments that provide unique capabilities within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in the world. New technologies based on the use of the world`s most intense, medium-energy linac, LAMPF, are being developed. They include destruction of long-lived components of nuclear waste, plutonium burning, energy production, production of tritium, and experiments for the science-based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program. The design, assessment, and safety analysis of potential facilities involve the understanding of complex combinations of nuclear processes, which in turn establish new requirements on nuclear data that transcend the traditional needs of the fission and fusion reactor communities. Other areas of technology such as neutron and proton therapy applications are also placing new requirements on nuclear data. The proposed Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) now under discussion combined with the appropriate instrumentation will have unique features and capabilities of which there were previously only aspirations.

  1. Fragile states and protection under the 1969 African Refugee Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Wood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Current practice in African states highlights both the potential andthe limitations of the 1969 African Refugee Convention in providingprotection to persons displaced from fragile states.

  2. Monte Carlo Simulation Study of a Differential Calorimeter Measuring the Nuclear Heating in Material Testing Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amharrak, H.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Carette, M.; Brun, J.; De Vita, C.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.-F.; Guimbal, P.

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs) are crucial for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. The reference measurements of this nuclear heating are especially performed by a differential calorimeter including a graphite sample material. Then these measurements are used for other materials, other geometries, or other experimental conditions in order to predict the nuclear heating and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices. This paper will present new simulations with MCNP Monte-Carlo transport code to determine the gamma heating profile inside the calorimeter. The whole complex geometry of the sensor has been considered. We use as an input source in the model, the photon spectra calculated in various positions of CARMEN-1 irradiation program in OSIRIS reactor. After a description of the differential calorimeter device, the MCNP modeling used for the calculations of radial profile of nuclear heating inside the calorimeter elements will be introduced. The obtained results of different simulations will be detailed and discussed in this paper. The charged particle equilibrium inside the calorimeter elements will be studied. Then we will focus on parametric studies of the various components of the calorimeter. The influence of source type will be also took into account. Moreover the influence of the material used for the sample will be described.

  3. Monte Carlo Simulation Study of a Differential Calorimeter Measuring the Nuclear Heating in Material Testing Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amharrak H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs are crucial for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. The reference measurements of this nuclear heating are especially performed by a differential calorimeter including a graphite sample material. Then these measurements are used for other materials, other geometries, or other experimental conditions in order to predict the nuclear heating and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices. This paper will present new simulations with MCNP Monte-Carlo transport code to determine the gamma heating profile inside the calorimeter. The whole complex geometry of the sensor has been considered. We use as an input source in the model, the photon spectra calculated in various positions of CARMEN-1 irradiation program in OSIRIS reactor. After a description of the differential calorimeter device, the MCNP modeling used for the calculations of radial profile of nuclear heating inside the calorimeter elements will be introduced. The obtained results of different simulations will be detailed and discussed in this paper. The charged particle equilibrium inside the calorimeter elements will be studied. Then we will focus on parametric studies of the various components of the calorimeter. The influence of source type will be also took into account. Moreover the influence of the material used for the sample will be described.

  4. Project of law authorizing the approval of the agreement between the government of the French republic and the government of the Russian federation relative to the civil liability by way of nuclear damage owing to the supply of materials from the French republic devoted to nuclear facilities in the Russian federation; Projet de loi autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le gouvernement de la republique francaise et le gouvernement de la federation de Russie relatif a la responsabilite civile au titre de dommages nucleaires du fait de fournitures en provenance de la republique francaise destinees a des installations nucleaires en federation de Russie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffarin, J.P.; Villepin, D. de

    2002-07-01

    An agreement between France and Russia was signed on June 20, 2000 about the civil liability of Russia because of the supply of French material devoted to Russian nuclear facilities. This agreement was necessary because Russia do not belong to any of the two big international civil liability systems relative to nuclear energy, i.e. the Paris convention from July 29, 1960 (in the OECD framework) and the Vienna convention from May 21, 1963 (in the IAEA framework). This agreement offers a protection to the French nuclear suppliers against any damage claims in the case of a nuclear accident occurring on the Russian federation territory. This project of law aims at approving this agreement. (J.S.)

  5. WE-D-213-04: Preparing for Parts 2 & 3 of the ABR Nuclear Medicine Physics Exam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, R. [Children’s Hospital (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR professional certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance of all aspects of clinical medical physics. All three parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation and skill sets necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those aspects that are unique to the nuclear exam. Medical physicists who have recently completed each of part of the ABR exam will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to Prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear imaging physics

  6. ON APPLICATION OF MATERIALS BASED ON DISPERSE HYDRATED CALCIUM SILICATE FOR PROTECTIVE LAYER OF LOCAL AUTOMOBILE ROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road construction is one of the most material-intensive industrial production. In this context, the urgent task for this branch is the maximum reduction in consumption of materials through usage of effective local materials, decrease energy intensity of processes by using new materials. The developed network of local roads require constant care and maintenance, thus it is advisable to consider the use of protective coatings for such roads on the basis of contactcondensation hardening, which can be obtained on the basis of local raw materials. One of the representatives of such material is disperse hydrated calcium silicate, which found wide practical application as the main components in the production of building materials, glass, glass ceramics and ceramic products. For example, relatively cheap highly dispersed crystalline material is intermediate product of hydrochemical synthesis of wollastonite xonotlite Ca6(Si6O17(OH2. A variety of calcium and silicon-containing raw materials, suitable to obtain various types hydrated calcium silicate, as well as increasing requirements for physical and chemical properties, caused by actuality of problems of search and study the best ways of synthesis hydrated calcium silicate from man-made and natural materials. The theoretical basis of the proposed technology for material production for road pavement lower categories is the ability of silicate dispersed materials transferred in an unstable state, forming a rock-like waterproof body at the time of application of mechanical load. Disperse hydrated calcium silicate are the most typical representatives of contactcondensation hardening binders. It should be noted that the technology of obtaining these binders is not related to high-temperature processes and the synthesis of HCS realized when wet treatment of available cheap raw materials on the standard equipment, what determines their practical significance.

  7. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  8. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  9. Influence of die geometry and material selection on the behavior of protective die covers in closed-die forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingyan; Rosenstock, Dirk; Wolfgarten, Martin; Hirt, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Due to the fact that tooling costs make up to 30% of total costs of the final forged part, the tool life is always one main research topic in closed-die forging [1]. To improve the wear resistance of forging dies, many methods like nitriding and deposition of ceramic layers have been used. However, all these methods will lose its effect after a certain time, then tool repair or exchange is needed, which requires additional time and costs. A new method, which applies an inexpensive and changeable sheet metal on the forging die to protect it from abrasive wear, was firstly proposed in [2]. According to the first investigation, the die cover is effective for decreasing thermal and mechanical loads, but there are still several challenges to overcome in this concept, like wrinkling and thinning of the die cover. Therefore, an experimental study using different geometries and die cover materials is presented within this work. The results indicate the existence of feasible application cases of this concept, since conditions are found under which a die cover made of 22MnB5 still keeps its original shape even after 7 forging cycles.

  10. Structural and functional effects of conventional and low pesticide input crop-protection programs on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in outdoor pond mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auber, Arnaud; Roucaute, Marc; Togola, Anne; Caquet, Thierry

    2011-11-01

    The impacts of current and alternative wheat crop protection programs were compared in outdoor pond mesocosms in a 10-month long study. Realistic exposure scenarios were built based upon the results of modelling of drift, drainage and runoff of pesticides successively applied under two environmental situations characteristics of drained soils of northern France. Each situation was associated to two crop protection programs ("Conventional" and "Low-input") differing in the nature of pesticides used, number of treatments and application rate. Both programs induced significant direct negative effects on various invertebrate groups. Bifenthrin and cyprodynil were identified as the main responsible for these effects in conventional and low-input program, respectively. Indirect effects were also demonstrated especially following treatments with cyprodynil. Litter breakdown was significantly reduced in all treated mesocosms as the functional consequence of the decrease in the abundance of shredders (asellids, Gammarus pulex) illustrating the link between structural and functional effects of pesticides on macroinvertebrate communities. Recovery was observed for many taxa before the end of the study but not for the most sensitive non mobile taxa such as G. pulex. No influence of the agropedoclimatic situation on the effects was shown, suggesting than the main impacts were associated to inputs from drift. The results confirm that the proposed low-input program was less hazardous than the conventional program but the observed structural and functional impact of the low-input program suggest that further improvement of alternative crop protection programs is still needed.

  11. Annual congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. EANM'14. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-10-15

    The proceedings of the annual congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine EANM'14 contain abstracts on the following issues: nuclear cardiology practices, PET in lymphoma, advances in nuclear cardiology, dosimetry for intra-arterial treatment in the liver, pediatric nuclear medicine, therapeutic nuclear medicine, SPECT/CT, prostate cancer, extended competencies for nuclear medicine technologists, neurosciences - neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, radionuclide therapy and dosimetry - preclinical studies, physics and instrumentation, clinical molecular imaging, conventional and specialized nuclear medicine.

  12. The Science of Nuclear Materials: A Modular, Laboratory-based Curriculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, C.L., E-mail: cahill@gwu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Elliott School of International Affairs, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Feldman, G.; Briscoe, W.J. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The development of a curriculum for nuclear materials courses targeting students pursuing Master of Arts degrees at The George Washington University is described. The courses include basic concepts such as radiation and radioactivity as well as more complex topics such the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear weapons, radiation detection and technological aspects of non-proliferation.

  13. Legal, institutional, and political issues in transportation of nuclear materials at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippek, H.E.; Schuller, C.R.

    1979-03-01

    A study was conducted to identify major legal and institutional problems and issues in the transportation of spent fuel and associated processing wastes at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle. (Most of the discussion centers on the transportation of spent fuel, since this activity will involve virtually all of the legal and institutional problems likely to be encountered in moving waste materials, as well.) Actions or approaches that might be pursued to resolve the problems identified in the analysis are suggested. Two scenarios for the industrial-scale transportation of spent fuel and radioactive wastes, taken together, high-light most of the major problems and issues of a legal and institutional nature that are likely to arise: (1) utilizing the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) facility at Barnwell, SC, as a temporary storage facility for spent fuel; and (2) utilizing AGNS for full-scale commercial reprocessing of spent LWR fuel.

  14. Convention on the rights of people with disabilities: highlights for a debate on brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Regina Moreno Caiado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to discuss the inclusive education in Brazil through the Convention for the protection of the rights of people with disabilities. In June of 2008, the Brazilian Congress ratified the Convention for the protection of the rights of people with disabilities, which had been adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN, 2006. When ratifying an international convention, the Congress confirms the State’s compromise before the international community to respect, obey and implement the obligations contained in such document. In this sense, after the ratification and the enactment of the Decree 186 of 2008, the convention’s text was incorporated to the Brazilian legislation with the same status of a constitutional amendment, which means that all infra legislation should be in conformity with the convention under risk of annulment on the basis of unconstitutionality. The present study analyzes some of the topics of the convention through the perspective of the Brazilian reality. These topics are: the definition of disability and of people with disability; accessibility, the relation between disability and poverty and the roll of the State to guarantee the right to education of people with disabilities.

  15. Dictionary of nuclear engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sube, R.

    1985-01-01

    Ralf Sube, an experienced compiler of three wellknown four-language reference works has now prepared this glossary of nuclear engineering terms in English, German, French and Russian. Based on the proven lexicography of the Technik-Worterbuch series, it comprises about 30,000 terms in each language covering the following: Nuclear and Atomic Physics; Nuclear Radiation and Isotopes; Nuclear Materials; Nuclear Facilties; Nuclear Power Industry; Nuclear Weapons.

  16. A transient finite element study reveals the importance of the bycicle helmet material properties on head protection during an impact

    OpenAIRE

    Asiminei, Aida Georgeta; Van der Perre, Georges; Verpoest, Ignace; Goffin, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper is focused on understanding the mechanism that gives the bicycle helmet the role of protecting the head during an impact. The finite element method is used here as a first step in the helmet optimisation and improvement process. The relation between different helmet mechanical parameters and the risk of head injury during the impact is described using MSC Marc Mentat finite element software. The reduction in resulting head linear acceleration by more than 80% and in resulting stres...

  17. Chemical and physical considerations of the use of nuclear fuel spikants for deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selle, J. E.

    1978-10-01

    One proposed method of inhibiting the diversion of nuclear fuel for clandestine purposes is to add to the fuel a highly gamma-active material of such intensity that remote handling equipment is necessary in all stages of handling and reprocessing. This is called spiking for deterrence. The present work sought to identify candidate spikants and identify potential materials problems that might occur as the result of incorporation of these spikants with the fuel. Potential spikants were identified and thermodynamic analysis was performed to determine their chemical and physical states. Phase relationships between spikants (and their decay products) and the fuel constituents were surveyed. According to criteria defined in this report, /sup 60/Co, /sup 106/Ru, and /sup 144/Ce appear to have the greatest potential as spikants. Cerium should be present as the oxide, soluble in the fuel, while cobalt and ruthenium should be present in the metallic state with very low solubility in the fuel. Experimental work on the distribution of fission products and their interactions with cladding was also surveyed to provide information on the distribution of spikants in the fuel and describe the probable effects of spikants on the fuel. Cobalt, ruthenium, and cerium should not present any problems due to reaction with stainless steel cladding.

  18. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary eZeitlin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transport of so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss and nuclear. Models of transport such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus-nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus-nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs. GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we therefore exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus-nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk reduced by fragmentation, but it can be argued that fragmentation also reduces the

  19. Evaluation of nitrogen containing reducing agents for the corrosion control of materials relevant to nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Padma S. [Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India); Mohan, D. [Department of Chemistry, Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Chandran, Sinu; Rajesh, Puspalata; Rangarajan, S. [Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India); Velmurugan, S., E-mail: svelu@igcar.gov.in [Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-02-01

    Materials undergo enhanced corrosion in the presence of oxidants in aqueous media. Usually, hydrogen gas or water soluble reducing agents are used for inhibiting corrosion. In the present study, the feasibility of using alternate reducing agents such as hydrazine, aqueous ammonia, and hydroxylamine that can stay in the liquid phase was investigated. A comparative study of corrosion behavior of the structural materials of the nuclear reactor viz. carbon steel (CS), stainless steel (SS-304 LN), monel-400 and incoloy-800 in the oxidizing and reducing conditions was also made. In nuclear industry, the presence of radiation field adds to the corrosion problems. The radiolysis products of water such as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide create an oxidizing environment that enhances the corrosion. Electrochemical studies at 90 °C showed that the reducing agents investigated were efficient in controlling corrosion processes in the presence of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Evaluation of thermal stability of hydrazine and its effect on corrosion potential of SS-304 LN were also investigated in the temperature range of 200–280 °C. The results showed that the thermal decomposition of hydrazine followed a first order kinetics. Besides, a change in electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) was observed from −0.4 V (Vs SHE) to −0.67 V (Vs SHE) on addition of 5 ppm of hydrazine at 240 °C. Investigations were also made to understand the distribution behavior of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine in water-steam phases and it was found that both the phases showed identical behavior. - Highlights: • Hydrazine was found to be a promising reducing agent for oxidant control. • In presence of hydrazine corrosion potential of SS304 LN was well below −230 mV. • SS304LN could be protected from IGSCC by hydrazine addition. • Thermal and radiation stability of hydrazine at 285 °C was found satisfactory.

  20. Particle and nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, Amand

    1971-01-01

    Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, Volume 26 covers the significant advances in understanding the fundamentals of particle and nuclear physics. This volume is divided into four chapters, and begins with a brief overview of the various possible ideas beyond the standard model, the problem they address and their experimental tests. The next chapter deals with the basic physics of neutrino mass based on from a gauge theoretic point of view. This chapter considers the various extensions of the standard electroweak theory, along with their implications for neutrino physics. The discussio

  1. Disk emission and absorption lines in LMXB. Note on the physical conditions of an absorbing material

    CERN Document Server

    Rozanska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    We show that the continuum X-ray spectrum of 4U 1630-472 with iron absorption lines can be satisfactorily modeled by the spectrum from an accretion disk atmosphere. We performed full radiative transfer calculations using our code ATM21 to model the emission from an accretion disk surface that is seen at different viewing angles. Computed models are then fitted to the high-resolution X-ray spectra of 4U 1630-472 obtained by {\\it Suzaku} satellite. Absorption lines of highly ionized iron originating in a hot accretion-disk atmospheres are important part of the observed line profile, and can be an alternative or complementary explanation to the wind model usually favored for this type of sources. Next, assuming that absorption lines originate from the wind illuminated by X-ray central source in LMXBs, we can put constrains on the wind location only if we know the volume density number of the absorbing material. There are a few derivations of the distance to the wind in X-ray binaries. We show here, that the dens...

  2. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Fessenheim nuclear facilities - 2010; Rapport sur la surete nucleaire et la radioprotection des installations nucleaires de Fessenheim - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant (INB 75, Haut-Rhin, 68 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  3. Nuclear magnetic and quadrupole resonance studies of the stripes materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafe, H.-J., E-mail: h.grafe@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State Research, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic and Quadrupole Resonance (NMR/NQR) is a powerful tool to probe electronic inhomogeneities in correlated electron systems. Its local character allows for probing different environments due to spin density modulations or inhomogeneous doping distributions emerging from the correlations in these systems. In fact, NMR/NQR is not only sensitive to magnetic properties through interaction of the nuclear spin, but also allows to probe the symmetry of the charge distribution and its homogeneity, as well as structural modulations, through sensitivity to the electric field gradient (EFG). We review the results of NMR and NQR in the cuprates from intrinsic spatial variations of the hole concentration in the normal state to stripe order at low temperatures, thereby keeping in mind the influence of doping induced disorder and inhomogeneities. Finally, we briefly discuss NQR evidence for local electronic inhomogeneities in the recently discovered iron pnictides, suggesting that electronic inhomogeneities are a common feature of correlated electron systems.

  4. Proceedings of the 1991 symposium on nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Japanese Nuclear Data Committee

    1992-03-15

    The 1991 Symposium on Nuclear data was held at Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), on 28th and 29th of November 1991. This symposium was organized by Japanese Nuclear Data Committee and Nuclear Data Center, JAERI. In the oral session, presented were 15 papers on nuclear data activities in Thailand, status reviews of JENDL-3 and its special purpose files, OMEGA program and ESNIT promoted by JAERI and related nuclear data, reviews of nuclear theories, nuclear data in the intermediate energy region, topics on knowledge technology and reactor physics. In the poster session, twenty-three papers were presented, which were related to nuclear data measurements, benchmark tests of evaluated data and evaluation. All of the 38 papers are compiled in the proceedings.

  5. FURTHER ASSESSMENTS OF THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF MATERIALS IN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES FROM A SAFEGUARDS PERSPECTIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, C. G.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Wallace, R. K.; Ireland, J. R.; Johnson, M. W.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Bradley, Keith S.; Collins, Brian A.; Smith, Brian W.; Prichard, Andrew W.

    2008-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an extension to an earlier study [ ] that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with the PUREX, UREX+, and COEX reprocessing schemes. This study focuses on the materials associated with the UREX, COEX, THOREX, and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study also examines what is required to render plutonium as “unattractive.” Furthermore, combining the results of this study with those from the earlier study permits a comparison of the uranium and thorium based fuel cycles on the basis of the attractiveness of the SNM associated with each fuel cycle. Both studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of “attractiveness levels” that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities [ ]. The methodology and key findings will be presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance (e.g. by increasing impediments to the diversion, theft, undeclared production of SNM for the purpose of acquiring a nuclear weapon), and how they could be used to help inform policy makers, will be discussed.

  6. The role of the health physicist in nuclear security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward J; van Maanen, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Health physics is a recognized safety function in the holistic context of the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment against the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation, often generically designated as radiation protection. The role of the health physicist as protector dates back to the Manhattan Project. Nuclear security is the prevention and detection of, and response to, criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities. Its importance has become more visible and pronounced in the post 9/11 environment, and it has a shared purpose with health physics in the context of protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment. However, the duties and responsibilities of the health physicist in the nuclear security domain are neither clearly defined nor recognized, while a fundamental understanding of nuclear phenomena in general, nuclear or other radioactive material specifically, and the potential hazards related to them is required for threat assessment, protection, and risk management. Furthermore, given the unique skills and attributes of professional health physicists, it is argued that the role of the health physicist should encompass all aspects of nuclear security, ranging from input in the development to implementation and execution of an efficient and effective nuclear security regime. As such, health physicists should transcend their current typical role as consultants in nuclear security issues and become fully integrated and recognized experts in the nuclear security domain and decision making process. Issues regarding the security clearances of health physics personnel and the possibility of insider threats must be addressed in the same manner as for other trusted individuals; however, the net gain from recognizing and integrating health physics expertise in all levels of a nuclear security regime far