WorldWideScience

Sample records for convective atmospheric cells

  1. Low-frequency sea waves generated by atmospheric convection cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, M. P. C.; Battjes, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric origin of low-frequency sea waves that cause seiches in the Port of Rotterdam is investigated using hydrological and meteorological observations. These observations, combined with weather charts, show that all significant seiche events coincide with the passage of a low-pressure area and a cold front. Following these front passages, increased wind speed fluctuations occur with periods on the order of 1 hour. The records show that enhanced low-frequency wave energy at sea and the seiche events in the harbor occur more or less simultaneously with these strong wind speed fluctuations. These oscillatory wind speed changes are due to convection cells that arise in an unstable lower atmosphere in the area behind a cold front, where cold air moves over the relatively warm sea surface. It is shown that the moving system of a cold front and trailing convection cells generates forced low-frequency waves at sea that can cause seiche events inside the harbor. The occurrence of such events may be predictable operationally on the basis of a criterion for the difference in temperature between the air in the upper atmosphere and the water at the sea surface.

  2. Convection in Condensible-rich Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Condensible substances are nearly ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres. For the most familiar case-water vapor in Earth's present climate-the condensible gas is dilute, in the sense that its concentration is everywhere small relative to the noncondensible background gases. A wide variety of important planetary climate problems involve nondilute condensible substances. These include planets near or undergoing a water vapor runaway and planets near the outer edge of the conventional habitable zone, for which CO2 is the condensible. Standard representations of convection in climate models rely on several approximations appropriate only to the dilute limit, while nondilute convection differs in fundamental ways from dilute convection. In this paper, a simple parameterization of convection valid in the nondilute as well as dilute limits is derived and used to discuss the basic character of nondilute convection. The energy conservation properties of the scheme are discussed in detail and are verified in radiative-co...

  3. Convection in Condensible-rich Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, F.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2016-05-01

    Condensible substances are nearly ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres. For the most familiar case—water vapor in Earth’s present climate—the condensible gas is dilute, in the sense that its concentration is everywhere small relative to the noncondensible background gases. A wide variety of important planetary climate problems involve nondilute condensible substances. These include planets near or undergoing a water vapor runaway and planets near the outer edge of the conventional habitable zone, for which CO2 is the condensible. Standard representations of convection in climate models rely on several approximations appropriate only to the dilute limit, while nondilute convection differs in fundamental ways from dilute convection. In this paper, a simple parameterization of convection valid in the nondilute as well as dilute limits is derived and used to discuss the basic character of nondilute convection. The energy conservation properties of the scheme are discussed in detail and are verified in radiative-convective simulations. As a further illustration of the behavior of the scheme, results for a runaway greenhouse atmosphere for both steady instellation and seasonally varying instellation corresponding to a highly eccentric orbit are presented. The latter case illustrates that the high thermal inertia associated with latent heat in nondilute atmospheres can damp out the effects of even extreme seasonal forcing.

  4. Nowcasting of convective cells over Italian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Medaglia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is the individuation of convective cells over the Italian peninsula with the conjunction use of geostationary satellite data (METEOSAT, MSG satellite in the IR and WV channels and lightning data. We will use GCD (Global Convective Diagnostic algorithm developed at Aviation Weather Centre (AWC of NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This algorithm is based on the idea that a deep convective cloud will not have any significant moisture above it. This technique works quite well at identifying active deep convection and can be applied to all the world's geostationary satellites. However it does not always agree with lightning sensors. Low topped convection with lightning will be missed. We will extend the capabilities of GCD using lightning data. The new product will be validate over different cases in the central Italy using the C-band polarimetric radar of ISAC-CNR (Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate-of the Italian National Research Council Rome.

  5. An Analytic Radiative-Convective Model for Planetary Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Tyler D; 10.1088/0004-637X/757/1/104

    2012-01-01

    We present an analytic 1-D radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries, (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunli...

  6. Moist convective storms in the atmosphere of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2003-05-01

    Moist convective storms might be a key aspect in the global energy budget of the atmospheres of the Giant Planets. In spite of its dull appearance, Saturn is known to develop the largest scale convective storms in the Solar System, the Great White Spots, the last of them arising in 1990 triggered a planetary scale disturbance that encircled the whole Equatorial region. However, Saturn seems to be very much less convective than Jupiter, being convective storms rare and small for the most part of the cases. Here we present simulations of moist convective storms in the atmosphere of Saturn at different latitudes, the Equator and 42 deg S, the regions where most of the convective activity of the planet has been observed. We use a 3D anelastic model of the atmosphere with parameterized microphysics (Hueso and Sánchez-Lavega, 2001) and we study the onset and evolution of moist convective storms. Ammonia storms are able to develop only if the static stability of the upper atmosphere is slightly decreased. Water storms are difficult to develop requiring very specific atmospheric conditions. However, when they develop they can be very energetic arriving at least to the 150 mbar level. The Coriolis forces play a mayor role in the characteristics of water based storms in the atmosphere of Saturn. The 3-D Coriolis forces at the Equator transfer upward momentum to westward motions acting to diminish the strength of the equatorial jet. The GWS of 1990 could have been a mayor force in reducing the intensity of the equatorial jet stream as revealed recently (Sánchez-Lavega et al. Nature, 2003). The Cassini spacecraft will arrive to Saturn in a year. Its observations of the atmosphere will allow to measure the amount of convective activity on the planet, its characteristics and it will clarify the role of moist convection in the atmospheric dynamics of the Giant Planets. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MCYT PNAYA 2000-0932. RH acknowledges a Post

  7. Global Deep Convection Models of Saturn's Atmospheric Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimpel, Moritz; Cuff, Keith; Gastine, Thomas; Wicht, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    The Cassini mission, along with previous missions and ground-based observations, has revealed a rich variety of atmospheric phenomena and time variability on Saturn. Some examples of dynamical features are: zonal flows with multiple jet streams, turbulent tilted shear flows that seem to power the jets, the north polar hexagon, the south polar cyclone, large anticyclones in "storm alley", numerous convective storms (white spots) of various sizes, and the 2010/2011 great storm, which destroyed an array of vortices dubbed the "string of pearls". Here we use the anelastic dynamo code MagIC, in non-magnetic mode, to study rotating convection in a spherical shell. The thickness of the shell is set to approximate the depth of the low electrical conductivity deep atmosphere of Saturn, and the convective forcing is set to yield zonal flows of similar velocity (Rossby number) to those of Saturn. Internal heating and the outer entropy boundary conditions allow simple modelling of atmospheric layers with neutral stability or stable stratification. In these simulations we can identify several saturnian and jovian atmospheric features, with some variations. We find that large anticyclonic vortices tend to form in the first anticyclonic shear zones away from the equatorial jet. Cyclones form at the poles, and polar polygonal jet streams, comparable to Saturn's hexagon, may or may not form, depending on the model conditions. Strings of small scale vortical structures arise as convective plumes near boundaries of shear zones. They typically precede larger scale convective storms that spawn propagating shear flow disturbances and anticyclonic vortices, which tend to drift across anticyclonic shear zones, toward the equator (opposite the drift direction of Saturn's 2010/2011 storm). Our model results indicate that many identifiable dynamical atmospheric features seen on Jupiter and Saturn arise from deep convection, shaped by planetary rotation, underlying and interacting with stably

  8. Tropical Cyclone Signatures in Atmospheric Convective Available Potential Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studholme, Joshua; Gulev, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Tropical cyclones play an important role in the climate system providing transports of energy and water vapor, forcing the ocean, and also affecting mid-latitude circulation phenomena. Tropical cyclone tracks experience strong interannual variability and in addition, longer term trend-like changes in all ocean basins. Analysis of recent historical data reveal a poleward shift in the locations of tropical cyclone tracks in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (Kossin et al. 2014, Nature, 509, 349-352). The physical consequences of these alterations are largely unconstrained. For example, the increasing encroachment of tropical cyclone activity into the extra-tropical environment presents a novel and still poorly understood paradigm for tropical-extratropical interactions. In this respect, the role that the atmospheric convective available potential energy (CAPE) plays in the dynamics of tropical cyclones is highly interesting. The two characteristic global-scale spatial patterns in CAPE are identified using EOF analysis. The first pattern shows an abundance of CAPE in the centre of the Pacific and corresponds to the El Nino Southern Oscillation. The second one is capturing positive CAPE anomalies in the oceanic tropics and negative anomalies over equatorial Africa. Associated with these buoyancy patterns, alterations in tropical cyclone activity occur in all basins forming both zonal and meridional patterns. Atmospheric buoyancy is the trigger for deep convection, and subsequently cyclone genesis. This is the mechanism of impact upon location at the start of cyclone tracks. It is found to have less impact upon where cyclones subsequently move, whether or not they undergo extratropical transition and when and where they experience lysis. It is shown that CAPE plays a critical role in the general circulation in the tropics which in turn is the larger steering context for embedded systems within the Walker and Hadley cells. So this lack of `latter life' impact

  9. The atmospheric structure during episodes of open cellular convection observed in KonTur 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruspe, G.; Bakan, S. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (West Germany))

    1990-02-20

    The KonTur (Konvektion and Turbulenz) 1981 experiment was primarily dedicated to the study of organized boundary layer convection. While two research aircraft were used for detailed boundary layer measurements, an aerological network of four stations in the North Sea yielded information on the mean atmospheric structure in organized convective situations. During the second experiment phase in October 1981, cold air advection caused intense convective activity. Four periods of well-organized open convection cells could be determined from NOAA satellite images. The present paper contains the results from the aerological data set, which allowed the derivation of mean profiles of the dynamic and thermodynamic quantities. Finally, the evolution of the most pronounced cellular episode is presented in a case study. Cellular episodes appeared during rather cold and dry periods in which potential temperature, specific humidity, and equivalent potential temperature in the convection layer reached a relative minimum. However, none of the mean atmospheric profiles differ considerably from those found under convective conditions without cellular organization. During the cellular episodes, horizontal gradients show generally small values throughout the convection layer.

  10. The atmospheric structure during episodes of open cellular convection observed in KonTur 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruspe, G.; Bakan, S.

    1990-02-01

    The KonTur (Konvektion und Turbulenz) 1981 experiment was primarily dedicated to the study of organized boundary layer convection. While two research aircraft were used for detailed boundary layer measurements, an aerological network of four stations in the North Sea yielded information on the mean atmospheric structure in organized convective situations. During the second experiment phase in October 1981, cold air advection caused intense convective activity. Four periods of well-organized open convection cells could be determined from NOAA satellite images. The present paper contains the results from the aerological data set, which allowed the derivation of mean profiles of the dynamic and thermodynamic quantities with acceptable accuracy, but also of the horizontal gradients of thermodynamic quantities. Finally, the evolution of the most pronounced cellular episode is presented in a case study. Cellular episodes appeared during rather cold and dry periods in which potential temperature, specific humidity, and equivalent potential temperature in the convection layer reached a relative minimum. However, none of the mean atmospheric profiles differ considerably from those found under convective conditions without cellular organization. During the cellular episodes, horizontal gradients show generally small values throughout the convection layer.

  11. 1-D Radiative-Convective Model for Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cecilia W. S.; Robinson, Tyler D.

    2016-10-01

    We present a one dimensional radiative-convective model to study the thermal structure of terrestrial exoplanetary atmospheres. The radiative transfer and equilibrium chemistry in our model is based on similar methodologies in models used for studying Extrasolar Giant Planets (Fortney et al. 2005b.) We validated our model in the optically thin and thick limits, and compared our pressure-temperature profiles against the analytical solutions of Robinson & Catling (2012). For extrasolar terrestrial planets with pure hydrogen atmospheres, we evaluated the effects of H2-H2 collision induced absorption and identified the purely roto-translational band in our modeled spectra. We also examined how enhanced atmospheric metallicities affect the temperature structure, chemistry, and spectra of terrestrial exoplanets. For a terrestrial extrasolar planet whose atmospheric compostion is 100 times solar orbiting a sun-like star at 2 AU, our model resulted in a reducing atmosphere with H2O, CH4, and NH3 as the dominant greenhouse gases.

  12. The existence of Hadley convective regimes of atmospheric motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, J. A.; Kloeden, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    The solutions of the equations describing deep global convection on a rotating planet are discussed. The existence of generalized steady axisymmetric solutions is established. It is then shown that these are classical solutions when the heat source is sufficiently smooth. The solutions are shown to be unique when the heating is sufficiently weak and asymptotically stable when the shear is sufficiently small. Finally, the application of these results to earth's atmosphere is discussed, with eddy viscosity replacing molecular viscosity.

  13. Convection and waves on Small Earth and Deep Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Semane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A scaled version of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF spectral hydrostatic forecast model (IFS has been developed with full physics using an Aqua planet configuration. This includes Kuang et al.'s Small Earth Diabatic Acceleration and REscaling (DARE/SE approach bringing the synoptic scale a factor γ closer to the convective scale by reducing the Earth radius by γ, and increasing the rotation rate and all diabatic processes by the same factor. Furthermore, the scaled version also provides an alternative system to DARE/SE, dubbed ‘Deep Atmosphere Diabatic Acceleration and REscaling’ (DARE/DA, which reduces gravity by a factor γ and thereby increases the horizontal scale of convection by γ, while only weakly affecting the large-scale flow. The two approaches have been evaluated using a T159 spectral truncation and γ = 8 with the deep convection scheme switched off. The evaluation is against the baseline unscaled model at T1279 spectral resolution without deep convection parametrisation, as well as the unscaled T159 model using the deep convection parametrisation. It is shown that the DARE/SE and DARE/DA systems provide fairly equivalent results, while the DARE/DA system seems to be the preferred choice as it damps divergent modes, providing a better climatology, and is technically easier to implement. However, neither of the systems could reproduce the motion range and modes of the high-resolution spectral model. Higher equivalent horizontal resolution in the 1–10 km range and the full non-hydrostatic system might be necessary to successfully simulate the convective and large-scale explicitly at reduced cost.

  14. 3D Simulations of methane convective storms on Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2005-08-01

    The arrival of the Cassini/Huygens mission to Titan has opened an unprecedented opportunity to study the atmosphere of this satellite. Under the pressure-temperature conditions on Titan, methane, a large atmospheric component amounting perhaps to a 3-5% of the atmosphere, is close to its triple point, potentially playing a similar role as water on Earth. The Huygens probe has shown a terrain shaped by erosion of probably liquid origin, suggestive of past rain. On the other hand, Voyager IRIS spectroscopic observations of Titan imply a saturated atmosphere of methane (amounting perhaps to 150 covered by methane clouds, if we think on Earth meteorology. However, observations from Earth and Cassini have shown that clouds are localized, transient and fast evolving, in particular in the South Pole (currently in its summer season). This might imply a lack of widespread presence on Titan of nuclei where methane could initiate condensation and particle growth with subsequent precipitation. We investigate different scenarios of moist convective storms on Titan using a complete 3D atmospheric model that incorporates a full microphysics treatment required to study cloud formation processes under a saturated atmosphere with low concentration of condensation nuclei. We study local convective development under a variety of atmospheric conditions: sub-saturation, super-saturation, abundances of condensation nuclei fall, condensation nuclei lifted from the ground or gently falling from the stratosphere. We show that under the appropriate circumstances, precipitation rates comparable to typical tropical storms on Earth can be found. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MCYT PNAYA2003-03216, fondos FEDER and Grupos UPV 15946/2004. R. Hueso acknowledges a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  15. Evolution of Excited Convective Cells in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Sugai, H.

    1984-01-01

    Convective cells are excited externally in a fully ionized magnetized plasma and their space-time evolution is investigated by two-dimensional potential measurements. A positive cell is excited externally by control of the end losses in the 'scrape off' layer of a plasma column produced by surface...

  16. Toward a Unified Representation of Atmospheric Convection in Variable-Resolution Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walko, Robert [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this project was to improve the representation of convection in atmospheric weather and climate models that employ computational grids with spatially-variable resolution. Specifically, our work targeted models whose grids are fine enough over selected regions that convection is resolved explicitly, while over other regions the grid is coarser and convection is represented as a subgrid-scale process. The working criterion for a successful scheme for representing convection over this range of grid resolution was that identical convective environments must produce very similar convective responses (i.e., the same precipitation amount, rate, and timing, and the same modification of the atmospheric profile) regardless of grid scale. The need for such a convective scheme has increased in recent years as more global weather and climate models have adopted variable resolution meshes that are often extended into the range of resolving convection in selected locations.

  17. Efficient Turbulent Compressible Convection in the Deep Stellar Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Chun-Lin; Chan, Kwing-Lam; Xiong, Da-Run

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an application of gas-kinetic BGK scheme to the computation of turbulent compressible convection in the stellar interior. After incorporating the Sub-grid Scale (SGS) turbulence model into the BGK scheme, we tested the effects of numerical parameters on the quantitative relationships among the thermodynamic variables, their fluctuations and correlations in a very deep, initially gravity-stratified stellar atmosphere. Comparison indicates that the thermal properties and dynamic properties are dominated by different aspects of numerical models separately. An adjustable Deardorff constant in the SGS model $c_\\mu=0.25$ and an amplitude of artificial viscosity in the gas-kinetic BGK scheme $C_2=0$ are appropriate for current study. We also calculated the density-weighted auto- and cross-correlation functions in Xiong's (\\cite{xiong77}) turbulent stellar convection theories based on which the gradient type of models of the non-local transport and the anisotropy of the turbulence are preliminarily...

  18. Efficient turbulent compressible convection in the deep stellar atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Lin Tian; Li-Cai Deng; Kwing-Lam Chan; Da-Run Xiong

    2009-01-01

    We report on an application of gas-kinetic BGK scheme to the computation of turbulent compressible convection in the stellar interior. After incorporating the Sub-grid Scale (SGS) turbulence model into the BGK scheme, we tested the effects of numerical parameters on the quantitative relationships among the thermodynamic variables, their fluctuations and correlations in a very deep, initially gravity-stratified stellar atmosphere. Comparison indicates that the thermal properties and dynamic properties are dominated by different aspects of numerical models separately. An adjustable Deardorff constant in the SGS model cμ = 0.25 and an amplitude of artificial viscosity in the gas-kinetic BGK scheme C2 = 0 are appropriate for the current study. We also calculated the density-weighted auto-and cross-correlation functions in Xiong's turbulent stellar convection theory based on which the gradient type of models of the non-local transport and the anisotropy of the turbulence were preliminarily studied. No universal relations or con-stant parameters were found for these models.

  19. Fingering convection and cloudless models for cool brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblin, P; Mourier, P; Baraffe, I; Chabrier, G; Drummond, B; Homeier, D; Venot, O

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to improve the current understanding of the atmospheres of brown dwarfs, especially cold ones with spectral type T and Y, whose modeling is a current challenge. Silicate and iron clouds are believed to disappear at the photosphere at the L/T transition, but cloudless models fail to reproduce correctly the spectra of T dwarfs, advocating for the addition of more physics, e.g. other types of clouds or internal energy transport mechanisms. We use a one-dimensional (1D) radiative/convective equilibrium code ATMO to investigate this issue. This code includes both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium chemistry and solves consistently the PT structure. Included opacity sources are H2-H2, H2-He, H2O, CO, CO2, CH4, NH3, K, Na, and TiO, VO if they are present in the atmosphere. We show that the spectra of Y dwarfs can be accurately reproduced with a cloudless model if vertical mixing and NH3 quenching are taken into account. T dwarf spectra still have some reddening in e.g. J - H compared to cloudless mode...

  20. Computer Simulation of Convective Plasma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Carboni, Rodrigo; Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Computer simulations of plasmas are relevant nowadays, because it helps us understand physical processes taking place in the sun and other stellar objects. We developed a program called PCell which is intended for displaying the evolution of the magnetic field in a 2D convective plasma cell with perfect conducting walls for different stationary plasma velocity fields. Applications of this program are presented. This software works interactively with the mouse and the users can create their ow...

  1. Toward a unified theory of atmospheric convective instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirer, H. N.

    1982-01-01

    A nonlinear three-dimensional truncated spectral model of shallow and moist Boussinesq convection indicates that parallel instability and thermal forcing are linked, in view of the fact that only one convective mode exists in which either or both mechanisms are operating to generate convection in the planetary boundary layer. It is also established that the wind field causes two-dimensional roll convection formation, an alignment of the convection with the wind in a preferred manner, and a propagation speed that is related to the wind component perpendicular to the roll axis. Latent heating is responsible for the decrease of the critical value of the environmental lapse rate in accordance with the slice method stability criterion. When only the upper part of the upward branch is moist and all of the downward branch is dry, latent heating also causes a finite-amplitude convective solution for Rayleigh number values lower than the critical value of linear analysis.

  2. Understanding dynamics of large-scale atmospheric vortices with moist-convective shallow water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, M.; Zeitlin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric jets and vortices which, together with inertia-gravity waves, constitute the principal dynamical entities of large-scale atmospheric motions, are well described in the framework of one- or multi-layer rotating shallow water models, which are obtained by vertically averaging of full “primitive” equations. There is a simple and physically consistent way to include moist convection in these models by adding a relaxational parameterization of precipitation and coupling precipitation with convective fluxes with the help of moist enthalpy conservation. We recall the construction of moist-convective rotating shallow water model (mcRSW) model and give an example of application to upper-layer atmospheric vortices.

  3. Interaction between surface and atmosphere in a convective boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Anirban

    Solar heating of the surface causes the near surface air to warm up and with sufficient buoyancy it ascends through the atmosphere as surface-layer plumes and thermals. The cold fluid from the upper part of the boundary layer descends as downdrafts. The downdrafts and thermals form streamwise roll vortices. All these turbulent coherent structures are important because they contribute most of the momentum and heat transport. While these structures have been studied in depth, their imprint on the surface through energy budget in a convective atmospheric boundary layer has received little attention. The main objective of the present study is to examine the turbulence-induced surface temperature fluctuations for different surface properties and stratification. Experiments were performed to measure atmospheric turbulence using sonic anemometers, fine wire thermocouples and LIDAR; and surface temperature using an infra-red camera over grass and artificial turf fields. The surface temperature fluctuations were found to be highly correlated to the turbulent coherent structures and follow the processes postulated in the surface renewal theory. The spatio-temporal scales and advection speed of the surface temperature fluctuation were found to match with those of turbulent coherent structures. A parametric direct numerical simulation (DNS) study was then performed by solving the solid-fluid heat transport mechanism numerically for varying solid thermal properties, solid thickness and strength of stratification. Even though there were large differences in the friction Reynolds and Richardson numbers between the experiments and numerical simulations, similar turbulent characteristics were observed. The ejection (sweep) events tend to be aligned with the streamwise direction to form roll vortices with unstable stratification. The solid-fluid interfacial temperature fluctuations increase with the decreases in solid thermal inertia; and with the increase in solid thickness to

  4. Atmospheric and Oceanic Response to Southern Ocean Deep Convection Oscillations on Decadal to Centennial Time Scales in Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.; Reintges, A.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2014-12-01

    oceanic responses among CMIP5 models. Since open ocean convection is the dominant mode of AABW formation in these models, the northward extent and strength of the AABW cell in the Atlantic correlates with the deep convection intensity but varies between models. Likewise, atmospheric response patterns outside the Southern Ocean region are not consistent among models.

  5. Convective organization in the super-parameterized community atmosphere model with constant surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Organization in a moist convecting atmosphere is investigated using the super-parameterized community atmosphere model (SPCAM) in aquaplanet setting with constant surface temperature, with and without planetary rotation. Without radiative and surface feedbacks, convective organization is dominated by convectively coupled gravity waves without planetary rotation and convectively coupled equatorial waves when there is planetary rotation. This behavior is well captured when the cloud resolving model (CRM) in SPCAM is replaced by its linear response function, computed following Kuang (2010), for the state of radiative convective equilibrium (RCE). With radiative feedback, however, convection self-aggregates, and with planetary rotation, the tropical zonal wavenumber-frequency spectrum features a red noise background. These behaviors in the presence of the radiative feedback are not captured when the CRM is replaced by its linear response function around the RCE state with radiative feedback included in the construction. Implications to organization in a moist convecting atmosphere will be discussed. Kuang, Z., Linear response functions of a cumulus ensemble to temperature and moisture perturbations and implication to the dynamics of convectively coupled waves, J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 941-962, (2010)

  6. The hypohydrostatic rescaling and its impacts on modeling of atmospheric convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauluis, Olivier [New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York, NY (United States); Frierson, Dargan M.W. [University of Chicago, Department of Geophysical Sciences, Chicago, IL (United States); Garner, Stephen T.; Held, Isaac M. [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NOAA, Princeton, NJ (United States); Vallis, Geoffrey K. [Princeton University, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The atmospheric circulation spans a wide range of spatial scales, including the planetary scale ({proportional_to}10,000 km), synoptic scale ({proportional_to}2,000 km), mesoscale ({proportional_to}200 km), and convective scales (< 20 km). The wide scale separation between convective motions, responsible for the vertical energy transport, and the planetary circulation, responsible for the meridional energy transport, has prevented explicit representation of convective motions in global atmospheric models. Kuang et al. (Geophys. Res. Lett. 32: L02809, 2005) have suggested a way to circumvent this limitation through a rescaling that they refer to as Diabatic Acceleration and REscaling (DARE). We focus here on a modified version of the procedure that we refer to as hypohydrostatic rescaling. These two strategies are equivalent for inviscid and adiabatic flow in the traditional meteorological setting in which the vertical component of the Coriolis acceleration is ignored, but they differ when atmospheric physics is taken into account. It is argued here that, while the hypohydrostatic rescaling preserves the dynamics of the planetary scale circulation, it increases the horizontal scale of convective motions. This drastically reduces the computational cost for explicit simulation of hypohydrostatic convection in a global atmospheric model. A key question is whether explicit simulations of hypohydrostatic convection could offer a valid alternative to convective parameterization in global models. To do so, radiative-convective equilibrium is simulated with a high-resolution non-hydrostatic model using different model resolutions and values of the rescaling parameter. When the behavior of hypohydrostatic convection is compared with coarse-resolution simulations of convection, the latter set of simulations reproduce more accurately the result from a reference high-resolution simulation. This is particularly true for the convective velocity and cloud ice distributions

  7. Computer Simulation of Convective Plasma Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Carboni, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Computer simulations of plasmas are relevant nowadays, because it helps us understand physical processes taking place in the sun and other stellar objects. We developed a program called PCell which is intended for displaying the evolution of the magnetic field in a 2D convective plasma cell with perfect conducting walls for different stationary plasma velocity fields. Applications of this program are presented. This software works interactively with the mouse and the users can create their own movies in MPEG format. The programs were written in Fortran and C. There are two versions of the program (GNUPLOT and OpenGL). GNUPLOT and OpenGL are used to display the simulation.

  8. Convective heat transport in stratified atmospheres at low and high Mach number

    CERN Document Server

    Anders, Evan H

    2016-01-01

    Convection in astrophysical systems is stratified and often occurs at high Rayleigh number (Ra) and low Mach number (Ma). Here we study stratified convection in the context of plane-parallel, polytropically stratified atmospheres. We hold the density stratification ($n_{\\rho}$) and Prandtl number (Pr) constant while varying Ma and Ra to determine the behavior of the Nusselt number (Nu), which quantifies the efficiency of convective heat transport. As Ra increases and $\\text{Ma} \\rightarrow 1$, a scaling of Nu $\\propto$ Ra$^{0.45}$ is observed. As Ra increases to a regime where Ma $\\geq 1$, this scaling gives way to a weaker Nu $\\propto$ Ra$^{0.19}$. In the regime of Ma $\\ll 1$, a consistent Nu $\\propto$ Ra$^{0.31}$ is retrieved, reminiscent of the Nu $\\propto$ Ra$^{2/7}$ seen in Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection.

  9. Convection and Chemistry in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Petersen

    1999-01-01

    The earth’s troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere and has a thickness of about 10 km. It is the layer that contains most of the mass (80%) of the atmosphere. All weather phenomena that we experience have their origin in the troposphere. It is the stage for some well-known environmental problems: climate change, ozone smog, and acidification. These problems are related to the trace amount of gases that are emitted into the troposphere from anthropogenic sources. Alth...

  10. Compressible convection in the deep atmospheres of giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chris A.; Kuzanyan, Kirill M.

    2009-11-01

    Fast rotating giant planets such as Jupiter and Saturn possess alternate prograde and retrograde zonal winds which are stable over long periods of time. We consider a compressible model of convection in a spherical shell with rapid rotation, using the anelastic approximation, to explore the parameter range for which such zonal flows can be produced. We consider models with a large variation in density across the layer. Our models are based only on the molecular H/He region above the metallic hydrogen transition at about 2 Mbar, and we do not include the hydromagnetic effects which may be important if the electrical conductivity is significant. We find that the convective velocities are significantly higher in the low density regions of the shell, but the zonal flow is almost independent of the z-coordinate parallel to the rotation axis. We analyse how this behaviour is consistent with the Proudman-Taylor theorem. We find that deep prograde zonal flow near the equator is a very robust feature of our models. Prograde and retrograde jets alternating in latitude can occur inside the tangent cylinder in compressible as well as Boussinesq models, particularly at lower Prandtl numbers. However, the zonal jets inside the tangent cylinder are suppressed if a no-slip condition is imposed at the inner boundary. This suggests that deep high latitude jets may be suppressed if there is significant magnetic dissipation. Our compressible calculations include the viscous dissipation in the entropy equation, and we find this is comparable to, and in some cases exceeds, the total heat flux emerging from the surface. For numerical reasons, these simulations cannot reach the extremely low Ekman number found in giant planets, and they necessarily also have a much larger heat flux than planets. We therefore discuss how our results might scale down to give solutions with lower dissipation and lower heat flux.

  11. A test of sensitivity to convective transport in a global atmospheric CO2 simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, H.; Kawa, S. R.; M. Chin; Pawson, S.; Zhu, Z.; Rasch, P.; Wu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Two approximations to convective transport have been implemented in an offline chemistry transport model (CTM) to explore the impact on calculated atmospheric CO2 distributions. Global CO2 in the year 2000 is simulated using the CTM driven by assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA's Goddard Earth Observation System Data Assimilation System, Version 4 (GEOS-4). The model simulates atmospheric CO2 by adopting the same CO2 emission inventory and dynamical modules as described in Kawa et...

  12. Impacts of Aerosol Shortwave Radiation Absorption on the Dynamics of an Idealized Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde Barbaro, E.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Krol, M.C.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the impact of aerosol heat absorption on convective atmospheric boundary-layer (CBL) dynamics. Numerical experiments using a large-eddy simulation model enabled us to study the changes in the structure of a dry and shearless CBL in depthequilibrium for different vertical profiles of

  13. A test of sensitivity to convective transport in a global atmospheric CO2 simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, H.; Kawa, S. R.; Chin, M.; Pawson, S.; Zhu, Z.; Rasch, P.; Wu, S.

    2006-11-01

    Two approximations to convective transport have been implemented in an offline chemistry transport model (CTM) to explore the impact on calculated atmospheric CO2 distributions. Global CO2 in the year 2000 is simulated using the CTM driven by assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA's Goddard Earth Observation System Data Assimilation System, Version 4 (GEOS-4). The model simulates atmospheric CO2 by adopting the same CO2 emission inventory and dynamical modules as described in Kawa et al. (convective transport scheme denoted as Conv1). Conv1 approximates the convective transport by using the bulk convective mass fluxes to redistribute trace gases. The alternate approximation, Conv2, partitions fluxes into updraft and downdraft, as well as into entrainment and detrainment, and has potential to yield a more realistic simulation of vertical redistribution through deep convection. Replacing Conv1 by Conv2 results in an overestimate of CO2 over biospheric sink regions. The largest discrepancies result in a CO2 difference of about 7.8 ppm in the July NH boreal forest, which is about 30% of the CO2 seasonality for that area. These differences are compared to those produced by emission scenario variations constrained by the framework of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to account for possible land use change and residual terrestrial CO2 sink. It is shown that the overestimated CO2 driven by Conv2 can be offset by introducing these supplemental emissions.

  14. An Adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Modeling Atmospheric Convection (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    J. Päpke, K. Dethloff, amatos: Parallel adaptive mesh generator for atmospheric and oceanic simulation, Ocean Modelling 10, pp.171–183 (2005). [24] P. K. Kundu , Fluid Mechanics . Academic Press, 638 pp. (1990). 20 ...further explanation we refer to the text. two fluids . Johari found that, depending on the strength of the buoyancy reversal, the morphology of the cloud...development could be vastly different. Similar results were found in highly idealized numerical two- fluid experiments by Gra- bowski4 in 1995. These

  15. Soil-plant-atmosphere conditions regulating convective cloud formation above southeastern US pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Novick, Kimberly; Oishi, Andrew Christopher; Noormets, Asko; Marani, Marco; Katul, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) occupy more than 20% of the forested area in the southern United States, represent more than 50% of the standing pine volume in this region, and remove from the atmosphere about 500 g C m-2 per year through net ecosystem exchange. Hence, their significance as a major regional carbon sink can hardly be disputed. What is disputed is whether the proliferation of young plantations replacing old forest in the southern United States will alter key aspects of the hydrologic cycle, including convective rainfall, which is the focus of the present work. Ecosystem fluxes of sensible (Hs) and latent heat (LE) and large-scale, slowly evolving free atmospheric temperature and water vapor content are known to be first-order controls on the formation of convective clouds in the atmospheric boundary layer. These controlling processes are here described by a zero-order analytical model aimed at assessing how plantations of different ages may regulate the persistence and transition of the atmospheric system between cloudy and cloudless conditions. Using the analytical model together with field observations, the roles of ecosystem Hs and LE on convective cloud formation are explored relative to the entrainment of heat and moisture from the free atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that cloudy-cloudless regimes at the land surface are regulated by a nonlinear relation between the Bowen ratio Bo=Hs/LE and root-zone soil water content, suggesting that young/mature pines ecosystems have the ability to recirculate available water (through rainfall predisposition mechanisms). Such nonlinearity was not detected in a much older pine stand, suggesting a higher tolerance to drought but a limited control on boundary layer dynamics. These results enable the generation of hypotheses about the impacts on convective cloud formation driven by afforestation/deforestation and groundwater depletion projected to increase following increased human population in the

  16. Atmospheric aerosol optical parameters, deep convective clouds and hail occurence - a correlation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talianu, Camelia; Andrei, Simona; Toanca, Florica; Stefan, Sabina

    2016-04-01

    Among the severe weather phenomena, whose frequency has increased during the past two decades, hail represents a major threat not only for agriculture but also for other economical fields. Generally, hail are produced in deep convective clouds, developed in an unstable environment. Recent studies have emphasized that besides the state of the atmosphere, the atmospheric composition is also very important. The presence of fine aerosols in atmosphere could have a high impact on nucleation processes, initiating the occurrence of cloud droplets, ice crystals and possibly the occurrence of graupel and/or hail. The presence of aerosols in the atmosphere, correlated with specific atmospheric conditions, could be predictors of the occurrence of hail events. The atmospheric investigation using multiwavelength Lidar systems can offer relevant information regarding the presence of aerosols, identified using their optical properties, and can distinguish between spherical and non-spherical shape, and liquid and solid phase of these aerosols. The aim of this study is to analyse the correlations between the presence and the properties of aerosols in atmosphere, and the production of hail events in a convective environment, using extensive and intensive optical parameters computed from lidar and ceilometer aerosols measurements. From these correlations, we try to evaluate if these aerosols can be taken into consideration as predictors for hail formation. The study has been carried out in Magurele - Romania (44.35N, 26.03E, 93m ASL) using two collocated remote sensing systems: a Raman Lidar (RALI) placed at the Romanian Atmospheric 3D Observatory and a ceilometer CL31 placed at the nearby Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest. To evaluate the atmospheric conditions, radio sounding and satellite images were used. The period analysed was May 1st - July 15th, 2015, as the May - July period is climatologically favorable for deep convection events. Two hail events have been

  17. Atmospheric circulation of tidally locked exoplanets II: dual-band radiative transfer and convective adjustment

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin; Phillipps, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Improving upon our purely dynamical work, we present three-dimensional simulations of the atmospheric circulation on Earth-like (exo)planets and hot Jupiters using the GFDL-Princeton Flexible Modeling System (FMS). As the first steps away from the purely dynamical benchmarks of Heng, Menou & Phillipps (2011), we add dual-band radiative transfer and dry convective adjustment schemes to our computational setup. Our treatment of radiative transfer assumes stellar irradiation to peak at a wavelength shorter than and distinct from that at which the exoplanet re-emits radiation ("shortwave" versus "longwave"), and also uses a two-stream approximation. Convection is mimicked by adjusting unstable lapse rates to the dry adiabat. The bottom of the atmosphere is bounded by an uniform slab with a finite thermal inertia. For our hot Jupiter models, we include an analytical formalism for calculating temperature-pressure profiles, in radiative equilibrium, which accounts for the effect of collision-induced absorption v...

  18. A model study of mixing and entrainment in the horizontally evolving atmospheric convective boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorovich, E.; Kaiser, R. [Univ. Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Hydrologie und Wasserwirtschaft (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    We present results from a parallel wind-tunnel/large-eddy simulation (LES) model study of mixing and entrainment in the atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) longitudinally developing over a heated surface. The advection-type entrainment of warmer air from upper turbulence-free layers into the growing CBL has been investigated. Most of numerical and laboratory model studies of the CBL carried out so far dealt with another type of entrainment, namely the non-steady one, regarding the CBL growth as a non-stationary process. In the atmosphere, both types of the CBL development can take place, often being superimposed. (au)

  19. Tangent linear superparameterization of convection in a 10 layer global atmosphere with calibrated climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick; Mapes, Brian; Hu, I.-Kuan; Song, Siwon; Kuang, Zhiming

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a new intermediate global atmosphere model in which synoptic and planetary dynamics including the advection of water vapor are explicit in 10 layers, the time-mean flow is centered near a realistic state through the use of carefully calibrated time-independent 3-D forcings, and temporal anomalies of convective tendencies of heat and moisture in each column are represented as a linear matrix acting on the anomalous temperature and moisture profiles. Currently, this matrix is Kuang's [] linear response function (LRF) of a cyclic convection-permitting model (CCPM) in equilibrium with specified atmospheric cooling (i.e., without radiation or WISHE interactions, so it conserves column moist static energy exactly). The goal of this effort is to cleanly test the role of convection's free-tropospheric moisture sensitivity in tropical waves, without incurring large changes of mean climate that confuse the interpretation of experiments with entrainment parameters in the convection schemes of full-physics GCMs. When the sensitivity to free-tropospheric moisture is multiplied by a factor ranging from 0 to 2, the model's variability ranges from: (1) moderately strong convectively coupled Kelvin waves with speeds near 20 m s-1; to (0) similar but much weaker waves; to (2) similar but stronger and slightly faster waves as the water vapor field plays an increasingly important role. Longitudinal structure in the model's time-mean tropical flow is not fully realistic, and does change significantly with matrix-coupled variability, but further work on editing the anomaly physics matrix and calibrating the mean state could improve this class of models.

  20. A test of sensitivity to convective transport in a global atmospheric CO{sub 2} simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, H. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). UMBC Goddard Earth Science and Technology Center; Kawa, S.R.; Chin, M.; Pawson, S.; Zhu, Z. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Rasch, P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Wu, S. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Two approximations to convective transport have been implemented in an offline chemistry transport model (CTM) to explore the impact on calculated atmospheric CO{sub 2} distributions. Global CO{sub 2} in the year 2000 is simulated using the CTM driven by assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA's Goddard Earth Observation System Data Assimilation System, Version 4 (GEOS-4). The model simulates atmospheric CO{sub 2} by adopting the same CO{sub 2} emission inventory and dynamical modules as described in Kawa et al. (convective transport scheme denoted as Conv1). Conv1 approximates the convective transport by using the bulk convective mass fluxes to redistribute trace gases. The alternate approximation, Conv2, partitions fluxes into updraft and downdraft, as well as into entrainment and detrainment, and has potential to yield a more realistic simulation of vertical redistribution through deep convection.Replacing Conv1 by Conv2 results in an overestimate of CO{sub 2} over biospheric sink regions. The largest discrepancies result in a CO{sub 2} difference of about 7.8 ppm in the July NH boreal forest, which is about 30% of the CO{sub 2} seasonality for that area. These differences are compared to those produced by emission scenario variations constrained by the framework of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to account for possible land use change and residual terrestrial CO{sub 2} sink. It is shown that the overestimated CO{sub 2} driven by Conv2 can be offset by introducing these supplemental emissions.

  1. Evolution of Externally Excited Convective Cells in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugai, H.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1983-01-01

    Convective cells are excited externally in a fully ionized magnetized plasma, and their space-time evolution is investigated by two-dimensional potential measurements. A positive cell is excited externally in the `scrape-off' layer of a plasma column produced by surface ionization. Its interaction...

  2. The structure of convective rain cells at mid-latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rebora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rain cells are structures which represent an important component of convective precipitation and a study of their properties represents a necessary step both towards improved stochastic models of small-scale precipitation and for the verification of deterministic high resolution local-area models. The case of intense convective precipitation in the tropics has been analysed in a recent study (von Hardenberg et al., 2003. Here we extend the analysis to mid-latitudes and we present results on the structure of convective rain cells observed by radar measurements in Italy. In particular we consider the average shape of precipitation cells and its dependence on radar resolution and the distributions of ellipticities.

  3. Physics-based Stabilization of Spectral Elements for the 3D Euler Equations of Moist Atmospheric Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    3D Euler Equations of Moist Atmospheric Convection 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...STABILIZATION OF SPECTRAL ELEMENTS FOR THE 3D EULER EQUATIONS OF MOIST ATMOSPHERIC CONVECTION SIMONE MARRAS, ANDREAS MÜLLER, FRANCIS X. GIRALDO Dept. Appl...spectral elements, we introduce a dissipative scheme based on the solution of the compressible Euler equations that are regularized through the addi

  4. Effects of Explicit Convection on Global Land-atmosphere Coupling in the Superparameterized CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Pritchard, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Many global climate models are prone to producing land-atmosphere coupling dynamics that are too strong and simplistic. Cumulus and convection parameterizations are natural culprits but the effect of bypassing them with explicitly resolved convection on global land-atmosphere coupling dynamics has not been explored systematically. We apply a suite of modern land-atmosphere coupling diagnostics to isolate the effect of cloud superparameterization (SP) in the Community Atmosphere Model v3.5, focusing on both the land segment (i.e., soil moisture and evapotranspiration relationship) and atmospheric segment (i.e., evapotranspiration and precipitation relationship) in the water pathway of the land-atmosphere feedback loop. Comparing SPCAM3.5 and conventional CAM3.5 in daily timescale, our results show that the Super-Parameterized model reduces the coupling strength in the Central Great Plain in American, and reverses the terrestrial segment coupling sign (from negative to positive) over India. Which are consistent with previous studies and are favorable improvements on the known issues reported in literatures. Analysis of the triggering feedback strength (TFS) and amount feedback strength (AFS) shows that SPCAM3.5 favorably reproduces the patterns of these indices over North America, with probability of afternoon precipitation enhanced by high evaporative fraction along the eastern United States and Mexico, while conventional CAM3.5 does not capture this signal. The links in the soil moisture-precipitation feedback loop are further explored through applying the mixing diagram approach to the diurnal cycles of the land surface and planetary boundary layer variables.

  5. Effects of explicit convection on global land-atmosphere coupling in the superparameterized CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Pritchard, Michael S.

    2016-09-01

    Conventional global climate models are prone to producing unrealistic land-atmosphere coupling signals. Cumulus and convection parameterizations are natural culprits but the effect of bypassing them with explicitly resolved convection on global land-atmosphere coupling dynamics has not been explored systematically. We apply a suite of modern land-atmosphere coupling diagnostics to isolate the effect of cloud Superparameterization in the Community Atmosphere Model (SPCAM) v3.5, focusing on both the terrestrial segment (i.e., soil moisture and surface turbulent fluxes interaction) and atmospheric segment (i.e., surface turbulent fluxes and precipitation interaction) in the water pathway of the land-atmosphere feedback loop. At daily timescales, SPCAM produces stronger uncoupled terrestrial signals (negative sign) over tropical rainforests in wet seasons, reduces the terrestrial coupling strength in the Central Great Plain in American, and reverses the coupling sign (from negative to positive) over India in the boreal summer season—all favorable improvements relative to reanalysis-forced land modeling. Analysis of the triggering feedback strength (TFS) and amplification feedback strength (AFS) shows that SPCAM favorably reproduces the observed geographic patterns of these indices over North America, with the probability of afternoon precipitation enhanced by high evaporative fraction along the eastern United States and Mexico, while conventional CAM does not capture this signal. We introduce a new diagnostic called the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) Feedback Strength (PFS), which reveals that SPCAM exhibits a tight connection between the responses of the lifting condensation level, the PBL height, and the rainfall triggering to surface turbulent fluxes; a triggering disconnect is found in CAM.

  6. Primary instabilities in convective cells due to nonuniform heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancho, A. M.; Herrero, H.; Burguete, J.

    1997-09-01

    We study a convection problem in a container with a surface open to the air and heated by a long wire placed at the bottom. Coupled buoyancy and thermocapillarity effects are taken into account. A basic convective state appears as soon as a temperature gradient with horizontal component different from zero is applied. It consists of two big rolls that fill the convective cell and are parallel to the heater. A numerical solution allows us to determine this basic state. A linear stability analysis on this solution is carried out. For different values of the applied temperature gradient the basic rolls undergo a stationary bifurcation. The thresholds depend on the fluid properties, on the geometry of the heater, and on the heat exchange on the free surface. This confirms the results obtained in recent experiments.

  7. A study on the structure of the convective atmosphere over the Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-99

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U C Mohanty; N V Sam; S Das; A N V Satyanarayana

    2003-06-01

    Convective activity is one of the major processes in the atmosphere influencing the local and large scale weather in the tropics. The latent heat released by the cumulus cloud is known to drive monsoon circulation, which on the other hand supplies the moisture that maintains the cumulus clouds. An investigation is carried out on the convective structure of the atmosphere during active and suppressed periods of convection using data sets obtained from the Bay of Bengal and Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX). The cumulus convection though being a small-scale phenomenon, still influences its embedding environment by interaction through various scales. This study shows the variation in the kinematic and convective parameters during the transition from suppressed to active periods of convection. Convergence in the lower levels and strong upward vertical velocity, significant during active convection are associated with the formation of monsoon depressions. The apparent heat source due to latent heat release and the vertical transport of the eddy heat by cumulus convection, and the apparent moisture sink due to net condensation and vertical divergence of the eddy transport of moisture, are estimated through residuals of the thermodynamic equation and examined in relation to monsoon activity during BOBMEX.

  8. Comparisons of Photospheric Convection Cell Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Wiliams, P. E.

    2009-12-01

    Solar convection plays an important role in generating and structuring the solar magnetic field as well as a mechanism responsible for the 11-year solar cycle. The observed phenomena are strongly linked within both observational and physical regimes. Our main focus is the study of supergranulation from SOHO/MDI Dopplergrams. Suites of analysis methods are applied to time-series of Doppler images to quantitatively describe supergranule flow velocities, spatial scales and temporal lifetimes. SOHO/MDI magnetograms also show cellular structures, which trace the clustering of magnetic field lines around supergranule boundaries. These boundaries are extrapolated into the chromosphere where they are observed as a cellular network. We present preliminary results of applying methods similar to those applied to the Dopplergrams for estimating the spatial and temporal characteristics of this network. We extend our study to above the photosphere to the chromosphere where another cellular network is seen. Once again the responsibility lies with supergranulation. Spatial analysis on CaIIK data from the Precision Solar Photometric Telescope (PSPT) provides typical size scales for the network that can be compared to both the magnetogram network and supergranulation itself. Data comparisons over time can be made, notably between Doppler data received during the current (2008) and previous (1996) solar minima. Our provisional findings show that horizontal and radial velocity flows within supergranules are stronger during the current minimum, while the supergranules themselves appear larger during the previous minimum. However, comparable results are found for the 1/e lifetimes derived from each data set. We extend these provisional results by performing statistical analyses both within and between the various data sets.

  9. A numerical model of localized convection cells of Euglena suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iima, Makoto; Shoji, Erika; Yamaguchi, Takayuki

    2014-11-01

    Suspension of Euglena gracilis shows localized convection cells when it is illuminated form below with strong light intensity. Experiments in an annular container shows that there are two elementary localized structures. One consists of a pair of convection cells and a single region where number density of Euglena is high. The other consists a localized traveling wave. Based on the measurements of the flux of number density, we propose a model of bioconvection incorporating lateral phototaxis effect proportional to the light intensity gradient. Using pseudo spectral method, we performed numerical simulation of this model. We succeed in reproducing one of the localized structures, a convection pair with single region of high number density. Also, when the aspect ratio is large, there are a parameter region where the localized structure and conductive state are both stable, which is suggested by experiments. Spatial distribution of the number density implies that the accumulation of microorganism due to the convective flow causes such bistability. CREST(PJ74100011) and KAKENHI(26400396).

  10. The asteroseismic surface effect from a grid of 3D convection simulations - I. Frequency shifts from convective expansion of stellar atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trampedach, Regner; Aarslev, Magnus J.; Houdek, Günter

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the effect on adiabatic stellar oscillation frequencies of replacing the near-surface layers in 1D stellar structure models with averaged 3D stellar surface convection simulations. The main difference is an expansion of the atmosphere by 3D convection, expected to explain a major part...... of the asteroseismic surface effect; a systematic overestimation of p-mode frequencies due to inadequate surface physics. We employ pairs of 1D stellar envelope models and 3D simulations from a previous calibration of the mixing-length parameter, alpha. That calibration constitutes the hitherto most consistent...... matching of 1D models to 3D simulations, ensuring that their differences are not spurious, but entirely due to the 3D nature of convection. The resulting frequency shift is identified as the structural part of the surface effect. The important, typically non-adiabatic, modal components of the surface...

  11. Influence of atmospheric convection on the long and short-range transport of Xe133 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta; Krysta, Monika; Gheddou, Abdelhakim; Nikkinen, Mika

    2014-05-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) developed by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is a global system of monitoring stations, using four complementary technologies: seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide. Data from all stations, belonging to IMS, are collected and transmitted to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria. The radionuclide network comprises 79 stations, of which more than 60 are certified. The aim of radionuclide stations is a global monitoring of radioactive aerosols and radioactive noble gases supported by the atmospheric transport modelling (ATM). The ATM system is based on the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model, FLEXPART, designed for calculating the long-range and mesoscale dispersion of air pollution from point sources. In the operational configuration only the transport of the passive tracer is simulated. The question arises whether including other atmospheric processes, like convection, will improve results. To answer this question a series of forward simulations was conducted, assuming the maximum transport of 14 days. Each time 2 runs were performed: one with convection and one without convection. The release point was at the ANSTO facility in Australia. Due to the fact that CTBTO has recently received a noble gas emission inventory from the ANSTO facility we had a chance to do more accurate simulations. Studies have been performed to link Xe133 emissions with detections at the IMS stations supported by the ATM. The geographical localization to some extend justifies the assumption that the only source of Xe133 observed at the neighbouring stations, e.g. AUX04, AUX09 and NZX46, comes from the ANSTO facility. In simulations the analysed wind data provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) were used with the spatial resolution of 0.5 degree. The results of quantitative and qualitative comparison will be presented.

  12. Evaluation of the atmospheric transport in a GCM using radon measurements: sensitivity to cumulus convection parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zhang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The radioactive species radon (222Rn has long been used as a test tracer for the numerical simulation of large scale transport processes. In this study, radon transport experiments are carried out using an atmospheric GCM with a finite-difference dynamical core, the van Leer type FFSL advection algorithm, and two state-of-the-art cumulus convection parameterization schemes. Measurements of surface concentration and vertical distribution of radon collected from the literature are used as references in model evaluation.

    The simulated radon concentrations using both convection schemes turn out to be consistent with earlier studies with many other models. Comparison with measurements indicates that at the locations where significant seasonal variations are observed in reality, the model can reproduce both the monthly mean surface radon concentration and the annual cycle quite well. At those sites where the seasonal variation is not large, the model is able to give a correct magnitude of the annual mean. In East Asia, where radon simulations are rarely reported in the literature, detailed analysis shows that our results compare reasonably well with the observations.

    The most evident changes caused by the use of a different convection scheme are found in the vertical distribution of the tracer. The scheme associated with weaker upward transport gives higher radon concentration up to about 6 km above the surface, and lower values in higher altitudes. In the lower part of the atmosphere results from this scheme does not agree as well with the measurements as the other scheme. Differences from 6 km to the model top are even larger, although we are not yet able to tell which simulation is better due to the lack of observations at such high altitudes.

  13. Evaluation of the atmospheric transport in a GCM using radon measurements: sensitivity to cumulus convection parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zhang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The radioactive species radon (222Rn has long been used as a test tracer for the numerical simulation of large scale transport processes. In this study, radon transport experiments are carried out using an atmospheric GCM with a finite-difference dynamical core, the van Leer type FFSL advection algorithm and two state-of-the-art cumulus convection parameterization schemes. Measurements of surface concentration and vertical distribution of radon collected from literature are used as references in model evaluation.

    The simulated radon concentrations using both convection schemes turn out to be consistent with earlier studies with many other models. Comparison with measurements indicates that at the locations where significant seasonal variations are observed in reality, the model can reproduce both the monthly mean surface radon concentration and the annual cycle quite well. At those sites where the seasonal variation is not large, the model is able to give a correct magnitude of the annual mean. In East Asia, where radon simulations are rarely reported in literature, detailed analysis shows that our results compare reasonably well with the observations.

    The most evident changes caused by the use of a different convection scheme are found in the vertical distribution of the tracer. The scheme associated with a weaker upward transport gives higher radon concentration up to about 6 km above the surface, and lower values in higher altitudes. In the lower part of the atmosphere results from this scheme does not agree as well with the measurements as the other scheme. Differences from 6 km to the model top are even larger, although we are not yet able to tell which simulation is better due to the lack of observations at such high altitudes.

  14. The Impact of Vegetation on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Convective Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsengdar John

    The impact of vegetation on atmospheric boundary layer and convective storms is examined through the construction and testing of a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model. The Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere (LEAF) model is developed using an elevated canopy structure, an above -canopy aerodynamic resistance, two in-canopy aerodynamic resistances, and one stomatal conductance functions. The air temperature and humidity are assumed to be constant in the canopy whereas the wind and radiation follow a specified vertical profile. A simple dump-bucket method is used to parameterize the interception of precipitation and a multi-layer soil model is utilized to handle the vertical transfer of soil water. Evaporation from soil and wet leaves and transpiration from dry leaves are evaluated separately. The solid water uptake is based on soil water potential rather than on the length of roots. Separate energy budgets for vegetation and for the soil are used in order to remove unnecessary assumptions on energy partition between the vegetation and the substrate. Primary parameters are LAI, maximum stomatal conductance, and albedo. Secondary parameters include displacement height and environmental controls on stomatal resistance function. Due to the complexity of the LEAF model, statistical methods are used to improve LEAF model performance. The Multi-response Randomized Bock Permutation (MRBP) procedure is used to guide the choice of model parameter values. The Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) is applied to better understand the model behavior in response to the changes in model parameters. Finally, LEAF is used to study the growth of boundary layer and the local thermal circulations generated by surface inhomogeneities. Results show the atmospheric boundary layer is substantially cooler and more moist over unstressed vegetation than over bare dry soil. Thermally forced circulation can result from the juxtaposition of two vegetation types due to different biophysical

  15. EVALUATION OF AN IMPROVED CONVECTION TRIGGERING MECHANISM IN THE NCAR COMMUNITY ATMOSPHERE MODEL CAM2 UNDER CAPT FRAMEWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, S; Boyle, J S; Cederwall, R T; Potter, G L; Zhang, M

    2003-10-15

    The problem that convection over land is overactive during warm-season daytime in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model CAM2 and its previous version (CCM3) has been found both in its single-column model (SCM) simulations (Xie and Zhang 2000; Ghan et al. 2000; Xie et al. 2002) and in its full general circulation model (GCM) short-range weather forecasts (Phillips et al. 2003) and climate simulations (Dai and Trenberth 2003). These studies showed that this problem is closely related to the convection triggering mechanism used in its deep convection scheme (Zhang and McFarlane 1995), which assumes that convection is triggered whenever there is positive convective available potential energy (CAPE). The positive CAPE triggering mechanism initiates model convection too often during the day because of the strong diurnal variations in the surface isolation and the induced CAPE diurnal change over land in the warm season. To reduce the problem, Xie and Zhang (2000) introduced a dynamic constraint, i.e., a dynamic CAPE generation rate (DCAPE) determined by the large-scale advective tendencies of temperature and moisture, to control the onset of deep convection. They showed that positive DCAPE is closely associated with convection in observations and the dynamic constraint could largely reduce the effect of the strong diurnal variations in the surface fluxes on the initiation of convection. Using the SCM version of CCM3, which has the same deep convection scheme as CAM2, Xie and Zhang (2000) showed that considerable improvements can be obtained in the model simulation of precipitation and other thermodynamic fields when the dynamic constraint was applied to the model triggering function. However, the performance of the improved convection triggering mechanism in the full GCM has not been tested. In this study, we will test the improved convection trigger mechanism in CAM2 under the U.S. Department of Energy's Climate Change

  16. The role of convection, overshoot, and gravity waves for the transport of dust in M dwarf and brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Freytag, Bernd; Ludwig, Hans-Guenter; Homeier, Derek; Steffen, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Observationally, spectra of brown dwarfs indicate the presence of dust in their atmospheres while theoretically it is not clear what prevents the dust from settling and disappearing from the regions of spectrum formation. Consequently, standard models have to rely on ad hoc assumptions about the mechanism that keeps dust grains aloft in the atmosphere. We apply hydrodynamical simulations to develop an improved physical understanding of the mixing properties of macroscopic flows in M dwarf and brown dwarf atmospheres, in particular of the influence of the underlying convection zone. We performed 2D radiation hydrodynamics simulations including a description of dust grain formation and transport with the CO5BOLD code. The simulations cover the very top of the convection zone and the photosphere including the dust layers for effective temperatures between 900K and 2800K, all with logg=5 assuming solar chemical composition. Convective overshoot occurs in the form of exponentially declining velocities with small s...

  17. Convective flows of colloidal suspension in an inclined closed cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorodin, Boris; Cherepanov, Ivan; Ishutov, Sergey

    2016-12-01

    The nonlinear spatiotemporal evolution of convective flows is numerically investigated in the case of colloidal suspension filling an inclined closed cell heated from below. The bifurcation diagram (the dependency of the Nusselt number on the Rayleigh number) is obtained. The characteristics of the wave and steady patterns are investigated depending on heat intensity. The travelling wave changing travel direction and the non-regular oscillatory flow are found to be stable solutions within a certain interval of the Rayleigh number. Temporal Fourier decomposition is used together with other diagnostic tools to analyse the complex bifurcation and spatiotemporal properties caused by the interplay of the gravity-induced gradient of concentration and convective mixing of the fluid. It is shown that a more complex flow structure exists at a lower heating intensity (Rayleigh number).

  18. Outer scale and Monin-Obukhov flux relationships of atmospheric turbulence under dry convective conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruin, Henk; Hartogensis, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    In this study we will investigate the assumption that in the atmospheric surface layer the outer scale (L0) is proportional to the height above the surface, under dry convective conditions. For this purpose we analyzed raw sonic anemometers data collected at 3.5 m and at 9 m in a field campaign at the Santa Cruz Flats (32040.3190'N, 111032.641'W, 526 m of elevation) near Eloy, Arizona. For simplicity, we define the L0 as that separation distance at which the spatial correlation coefficient of air temperature at two points in the surface layer is 0.5. Then, according to the 2/3-Kolmogorov scaling law in the inertial sub-range, L0 is determined by the variance and the structure parameter of T . It is found that L0 does not scale with height. Possible reasons for this negative result will be discussed, by considering the methodology to determine structure parameters, Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, effects of intermittency and Monin-Obukhov flux relationships for variance and structure parameter for T . The question is asked whether the concept of surface constant flux layer still holds under strong convective condition.

  19. Interaction of Convective Organization and Monsoon Precipitation, Atmosphere, Surface and Sea (INCOMPASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A. G.; Bhat, G. S.; Evans, J. G.; Madan, R.; Marsham, J. H.; Martin, G.; Mitra, A. K.; Mrudula, G.; Parker, D. J.; Pattnaik, S.; Rajagopal, E. N.; Taylor, C.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2016-12-01

    INCOMPASS will build on a field and aircraft measurement campaign from the 2016 monsoon onset to better understand and predict monsoon rainfall. The monsoon supplies the majority of water in South Asia, however modelling and forecasting the monsoon from days to the season ahead is limited by large model errors that develop quickly. Likely problems lie in physical parametrizations such as convection, the boundary layer and land surface. At the same time, lack of detailed observations prevents more thorough understanding of monsoon circulation and its interaction with the land surface; a process governed by boundary layer and convective cloud dynamics. From May to July 2016, INCOMPASS used a modified BAe-146 jet aircraft operated by the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM), for the first project of this scale in India. The India and UK team flew around 100 hours of science sorties from bases in northern and southern India. Flights from Lucknow in the northern plains took measurements to the west and southeast to allow sampling of the complete contrast from dry desert air to the humid environment over the north Bay of Bengal. These routes were repeated in the pre-monsoon and monsoon phases, measuring contrasting surface and boundary layer structures. In addition, flights from the southern base in Bengaluru measured contrasts from the Arabian Sea, across the intense rains of the Western Ghats mountains, over the rain shadow in southeast India and over the southern Bay of Bengal. Flight planning was performed with the aid of forecasts from a new UK Met Office 4km limited area model. INCOMPASS also installed a network of surface flux towers, as well as operating a cloud-base ceilometer and performing intensive radiosonde launches from a supersite in Kanpur. This presentation will outline preliminary results from the field campaign including new observations of the surface, boundary layer structure and atmospheric profiles together with detailed

  20. Improving Convection and Cloud Parameterization Using ARM Observations and NCAR Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-11-07

    The fundamental scientific objectives of our research are to use ARM observations and the NCAR CAM5 to understand the large-scale control on convection, and to develop improved convection and cloud parameterizations for use in GCMs.

  1. Impact of poloidal convective cells on momentum flux in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbet, X.; Asahi, Y.; Donnel, P.; Ehrlacher, C.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Radial fluxes of parallel momentum due to E× B and magnetic drifts are shown to be correlated in tokamak plasmas. This correlation comes from the onset of poloidal convective cells generated by turbulence. The entire process requires a symmetry breaking mechanism, e.g. a mean shear flow. An analytical calculation shows that anti-correlation between the poloidal and parallel components of the turbulent Reynolds stress results in anti-correlation of the fluxes of parallel momentum generated by E× B and curvature drifts.

  2. The transient behavior of scaling in the atmosphere: stratiform/convective transition and applications to sub-grid scale statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, M.; Barros, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Multifractal behavior holds to a remarkable approximation over wide ranges of spatial scales in orographic rainfall and cloud fields. The scaling exponents characterizing this behavior are shown to be fundamentally transient with nonlinear dependencies on the particular atmospheric state and terrain forcing. In particular, a robust transition is found in the scaling parameters between non-convective (stable) and convective (unstable) regimes, with clear physical correspondence to the transition from stratiform to organized convective orographic precipitation. These results can explain two often reported scaling regimes for atmospheric wind, temperature and water observations. On the one hand, spectral slopes around 2-2.3 arise under non-convective or very weak convective conditions when the spatial patterns are dominated by large-scale gradients and landform. On the other hand, under convective conditions the scaling exponents generally fluctuate around 5/3, in agreement with the Kolmogorov turbulent regime accounting for the intermittency correction. High-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are able to reproduce the ubiquitous scaling behavior of observed atmospheric fields down to their effective resolution length-scale, below which the variability is misrepresented by the model. The effective resolution is shown to be a transient property dependent on the particular simulated conditions and NWP formulation, implying that a blunt decrease in grid spacing without adjusting numerical techniques may not lead to the improvements desired.Finally, the application of transient spatial scaling behavior for stochastic downscaling and sub-grid scale parameterization of cloud and rainfall fields is investigated. The proposed fractal methods are able to rapidly generate large ensembles of high-resolution statistically robust fields from the coarse resolution information alone, which can provide significant improvements for stochastic hydrological prediction

  3. The magnetic field of Betelgeuse: a local dynamo from giant convection cells?

    CERN Document Server

    Auriere, M; Konstantinova-Antova, R; Perrin, G; Petit, P; Roudier, T

    2010-01-01

    Betelgeuse is an M supergiant with a complex and extended atmosphere, which also harbors spots and giant granules at its surface. A possible magnetic field could contribute to the mass loss and to the heating of the outer atmosphere. We observed Betelgeuse, to directly study and infer the nature of its magnetic field. We used the new-generation spectropolarimeter NARVAL and the least square deconvolution (LSD) method to detect circular polarization within the photospheric absorption lines of Betelgeuse. We have unambiguously detected a weak Stokes V signal in the spectral lines of Betelgeuse, and measured the related surface-averaged longitudinal magnetic field Bl at 6 different epochs over one month. The detected longitudinal field is about one Gauss and is apparently increasing on the time scale of our observations. This work presents the first direct detection of the magnetic field of Betelgeuse. This magnetic field may be associated to the giant convection cells that could enable a "local dynamo:.

  4. Effects of Explicit Convection on Land-Atmosphere Coupling in GLACE-Type Experiments Using the SuperParameterized CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Pritchard, M. S.; Parishani, H.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding and realistically simulating the coupling between land and atmosphere in global climate models (GCMs) is an ongoing research frontier. We explore the hypothesis that past attempts to investigate these physics using GCM mechanism denial experiments may have suffered systematic limitations stemming from an overly strong sensitivity of deep convection parameterizations to surface conditions. Taking the philosophy of the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE), we therefore compare the effects of breaking the soil-atmosphere feedback mechanism in the Super-Parameterized Community Atmosphere Model version 3.5 (SPCAM3.5) - which uses O(10k) embedded cloud resolving models to explicitly resolve moist convection - against the conventionally parameterized CAM3.5. This helps isolate the influence of explicit convection on land-atmosphere coupling. We find that soil moisture - precipitation coupling strength is reduced over northern Africa, northern South America and Arabian Peninsula due to superparameterization. Several geographically distinct coupling "hotspots" emerge in SPCAM3.5 located upstream of major topographic features in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes.

  5. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  6. The asteroseismic surface effect from a grid of 3D convection simulations. I. Frequency shifts from convective expansion of stellar atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Trampedach, Regner; Houdek, Günter; Collet, Remo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Stein, Robert F; Asplund, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the effect on adiabatic stellar oscillation frequencies of replacing the near-surface layers in 1D stellar structure models with averaged 3D stellar surface convection simulations. The main difference is an expansion of the atmosphere by 3D convection, expected to explain a major part of the asteroseismic surface effect; a systematic overestimation of p-mode frequencies due to inadequate surface physics. We employ pairs of 1D stellar envelope models and 3D simulations from a previous calibration of the mixing-length parameter, alpha. That calibration constitutes the hitherto most consistent matching of 1D models to 3D simulations, ensuring that their differences are not spurious, but entirely due to the 3D nature of convection. The resulting frequency shift is identified as the structural part of the surface effect. The important, typically non-adiabatic, modal components of the surface effect are not included in the present analysis, but relegated to future papers. Evaluating the structural surfac...

  7. Multiple and spin off initiation of atmospheric convectively coupled Kelvin waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Dariusz B.; Flatau, Maria K.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Schmidt, Jerome M.

    2017-02-01

    A novel atmospheric convectively coupled Kelvin wave trajectories database, derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation data, is used to investigate initiation of sequential Kelvin wave events. Based on the analysis of beginnings of trajectories from years 1998-2012 it is shown that sequential event initiations can be divided into two distinct categories: multiple initiations and spin off initiations, both of which involve interactions with ocean surface and upper ocean temperature variability. The results of composite analysis of the 83 multiple Kelvin wave initiations show that the local thermodynamic forcing related to the diurnal sea surface temperature variability is responsible for sequential Kelvin wave development. The composite analysis of 91 spin off Kelvin wave initiations shows that the dynamic forcing is a dominant effect and the local thermodynamic forcing is secondary. Detail case studies of both multiple and spin off initiations confirm statistical analysis. A multiple initiation occurs in the presence of the high upper ocean diurnal cycle and a spin off initiation results from both dynamic and local thermodynamic processes. The dynamic forcing is related to increased wind speed and latent heat flux likely associated with an off equatorial circulation. In addition a theoretical study of the sequential Kelvin waves is performed using a shallow water model. Finally, conceptual models of these two types of initiations are proposed.

  8. Improving Convection Parameterization Using ARM Observations and NCAR Community Atmosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang J [Scripps Institution of Oceanography

    2013-07-29

    Highlight of Accomplishments: We made significant contribution to the ASR program in this funding cycle by better representing convective processes in GCMs based on knowledge gained from analysis of ARM/ASR observations. In addition, our work led to a much improved understanding of the interaction among aerosol, convection, clouds and climate in GCMs.

  9. The Stagger-grid: A grid of 3D stellar atmosphere models - III. The relation to mixing length convection theory

    CERN Document Server

    Magic, Zazralt; Asplund, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relation between 1D atmosphere models that rely on the mixing length theory and models based on full 3D radiative hydrodynamic (RHD) calculations to describe convection in the envelopes of late-type stars. The adiabatic entropy value of the deep convection zone, s_bot, and the entropy jump, {\\Delta}s, determined from the 3D RHD models, are matched with the mixing length parameter, {\\alpha}_MLT, from 1D hydrostatic atmosphere models with identical microphysics (opacities and equation-of-state). We also derive the mass mixing length, {\\alpha}_m, and the vertical correlation length of the vertical velocity, C[v_z,v_z], directly from the 3D hydrodynamical simulations of stellar subsurface convection. The calibrated mixing length parameter for the Sun is {\\alpha}_MLT (s_bot) = 1.98. For different stellar parameters, {\\alpha}_MLT varies systematically in the range of 1.7 - 2.4. In particular, {\\alpha}_MLT decreases towards higher effective temperature, lower surface gravity and higher metallicity...

  10. Uncertainties in atmospheric chemistry modelling due to convection parameterisations and subsequent scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tost

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Moist convection in global modelling contributes significantly to the transport of energy, momentum, water and trace gases and aerosols within the troposphere. Since convective clouds are on a scale too small to be resolved in a global model their effects have to be parameterised. However, the whole process of moist convection and especially its parameterisations are associated with uncertainties. In contrast to previous studies on the impact of convection on trace gases, which had commonly neglected the convective transport for some or all compounds, we investigate this issue by examining simulations with five different convection schemes. This permits an uncertainty analysis due to the process formulation, without the inconsistencies inherent in entirely neglecting deep convection or convective tracer transport for one or more tracers.

    Both the simulated mass fluxes and tracer distributions are analysed. Investigating the distributions of compounds with different characteristics, e.g., lifetime, chemical reactivity, solubility and source distributions, some differences can be attributed directly to the transport of these compounds, whereas others are more related to indirect effects, such as the transport of precursors, chemical reactivity in certain regions, and sink processes.

    The model simulation data are compared with the average regional profiles of several measurement campaigns, and in detail with two campaigns in fall and winter 2005 in Suriname and Australia, respectively.

    The shorter-lived a compound is, the larger the differences and consequently the uncertainty due to the convection parameterisation are, as long as it is not completely controlled by local production that is independent of convection and its impacts (e.g. water vapour changes. Whereas for long-lived compounds like CO or O3 the mean differences between the simulations are less than 25%, differences for short-lived compounds reach

  11. Towards convection-resolving, global atmospheric simulations with the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS: an extreme scaling experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Heinzeller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS is a novel set of earth-system simulation components and consists of an atmospheric model, an ocean model and a land-ice model. Its distinct features are the use of unstructured Voronoi meshes and C-grid discretisation to address shortcomings of global models on regular grids and of limited area models nested in a forcing data set, with respect to parallel scalability, numerical accuracy and physical consistency. This makes MPAS a promising tool for conducting climate-related impact studies of, for example, land use changes in a consistent approach. Here, we present an in-depth evaluation of MPAS with regards to technical aspects of performing model runs and scalability for three medium-size meshes on four different High Performance Computing sites with different architectures and compilers. We uncover model limitations and identify new aspects for the model optimisation that are introduced by the use of unstructured Voronoi meshes. We further demonstrate the model performance of MPAS in terms of its capability to reproduce the dynamics of the West African Monsoon and its associated precipitation. Comparing 11 month runs for two meshes with observations and a Weather Research & Forecasting tool (WRF reference model, we show that MPAS can reproduce the atmospheric dynamics on global and local scales, but that further optimisation is required to address a precipitation excess for this region. Finally, we conduct extreme scaling tests on a global 3 km mesh with more than 65 million horizontal grid cells on up to half a million cores. We discuss necessary modifications of the model code to improve its parallel performance in general and specific to the HPC environment. We confirm good scaling (70 % parallel efficiency or better of the MPAS model and provide numbers on the computational requirements for experiments with the 3 km mesh. In doing so, we show that global, convection-resolving atmospheric

  12. Phase locking between atmospheric convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin waves and the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Dariusz B.; Flatau, Maria K.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Matthews, Adrian J.

    2016-08-01

    Convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) are a major component of the tropical atmospheric circulation, propagating eastward around the equatorial belt. Here we show that there are scale interactions between CCKWs and the diurnal cycle over the Maritime Continent. In particular, CCKW packets that pass a base point in the eastern Indian Ocean at 90°E between 0600 and 0900 UTC subsequently arrive over Sumatra in phase with the diurnal cycle of convection. As the distance between Sumatra and Borneo is equal to the distance traveled by a CCKW in 1 day, these waves are then also in phase with the diurnal cycle over Borneo. Consequently, this subset of CCKWs has a precipitation signal up to a factor of 3 larger than CCKWs that arrive at other times of the day and a 40% greater chance of successfully traversing the Maritime Continent.

  13. Condensation-inhibited convection in hydrogen-rich atmospheres: Stability against double-diffusive processes and thermal profiles for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune

    CERN Document Server

    Leconte, Jérémy; Hersant, Franck; Guillot, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    In an atmosphere, a cloud condensation region is characterized by a strong vertical gradient in the abundance of the related condensing species. On Earth, the ensuing gradient of mean molecular weight has relatively few dynamical consequences because N$_2$ is heavier than water vapor, so that only the release of latent heat significantly impacts convection. On the contrary, in an hydrogen dominated atmosphere (e.g. giant planets), all condensing species are significantly heavier than the background gas. This can stabilize the atmosphere against convection near a cloud deck if the enrichment in the given species exceeds a critical threshold. This raises two questions. What is transporting energy in such a stabilized layer, and how affected can the thermal profile of giant planets be? To answer these questions, we first carry out a linear analysis of the convective and double-diffusive instabilities in a condensable medium showing that an efficient condensation can suppress double-diffusive convection. This sug...

  14. Representation of tropical deep convection in atmospheric models – Part 1: Meteorology and comparison with satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Russo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast convective transport in the tropics can efficiently redistribute water vapour and pollutants up to the upper troposphere. In this study we compare tropical convection characteristics for the year 2005 in a range of atmospheric models, including numerical weather prediction (NWP models, chemistry transport models (CTMs, and chemistry-climate models (CCMs. The model runs have been performed within the framework of the SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere project. The characteristics of tropical convection, such as seasonal cycle, land/sea contrast and vertical extent, are analysed using satellite observations as a benchmark for model simulations. The observational datasets used in this work comprise precipitation rates, outgoing longwave radiation, cloud-top pressure, and water vapour from a number of independent sources, including ERA-Interim analyses. Most models are generally able to reproduce the seasonal cycle and strength of precipitation for continental regions but show larger discrepancies with observations for the Maritime Continent region. The frequency distribution of high clouds from models and observations is calculated using highly temporally-resolved (up to 3-hourly cloud top data. The percentage of clouds above 15 km varies significantly between the models. Vertical profiles of water vapour in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS show large differences between the models which can only be partly attributed to temperature differences. If a convective plume reaches above the level of zero net radiative heating, which is estimated to be ~15 km in the tropics, the air detrained from it can be transported upwards by radiative heating into the lower stratosphere. In this context, we discuss the role of tropical convection as a precursor for the transport of short-lived species into the lower stratosphere.

  15. Characterization of the 222Rn family turbulent transport in the convective atmospheric boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Galmarini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of turbulent transport and radioactive decay on the distribution of 222Rn and its progeny in convective atmospheric boundary layers (CBL is investigated. Large eddy simulation is used to simulate their dispersion in steady state CBL and in unsteady conditions represented by the growth of a CBL within a pre-existing reservoir layer. The exact decomposition of the concentration and flux budget equations under steady state conditions allowed us to determine which processes are responsible for the vertical distribution of 222Rn and its progeny. Their mean concentrations are directly correlated with their half-life, e.g. 222Rn and 210Pb are the most abundant whereas 218Po show the lowest concentrations. 222Rn flux decreases linearly with height and its flux budget is similar to the one of inert emitted scalar, i.e., a balance between on the one hand the gradient and the buoyancy production terms, and on the other hand the pressure and dissipation at smaller scales which tends to destroy the fluxes. While 222Rn exhibits the typical bottom-up behavior, the maximum flux location of the daughters is moving upwards while their rank in the 222Rn progeny is increasing leading to a typical top-down behavior for 210Pb. We also found that the relevant radioactive decaying contributions of 222Rn short-lived daughters (218Po and 214Pb act as flux sources leading to deviations from the linear flux shape. In addition, while analyzing the vertical distribution of the radioactive decay contributions to the concentrations, e.g. the decaying zone, we found a variation in height of 222Rn daughters' radioactive transformations. Under unsteady conditions, the same behaviors reported under steady state conditions are found: deviation of the fluxes from the linear shape for 218Po, enhanced discrepancy in height of the radioactive transformation contributions for all the daughters. In addition, 222Rn and its progeny concentrations decrease due to the

  16. Surface and atmospheric controls on the onset of moist convection over land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentine, P.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Andrea, D' F.; Ek, M.

    2013-01-01

    The onset of moist convection over land is investigated using a conceptual approach with a slab boundary layer model. We here determine the essential factors for the onset of boundary layer clouds over land, and study their relative importance. They are: 1) the ratio of the temperature to the moistu

  17. Effect of thermal-convection-induced defects on the performance of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fei; Xie, Fengxian; Yin, Maoshu; He, Jinjin; Wang, Yanbo; Tang, Wentao; Chen, Han; Yang, Xudong; Han, Liyuan

    2017-07-01

    Thermal-convection-induced defects can cause huge loss in the power conversion efficiency of solution-processed perovskite solar cells. We investigated two types of convection in perovskite solution during the formation of perovskite films. By balancing the convection via special configurations of surface tension and boiling point in mixed γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), we removed microscopic defects such as rings, bumps, and crevices. The deposited perovskite films were smooth and dense, which enabled a high power conversion efficiency of 17.7% in a 1 cm2 cell area. We believe that the present strategy for controlling the convection can be helpful in improving the perovskite film quality for solvent-rich scalable solution processes of solar cells such as doctor blading, soft-cover deposition, printing, and slot-die coating.

  18. Convection-Diffusion Model for Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jets: Obtaining Off-Axis Data from On-Axis Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Bleker, Ansgar; Dünnbier, Mario; Winter, Jörn; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Reuter, Stephan

    2012-10-01

    An analytical convection-diffusion model for atmospheric pressure plasma jets is presented. The model can be applied both for ambient air species diffusion and for heat transfer into a jets effluent. Using on-axis data from experiments as input, the model can be used to extrapolate the measured quantities to the complete domain for laminar flows and near-axis region for turbulent flows. The method is applied to experimental data obtained from molecular beam mass spectrometry as well as from a VUV absorption spectrometry method using the plasma jet itself as a VUV emitter. The measurements are conducted on a turbulent atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet with a protective gas nozzle, allowing for the creation of a shielding gas curtain around the plasma jets effluent. The results obtained from the hybrid analytical-experimental method are compared to computational fluid dynamics simulations.

  19. Impacts from ice-nucleating bacteria on deep convection: implications for the biosphere-atmosphere interaction in climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. J. Phillips

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A cloud modeling framework is described to simulate ice nucleation by biogenic aerosol particles, as represented by airborne ice-nucleation active (INA bacteria. It includes the empirical parameterization of heterogeneous ice nucleation. The formation of cloud liquid by soluble material coated on such insoluble aerosols is represented and determines their partial removal from deep convective clouds by accretion onto precipitation.

    Preliminary simulations are performed for a case of deep convection over Oklahoma. If present at high enough concentrations, as might occur in proximity to land sources, INA bacteria are found to influence significantly: – (1 the average numbers and sizes of crystals in the clouds; (2 the horizontal cloud coverage in the free troposphere; and (3 precipitation and incident solar insolation at the surface, which influence rates of bacterial growth. At lower concentrations, the corresponding responses of cloud fields appear much lower or are ambiguous.

    In nature, the growth rates of INA bacteria on leaves prior to emission into the atmosphere are known to be highly dependent on temperature, precipitation and plant species. Consequently, the open question emerges of whether emissions of such ice-nucleating biogenic particles can then be modified by their own effects on clouds and atmospheric conditions, forming a weak feedback in climate or microclimate systems.

  20. National Convective Weather Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NCWF is an automatically generated depiction of: (1) current convection and (2) extrapolated signficant current convection. It is a supplement to, but does NOT...

  1. Improvements in Climate Simulation with Modifications to the Tiedtke Convective Parameterization in the Grid-Point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG (GAMIL)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The grid-point atmospheric model of IAP LASG (GAMIL) was developed in and has been evaluated since early 2004. Although the model shows its ability in simulating the global climate, it suffers from some problems in simulating precipitation in the tropics. These biases seem to result mainly from the treatment of the subgrid scale convection, which is parameterized with Tiedtke's massflux scheme (or the Zhang-McFarlane scheme, as an option) in the model. In order to reduce the systematic biases, several modifications were made to the Tiedtke scheme used in GAMIL, including (1) an increase in lateral convective entrainment/detrainment rate for shallow convection, (2) inclusion of a relative humidity threshold for the triggering of deep convection, and (3) a reduced efficiency for the conversion of cloud water to rainwater in the convection scheme.Two experiments, one with the original Tiedtke scheme used in GAMIL and the other with the modified scheme, were conducted to evaluate the performance of the modified scheme in this study. The results show that both the climatological mean state, such as precipitation, temperature and specific humidity, and interannual variability in the model simulation are improved with the use of this modified scheme. Results from several additional experiments show that the improvements in the model performance in different regions mainly result from either the introduction of the relative humidity threshold for triggering of the deep convection or the suppressed shallow convection due to enhanced lateral convective entrainment/detrainment rates.

  2. Feedback control and heat transfer measurements in a Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, M.; Hernández, R. H.

    2017-07-01

    We report experimental results on the heat transfer and instability onset of a Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell of aspect ratios 6:3:1 filled with a high Prandtl aqueous solution of glycerol under feedback control. We investigate the transient and stationary response of both local temperature readings and heat transfer fluxes on the Rayleigh Bénard cell in both conductive and convective states when we perform two independent feedback control actions on both hot and cold walls. We evaluate the performance of both controllers to maintain a temperature gradient independently if the system is below or above the convection threshold. As the convection cell can be rotated at 180° about the shorter axis of the cell, it was possible to perform transitions between thermal conduction and convection regimes and vice versa under a constant temperature difference maintained by both independent controllers. The experimental setup provided an accurate measurement of the critical Rayleigh number and the evolution of the Nusselt number as a function of the Rayleigh number in the moderately supercritical regime (R a convection pattern formed by 6 transverse rolls throughout the range of Rayleigh numbers.

  3. Observational relationship between meso-sized convection and 5-min oscillation in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, S.; Kitai, R.

    In order to understand 3-dimensional structures of upper solar convection zone, we performed two different kinds of observation simultaneously with the Domeless Solar Telescope of Hida Observatory. One is the 2D imaging observation of solar quiet photosphere in wavelengths around lambda4308 AA. Another is the slit 1D spectroscopy of the neutral iron line lambda6302.5 AA; at the central region of the field-of-view of the imaging observation. Thus the horizontal velocity field is obtained from the former observation, while the radial velocity field is obtained from the latter one at the same region. In both velocity fields, we found the meso-sized structures and confirmed convective nature of the flow. And we observed that amplitudes of 5-min oscillations were increased soon after large downward motions of convection, similar to the other observations' results (T.R. Rimmele, P.R. Goode, E. Harold, and R.T. Stebbins 1995; O. Espagnet, R. Muller, Th. Roudier, P. Mein, N. Mein, and J.M. Malherbe 1996). Moreover, we report the possible relationship between horizontal velocity gradient distributions and oscillation excitations.

  4. Convectively Forced Gravity Waves and their Sensitivity to Heating Profile and Atmospheric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Oliver; Parker, Douglas; Griffiths, Stephen; Vosper, Simon; Stirling, Alison

    2016-04-01

    It has been known for some time that convective heating is communicated to its environment by gravity waves. Despite this, the radiation of gravity waves in macro-scale models, which are typically forced at the grid-scale by meso-scale parameterization schemes, is not well understood. We present here theoretical work directed toward improving our fundamental understanding of convectively forced gravity wave effects at the meso-scale, in order to begin to address this problem. Starting with the hydrostatic, non-rotating, 2D, Boussinesq equations in a slab geometry, we find a radiating, analytical solution to prescribed sensible heat forcing for both the vertical velocity and potential temperature response. Both Steady and pulsed heating with adjustable horizontal structure is considered. From these solutions we construct a simple model capable of interrogating the spatial and temporal sensitivity to chosen heating functions of the remote forced response in particular. By varying the assumed buoyancy frequency, the influence of the model stratosphere on the upward radiation of gravity waves, and in turn, on the tropospheric response can be understood. Further, we find that the macro-scale response to convection is highly dependent on the radiation characteristics of gravity waves, which are in turn dependent upon the temporal and spatial structure of the source, and upper boundary condition of the domain.

  5. What causes the large extensions of red-supergiant atmospheres? Comparisons of interferometric observations with 1-D hydrostatic, 3-D convection, and 1-D pulsating model atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Arroyo-Torres, B; Chiavassa, A; Scholz, M; Freytag, B; Marcaide, J M; Hauschildt, P H; Wood, P R; Abellan, F J

    2015-01-01

    We present the atmospheric structure and the fundamental parameters of three red supergiants, increasing the sample of RSGs observed by near-infrared spectro-interferometry. Additionally, we test possible mechanisms that may explain the large observed atmospheric extensions of RSGs. We carried out spectro-interferometric observations of 3 RSGs in the near-infrared K-band with the VLTI/AMBER instrument at medium spectral resolution. To comprehend the extended atmospheres, we compared our observational results to predictions by available hydrostatic PHOENIX, available 3-D convection, and new 1-D self-excited pulsation models of RSGs. Our near-infrared flux spectra are well reproduced by the PHOENIX model atmospheres. The continuum visibility values are consistent with a limb-darkened disk as predicted by the PHOENIX models, allowing us to determine the angular diameter and the fundamental parameters of our sources. Nonetheless, in the case of V602 Car and HD 95686, the PHOENIX model visibilities do not predict ...

  6. The Stagger-grid: A grid of 3D stellar atmosphere models. III. The relation to mixing length convection theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magic, Z.; Weiss, A.; Asplund, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the relation between 1D atmosphere models that rely on the mixing length theory and models based on full 3D radiative hydrodynamic (RHD) calculations to describe convection in the envelopes of late-type stars. Methods: The adiabatic entropy value of the deep convection zone, sbot, and the entropy jump, Δs, determined from the 3D RHD models, were matched with the mixing length parameter, αMLT, from 1D hydrostatic atmosphere models with identical microphysics (opacities and equation-of-state). We also derived the mass mixing length parameter, αm, and the vertical correlation length of the vertical velocity, C[vz,vz], directly from the 3D hydrodynamical simulations of stellar subsurface convection. Results: The calibrated mixing length parameter for the Sun is α๏MLT (Sbot) = 1.98. . For different stellar parameters, αMLT varies systematically in the range of 1.7 - 2.4. In particular, αMLT decreases towards higher effective temperature, lower surface gravity and higher metallicity. We find equivalent results for α๏MLT (ΔS). In addition, we find a tight correlation between the mixing length parameter and the inverse entropy jump. We derive an analytical expression from the hydrodynamic mean-field equations that motivates the relation to the mass mixing length parameter, αm, and find that it qualitatively shows a similar variation with stellar parameter (between 1.6 and 2.4) with the solar value of α๏m = 1.83.. The vertical correlation length scaled with the pressure scale height yields 1.71 for the Sun, but only displays a small systematic variation with stellar parameters, the correlation length slightly increases with Teff. Conclusions: We derive mixing length parameters for various stellar parameters that can be used to replace a constant value. Within any convective envelope, αm and related quantities vary strongly. Our results will help to replace a constant αMLT. Appendices are available in electronic form at http

  7. Interaction of localized convection cells in the bioconvection of Euglena gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iima, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Takayuki

    2016-11-01

    Euglena gracilis is a unicellular flagellated photosynthetic alga. The suspension of Euglena has behavioral responses to light, which causes a macroscopic localized bioconvection pattern when illuminated from below. One of the fundamental structures of this is a pair of convection cells, and high cell density region exists in the middle of the pair. Experimental studies show various types of interaction in the localized convection cells; bound state, collision, etc. We performed numerical simulation of a hydrodynamic model of this system, and show results of the interactions. Long-range interaction due to the conservation of cell number and merging process of two localized structures will be discussed. KAKENHI.

  8. Representation of tropical deep convection in atmospheric models – Part 2: Tracer transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Hoyle

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The tropical transport processes of 14 different models or model versions were compared, within the framework of the SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere project. The tested models range from the regional to the global scale, and include numerical weather prediction (NWP, chemical transport, and chemistry-climate models. Idealised tracers were used in order to prevent the model's chemistry schemes from influencing the results substantially, so that the effects of modelled transport could be isolated. We find large differences in the vertical transport of very short-lived tracers (with a lifetime of 6 h within the tropical troposphere. Peak convective outflow altitudes range from around 300 hPa to almost 100 hPa among the different models, and the upper tropospheric tracer mixing ratios differ by up to an order of magnitude. The timing of convective events is found to be different between the models, even among those which source their forcing data from the same NWP model (ECMWF. The differences are less pronounced for longer lived tracers, however they could have implications for modelling the halogen burden of the lowermost stratosphere through transport of species such as bromoform, or short-lived hydrocarbons into the lowermost stratosphere. The modelled tracer profiles are strongly influenced by the convective transport parameterisations, and different boundary layer mixing parameterisations also have a large impact on the modelled tracer profiles. Preferential locations for rapid transport from the surface into the upper troposphere are similar in all models, and are mostly concentrated over the western Pacific, the Maritime Continent and the Indian Ocean. In contrast, models do not indicate that upward transport is highest over western Africa.

  9. Contrasts of Atmospheric Circulation and Associated Tropical Convection between Huaihe River Valley and Yangtze River Valley Mei-yu Flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Jieli; LIU Yimin

    2012-01-01

    The significant differences of atmospheric circulation between flooding in the Huaihe and Yangtze River valleys during early mei-yu (i.e.,the East Asian rainy season in June) and the related tropical convection were investigated.During the both flooding cases,although the geopotential height anomalies always exhibit equivalent barotropic structures in middle to high latitudes at middle and upper troposphere,the phase of the Rossby wave train is different over Eurasian continent.During flooding in the Huaihe River valley,only one single blocking anticyclone is located over Baikal Lake.In contrast,during flooding in the Yangtze River valley,there are two blocking anticyclones.One is over the Ural Mountains and the other is over Northeast Asia.In the lower troposphere a positive geopotential height anomaly is located at the western ridge of subtropical anticyclone over Western Pacific (SAWP) in both flooding cases,but the location of the height anomaly is much farther north and west during the Huaihe River mei-yu flooding.Furthermore,abnormal rainfall in the Huaihe River valley and the regions north of it in China is closely linked with the latent heating anomaly over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula.However,the rainfall in the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south in China is strongly related to the convection over the western tropical Pacific.Numerical experiments demonstrated that the enhanced latent heating over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula causes water vapor convergence in the region south of Tibetan Plateau and in the Huaihe River valley extending to Japan Sea with enhanced precipitation; and vapor divergence over the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south with deficient precipitation.While the weakened convection in the tropical West Pacific results in moisture converging over the Yangtze River and the region to its south,along with abundant rainfall.

  10. Modeling of Diffusive Convective and Electromechanical Processes in PEM fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Mads

    and chemical species. Since analytical solutions to these three dimensional convections diffusion problems can rarely be obtained, the CFX code makes use of a finite volume discretization and numerical techniques, in order to obtain a solution. The model developed solves the convective and diffusive transport...... the fuel cells polarization curve and efficiency under operation. It is shown that the conductivity and the effective porosity of the catalyst layer, may strongly affect the performance of the fuel cell, and that it therefore should be considered when fuel cell models are made....

  11. Role of Convective Cells in Nonlinear Interaction of Kinetic Alfven Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Onnie

    The convective cells are observed in the auroral ionosphere and they could play an important role in the nonlinear interaction of Alfven waves and disrupt the kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence. Zonal fields, which are analogous to convective cells, are generated by microturbulence and regulate microturbulence inside toroidally confined plasmas. It is important to understand the role of convective cells in the nonlinear interaction of KAW leading to perpendicular cascade of spectral energy. A nonlinear gyrokinetic particle simulation has been developed to study the perpendicular spectral cascade of kinetic Alfven wave. However, convective cells were excluded in the study. In this thesis project, we have modified the formulation to implement the convective cells to study their role in the nonlinear interactions of KAW. This thesis contains detail description of the code formulation and convergence tests performed, and the simulation results on the role of convective cells in the nonlinear interactions of KAW. In the single KAW pump wave simulations, we observed the pump wave energy cascades to waves with shorter wavelengths, with three of them as dominant daughter waves. Convective cells are among those dominant daughter waves and they enhance the rate of energy transfer from pump to daughter waves. When zonal fields are present, the growth rates of the dominant daughter waves are doubled. The convective cell (zonal flow) of the zonal fields is shown to play a major role in the nonlinear wave interaction, while the linear zonal vector potential has little effects. The growth rates of the daughter waves linearly depends on the pump wave amplitude and the square of perpendicular wavenumber. On the other hand, the growth rates do not depend on the parallel wavenumber in the limit where the parallel wavenumber is much smaller than the perpendicular wavenumber. The nonlinear wave interactions with various perpendicular wavenumbers are also studied in this work. When

  12. Formation of Large-Scale Semi-Organized Structures in Turbulent Convection

    CERN Document Server

    Elperin, T; Rogachevskii, I; Zilitinkevich, S

    2002-01-01

    A new mean-field theory of turbulent convection is developed. This theory predicts the convective wind instability in a shear-free turbulent convection which causes formation of large-scale semi-organized fluid motions in the form of cells or rolls. Spatial characteristics of these motions, such as the minimum size of the growing perturbations and the size of perturbations with the maximum growth rate, are determined. This study predicts also the existence of the convective shear instability in a sheared turbulent convection which results in generation of convective shear waves with a nonzero hydrodynamic helicity. Increase of shear promotes excitation of the convective shear instability. Applications of the obtained results to the atmospheric turbulent convection and the laboratory experiments on turbulent convection are discussed. This theory can be applied also for the describing a mesogranular turbulent convection in astrophysics.

  13. Turbulence convective heat transfer for cooling the photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianmehr, Iman

    Solar PV (photovoltaic) is a rapidly advancing renewable energy technology which converts sunlight directly into electricity. One of the outstanding challenges of the current PV technology is the reduction in its conversion efficiency with increasing PV panel temperature, which is closely associated with the increase in solar intensity and the ambient temperature surrounding the PV panels. To more effectively capture the available energy when the sun is most intense, significant efforts have been invested in active and passive cooling research over the last few years. While integrated cooling systems can lead to the highest total efficiencies, they are usually neither the most feasible nor the most cost effective solutions. This work examines some simple passive means of manipulating the prevailing wind turbulence to enhance convective heat transfer over a heated plate in a wind tunnel.

  14. Momentum, heat, and neutral mass transport in convective atmospheric pressure plasma-liquid systems and implications for aqueous targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Alexander; Anderson, Carly; Slikboer, Elmar; Shannon, Steven; Graves, David

    2015-10-01

    There is a growing interest in the study of plasma-liquid interactions with application to biomedicine, chemical disinfection, agriculture, and other fields. This work models the momentum, heat, and neutral species mass transfer between gas and aqueous phases in the context of a streamer discharge; the qualitative conclusions are generally applicable to plasma-liquid systems. The problem domain is discretized using the finite element method. The most interesting and relevant model result for application purposes is the steep gradients in reactive species at the interface. At the center of where the reactive gas stream impinges on the water surface, the aqueous concentrations of OH and ONOOH decrease by roughly 9 and 4 orders of magnitude respectively within 50 μ m of the interface. Recognizing the limited penetration of reactive plasma species into the aqueous phase is critical to discussions about the therapeutic mechanisms for direct plasma treatment of biological solutions. Other interesting results from this study include the presence of a 10 K temperature drop in the gas boundary layer adjacent to the interface that arises from convective cooling. Though the temperature magnitudes may vary among atmospheric discharge types (different amounts of plasma-gas heating), this relative difference between gas and liquid bulk temperatures is expected to be present for any system in which convection is significant. Accounting for the resulting difference between gas and liquid bulk temperatures has a significant impact on reaction kinetics; factor of two changes in terminal aqueous species concentrations like H2O2, NO2- , and NO3- are observed in this study if the effect of evaporative cooling is not included.

  15. Lithium spectral line formation in stellar atmospheres. The impact of convection and NLTE effects

    CERN Document Server

    Klevas, J; Steffen, M; Caffau, E; Ludwig, H -G

    2015-01-01

    Different simplified approaches are used to account for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects with 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. In certain cases, chemical abundances are derived in 1D NLTE and corrected for the 3D effects by adding 3D-1D LTE abundance corrections (3D+NLTE approach). Alternatively, average model atmospheres are sometimes used to substitute for the full 3D hydrodynamical models. We tested whether the results obtained using these simplified schemes (i.e., 3D+NLTE, NLTE) may reproduce those derived using the full 3D NLTE computations. The tests were made using 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of the main sequence (MS), main sequence turn-off (TO), subgiant (SGB), and red giant branch (RGB) stars, all at [M/H]=0.0 and -2.0. Our goal was to investigate the role of 3D and NLTE effects on the formation of the 670.8 nm lithium line by assessing strengths of synthetic 670.8 nm line profiles, computed using 3D/1D NLTE/LTE approaches. Our results show that Li 670.8 n...

  16. Modeling of steady-state convective cooling of cylindrical Li-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, K.; Drake, S. J.; Wetz, D. A.; Ostanek, J. K.; Miller, S. P.; Heinzel, J. M.; Jain, A.

    2014-07-01

    While Lithium-ion batteries have the potential to serve as an excellent means of energy storage, they suffer from several operational safety concerns. Temperature excursion beyond a specified limit for a Lithium-ion battery triggers a sequence of decomposition and release, which can preclude thermal runaway events and catastrophic failure. To optimize liquid or air-based convective cooling approaches, it is important to accurately model the thermal response of Lithium-ion cells to convective cooling, particularly in high-rate discharge applications where significant heat generation is expected. This paper presents closed-form analytical solutions for the steady-state temperature profile in a convectively cooled cylindrical Lithium-ion cell. These models account for the strongly anisotropic thermal conductivity of cylindrical Lithium-ion batteries due to the spirally wound electrode assembly. Model results are in excellent agreement with experimentally measured temperature rise in a thermal test cell. Results indicate that improvements in radial thermal conductivity and axial convective heat transfer coefficient may result in significant peak temperature reduction. Battery sizing optimization using the analytical model is discussed, indicating the dependence of thermal performance of the cell on its size and aspect ratio. Results presented in this paper may aid in accurate thermal design and thermal management of Lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Effect of secondary convective cells on turbulence intensity profiles, flow generation, and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, S.; Kwon, J. M.; Rhee, T. [National Fusion Research Institute, Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    This paper reports the results of gyrokinetic simulation studies of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence which investigate the role of non-resonant modes in turbulence spreading, turbulence regulation, and self-generated plasma rotation. Non-resonant modes, which are those without a rational surface within the simulation domain, are identified as nonlinearly driven, radially extended convective cells. Even though the amplitudes of such convective cells are much smaller than that of the resonant, localized turbulence eddies, we find from bicoherence analysis that the mode-mode interactions in the presence of such convective cells increase the efficiency of turbulence spreading associated with nonlocality phenomena. Artificial suppression of the convective cells shows that turbulence spreading is reduced, and that the turbulence intensity profile is more localized. The more localized turbulence intensity profile produces stronger Reynolds stress and E Multiplication-Sign B shear flows, which in turn results in more effective turbulence self-regulation. This suggests that models without non-resonant modes may significantly underestimate turbulent fluctuation levels and transport.

  18. Survey of literature on convective heat transfer coefficients and recovery factors for high atmosphere thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S.

    1973-01-01

    Heat transfer phenomena of rarefied gas flows is discussed based on a literature survey of analytical and experimental rarefied gas dynamics. Subsonic flows are emphasized for the purposes of meteorological thermometry in the high atmosphere. The heat transfer coefficients for three basic geometries are given in the regimes of free molecular flow, transition flow, slip flow, and continuum flow. Different types of heat phenomena, and the analysis of theoretical and experimental data are presented. The uncertainties calculated from the interpolation rule compared with the available experimental data are discussed. The recovery factor for each geometry in subsonic rarefied flows is also given.

  19. Solar wind Alfvén waves: a source of pulsed ionospheric convection and atmospheric gravity waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prikryl

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A case study of medium-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs that are correlated with solar wind Alfvén waves is presented. The HF radar ground-scatter signatures of TIDs caused by atmospheric gravity waves with periods of 20-40min are traced to a source at high latitudes, namely pulsed ionospheric flows (PIFs due to bursts in the convection electric field and/or the associated ionospheric current fluctuations inferred from ground magnetic field perturbations. The significance of PIFs and TIDs in the context of solar-terrestrial interaction is that Alfvénic fluctuations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF observed in the solar wind plasma streaming from a coronal hole correlate with PIFs and TIDs. The link between the solar wind Alfvén waves and TIDs is corroborated by the ground magnetic field signatures of ionospheric current fluctuations that are associated with the IMF-By oscillations and TIDs. The observed PIFs and the associated negative-to-positive deflections of the ground magnetic field X component are interpreted as ionospheric signatures of magnetic reconnection pulsed by solar wind Alfvén waves at the dayside magnetopause. Although the clarity of the radar line-of-sight velocity data may have been affected by anomalous HF propagation due to intervening TIDs, the application of a pure state filtering technique to analyze the radar data time series reveals a one-to-one correspondence between PIFs, TIDs and solar wind Alfvén waves. The spectra of solar wind and ground magnetic field perturbations are similar to those of PIFs and TIDs. The ground-scatter signatures indicate TID wavelengths, phase velocities and travel times that are consistent with ray tracing, which shows a subset of possible gravity wave group paths that reach the F region from a source in the E region after the wave energy first travel downward to the upper mesosphere where the waves are reflected upward. The observed one

  20. The INCOMPASS project field and modelling campaign: Interaction of Convective Organization and Monsoon Precipitation, Atmosphere, Surface and Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Bhat, Ganapati; Evans, Jonathan; Madan, Ranju; Marsham, John; Martin, Gill; Mitra, Ashis; Mrudula, Gm; Parker, Douglas; Pattnaik, Sandeep; Rajagopal, En; Taylor, Christopher; Tripathi, Sachchida

    2017-04-01

    The INCOMPASS project uses data from a field and aircraft measurement campaign during the 2016 monsoon onset to better understand and predict monsoon rainfall. The monsoon supplies the majority of water in South Asia, however modelling and forecasting the monsoon from days to the season ahead is limited by large model errors that develop quickly. Likely problems lie in physical parametrizations such as convection, the boundary layer and land surface. At the same time, lack of detailed observations prevents more thorough understanding of monsoon circulation and its interaction with the land surface; a process governed by boundary layer and convective cloud dynamics. From May to July 2016, INCOMPASS used a modified BAe-146 jet aircraft operated by the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM), for the first project of this scale in India. The India and UK team flew around 100 hours of science sorties from bases in northern and southern India. Flights from Lucknow in the northern plains took measurements to the west and southeast to allow sampling of the complete contrast from dry desert air to the humid environment over the north Bay of Bengal. These routes were repeated in the pre-monsoon and monsoon phases, measuring contrasting surface and boundary layer structures. In addition, flights from the southern base in Bengaluru measured contrasts from the Arabian Sea, across the intense rains of the Western Ghats mountains, over the rain shadow in southeast India and over the southern Bay of Bengal. Flight planning was performed with the aid of forecasts from a new UK Met Office 4km limited area model. INCOMPASS also installed a network of surface flux towers, as well as operating a cloud-base ceilometer and performing intensive radiosonde launches from a supersite in Kanpur. Here we will outline preliminary results from the field campaign including new observations of the surface, boundary layer structure and atmospheric profiles from aircraft data. We

  1. The instability of a horizontal magnetic field in an atmosphere stable against convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical problem posed by the buoyant escape of a magnetic field from the interior of a stably stratified body bears directly on the question of the present existence of primordial magnetic fields in stars. This paper treats the onset of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the upper boundary of a uniform horizontal magnetic field in a stably stratified atmosphere. The calculations are carried out in the Boussinesq approximation and show the rapid growth of the initial infinitesimal perturbation of the boundary. This result is in contrast to the extremely slow buoyant rise of a separate flux tube in the same atmosphere. Thus for instance, at a depth of 1/3 of a solar radius beneath the surface of the sun, a field of 100 G develops ripples over a scale of 1000 km in a characteristic time of 50 years, whereas the characteristic rise time of the same field in separate flux tubes with the same dimensions is 10 billion years. Thus, the development of irregularities proceeds quickly, soon slowing, however, to a very slow pace when the amplitude of the irregularities becomes significant. Altogether, the calculations show the complexity of the question of the existence of remnant primordial magnetic fields in stellar interiors.

  2. Condensation-inhibited convection in hydrogen-rich atmospheres . Stability against double-diffusive processes and thermal profiles for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Jérémy; Selsis, Franck; Hersant, Franck; Guillot, Tristan

    2017-02-01

    In an atmosphere, a cloud condensation region is characterized by a strong vertical gradient in the abundance of the related condensing species. On Earth, the ensuing gradient of mean molecular weight has relatively few dynamical consequences because N2 is heavier than water vapor, so that only the release of latent heat significantly impacts convection. On the contrary, in a hydrogen dominated atmosphere (e.g., giant planets), all condensing species are significantly heavier than the background gas. This can stabilize the atmosphere against convection near a cloud deck if the enrichment in the given species exceeds a critical threshold. This raises two questions. What is transporting energy in such a stabilized layer, and how affected can the thermal profile of giant planets be? To answer these questions, we first carry out a linear analysis of the convective and double-diffusive instabilities in a condensable medium showing that an efficient condensation can suppress double-diffusive convection. This suggests that a stable radiative layer can form near a cloud condensation level, leading to an increase in the temperature of the deep adiabat. Then, we investigate the impact of the condensation of the most abundant species (water) with a steady-state atmosphere model. Compared to standard models, the temperature increase can reach several hundred degrees at the quenching depth of key chemical tracers. Overall, this effect could have many implications for our understanding of the dynamical and chemical state of the atmosphere of giant planets, for their future observations (with Juno for example), and for their internal evolution.

  3. How coastal surges may be generated by mesoscale atmospheric disturbances that in turn are related to propagating convective systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlic, M.; Belusic, D.; Janekovic, I.; Pasaric, M.

    2010-09-01

    On the morning of 21 June 1978, exceptional sea-level oscillations with a trough-to-crest height of 6 m and a period of 10-20 min were observed in Vela Luka Bay. Slightly less pronounced variability was observed in a wider Middle and South Adriatic east coastal area and, with some delay, along the west coast. In the presentation, one of the original hypotheses put forward to interpret the event, relating it to a mesoscale air-pressure disturbance, is reconsidered by using all the available data as well as state-of-the-art meteorological and oceanographic models. A fresh look at the meteorological data confirms that the atmospheric disturbance propagated at about 22 m/s in a northeastward direction. Additionally, the data suggest that it had the shape of the boxcar function characterized by an air-pressure offset of 3 mbar and duration of 10 min. The meteorological model employed (WRF-ARW) proves unable to reproduce the mesoscale disturbance coinciding with the surge, but it shows that the background atmospheric conditions were favorable for the development of convective systems and therefore also for the formation of mesoscale disturbances. The oceanographic model ADCIRC-2DDI, forced by the described air-pressure disturbance, successfully reproduces sea-level variability in Vela Luka Bay reaching a few meters and thus surpassing the inverted barometer response by two orders of magnitude. The enhancement appears to be due to a four-phase process. The model also suggests that the scattering due to the variable bathymetry and the reflection from the east Adriatic coast resulted in waves that returned towards the west coast and generated considerable sea-level activity there. Similar surges that were observed in the Adriatic more recently (Stari Grad and Mali Ston, 2003; Ist, 2007; Mali Losinj, 2008; Stari Grad, 2010) are also mentioned and the dynamics revealed is used as the basis for a brief discussion of terminology appropriate for such processes.

  4. Phase Locking between Atmospheric Convectively Coupled Equatorial Kelvin Waves and the Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation over the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatau, M. K.; Baranowski, D. B.; Flatau, P. J.; Matthews, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Although the importance of the Maritime Continent to the global atmospheric circulation has been long recognized, many researchers have argued that scale separation prevents local processes, such as the local diurnal cycle of precipitation, from directly influencing global scale phenomena such as the variability of atmospheric circulation associated with the equatorial waves. In our study we show that in fact multiscale interactions, which link processes in local and global scales, may play a crucial role for propagation of the CCKWs, which along with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) are the main eastward propagating component of intraseasonal variability. In our study, we show that not only do CCKWs bring excess amounts of precipitation to the Maritime Continent, but events which are phase locked with the local diurnal cycle of convection have a precipitation signal up to three times larger than average. That means that CCKWs are a primary candidate for extreme precipitation events over the densely populated areas of Indonesia and Malaysia. The complex terrain created by mixture of oceans and lands within the Maritime Continent is unique: the distance between the two main land masses at the equator (islands of Sumatra and Borneo) is approximately the same as the distance travelled by a CCKW in one day. Therefore a CCKW event that is synchronized with a local diurnal cycle over Sumatra is likely to be synchronized over Borneo as well. We find that CCKWs, which are in phase with the local diurnal cycle of precipitation over Sumatra, Borneo and surrounding seas, have a 40% larger chance to successfully cross the Maritime Continent than other CCKWs. That unique feature is a likely a clear example of a multiscale interaction within the region.

  5. Preparing for Exascale: Towards convection-permitting, global atmospheric simulations with the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzeller, Dominikus; Duda, Michael G.; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    With strong financial and political support from national and international initiatives, exascale computing is projected for the end of this decade. Energy requirements and physical limitations imply the use of accelerators and the scaling out to orders of magnitudes larger numbers of cores then today to achieve this milestone. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these Exascale computing systems, existing applications need to undergo significant development. The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is a novel set of Earth system simulation components and consists of an atmospheric core, an ocean core, a land-ice core and a sea-ice core. Its distinct features are the use of unstructured Voronoi meshes and C-grid discretisation to address shortcomings of global models on regular grids and the use of limited area models nested in a forcing data set, with respect to parallel scalability, numerical accuracy and physical consistency. Here, we present work towards the application of the atmospheric core (MPAS-A) on current and future high performance computing systems for problems at extreme scale. In particular, we address the issue of massively parallel I/O by extending the model to support the highly scalable SIONlib library. Using global uniform meshes with a convection-permitting resolution of 2-3km, we demonstrate the ability of MPAS-A to scale out to half a million cores while maintaining a high parallel efficiency. We also demonstrate the potential benefit of a hybrid parallelisation of the code (MPI/OpenMP) on the latest generation of Intel's Many Integrated Core Architecture, the Intel Xeon Phi Knights Landing.

  6. Pattern formation in biological fluids II: cell deformation in shear fields evidences convective membrane organisation

    CERN Document Server

    Lofthouse, J

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour and symmetry-breaking shape deformation of red blood cells subjected to shear flows is used to demonstrate that far from being random fluids, both the membrane and cytoplasm of every biological cell undergo spatially organised convective and shear driven flows when the cell maintains a Near Equilibrium state through continuousmetabolic activity. The model demonstrates that fluid bifurcation events drive cell shape changes, rather than a Meccano like cytoskeletal structure, and represents a significant Gestalt shift in models of cell mechanics.

  7. Scaling Anisotropy and Convective Instability of the Atmospheric Surface-Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitton, G. F.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J.; Lovejoy, S.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we use the scaling exponents, often called Hurst exponents, of the horizontal velocity and the temperature to classify the stability of the atmospheric surface-layer, including in the wake of a turbine. For this study we use two datasets for comparison. In the Growian experiment two 150m masts were constructed on coastal terrain with propeller anemometers positioned at the heights 10, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150m measuring wind speed and direction. The measurements were taken at 2.5Hz over twenty-minutes with 300 measuring runs done in total. In addition, temperature was measured also at 2.5Hz over twenty minutes but only at the heights 10, 50, 100 and 150m. The second dataset consisted of three sonic anemometers positioned at 22, 23 and 43m on a single mast situated in a wind turbine test site in a mountainous part of Corsica France. The sonic anemometers measured three dimensional velocities and temperature at 10Hz over a period of six-months. The samples are separated into daily sub-samples, 180 in total. We find that the stability of the atmospheric surface-layer strongly depends on whether or not the temperature scales passively as the velocity. When the two scaling exponents remain of the same order, the scaling of both the velocity and temperature is consistent with surface-layer literature. However, when the scaling exponent of the temperature becomes larger than the scaling exponent of the velocity, the corresponding time-scales exhibit a strong, scaling anisotropy. To avoid shadow effects from masts, we are compelled to deal with samples whose `mean' velocity is near-perpendicular to the masts. The anisotropy of these samples turns out to be beyond a trivial component-wise anisotropy corresponding to pre-factors depending on the direction, i.e., the scaling exponents themselves (in particular the Hurst exponent) depend on the direction. We use a rotated frame of reference to better analyse this behaviour and put forward analytical expression of

  8. A New Mechanism of Convective Cell Regeneration and Development Within a Two-Dimensional Multicell Storm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Xuwei; TAN Zhemin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, based on simulations of a two-dimensional multicell storm under a ground-layer upshear (Uz< 0) by a mesoscale numerical model, a new mechanism of cell regeneration and development within the multicell storm at the "less than optimal shear" state.is proposed.In the presence of a ground-layer upshear, the circulation associated with the surface cold pool is not counteracted by that associated with the ambient wind shear, and the density current extends out faster, making the multicell storm stay at the "less than optimal shear" state. As a result, a new cell is triggered by the strong vertical perturbation ahead of the mature convection, rather than by the split-up from the updraft at the leading edge of the surface cold pool as well as the gust front. The latter is the mechanism at the "optimal" state proposed by Lin et al. in 1998. In the new mechanism, the regenerated cell grows fast with the incident warm moist air from the upstream of the multicell storm, and tends to cut off the moist airflow into the mature convection at its western sector. Consequently, the mature convection would weaken, be replaced, and eventually decay.Actually, these two different mechanisms come into play in a way depending on the relationship between the circulation of the low-level shear and that of the cold pool. When the circulation of the cold pool is stronger than that of the wind shear, the multicell storm is at the "less than optimal shear" state, and the new convective cell is produced by the disturbance ahead of the mature cell. When the circulation of the cold pool is weaker, the cell regeneration is dominated by the mechanism at the "optimal" state, and the new cell is split from the gust front updraft. Therefore, these two mechanisms are not contradictive. With a moderate ground-layer upsheax, they can alternately operate within a multicell storm.

  9. Examination of physical processes of convective cell evolved from a MCS — Using a different model initialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, Vlado; Ćurić, Mladjen

    2016-06-01

    The present study is focused on examination of the physical processes of convective cell evolved from a MCS occurred on 4 November 2011 over Genoa, Italy. The Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts (QPF) have been performed using WRF v3.6 model under different configurations and cloud permitting simulations. The results indicate underestimation of the amount of precipitation and spatial displacement of the area with a peak 24-h accumulated rainfall in (mm). Our main objective in the research is to test the cloud model ability and performance in simulation of this particular case. For that purpose a set of sensitivity experiments under different model initializations and initial data have been conducted. The results also indicate that the merging process apparently alters the physical processes through low- and middle-level forcing, increasing cloud depth, and enhancing convection. The examination of the microphysical process simulated by the model indicates that dominant production terms are the accretion of rain by graupel and snow, probabilistic freezing of rain to form graupel and dry and wet growth of graupel. Experiment under WRF v3.6 model initialization has shown some advantage in simulation of the physical processes responsible for production and initiation of heavy rainfall compared to other model runs. Most of the precipitation came from ice-phase particles-via accretion processes and the graupel melting at temperature T0 ≥ 0°C. The rainfall intensity and accumulated rainfall calculated by the model closely reflect the amount of rainfall recorded. Thus, the main benefit is to better resolve convective showers or storms which, in extreme cases, can give rise to major flooding events. In such a way, this model may become major contributor to improvements in weather analysis and small-scale atmospheric predictions and early warnings of such subscale processes.

  10. Influence and impact of the parametrization of the turbulent air-sea fluxes on atmospheric moisture and convection in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Olivier; Braconnot, Pascale; Gainusa-Bogdan, Alina; Hourdin, Frédéric; Marti, Olivier; Pelletier, Charles

    2016-04-01

    The turbulent fluxes across the ocean/atmosphere interface represent one of the principal driving forces of the global atmospheric and oceanic circulation and are also responsible for various phenomena like the water supply to the atmospheric column, which itself is extremely important for atmospheric convection. Although the representation of these fluxes has been the subject of major studies, it still remains a very challenging problem. Our aim is to better understand the role of these fluxes in climate change experiments and in the equator-pole redistribution of heat and water by the oceanic and atmospheric circulation. For this, we are developing a methodology starting from idealized 1D experiments and going all the way up to fully coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations of past and future climates. The poster will propose a synthesis of different simulations we have performed with a 1D version of the LMDz atmosphere model towards a first objective of understanding how different parameterizations of the turbulent fluxes affect the moisture content of the atmosphere and the feedback with the atmospheric boundary layer and convection schemes. Air-sea fluxes are not directly resolved by the models because they are subgrid-scale phenomena and are therefore represented by parametrizations. We investigate the differences between several 1D simulations of the TOGA-COARE campaign (1992-1993, Pacific warm pool region), for which 1D boundary conditions and observations are available to test the results of atmospheric models. Each simulation considers a different version of the LMDz model in terms of bulk formula (four) used to compute the turbulent fluxes. We also consider how the representation of gustiness in these parameterizations affects the results. The use of this LMDz test case (very constrained within an idealized framework) allows us to determine how the response of surface fluxes helps to reinforce or damp the atmospheric water vapor content or cloud feedbacks

  11. Using Observations of Deep Convective Systems to Constrain Atmospheric Column Absorption of Solar Radiation in the Optically Thick Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Xi, Baike; Hu, Yongxiang; Mace, Gerald G.; Benson, Sally; Rose, Fred; Kato, Seiji; Charlock, Thomas; Minnis, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation A(sub col) is a fundamental part of the Earth's energy cycle but is an extremely difficult quantity to measure directly. To investigate A(sub col), we have collocated satellite-surface observations for the optically thick Deep Convective Systems (DCS) at the Department of Energy Atmosphere Radiation Measurement (ARM) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites during the period of March 2000 December 2004. The surface data were averaged over a 2-h interval centered at the time of the satellite overpass, and the satellite data were averaged within a 1 deg X 1 deg area centered on the ARM sites. In the DCS, cloud particle size is important for top-of-atmosphere (TOA) albedo and A(sub col) although the surface absorption is independent of cloud particle size. In this study, we find that the A(sub col) in the tropics is approximately 0.011 more than that in the middle latitudes. This difference, however, disappears, i.e., the A(sub col) values at both regions converge to the same value (approximately 0.27 of the total incoming solar radiation) in the optically thick limit (tau greater than 80). Comparing the observations with the NASA Langley modified Fu_Liou 2-stream radiative transfer model for optically thick cases, the difference between observed and model-calculated surface absorption, on average, is less than 0.01, but the model-calculated TOA albedo and A(sub col) differ by 0.01 to 0.04, depending primarily on the cloud particle size observation used. The model versus observation discrepancies found are smaller than many previous studies and are just within the estimated error bounds. We did not find evidence for a large cloud absorption anomaly for the optically thick limit of extensive ice cloud layers. A more modest cloud absorption difference of 0.01 to 0.04 cannot yet be ruled out. The remaining uncertainty could be reduced with additional cases, and by reducing the current

  12. CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...

  13. Observation of deep convection initiation from shallow convection environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothon, Marie; Couvreux, Fleur; Guichard, Françoise; Campistron, Bernard; Chong, Michel; Rio, Catherine; Williams, Earle

    2010-05-01

    In the afternoon of 10 July 2006, deep convective cells initiated right in the field of view of the Massachusetts Institute Technology (MIT) C-band Doppler radar. This radar, with its 3D exploration at 10 min temporal resolution and 250 m radial resolution, allows us to track the deep convective cells and also provides clear air observations of the boundary layer structure prior to deep convection initiation. Several other observational platforms were operating then which allow us to thoroughly analyse this case: Vertically pointing aerosol lidar, W-band radar and ceilometer from the ARM Mobile Facility, along with radiosoundings and surface measurements enable us to describe the environment, from before their initiation to after the propagation of of one propagating cell that generated a circular gust front very nicely caught by the MIT radar. The systems considered here differ from the mesoscale convective systems which are often associated with African Easterly Waves, increasing CAPE and decreasing CIN. The former have smaller size, and initiate more locally, but there are numerous and still play a large role in the atmospheric circulation and scalar transport. Though, they remain a challenge to model. (See the presentation by Guichard et al. in the same session, for a model set up based on the same case, with joint single-column model and Large Eddy Simulation, which aims at better understanding and improving the parametrisation of deep convection initiation.) Based on the analysis of the observations mentioned above, we consider here the possible sources of deep convection initiation that day, which showed a typical boundary-layer growth in semi-arid environment, with isolated deep convective events.

  14. Constraints on plate tectonics initiation from scaling laws for single-cell convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Teresa; Solomatov, Viatcheslav S.

    2016-08-01

    The Earth is the only planet known to have plate tectonics, while other planets are covered with a stagnant lid. On the Earth, the initiation of subduction, which is thought to be the fundamental process for plate tectonics initiation, is caused not only by the negative buoyancy of the lithosphere but also by the forces from plate motions. However, for planets which do not have plate tectonics, the very first episode of lithospheric failure has to be caused by forces other than plate motions. Sublithospheric convection has been proposed as a possible mechanism that provides lithospheric instability through inducing stresses in the lithosphere, and lithospheric failure can occur when the yield stress is below a critical value. We test the applicability of scaling laws for the critical yield stress obtained in single-cell convection simulations to strongly time-dependent multi-cell systems. We show that with an appropriate choice of characteristic aspect ratio for the convective system, the scaling laws from single-cell simulations can be used to evaluate the conditions on the terrestrial planets in the inner Solar System for plate tectonics to exist. In agreement with previous studies, the estimated values for critical yield stress and coefficient of friction are much lower than the expected values for the Earth's lithosphere.

  15. Dust in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and young planets: the effects of gravitational settling and convective overshoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeier, D.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Allard, F.; Hauschildt, P.; Dehn, M.

    Dwarfs of the spectral types late-M, L and T span mass regimes from very-low-mass stars through brown dwarfs down to young planetary objects. They all show massive molecular line-blanketing and the condensation of refractory species with decreasing T_{eff}, leading to changes in chemical equilibrium composition and absorption due to dust grains. The spectral evolution from late-M through L to mid- and late-T classes is now understood as chiefly due to increasing amounts of condensates in the visible photosphere up to mid-L types, and the settling of dust clouds into deeper regions at the transition from L to T, resulting in a depletion of condensable elements in the upper atmosphere. The ensuing photospheric cooling also drives a change in carbon chemistry leading to the hallmark methane absorption features of T dwarfs.Recent observations of brown dwarfs in the L-T spectral sequence and model atmosphere calculations have shown that these changes in spectral features reveal differences in the efficiency of cloud removal that seem to be triggered by an additional parameter besides effective temperature. We present models describing the settling of particle clouds as an equilibrium process between condensation, gravitational sedimentation and convective and turbulent mixing, based on 3D-hydrodynamical simulations for the description of the velocity field. These calculations predict a strong dependence of the settling on gravity, and can therefore explain observed differences between the spectral energy distributions of brown dwarfs of equal luminosity as an effect of different mass. Based on these calculations we would expect even stronger deviations in the colours of young brown dwarfs of very low mass from those commonly observed in the field. Such predictions seem to be in aggreement with the first observations of candidate planetary-mass objects, and would imply that extrasolar planets at very young ages have spectral energy distributions significantly different

  16. A Lagrangian stochastic model to demonstrate multi-scale interactions between convection and land surface heterogeneity in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsakhoo, Zahra; Shao, Yaping

    2017-04-01

    Near-surface turbulent mixing has considerable effect on surface fluxes, cloud formation and convection in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Its quantifications is however a modeling and computational challenge since the small eddies are not fully resolved in Eulerian models directly. We have developed a Lagrangian stochastic model to demonstrate multi-scale interactions between convection and land surface heterogeneity in the atmospheric boundary layer based on the Ito Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) for air parcels (particles). Due to the complexity of the mixing in the ABL, we find that linear Ito SDE cannot represent convections properly. Three strategies have been tested to solve the problem: 1) to make the deterministic term in the Ito equation non-linear; 2) to change the random term in the Ito equation fractional, and 3) to modify the Ito equation by including Levy flights. We focus on the third strategy and interpret mixing as interaction between at least two stochastic processes with different Lagrangian time scales. The model is in progress to include the collisions among the particles with different characteristic and to apply the 3D model for real cases. One application of the model is emphasized: some land surface patterns are generated and then coupled with the Large Eddy Simulation (LES).

  17. Onset of Convection in a Nanofluid Layer Confined within a Hele-Shaw Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the onset of nanofluid convection confined within a Hele-Shaw cell is investigated by performing a classical linear stability analysis. The model used for nanofluid combines the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis, while for Hele-Shaw cell Brinkman model are employed. The new stability equations are formulated by introducing new characteristic dimensionless parameters such as the Hele-Shaw number, the Hele-Shaw Rayleigh number and the nanoparticle concentration Hele-Shaw Rayleigh number. The resulting stability equations are solved numerically by using higher order Galerkin method. It is found that the nanoparticle concentration Hele-Shaw Rayleigh number, the Lewis number and the modified diffusivity ratio hasten the onset of convection, while the Hele-Shaw number delays the onset of convection. A comparison is also made between the existing boundary conditions for nanoparticle and obtained that the zero nanoparticle flux boundary conditions under the thermophoretic effects has more destabilizing effect than the fixed nanoparticle boundary conditions.

  18. Effect of convection on osteoblastic cell growth and function in biodegradable polymer foam scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, A. S.; Juarez, T. M.; Helmke, C. D.; Gustin, M. C.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Culture of seeded osteoblastic cells in three-dimensional osteoconductive scaffolds in vitro is a promising approach to produce an osteoinductive material for repair of bone defects. However, culture of cells in scaffolds sufficiently large to bridge critical-sized defects is a challenge for tissue engineers. Diffusion may not be sufficient to supply nutrients into large scaffolds and consequently cells may grow preferentially at the periphery under static culture conditions. Three alternative culturing schemes that convect media were considered: a spinner flask, a rotary vessel, and a perfusion flow system. Poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) foam discs (12.7 mm diameter, 6.0 mm thick, 78.8% porous) were seeded with osteoblastic marrow stromal cells and cultured in the presence of dexamethasone and L-ascorbic acid for 7 and 14 days. Cell numbers per foam were found to be similar with all culturing schemes indicating that cell growth could not be enhanced by convection, but histological analysis indicated that the rotary vessel and flow system produced a more uniform distribution of cells throughout the foams. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity per cell was higher with culture in the flow system and spinner flask after 7 days, while no differences in osteocalcin (OC) activity per cell were observed among culturing methods after 14 days in culture. Based on the higher ALP activity and better cell uniformity throughout the cultured foams, the flow system appears to be the superior culturing method, although equally important is the fact that in none of the tests did any of the alternative culturing techniques underperform the static controls. Thus, this study demonstrates that culturing techniques that utilize fluid flow, and in particular the flow perfusion system, improve the properties of the seeded cells over those maintained in static culture.

  19. Convective heat transfer in a measurement cell for scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novev, Javor K; Compton, Richard G

    2016-11-21

    Electrochemical experiments, especially those performed with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), are often carried out without taking special care to thermostat the solution; it is usually assumed that its temperature is homogeneous and equal to the ambient. The present study aims to test this assumption via numerical simulations of the heat transfer in a particular system - the typical measurement cell for SECM. It is assumed that the temperature of the solution is initially homogeneous but different from that of its surroundings; convective heat transfer in the solution and the surrounding air is taken into account within the framework of the Boussinesq approximation. The hereby presented theoretical treatment indicates that an initial temperature difference of the order of 1 K dissipates with a characteristic time scale of ∼1000 s; the thermal equilibration is accompanied by convective flows with a maximum velocity of ∼10(-4) m s(-1); furthermore, the temporal evolution of the temperature profile is influenced by the sign of the initial difference. These results suggest that, unless the temperature of the solution is rigorously controlled, convection may significantly compromise the interpretation of data from SECM and other electrochemical techniques, which is usually done on the basis of diffusion-only models.

  20. Estimating precipitation on early Mars using a radiative-convective model of the atmosphere and comparison with inferred runoff from geomorphology

    CERN Document Server

    von Paris, P; Grenfell, J L; Hauber, E; Breuer, D; Jaumann, R; Rauer, H; Tirsch, D

    2014-01-01

    We compare estimates of atmospheric precipitation during the Martian Noachian-Hesperian boundary 3.8 Gyr ago as calculated in a radiative-convective column model of the atmosphere with runoff values estimated from a geomorphological analysis of dendritic valley network discharge rates. In the atmospheric model, we assume CO2-H2O-N2 atmospheres with surface pressures varying from 20 mb to 3 bar with input solar luminosity reduced to 75% the modern value. Results from the valley network analysis are of the order of a few mm d-1 liquid water precipitation (1.5-10.6 mm d-1, with a median of 3.1 mm d-1). Atmospheric model results are much lower, from about 0.001-1 mm d-1 of snowfall (depending on CO2 partial pressure). Hence, the atmospheric model predicts a significantly lower amount of precipitated water than estimated from the geomorphological analysis. Furthermore, global mean surface temperatures are below freezing, i.e. runoff is most likely not directly linked to precipitation. Therefore, our results strong...

  1. Near-infrared spectro-interferometry of Mira variables and comparisons to 1D dynamic model atmospheres and 3D convection simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkowski, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Freytag, B.; Scholz, M.; Höfner, S.; Karovicova, I.; Whitelock, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We aim at comparing spectro-interferometric observations of Mira variable asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with the latest 1D dynamic model atmospheres based on self-excited pulsation models (CODEX models) and with 3D dynamic model atmospheres including pulsation and convection (CO5BOLD models) to better understand the processes that extend the molecular atmosphere to radii where dust can form. Methods: We obtained a total of 20 near-infrared K-band spectro-interferometric snapshot observations of the Mira variables o Cet, R Leo, R Aqr, X Hya, W Vel, and R Cnc with a spectral resolution of about 1500. We compared observed flux and visibility spectra with predictions by CODEX 1D dynamic model atmospheres and with azimuthally averaged intensities based on CO5BOLD 3D dynamic model atmospheres. Results: Our visibility data confirm the presence of spatially extended molecular atmospheres located above the continuum radii with large-scale inhomogeneities or clumps that contribute a few percent of the total flux. The detailed structure of the inhomogeneities or clumps show a variability on time scales of 3 months and above. Both modeling attempts provided satisfactory fits to our data. In particular, they are both consistent with the observed decrease in the visibility function at molecular bands of water vapor and CO, indicating a spatially extended molecular atmosphere. Observational variability phases are mostly consistent with those of the best-fit CODEX models, except for near-maximum phases, where data are better described by near-minimum models. Rosseland angular diameters derived from the model fits are broadly consistent between those based on the 1D and the 3D models and with earlier observations. We derived fundamental parameters including absolute radii, effective temperatures, and luminosities for our sources. Conclusions: Our results provide a first observational support for theoretical results that shocks induced by convection and pulsation in the

  2. Internal Wave Generation by Convection

    OpenAIRE

    Lecoanet, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In nature, it is not unusual to find stably stratified fluid adjacent to convectively unstable fluid. This can occur in the Earth's atmosphere, where the troposphere is convective and the stratosphere is stably stratified; in lakes, where surface solar heating can drive convection above stably stratified fresh water; in the oceans, where geothermal heating can drive convection near the ocean floor, but the water above is stably stratified due to salinity gradients; possible in the Earth's liq...

  3. Atmospheric circulation patterns, cloud-to-ground lightning, and locally intense convective rainfall associated with debris flow initiation in the Dolomite Alps of northeastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, S. Jeffrey; Schultz, Michael D.; Berti, Metteo; Gregoretti, Carlo; Simoni, Alessandro; Mote, Thomas L.; Saylor, Anthony M.

    2016-02-01

    The Dolomite Alps of northeastern Italy experience debris flows with great frequency during the summer months. An ample supply of unconsolidated material on steep slopes and a summer season climate regime characterized by recurrent thunderstorms combine to produce an abundance of these destructive hydro-geologic events. In the past, debris flow events have been studied primarily in the context of their geologic and geomorphic characteristics. The atmospheric contribution to these mass-wasting events has been limited to recording rainfall and developing intensity thresholds for debris mobilization. This study aims to expand the examination of atmospheric processes that preceded both locally intense convective rainfall (LICR) and debris flows in the Dolomite region. 500 hPa pressure level plots of geopotential heights were constructed for a period of 3 days prior to debris flow events to gain insight into the synoptic-scale processes which provide an environment conducive to LICR in the Dolomites. Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash data recorded at the meso-scale were incorporated to assess the convective environment proximal to debris flow source regions. Twelve events were analyzed and from this analysis three common synoptic-scale circulation patterns were identified. Evaluation of CG flashes at smaller spatial and temporal scales illustrated that convective processes vary in their production of CF flashes (total number) and the spatial distribution of flashes can also be quite different between events over longer periods. During the 60 min interval immediately preceding debris flow a majority of cases exhibited spatial and temporal colocation of LICR and CG flashes. Also a number of CG flash parameters were found to be significantly correlated to rainfall intensity prior to debris flow initiation.

  4. Effects of magnetospheric lobe cell convection on dayside upper thermospheric winds at high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Wang, W.; Wu, Q.; Knipp, D.; Kilcommons, L.; Brambles, O. J.; Liu, J.; Wiltberger, M.; Lyon, J. G.; Häggström, I.

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates a possible physical mechanism of the observed dayside high-latitude upper thermospheric wind using numerical simulations from the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (CMIT) model. Results show that the CMIT model is capable of reproducing the unexpected afternoon equatorward winds in the upper thermosphere observed by the High altitude Interferometer WIND observation (HIWIND) balloon. Models that lack adequate coupling produce poleward winds. The modeling study suggests that ion drag driven by magnetospheric lobe cell convection is another possible mechanism for turning the climatologically expected dayside poleward winds to the observed equatorward direction. The simulation results are validated by HIWIND, European Incoherent Scatter, and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. The results suggest a strong momentum coupling between high-latitude ionospheric plasma circulation and thermospheric neutral winds in the summer hemisphere during positive IMF Bz periods, through the formation of magnetospheric lobe cell convection driven by persistent positive IMF By. The CMIT simulation adds important insight into the role of dayside coupling during intervals of otherwise quiet geomagnetic activity

  5. Engineering Multifunctional Living Paints: Thin, Convectively-Assembled Biocomposite Coatings of Live Cells and Colloidal Latex Particles Deposited by Continuous Convective-Sedimentation Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jessica Shawn

    Advanced composite materials could be revolutionized by the development of methods to incorporate living cells into functional materials and devices. This could be accomplished by continuously and rapidly depositing thin ordered arrays of adhesive colloidal latex particles and live cells that maintain stability and preserve microbial reactivity. Convective assembly is one method of rapidly assembling colloidal particles into thin (films with engineered compositions, thicknesses, and particle packing that offer several advantages over thicker randomly ordered composites, including enhanced cell stability and increased reactivity through minimized diffusion resistance to nutrients and reduced light scattering. This method can be used to precisely deposit live bacteria, cyanobacteria, yeast, and algae into biocomposite coatings, forming reactive biosensors, photoabsorbers, or advanced biocatalysts. This dissertation developed new continuous deposition and coating characterization methods for fabricating and characterizing coatings---monodispersed latex particle or cell suspensions, bimodal blends of latex particles or live cells and microspheres, and trimodal formulations of biomodal latex and live cells on substrates such as aluminum foil, glass, porous Kraft paper, polyester, and polypropylene. Continuous convective-sedimentation assembly (CSA) is introduced to enable fabrication of larger surface area and long coatings by constantly feeding coating suspension to the meniscus, thus expanding the utility of convective assembly to deposit monolayer or very thin films or multi-layer coatings composed of thin layers on a large scale. Results show thin, tunable coatings can be fabricated from diverse coating suspensions and critical coating parameters that control thickness and structure. Particle size ratio and charge influence deposition, convective mixing or demixing and relative particle locations. Substrate wettability and suspension composition influence coating

  6. Classification of Convective and Stratiform Cells in Meteorological Radar Images Using SVM Based on a Textural Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdenasser Djafri; Boualem Haddad

    2014-01-01

    This contribution deals with the discrimination between stratiform and convective cells in meteorological radar images. This study is based on a textural analysis of the latter and their classification using a support vector machine (SVM). First, we apply different textural parameters such as energy, entropy, inertia, and local homogeneity. Through this experience, we identify the different textural features of both the stratiform and convective cells. Then, we use an SVM to find the best discriminating parameter between the two types of clouds. The main goal of this work is to better apply the Palmer and Marshall Z-R relations specific to each type of precipitation.

  7. Near-infrared spectro-interferometry of Mira variables and comparisons to 1D dynamic model atmospheres and 3D convection simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wittkowski, M; Freytag, B; Scholz, M; Hoefner, S; Karovicova, I; Whitelock, P A

    2016-01-01

    We obtained a total of 20 near-infrared K-band spectro-interferometric snapshot observations of the Mira variables o Cet, R Leo, R Aqr, X Hya, W Vel, and R Cnc with a spectral resolution of about 1500. We compared observed flux and visibility spectra with predictions by CODEX 1D dynamic model atmospheres and with azimuthally averaged intensities based on CO5BOLD 3D dynamic model atmospheres including convection. Our visibility data confirm the presence of spatially extended molecular atmospheres located above the continuum radii with large-scale inhomogeneities or clumps that contribute a few percent of the total flux. The detailed structure of the inhomogeneities or clumps show a variability on time scales of 3 months and above. Both modeling attempts provided satisfactory fits to our data. In particular, they are both consistent with the observed decrease in the visibility function at molecular bands of water vapor and CO, indicating a spatially extended molecular atmosphere. Observational variability phase...

  8. Acceleration of convective dissolution by chemical reaction in a Hele-Shaw cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherezov, Ilia; Cardoso, Silvana S S

    2016-09-14

    New laboratory experiments quantify the destabilising effect of a second-order chemical reaction on the fingering instability of a diffusive boundary layer in a Hele-Shaw cell. We show that, for a given chemical system, the dynamics of such a reactive boundary layer is fully determined by two dimensionless groups, Da/Ra(2), which measures the timescale for convection compared to those for reaction and diffusion, and CBo', which reflects the excess of the environmental reactant species relative to the diffusing solute. Results of a systematic study varying CBo' in the range 0-0.1 are presented. It is shown that the chemical reaction increases the growth rate of a perturbation and favours small wavelengths compared to the inert system. A higher concentration of CBo' not only accelerates the onset of convection, but crucially also increases the transport of the solute by up to 150% compared to the inert system. This increase in solute transfer has important practical implications, such as in the storage of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers.

  9. Extreme dissipation event due to plume collision in a turbulent convection cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Jörg; Scheel, Janet D.

    2016-10-01

    An extreme dissipation event in the bulk of a closed three-dimensional turbulent convection cell is found to be correlated with a strong reduction of the large-scale circulation flow in the system that happens at the same time as a plume emission event from the bottom plate. The reduction in the large-scale circulation opens the possibility for a nearly frontal collision of down- and upwelling plumes and the generation of a high-amplitude thermal dissipation layer in the bulk. This collision is locally connected to a subsequent high-amplitude energy dissipation event in the form of a strong shear layer. Our analysis illustrates the impact of transitions in the large-scale structures on extreme events at the smallest scales of the turbulence, a direct link that is observed in a flow with boundary layers. We also show that detection of extreme dissipation events which determine the far-tail statistics of the dissipation fields in the bulk requires long-time integrations of the equations of motion over at least a hundred convective time units.

  10. Instability onset and mixing by diffusive Rayleigh-Benard Convection in a Hele-Shaw Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehyaei, Dana; Kiger, Ken

    2012-11-01

    The injection and eventual dissolution of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers has suggested as an effective means of carbon sequestration. Typical injection conditions produce a buoyantly stable source of CO2 layered on top of the brine, whose dissolution is greatly accelerated by the onset of dissolution-driven, negatively buoyant, convective plumes that develop at the interface. The current work is a study conducted within a Hele-shaw cell, as an analogue for porous media, using working fluids that are mixtures of methanol and ethylene glycol diffusing in water, imitating the convective behavior of CO2 in the brine. The underlying physics of the flow are examined by measuring the velocity field directly via PIV, using appropriate methods to allow quantitative measurement in this thin-gap flow. This technique allows for detailed measurement of the entire evolution of the velocity and vorticity field during onset, growth and saturation of the instabilities. Features of the flow, the mechanisms that govern it and accurate time scales form onset time to later time mixings would be discussed for different Rayleigh numbers ranging from 2000 to 15000.

  11. A semi-analytical solution for the mean wind profile in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: the convective case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Buligon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel methodology to derive the average wind profile from the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The development employs the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT, which combines series expansions with Integral Transforms. The new approach provides a solution described in terms of the quantities that control the wind vector with height. Parameters, such as divergence and vorticity, whose magnitudes represent sinoptic patterns are contained in the semi-analytical solution. The results of this new method applied to the convective boundary layer are shown to agree with wind data measured in Wangara experiment.

  12. A semi-analytical solution for the mean wind profile in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: the convective case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Buligon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel methodology to derive the average wind profile from the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The development employs the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT, which joints series expansions with Integral Transforms. The new approach provides a solution described in terms of the quantities that control the wind vector with height. Parameters, such as divergence and vorticity, whose magnitudes represent sinoptic patterns are contained in the semi-analytical solution. The results of this new method applied to the convective boundary layer are shown to agree with wind data measured in Wangara experiment.

  13. A semi-analytical solution for the mean wind profile in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: the convective case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buligon, L.; Degrazia, G. A.; Acevedo, O. C.; Szinvelski, C. R. P.; Goulart, A. G. O.

    2010-03-01

    A novel methodology to derive the average wind profile from the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The development employs the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT), which combines series expansions with Integral Transforms. The new approach provides a solution described in terms of the quantities that control the wind vector with height. Parameters, such as divergence and vorticity, whose magnitudes represent sinoptic patterns are contained in the semi-analytical solution. The results of this new method applied to the convective boundary layer are shown to agree with wind data measured in Wangara experiment.

  14. Scaling properties of velocity and temperature spectra above the surface friction layer in a convective atmospheric boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. McNaughton

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We report velocity and temperature spectra measured at nine levels from 1.42 meters up to 25.7 m over a smooth playa in Western Utah. Data are from highly convective conditions when the magnitude of the Obukhov length (our proxy for the depth of the surface friction layer was less than 2 m. Our results are somewhat similar to the results reported from the Minnesota experiment of Kaimal et al. (1976, but show significant differences in detail. Our velocity spectra show no evidence of buoyant production of kinetic energy at at the scale of the thermal structures. We interpret our velocity spectra to be the result of outer eddies interacting with the ground, not "local free convection".

    We observe that velocity spectra represent the spectral distribution of the kinetic energy of the turbulence, so we use energy scales based on total turbulence energy in the convective boundary layer (CBL to collapse our spectra. For the horizontal velocity spectra this scale is (zi εo2/3, where zi is inversion height and εo is the dissipation rate in the bulk CBL. This scale functionally replaces the Deardorff convective velocity scale. Vertical motions are blocked by the ground, so the outer eddies most effective in creating vertical motions come from the inertial subrange of the outer turbulence. We deduce that the appropriate scale for the peak region of the vertical velocity spectra is (z εo2/3 where z is height above ground. Deviations from perfect spectral collapse under these scalings at large and small wavenumbers are explained in terms of the energy transport and the eddy structures of the flow.

    We find that the peaks of the temperature spectra collapse when wavenumbers are scaled using (z1/2 zi1/2. That is, the lengths of the thermal structures depend on both the lengths of the

  15. Simulating deep convection with a shallow convection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hohenegger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Convective processes profoundly affect the global water and energy balance of our planet but remain a challenge for global climate modeling. Here we develop and investigate the suitability of a unified convection scheme, capable of handling both shallow and deep convection, to simulate cases of tropical oceanic convection, mid-latitude continental convection, and maritime shallow convection. To that aim, we employ large-eddy simulations (LES as a benchmark to test and refine a unified convection scheme implemented in the Single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM. Our approach is motivated by previous cloud-resolving modeling studies, which have documented the gradual transition between shallow and deep convection and its possible importance for the simulated precipitation diurnal cycle.

    Analysis of the LES reveals that differences between shallow and deep convection, regarding cloud-base properties as well as entrainment/detrainment rates, can be related to the evaporation of precipitation. Parameterizing such effects and accordingly modifying the University of Washington shallow convection scheme, it is found that the new unified scheme can represent both shallow and deep convection as well as tropical and mid-latitude continental convection. Compared to the default SCAM version, the new scheme especially improves relative humidity, cloud cover and mass flux profiles. The new unified scheme also removes the well-known too early onset and peak of convective precipitation over mid-latitude continental areas.

  16. Simulation of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in an atmosphere-ocean global coupled model. Part I: a mechanism governing the variability of ocean convection in a preindustrial experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemas, Virginie [Meteo-France, CNRS, Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques/Groupe d' Etude de l' Atmosphere Meteorologique, Toulouse Cedex (France); UMR 1572, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Salas-Melia, David [Meteo-France, CNRS, Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques/Groupe d' Etude de l' Atmosphere Meteorologique, Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2008-07-15

    A preindustrial climate experiment was conducted with the third version of the CNRM global atmosphere-ocean-sea ice coupled model (CNRM-CM3) for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4). This experiment is used to investigate the main physical processes involved in the variability of the North Atlantic ocean convection and the induced variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC). Three ocean convection sites are simulated, in the Labrador, Irminger and Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (GIN) Seas in agreement with observations. A mechanism linking the variability of the Arctic sea ice cover and convection in the GIN Seas is highlighted. Contrary to previous suggested mechanisms, in CNRM-CM3 the latter is not modulated by the variability of freshwater export through Fram Strait. Instead, the variability of convection is mainly driven by the variability of the sea ice edge position in the Greenland Sea. In this area, the surface freshwater balance is dominated by the freshwater input due to the melting of sea ice. The ice edge position is modulated either by northwestward geostrophic current anomalies or by an intensification of northerly winds. In the model, stronger than average northerly winds force simultaneous intense convective events in the Irminger and GIN Seas. Convection interacts with the thermohaline circulation on timescales of 5-10 years, which translates into MOC anomalies propagating southward from the convection sites. (orig.)

  17. Role of Joule heating in dispersive mixing effects in electrophoretic cells: convective-diffusive transport aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, M A; Arce, P

    2000-03-01

    This contribution addresses the problem of solute dispersion in a free convection electrophoretic cell for the batch mode of operation, caused by the Joule heating generation. The problem is analyzed by using the two-problem approach originally proposed by Bosse and Arce (Electrophoresis 2000, 21, 1018-1025). The approach identifies the carrier fluid problem and the solute problem. This contribution is focused on the latter. The strategy uses a sequential coupling between the energy, momentum and mass conservation equations and, based on geometrical and physical assumptions for the system, leads to the derivation of analytical temperature and velocity profiles inside the cell. These results are subsequently used in the derivation of the effective dispersion coefficient for the cell by using the method of area averaging. The result shows the first design equation that relates the Joule heating effect directly to the solute dispersion in the cell. Some illustrative results are presented and discussed and their implication to the operation and design of the device is addressed. Due to the assumptions made, the equation may be viewed as an upper boundary for applications such as free flow electrophoresis.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE INTENSIFICATION CONVECTIVE DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gavrilenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identified and analyzed the relationship of the intensity convective drying and air pollution emissions of heat. The ways to reduce the thermal pollution of the atmosphere at convective drying.

  19. Diffusive and convective transport through hollow fiber membranes for liver cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, E; De Bartolo, L; Barbieri, G; Rende, M; Giorno, L; Morelli, S; Drioli, E

    2005-05-25

    For an efficient membrane bioreactor design, transport phenomena determining the overall mass flux of metabolites, catabolites, cell regulatory factors, and immune-related soluble factors, need to be clarified both experimentally and theoretically. In this work, experiments and calculations aimed at discerning the simultaneous influence of both diffusive and convective mechanisms to the transport of metabolites. In particular, the transmembrane mass flux of glucose, bovine serum albumin (BSA), APO-transferrin, immunoglobulin G, and ammonia was experimentally measured, under pressure and concentration gradients, through high-flux microporous hydrophilic poly-ether-sulphone (PES-HFMs) and poly-sulphone hollow fiber membranes (PS-HFMs). These data were analyzed by means of a model based on the mechanism of capillary pore diffusion, assuming that solute spherical molecules pass through an array of solvent-filled cylindrical pores with a diffusive permeation corrected for friction and steric hindrances. Additionally, resistances to the mass transfer were taken into account. Convective permeation data were discussed in terms of morphological properties of the polymeric membranes, molecular Stokes radius, and solute-membrane interactions according to information given by contact angle measurements. The observed steady-state hydraulic permeance of PS-HFMs was 0.972 L/m2hmbar, about 15.6-fold lower than that measured for PES-HFMs (15.2 L/m2h); in general, PS-HFMs provided a significant hindrance to the transport of target species. Diffusion coefficients of metabolites were found to be similar to the corresponding values in water through PES-HFMs, but significantly reduced through PS-HFMs (D(Glucose)(Membrane)=2.8x10(-6)+/-0.6x10(-6)cm2/s, D(BSA)(Membrane)=6.4 x 10(-7)+/-1 x 10(-7)cm(/s, D(Apotransferrin)(Membrane)=2.3 x 10(-7)+/-0.25 x 10(-7)cm2/s).

  20. Oxygenated volatile organic carbon in the western Pacific convective center: ocean cycling, air–sea gas exchange and atmospheric transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlundt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A suite of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs – acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, butanal and butanone were measured concurrently in the surface water and atmosphere of the South China Sea and Sulu Sea in November 2011. A strong correlation was observed between all OVOC concentrations in the surface seawater along the entire cruise track, except for acetaldehyde, suggesting similar sources and sinks in the surface ocean. Additionally, several phytoplankton groups, such as haptophytes or pelagophytes, were also correlated to all OVOCs, indicating that phytoplankton may be an important source of marine OVOCs in the South China and Sulu seas. Humic- and protein-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM components seemed to be additional precursors for butanone and acetaldehyde. The measurement-inferred OVOC fluxes generally showed an uptake of atmospheric OVOCs by the ocean for all gases, except for butanal. A few important exceptions were found along the Borneo coast, where OVOC fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere were inferred. The atmospheric OVOC mixing ratios over the northern coast of Borneo were relatively high compared with literature values, suggesting that this coastal region is a local hotspot for atmospheric OVOCs. The calculated amount of OVOCs entrained into the ocean seemed to be an important source of OVOCs to the surface ocean. When the fluxes were out of the ocean, marine OVOCs were found to be enough to control the locally measured OVOC distribution in the atmosphere. Based on our model calculations, at least 0.4 ppb of marine-derived acetone and butanone can reach the upper troposphere, where they may have an important influence on hydrogen oxide radical formation over the western Pacific Ocean.

  1. Delayed effects of cold atmospheric plasma on vascular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, Eva; Roks, Anton J. M.; Deelmm, Leo E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the long-term behaviour of vascular cells (endothelial and smooth muscle) after exposure to a cold atmospheric plasma source. The cells were treated through a gas-permeable membrane, in order to simulate intravenous treatment with a gas plasma-filled catheter. Such indirect treatment

  2. Delayed effects of cold atmospheric plasma on vascular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, Eva; Roks, Anton J. M.; Deelmm, Leo E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the long-term behaviour of vascular cells (endothelial and smooth muscle) after exposure to a cold atmospheric plasma source. The cells were treated through a gas-permeable membrane, in order to simulate intravenous treatment with a gas plasma-filled catheter. Such indirect treatment

  3. Impact of atmospheric changes on the low-frequency variations of convective afternoon rainfall activity over Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Wang, Shih-Yu; Chen, Jian-Pu

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the characteristics of low-frequency variations (defined as decadal-scale changes) in summer (June-August) convective afternoon rainfall (CAR) activity over Taiwan during 1961-2012. Using 3-hourly rain gauge data, it was found that (1) the CAR frequency exhibits a secular trend and the 10-20 decadal oscillation, (2) the trend in CAR frequency is positive in northern Taiwan but negative in central and southern Taiwan, and (3) the CAR rate increased over most of the lower plains but decreased over the mountain range of Taiwan. Diagnoses using the Japanese ReAnalysis (JRA-55) data and surface observations indicate that the low-frequency variations in CAR frequency are closely associated with the variations in monsoon southwesterly winds over the South China Sea and island-wide sea breeze convergence. The regional low-level circulation changes are linked to sea surface temperature anomalies over the Niño-4 region and its 10-20 year (quasi-decadal) oscillation. Regarding the processes that change the CAR rate in the trending patterns, it was found that increases in the moisture flux convergence and the moist (conditional) instability over the lower plains together explain the stronger CAR events in the long run.

  4. Observing Convective Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-06-01

    Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.

  5. Convective rain cell contours inferred from a very dense gauge network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschl, Reinhard; Teschl, Franz; Fuchsberger, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Statistical information on the size of rain cells is of interest to a variety of disciplines: from meteorology and hydrology to microwave propagation e.g. for planning satellite communication systems. Rain cell size distributions are often based on weather radar data because of the high spatial and temporal resolution. The measuring accuracy of ground-based in situ sensors like rain gauges is admittedly higher, however, typical rain gauge networks exhibit a too coarse grid to adequately capture the spatial variability of precipitation, especially of convective cells. In the course of the present work, data originating from a very dense rain-gauge network was used: WegenerNet is a climate station network in Styria, Austria, consisting of 153 stations within an area of about 20 km × 15 km. The network provides well serviced and supervised datasets since January 2007. Multilevel quality flags are used to indicate integrity and plausibility of the data. Based on the point measurements of rainfall, interpolations on a 200 m × 200 m grid are provided. The detection of rain cells in the grid-data was accomplished by identifying contiguous areas where the rain rate is equal to or higher than a specified threshold value. Once a connected area of a defined magnitude was identified, its dimension was determined and the equivalent circular diameter of the rain cell was calculated. Only rain cells with contours higher than 5 mm per 5 minutes were considered, because the study area with its about 300 square kilometers often did not allow the complete detection of more widespread rainfall events associated with lower intensity contours. In any case it was made sure that rain cells, which were only partially detected, did not distort the results. The period of observation comprises up to now a 7-year timespan from 2010 to 2016. An extension of the period back to 2007 is planned in order to take advantage of full 10 years of high-resolution data. For the analysis only intervals

  6. Extreme dissipation event due to plume collision in a turbulent convection cell

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    An extreme dissipation event in the bulk of a closed three-dimensional turbulent convection cell is found to be correlated with a strong reduction of the large-scale circulation flow in the system that happens at the same time as a plume emission event from the bottom plate. The reduction in the large-scale circulation opens the possibility for a nearly frontal collision of down- and upwelling plumes and the generation of a high-amplitude thermal dissipation layer in the bulk. This collision is locally connected to a subsequent high-amplitude energy dissipation event in the form of a strong shear layer. Our analysis illustrates the impact of transitions in the large-scale structures on extreme events at the smallest scales of the turbulence, a direct link that is observed in a flow with boundary layers. We also show that detection of extreme dissipation events which determine the far-tail statistics of the dissipation fields in the bulk requires long-time integrations of the equations of motion over at least ...

  7. Forced and natural convective drying of trehalose/water thin films: implication in the desiccation preservation of Mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyan; Fowler, Alex; Bhowmick, Sankha

    2006-06-01

    Trehalose is believed to offer desiccation protection to mammalian cells by forming stable glassy matrices. The goal of the current study was to explore the desiccation kinetics of thin films of trehalose-water solution under forced and natural convective conditions and to investigate the thermophysical state of mammalian cells at the bottom of the thin film. We developed a finite difference model based on the mass and energy conservation equations coupled to the water transport model from the cells. The boundary conditions were obtained from correlations or experimental measurements and the Gordon-Taylor equation was used to predict the glass transition temperature at every location. Results indicated that there are three distinct regimes for drying for both forced and natural convection, characterized by the slope of the moisture content plot as a function of time. Our results also indicate that the surface of the solution reached the glassy state in less than 10 min for the Reynolds (forced) numbers explored and approximately 30 min for some Rayleigh (natural convective) numbers; however, significant water was trapped at this instant. Larger drying force hastened quicker glass formation but trapped more water. The numerical model was capable of predicting the drying kinetics for the dilute region accurately, but deviated while predicting the other regimes. Based on these experimental validations of the model, the osmotic response of different cells located at the bottom of the solution with orders of magnitude difference in their membrane permeability (Lp) was predicted. The results suggested that extracellular glass formed around cells at the bottom of a trehalose-water solution by the propagation of glass into the solution; however it takes more than an order of magnitude time (approximately 7 min to >100 min for forced convective drying) to remove sufficient water to form glass around cells from the time when the first surface glass is formed. This is

  8. Experimental Study of Convective Cells and RF Sheaths Excited by a Fast Wave Antenna in the LAPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; van Compernolle, Bart; Carter, Troy; van Eester, Dirk; Crombé, Kristel

    2016-10-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) will be essential for ITER where it is planned to couple 20 MW to the plasma. During ICRH, radio frequency (RF) sheaths may form on the antenna or farther away, and convective cells are suspected to form adjacent to ICRH antennas, negatively affecting both machine and plasma performance. The LAPD (ne 10 12 - 13cm-3 , Te 1-10 eV, B0 0.4 to 2 kG, diameter 60 cm, length 17m) is an ideal device for performing detailed experiments to fully diagnose these phenomena. A 200 kW RF system capable of pulsing at the 1 Hz. rep. rate of the LAPD and operating from 2 to 2.5 MHz has been constructed to perform such studies. B0 can be adjusted so that this encompasses the 1st to 7th harmonic of fci in H plasmas. Emissive, Mach, Langmuir, and B-field probes measured plasma potential, bulk plasma flows, wave patterns, ne, and Te in 2D planes at various axial locations from the antenna. Plasma potential enhancements of up to 90 V along magnetic field lines connected to the antenna and induced ExB flows consistent in structure with convective cells were observed. Details of these observations along with power scaling of RF sheath voltage and convective cell flows will be presented.

  9. Anomalous convection diffusion and wave coupling transport of cells on comb frame with fractional Cattaneo-Christov flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Zheng, Liancun; Liu, Fawang; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-09-01

    An improved Cattaneo-Christov flux model is proposed which can be used to capture the effects of the time and spatial relaxations, the time and spatial inhomogeneous diffusion and the spatial transition probability of cell transport in a highly non-homogeneous medium. Solutions are obtained by numerical discretization method where the time and spatial fractional derivative are discretized by the L1-approximation and shifted Grünwald definition, respectively. The solvability, stability and convergence of the numerical method for the special case of the Cattaneo-Christov equation are proved. Results indicate that the fractional convection diffusion-wave equation is an evolution equation which displays the coexisting characteristics of parabolicity and hyperbolicity. In other words, for α in (0, 1), the cells transport occupies the characteristics of coupling convection diffusion and wave spreading. Moreover, the effects of pertinent time parameter, time and spatial fractional derivative parameters, relaxation parameter, weight coefficient and the convection velocity on the anomalous transport of cells are shown graphically and analyzed in detail.

  10. A framework for parameterization of heterogeneous ocean convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilıcak, Mehmet; Adcroft, Alistair J.; Legg, Sonya

    2014-10-01

    We propose a new framework for parameterization of ocean convection processes. The new framework is termed “patchy convection” since our aim is to represent the heterogeneity of mixing processes that take place within the horizontal scope of a grid cell. We focus on applying this new scheme to represent the effect of pre-conditioning for deep convection by subgrid scale eddy variability. The new parameterization separates the grid-cell into two regions of different stratification, applies convective mixing separately to each region, and then recombines the density profile to produce the grid-cell mean density profile. The scheme depends on two parameters: the areal fraction of the vertically-mixed region within the horizontal grid cell, and the density difference between the mean and the unstratified profiles at the surface. We parameterize this density difference in terms of an unresolved eddy kinetic energy. We illustrate the patchy parameterization using a 1D idealized convection case before evaluating the scheme in two different global ocean-ice simulations with prescribed atmospheric forcing; (i) diagnosed eddy velocity field applied only in the Labrador Sea (ii) diagnosed global eddy velocity field. The global simulation results indicate that the patchy convection scheme improves the warm biases in the deep Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean. This proof-of-concept study is a first step in developing the patchy parameterization scheme, which will be extended in future to use a prognostic eddy field as well as to parameterize convection due to under-ice brine rejection.

  11. A new for parameterization of heterogeneous ocean convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilicak, Mehmet; Adcroft, Alistair; Legg, Sonya

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new framework for parameterization of ocean convection processes. The new framework is termed patchy convection. Our aim is to represent the heterogeneity of mixing processes that take place within the horizontal scope of a grid cell. This new scheme is to represent the effect of preconditioning for deep convection by sub-grid scale eddy variability. The new parameterization separates the grid-cell into two regions of different stratification, applies convective mixing separately to each region, and then recombines the density profile to produce the grid-cell mean density profile. The scheme depends on two parameters: the areal fraction of the vertically-mixed region within the horizontal grid cell, and the density difference between the mean and the unstratified profiles at the surface. We parameterize this density difference in terms of an unresolved eddy kinetic energy. We illustrate the patchy parameterization using a 1D idealized convection case before evaluating the scheme in two different global ocean-ice simulations with prescribed atmospheric forcing; i) diagnosed eddy velocity field applied only in the Labrador Sea ii) diagnosed global eddy velocity field. The global simulation results indicate that the patchy convection scheme improves the warm biases in the deep Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean.

  12. A new framework for parameterization of heterogeneous ocean convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilicak, M.; Adcroft, A.; Legg, S.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new framework for parameterization of ocean convection processes. The new framework is termed ''patchy convection'' since our aim is to represent the heterogeneity of mixing processes that take place within the horizontal scope of a grid cell. We focus on applying this new scheme to represent the effect of pre-conditioning for deep convection by subgrid scale eddy variability. The new scheme relies on mesoscale eddy kinetic energy field. We illustrate the patchy parameterization using a 1D idealized convection case. Next, the scheme is compared against observations. We employed the 1D case using the summer time ARGO floats from the Labrador Sea as initial conditions. We used ECMWF reanalysis atmospheric forcing and compared our results to the winter time ARGO floats. Finally we evaluate the scheme in two different global ocean-ice simulations with prescribed atmospheric forcing (CORE-I); (i) diagnosed eddy velocity field applied only in the Labrador Sea (ii) diagnosed global eddy velocity field. The global simulation results indicate that the patchy convection scheme improves the warm biases in the deep Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean. This proof-of-concept study is a first step in developing the patchy parameterization scheme, which will be extended in future to use a prognostic eddy field as well as to parameterize convection due to under-ice brine rejection. This study is funded through the CPT 2: Ocean Mixing Processes Associated with High Spatial Heterogeneity in Sea Ice and the Implications for Climate Models.

  13. On the impact of spatial heterogeneous permeability distributions on the development of free convection cells in the Perth Basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederau, Jan; Ebigbo, Anozie; Freitag, Sebastian; Marquart, Gabriele; Clauser, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Recent increase in exploration of the geothermal energy potential of the Perth Metropolitan Area (PMA) results in the need for reliable and robust reservoir models in order to explore rock properties and temperature distributions in the subsurface, where free convection in the main reservoir (Yarragadee Aquifer) is likely to occur [1]. While the structure of the Perth Basin has been refined recently, the heterogeneity and spatial complexity of permeability was up till now mainly neglected. An integrated, three dimensional tectonostratigraphic model of the PMA is constructed, using the modeling software '3D GeoModeller' and data of numerous artesian and petroleum wells. Comprising the region around the city of Perth, the model covers an area of about 5000 km2 up to a depth of 4.5 km, with focus on adequate representation of the main reservoir. We further construct a numerical model for fluid flow and heat transport in the Yarragadee Aquifer. Porosity distributions are deduced from well logs and linked to permeability by a calibrated correlation, based on a fractal approach. Three different cases are simulated using the FD code SHEMAT-Suite, in order to assess the influence of spatial heterogeneity of porosity and permeability on the development of free convection cells. constant porosity and permeability for the entire aquifer porosity and permeability decreasing with depth, thus reflecting compaction a conditional random permeability field within prescribed limits and for given correlation length In order to improve understanding of model correctness, as well as identification and comparison of convection cells in different simulations, we are developing a specialized visualization tool tailored to this purpose. The three different scenarios show distinctions in the distribution of convection cells. Where the Yarragadee Aquifer is in contact with overlying aquifers, regions of downflow develop. These in turn have a strong impact on the regional flow field and

  14. Biomedical Applications of the Cold Atmospheric Plasma: Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotskova, Olga

    Current breakthrough research on cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) demonstrates that CAP has great potential in various areas, including medicine and biology, thus providing a new tool for living tissue treatment. Depending on the configuration the cold plasma sources can be used in the following areas: wound healing, skin diseases, hospital hygiene, sterilization, antifungal treatments, dental care, cosmetics targeted cell/tissue removal, and cancer treatments. This dissertation is focused on the studies of biomedical applications of cold atmospheric plasma jet based on helium flow and resultant cell responses to the cold plasma treatment. The studies were carried out on extra-cellular and intra-cellular levels in vitro. The main practical applications are wound healing and alternative to existing cancer therapy methods, areas of great interest and significant challenges. The CAP jet was built in the Micropropulsion and Nanotechnology Laboratory of Dr. Michael Keidar, as a part of multidisciplinary collaboration with the GW Medical School (Dr. M.A. Stepp) concerned with plasma medicine and bioengineering studies. Normal and cancer cells have two fundamental behavioral properties, proliferation and motility, which can be evaluated through cell migration rates and cell cycle progression. Various microscopic, spectroscopic and flow cytometry techniques were used to characterize cell responses to the cold plasma treatment. It was found that CAP effect on the cells is localized within the area of the treatment (of around ˜ 5mm in diameter). The migration rates of the normal skin cells can be reduced up to ˜ 40%. However, depending on the cell type the required treatment time is different, thus differential treatment of various cells presented in tissue is possible. The CAP effect on the migration was explained through the changes of the cell surface proteins/integrins. It was also found that normal and cancer cells respond differently to the CAP treatment under the same

  15. Modulation of invasive phenotype by interstitial pressure-driven convection in aggregates of human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Tien

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effect of elevated pressure on the invasive phenotype of patterned three-dimensional (3D aggregates of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. We found that the directionality of the interstitial pressure profile altered the frequency of invasion by cells located at the surface of an aggregate. In particular, application of pressure at one end of an aggregate suppressed invasion at the opposite end. Experimental alteration of the configuration of cell aggregates and computational modeling of the resulting flow and solute concentration profiles revealed that elevated pressure inhibited invasion by altering the chemical composition of the interstitial fluid near the surface of the aggregate. Our data reveal a link between hydrostatic pressure, interstitial convection, and invasion.

  16. Design of Multijunction Photovoltaic Cells Optimized for Varied Atmospheric Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Band gap engineering provides an opportunity to not only provide higher overall conversion efficiencies of the reference AM1.5 spectra but also customize PV device design for specific geographic locations and microenvironments based on atmospheric conditions characteristic to that particular location. Indium gallium nitride and other PV materials offer the opportunity for limited bandgap engineering to match spectra. The effects of atmospheric conditions such as aerosols, cloud cover, water vapor, and air mass have been shown to cause variations in spectral radiance that alters PV system performance due to both overrating and underrating. Designing PV devices optimized for spectral radiance of a particular region can result in improved PV system performance. This paper presents a new method for designing geographically optimized PV cells with using a numerical model for bandgap optimization. The geographic microclimate spectrally resolved solar flux for twelve representative atmospheric conditions for the incident radiation angle (zenith angle of 48.1° and fixed array angle of 40° is used to iteratively optimize the band gap for tandem, triple, and quad-layer of InGaN-based multijunction cells. The results of this method are illustrated for the case study of solar farms in the New York region and discussed.

  17. Cold atmospheric plasma for selectively ablating metastatic breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Holmes, Benjamin; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Zhu, Wei; Keidar, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2013-01-01

    Traditional breast cancer treatments such as surgery and radiotherapy contain many inherent limitations with regards to incomplete and nonselective tumor ablation. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is an ionized gas where the ion temperature is close to room temperature. It contains electrons, charged particles, radicals, various excited molecules, UV photons and transient electric fields. These various compositional elements have the potential to either enhance and promote cellular activity, or disrupt and destroy them. In particular, based on this unique composition, CAP could offer a minimally-invasive surgical approach allowing for specific cancer cell or tumor tissue removal without influencing healthy cells. Thus, the objective of this research is to investigate a novel CAP-based therapy for selectively bone metastatic breast cancer treatment. For this purpose, human metastatic breast cancer (BrCa) cells and bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were separately treated with CAP, and behavioral changes were evaluated after 1, 3, and 5 days of culture. With different treatment times, different BrCa and MSC cell responses were observed. Our results showed that BrCa cells were more sensitive to these CAP treatments than MSCs under plasma dose conditions tested. It demonstrated that CAP can selectively ablate metastatic BrCa cells in vitro without damaging healthy MSCs at the metastatic bone site. In addition, our study showed that CAP treatment can significantly inhibit the migration and invasion of BrCa cells. The results suggest the great potential of CAP for breast cancer therapy.

  18. Cold atmospheric plasma for selectively ablating metastatic breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Wang

    Full Text Available Traditional breast cancer treatments such as surgery and radiotherapy contain many inherent limitations with regards to incomplete and nonselective tumor ablation. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP is an ionized gas where the ion temperature is close to room temperature. It contains electrons, charged particles, radicals, various excited molecules, UV photons and transient electric fields. These various compositional elements have the potential to either enhance and promote cellular activity, or disrupt and destroy them. In particular, based on this unique composition, CAP could offer a minimally-invasive surgical approach allowing for specific cancer cell or tumor tissue removal without influencing healthy cells. Thus, the objective of this research is to investigate a novel CAP-based therapy for selectively bone metastatic breast cancer treatment. For this purpose, human metastatic breast cancer (BrCa cells and bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were separately treated with CAP, and behavioral changes were evaluated after 1, 3, and 5 days of culture. With different treatment times, different BrCa and MSC cell responses were observed. Our results showed that BrCa cells were more sensitive to these CAP treatments than MSCs under plasma dose conditions tested. It demonstrated that CAP can selectively ablate metastatic BrCa cells in vitro without damaging healthy MSCs at the metastatic bone site. In addition, our study showed that CAP treatment can significantly inhibit the migration and invasion of BrCa cells. The results suggest the great potential of CAP for breast cancer therapy.

  19. Parameterizing convective organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Earle Mapes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lateral mixing parameters in buoyancy-driven deep convection schemes are among the most sensitive and important unknowns in atmosphere models. Unfortunately, there is not a true optimum value for plume mixing rate, but rather a dilemma or tradeoff: Excessive dilution of updrafts leads to unstable stratification bias in the mean state, while inadequate dilution allows deep convection to occur too easily, causing poor space and time distributions and variability. In this too-small parameter space, compromises are made based on competing metrics of model performance. We attempt to escape this “entrainment dilemma” by making bulk plume parameters (chiefly entrainment rate depend on a new prognostic variable (“organization,” org meant to reflect the rectified effects of subgrid-scale structure in meteorological fields. We test an org scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5 with a new unified shallow-deep convection scheme (UW-ens, a 2-plume version of the University of Washington scheme. Since buoyant ascent involves natural selection, subgrid structure makes convection systematically deeper and stronger than the pure unorganized case: plumes of average (or randomly sampled air rising in the average environment. To reflect this, org is nonnegative, but we leave it dimensionless. A time scale characterizes its behavior (here ∼3 h for a 2o model. Currently its source is rain evaporation, but other sources can be added easily. We also let org be horizontally transported by advection, as a mass-weighted mean over the convecting layer. Linear coefficients link org to a plume ensemble, which it assists via: 1 plume base warmth above the mean temperature 2 plume radius enhancement (reduced mixing, and 3 increased probability of overlap in a multi-plume scheme, where interactions benefit later generations (this part has only been implemented in an offline toy column model. Since rain evaporation is a source for org, it functions as a time

  20. Observations of ice multiplication in a weakly convective cell embedded in supercooled mid-level stratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Crosier

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous observations of cloud microphysical properties were obtained by in-situ aircraft measurements and ground based Radar/Lidar. Widespread mid-level stratus cloud was present below a temperature inversion (~5 °C magnitude at 3.6 km altitude. Localised convection (peak updraft 1.5 m s−1 was observed 20 km west of the Radar station. This was associated with convergence at 2.5 km altitude. The convection was unable to penetrate the inversion capping the mid-level stratus.

    The mid-level stratus cloud was vertically thin (~400 m, horizontally extensive (covering 100 s of km and persisted for more than 24 h. The cloud consisted of supercooled water droplets and small concentrations of large (~1 mm stellar/plate like ice which slowly precipitated out. This ice was nucleated at temperatures greater than −12.2 °C and less than −10.0 °C, (cloud top and cloud base temperatures, respectively. No ice seeding from above the cloud layer was observed. This ice was formed by primary nucleation, either through the entrainment of efficient ice nuclei from above/below cloud, or by the slow stochastic activation of immersion freezing ice nuclei contained within the supercooled drops. Above cloud top significant concentrations of sub-micron aerosol were observed and consisted of a mixture of sulphate and carbonaceous material, a potential source of ice nuclei.

    Precipitation from the mid-level stratus evaporated before reaching the surface, whereas rates of up to 1 mm h−1 were observed below the convective feature. There is strong evidence for the Hallett-Mossop (HM process of secondary ice particle production leading to the formation of the precipitation observed. This includes (1 Ice concentrations in the convective feature were more than an order of magnitude greater than the concentration of primary ice in the overlaying stratus, (2 Large concentrations of small pristine columns were observed at the ~−5

  1. Variability in warm-season atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns over subtropical South America: relationships between the South Atlantic convergence zone and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Kyle S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2017-01-01

    Warm-season precipitation variability over subtropical South America is characterized by an inverse relationship between the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and precipitation over the central and western La Plata basin of southeastern South America. This study extends the analysis of this "South American Seesaw" precipitation dipole to relationships between the SACZ and large, long-lived mesoscale convective systems (LLCSs) over the La Plata basin. By classifying SACZ events into distinct continental and oceanic categories and building a logistic regression model that relates LLCS activity across the region to continental and oceanic SACZ precipitation, a detailed account of spatial variability in the out-of-phase coupling between the SACZ and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin is provided. Enhanced precipitation in the continental SACZ is found to result in increased LLCS activity over northern, northeastern, and western sections of the La Plata basin, in association with poleward atmospheric moisture flux from the Amazon basin toward these regions, and a decrease in the probability of LLCS occurrence over the southeastern La Plata basin. Increased oceanic SACZ precipitation, however, was strongly related to reduced atmospheric moisture and decreased probability of LLCS occurrence over nearly the entire La Plata basin. These results suggest that continental SACZ activity and large-scale organized convection over the northern and eastern sections of the La Plata basin are closely tied to atmospheric moisture transport from the Amazon basin, while the warm coastal Brazil Current may also play an important role as an evaporative moisture source for LLCSs over the central and western La Plata basin.

  2. Variability in warm-season atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns over subtropical South America: relationships between the South Atlantic convergence zone and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Kyle S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2016-03-01

    Warm-season precipitation variability over subtropical South America is characterized by an inverse relationship between the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and precipitation over the central and western La Plata basin of southeastern South America. This study extends the analysis of this "South American Seesaw" precipitation dipole to relationships between the SACZ and large, long-lived mesoscale convective systems (LLCSs) over the La Plata basin. By classifying SACZ events into distinct continental and oceanic categories and building a logistic regression model that relates LLCS activity across the region to continental and oceanic SACZ precipitation, a detailed account of spatial variability in the out-of-phase coupling between the SACZ and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin is provided. Enhanced precipitation in the continental SACZ is found to result in increased LLCS activity over northern, northeastern, and western sections of the La Plata basin, in association with poleward atmospheric moisture flux from the Amazon basin toward these regions, and a decrease in the probability of LLCS occurrence over the southeastern La Plata basin. Increased oceanic SACZ precipitation, however, was strongly related to reduced atmospheric moisture and decreased probability of LLCS occurrence over nearly the entire La Plata basin. These results suggest that continental SACZ activity and large-scale organized convection over the northern and eastern sections of the La Plata basin are closely tied to atmospheric moisture transport from the Amazon basin, while the warm coastal Brazil Current may also play an important role as an evaporative moisture source for LLCSs over the central and western La Plata basin.

  3. Observations of ice multiplication in a weakly convective cell embedded in supercooled mid-level stratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Crosier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous observations of cloud microphysical properties were obtained by in-situ aircraft measurements and ground based Radar/Lidar. Widespread mid-level stratus cloud was present below a temperature inversion (~5 °C magnitude at 3.6 km altitude. Localised convection (peak updraft 1.5 m s−1 was observed 20 km west of the Radar station. This was associated with convergence at 2.5 km altitude. The convection was unable to penetrate the inversion capping the mid-level stratus.

    The mid-level stratus cloud was vertically thin (~400 m, horizontally extensive (covering 100 s of km and persisted for more than 24 h. The cloud consisted of supercooled water droplets and small concentrations of large (~1 mm stellar/plate like ice which slowly precipitated out. This ice was nucleated at temperatures greater than −12.2 °C and less than −10.0 °C, (cloud top and cloud base temperatures, respectively. No ice seeding from above the cloud layer was observed. This ice was formed by primary nucleation, either through the entrainment of efficient ice nuclei from above/below cloud, or by the slow stochastic activation of immersion freezing ice nuclei contained within the supercooled drops. Above cloud top significant concentrations of sub-micron aerosol were observed and consisted of a mixture of sulphate and carbonaceous material, a potential source of ice nuclei. Particle number concentrations (in the size range 0.1<D<3.0 μm were measured above and below cloud in concentrations of ~25 cm−3. Ice crystal concentrations in the cloud were constant at around 0.2 L−1. It is estimated that entrainment of aerosol particles into cloud cannot replenish the loss of ice nuclei from the cloud layer via precipitation.

    Precipitation from the mid-level stratus evaporated before reaching the surface, whereas rates of up to 1 mm h−1 were observed below the convective feature. There is strong

  4. Subcritical convection in an internally heated layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Linyan; Zikanov, Oleg

    2017-06-01

    Thermal convection in a horizontal layer with uniform internal heating and stress-free constant-temperature boundaries is analyzed numerically. The work is motivated by the questions arising in the development of liquid metal batteries, in which convection is induced by the Joule heating of electrolyte. It is demonstrated that three-dimensional convection cells exist at subcritical Rayleigh numbers.

  5. Integrating canopy and large-scale atmospheric effects in the convective boundary-layer dynamics and chemistry during the CHATS experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapkalijevski, M.; Ouwersloot, Huug; Moene, A.F.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.

    2017-01-01

    By characterizing the dynamics of a convective boundary layer above a relatively sparse and uniform orchard canopy, we investigated the impact of the roughness-sublayer (RSL) representation on the predicted diurnal variability of surface fluxes and state variables. Our approach combined numerical ex

  6. Effective mie-scattering and CO2 absorption in the dust-laden Martian atmosphere and its impact on radiative-convective temperature changes in the lower scale heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallmann, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    A time dependent computer model of radiative-convective-conductive heat transfer in the Martian ground-atmosphere system was refined by incorporating an intermediate line strength CO2 band absorption which together with the strong-and weak-line approximation closely simulated the radiative transmission through a vertically inhomogeneous stratification. About 33,000 CO2 lines were processed to cover the spectral range of solar and planetary radiation. Absorption by silicate dust particulates, was taken into consideration to study its impact on the ground-atmosphere temperature field as a function of time. This model was subsequently attuned to IRIS, IR-radiometric and S-band occultation data. Satisfactory simulations of the measured IRIS spectra were accomplished for the dust-free condition. In the case of variable dust loads, the simulations were sufficiently fair so that some inferences into the effect of dust on temperature were justified.

  7. The Atmospheric Energy Budget and Large-Scale Precipitation Efficiency of Convective Systems during TOGA COARE, GATE, SCSMEX, and ARM: Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W.-K.; Johnson, D.; Shie, C.-L.; Simpson, J.

    2004-10-01

    A two-dimensional version of the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model is used to simulate convective systems that developed in various geographic locations (east Atlantic, west Pacific, South China Sea, and Great Plains in the United States). Observed large-scale advective tendencies for potential temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and horizontal momentum derived from field campaigns are used as the main forcing. The atmospheric temperature and water vapor budgets from the model results show that the two largest terms are net condensation (heating/drying) and imposed large-scale forcing (cooling/moistening) for tropical oceanic cases though not for midlatitude continental cases. These two terms are opposite in sign, however, and are not the dominant terms in the moist static energy budget.The balance between net radiation, surface latent heat flux, and net condensational heating vary in these tropical cases, however. For cloud systems that developed over the South China Sea and eastern Atlantic, net radiation (cooling) is not negligible in the temperature budget; it is as large as 20% of the net condensation. However, shortwave heating and longwave cooling are in balance with each other for cloud systems over the west Pacific region such that the net radiation is very small. This is due to the thick anvil clouds simulated in the cloud systems over the Pacific region. The large-scale advection of moist static energy is negative, as a result of a larger absolute value of large-scale advection of sensible heat (cooling) compared to large-scale latent heat (moistening) advection in the Pacific and Atlantic cases. For three cloud systems that developed over a midlatitude continent, the net radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes play a much more important role. This means that the accurate measurement of surface fluxes and radiation is crucial for simulating these midlatitude cases.The results showed that large-scale mean (multiday) precipitation efficiency

  8. On the nature of rainfall in dry climate: Space-time patterns of convective rain cells over the Dead Sea region and their relations with synoptic state and flash flood generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belachsen, Idit; Marra, Francesco; Peleg, Nadav; Morin, Efrat

    2017-04-01

    Space-time patterns of rainfall are important climatic characteristics that influence runoff generation and flash flood magnitude. Their derivation requires high-resolution measurements to adequately represent the rainfall distribution, and is best provided by remote sensing tools. This need is further emphasized in dry climate regions, where rainfall is scarce and, often, local and highly variable. Our research is focused on understanding the nature of rainfall events in the dry Dead Sea region (Eastern Mediterranean) by identifying and characterizing the spatial structure and the dynamics of convective storm cores (known as rain cells). To do so, we take advantage of 25 years of corrected and gauge-adjusted weather radar data. A statistical analysis of convective rain-cells spatial and temporal characteristics was performed with respect to synoptic pattern, geographical location, and flash flood generation. Rain cells were extracted from radar data using a cell segmentation method and a tracking algorithm and were divided into rain events. A total of 10,500 rain cells, 2650 cell tracks and 424 rain events were elicited. Rain cell properties, such as mean areal and maximal rain intensity, area, life span, direction and speed, were derived. Rain events were clustered, according to several ERA-Interim atmospheric parameters, and associated with three main synoptic patterns: Cyprus Low, Low to the East of the study region and Active Red Sea Trough. The first two originate from the Mediterranean Sea, while the third is an extension of the African monsoon. On average, the convective rain cells in the region are 90 km2 in size, moving from West to East in 13 ms-1 and living 18 minutes. Several significant differences between rain cells of the various synoptic types were observed. In particular, Active Red Sea Trough rain cells are characterized by higher rain intensities and lower speeds, suggesting a higher flooding potential for small catchments. The north

  9. Convection of Moist Saturated Air: Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zakinyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the steady-state stationary thermal convection of moist saturated air in a lower atmosphere has been studied theoretically. Thermal convection was considered without accounting for the Coriolis force, and with only the vertical temperature gradient. The analytical solution of geophysical fluid dynamics equations, which generalizes the formulation of the moist convection problem, is obtained in the two-dimensional case. The stream function is derived in the Boussinesq approximation with velocity divergence taken as zero. It has been shown that the stream function is asymmetrical in vertical direction contrary to the dry and moist unsaturated air convection. It has been demonstrated that the convection in moist atmosphere strongly depends on the vapor mass fraction gradient.

  10. Sensitivity of solar-cell performance to atmospheric variables. 1: Single cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucher, T. M.

    1976-01-01

    The short circuit current of a typical silicon solar cell under direct solar radiation was measured for a range of turbidity, water vapor content, and air mass to determine the relation of the solar cell calibration value (current-to-intensity ratio) to those atmospheric variables. A previously developed regression equation was modified to describe the relation between calibration value, turbidity, water vapor content, and air mass. Based on the value of the constants obtained by a least squares fit of the data to the equation, it was found that turbidity lowers the value, while increase in water vapor increases the calibration value. Cell calibration values exhibited a change of about 6% over the range of atmospheric conditions experienced.

  11. A colsed form solution of convective mass transfer model for intracellular calcium response of endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Kumar

    1998-01-01

    concentration, producing prostacyclin, endothelium derived relaxing factor and ecto-enzymes. Three different ecto-enzymes metabolize ATP in three steps (ATP → ADP → AMP → adenosine . Normally experiments with endothelium are carried out in a rectangular flow chamber provided with a cell surface at one of its walls and feed stream containing ATP. The ATP concentration near the cell surface depends upon two factors, rate of its degradation and the rate at which it reaches from upstream. Closed form solutions for the concentration profile of ATP in such a flow chamber indicates that concentration near the cell surface is lower than the bulk concentration depending on the activity of ecto-enzymes and it increases with increase in tangential flow rate (shear stress. This indicates that shear induced response of endothelial cell (at least for low shear rate may be due to change in ATP concentration near the cell surface which is sensed by purinoreceptors instead of a mechanoreceptor. Several workers have tried to investigate this problem analytically. Unfortunately, solutions obtained by these workers have limited success. In the present work, exact solution of the problem has been obtained in terms of a confluent hypergeometric function. Solution of the transformed equation gives accurate results even in the entrance region of the flow chamber which eliminates the need of solutions based on approximate methods like perturbation or finite difference techniques.

  12. Coupling convectively driven atmospheric circulation to surface rotation: Evidence for active methane weather in the observed spin rate drift of Titan

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Jonathan L

    2008-01-01

    A large drift in the rotation rate of Titan observed by Cassini provided the first evidence of a subsurface ocean isolating the massive core from the icy crust. Seasonal exchange of angular momentum between the surface and atmosphere accounts for the magnitude of the effect, but observations lag the expected signal by a few years. We argue this time lag is due to the presence of an active methane weather cycle in the atmosphere. An analytic model of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric angular momentum is developed and compared to time-dependent simulations of Titan's atmosphere with and without methane thermodynamics. The disappearance of clouds at the summer pole suggests the drift rate has already switched direction, signaling the change in season from solstice to equinox.

  13. Low-dimensional model of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection in a Cartesian cell with square domain

    CERN Document Server

    Bailon-Cuba, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    A low-dimensional model (LDM) for turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection in a Cartesian cell with square domain, based on the Galerkin projection of the Boussinesq equations onto a finite set of empirical eigenfunctions, is presented. The empirical eigenfunctions are obtained from a joint Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) of the velocity and temperature fields using the Snapshot Method on the basis of a direct numerical simulation (DNS). The resulting LDM is a quadratic inhomogeneous system of coupled ordinary differential equations which we use to describe the long-time temporal evolution of the large-scale mode amplitudes for a Rayleigh number of 1e5 and a Prandtl number of 0.7. The truncation to a finite number of degrees of freedom, that does not exceed a number of 310 for the present, requires the additional implementation of an eddy viscosity-diffusivity to capture the missing dissipation of the small-scale modes. The magnitude of this additional dissipation mechanism is determined by requiring statis...

  14. Axially homogeneous Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a cylindrical cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, L.E.; Calzavarini, E.; Lohse, Detlef; Toschi, F.; Verzicco, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Previous numerical studies have shown that the ‘ultimate regime of thermal convection’ can be attained in a Rayleigh–Bénard cell when the kinetic and thermal boundary layers are eliminated by replacing both lateral and horizontal walls with periodic boundary conditions (homogeneous Rayleigh–Bénard

  15. Observing convection with satellite, radar, and lightning measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Ulrich; Nisi, Luca; Clementi, Lorenzo; Ventura, Jordi Figueras i.; Gabella, Marco; Hering, Alessandro M.; Sideris, Ioannis; Trefalt, Simona; Germann, Urs

    2015-04-01

    Heavy precipitation, hail, and wind gusts are the fundamental meteorological hazards associated with strong convection and thunderstorms. The thread is particularly severe in mountainous areas, e.g. it is estimated that on average between 50% and 80% of all weather-related damage in Switzerland is caused by strong thunderstorms (Hilker et al., 2010). Intense atmospheric convection is governed by processes that range from the synoptic to the microphysical scale and are considered to be one of the most challenging and difficult weather phenomena to predict. Even though numerical weather prediction models have some skills to predict convection, in general the exact location of the convective initialization and its propagation cannot be forecasted by these models with sufficient precision. Hence, there is a strong interest to improve the short-term forecast by using statistical, object oriented and/or heuristic nowcasting methods. MeteoSwiss has developed several operational nowcasting systems for this purpose such as TRT (Hering, 2008) and COALITION (Nisi, 2014). In this contribution we analyze the typical development of convection using measurements of the Swiss C-band Dual Polarization Doppler weather radar network, the MSG SEVIRI satellite, and the Météorage lighting network. The observations are complemented with the analysis and forecasts of the COSMO model. Special attention is given to the typical evolutionary stages like the pre-convective environment, convective initiation, cloud top glaciation, start, maximum, and end of precipitation and lightning activity. The pre-convective environment is examined using instability indices derived from SEVIRI observations and the COSMO forecasts. During the early development satellite observations are used to observe the rise of the cloud top, the growth of the cloud droplet or crystals, and the glaciation of the cloud top. SEVIRI brightness temperatures, channel differences, and temporal trends as suggested by

  16. The respective effect of under-rib convection and pressure drop of flow fields on the performance of PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Qinglei; Shen, Shuiyun; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhu, Fengjuan; Cheng, Xiaojing; Zhang, Junliang

    2017-03-01

    The flow field configuration plays an important role on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). For instance, channel/rib width and total channel cross-sectional area determine the under-rib convection and pressure drop respectively, both of which directly influence the water removal, in turn affecting the oxygen supply and cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. In this study, effects of under-rib convection and pressure drop on cell performance are investigated experimentally and numerically by adjusting the channel/rib width and channel cross-sectional area of flow fields. The results show that the performance differences with various flow field configurations mainly derive from the oxygen transport resistance which is determined by the water accumulation degree, and the cell performance would benefit from the narrower channels and smaller cross sections. It reveals that at low current densities when water starts to accumulate in GDL at under-rib regions, the under-rib convection plays a more important role in water removal than pressure drop does; in contrast, at high current densities when water starts to accumulate in channels, the pressure drop dominates the water removal to facilitate the oxygen transport to the catalyst layer.

  17. The respective effect of under-rib convection and pressure drop of flow fields on the performance of PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Qinglei; Shen, Shuiyun; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhu, Fengjuan; Cheng, Xiaojing; Zhang, Junliang

    2017-01-01

    The flow field configuration plays an important role on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). For instance, channel/rib width and total channel cross-sectional area determine the under-rib convection and pressure drop respectively, both of which directly influence the water removal, in turn affecting the oxygen supply and cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. In this study, effects of under-rib convection and pressure drop on cell performance are investigated experimentally and numerically by adjusting the channel/rib width and channel cross-sectional area of flow fields. The results show that the performance differences with various flow field configurations mainly derive from the oxygen transport resistance which is determined by the water accumulation degree, and the cell performance would benefit from the narrower channels and smaller cross sections. It reveals that at low current densities when water starts to accumulate in GDL at under-rib regions, the under-rib convection plays a more important role in water removal than pressure drop does; in contrast, at high current densities when water starts to accumulate in channels, the pressure drop dominates the water removal to facilitate the oxygen transport to the catalyst layer. PMID:28251983

  18. Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemke, Rei; Kaspi, Yohai

    2017-08-01

    The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.

  19. Highly Unstable Double-Diffusive Finger Convection in a Hele-Shaw Cell: Baseline Experimental Data for Evaluation of Numerical Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PRINGLE,SCOTT E.; COOPER,CLAY A.; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.

    2000-12-21

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study double-diffusive finger convection in a Hele-Shaw cell by layering a sucrose solution over a more-dense sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. The solutal Rayleigh numbers were on the order of 60,000, based upon the height of the cell (25 cm), and the buoyancy ratio was 1.2. A full-field light transmission technique was used to measure a dye tracer dissolved in the NaCl solution. They analyze the concentration fields to yield the temporal evolution of length scales associated with the vertical and horizontal finger structure as well as the mass flux. These measures show a rapid progression through two early stages to a mature stage and finally a rundown period where mass flux decays rapidly. The data are useful for the development and evaluation of numerical simulators designed to model diffusion and convection of multiple components in porous media. The results are useful for correct formulation at both the process scale (the scale of the experiment) and effective scale (where the lab-scale processes are averaged-up to produce averaged parameters). A fundamental understanding of the fine-scale dynamics of double-diffusive finger convection is necessary in order to successfully parameterize large-scale systems.

  20. Laboratory scale simulation of spontaneous vertical convective vortex generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifulin, Albert; Poludnitsin, Anatoly

    2009-11-01

    The new mechanism of spontaneous vertical vortex generation in stratified fluid is under consideration. This phenomenon was discovered in the framework of experimental attempt [1] to proof the hypothesis of universal character of bifurcation curve formulated in [2]. The experiment with slow cubic cell inclination from bottom heating position was performed. The theoretically predicted curve form had been proved; but in the transition process from abnormal convection flow to normal one during bifurcation curve crossing the unexpected spontaneous vertical convective vortex motion has been discovered. Possibility of spontaneous vertical convective vortex generation application to atmospheric behavior explanation and to Earth's mantle one is discussed. New non-local hurricane generation mechanism and observed oceanic volcano archipelago's form explanation attempt are formulated and speculated. [1] AN Sharifulin, AN Poludnitsin, AS Kravchuk Laboratory Scale Simulation of Nonlocal Generation of a Tropical Cyclone. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, 2008, V.107, No.6, p.1090. [2] AI Nikitin, AN Sharifulin, Concerning the bifurcations of steady-state thermal convection regimes in a closed cavity due to the Whitney folding-type singularity. Heat Transfer -- Soviet Research, v.21, no.2, 1989, p.213.

  1. Cold atmospheric plasma treatment selectively targets head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Ogawa, Takenori; Uemura, Mamoru; Shumulinsky, Gary; Valle, Blanca L; Pirini, Francesca; Ravi, Rajani; Sidransky, David; Keidar, Michael; Trink, Barry

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of locoregional recurrence (LRR) of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) often requires a combination of surgery, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Survival outcomes are poor and the treatment outcomes are morbid. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is an ionized gas produced at room temperature under laboratory conditions. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with a CAP jet device selectively targets cancer cells using in vitro melanoma and in vivo bladder cancer models. In the present study, we wished to examine CAP selectivity in HNSCC in vitro models, and to explore its potential for use as a minimally invasive surgical approach that allows for specific cancer cell or tumor tissue ablation without affecting the surrounding healthy cells and tissues. Four HNSCC cell lines (JHU-022, JHU-028, JHU-029, SCC25) and 2 normal oral cavity epithelial cell lines (OKF6 and NOKsi) were subjected to cold plasma treatment for durations of 10, 30 and 45 sec, and a helium flow of 20 l/min-1 for 10 sec was used as a positive treatment control. We showed that cold plasma selectively diminished HNSCC cell viability in a dose-response manner, as evidenced by MTT assays; the viability of the OKF6 cells was not affected by the cold plasma. The results of colony formation assays also revealed a cell-specific response to cold plasma application. Western blot analysis did not provide evidence that the cleavage of PARP occurred following cold plasma treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that cold plasma application selectively impairs HNSCC cell lines through non-apoptotic mechanisms, while having a minimal effect on normal oral cavity epithelial cell lines.

  2. Atmospheric circulation patterns, cloud-to-ground lightning, and locally intense convective rainfall associated with debris flow initiation in the Dolomite Alps of northeastern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Underwood, S. Jeffrey; Schultz, Michael D.; Berti, Metteo; Gregoretti, Carlo; Simoni, Alessandro; Mote, Thomas L.; Saylor, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    The Dolomite Alps of northeastern Italy experience debris flows with great frequency during the summer months. An ample supply of unconsolidated material on steep slopes and a summer season climate regime characterized by recurrent thunderstorms combine to produce an abundance of these destructive hydro-geologic events. In the past, debris flow events have been studied primarily in the context of their geologic and geomorphic characteristics. The atmospheric contribution to ...

  3. Atmospheric circulation patterns, cloud-to-ground lightning, and locally intense convective rainfall associated with debris flow initiation in the Dolomite Alps of northeastern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    S. J. Underwood; Schultz, M D; Berti, M; C. Gregoretti; Simoni, A.; T. L. Mote; A. M. Saylor

    2015-01-01

    The Dolomite Alps of northeastern Italy experience debris flows with great frequency during the summer months. An ample supply of unconsolidated material on steep slopes and a summer season climate regime characterized by recurrent thunderstorms combine to produce an abundance of these destructive hydrogeologic events. In the past debris flow events have been studied primarily in the context of their geologic and geomorphic characteristics. The atmospheric contribution to th...

  4. New Treatment Options for Osteosarcoma - Inactivation of Osteosarcoma Cells by Cold Atmospheric Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümbel, Denis; Gelbrich, Nadine; Weiss, Martin; Napp, Matthias; Daeschlein, Georg; Sckell, Axel; Ender, Stephan A; Kramer, Axel; Burchardt, Martin; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Stope, Matthias B

    2016-11-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma has been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth and induce tumor cell death. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric plasma treatment on proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells and to characterize the underlying cellular mechanisms. Human osteosarcoma cells (U2-OS and MNNG/HOS) were treated with cold atmospheric plasma and seeded in culture plates. Cell proliferation, p53 and phospho-p53 protein expression and nuclear morphology were assessed. The treated human osteosarcoma cell lines exhibited attenuated proliferation rates by up to 66%. The cells revealed an induction of p53, as well as phospho-p53 expression, by 2.3-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively, compared to controls. 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining demonstrated apoptotic nuclear condensation following cold atmospheric plasma treatment. Cold atmospheric plasma treatment significantly attenuated cell proliferation in a preclinical in vitro osteosarcoma model. The resulting increase in p53 expression and phospho-activation in combination with characteristic nuclear changes indicate this was through induction of apoptosis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanisms for convection triggering by cold pools

    CERN Document Server

    Torri, Giuseppe; Tian, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Cold pools are fundamental ingredients of deep convection. They contribute to organizing the sub-cloud layer and are considered key elements in triggering convective cells. It was long known that this could happen mechanically, through lifting by the cold pools' fronts. More recently, it has been suggested that convection could also be triggered thermodynamically, by accumulation of moisture around the edges of cold pools. A method based on Lagrangian tracking is here proposed to disentangle the signatures of both forcings and quantify their importance in a given environment. Results from a simulation of radiative-convective equilibrium over the ocean show that parcels reach their level of free convection through a combination of both forcings, each being dominant at different stages of the ascent. Mechanical forcing is an important player in lifting parcels from the surface, whereas thermodynamic forcing reduces the inhibition encountered by parcels before they reach their level of free convection.

  6. On laminar convection in solar type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bruevich, E A

    2010-01-01

    We present a new model of large-scale multilayer convection in solar type stars. This model allows us to understand such self-similar structures observed at solar surface as granulation, supergranulation and giant cells. We study the slow-rotated hydrogen star without magnetic field with the spherically-symmetric convective zone. The photon's flux comes to the convective zone from the central thermonuclear zone of the star. The interaction of these photons with the fully ionized hydrogen plasma with $T>10^5K$ is carried out by the Tomson scattering of photon flux on protons and electrons. Under these conditions plasma is optically thick relative to the Tomson scattering. This fact is the fundamental one for the multilayer convection formation. We find the stationary solution of the convective zone structure. This solution describes the convective layers responsible to the formation of the structures on the star's surface.

  7. Comparison of Numerical and Experimental Studies for Flow-Field Optimization Based on Under-Rib Convection in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duy Vinh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The flow-field design based on under-rib convection plays an important role in enhancing the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs because it ensures the uniform distribution of the reacting gas and the facilitation of water. This research focused on developing suitable configurations of the anode and cathode bipolar plates to enhance the fuel cell performance based on under-rib convection. The work here evaluated the effects of flow-field designs, including a serpentine flow field with sub channel and by pass and a conventional serpentine flow-field on single-cell performance. Both the experiment and computer simulation indicated that the serpentine flow field with sub channel and by pass (SFFSB configuration enables more effective utilization of the electrocatalysts since it improves reactant transformation rate from the channel to the catalyst layer, thereby dramatically improving the fuel cell performance. The simulation and experimental results indicated that the power densities are increased by up to 16.74% and 18.21%, respectively, when applying suitable flow-field configurations to the anode and cathode bipolar plates. The findings in this are the foundation for enhancing efficient PEMFCs based on flow field design.

  8. Introductory Analysis of Benard-Marangoni Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, J. A.; Perez-Munuzuri, V.; Romero-Cano, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    We describe experiments on Benard-Marangoni convection which permit a useful understanding of the main concepts involved in this phenomenon such as, for example, Benard cells, aspect ratio, Rayleigh and Marangoni numbers, Crispation number and critical conditions. In spite of the complexity of convection theory, we carry out a simple and…

  9. Selective cytotoxicity of indirect nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma against ovarian clear-cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Fumi; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kae; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Hori, Masaru; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a histological type of epithelial ovarian cancer that is less responsive to chemotherapy and associated with a poorer prognosis than serous and endometrioid carcinoma. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma which produces reactive species has recently led to an explosion of research in plasma medicine. Plasma treatment can be applied to cancer treatment to induce apoptosis and tumor growth arrest. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that a medium exposed to plasma also has an anti-proliferative effect against cancer in the absence of direct exposure to plasma. In this study, we confirmed whether this indirect plasma has an anti-tumor effect against CCC, and investigated whether this efficacy is selective for cancer cells. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma induced apoptosis in CCC cells, while human peritoneal mesothelial cells remained viable. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma exhibits selective cytotoxicity against CCC cells which are resistant to chemotherapy.

  10. A new conceptual model of convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walcek, C. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Classical cumulus parameterizations assume that cumulus clouds are entraining plumes of hot air rising through the atmosphere. However, ample evidence shows that clouds cannot be simulated using this approach. Dr. Walcek suggests that cumulus clouds can be reasonably simulated by assuming that buoyant plumes detrain mass as they rise through the atmosphere. Walcek successfully simulates measurements of tropical convection using this detraining model of cumulus convection. Comparisons with measurements suggest that buoyant plumes encounter resistance to upward movement as they pass through dry layers in the atmosphere. This probably results from turbulent mixing and evaporation of cloud water, which generates negatively buoyant mixtures which detrain from the upward moving plume. This mass flux model of detraining plumes is considerably simpler than existing mass flux models, yet reproduces many of the measured effects associated with convective activity. 1 fig.

  11. Three-dimensional numerical study of convection in a cylindrical thermal diffusion cell: Its influence on the separation of constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D.; Roux, B.

    1986-11-01

    The convection arising in a cylindrical container, heated from the ends and designed for a measurement of Soret coefficient, is examined. A three-dimensional method using a pseudostationary scheme with a finite differences technique is used. Attention is focused on a horizontal cylinder with an aspect ratio of 6, a Prandtl number of 0.6, and a Schmidt number of 60. The influence of convection on the separation and on the mass fraction profiles is examined for moderate Grashof numbers (0.01≤GrH≤10) and realistic Soret parameters (-0.75≤S≤1). A domain is found where the flow has no influence on the separation, corresponding to a ``separation'' regime. Extensions of the results to different Prandtl and Schmidt numbers and to larger aspect ratios are proposed.

  12. Convective shifts of iron lines in the spectrum of the solar photosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Sheminova, V A

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the convective structure of the solar photosphere on the shifts of spectral lines of iron was studied. Line profiles in the visible and infrared spectrum were synthesized with the use of 2-D time-dependent hydrodynamic solar model atmospheres. The dependence of line shifts on excitation potential, wavelength, and line strength was analyzed, along with the depression contribution functions. The line shifts were found to depend on the location of the line formation region in convective cells and the difference between the line depression contributions from granules and intergranular lanes. In visible spectrum the weak and moderate lines are formed deep in the photosphere. Their effective line formation region is located in the central parts of granules, which make the major contribution to the absorption of spatially unresolved lines. The cores of strong lines are formed in upper photospheric layers where is formed reversed granulation due to convection reversal and physical conditions change d...

  13. Impact of atmospheric species on copper indium gallium selenide solar cell stability: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the measurement techniques and results of studies on the stability of copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) solar cells and their individual layers in the presence of atmospheric species is presented: in these studies, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, their molybdenum back contact, and their

  14. Organised convection embedded in a large-scale flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Ann Kristin; Stevens, Bjorn; Hohenegger, Cathy

    2017-04-01

    In idealised simulations of radiative convective equilibrium, convection aggregates spontaneously from randomly distributed convective cells into organized mesoscale convection despite homogeneous boundary conditions. Although these simulations apply very idealised setups, the process of self-aggregation is thought to be relevant for the development of tropical convective systems. One feature that idealised simulations usually neglect is the occurrence of a large-scale background flow. In the tropics, organised convection is embedded in a large-scale circulation system, which advects convection in along-wind direction and alters near surface convergence in the convective areas. A large-scale flow also modifies the surface fluxes, which are expected to be enhanced upwind of the convective area if a large-scale flow is applied. Convective clusters that are embedded in a large-scale flow therefore experience an asymmetric component of the surface fluxes, which influences the development and the pathway of a convective cluster. In this study, we use numerical simulations with explicit convection and add a large-scale flow to the established setup of radiative convective equilibrium. We then analyse how aggregated convection evolves when being exposed to wind forcing. The simulations suggest that convective line structures are more prevalent if a large-scale flow is present and that convective clusters move considerably slower than advection by the large-scale flow would suggest. We also study the asymmetric component of convective aggregation due to enhanced surface fluxes, and discuss the pathway and speed of convective clusters as a function of the large-scale wind speed.

  15. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  16. Internal Wave Generation by Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoanet, Daniel Michael

    In nature, it is not unusual to find stably stratified fluid adjacent to convectively unstable fluid. This can occur in the Earth's atmosphere, where the troposphere is convective and the stratosphere is stably stratified; in lakes, where surface solar heating can drive convection above stably stratified fresh water; in the oceans, where geothermal heating can drive convection near the ocean floor, but the water above is stably stratified due to salinity gradients; possible in the Earth's liquid core, where gradients in thermal conductivity and composition diffusivities maybe lead to different layers of stable or unstable liquid metal; and, in stars, as most stars contain at least one convective and at least one radiative (stably stratified) zone. Internal waves propagate in stably stratified fluids. The characterization of the internal waves generated by convection is an open problem in geophysical and astrophysical fluid dynamics. Internal waves can play a dynamically important role via nonlocal transport. Momentum transport by convectively excited internal waves is thought to generate the quasi-biennial oscillation of zonal wind in the equatorial stratosphere, an important physical phenomenon used to calibrate global climate models. Angular momentum transport by convectively excited internal waves may play a crucial role in setting the initial rotation rates of neutron stars. In the last year of life of a massive star, convectively excited internal waves may transport even energy to the surface layers to unbind them, launching a wind. In each of these cases, internal waves are able to transport some quantity--momentum, angular momentum, energy--across large, stable buoyancy gradients. Thus, internal waves represent an important, if unusual, transport mechanism. This thesis advances our understanding of internal wave generation by convection. Chapter 2 provides an underlying theoretical framework to study this problem. It describes a detailed calculation of the

  17. Convective cooling of photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, E.; Gibbons, C. [Energy Engineering Group, Mechanical Engineering Department, Cork Institute of Technology, Bishopstown, Cork (Ireland)

    2004-07-01

    Most solar cells presently on the market are based on silicon wafers, the so-called first generation technology. As this technology has matured costs have become increasingly dominated by material costs. In the last ten years, continuous work has brought the efficiency of standard cells to the 25% region. A switch to second generation or thin film technology cells now seems imminent. Thin film technology eliminates the silicon wafer and offer the prospect of reducing material and manufacturing costs, but they exhibit lower efficiencies of around 10% for a commercial device. Third generation or tandem cells are currently at a 'proof of concept' research level, with a theoretical conversion rate of 86.8% being asserted Whatever the material construction and manufacturing method of cells, the thermal effect of overheating will prevail in the semiconductor and it is accepted that a lowered temperature will bring about an increase in conversion efficiency. The aim of this project is to improve the efficiency of PV electrical output, by convectively cooling the cells through perforations in them. As the cells heat up they lose efficiency. As the panel heats up a loss in efficiency of 0.5% per C increase in temperature has been recorded. (orig.)

  18. Layer Formation in Sedimentary Fingering Convection

    CERN Document Server

    Reali, J F; Alsinan, A; Meiburg, E

    2016-01-01

    When particles settle through a stable temperature or salinity gradient they can drive an instability known as sedimentary fingering convection. This phenomenon is thought to occur beneath sediment-rich river plumes in lakes and oceans, in the context of marine snow where decaying organic materials serve as the suspended particles, or in the atmosphere in the presence of aerosols or volcanic ash. Laboratory experiments of Houk and Green (1973) and Green (1987) have shown sedimentary fingering convection to be similar to the more commonly known thermohaline fingering convection in many ways. Here, we study the phenomenon using 3D direct numerical simulations. We find evidence for layer formation in sedimentary fingering convection in regions of parameter space where it does not occur for non-sedimentary systems. This is due to two complementary effects. Sedimentation affects the turbulent fluxes and broadens the region of parameter space unstable to the $\\gamma$-instability (Radko 2003) to include systems at l...

  19. Hadley cell dynamics of a cold and virtually dry Snowball Earth atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Aiko; Held, Isaac; Marotzke, Jochem

    2010-05-01

    We use the full-physics atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5 to investigate a cold and virtually dry Snowball Earth atmosphere that results from specifying sea ice as the surface boundary condition everywhere, corresponding to a frozen aquaplanet, while keeping total solar irradiance at its present-day value of 1365 Wm-2. The aim of this study is the investigation of the zonal-mean circulation of a Snowball Earth atmosphere, which, due to missing moisture, might constitute an ideal though yet unexplored testbed for theories of atmospheric dynamics. To ease comparison with theories, incoming solar insolation follows permanent equinox conditions with disabled diurnal cycle. The meridional circulation consists of a thermally direct cell extending from the equator to 45 N/S with ascent in the equatorial region, and a weak thermally indirect cell with descent between 45 and 65 N/S and ascent in the polar region. The former cell corresponds to the present-day Earth's Hadley cell, while the latter can be viewed as an eddy-driven Ferrell cell; the present-day Earth's direct polar cell is missing. The Hadley cell itself is subdivided into a vigorous cell confined to the troposphere and a weak deep cell reaching well into the stratosphere. The dynamics of the vigorous Snowball Earth Hadley cell differ substantially from the dynamics of the present-day Hadley cell. The zonal momentum balance shows that in the poleward branch of the vigorous Hadley cell, mean flow meridional advection of absolute vorticity is not only balanced by eddy momentum flux convergence but also by vertical diffusion. Inside the poleward branch, eddies are more important in the upper part and vertical diffusion is more important in the lower part. Vertical diffusion also contributes to the meridional momentum balance as it decelerates the vigorous Hadley cell by downgradient momentum mixing between its poleward and equatorward branch. Zonal winds, therefore, are not in thermal wind balance in

  20. Convection in Oblate Solar-Type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junfeng; Liang, Chunlei

    2016-01-01

    We present the first global 3D simulations of thermal convection in the oblate envelopes of rapidly-rotating solar-type stars. This has been achieved by exploiting the capabilities of the new Compressible High-ORder Unstructured Spectral difference (CHORUS) code. We consider rotation rates up to 85\\% of the critical (breakup) rotation rate, which yields an equatorial radius that is up to 17\\% larger than the polar radius. This substantial oblateness enhances the disparity between polar and equatorial modes of convection. We find that the convection redistributes the heat flux emitted from the outer surface, leading to an enhancement of the heat flux in the polar and equatorial regions. This finding implies that lower-mass stars with convective envelopes may not have darker equators as predicted by classical gravity darkening arguments. The vigorous high-latitude convection also establishes elongated axisymmetric circulation cells and zonal jets in the polar regions. Though the overall amplitude of the surface...

  1. A continuous and prognostic convection scheme based on buoyancy, PCMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérémy, Jean-François; Piriou, Jean-Marcel

    2016-04-01

    A new and consistent convection scheme (PCMT: Prognostic Condensates Microphysics and Transport), providing a continuous and prognostic treatment of this atmospheric process, is described. The main concept ensuring the consistency of the whole system is the buoyancy, key element of any vertical motion. The buoyancy constitutes the forcing term of the convective vertical velocity, which is then used to define the triggering condition, the mass flux, and the rates of entrainment-detrainment. The buoyancy is also used in its vertically integrated form (CAPE) to determine the closure condition. The continuous treatment of convection, from dry thermals to deep precipitating convection, is achieved with the help of a continuous formulation of the entrainment-detrainment rates (depending on the convective vertical velocity) and of the CAPE relaxation time (depending on the convective over-turning time). The convective tendencies are directly expressed in terms of condensation and transport. Finally, the convective vertical velocity and condensates are fully prognostic, the latter being treated using the same microphysics scheme as for the resolved condensates but considering the convective environment. A Single Column Model (SCM) validation of this scheme is shown, allowing detailed comparisons with observed and explicitly simulated data. Four cases covering the convective spectrum are considered: over ocean, sensitivity to environmental moisture (S. Derbyshire) non precipitating shallow convection to deep precipitating convection, trade wind shallow convection (BOMEX) and strato-cumulus (FIRE), together with an entire continental diurnal cycle of convection (ARM). The emphasis is put on the characteristics of the scheme which enable a continuous treatment of convection. Then, a 3D LAM validation is presented considering an AMMA case with both observations and a CRM simulation using the same initial and lateral conditions as for the parameterized one. Finally, global

  2. Satellite Sounder Observations of Contrasting Tropospheric Moisture Transport Regimes: Saharan Air Layers, Hadley Cells, and Atmospheric Rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalli, Nicholas R.; Barnet, Christopher D.; Reale, Tony; Liu, Quanhua; Morris, Vernon R.; Spackman, J. Ryan; Joseph, Everette; Tan, Changyi; Sun, Bomin; Tilley, Frank; Leung, L. Ruby; Wolfe, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the performance of satellite sounder atmospheric vertical moisture proles (AVMP) under tropospheric conditions encompassing moisture contrasts driven by convection and advection transport mechanisms, specifically Atlantic Ocean Saharan air layers (SALs) and Pacific Ocean moisture conveyer belts (MCBs) commonly referred to as atmospheric rivers (ARs), both of these being mesoscale to synoptic meteorological phenomena within the vicinity of subtropical Hadley subsidence zones. Operational AVMP environmental data records retrieved from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) NOAA-Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) are collocated with dedicated radiosonde observations (RAOBs) obtained from ocean-based intensive field campaigns; these RAOBs provide uniquely independent correlative truth data not assimilated into numerical weather prediction models for satellite sounder validation over open ocean. Using these marine-based data, we empirically assess the performance of the operational NUCAPS AVMP product for detecting and resolving these tropospheric moisture features over otherwise RAOB-sparse regions.

  3. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Jack S; Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. We illustrate this idea using the object WISE J085510.83-0714442.5, which is a cool, free-floating brown dwarf. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Ba...

  4. Artificial intelligence systems for rainy areas detection and convective cells' delineation for the south shore of Mediterranean Sea during day and nighttime using MSG satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbi, Mohsene Abdelfettah; Haddad, Boualem

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of cloud classification by means of support vector machines using high resolution images from northern Algeria. The images were taken from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. An automatic system was developed to operate during both day and nighttime by following two steps of data processing. The first aims to detect rainy areas in cloud systems, whereas the second delineates convective cells from stratiform ones. A set of 12 spectral parameters was selected to extract information about cloud properties, which are different from day to night. The training and validation steps of this study were performed by in-situ rainfall measurement data, collected during the rainy season of years 2011 and 2012 via automatic rain gauge stations distributed in northern Algeria. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machine (SVM) were explored, by combining spectral parameters derived from MSG images. Better performances were obtained by the SVM classifier, in terms of Critical Success Index and Probability of Detection for rainy areas detection (CSI = 0.81, POD = 91%), and also for convective/stratiform delineation (CSI = 0.55, POD = 74%).

  5. Generation of vertical convective vortex in the transition from anomalous to normal steady-state convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifulin, Albert; Poludnitsin, Anatoly

    2010-11-01

    This phenomenon was discovered in the framework of experimental attempt[1] to define form of bifurcation curve in enclosed cavity with boulders temperature state of which could slowly deviate from condition of directly from bottom heating. In order to verify the discovered regularity experiment with slow cubic cell inclination form direct form bottom heat position was performed. The transition process from abnormal convection flow(When heated, and therefore more light, fluid moves down) to normal one during bifurcation curve crossing appeared to be completely unexpected and in radical contrast to served one in our 2D calculations and of other authors. The transition process appears as a fast, for 1-2 seconds, the rotation around the vertical axis of the entire mass of fluid filling the cavity. In the presentation the effect theoretical investigations results are discussed. Series of new problems concerned with the effect of existence borders definition and with possibility to control the effect through fluid properties and heat conditions is formulated Possibility of spontaneous vertical convective vortex generation application to atmospheric behavior explanation and to Earth's mantle one is discussed. [1] A.N. Sharifulin, A.N. Poludnitsin A.N., A.S. Kravchuk Laboratory Scale Simulation of Nonlocal Generation of a Tropical Cyclone. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, 2008, Vol.107, No.6, pp.1090-1093.

  6. Cumulus convection and the terrestrial water-vapor distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Leo J.

    1988-01-01

    Cumulus convection plays a significant role in determining the structure of the terrestrial water vapor field. Cumulus convection acts directly on the moisture field by condensing and precipitating water vapor and by redistributing water vapor through cumulus induced eddy circulations. The mechanisms by which cumulus convection influences the terrestrial water vapor distribution is outlined. Calculations using a theory due to Kuo is used to illustrate the mechanisms by which cumulus convection works. Understanding of these processes greatly aids the ability of researchers to interpret the seasonal and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor by providing information on the nature of sources and sinks and the global circulation.

  7. Effects of cold atmospheric plasma generated in DI water on Cancer cells

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhitong; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Gjika, Eda; Keidar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has been shown to affect cells not only directly, but also by means of indirect treatment with previously prepared plasma stimulated solution. The objective of this study is to reveal the effects of plasma-stimulated media (PSM) on breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) and gastric cancer cells (NCl-N87). In our experiments, cold atmospheric plasma is generated in water using helium as carrier gas. The plasma generated in DI water during a 30-minute treatment had the strongest affect in inducing apoptosis in cultured human breast and gastric cancer cells. This result can be attributed to the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced in water during treatment.

  8. Determination of the optimum conditions for lung cancer cells treatment using cold atmospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Morteza; Rajaei, Hajar; Mashayekh, Amir Shahriar; Shafiae, Mojtaba; Mahdikia, Hamed; Khani, Mohammadreza; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Shokri, Babak

    2016-10-01

    Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs) can affect live cells and organisms due to the production of different reactive species. In this paper, the effects of various parameters of the CAP such as the treatment time, gas mixture, gas flow rate, applied voltage, and distance from the nozzle on the LL/2 lung cancer cell line have been studied. The probable effect of UV radiation has also been investigated using an MgF2 filter. Besides the cancerous cells, the 3T3 fibroblast cell line as a normal cell has been treated with the CAP. The Methylthiazol Tetrazolium assay showed that all parameters except the gas flow rate could impress effectively on the cancer cell viability. The cell proliferation seemed to be stopped after plasma treatment. The flow cytometry assay revealed that apoptosis and necrosis were appreciable. It was also found that treating time up to 2 min will not exert any effect on the normal cells.

  9. Effect of Atmospheric Absorption Bands on the Optimal Design of Multijunction Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, William E.; Friedman, Daniel J.; Geisz, John F.

    2017-06-26

    Designing terrestrial multijunction (MJ) cells with 5+ junctions is challenging, in part because the presence of atmospheric absorption bands creates a design space with numerous local maxima. Here we introduce a new taxonomical structure which facilitates both numerical convergence and the visualization of the resulting designs.

  10. The impact of atmospheric species on the degradation of CIGS solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.; Foster, C.; Steijvers, H.; Barreau, N.; Vroon, Z.; Zeman, M.

    2015-01-01

    CIGS solar cells were exposed to liquid water purged with the atmospheric gases carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2) and air in order to investigate their chemical degradation behavior. The samples were analyzed by electrical, compositional and optical me

  11. Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15 day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibrium. Analysis of the budget of the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy shows that control runs have significant positive contributions to organization from radiation and negative contributions from surface fluxes and transport, similar to idealized runs once they become aggregated. Despite identical lateral boundary conditions for all experiments in each case, systematic differences in mean column water vapor (CWV), CWV distribution shape, and CWV autocorrelation length scale are found between the different sensitivity runs, particularly for those without interactive radiation, showing that there are at least some similarities in sensitivities to these feedbacks in both idealized and realistic simulations (although the organization of precipitation shows less sensitivity to interactive radiation). The magnitudes and signs of these systematic differences are consistent with a rough equilibrium between (1) equalization due to advection from the lateral boundaries and (2) disaggregation due to the absence of interactive radiation, implying disaggregation rates comparable to those in idealized runs with aggregated initial conditions and noninteractive radiation. This points to a plausible similarity in the way that radiation feedbacks maintain aggregated convection in both idealized simulations and the real world.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding the processes that lead to the organization of tropical rainstorms is an important challenge for weather

  12. On polarimetric radar signatures of deep convection for model evaluation: columns of specific differential phase observed during MC3E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Lier-Walqui, Marcus; Fridlind, Ann; Ackerman, Andrew S; Collis, Scott; Helmus, Jonathan; MacGorman, Donald R; North, Kirk; Kollias, Pavlos; Posselt, Derek J

    2016-02-01

    The representation of deep convection in general circulation models is in part informed by cloud-resolving models (CRMs) that function at higher spatial and temporal resolution; however, recent studies have shown that CRMs often fail at capturing the details of deep convection updrafts. With the goal of providing constraint on CRM simulation of deep convection updrafts, ground-based remote sensing observations are analyzed and statistically correlated for four deep convection events observed during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Since positive values of specific differential phase observed above the melting level are associated with deep convection updraft cells, so-called columns are analyzed using two scanning polarimetric radars in Oklahoma: the National Weather Service Vance WSR-88D (KVNX) and the Department of Energy C-band Scanning Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR). KVNX and C-SAPR volumes and columns are then statistically correlated with vertical winds retrieved via multi-Doppler wind analysis, lightning flash activity derived from the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array, and KVNX differential reflectivity . Results indicate strong correlations of volume above the melting level with updraft mass flux, lightning flash activity, and intense rainfall. Analysis of columns reveals signatures of changing updraft properties from one storm event to another as well as during event evolution. Comparison of to shows commonalities in information content of each, as well as potential problems with associated with observational artifacts.

  13. Convective overshoot at stiffly stable interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin; Oishi, Jeffrey; Lecoanet, Daniel; Burns, Keaton; Vasil, Geoffrey

    2016-11-01

    Convective overshoot is an important non-local mixing and transport process in stars, extending the influence of turbulent stellar convection beyond the unstable portions of the atmosphere. In the Sun, overshoot into the tachocline at the base of the convection zone has been ascribed a major role in the storage and organization of the global-scale magnetic fields within the solar dynamo. In massive stars, overshooting convection plays an important role in setting the lifespan of the star by mixing fuel into the nuclear burning core. Here we narrowly consider the properties of convective overshoot across very stiff interfaces within fully compressible dynamics across convection zones with significant stratification. We conduct these studies using the Dedalus pseudospectral framework. We extend prior studies of overshoot substantially and find that the depth of overshoot in DNS simulations of a typical plume is well-predicted by a simple buoyancy equilibration model. The implications of this model, extended into the stellar regime, are that very little overshoot should occur under solar conditions. This would seem to sharply limit the role of the tachocline within the global solar dynamo.

  14. Treatment of gastric cancer cells with non-thermal atmospheric plasma generated in water

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhitong; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Gjika, Eda; Keidar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP) can be applied to living tissues and cells as a novel technology for cancer therapy. Even though studies report on the successful use of NTAP to directly irradiate cancer cells, this technology can cause cell death only in the upper 3-5 cell layers. We report on a NTAP argon solution generated in DI water for treating human gastric cancer cells (NCl-N87). Our findings showed that the plasma generated in DI water during a 30-minute treatment had the strongest affect in inducing apoptosis in cultured human gastric cancer cells. This result can be attributed to presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced in water during treatment. Furthermore, the data showed that elevated levels of RNS may play an even more significant role than ROS in the rate of apoptosis in gastric cancer cells.

  15. Supersonic Turbulent Convection and the Origin of the Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, A. J. R.; Dyt, C. P.

    2000-10-01

    We report a new set of calculations which support the view that supersonic turbulent convection played a major role in the formation of the solar system. A flux-corrected transport scheme (Zalesak, J. Comp. Phys.} 31 335 1979) is used to numerically simulate thermal convection in a 2D ideal gas layer that is heated from below and is stratified gravitationally across many scale heights. The temperature T0 at the top boundary and the temperature gradient (∂ T/∂ z)1 at the lower boundary are kept constant during the computation. The initial atmosphere is superadiabatic with polytropic index m = 1, specific heats ratio γ = 1.4 and temperature contrast T1}/T{0 = 11. This layer mimics a section of the outer layer of the proto-solar cloud (Dyt & Prentice, MNRAS 296 56 1998). Because the Reynolds number of the real atmosphere is so large, motions whose scale is less than the computational grid size are represented with a Smagorinsky sub-grid scale turbulence approximation (Chan et al, Ap.J.} 263 935 1982). That is, a velocity-dependent turbulent viscosity ν t and thermal diffusivity κ t are chosen so that the high wavenumber kinetic energy spectrum follows Kolmogorov's -5/3 law. The flow soon evolves to a configuration consisting of a network of giant convective cells. At cell boundaries, the downflows are spatially concentrated and rapid. Turbulent pressures t range up to 3 times the local gas pressure pgas. The convection eliminates nearly all of the superadiabaticity in the lower 90% of the atmosphere. In the top 10%, ∂ T/∂ z increases sharply and a steep density inversion occurs, with ρ increasing by a factor of 3-4. This result gives new credibility to the modern Laplacian theory of solar system origin (Moon & Planets} 19 341 1978; ibid 73 237 1996; Phys. Lett. A} 213 253 1996). Even so, we need t ≈ 10 pgas if the proto-solar cloud is to shed discrete gas rings whose orbits match the mean planetary spacings and whose chemical condensates match the

  16. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Si-ze [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Liu, Dongping [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Song, Ying [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun, Yue [School of Physics, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-05-15

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  17. On the sensitivity of the diurnal cycle in the Amazon to convective intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itterly, Kyle F.; Taylor, Patrick C.; Dodson, Jason B.; Tawfik, Ahmed B.

    2016-07-01

    Climate and reanalysis models contain large water and energy budget errors over tropical land related to the misrepresentation of diurnally forced moist convection. Motivated by recent work suggesting that the water and energy budget is influenced by the sensitivity of the convective diurnal cycle to atmospheric state, this study investigates the relationship between convective intensity, the convective diurnal cycle, and atmospheric state in a region of frequent convection—the Amazon. Daily, 3-hourly satellite observations of top of atmosphere (TOA) fluxes from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Ed3a SYN1DEG and precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 data sets are collocated with twice daily Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive observations from 2002 to 2012 and hourly flux tower observations. Percentiles of daily minimum outgoing longwave radiation are used to define convective intensity regimes. The results indicate a significant increase in the convective diurnal cycle amplitude with increased convective intensity. The TOA flux diurnal phase exhibits 1-3 h shifts with convective intensity, and precipitation phase is less sensitive. However, the timing of precipitation onset occurs 2-3 h earlier and the duration lasts 3-5 h longer on very convective compared to stable days. While statistically significant changes are found between morning atmospheric state and convective intensity, variations in upper and lower tropospheric humidity exhibit the strongest relationships with convective intensity and diurnal cycle characteristics. Lastly, convective available potential energy (CAPE) is found to vary with convective intensity but does not explain the variations in Amazonian convection, suggesting that a CAPE-based convective parameterization will not capture the observed behavior without incorporating the sensitivity of convection to column humidity.

  18. Analysis of Solar Cell Efficiency for Venus Atmosphere and Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Haag, Emily

    2013-01-01

    A simplified model of solar power in the Venus environment is developed, in which the solar intensity, solar spectrum, and temperature as a function of altitude is applied to a model of photovoltaic performance, incorporating the temperature and intensity dependence of the open-circuit voltage and the temperature dependence of the bandgap and spectral response of the cell. We use this model to estimate the performance of solar cells for both the surface of Venus and for atmospheric probes at altitudes from the surface up to 60 km. The model shows that photovoltaic cells will produce power even at the surface of Venus.

  19. Intracellular effects of atmospheric-pressure plasmas on melanoma cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishaq, M., E-mail: ishaqmusarat@gmail.com [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC 3002 (Australia); Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Bazaka, K. [Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Ostrikov, K. [Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown as a promising tool for cancer treatment. The mechanism of the plasma action is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, electric fields, charges, and photons. The relative importance of different modes of action of atmospheric-pressure plasmas depends on the process parameters and specific treatment objects. Hence, an in-depth understanding of biological mechanisms that underpin plasma-induced death in cancer cells is required to optimise plasma processing conditions. Here, the intracellular factors involved in the observed anti-cancer activity in melanoma Mel007 cells are studied, focusing on the effect of the plasma treatment dose on the expression of tumour suppressor protein TP73. Over-expression of TP73 causes cell growth arrest and/or apoptosis, and hence can potentially be targeted to enhance killing efficacy and selectivity of the plasma treatment. It is shown that the plasma treatment induces dose-dependent up-regulation of TP73 gene expression, resulting in significantly elevated levels of TP73 RNA and protein in plasma-treated melanoma cells. Silencing of TP73 expression by means of RNA interference inhibited the anticancer effects of the plasma, similar to the effect of caspase inhibitor z-VAD or ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. These results confirm the role of TP73 protein in dose-dependent regulation of anticancer activity of atmospheric-pressure plasmas.

  20. Intracellular effects of atmospheric-pressure plasmas on melanoma cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M.; Bazaka, K.; Ostrikov, K.

    2015-12-01

    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown as a promising tool for cancer treatment. The mechanism of the plasma action is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, electric fields, charges, and photons. The relative importance of different modes of action of atmospheric-pressure plasmas depends on the process parameters and specific treatment objects. Hence, an in-depth understanding of biological mechanisms that underpin plasma-induced death in cancer cells is required to optimise plasma processing conditions. Here, the intracellular factors involved in the observed anti-cancer activity in melanoma Mel007 cells are studied, focusing on the effect of the plasma treatment dose on the expression of tumour suppressor protein TP73. Over-expression of TP73 causes cell growth arrest and/or apoptosis, and hence can potentially be targeted to enhance killing efficacy and selectivity of the plasma treatment. It is shown that the plasma treatment induces dose-dependent up-regulation of TP73 gene expression, resulting in significantly elevated levels of TP73 RNA and protein in plasma-treated melanoma cells. Silencing of TP73 expression by means of RNA interference inhibited the anticancer effects of the plasma, similar to the effect of caspase inhibitor z-VAD or ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. These results confirm the role of TP73 protein in dose-dependent regulation of anticancer activity of atmospheric-pressure plasmas.

  1. Aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions in a regional coupled model: the effects of convective parameterisation and resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Lowe, Douglas; Schultz, David M.; McFiggans, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) has been used to simulate a region of Brazil heavily influenced by biomass burning. Nested simulations were run at 5 and 1 km horizontal grid spacing for three case studies in September 2012. Simulations were run with and without fire emissions, convective parameterisation on the 5 km domain, and aerosol-radiation interactions in order to explore the differences attributable to the parameterisations and to better understand the aerosol direct effects and cloud responses. Direct aerosol-radiation interactions due to biomass burning aerosol resulted in a net cooling, with an average short-wave direct effect of -4.08 ± 1.53 Wm-2. However, around 21.7 Wm-2 is absorbed by aerosol in the atmospheric column, warming the atmosphere at the aerosol layer height, stabilising the column, inhibiting convection, and reducing cloud cover and precipitation. The changes to clouds due to radiatively absorbing aerosol (traditionally known as the semi-direct effects) increase the net short-wave radiation reaching the surface by reducing cloud cover, producing a secondary warming that counters the direct cooling. However, the magnitude of the semi-direct effect was found to be extremely sensitive to the model resolution and the use of convective parameterisation. Precipitation became organised in isolated convective cells when not using a convective parameterisation on the 5 km domain, reducing both total cloud cover and total precipitation. The SW semi-direct effect varied from 6.06 ± 1.46 with convective parameterisation to 3.61 ± 0.86 Wm-2 without. Convective cells within the 1 km domain are typically smaller but with greater updraft velocity than equivalent cells in the 5 km domain, reducing the proportion of the domain covered by cloud in all scenarios and producing a smaller semi-direct effect. Biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles acted as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), increasing the droplet number

  2. Atmospheric effects on the photovoltaic performance of hybrid perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sheikh, Arif Dastgir

    2015-06-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells have recently attracted lots of attention in the photovoltaic community due to their escalating efficiency and solution processability. The most efficient organometallic mixed-halide sensitized solar cells often employ 2,2′7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the hole-transporting material. In this work, we investigated the effect of different atmospheric storage conditions, particularly vacuum, dry nitrogen, and dry air, on the photovoltaic performance of TiO2-CH3NH3PbI3-xClx-spiro-MeOTAD solar cells. We found that spin coating of spiro-MeOTAD in an oxygen atmosphere alone was not adequate to functionalize its hole-transport property completely, and our systematic experiments revealed that the device efficiency depends on the ambient atmospheric conditions during the drying process of spiro-MeOTAD. Complementary incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE), light absorption and photoluminescence quenching measurements allowed us to attribute the atmosphere-dependent efficiency to the improved electronic characteristics of the solar cells. Furthermore, our Fourier transform infrared and electrical impedance measurements unambiguously detected modifications in the spiro-MeOTAD after the drying processes in different gas environments. Our findings demonstrate that proper oxidization and p-doping in functionalizing spiro-MeOTAD play a very critical role in determining device performance. These findings will facilitate the search for alternative hole-transporting materials in high-performance perovskite solar cells with long-term stability.

  3. Stochastic Convection Parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Joao; Reynolds, Carolyn; Suselj, Kay; Matheou, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    computational fluid dynamics, radiation, clouds, turbulence, convection, gravity waves, surface interaction, radiation interaction, cloud and aerosol microphysics, complexity (vegetation, biogeochemistry, radiation versus turbulence/convection stochastic approach, non-linearities, Monte Carlo, high resolutions, large-Eddy Simulations, cloud structure, plumes, saturation in tropics, forecasting, parameterizations, stochastic, radiation-clod interaction, hurricane forecasts

  4. Convection and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Houdek, G

    2010-01-01

    In this short review on stellar convection dynamics I address the following, currently very topical, issues: (1) the surface effects of the Reynolds stresses and nonadiabaticity on solar-like pulsation frequencies, and (2) oscillation mode lifetimes of stochastically excited oscillations in red giants computed with different time-dependent convection formulations.

  5. Evaluation of the sensitivity of bacterial and yeast cells to cold atmospheric plasma jet treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Michael A; Chebbi, Ahmed; McDonnell, Kevin A; Staunton, Claire; Dowling, Denis P

    2015-06-07

    The focus of this research was first to determine the influence of the atmospheric plasma drive frequency on the generation of atomic oxygen species and its correlation with the reduction of bacterial load after treatment in vitro. The treatments were carried out using a helium-plasma jet source called PlasmaStream™. The susceptibility of multiple microbial cell lines was investigated in order to compare the response of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as a yeast cell line to the atmospheric plasma treatment. It was observed for the source evaluated that at a frequency of 160 kHz, increased levels of oxygen-laden active species (i.e., OH, NO) were generated. At this frequency, the maximum level of bacterial inactivation in vitro was also achieved. Ex vivo studies (using freshly excised porcine skin as a human analog) were also carried out to verify the antibacterial effect of the plasma jet treatment at this optimal operational frequency and to investigate the effect of treatment duration on the reduction of bacterial load. The plasma jet treatment was found to yield a 4 log reduction in bacterial load after 6 min of treatment, with no observable adverse effects on the treatment surface. The gram-negative bacterial cell lines were found to be far more susceptible to the atmospheric plasma treatments than the gram-positive bacteria. Flow cytometric analysis of plasma treated bacterial cells (Escherichia coli) was conducted in order to attain a fundamental understanding of the mode of action of the treatment on bacteria at a cellular level. This study showed that after treatment with the plasma jet, E. coli cells progressed through the following steps of cell death; the inactivation of transport systems, followed by depolarization of the cytoplasmic membrane, and finally permeabilization of the cell wall.

  6. Cold atmospheric plasma jet-generated RONS and their selective effects on normal and carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T H

    2016-02-03

    Cold atmospheric helium plasma jets were fabricated and utilized for plasma-cell interactions. The effect of operating parameters and jet design on the generation of specific reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) within cells and cellular response were investigated. It was found that plasma treatment induced the overproduction of RONS in various cancer cell lines selectively. The plasma under a relatively low applied voltage induced the detachment of cells, a reduction in cell viability, and apoptosis, while the plasma under higher applied voltage led to cellular necrosis in our case. To determine whether plasma-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation occurs through interfering with mitochondria-related cellular response, we examined the plasma effects on ROS generation in both parental A549 cells and A549 ρ(0) cells. It was observed that cancer cells were more susceptible to plasma-induced RONS (especially nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2(-)) radicals) than normal cells, and consequently, plasma induced apoptotic cell responses mainly in cancer cells.

  7. Trial Production and Evaluation of Solar Cells Optimized for Solar Spectrum in Mars Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Takanobu; Takahashi, Yu; Oyama, Akira; Washio, Hidetoshi

    2014-08-01

    We describe the production and evaluation of a prototype of an inverted metamorphic triple-junction (IMM3J) solar cell optimized for the solar spectrum on the surface of Mars. High-efficiency, flexible, lightweight solar panels containing IMM3J solar cells are promising power sources for Mars surface explorers such as rovers, landers, and airplanes. The intensity of sunlight at the Martian surface substantially decreases at wavelengths shorter than 700 nm because of absorption and scattering by the atmosphere. This decreases the output current of the InGaP top cells in state-of-the-art IMM3J solar cells, and thus decreases the overall output current. Therefore, solar cells for Mars surface explorers need to be optimized for the solar spectrum at the Martian surface. We modified IMM3J solar cells in two ways to increase the output power. We increased the thickness of the InGaP top cell to increase the light absorption, which increased the output current of the entire cell. We also increased the band gap energy of the InGaAs bottom cell by trimming the surplus current, in order to increase the output voltage. In the simulated Martian solar spectrum, the performance of the prototype solar cells was higher than that of IMM3J solar cells designed for the AM0 spectrum.

  8. Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Parsons, D [NCAR; Geerts, B [Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Wyoming

    2015-03-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment is a large field campaign that is being supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with contributions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The overarching goal of the PECAN experiment is to improve the understanding and simulation of the processes that initiate and maintain convection and convective precipitation at night over the central portion of the Great Plains region of the United States (Parsons et al. 2013). These goals are important because (1) a large fraction of the yearly precipitation in the Great Plains comes from nocturnal convection, (2) nocturnal convection in the Great Plains is most often decoupled from the ground and, thus, is forced by other phenomena aloft (e.g., propagating bores, frontal boundaries, low-level jets [LLJ], etc.), (3) there is a relative lack of understanding how these disturbances initiate and maintain nocturnal convection, and (4) this lack of understanding greatly hampers the ability of numerical weather and climate models to simulate nocturnal convection well. This leads to significant uncertainties in predicting the onset, location, frequency, and intensity of convective cloud systems and associated weather hazards over the Great Plains.

  9. Effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet with floating electrode on murine melanoma and fibroblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.; Liu, J.; Yao, C.; Chen, S.; Lin, F.; Li, P.; Shi, X.; Zhang, Guan-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma jets have been recently shown as a highly promising tool in certain cancer therapies. In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with a one inner floating and two outer electrode configuration using helium gas for medical applications is developed. Subjected to a range of applied voltages with a frequency of 19.8 kHz at a fixed rate of gas flow (i.e., 3 l/min), electrical and optical characteristics of the APPJ are investigated. Compared with the device only with two outer electrodes, higher discharge current, longer jet, and more active species in the plasma plume at the same applied voltage together with the lower gas breakdown voltage can be achieved through embedding a floating inner electrode. Employing the APPJ with a floating electrode, the effects of identical plasma treatment time durations on murine melanoma cancer and normal fibroblast cells cultured in vitro are evaluated. The results of cell viability, cell apoptosis, and DNA damage detection show that the plasma can inactivate melanoma cells in a time-dependent manner from 10 s to 60 s compared with the control group (p melanoma cells at the same treatment time. The different basal reactive oxygen species level and antioxidant superoxide dismutase level of two kinds of cells may account for their different responses towards the identical plasma exposure.

  10. ANNEALING OF POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS IN WATER VAPOUR AT SUB-ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pikna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si solar cells were annealed in water vapour at pressures below atmospheric pressure. PN junction of the sample was contacted by measuring probes directly in the pressure chamber filled with steam during passivation. Suns-VOC method and a Lock-in detector were used to monitor an effect of water vapour to VOC of the solar cell during whole passivation process (in-situ. Tested temperature of the sample (55°C – 110°C was constant during the procedure. Open-circuit voltage of a solar cell at these temperatures is lower than at room temperature. Nevertheless, voltage response of the solar cell to the light flash used during Suns-VOC measurements was good observable. Temperature dependences for multicrystalline wafer-based and polycrystalline thin film solar cells were measured and compared. While no significant improvement of thin film poly-Si solar cell parameters by annealing in water vapour at under-atmospheric pressures was observed up to now, in-situ observation proved required sensitivity to changing VOC at elevated temperatures during the process.

  11. Small unilamellar liposomes as a membrane model for cell inactivation by cold atmospheric plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, S.; Frache, G.; Thomann, J. S.; Clément, F.; Penny, C.; Belmonte, T.; Duday, D.

    2016-09-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma is thought to be a promising tool for numerous biomedical applications due to its ability to generate a large diversity of reactive species in a controlled way. In some cases, it can also generate pulsed electric fields at the zone of treatment, which can induce processes such as electroporation in cell membranes. However, the interaction of these reactive species and the pulse electric field with cells in a physiological medium is very complex, and we still need a better understanding in order to be useful for future applications. A way to reach this goal is to work with model cell membranes such as liposomes, with the simplest physiological liquid and in a controlled atmosphere in order to limit the number of parallel reactions and processes. In this paper, where this approach has been chosen, 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) have been synthesized in a phosphate buffered aqueous solution, and this solution has been treated by a nanosecond pulsed plasma jet under a pure nitrogen atmosphere. It is only the composition of the plasma gas that has been changed in order to generate different cocktails of reactive species. After the quantification of the main plasma reactive species in the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, structural, surface charge state, and chemical modifications generated on the plasma treated liposomes, due to the interaction with the plasma reactive species, have been carefully characterized. These results allow us to further understand the effect of plasma reactive species on model cell membranes in physiological liquids. The permeation through the liposomal membrane and the reaction of plasma reactive species with molecules encapsulated inside the liposomes have also been evaluated. New processes of degradation are finally presented and discussed, which come from the specific conditions of plasma treatment under the pure nitrogen atmosphere.

  12. Boundary layer control of rotating convection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Eric M; Stellmach, Stephan; Noir, Jerome; Hansen, Ulrich; Aurnou, Jonathan M

    2009-01-15

    Turbulent rotating convection controls many observed features of stars and planets, such as magnetic fields, atmospheric jets and emitted heat flux patterns. It has long been argued that the influence of rotation on turbulent convection dynamics is governed by the ratio of the relevant global-scale forces: the Coriolis force and the buoyancy force. Here, however, we present results from laboratory and numerical experiments which exhibit transitions between rotationally dominated and non-rotating behaviour that are not determined by this global force balance. Instead, the transition is controlled by the relative thicknesses of the thermal (non-rotating) and Ekman (rotating) boundary layers. We formulate a predictive description of the transition between the two regimes on the basis of the competition between these two boundary layers. This transition scaling theory unifies the disparate results of an extensive array of previous experiments, and is broadly applicable to natural convection systems.

  13. Magnetic Fields in the Solar Convection Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Fan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Active regions on the solar surface are generally thought to originate from a strong toroidal magnetic field generated by a deep seated solar dynamo mechanism operating at the base of the solar convection zone. Thus the magnetic fields need to traverse the entire convection zone before they reach the photosphere to form the observed solar active regions. Understanding this process of active region flux emergence is therefore a crucial component for the study of the solar cycle dynamo. This article reviews studies with regard to the formation and rise of active region scale magnetic flux tubes in the solar convection zone and their emergence into the solar atmosphere as active regions.

  14. Convective towers detection using GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, S.

    The tropical deep convection affects the radiation balance of the atmosphere changing the water vapour mixing ratio and the temperature of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. To gain a better understanding of deep convective processes, the study of tropical cyclones could play an import...... (ACES) payload on the International Space Station....... 1194 profiles in a time window of 3 hours and a space window of 300 km from the eye of the cyclone. We show that the bending angle anomaly of a GPS RO signal is typically larger than the climatology above the tropopause. Comparisons with co-located radiosondes, climatology of tropopause altitudes...... and GOES analyses will also be shown to support our hypothesis and to corroborate the idea that the bending angle anomaly can be used as an indicator of convective towers. The results are discussed in connection to the GPS radio occultation receiver which will be part of the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space...

  15. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I.; Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S.

    2017-02-01

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83-0714442.5, whose 4.5-5.2 μm spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 109 cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  16. ASAM v2.7: a compressible atmospheric model with a Cartesian cut cell approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähn, M.; Knoth, O.; König, M.; Vogelsberg, U.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the fully compressible, three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic atmospheric model called All Scale Atmospheric Model (ASAM) is presented. A cut cell approach is used to include obstacles and orography into the Cartesian grid. Discretization is realized by a mixture of finite differences and finite volumes and a state limiting is applied. Necessary shifting and interpolation techniques are outlined. The method can be generalized to any other orthogonal grids, e.g., a lat-long grid. A linear implicit Rosenbrock time integration scheme ensures numerical stability in the presence of fast sound waves and around small cells. Analyses of five two-dimensional benchmark test cases from the literature are carried out to show that the described method produces meaningful results with respect to conservation properties and model accuracy. The test cases are partly modified in a way that the flow field or scalars interact with cut cells. To make the model applicable for atmospheric problems, physical parameterizations like a Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model, a two-moment bulk microphysics scheme, and precipitation and surface fluxes using a sophisticated multi-layer soil model are implemented and described. Results of an idealized three-dimensional simulation are shown, where the flow field around an idealized mountain with subsequent gravity wave generation, latent heat release, orographic clouds and precipitation are modeled.

  17. ASAM v2.7: a compressible atmospheric model with a Cartesian cut cell approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jähn

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the fully compressible, three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic atmospheric model called All Scale Atmospheric Model (ASAM is presented. A cut cell approach is used to include obstacles and orography into the Cartesian grid. Discretization is realized by a mixture of finite differences and finite volumes and a state limiting is applied. Necessary shifting and interpolation techniques are outlined. The method can be generalized to any other orthogonal grids, e.g., a lat–long grid. A linear implicit Rosenbrock time integration scheme ensures numerical stability in the presence of fast sound waves and around small cells. Analyses of five two-dimensional benchmark test cases from the literature are carried out to show that the described method produces meaningful results with respect to conservation properties and model accuracy. The test cases are partly modified in a way that the flow field or scalars interact with cut cells. To make the model applicable for atmospheric problems, physical parameterizations like a Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model, a two-moment bulk microphysics scheme, and precipitation and surface fluxes using a sophisticated multi-layer soil model are implemented and described. Results of an idealized three-dimensional simulation are shown, where the flow field around an idealized mountain with subsequent gravity wave generation, latent heat release, orographic clouds and precipitation are modeled.

  18. Organisation of potential vorticity on the mesoscale during deep moist convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Weijenborg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Potential vorticity (PV and its conservation principle elegantly describe large-scale atmospheric dynamics. On the mesoscale, however, PV has received less attention. We describe the characteristics of PV on the convective weather scale (≈10 km as simulated by the non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction model COSMO-DE. Two weather cases with a different synoptic background are analysed, on 5 June 2011 and 22 June 2011. Composites of PV and other quantities like wind velocity around storm updrafts are calculated to test consistency of PV anomalies associated with storm updrafts.For the frontal case on 22 June bands of positive and negative PV form approximately along the direction of the wind shear. A possible explanation of these elongated PV bands is the preferential generation of new cells downshear of old cells in an atmosphere with moderate to high vertical wind shear. The PV dipoles are much less consistent in direction in the 5 June case with localised deep convection. For both cases, the wind anomalies around the convective PV anomalies are consistent with the flow around synoptic PV anomalies. The coherent PV anomalies around storm updrafts motivate the use of PV-thinking on smaller scales.

  19. Treatment of oral cancer cells with nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkovich, James; Han, Xu; Coffey, Benjamin; Klas, Matej; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2012-10-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are specialized types of plasma that are proposed as a new agent to induce death in cancer cells. The experimental phase of this study will test the application of such plasma to SCC-25 oral cancer cells to determine if it is possible to induce apoptosis or necrosis. Different sources are used on the cells to find a configuration which kills cancer cells but has no effect on normal cells. The sources have been developed based on the dielectric barrier discharge between two external electrodes surrounding a dielectric tube; such a configuration has been shown to induce breaks in DNA strands. Each configuration is characterized using an optical emission spectrophotometer and iCCD camera to determine the optimal conditions for inducing cell death. The cells are incubated after irradiation with plasma, and cell death is determined using microscopy imaging to identify antibody interaction within the cells. These studies are important for better understanding of plasma species interactions with cancer cells and mechanisms of DNA damage and at latter stage they will be useful for the development of advanced cancer therapy.

  20. Effects of atmospheric pressure cold plasma on human hepatocarcinoma cell and its 5-fluorouracil resistant cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H.; Gan, L.; Yang, X., E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com, E-mail: yangxl@mail.hust.edu.cn [College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Lu, R. [School Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xian, Y.; Lu, X., E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com, E-mail: yangxl@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma showed selective killing efficiency on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which makes plasma a potential option for cancer therapy. However, the plasma effects on chemotherapeutic drugs-resistant cells are rarely to be found. In this paper, the effects of plasma on human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel7402 cells and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant Bel7402/5FU cells were intensively investigated. The results showed that plasma induced superior toxicity to Bel7402 cells compared with Bel7402/5FU cells. Incubation with plasma-treated medium for 20 s induced more than 85% death rate in Bel7402 cells, while the same death ratio was achieved when Bel7402/5FU cells were treated for as long as 300 s. The hydrogen peroxide in the medium played a leading role in the cytotoxicity effects. Further studies implicated that when the treatment time was shorter than 60 s, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis occurred through the intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation in Bel7402 cells. Molecular analysis showed an increase in the transcription factor activity for AP-1, NF-kB, and p53 in Bel7402 cells. No obvious damage could be detected in plasma-treated Bel7402/5FU cells due to the strong intracellular reactive oxygen stress scavenger system.

  1. Effects of atmospheric pressure cold plasma on human hepatocarcinoma cell and its 5-fluorouracil resistant cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Lu, R.; Xian, Y.; Gan, L.; Lu, X.; Yang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma showed selective killing efficiency on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which makes plasma a potential option for cancer therapy. However, the plasma effects on chemotherapeutic drugs-resistant cells are rarely to be found. In this paper, the effects of plasma on human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel7402 cells and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant Bel7402/5FU cells were intensively investigated. The results showed that plasma induced superior toxicity to Bel7402 cells compared with Bel7402/5FU cells. Incubation with plasma-treated medium for 20 s induced more than 85% death rate in Bel7402 cells, while the same death ratio was achieved when Bel7402/5FU cells were treated for as long as 300 s. The hydrogen peroxide in the medium played a leading role in the cytotoxicity effects. Further studies implicated that when the treatment time was shorter than 60 s, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis occurred through the intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation in Bel7402 cells. Molecular analysis showed an increase in the transcription factor activity for AP-1, NF-кB, and p53 in Bel7402 cells. No obvious damage could be detected in plasma-treated Bel7402/5FU cells due to the strong intracellular reactive oxygen stress scavenger system.

  2. Heat transfer in cryogenic helium gas by turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a cylindrical cell of aspect ratio 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pavel; Hanzelka, Pavel; Musilová, Věra; Králík, Tomáš; La Mantia, Marco; Srnka, Aleš; Skrbek, Ladislav

    2014-05-01

    We present experimental results on the heat transfer efficiency of cryogenic turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) in a cylindrical cell 0.3 m in both diameter and height which has improvements with respect to various corrections connected with finite thermal conductivity of sidewalls and plates. The heat transfer efficiency described by the Nusselt number {\\rm{Nu}}={\\rm{Nu}}({\\rm{Ra}},Pr ) is investigated for the range of Rayleigh number {{10}^{6}}account. In contrast, if the mean temperature is determined as an arithmetic mean of the bottom and top plate temperatures, {\\rm{Nu}}({\\rm{Ra}})\\propto {\\rm{R}}{{{\\rm{a}}}^{\\gamma }} displays spurious crossover to higher γ that might be misinterpreted as a transition to the ultimate Kraichnan regime. The second step of our analysis, reported here for the first time, is to ignore the NOB effects affecting the top half of the RBC cell. We replace it by the inverted nearly OB bottom half in order to eliminate the boundary layer asymmetry. This leads to the effective temperature difference \\Delta {{T}_{{\\rm{eff}}}}=2({{T}_{{\\rm{b}}}}-{{T}_{{\\rm{c}}}}), where {{T}_{{\\rm{b}}}} denotes the bottom plate temperature, and to effective {\\rm{N}}{{{\\rm{u}}}_{{\\rm{eff}}}} and {\\rm{R}}{{{\\rm{a}}}_{{\\rm{eff}}}} values. The effective heat transfer efficiency obtained, showing no tendency of crossover to the ultimate regime up to 2\\times {{10}^{15}} in {\\rm{R}}{{{\\rm{a}}}_{{\\rm{eff}}}}, is reported and discussed.

  3. Improvement of cell adhesion on poly(L-lactide) by atmospheric plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masafumi; Teraoka, Fumio; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Kibayashi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Junzo

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the interaction between the cell and the surface of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) samples, which were modified using a low-temperature plasma treatment apparatus at atmospheric pressure. The plasma treatments were carried out in the atmospheres of air, carbon dioxide (CO2), and perfluoro propane (C3F8) gas. The PLLA samples before and after the plasma treatment were analyzed by XPS and their contact angles with water. Furthermore, the cell adhesion capability and cell mass culturing tests on the PLLA samples were carried out using MC3T3-E1 cells. The results showed that the contact angle of the samples, which was plasma treated in air or in CO2 gas, decreased compared with that of the untreated samples. On the other hand, the contact angle of the samples, which was plasma treated in the C3F8 gas, increased compared with the untreated plasma samples. The cell response on the PLLA samples plasma treated in air or in the CO2 gas were significantly superior to that of the PLLA samples, which was plasma treated in the C3F8 gas.

  4. DNA damage in oral cancer cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Klas, Matej; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2013-09-01

    The nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) has been shown to effectively induce DNA double strand breaks in SCC-25 oral cancer cells. The APPJ source constructed in our laboratory consists of two external electrodes wrapping around a quartz tube and nitrogen as a feed gas and operates based on dielectric barrier gas discharge. Generally, it is more challenging to ignite plasma in N2 atmosphere than in noble gases. However, this design provides additional advantages such as lower costs compared to the noble gases for future clinical operation. Different parameters of the APPJ configuration were tested in order to determine radiation dosage. To explore the effects of delayed damage and cell self-repairing, various incubation times of cells after plasma treatment were also performed. Reactive species generated in plasma jet and in liquid environment are essential to be identified and quantified, with the aim of unfolding the mystery of detailed mechanisms for plasma-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, from the comparison of plasma treatment effect on normal oral cells OKF6T, an insight to the selectivity for cancer treatment by APPJ can be explored. All of these studies are critical to better understand the damage responses of normal and abnormal cellular systems to plasma radiation, which are useful for the development of advanced plasma therapy for cancer treatment at a later stage.

  5. Restoration of sensitivity in chemo-resistant glioma cells by cold atmospheric plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köritzer, Julia; Boxhammer, Veronika; Schäfer, Andrea; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klämpfl, Tobias G; Li, Yang-Fang; Welz, Christian; Schwenk-Zieger, Sabina; Morfill, Gregor E; Zimmermann, Julia L; Schlegel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumor in adults. Despite multimodal treatments including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy the prognosis remains poor and relapse occurs regularly. The alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) has been shown to improve the overall survival in patients with malignant gliomas, especially in tumors with methylated promoter of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) gene. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance towards TMZ makes it crucial to find new therapeutic strategies aimed at improving the prognosis of patients suffering from malignant gliomas. Cold atmospheric plasma is a new auspicious candidate in cancer treatment. In the present study we demonstrate the anti-cancer properties of different dosages of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) both in TMZ-sensitive and TMZ-resistant cells by proliferation assay, immunoblotting, cell cycle analysis, and clonogenicity assay. Importantly, CAP treatment restored the responsiveness of resistant glioma cells towards TMZ therapy. Concomitant treatment with CAP and TMZ led to inhibition of cell growth and cell cycle arrest, thus CAP might be a promising candidate for combination therapy especially for patients suffering from GBMs showing an unfavorable MGMT status and TMZ resistance.

  6. Restoration of sensitivity in chemo-resistant glioma cells by cold atmospheric plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Köritzer

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common and aggressive brain tumor in adults. Despite multimodal treatments including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy the prognosis remains poor and relapse occurs regularly. The alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ has been shown to improve the overall survival in patients with malignant gliomas, especially in tumors with methylated promoter of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT gene. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance towards TMZ makes it crucial to find new therapeutic strategies aimed at improving the prognosis of patients suffering from malignant gliomas. Cold atmospheric plasma is a new auspicious candidate in cancer treatment. In the present study we demonstrate the anti-cancer properties of different dosages of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP both in TMZ-sensitive and TMZ-resistant cells by proliferation assay, immunoblotting, cell cycle analysis, and clonogenicity assay. Importantly, CAP treatment restored the responsiveness of resistant glioma cells towards TMZ therapy. Concomitant treatment with CAP and TMZ led to inhibition of cell growth and cell cycle arrest, thus CAP might be a promising candidate for combination therapy especially for patients suffering from GBMs showing an unfavorable MGMT status and TMZ resistance.

  7. Shallow cirrus convection – a source for ice supersaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Spichtinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin and persistence of high ice supersaturation is still not well understood. In this study, the impact of local dynamics as source for ice supersaturation inside cirrus clouds is investigated. Nucleation and growth of ice crystals inside potentially unstable layers in the tropopause region might lead to shallow convection inside (layered cirrus clouds due to latent heat release. The intrinsic updraught inside convective cells constitutes a dominant but transient source for ice supersaturation. A realistic case of shallow cirrus convection is investigated using radiosonde data, meteorological analyses and large-eddy simulations of cirrus clouds. The simulations corroborate the existence of ice supersaturation inside cirrus clouds as a transient phenomenon. Ice supersaturation is frequent, but determined by the life cycle of convective cells in shallow cirrus convection. Cirrus clouds driven by shallow cirrus convection are mostly not in thermodynamic equilibrium; they are usually in a subsaturated or supersaturated state.

  8. Meridional Circulation in Solar and Stellar Convection Zones

    CERN Document Server

    Featherstone, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    We present a series of 3-D nonlinear simulations of solar-like convection, carried out using the Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code, that are designed to isolate those processes that drive and shape meridional circulations within stellar convection zones. These simulations have been constructed so as to span the transition between solar-like differential rotation (fast equator/slow poles) and ``anti-solar' differential rotation (slow equator/fast poles). Solar-like states of differential rotation, arising when convection is rotationally constrained, are characterized by a very different convective Reynolds stress than anti-solar regimes, wherein convection only weakly senses the Coriolis force. We find that the angular momentum transport by convective Reynolds stress plays a central role in establishing the meridional flow profiles in these simulations. We find that the transition from single-celled to multi-celled meridional circulation profiles in strong and weak regimes of rotational constraint is lin...

  9. Pulsation driving and convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoci, Victoria

    2015-08-01

    Convection in stellar envelopes affects not only the stellar structure, but has a strong impact on different astrophysical processes, such as dynamo-generated magnetic fields, stellar activity and transport of angular momentum. Solar and stellar observations from ground and space have shown that the turbulent convective motion can also drive global oscillations in many type of stars, allowing to study stellar interiors at different evolutionary stages. In this talk I will concentrate on the influence of convection on the driving of stochastic and coherent pulsations across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and give an overview of recent studies.

  10. Properties of convective motions in facular regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostik, R.; Khomenko, E. V.

    2012-09-01

    Aims: We study the properties of solar granulation in a facular region from the photosphere up to the lower chromosphere. Our aim is to investigate the dependence of granular structure on magnetic field strength. Methods: We used observations obtained at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife) using two different instruments: the Triple Etalon SOlar Spectrometer (TESOS) to measure velocity and intensity variations along the photosphere in the Ba ii 4554 Å line; and, simultaneously, the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP-II) to the measure Stokes parameters and the magnetic field strength at the lower photosphere in the Fe i 1.56 μm lines. Results: We find that the convective velocities of granules in the facular area decrease with magnetic field while the convective velocities of intergranular lanes increase with the field strength. Similar to the quiet areas, there is a contrast and velocity sign reversal taking place in the middle photosphere. The reversal heights depend on the magnetic field strength and are, on average, about 100 km higher than in the quiet regions. The correlation between convective velocity and intensity decreases with magnetic field at the bottom photosphere, but increases in the upper photosphere. The contrast of intergranular lanes observed close to the disk center is almost independent of the magnetic field strength. Conclusions: The strong magnetic field of the facular area seems to stabilize the convection and to promote more effective energy transfer in the upper layers of the solar atmosphere, since the convective elements reach greater heights.

  11. Superparameterised convection in the EMAC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Harald; Tost, Holger

    2017-04-01

    Clouds in large-scale circulation models are often not well represented due to the large grid box size of these models. Especially convective clouds with a typical extension of a few kilometres only are subgrid-scale compared to the grid box size of the host models. To overcome this scale discrepancy in the chemistry climate model EMAC, a superparameterisation has been implemented, i.e. a cloud resolving model handling both large-scale as well as convective clouds. The gain for the substantial increase in computational costs is an increase in performance for the global precipitation distribution, especially in the tropics. Furthermore, the diurnal cycle of convective activity is much better represented by the superparameterisation compared to traditional convection schemes. We also provide results on the total water budget, e.g. integrated liquid and ice water as well as the partitioning between the two phases, which substantially differs between parameterised and superparameterised convection due to the explicit treatment of cloud microphysical processes in the latter scheme. Especially, this partitioning has implications for the atmospheric radiation budget and consequently also surface temperatures.

  12. Cell immobilization on polymer by air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Om, Ji-yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-08-01

    The study of cell immobilization on delicate polymer by an air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (AAPPJ) is required for its medical application. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether AAPPJ treatment induce cell immobilization effect on delicate polymers without significant change of surface roughness by AAPPJ treatment. After surface roughness, dynamic contact angle, and chemical characteristics were investigated, the immobilization effect was evaluated with the mouse fibroblast L929 cell line. Surface roughness change was not observed (P > 0.05) in either delicate dental wax or polystyrene plate (PSP) as advancing and receding contact angles significantly decreased (P < 0.05), thanks to decreased hydrocarbon and formation of oxygen-related functional groups in treated PSP. Adherent L929 cells with elongated morphology were found in treated PSP along with the formation of immobilization markers vinculin and actin cytoskeleton. Increased PTK2 gene expression upregulated these markers on treated PSP.

  13. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2014-01-01

    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  14. DNA damage in oral cancer and normal cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Kapaldo, James; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) have been shown to effectively induce DNA double strand breaks in SCC25 oral cancer cells. The APPJ source constructed in our laboratory operates based on dielectric barrier discharge. It consists of two copper electrodes alternatively wrapping around a fused silica tube with nitrogen as a feed gas. It is generally more challenging to ignite plasma in N2 atmosphere than in noble gases. However, N2 provides additional advantages such as lower costs compared to noble gases, thus this design can be beneficial for the future long-term clinical use. To compare the effects of plasma on cancer cells (SCC25) and normal cells (OKF), the cells from both types were treated at the same experimental condition for various treatment times. The effective area with different damage levels after the treatment was visualized as 3D maps. The delayed damage effects were also explored by varying the incubation times after the treatment. All of these studies are critical for a better understanding of the damage responses of cellular systems exposed to the plasma radiation, thus are useful for the development of the advanced plasma cancer therapy. The research described herein was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, United States Department of Energy through Grant No. DE-FC02-04ER15533.

  15. 3D cut-cell modelling for high-resolution atmospheric simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, H; Nikiforakis, N

    2015-01-01

    With the recent, rapid development of computer technology, the resolution of atmospheric numerical models has increased substantially. As a result, steep gradients in mountainous terrain are now being resolved in high-resolution models. This results in large truncation errors in those models using terrain-following coordinates. In this study, a new 3D Cartesian coordinate non-hydrostatic atmospheric model is developed. A cut-cell representation of topography based on finite-volume discretization is combined with a cell-merging approach, in which small cut-cells are merged with neighboring cells either vertically or horizontally. In addition, a block-structured mesh-refinement technique achieves a variable resolution on the model grid with the finest resolution occurring close to the terrain surface. The model successfully reproduces a flow over a 3D bell-shaped hill that shows a good agreement with the flow predicted by the linear theory. The ability of the model to simulate flows over steep terrain is demons...

  16. The influence of convective current generator on the global current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Morozov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical generalization of classical model of the global circuit with taking into account the convective current generator, working in the planetary boundary layer was considered. Convective current generator may be interpreted as generator, in which the electromotive force is generated by processes, of the turbulent transport of electrical charge. It is shown that the average potential of ionosphere is defined not only by the thunderstorm current generators, working at the present moment, but by the convective current generator also. The influence of the convective processes in the boundary layer on the electrical parameters of the atmosphere is not only local, but has global character as well. The numerical estimations, made for the case of the convective-unstable boundary layer demonstrate that the increase of the average potential of ionosphere may be of the order of 10% to 40%.

  17. Glass-ceramic sealant for solid oxide fuel cells application: Characterization and performance in dual atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, A. G.; Cempura, G.; Montinaro, D.; Chrysanthou, A.; Salvo, M.; Bernardo, E.; Secco, M.; Smeacetto, F.

    2016-10-01

    A glass-ceramic composition was designed and tested for use as a sealant in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) planar stack design. The crystallization behaviour was investigated by calculating the Avrami parameter (n) and the activation energy for crystallization (Ec) was obtained. The calculated values for n and Ec were 3 and 413.5 kJ/mol respectively. The results of thermal analyses indicate that this composition shows no overlap between the sintering and crystallization stages and thus an almost pore-free sealant can be deposited and sintered at 850 °C in air for 30 min. A gas tightness test has been carried out at 800 °C for 1100 h in dual atmosphere (Ar-H2 and air) without recording any leakage. Morphological and crystalline phase analyses were conducted prior and following tests in dual atmospheres in order to assess the compatibility of the proposed sealant with the metallic interconnect.

  18. Transparent electric convection heater

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, A.; Luck, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    An optically transparent electrically heated convection heater for use as a space heater in homes, offices, shops. Typically, said convection heater consists of a transparent layer 1 upon which is deposited a layer of a transparent electrically conductive material 2 such as indium-tin-oxide, electrodes 3 and 3a are formed on opposite edges of the transparent electrically conductive layer 2 and electrical wires 4 and 4a are connected to the electrodes. The transparent electrically conductive l...

  19. The link between extreme precipitation and convective organization in a warming climate: Global radiative-convective equilibrium simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Angeline G.; Reed, Kevin A.; Medeiros, Brian

    2016-11-01

    The rate of increase of extreme precipitation in response to global warming varies dramatically across climate model simulations, particularly over the tropics, for reasons that have yet to be established. Here we propose one potential mechanism: changing organization of convection with climate. We analyze a set of simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 with an idealized global radiative-convective equilibrium configuration forced by fixed sea surface temperatures varying in 2° increments from 285 to 307 K. In these simulations, convective organization varies from semiorganized in cold simulations, disorganized in warm simulations, and abruptly becomes highly organized at just over 300 K. The change in extreme precipitation with warming also varies across these simulations, including a large increase at the transition from disorganized to organized convection. We develop an extreme precipitation-focused metric for convective organization and use this to explore their connection.

  20. Pro-apoptotic NOXA is implicated in atmospheric-pressure plasma-induced melanoma cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M.; Bazaka, K.; Ostrikov, K.

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) has been successfully used to treat several types of cancers in vivo and in vitro, with the effect being primarily attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the mechanisms by which APP induces apoptosis in cancer cells require further elucidation. In this study, the effects of APP on the expression of 500 genes in melanoma Mel007 cancer cells were examined. Pro-apoptotic phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein (PMAIP1), also known as NOXA, was highly expressed as a result of APP treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Blocking of ROS using scavenger NAC or silencing of NOXA gene by RNA interference inhibited the APP-induced NOXA genes upregulation and impaired caspases 3/7 mediated apoptosis, confirming the important role plasma-generated ROS species and pro-apoptotic NOXA play in APP-induced cancer cell death.

  1. Large-Eddy Simulations of Dust Devils and Convective Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, Aymeric; Barth, Erika; Gu, Zhaolin; Hoffmann, Fabian; Ito, Junshi; Jemmett-Smith, Bradley; Klose, Martina; Nishizawa, Seiya; Raasch, Siegfried; Rafkin, Scot; Takemi, Tetsuya; Tyler, Daniel; Wei, Wei

    2016-11-01

    In this review, we address the use of numerical computations called Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) to study dust devils, and the more general class of atmospheric phenomena they belong to (convective vortices). We describe the main elements of the LES methodology. We review the properties, statistics, and variability of dust devils and convective vortices resolved by LES in both terrestrial and Martian environments. The current challenges faced by modelers using LES for dust devils are also discussed in detail.

  2. Mechanistic insights into the impact of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on human epithelial cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezest, Marlène; Chavatte, Laurent; Bourdens, Marion; Quinton, Damien; Camus, Mylène; Garrigues, Luc; Descargues, Pascal; Arbault, Stéphane; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Casteilla, Louis; Clément, Franck; Planat, Valérie; Bulteau, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) has potential as a new cancer therapy. However, knowledge about cellular signaling events and toxicity subsequent to plasma treatment is still poorly documented. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction between 3 different types of plasma (He, He-O2, He-N2) and human epithelial cell lines to gain better insight into plasma-cell interaction. We provide evidence that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are inducing cell death by apoptosis and that the proteasome, a major intracellular proteolytic system which is important for tumor cell growth and survival, is a target of (He or He-N2) CAPP. However, RONS are not the only actors involved in cell death; electric field and charged particles could play a significant role especially for He-O2 CAPP. By differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis we found that CAPP triggers antioxidant and cellular defense but is also affecting extracellular matrix in keratinocytes. Moreover, we found that malignant cells are more resistant to CAPP treatment than normal cells. Taken together, our findings provide insight into potential mechanisms of CAPP-induced proteasome inactivation and the cellular consequences of these events.

  3. Mechanistic insights into the impact of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on human epithelial cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezest, Marlène; Chavatte, Laurent; Bourdens, Marion; Quinton, Damien; Camus, Mylène; Garrigues, Luc; Descargues, Pascal; Arbault, Stéphane; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Casteilla, Louis; Clément, Franck; Planat, Valérie; Bulteau, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) has potential as a new cancer therapy. However, knowledge about cellular signaling events and toxicity subsequent to plasma treatment is still poorly documented. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction between 3 different types of plasma (He, He-O2, He-N2) and human epithelial cell lines to gain better insight into plasma-cell interaction. We provide evidence that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are inducing cell death by apoptosis and that the proteasome, a major intracellular proteolytic system which is important for tumor cell growth and survival, is a target of (He or He-N2) CAPP. However, RONS are not the only actors involved in cell death; electric field and charged particles could play a significant role especially for He-O2 CAPP. By differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis we found that CAPP triggers antioxidant and cellular defense but is also affecting extracellular matrix in keratinocytes. Moreover, we found that malignant cells are more resistant to CAPP treatment than normal cells. Taken together, our findings provide insight into potential mechanisms of CAPP-induced proteasome inactivation and the cellular consequences of these events. PMID:28120925

  4. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induces a Predominantly Necrotic Cell Death via the Microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Virard

    Full Text Available Cold plasma is a partially ionized gas generated by an electric field at atmospheric pressure that was initially used in medicine for decontamination and sterilization of inert surfaces. There is currently growing interest in using cold plasma for more direct medical applications, mainly due to the possibility of tuning it to obtain selective biological effects in absence of toxicity for surrounding normal tissues,. While the therapeutic potential of cold plasma in chronic wound, blood coagulation, and cancer treatment is beginning to be documented, information on plasma/cell interaction is so far limited and controversial.Using normal primary human fibroblast cultures isolated from oral tissue, we sought to decipher the effects on cell behavior of a proprietary cold plasma device generating guided ionization waves carried by helium. In this model, cold plasma treatment induces a predominantly necrotic cell death. Interestingly, death is not triggered by a direct interaction of the cold plasma with cells, but rather via a transient modification in the microenvironment. We show that modification of the microenvironment redox status suppresses treatment toxicity and protects cells from death. Moreover, necrosis is not accidental and seems to be an active response to an environmental cue, as its execution can be inhibited to rescue cells.These observations will need to be taken into account when studying in vitro plasma/cell interaction and may have implications for the design and future evaluation of the efficacy and safety of this new treatment strategy.

  5. Dust Devils and Convective Vortices on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2017-03-01

    Dust devils are low pressure convective vortices able to lift dust from the surface of a planet. They are a common feature on Mars and they can also be found on desertic locations on Earth. On Mars they are considered an important part of the atmospheric dust cycle. Dust in Mars is an essential ingredient of the atmosphere where it affects the radiative balance of the planet. Here we review observations of these dusty vortices from orbit, from in situ measurements on the surface of Mars and some of the models developed to simulate them.

  6. Preconditioning of the YSZ-NiO Fuel Cell Anode in Hydrogenous Atmospheres Containing Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyliv, Bogdan; Podhurska, Viktoriya; Ostash, Orest

    2017-04-01

    The YSZ-NiO ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) anode have been investigated. A series of specimens were singly reduced in a hydrogenous atmosphere (Ar-5 vol% H2 mixture) at 600 °C under the pressure of 0.15 MPa or subjected to `reduction in the mixture-oxidation in air' (redox) cycling at 600 °C. The YSZ-Ni cermets formed in both treatment conditions were then aged in `water vapor in Ar-5 vol% H2 mixture' atmosphere at 600 °C under the pressure of 0.15 MPa. Additionally, the behaviour of the as-received material in this atmosphere was studied. It was revealed that small amount of water vapor in Ar-5 vol% H2 mixture (water vapor pressure below 0.03 MPa) does not affect the reduction of the nickel phase in the YSZ-NiO ceramics, but causes some changes in the YSZ-Ni cermet structure. In particular, nanopore growth in tiny Ni particles takes place. At higher concentration of water vapor in the mixture (water vapor pressure above 0.03-0.05 MPa), converse changes in the kinetics of reduction occur. The best physical and mechanical properties were revealed for the material treated by redox cycling after holding at 600 °C in water depleted gas mixture. The dual effect of water vapor on nickel-zirconia anode behaviour is discussed basing on scanning electron microscopy analysis data, material electrical conductivity, and strength.

  7. Comparison between ionospheric convection vortices and the associated equivalent currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J.; Benkevitch, L.; Sofko, G. J.; Koustov, A. V.

    2004-12-01

    The equivalent current pattern derived from CANOPUS, NRCAN/GSC and MACCS magnetometers has been compared with the ionospheric convection pattern observed by SuperDARN HF radars. The discrepancies between the equivalent convection (EQC) and the SuperDARN-observed convection (SDC) patterns are explained in terms of the effect of day-night photoionization conductance gradient and the coupling between field-aligned currents (FACs) and ionospheric conductances. In particular, the agreement between the EQC and SDC patterns is usually worse for a counterclockwise convection vortex than for a clockwise cell, but a consistent pattern of discrepancy for counterclockwise convection vortices has been found. We suggest that the discrepancies are due to a downward FAC-conductance coupling process. Since the counterclockwise vortices and clockwise vortices occur predominantly in the dawn and dusk sectors, respectively, in accordance with the usual 2-cell global convection pattern, the asymmetry between the EQC and SDC patterns for counterclockwise vortices and clockwise vortices would naturally lead to a dawn-dusk asymmetry as well. This is revealed by a global statistical study of the deviation of direction between the magnetic equivalent convection and the SuperDARN convection in different time sectors and latitudes. In the dawn sector, the statistical results reveal that, at lower latitudes, the EQC direction deviation is slightly counterclockwise with respect to the SDC direction, whereas the deviation is significantly clockwise at high latitudes. These deviations are consistent with the discrepancy pattern for counterclockwise convection vortices, as found in the individual vortex event studies.

  8. The influence of convection parameterisations under alternate climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Harald; Tost, Holger

    2013-04-01

    In the last decades several convection parameterisations have been developed to consider the impact of small-scale unresolved processes in Earth System Models associated with convective clouds. Global model simulations, which have been performed under current climate conditions with different convection schemes, significantly differ among each other in the simulated precipitation patterns due to the parameterisation assumptions and formulations, e.g. the simplified treatment of the cloud microphysics. Additionally, the simulated transport of short-lived trace gases strongly depends on the chosen convection parameterisation due to the differences in the vertical redistribution of mass. Furthermore, other meteorological parameters like the temperature or the specific humidity show substantial differences in convectively active regions. This study presents uncertainties of climate change scenarios caused by different convection parameterisations. For this analysis two experiments (reference simulation with a CO2 concentration of 348 ppm; 2xCO2-simulation with a CO2 concentration of 696 ppm) are calculated with the ECHAM/MESSy atmospheric chemistry (EMAC) model applying four different convection schemes (Tiedtke, ECMWF, Emanuel and Zhang-McFarlane - Hack) and two resolutions (T42 and T63), respectively. The results indicate that the equilibrium climate sensitivity is independent of the chosen convection parameterisation. However, the regional temperature increase, induced by a doubling of the carbon dioxide concentration, demonstrates differences of up to a few Kelvin at the surface as well as in the UTLS for the ITCZ region depending on the selected convection parameterisation. The interaction between cloud and convection parameterisations results in a large disagreement of precipitation patterns. Although every 2xCO2 -experiment simulates an increase in global mean precipitation rates, the change of regional precipitation patterns differ widely. Finally, analysing

  9. A New And Fundamental View Of Organized Tropical Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, P. J.; Toma, V. E.

    2012-12-01

    During the last decade, a paradigm has emerged to explain the existence of tropical organized convection. Based on the projection of spatial and temporal patterns of observed convection onto dispersion relationships of equatorially trapped very shallow modes (h=10-30 m, where h is the equivalent depth of a shallow fluid) the convectively coupled equatorial mode (CCEM) theory has developed. However, there is an incompleteness and some inconsistencies in the theory that need to be addressed. Whereas the horizontal structure of these shallow modes appears similar to that observed, the vertical structure consistent with small h requires a high vertical wave number. This is not observed. Second, basic scaling of the tropics, as initially undertaken by Charney in the 1960s suggests an extremely stable vertical structure, far more stable than equivalent scales at higher latitudes. In fact, at the scales of observed organized convection in the tropics (about 106m) the atmosphere is essentially barotropic to high approximation resulting in almost complete lack of communication between the upper and lower troposphere. The CCEM theory suggests that the observed modes are consistent with existing convection but there is no explanation of how the convection forms and organizes in this very stable tropical environment. It is also noted that there are discrete genesis regions of organized convection formation within the tropics and that organized convection does not occur indiscriminately. Based on these factors we propose that organized convection occurs through regional instabilities of the basic state in which vortex tube stretching overcomes the inherent stability restriction. The instabilities determine the spatial and temporal scales of the convective phenomena. We provide examples of instabilities. Further, in certain regions, influences from higher latitudes may be important. In the end, CCEMs appears as a result and not an explanation or a cause of organized convection.

  10. Application of atmospheric plasma sources in growth and differentiation of plant and mammalian stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puac, Nevena

    2014-10-01

    The expansion of the plasma medicine and its demand for in-vivo treatments resulted in fast development of various plasma devices that operate at atmospheric pressure. These sources have to fulfill all demands for application on biological samples. One of the sources that meet all the requirements needed for treatment of biological material is plasma needle. Previously, we have used this device for sterilization of planctonic samples of bacteria, MRSA biofilm, for improved differentiation of human periodontal stem cells into osteogenic line and for treatment of plant meristematic cells. It is well known that plasma generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that strongly affect metabolism of living cells. One of the open issues is to correlate external plasma products (electrons, ions, RNS, ROS, photons, strong fields etc.) with the immediate internal response which triggers or induces effects in the living cell. For that purpose we have studied the kinetics of enzymes which are typical indicators of the identity of reactive species from the plasma created environment that can trigger signal transduction in the cell and ensue cell activity. In collaboration with Suzana Zivkovicm, Institute for Biological Research ``Sinisa Stankovic,'' University of Belgrade; Nenad Selakovic, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade; Milica Milutinovic, Jelena Boljevic, Institute for Biological Research ``Sinisa Stankovic,'' University of Belgrade; and Gordana Malovic, Zoran Lj. Petrovic, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade. Grants III41011, ON171037 and ON173024, MESTD, Serbia.

  11. Climatology of convective showers dynamics in a convection-permitting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Erwan; Brendel, Christoph; Ahrens, Bodo

    2017-04-01

    Convection-permitting simulations have proven their usefulness in improving both the representation of convective rain and the uncertainty range of climate projections. However, most studies have focused on temporal scales greater or equal to convection cell lifetime. A large knowledge gap remains on the model's performance in representing the temporal dynamic of convective showers and how could this temporal dynamic be altered in a warmer climate. In this study, we proposed to fill this gap by analyzing 5-minute convection-permitting model (CPM) outputs. In total, more than 1200 one-day cases are simulated at the resolution of 0.01° using the regional climate model COSMO-CLM over central Europe. The analysis follows a Lagrangian approach and consists of tracking showers characterized by five-minute intensities greater than 20 mm/hour. The different features of these showers (e.g., temporal evolution, horizontal speed, lifetime) are investigated. These features as modeled by an ERA-Interim forced simulation are evaluated using a radar dataset for the period 2004-2010. The model shows good performance in representing most features observed in the radar dataset. Besides, the observed relation between the temporal evolution of precipitation and temperature are well reproduced by the CPM. In a second modeling experiment, the impact of climate change on convective cell features are analyzed based on an EC-Earth RCP8.5 forced simulation for the period 2071-2100. First results show only minor changes in the temporal structure and size of showers. The increase in convective precipitation found in previous studies seems to be mainly due to an increase in the number of convective cells.

  12. Purification of monoclonal antibodies, IgG1, from cell culture supernatant by use of metal chelate convective interaction media monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajak, Poonam; Vijayalakshmi, M A; Jayaprakash, N S

    2012-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have diverse applications in diagnostics and therapeutics. The recent advancement in hybridoma technology for large-scale production of MAbs in bioreactors demands rapid and efficient purification methods. Conventional affinity purification systems have drawbacks of low flow rates and denaturation of antibodies owing to harsh elution conditions. Here, we attempted purification of MAbs by use of a high-throughput metal-chelate methacrylate monolithic system. Monolithic macroporous convective interaction media-iminodiacetate (CIM-IDA) disks immobilized with four different metal ions (Cu²⁺, Ni²⁺, Zn²⁺ and Co²⁺) were used and evaluated for purification of anti-human serum albumin IgG1 mouse MAbs from cell culture supernatant after precipitation with 50% ammonium sulfate. Elution with 10 mM imidazole in the equilibration buffer (25 mM MMA = MOPS (Morpholino propane sulfonic acid) + MES (Morpholino ethane sulfonic acid) + Acetate + 0.5 M NaCl, pH 7.4) resulted in a purification of 25.7 ± 2.9-fold and 32.5 ± 2.6-fold in experiments done using Zn²⁺ and Co²⁺ metal ions, respectively. The highest recovery of 85.4 ± 1.0% was obtained with a CIM-IDA-Zn(II) column. SDS-PAGE, ELISA and immuno-blot showed that the antibodies recovered were pure, with high antigen-binding efficiency. Thus, metal chelate CIM monoliths could be a potential alternative to conventional systems for fast and efficient purification of MAbs from the complex cell culture supernatant.

  13. Skeletal cell differentiation is enhanced by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla J Steinbeck

    Full Text Available Enhancing chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation is of paramount importance in providing effective regenerative therapies and improving the rate of fracture healing. This study investigated the potential of non-thermal atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma (NT-plasma to enhance chondrocyte and osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Although the exact mechanism by which NT-plasma interacts with cells is undefined, it is known that during treatment the atmosphere is ionized generating extracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS and an electric field. Appropriate NT-plasma conditions were determined using lactate-dehydrogenase release, flow cytometric live/dead assay, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, and Western blots to evaluate DNA damage and mitochondrial integrity. We observed that specific NT-plasma conditions were required to prevent cell death, and that loss of pre-osteoblastic cell viability was dependent on intracellular ROS and RNS production. To further investigate the involvement of intracellular ROS, fluorescent intracellular dyes Mitosox (superoxide and dihydrorhodamine (peroxide were used to assess onset and duration after NT-plasma treatment. Both intracellular superoxide and peroxide were found to increase immediately post NT-plasma treatment. These increases were sustained for one hour but returned to control levels by 24 hr. Using the same treatment conditions, osteogenic differentiation by NT-plasma was assessed and compared to peroxide or osteogenic media containing β-glycerolphosphate. Although both NT-plasma and peroxide induced differentiation-specific gene expression, neither was as effective as the osteogenic media. However, treatment of cells with NT-plasma after 24 hr in osteogenic or chondrogenic media significantly enhanced differentiation as compared to differentiation media alone. The results of this study show that NT-plasma can selectively initiate and amplify ROS

  14. Skeletal cell differentiation is enhanced by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, Marla J; Chernets, Natalie; Zhang, Jun; Kurpad, Deepa S; Fridman, Gregory; Fridman, Alexander; Freeman, Theresa A

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation is of paramount importance in providing effective regenerative therapies and improving the rate of fracture healing. This study investigated the potential of non-thermal atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma (NT-plasma) to enhance chondrocyte and osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Although the exact mechanism by which NT-plasma interacts with cells is undefined, it is known that during treatment the atmosphere is ionized generating extracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and an electric field. Appropriate NT-plasma conditions were determined using lactate-dehydrogenase release, flow cytometric live/dead assay, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, and Western blots to evaluate DNA damage and mitochondrial integrity. We observed that specific NT-plasma conditions were required to prevent cell death, and that loss of pre-osteoblastic cell viability was dependent on intracellular ROS and RNS production. To further investigate the involvement of intracellular ROS, fluorescent intracellular dyes Mitosox (superoxide) and dihydrorhodamine (peroxide) were used to assess onset and duration after NT-plasma treatment. Both intracellular superoxide and peroxide were found to increase immediately post NT-plasma treatment. These increases were sustained for one hour but returned to control levels by 24 hr. Using the same treatment conditions, osteogenic differentiation by NT-plasma was assessed and compared to peroxide or osteogenic media containing β-glycerolphosphate. Although both NT-plasma and peroxide induced differentiation-specific gene expression, neither was as effective as the osteogenic media. However, treatment of cells with NT-plasma after 24 hr in osteogenic or chondrogenic media significantly enhanced differentiation as compared to differentiation media alone. The results of this study show that NT-plasma can selectively initiate and amplify ROS signaling to enhance

  15. Anomalously Weak Solar Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures on a spectrum of scales. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations, though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. Here, we analyze observations of the wavefield in the solar photosphere using techniques of time-distance helioseismology to image flows in the solar interior. We downsample and synthesize 900 billion wavefield observations to produce 3 billion cross-correlations, which we average and fit, measuring 5 million wave travel times. Using these travel times, we deduce the underlying flow systems and study their statistics to bound convective velocity magnitudes in the solar interior, as a function of depth and spherical- harmonic degree l..Within the wavenumber band l convective velocities are 20-100 times weaker than current theoretical estimates. This constraint suggests the prevalence of a different paradigm of turbulence from that predicted by existing models, prompting the question: what mechanism transports the heat flux of a solar luminosity outwards? Advection is dominated by Coriolis forces for wavenumbers l convection may be quasi-geostrophic. The fact that isorotation contours in the Sun are not coaligned with the axis of rotation suggests the presence of a latitudinal entropy gradient.

  16. Electrodynamic coupling between ionospheric convection patterns in the northern and southern hemispheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Zakharov

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the high-latitude ionospheric electric field is presented. To perform the calculations, a model of the field-aligned current source is proposed. The electric field patterns are calculated consistently both in the northern and southern hemispheres. Effects of season, universal time, solar and geomagnetic activity, the neutral atmosphere winds, and of the IMF sector structure are considered. In particular, dynamics of the parameters of convection cells are investigated that depend on the action of these factors. Comparison of the results with experimental data is carried out.

  17. Novel focal point multipass cell for absorption spectroscopy on small sized atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jörn; Hänel, Mattis; Reuter, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    A novel focal point multipass cell (FPMPC) was developed, in which all laser beams propagate through a common focal point. It is exclusively constructed from standard optical elements. Main functional elements are two 90∘ off-axis parabolic mirrors and two retroreflectors. Up to 17 laser passes are demonstrated with a near-infrared laser beam. The number of laser passes is precisely adjustable by changing the retroreflector distance. At the focal point beams are constricted to fit through an aperture of 0.8 mm. This is shown for 11 beam passes. Moreover, the fast temporal response of the cell permits investigation of transient processes with frequencies up to 10 MHz. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the FPMPC for atmospheric pressure plasma jets, laser absorption spectroscopy on the lowest excited argon state (1s5) was performed on a 1 MHz argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet. From the obtained optical depth profiles, the signal-to-noise ratio was deduced. It is shown that an elevation of the laser pass number results in an proportional increase of the signal-to-noise ratio making the FPMPC an appropriate tool for absorption spectroscopy on plasmas of small dimensions.

  18. Novel focal point multipass cell for absorption spectroscopy on small sized atmospheric pressure plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jörn; Hänel, Mattis; Reuter, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    A novel focal point multipass cell (FPMPC) was developed, in which all laser beams propagate through a common focal point. It is exclusively constructed from standard optical elements. Main functional elements are two 90(∘) off-axis parabolic mirrors and two retroreflectors. Up to 17 laser passes are demonstrated with a near-infrared laser beam. The number of laser passes is precisely adjustable by changing the retroreflector distance. At the focal point beams are constricted to fit through an aperture of 0.8 mm. This is shown for 11 beam passes. Moreover, the fast temporal response of the cell permits investigation of transient processes with frequencies up to 10 MHz. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the FPMPC for atmospheric pressure plasma jets, laser absorption spectroscopy on the lowest excited argon state (1s5) was performed on a 1 MHz argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet. From the obtained optical depth profiles, the signal-to-noise ratio was deduced. It is shown that an elevation of the laser pass number results in an proportional increase of the signal-to-noise ratio making the FPMPC an appropriate tool for absorption spectroscopy on plasmas of small dimensions.

  19. Novel focal point multipass cell for absorption spectroscopy on small sized atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Jörn, E-mail: winter@inp-greifswald.de; Hänel, Mattis; Reuter, Stephan [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology e.V., Felix-Hausdorff-St. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    A novel focal point multipass cell (FPMPC) was developed, in which all laser beams propagate through a common focal point. It is exclusively constructed from standard optical elements. Main functional elements are two 90{sup ∘} off-axis parabolic mirrors and two retroreflectors. Up to 17 laser passes are demonstrated with a near-infrared laser beam. The number of laser passes is precisely adjustable by changing the retroreflector distance. At the focal point beams are constricted to fit through an aperture of 0.8 mm. This is shown for 11 beam passes. Moreover, the fast temporal response of the cell permits investigation of transient processes with frequencies up to 10 MHz. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the FPMPC for atmospheric pressure plasma jets, laser absorption spectroscopy on the lowest excited argon state (1s{sub 5}) was performed on a 1 MHz argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet. From the obtained optical depth profiles, the signal-to-noise ratio was deduced. It is shown that an elevation of the laser pass number results in an proportional increase of the signal-to-noise ratio making the FPMPC an appropriate tool for absorption spectroscopy on plasmas of small dimensions.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of a Revised Zhang-McFarlane Convection Scheme Using the NCAR CCM3 GCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the interaction between convection, clouds, and the large-scale circulation. By examining the sensitivity of the large-scale fields to a modification of the convective parameterization scheme in the NCAR CCM3, we show that the convective parameterization has a strong impact on the tem poral characteristics of the large-scale circulation and clouds. When Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) in the atmosphere is used to close the convective parameterization, the simulated convection is con tinuous, and lacks the observed intermittence. When the CAPE change due to the large-scale forcing in the free troposphere is used, the simulated temporal behavior of convection is in much better agreement with the observations. We attribute this improvement to the enhanced coupling between convection and the large-scale forcing in the convective parameterization.

  1. Active control of convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bau, H.H. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Using stability theory, numerical simulations, and in some instances experiments, it is demonstrated that the critical Rayleigh number for the bifurcation (1) from the no-motion (conduction) state to the motion state and (2) from time-independent convection to time-dependent, oscillatory convection in the thermal convection loop and Rayleigh-Benard problems can be significantly increased or decreased. This is accomplished through the use of a feedback controller effectuating small perturbations in the boundary data. The controller consists of sensors which detect deviations in the fluid`s temperature from the motionless, conductive values and then direct actuators to respond to these deviations in such a way as to suppress the naturally occurring flow instabilities. Actuators which modify the boundary`s temperature/heat flux are considered. The feedback controller can also be used to control flow patterns and generate complex dynamic behavior at relatively low Rayleigh numbers.

  2. Coupled interactions of organized deep convection over the tropical western pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, X.; Raman, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and deep convection is complex. In general, deep convection occurs more frequently and with more intensity as SSTs become higher. This theory assumes that the atmospheric stability is sufficiently reduced to allow the onset of moist convection. However, the amount and intensity of convection observed tends to decrease with increasing SST because very warm SSTs. A reason for such decrease is the enhancements to surface fluxes of heat and moisture out of the ocean surface because of the vertical overturning associated with deep convection. Early studies used the radiative-convective models of the atmosphere to examine the role of the convective exchange of heat and moisture in maintaining the vertical temperature profile. In this paper we use a Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) to simulate a squall line over a tropical ocean global atmosphere/coupled ocean atmosphere response experiment (TOGA/COARE) area and to investigate how the ocean cooling mechanisms associated with organized deep convection act to limit tropical SSTs.

  3. Temperature-driven groundwater convection in cold climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Maria; Nordell, Bo

    2016-08-01

    The aim was to study density-driven groundwater flow and analyse groundwater mixing because of seasonal changes in groundwater temperature. Here, density-driven convection in groundwater was studied by numerical simulations in a subarctic climate, i.e. where the water temperature was ground was also studied. An initial disturbance in the form of a horizontal groundwater flow was necessary to start the convection. Transient solutions describe the development of convective cells in the groundwater and it took 22 days before fully developed convection patterns were formed. The thermal convection reached a maximum depth of 1.0 m in soil of low permeability (2.71 · 10-9 m2). At groundwater temperature close to its density maximum (4 °C), the physical size (in m) of the convection cells was reduced. Small stones or frost lenses in the ground slightly affect the convective flow, while larger obstacles change the size and shape of the convection cells. Performed simulations show that "seasonal groundwater turnover" occurs. This knowledge may be useful in the prevention of nutrient leakage to underlying groundwater from soils, especially in agricultural areas where no natural vertical groundwater flow is evident. An application in northern Sweden is discussed.

  4. Mathematical models of convection

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Victor K; Goncharova, Olga N; Pukhnachev, Vladislav V

    2012-01-01

    Phenomena of convection are abundant in nature as well as in industry. This volume addresses the subject of convection from the point of view of both, theory and application. While the first three chapters provide a refresher on fluid dynamics and heat transfer theory, the rest of the book describes the modern developments in theory. Thus it brings the reader to the ""front"" of the modern research. This monograph provides the theoretical foundation on a topic relevant to metallurgy, ecology, meteorology, geo-and astrophysics, aerospace industry, chemistry, crystal physics, and many other fiel

  5. Sensitivity of moist convection to environmental humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, S. H.; Beau, I.; Bechtold, P.; Grandpeix, J.-Y.; Piriou, J.-M.; Redelsperger, J. L.; Soares, P. M. M.

    2004-10-01

    As part of the EUROCS (EUROpean Cloud Systems study) project, cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and parallel single-column model (SCM) tests of the sensitivity of moist atmospheric convection to mid-tropospheric humidity are presented. This sensitivity is broadly supported by observations and some previous model studies, but is still poorly quantified. Mixing between clouds and environment is a key mechanism, central to many of the fundamental differences between convection schemes. Here, we define an idealized quasi-steady 'testbed', in which the large-scale environment is assumed to adjust the local mean profiles on a timescale of one hour. We then test sensitivity to the target profiles at heights above 2 km. Two independent CRMs agree reasonably well in their response to the different background profiles and both show strong deep precipitating convection in the more moist cases, but only shallow convection in the driest case. The CRM results also appear to be numerically robust. All the SCMs, most of which are one-dimensional versions of global climate models (GCMs), show sensitivity to humidity but differ in various ways from the CRMs. Some of the SCMs are improved in the light of these comparisons, with GCM improvements documented elsewhere.

  6. Improved mixing representation in Emanuel's convection scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandpeix, J. Y.; Phillips, V.; Tailleux, R.

    2004-10-01

    Recent empirical and modelling studies suggest that mid-tropospheric relative humidity (RH) is an important controlling factor of deep atmospheric convection, which appears to be underestimated in present cumulus parametrizations. This indicates the possible presence of shortcomings in the way that entrainment is represented in such parametrizations. This matter was explored in the European Cloud Systems project (EUROCS) by means of an idealized humidity experiment in which the main controlling parameter is RH. In the latter study, cloud-resolving model (CRM) experiments suggested that a shallow/deep convection transition occurs when RH crosses a threshold value that ranges from about RH = 50% to RH = 60%. In this paper, we seek to increase the responsiveness of Emanuel's convection scheme to RH, and to reproduce the threshold behaviour of the idealized humidity case, by replacing the original uniform probability density function (PDF) for mixing fractions by a more flexible two-parameter bell-shaped function that allows a wider range of behaviour. The main result is that the parameters of this PDF can be tuned to allow a regime transition to occur near a threshold value of RH 55%. In contrast to CRM results, however, this transition is between two different regimes of deep convection rather than between a shallow and deep regime. Possible ways to obtain a shallow-to-deep transition with Emanuel's scheme are discussed.

  7. Multiphase Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oresta, P.; Fornarelli, F.; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of two-phase Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a cylindrical cell with particles or vapor bubbles suspended in the fluid are described. The particles or bubbles are modeled as points, the Rayleigh number is 2×106 and the fluids considered are air, for the particle case, and

  8. Fuel cells cathode with multiple catalysis and electrocapillary convection; Catodo de celula a combustivel com catalise multipla e conveccao eletrocapilar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambace, Luis Antonio Waack; Nishimori, Miriam; Ramos, Fernando Manuel [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: bambace@dem.inpe.br; Bastos Netto, Demetrio [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses a mathematical model for the chemical reactions and liquid phase flow processes occurring in a fuel cell cathode through non homogeneous catalysis carried by gold and Prussian Blue. The gold is applied inside the porous walls of micro-tubes, which may be obtained through several methods. The wall porosity ranging from 7 to 30% ensures gas exchange between the interior of a micro-tube and its exterior where gas flow takes place. The Prussian Blue consists of a thin porous layer located between the selective membrane and the micro-tube system, with void fraction in the 70 to 80% range. A porous electricity conducting carbide flux collector is placed between the tube system and the bipolar plates. The system return tubes possess a diameter much larger than one of the micro-tubes. The electric potential differences generated by the ionic currents in the system and its asymmetrical shape are used to generate electrocapillary flows, which are related with the surface tension changes with local potential. The hydrogen peroxide concentration and its transport to the Prussian Blue layer, and the oxygen transport inside the reactive tubular system are analyzed in this work. (author)

  9. A hybrid convection scheme for use in non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Kuell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The correct representation of convection in numerical weather prediction (NWP models is essential for quantitative precipitation forecasts. Due to its small horizontal scale convection usually has to be parameterized, e.g. by mass flux convection schemes. Classical schemes originally developed for use in coarse grid NWP models assume zero net convective mass flux, because the whole circulation of a convective cell is confined to the local grid column and all convective mass fluxes cancel out. However, in contemporary NWP models with grid sizes of a few kilometers this assumption becomes questionable, because here convection is partially resolved on the grid. To overcome this conceptual problem we propose a hybrid mass flux convection scheme (HYMACS in which only the convective updrafts and downdrafts are parameterized. The generation of the larger scale environmental subsidence, which may cover several grid columns, is transferred to the grid scale equations. This means that the convection scheme now has to generate a net convective mass flux exerting a direct dynamical forcing to the grid scale model via pressure gradient forces. The hybrid convection scheme implemented into the COSMO model of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD is tested in an idealized simulation of a sea breeze circulation initiating convection in a realistic manner. The results are compared with analogous simulations with the classical Tiedtke and Kain-Fritsch convection schemes.

  10. Introductory analysis of Benard-Marangoni convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroto, J A [Group of Physics and Chemistry of Linares, Escuela Politecnica Superior, St Alfonso X El Sabio, 28, University of Jaen, E-23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Perez-Munuzuri, V [Group of Nonlinear Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Romero-Cano, M S [Group of Complex Fluids Physics, Department of Applied Physics, University of Almeria, E-04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    We describe experiments on Benard-Marangoni convection which permit a useful understanding of the main concepts involved in this phenomenon such as, for example, Benard cells, aspect ratio, Rayleigh and Marangoni numbers, Crispation number and critical conditions. In spite of the complexity of convection theory, we carry out a simple and introductory analysis which has the additional advantage of providing very suggestive experiments. As a consequence, we recommend our device for use as a laboratory experiment for undergraduate students of the thermodynamics of nonlinear and fluid physics.

  11. Implementation of a flexible and scalable particle-in-cell method for massively parallel computations in the mantle convection code ASPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmöller, Rene; Bangerth, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Particle-in-cell methods have a long history and many applications in geodynamic modelling of mantle convection, lithospheric deformation and crustal dynamics. They are primarily used to track material information, the strain a material has undergone, the pressure-temperature history a certain material region has experienced, or the amount of volatiles or partial melt present in a region. However, their efficient parallel implementation - in particular combined with adaptive finite-element meshes - is complicated due to the complex communication patterns and frequent reassignment of particles to cells. Consequently, many current scientific software packages accomplish this efficient implementation by specifically designing particle methods for a single purpose, like the advection of scalar material properties that do not evolve over time (e.g., for chemical heterogeneities). Design choices for particle integration, data storage, and parallel communication are then optimized for this single purpose, making the code relatively rigid to changing requirements. Here, we present the implementation of a flexible, scalable and efficient particle-in-cell method for massively parallel finite-element codes with adaptively changing meshes. Using a modular plugin structure, we allow maximum flexibility of the generation of particles, the carried tracer properties, the advection and output algorithms, and the projection of properties to the finite-element mesh. We present scaling tests ranging up to tens of thousands of cores and tens of billions of particles. Additionally, we discuss efficient load-balancing strategies for particles in adaptive meshes with their strengths and weaknesses, local particle-transfer between parallel subdomains utilizing existing communication patterns from the finite element mesh, and the use of established parallel output algorithms like the HDF5 library. Finally, we show some relevant particle application cases, compare our implementation to a

  12. Solar convection and oscillations in magnetic regions

    CERN Document Server

    Jacoutot, L; Wray, A; Mansour, N N

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate how magnetic field affects the dynamics of granular convection and excitation of solar oscillations by means of realistic numerical simulations. We have used a 3D, compressible, non-linear radiative magnetohydrodynamics code developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. This code takes into account several physical phenomena: compressible fluid flow in a highly stratified medium, sub-grid scale turbulence models, radiative energy transfer between the fluid elements, and a real-gas equation of state. We have studied the influence of the magnetic field of various strength on the convective cells and on the excitation mechanisms of the acoustic oscillations by calculating spectral properties of the convective motions and oscillations. The results reveal substantial changes of the granulation structure with increased magnetic field, and a frequency-dependent reduction in the oscillation power in a good agreement with solar observations. These simulations suggest that the ...

  13. Amplitude equations for isothermal double diffusive convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerril, R.; Swift, J.B. [Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Amplitude equations are derived for isothermal double diffusive convection near threshold for both the stationary and oscillatory instabilities as well as in the vicinity of the codimension-2 point. The convecting fluid is contained in a thin Hele-Shaw cell that renders the system two dimensional, and convection is sustained by vertical concentration gradients of two species with different diffusion rates. The locations of the tricritical point for the stationary instability and the codimension-2 point are found. It is shown that these points can be made well separated (in the Rayleigh number R{sub s} of the slow diffusing species) as the Lewis number varies. Hence the behavior near these points should be experimentally accessible. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Evolution of Soil Moisture-Convection Interactions against the Backdrop of Global Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, A. B.; Dirmeyer, P.

    2014-12-01

    Interannual changes in how soil moisture can trigger convection are explored within the context of known global-scale oscillations, such as ENSO. Because soil moisture-convection interactions are a local phenomenon that require a sufficiently moist and unstable atmosphere to initiate convection, any systematic changes to water vapor produced by these global circulation changes may manifest in disrupting or promoting the soil moisture-precipitation feedback chain. Using a new framework, the Heated Condensation Framework (HCF; Tawfik and Dirmeyer 2014), local land-atmosphere coupling can be examined by separating the atmospheric background state from the land surface state in terms of convective initiation. The current work explores how the soil moisture-convection relationship changes from year-to-year and during influential El Nino and La Nina events. This is done using several global and regional reanalysis products, as well as observations where available.

  15. Disinfection of ocular cells and tissues by atmospheric-pressure cold plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low temperature plasmas have been proposed in medicine as agents for tissue disinfection and have received increasing attention due to the frequency of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. This study explored whether atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (APCP generated by a new portable device that ionizes a flow of helium gas can inactivate ocular pathogens without causing significant tissue damage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the APCP effects on cultured Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Herpes simplex virus-1, ocular cells (conjunctival fibroblasts and keratocytes and ex-vivo corneas. Exposure to APCP for 0.5 to 5 minutes significantly reduced microbial viability (colony-forming units but not human cell viability (MTT assay, FACS and Tunel analysis or the number of HSV-1 plaque-forming units. Increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in exposed microorganisms and cells were found using a FACS-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Immunoassays demonstrated no induction of thymine dimers in cell cultures and corneal tissues. A transient increased expression of 8-OHdG, genes and proteins related to oxidative stress (OGG1, GPX, NFE2L2, was determined in ocular cells and corneas by HPLC, qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. CONCLUSIONS: A short application of APCP appears to be an efficient and rapid ocular disinfectant for bacteria and fungi without significant damage on ocular cells and tissues, although the treatment of conjunctival fibroblasts and keratocytes caused a time-restricted generation of intracellular ROS and oxidative stress-related responses.

  16. Ionospheric convection response to changes of interplanetary magnetic field B-z component during strong B-y component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, C.S.; Murr, D.; Sofko, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    enough, the B-z reorientation causes changes in the flow intensity but not in the shape of the convection pattern. The results show the characteristics of ionospheric convection response during strong B-y and suggest that the convection reconfiguration is not only determined by the changing B-z but also...... the dawn-dusk meridian plane, which is interpreted as propagation or expansion of newly generated convection cells in the cusp region. Other studies showed that the change in convection pattern in response to IMF reorientations is spatially fixed. In this paper, we investigate the ionospheric convection...... response to IMF Bz changes during strong IMF BZ. On March 23, 1995, B-x was small, B-y was strongly positive (7-11 nT), and the B-z polarity changed several times after 1300 UT. The dayside ionospheric convection is dominated by a large clockwise convection cell. The cell focus (the "eye" of the convection...

  17. Empirical Determination of Convection in Pulsating White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Judith L.; Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M.; Reed, Mike; Shipman, Harry; Fraga, Luciano

    2013-02-01

    We propose high speed photometric observations of WD J1518+0658 with SOAR and the KPNO 2m as important components of a coordinated international campaign designed to survey the properties of convection in white dwarf atmospheres. Convection remains the largest source of theoretical uncertainty in our understanding of stellar physics. Asteroseismology has proven a powerful tool to attack this problem. White dwarf pulsations appear as local surface temperature variations. The extreme temperature sensitivity of convection leads to local variations in the convection zone's depth. This in turn modulates the local energy flux, producing nonsinusoidal light curves. The observed nonlinearities provide a self-consistent observational test of convection in white dwarf atmospheres. WD J1518+0658 is a member of the newly discovered class of extremely low mass white dwarf pulsators (ELMVs). ELMVs offer the opportunity to extend our investigation to unexplored regions of lower effective temperatures and surface gravities, where conditions are closer to those found in main sequence stars. High precision light curves from SOAR, combined with frequency, amplitude, and phase information provided by the KPNO 2m and the entire WET run, will allow us to recover WD J1518+0658's convective thermal response timescale.

  18. Regulation of the climate in coupled convection-permitting simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenegger, Cathy; Stevens, Bjorn

    2017-04-01

    The question of the regulation of the climate, in particular the existence of a stable climatic state and its basic characteristics, is investigated in this study. In contrast to previous studies, we use a convection-permitting simulation with an explicit representation of convection and of cloud cover. The grid spacing amounts to 3 km. The simulation is coupled to a slab ocean and is integrated in an idealized set-up of radiative convective equilibrium without rotation, without continent and with spatially uniform insolation. It is found that the system equilibrates at a sea surface temperature near the one of the present-day tropics. The equilibration results from the self-aggregation of convection that generates the dry and clear subtropics needed to radiate the excess heat from the system. When artificially preventing the self-aggregation, the existence of a runaway greenhouse cannot be ruled out. This is very different from what happens when performing a similar simulation at low resolution (T63) with a General Circulation Model (GCM) and parameterized cloud and convective processes. In that case, the atmosphere cools through an increase in planetary albedo arising from clouds. The total cloud radiative effect is 2.5 times larger than in the convection-permitting simulation. Perturbing the system by increasing the solar insolation also reveals a different behavior of the two simulations, with a larger warming in the convection-permitting simulation than in the GCM due to their distinct cloud feedbacks.

  19. A Numerical Investigation of a Slow-Moving Convective Line in a Weakly Sheared Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A series of three-dimensional, cloud-resolving numerical simulations are performed to examine a slowpropagating, quasi-two-dimensional convective system in a weakly sheared environment during the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere (TRMM-LBA) field campaign. The focus is on the kinematics and thermodynamics, organization mechanisms, and dynamical effects of low-level shear, ice microphysics and tropospheric humidity. The control simulation, which is initialized with the observed sounding and includes full microphysics, successfully replicates many observed features of the convective system, such as the linear structure, spatial orientation, life cycle, and sluggish translation.The system at the mature stage displays a line-normal structure similar to that associated with squalltype convective systems, but the corresponding mesoscale circulation and thermodynamic modification are much weaker. Ice-phase microphysical processes are not necessary to the formation of the convective system, but they play a non-trivial role in the late evolution stage. In contrast, the low-level shear, albeit shallow and weak, is critical to the realistic realization of the convective line. The tropospheric moisture above the planetary boundary layer has an important impact on the behavior of convective organization.In particular, a dry layer in the lower troposphere significantly suppresses convective development and inhibits the generation of organized convection even though the convective available potential energy is substantial. The free-atmosphere humidity has received little attention in previous studies of organized convection and warrants further investigation.

  20. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induces Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress Pathway Regulation in T-Lymphoblastoid Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Turrini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP has shown its antitumor activity in both in vitro and in vivo systems. However, the mechanisms at the basis of CAP-cell interaction are not yet completely understood. The aim of this study is to investigate CAP proapoptotic effect and identify some of the molecular mechanisms triggered by CAP in human T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells. CAP treatment was performed by means of a wand electrode DBD source driven by nanosecond high-voltage pulses under different operating conditions. The biological endpoints were assessed through flow cytometry and real-time PCR. CAP caused apoptosis in Jurkat cells mediated by p53 upregulation. To test the involvement of intrinsic and/or extrinsic pathway, the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-8 was analyzed. The activation of caspase-8 and the upregulation of Bax and Bcl-2 were observed. Moreover, CAP treatment increased ROS intracellular level. The situation reverts after a longer time of treatment. This is probably due to compensatory cellular mechanisms such as the posttranscriptional upregulation of SOD1, CAT, and GSR2. According to ROS increase, CAP induced a significant increase in DNA damage at all treatment conditions. In conclusion, our results provide a deeper understanding of CAP potential in the oncological field and pose the basis for the evaluation of its toxicological profile.

  1. Modeling the chemical kinetics of atmospheric plasma for cell treatment in a liquid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. Y.; Kang, S. K.; Lee, H. Wk. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H. W. [Medipl Corporation, Pohang 790-834 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G. C. [Medipl Corporation, Pohang 790-834 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Oral Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Medipl Corporation, Pohang 790-834 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas have been known to be effective for living cell inactivation in a liquid solution but it is not clear yet which species are key factors for the cell treatment. Using a global model, we elucidate the processes through which pH level in the solution is changed from neutral to acidic after plasma exposure and key components with pH and air variation. First, pH level in a liquid solution is changed by He{sup +} and He(2{sup 1}S) radicals. Second, O{sub 3} density decreases as pH level in the solution decreases and air concentration decreases. It can be a method of removing O{sub 3} that causes chest pain and damages lung tissue when the density is very high. H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, HO{sub 2}, and NO radicals are found to be key factors for cell inactivation in the solution with pH and air variation.

  2. A shallow convection parameterization for the non-hydrostatic MM5 mesoscale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, N.L.; Kain, J.S.; Deng, A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A shallow convection parameterization suitable for the Pennsylvannia State University (PSU)/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) is being developed at PSU. The parameterization is based on parcel perturbation theory developed in conjunction with a 1-D Mellor Yamada 1.5-order planetary boundary layer scheme and the Kain-Fritsch deep convection model.

  3. Impacts of Vertical Structure of Convection on Tropical Circulation in a Warmer Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Chou, C.

    2014-12-01

    The atmosphere becomes warmer and more humid under global warming, while changes in precipitation show a large discrepancy on a regional scale. Changes in regional precipitation are usually associated with changes in tropical circulation. Stronger (weaker) upward motion enhances (reduces) precipitation amount and intensity, in addition to the effect of enhanced water vapor. In a more detailed analysis, however, changes in atmospheric vertical motion can be either strengthened or weakened, even within convective areas with positive rainfall anomalies. To understand the diverse responses of changes in tropical circulation in a warmer climate as well as the associated mechanism, atmospheric stability and the impact of the vertical structure of convection on tropical circulation are investigated in 32 coupled global climate models from CMIP3 and CMIP5. The study regions are convective areas with positive precipitation anomalies. Under global warming, an upward shift structure of vertical velocity is observed in all model simulations, which implies a deepening of convection and a more stable atmosphere. Areas with enhanced (weakened) ascending motion, the climatological bottom-heavy (top-heavy) structure of vertical velocity tends to import more (less) moist static energy to counteract the stabilization due to the effect of deepened convection, and then the ascending motion is strengthened (weakened). The bottom-heavy-like structure is dominated by shallow convection, while the top-heavy-like structure is usually associated with deep convection. In other words, shallow convection tends to strengthen tropical circulation and enhance upward motion in future climate.

  4. Resolution dependence of deep convections in a global simulation from over 10-kilometer to sub-kilometer grid spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Yoshiyuki; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Ryuji; Yamaura, Tsuyoshi; Yashiro, Hisashi; Tomita, Hirofumi

    2016-12-01

    The success of sub-kilometer global atmospheric simulation opens the door for resolving deep convections, which are fundamental elements of cloudy disturbances that drive global circulation. A previous study found that the essential change in the simulated convection properties occurred at a grid spacing of about 2 km as a global mean. In grid-refinement experiments, we conducted further comprehensive analysis of the global-mean state and the characteristics of deep convection, to clarify the difference of the essential change by location and environment. We found that the essential change in convection properties was different in the location and environment for each cloudy disturbance. The convections over the tropics show larger resolution dependence than convections over mid-latitudes, whereas no significant difference was found in convections over land or ocean. Furthermore, convections over cloudy disturbances [(i.e., Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), tropical cyclones (TCs)] show essential change of convection properties at about 1 km grid spacing, suggesting resolution dependence. As a result, convections not categorized as cloudy disturbances make a large contribution to the global-mean convection properties. This implies that convections in disturbances are largely affected organization processes and hence have more horizontal resolution dependence. In contrast, other categorized convections that are not involved in major cloudy disturbances show the essential change at about 2 km grid spacing. This affects the latitude difference of the resolution dependence of convection properties and hence the zonal-mean outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). Despite the diversity of convection properties, most convections are resolved at less than 1 km grid spacing. In the future, longer integration of global atmosphere, to 0.87 km grid spacing, will stimulate significant discussion about the interaction between the convections and cloudy disturbances.

  5. Transitions in turbulent rotating convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Hadi; Alards, Kim; Kunnen, Rudie; Toschi, Federico; Clercx, Herman; Fluid Dynamics Lab Team

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to explore the flow transition from one state to the other in rotating Rayleigh-Bènard convection using Lagrangian acceleration statistics. 3D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) is employed in a water-filled cylindrical tank of equal height and diameter. The measurements are performed at the center and close to the top plate at a Rayleigh number Ra = 1.28e9 and Prandtl number Pr = 6.7 for different rotation rates. In parallel, direct numerical simulation (DNS) has been performed to provide detailed information on the boundary layers. We report the acceleration pdfs for different rotation rates and show how the transition from weakly to strongly rotating Rayleigh-Bènard affects the acceleration pdfs in the bulk and boundary layers. We observe that the shapes of the acceleration PDFs as well as the isotropy in the cell center are largely unaffected while crossing the transition point. However, acceleration pdfs at the top show a clear change at the transition point. Using acceleration pdfs and DNS data, we show that the transition between turbulent states is actually a boundary layer transition between Prandtl-Blasius type (typical of non-rotating convection) and Ekman type.

  6. Diagnosis of Local Land-Atmosphere Feedbacks in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinenburg, O.A.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Kabat, P.

    2011-01-01

    Following the convective triggering potential (CTP)–humidity index (HIlow) framework by Findell and Eltahir, the sensitivity of atmospheric convection to soil moisture conditions is studied for India. Using the same slab model as Findell and Eltahir, atmospheric conditions in which the land surface

  7. Micro-Physical characterisation of Convective & Stratiform Rainfall at Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekanth, T. S.

    Large Micro-Physical characterisation of Convective & Stratiform Rainfall at Tropics begin{center} begin{center} Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , and V Sasi Kumar (2) *Centre for Earth Science Studies, Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) 32. NCC Nagar, Peroorkada, Thiruvananthapuram ABSTRACT Micro-physical parameters of rainfall such as rain drop size & fall speed distribution, mass weighted mean diameter, Total no. of rain drops, Normalisation parameters for rain intensity, maximum & minimum drop diameter from different rain intensity ranges, from both stratiform and convective rain events were analysed. Convective -Stratiform classification was done by the method followed by Testud et al (2001) and as an additional information electrical behaviour of clouds from Atmospheric Electric Field Mill was also used. Events which cannot be included in both types are termed as 'mixed precipitation' and identified separately. For the three years 2011, 2012 & 2013, rain events from both convective & stratiform origin are identified from three seasons viz Pre-Monsoon (March-May), Monsoon (June-September) and Post-Monsoon (October-December). Micro-physical characterisation was done for each rain events and analysed. Ground based and radar observations were made and classification of stratiform and convective rainfall was done by the method followed by Testud et al (2001). Radar bright band and non bright band analysis was done for confimation of stratifom and convective rain respectievely. Atmospheric electric field data from electric field mill is also used for confirmation of convection during convective events. Statistical analyses revealed that the standard deviation of rain drop size in higher rain rates are higher than in lower rain rates. Normalised drop size distribution is ploted for selected events from both forms. Inter relations between various precipitation parameters were analysed in three

  8. Intensification of convective extremes driven by cloud-cloud interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Christopher; Berg, Peter; Haerter, Jan O

    2015-01-01

    In a changing climate, a key role may be played by the response of convective-type cloud and precipitation to temperature changes. Yet, it is unclear if precipitation intensities will increase mainly due to modified thermodynamic forcing or due to stronger convective dynamics. In gradual self-organization, convective events produce highest intensities late in the day. Tracking rain cells throughout their life cycles, we find that interacting events respond strongly to changes in boundary conditions. Conversely, events without interaction remain unaffected. Increased surface temperature indeed leads to more interaction and higher precipitation extremes. However, a similar intensification occurs when leaving temperature unchanged but simply granting more time for self-organization.Our study implies that the convective field as a whole acquires a memory of past precipitation and inter-cloud dynamics, driving extremes. Our results implicate that the dynamical interaction between convective clouds must be incorpor...

  9. Convection and segregation in a flat rotating sandbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Frank; Stannarius, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    A flat box, almost completely filled with a mixture of granulate, is rotated slowly about its horizontal central axis. In this experiment, a regular vortex flow of the granular material is observed in the cell plane. These vortex structures have a superficial analogy to convection rolls in dissipative structures of ordinary liquids. Whereas in the latter, the origin of the convection can often be attributed to gradients e.g. of densities or surface tensions, there is no trivial explanation at present for the convection of the granulate in the rotating container. Despite the simplicity of the experiment, the underlying mechanisms for convection and segregation are difficult to extract. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental study of the patterns under various experimental conditions and propose a mechanism for the convection.

  10. The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, M. C.; Brune, W. H.; Cantrell, C. A.; Rutledge, S. A.; Crawford, J. H.; Huntrieser, H.; Homeyer, C. R.; Nault, B.; Cohen, R. C.; Pan, L.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field experiment took place in the central U.S. in May and June 2012 and had the objectives of characterizing the effect of thunderstorms on the chemical composition of the lower atmosphere and determining the chemical aging of upper troposphere (UT) convective outflow plumes. DC3 employed ground-based radars, lightning mapping arrays, and weather balloon soundings in conjunction with aircraft measurements sampling the composition of the inflow and outflow of a variety of thunderstorms in northeast Colorado, West Texas to central Oklahoma, and northern Alabama. A unique aspect of the DC3 strategy was to locate and sample the convective outflow a day after active convection in order to measure the chemical transformations within the UT convective plume. The DC3 data are being analyzed to investigate transport and dynamics of the storms, scavenging of soluble trace gases and aerosols, production of nitrogen oxides by lightning, relationships between lightning flash rates and storm parameters, and chemistry in the UT that is affected by the convection. In this presentation, we give an overview of the DC3 field campaign and highlight results from the campaign that are relevant to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region. These highlights include stratosphere-troposphere exchange in connection with thunderstorms, the 0-12 hour chemical aging and new particle formation in the UT outflow of a dissipating mesoscale convective system observed on June 21, 2012, and UT chemical aging in convective outflow as sampled the day after convection occurred and modeled in the Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry model.

  11. Convection heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.

  12. An Observational Study of Entrainment Rate in Deep Convection

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohao Guo; Chunsong Lu; Tianliang Zhao; Guang J. Zhang; Yangang Liu

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates entrainment rate and investigates its relationships with cloud properties in 156 deep convective clouds based on in-situ aircraft observations during the TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment) field campaign over the western Pacific. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the probability density function of entrainment rate, the relationships between entrainment rate and cloud microphysics, and the effects...

  13. The Solar Convection Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Kurt T.

    2000-01-01

    I helped to complete a research project with NASA scientists Dr. David Hathaway (my mentor), Rick Bogart, and John Beck from the SOHO/SOI collaboration. Our published paper in 'Solar Physics' was titled 'The Solar Convection Spectrum' (April 2000). Two of my undergraduate students were named on the paper--Gavrav Khutri and Josh Petitto. Gavrav also wrote a short paper for the National Conference of Undergraduate Research Proceedings in 1998 using a preliminary result. Our main result was that we show no evidence of a scale of convection named 'mesogranulation'. Instead, we see only direct evidence for the well-known scales of convection known as graduation and supergranulation. We are also completing work on vertical versus horizontal flow fluxes at the solar surface. I continue to work on phase relationships of solar activity indicators, but I have not yet written a paper with my students on this topic. Along with my research results, I have developed and augmented undergraduate courses at Birmingham-Southern College by myself and with other faculty. We have included new labs and observations, speakers from NASA and elsewhere, new subject material related to NASA and space science. I have done a great deal of work in outreach, mostly as President and other offices in the Birmingham Astronomical Society. My work includes speaking, attracting speakers, giving workshops, and governing.

  14. Thermal Vibrational Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershuni, G. Z.; Lyubimov, D. V.

    1998-08-01

    Recent increasing awareness of the ways in which vibrational effects can affect low-gravity experiments have renewed interest in the study of thermal vibrational convection across a wide range of fields. For example, in applications where vibrational effects are used to provide active control of heat and mass transfer, such as in heat exchangers, stirrers, mineral separators and crystal growth, a sound understanding of the fundamental theory is required. In Thermal Vibrational Convection, the authors present the theory of vibrational effects caused by a static gravity field, and of fluid flows which appear under vibration in fluid-filled cavities. The first part of the book discusses fluid-filled cavities where the fluid motion only appears in the presence of temperature non-uniformities, while the second considers those situations where the vibrational effects are caused by a non-uniform field. Throughout, the authors concentrate on consideration of high frequency vibrations, where averaging methods can be successfully applied in the study of the phenomena. Written by two of the pioneers in this field, Thermal Vibrational Convection will be of great interest to scientists and engineers working in the many areas that are concerned with vibration, and its effect on heat and mass transfer. These include hydrodynamics, hydro-mechanics, low gravity physics and mechanics, and geophysics. The rigorous approach adopted in presenting the theory of this fascinating and highly topical area will facilitate a greater understanding of the phenomena involved, and will lead to the development of more and better-designed experiments.

  15. Flux ropes in the magnetic solar convection zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, S. B. F.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution results are presented on how twisted magnetic flux ropes interact with a magnetized model envelope similar to the solar convection zone. Both the flux ropes and the atmosphere are modelled as idealized 2.5-dimensional concepts using high resolution numerical MHD simulations (on...

  16. Precipitation onset as the temporal reference in convective self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerter, Jan O.; Berg, Peter; Moseley, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    In a dry convective boundary layer, convective patterns of typical scales spontaneously develop, qualitatively similar to those in a fluid which is placed between two horizontal plates and sufficiently heated from below. As soon as precipitating cumulus clouds form, this pattern is disturbed and a transition to a different state occurs. Here we use idealized large-eddy simulations to explore how the horizontal scale of convection is modified during this transition in the course of a diurnal cycle. Before onset of precipitation, cells with relatively constant diameter self-organize, with diameters roughly on the scale of the atmospheric boundary layer height. We find that the onset of precipitation then signals an approximately linear increase in horizontal scale with time. For our transient simulations, this scale increase progresses at a speed which is relatively insensitive to modifications in mean surface temperature, modifications in the rate at which surface temperature changes, or the initial lapse rate. When exploring the strength of the spatial correlations, we find that precipitation onset causes a sudden disruption of order and a subsequent decline of organization—until precipitation eventually ceases. We discuss possible implications for the development of extreme precipitation events.

  17. Experimental study of CO2 dissolution a convection phenomenon at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Imen; Chevalier, Sylvie; Faisal, Titly Farhana; Abderrahmane, Hamid; Sassi, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    The density driven convection phenomenon has a significant role in enhancing the CO2 geological storage capacity. Deep saline aquifers are targeted for large scale geological sequestration. Once the CO2 is injected in saline aquifer, the supercritical CO2 rises up, forms a thin layer of free phase CO2, and the dissolution and molecular diffusion of the dissolved CO2 in brine begins. The CO2 saturated brine is denser than the original brine leading to gravitational convection of CO2 saturated brine. Convection accelerates the dissolution process and thus improves the safety and the efficiency of the sequestration. Laboratory experiments have been previously performed with experimental set-ups allowing the visualization of the phenomenon (1) eventually combined to the measurements of the dissolved CO2 mass transfer (2) as a function of the permeability of the medium. The visualization of the process was possible as Hele-Shaw cells at atmospheric pressure were used. Pressurized cylindrical vessel containing porous media allows measuring mass transfer of CO2 using the pressure decay concept (3) but visualization of the convection/dissolution was not possible for these setups. In this work, we performed experiments in a pressurized transparent cell similar to a Hele-Shaw cell but with bigger aperture. Permeability was varied by changing the size of the glass beads filling the cell. Bromocrysol green was used as a dye to track the pH change due to the presence of dissolved CO2 (1). The phenomenon is captured by a high resolution camera. We studied the effect of the pressure and of the permeability on the fingering pattern, the onset and the timescale of the phenomenon and the quantitative mass transfer of dissolved CO2. Experiments were validated on numerical simulations performed using STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) developed by the PNNL (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) Hydrology group of the Department of Energy, USA. (1) Kneafsey, T

  18. Convective cloud vertical velocity and mass-flux characteristics from radar wind profiler observations during GoAmazon2014/5: VERTICAL VELOCITY GOAMAZON2014/5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangrande, Scott E. [Environmental and Climate Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA; Toto, Tami [Environmental and Climate Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA; Jensen, Michael P. [Environmental and Climate Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA; Bartholomew, Mary Jane [Environmental and Climate Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA; Feng, Zhe [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Protat, Alain [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne Victoria Australia; Williams, Christopher R. [University of Colorado Boulder and NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory/Physical Sciences Division, Boulder Colorado USA; Schumacher, Courtney [Texas A& M University, College Station Texas USA; Machado, Luiz [National Institute for Space Research, Sao Jose dos Campos Brazil

    2016-11-15

    A radar wind profiler data set collected during the 2 year Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) campaign is used to estimate convective cloud vertical velocity, area fraction, and mass flux profiles. Vertical velocity observations are presented using cumulative frequency histograms and weighted mean profiles to provide insights in a manner suitable for global climate model scale comparisons (spatial domains from 20 km to 60 km). Convective profile sensitivity to changes in environmental conditions and seasonal regime controls is also considered. Aggregate and ensemble average vertical velocity, convective area fraction, and mass flux profiles, as well as magnitudes and relative profile behaviors, are found consistent with previous studies. Updrafts and downdrafts increase in magnitude with height to midlevels (6 to 10 km), with updraft area also increasing with height. Updraft mass flux profiles similarly increase with height, showing a peak in magnitude near 8 km. Downdrafts are observed to be most frequent below the freezing level, with downdraft area monotonically decreasing with height. Updraft and downdraft profile behaviors are further stratified according to environmental controls. These results indicate stronger vertical velocity profile behaviors under higher convective available potential energy and lower low-level moisture conditions. Sharp contrasts in convective area fraction and mass flux profiles are most pronounced when retrievals are segregated according to Amazonian wet and dry season conditions. During this deployment, wet season regimes favored higher domain mass flux profiles, attributed to more frequent convection that offsets weaker average convective cell vertical velocities.

  19. Tropical convection and climate sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ian Nobuo

    Surface temperature has become a popular measure of climate change, but it does not provide the most critical test of climate models. This thesis presents new methods to evaluate climate models based on processes determining the climate sensitivity to radiative forcing from atmospheric greenhouse gases. Cloud radiative feedbacks depend on temperature and relative humidity profiles in addition to surface temperature, through the dependence of cloud type on boundary layer buoyancy. Buoyancy provides a reference to which the onset of deep convection is invariant, and gives a compact description of sea surface temperature changes and cloud feedbacks suitable for diagnostics and as a basis for simplified climate models. This thesis also addresses uncertainties in climate sensitivity involving terrestrial ecosystem responses to global warming. Different diagnostics support different conclusions about atmospheric transport model errors that could imply either stronger or weaker northern terrestrial carbon sinks. Equilibrium boundary layer concepts were previously used in idealized tropical climate models, and are extended here to develop a diagnostic of boundary layer trace gas transport and mixing. Hypotheses linking surface temperature to climate and precipitation sensitivity were tested in this thesis using comprehensive and idealized climate model simulations, and observational datasets. The results do not support the thermostat hypothesis that predicts deep cloud cover will increase with radiative forcing and limit sea surface temperatures to the maximum present-day warm pool temperature. Warm pool temperatures increased along with or even faster than the tropical average over the past several decades, while diagnosed deep cloud cover has not significantly increased, in agreement with global warming simulations. Precipitation sensitivity also depends on more than surface temperature alone, including thermodynamic profiles and air-sea temperature differences. The

  20. On the determination of the neutral drag coefficient in the convective boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grachev, A.A.; Fairall, C.W.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1998-01-01

    Based on the idea that free convection can be considered as a particular case of forced convection, where the gusts driven by the large-scale eddies are scaled with the Deardorff convective velocity scale, a new formulation for the neutral drag coefficient, C-Dn, in the convective boundary layer ...... for mean wind speed less than about 2 m s(-1). The new approach also clarifies several contradictory results from earlier works. Some aspects related to an alternate definition of the neutral drag coefficient and the wind speed and the stress averaging procedure are considered.......) the stratification Psi function used in the derivation of C-Dn should satisfy the theoretical free-convection limit. The new formulation is compared with the traditional relationship for C-Dn, and data collected over the sea (during the Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment...

  1. Convective mixing in homogeneous porous media flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Jia-Hau; Chen, Peilong; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the flow processes in the technology of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in saline formations, we modeled a homogeneous porous media flow in a Hele-Shaw cell to investigate density-driven convection due to dissolution. We used an analogy of the fluid system to mimic the diffusion and subsequent convection when CO2 dissolves in brine, which generates a heavier solution. By varying the permeability, we examined the onset of convection, the falling dynamics, the wavelengths of fingers, and the rate of dissolution, for the Rayleigh number Ra (a dimensionless forcing term which is the ratio of buoyancy to diffusivity) in the range of 2.0 ×104≤Ra≤8.26 ×105 . Our results reveal that the effect of permeability influences significantly the initial convective speed, as well as the later coarsening dynamics of the heavier fingering plumes. However, the total dissolved mass, characterized by a nondimensional Nusselt number Nu, has an insignificant dependence on Ra. This implies that the total dissolution rate of CO2 is nearly constant in high Ra geological porous structures.

  2. Convection in Slab and Spheroidal Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David H.; Woodward, Paul R.; Jacobs, Michael L.

    2000-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of compressible turbulent thermally driven convection, in both slab and spheroidal geometries, are reviewed and analyzed in terms of velocity spectra and mixing-length theory. The same ideal gas model is used in both geometries, and resulting flows are compared. The piecewise-parabolic method (PPM), with either thermal conductivity or photospheric boundary conditions, is used to solve the fluid equations of motion. Fluid motions in both geometries exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k(sup -5/3) range in their velocity spectra. The longest wavelength modes are energetically dominant in both geometries, typically leading to one convection cell dominating the flow. In spheroidal geometry, a dipolar flow dominates the largest scale convective motions. Downflows are intensely turbulent and up drafts are relatively laminar in both geometries. In slab geometry, correlations between temperature and velocity fluctuations, which lead to the enthalpy flux, are fairly independent of depth. In spheroidal geometry this same correlation increases linearly with radius over the inner 70 percent by radius, in which the local pressure scale heights are a sizable fraction of the radius. The effects from the impenetrable boundary conditions in the slab geometry models are confused with the effects from non-local convection. In spheroidal geometry nonlocal effects, due to coherent plumes, are seen as far as several pressure scale heights from the lower boundary and are clearly distinguishable from boundary effects.

  3. Convection in Slab and Spheroidal Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David H.; Woodward, Paul R.; Jacobs, Michael L.

    2000-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of compressible turbulent thermally driven convection, in both slab and spheroidal geometries, are reviewed and analyzed in terms of velocity spectra and mixing-length theory. The same ideal gas model is used in both geometries, and resulting flows are compared. The piecewise-parabolic method (PPM), with either thermal conductivity or photospheric boundary conditions, is used to solve the fluid equations of motion. Fluid motions in both geometries exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k(sup -5/3) range in their velocity spectra. The longest wavelength modes are energetically dominant in both geometries, typically leading to one convection cell dominating the flow. In spheroidal geometry, a dipolar flow dominates the largest scale convective motions. Downflows are intensely turbulent and up drafts are relatively laminar in both geometries. In slab geometry, correlations between temperature and velocity fluctuations, which lead to the enthalpy flux, are fairly independent of depth. In spheroidal geometry this same correlation increases linearly with radius over the inner 70 percent by radius, in which the local pressure scale heights are a sizable fraction of the radius. The effects from the impenetrable boundary conditions in the slab geometry models are confused with the effects from non-local convection. In spheroidal geometry nonlocal effects, due to coherent plumes, are seen as far as several pressure scale heights from the lower boundary and are clearly distinguishable from boundary effects.

  4. Evaluation of triggering functions in convective parameterization schemes using observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettammal, S.; Zhang, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Realistic simulation of different modes of atmospheric variability ranging from the diurnal cycle to inter-annual variability in global climate models (GCMs) depends crucially on the convection triggering criteria. In this study, using the data from constrained variational analysis by the Atmospheric System Research program for single column models (SCM), the performance of the commonly used convective triggering functions in GCMs is evaluated, based on the equitable threat score (ETS) value, a widely used forecast verification metric. From the ETS score, four consistently better performing triggering functions were identified. They are based on dilute dCAPE, parcel buoyancy at the lifting condensation level (Bechtold scheme), undilute dCAPE and dilute CAPE triggering functions. The key variables used to define these triggering functions were examined in detail. It was found that the skill score value of the dilute dCAPE triggering function does not show much variation among different data sets. Analysis of the composite fields and probability distributions of key variables of the triggering functions, based on the correct-prediction, over-prediction, under-prediction of convection and correct prediction of no convection cases for convection onset, brings to light some critical factors responsible for the performance of the trigger functions.

  5. Forced Gravity Waves and the Tropospheric Response to Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Oliver; Parker, Doug; Griffiths, Stephen; Stirling, Alison

    2017-04-01

    It has been known for some time that gravity waves facilitate atmospheric adjustment to convective heating. Further, convectively forced gravity waves condition the neighbouring atmosphere for the initiation and / or suppression of convection. Despite this, the radiation of gravity waves in macro-scale models (which are typically forced at the grid-scale, by existing parameterization schemes) is not well understood. We present here theoretical and numerical work directed toward improving our understanding of convectively forced gravity wave effects at the mesoscale. Using the linear hydrostatic equations of motion for an incompressible (but non-Boussinesq) fluid with vertically varying buoyancy frequency, we find a radiating solution to prescribed sensible heating. We then interrogate the spatial and temporal sensitivity of the vertical velocity and potential temperature response to different heating functions, considering the remote and near-field forced response both to steady and pulsed heating. We find that the meso-scale tropospheric response to convection is significantly dependent on the upward radiation characteristics of the gravity waves, which are in turn dependent upon the temporal and spatial structure of the source, and stratification of the domain. Moving from a trapped to upwardly-radiating solution there is a 50% reduction in tropospherically averaged vertical velocity, but significant perturbations persist for up to 4 hours in the far-field. Furthermore, we find the tropospheric adjustment to be sensitive to the horizontal length scale of the heating, observing a 20% reduction in vertical velocity when comparing the response from a 10 km to a 100 km heat source. We assess the implications for parameterization of convection in coarse-grained models in the light of these findings and argue that an idealized 'full-physics' nonlinear simulation of deep convection in the MetUM is qualitatively described by the linear solution: departures are quantified

  6. Fabrication and electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cell components by atmospheric and suspension plasma spray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Wei-sheng; YANG Yun-zhen; ZHANG Hai-ou; WANG Gui-lan

    2009-01-01

    The theory of functionally graded material (FGM) was applied in the fabrication process of PEN (Positive- Electrolyte-Negative),the core component of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC).To enhance its electrochemical performance,the functionally graded PEN of planar SOFC was prepared by atmospheric plasma spray (APS).The cross-sectional SEM micrograph and element energy spectrum of the resultant PEN were analyzed.Its interface resistance was also compared with that without the graded layers to investigate the electrochemical performance enhanced by the functionally graded layers.Moreover,a new process,suspension plasma spray (SPS) was applied to preparing the SOFC electrolyte.Higher densification of the coating by SPS,1.61%,is observed,which is helpful to effectively improve its electrical conductivity.The grain size of the electrolyte coating fabricated by SPS is also smaller than that by APS,which is more favourable to obtain the dense electrolyte coatings.To sum up,all mentioned above can prove that the hybrid process of APS and SPS could be a better approach to fabricate the PEN of SOFC stacks,in which APS is for porous electrodes and SPS for dense electrolyte.

  7. Titan Balloon Convection Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...

  8. Bidispersive-inclined convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934

  9. Zoned mantle convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarède, Francis; Van Der Hilst, Rob D

    2002-11-15

    We review the present state of our understanding of mantle convection with respect to geochemical and geophysical evidence and we suggest a model for mantle convection and its evolution over the Earth's history that can reconcile this evidence. Whole-mantle convection, even with material segregated within the D" region just above the core-mantle boundary, is incompatible with the budget of argon and helium and with the inventory of heat sources required by the thermal evolution of the Earth. We show that the deep-mantle composition in lithophilic incompatible elements is inconsistent with the storage of old plates of ordinary oceanic lithosphere, i.e. with the concept of a plate graveyard. Isotopic inventories indicate that the deep-mantle composition is not correctly accounted for by continental debris, primitive material or subducted slabs containing normal oceanic crust. Seismological observations have begun to hint at compositional heterogeneity in the bottom 1000 km or so of the mantle, but there is no compelling evidence in support of an interface between deep and shallow mantle at mid-depth. We suggest that in a system of thermochemical convection, lithospheric plates subduct to a depth that depends - in a complicated fashion - on their composition and thermal structure. The thermal structure of the sinking plates is primarily determined by the direction and rate of convergence, the age of the lithosphere at the trench, the sinking rate and the variation of these parameters over time (i.e. plate-tectonic history) and is not the same for all subduction systems. The sinking rate in the mantle is determined by a combination of thermal (negative) and compositional buoyancy and as regards the latter we consider in particular the effect of the loading of plates with basaltic plateaux produced by plume heads. Barren oceanic plates are relatively buoyant and may be recycled preferentially in the shallow mantle. Oceanic plateau-laden plates have a more pronounced

  10. Uncertainties related to the representation of momentum transport in shallow convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemmer, Linda; Bechtold, Peter; Sandu, Irina; Ahlgrimm, Maike

    2017-04-01

    The vertical transport of horizontal momentum by convection has an important impact on the general circulation of the atmosphere as well as on the life cycle and track of cyclones. So far convective momentum transport (CMT) has mostly been studied for deep convection, whereas little is known about its characteristics and importance in shallow convection. In this study CMT by shallow convection is investigated by analyzing both data from large-eddy simulations (LES) and simulations performed with the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). In addition, the central terms underlying the bulk mass-flux parametrization of CMT are evaluated offline. Further, the uncertainties related to the representation of CMT are explored by running the stochastically perturbed parametrizations (SPP) approach of the IFS. The analyzed cases exhibit shallow convective clouds developing within considerable low-level wind shear. Analysis of the momentum fluxes in the LES data reveals significant momentum transport by the convection in both cases, which is directed down-gradient despite substantial organization of the cloud field. A detailed inspection of the convection parametrization reveals a very good representation of the entrainment and detrainment rates and an appropriate representation of the convective mass and momentum fluxes. To determine the correct values of mass-flux and in-cloud momentum at the cloud base in the parametrization yet remains challenging. The spread in convection-related quantities generated by the SPP is reasonable and addresses many of the identified uncertainties.

  11. Covariability in the Monthly Mean Convective and Radiative Diurnal Cycles in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Jason B.; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal cycle of convective clouds greatly influences the radiative energy balance in convectively active regions of Earth, through both direct presence, and the production of anvil and stratiform clouds. Previous studies show that the frequency and properties of convective clouds can vary on monthly timescales as a result of variability in the monthly mean atmospheric state. Furthermore, the radiative budget in convectively active regions also varies by up to 7 Wm-2 in convectively active regions. These facts suggest that convective clouds connect atmospheric state variability and radiation variability beyond clear sky effects alone. Previous research has identified monthly covariability between the diurnal cycle of CERES-observed top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes and multiple atmospheric state variables from reanalysis over the Amazon region. ASVs that enhance (reduce) deep convection, such as CAPE (LTS), tend to shift the daily OLR and cloud albedo maxima earlier (later) in the day by 2-3 hr. We first test the analysis method using multiple reanalysis products for both the dry and wet seasons to further investigate the robustness of the preliminary results. We then use CloudSat data as an independent cloud observing system to further evaluate the relationships of cloud properties to variability in radiation and atmospheric states. While CERES can decompose OLR variability into clear sky and cloud effects, it cannot determine what variability in cloud properties lead to variability in the radiative cloud effects. Cloud frequency, cloud top height, and cloud microphysics all contribute to the cloud radiative effect, all of which are observable by CloudSat. In addition, CloudSat can also observe the presence and variability of deep convective cores responsible for the production of anvil clouds. We use these capabilities to determine the covariability of convective cloud properties and the radiative diurnal cycle.

  12. The development of convective structures in the solar photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, O.; Stodilka, M.

    2016-12-01

    We study the development of convective structures in the solar photosphere on the basis of the photospheric convection models obtained using data from VTT by the solving of the inverse nonequilibrium radiative transfer problem. Temporal changes of the variations of vertical velocity and temperature within granular cells are analyzed. Features of the appearance and the disappearance of granules according to their size, the formation of "trees" of fragmenting granules are investigated.

  13. The development of convective structures in the solar photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, O.; Stodilka, M.

    2016-12-01

    We study the development of convective structures in the solar photosphere on the basis of the photospheric convection models obtained using data from VTT by the solving of the inverse nonequilibrium radiative transfer problem. Temporal changes of the variations of vertical velocity and temperature within granular cells are analyzed. Features of the appearance and the disappearance of granules according to their size, the formation of "trees" of fragmenting granules are investigated.

  14. Potential negative effects of groundwater dynamics on dry season convection in the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Lo, Min-Hui; Chou, Chia

    2016-02-01

    Adding a groundwater component to land surface models affects modeled precipitation. The additional water supply from the subsurface contributes to increased water vapor in the atmosphere, resulting in modifications of atmospheric convection. This study focuses on how groundwater dynamics affect atmospheric convection in the Amazon River basin (ARB) during July, typically the driest month. Coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model simulations show that groundwater storage increases evapotranspiration rates (latent heat fluxes) and lowers surface temperatures, which increases the surface pressure gradient and thus, anomalous surface divergence. Therefore, the convection over the Southern Hemispheric ARB during the dry season becomes weaker when groundwater dynamics are included in the model. Additionally, the changes in atmospheric vertical water vapor advection are associated with decreases in precipitation that results from downwelling transport anomalies. The results of this study highlight the importance of subsurface hydrological processes in the Amazon climate system, with implications for precipitation changes during the dry season, observed in most current climate models.

  15. Potential Negative Effects of Groundwater Dynamics on Dry Season Convection in the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. H.; Lo, M. H.; Chou, C.

    2014-12-01

    Adding a groundwater component to land surface models affects modeled precipitation because the additional water supply from the subsurface contributes to increased water vapor in the atmosphere, resulting in modifications of atmospheric convection. This study focused on how groundwater dynamics affect atmospheric convection in the Amazon River Basin (ARB) during July, typically the driest month. Coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model simulations show that groundwater storage increases evapotranspiration rates (latent heat fluxes) and lowers surface temperatures, which increases the surface pressure gradient and thus, anomalous surface divergence. Therefore, the convection over the Southern Hemispheric ARB during the dry season becomes weaker when groundwater dynamics are included in the model. In addition, the changes in atmospheric vertical water vapor advection are associated with decreases in precipitation resulting from downward transport anomalies. The results of this study highlight the importance of subsurface hydrological processes in the Amazon climate system, which have implications for precipitation changes during the dry season observed in most current climate models.

  16. On the existence of convectively produced gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Melfi, S. H.

    1992-01-01

    The Boundary Layer Lidar System (BLLS), together with the gustprobe system onboard the NASA Electra has acquired a unique data set which, for the first time, clearly depicts a gravity wave above a convectively driven planetary boundary layer (PBL). In addition, we believe that the data show the development of a trapped gravity wave over a period of about an hour. If this is the case, it would certainly be the first time that such a process has been seen in the atmosphere. We also conclude that the gravity wave, while being initiated by the convection in the PBL, ultimately acts to organize and control scales in the PBL.

  17. The effects of cold atmospheric plasma on cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, apoptosis and drug sensitivity of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dehui; Luo, Xiaohui; Xu, Yujing; Cui, Qingjie; Yang, Yanjie; Liu, Dingxin; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G

    2016-05-13

    Cold atmospheric plasma was shown to induce cell apoptosis in numerous tumor cells. Recently, some other biological effects, such as induction of membrane permeation and suppression of migration, were discovered by plasma treatment in some types of tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of plasma treatment on multiple myeloma cells. We detected the detachment of adherent myeloma cells by plasma, and the detachment area was correlated with higher density of hydroxyl radical in the gas phase of the plasma. Meanwhile, plasma could promote myeloma differentiation by up-regulating Blimp-1 and XBP-1 expression. The migration ability was suppressed by plasma treatment through decreasing of MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion. In addition, plasma could increase bortezomib sensitivity and induce myeloma cell apoptosis. Taking together, combination with plasma treatment may enhance current chemotherapy and probably improve the outcomes.

  18. Equatorial cloud level convection on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Imamura, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Sato, Takao M.; Maejima, Yasumitsu

    2016-10-01

    In the equatorial region on Venus, a clear cloud top morphology difference depending on solar local time has been observed through UV images. Laminar flow shaped clouds are shown on the morning side, and convective-like cells on the afternoon side (Titov et al. 2012). Baker et al. (1998) suggested that deep convective motions in the low-to-middle cloud layers at the 40–60 km range can explain cellular shapes. Imamura et al. (2014), however argued that this cannot be a reason, as convection in the low-to-middle cloud layers can be suppressed near sub solar regions due to a stabilizing effect by strong solar heating. We suggest that the observed feature may be related to strong solar heating at local noon time (Lee et al. 2015). Horizontal uneven distribution of an unknown UV absorber and/or cloud top structure may trigger horizontal convection (Toigo et al. 1994). In order to examine these possibilities, we processed 1-D radiative transfer model calculations from surface to 100 km altitude (SHDOM, Evans 1998), which includes clouds at 48-71 km altitudes (Crisp et al. 1986). The results on the equatorial thermal cooling and solar heating profiles were employed in a 2D fluid dynamic model calculation (CReSS, Tsuboki and Sakakibara 2007). The calculation covered an altitude range of 40-80 km and a 100-km horizontal distance. We compared three conditions; an 'effective' global circulation condition that cancels out unbalanced net radiative energy at equator, a condition without such global circulation effect, and the last condition assumed horizontally inhomogeneous unknown UV absorber distribution. Our results show that the local time dependence of lower level cloud convection is consistent with Imamura et al.'s result, and suggest a possible cloud top level convection caused by locally unbalanced net energy and/or horizontally uneven solar heating. This may be related to the observed cloud morphology in UV images. The effective global circulation condition, however

  19. Carbon dioxide sequestration: Modeling the diffusive and convective transport under a CO2 cap

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A rise in carbon dioxide levels from industrial emissions is contributing to the greenhouse effect and global warming. CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers is a strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels. Scientists and researchers rely on numerical simulators to predict CO2 storage by modeling the fluid transport behaviour. Studies have shown that after CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer, undissolved CO2 rises due to buoyant forces and will spread laterally away from the injection site under an area of low permeability. CO2 from this ‘capped\\' region diffuses into the fluid underlying it, and the resulting CO2-fluid mixture increases in density. This increase in density leads to gravity-driven convection. Accordingly, diffusive-convective transport is important to model since it predicts an enhanced storage capacity of the saline aquifer. This work incorporates the diffusive and convective transport processes into the transport modeling equation, and uses a self-generated code. Discretization of the domain is done with a cell-centered finite difference method. Cases are set up using similar parameters from published literature in order to compare results. Enhanced storage capacity is predicted in this work, similar to work done by others. A difference in the onset of convective transport between this work and published results is noticed and discussed in this paper. A sensitivity analysis is performed on the density model used in this work, and on the diffusivity value assumed. The analysis shows that the density model and diffusivity value is a key component on simulation results. Also, perturbations are added to porosity and permeability in order to see the effect of perturbations on the onset of convection, and results agree with similar findings by others. This work provides a basis for studying other cases, such as the impact of heterogeneity on the diffusion-convective transport. An extension of this work may involve the use of an equation of state to

  20. Hydrodynamic simulations of He-shell flash convection

    CERN Document Server

    Herwig, F; Hückstädt, R M; Timmes, F X; Freytag, Bernd; Herwig, Falk; Hueckstaedt, Robert M.; Timmes, Francis X.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first hydrodynamic, multi-dimensional simulations of He-shell flash convection. Specifically, we investigate the properties of shell convection at a time immediately before the He- luminosity peak during the 15th thermal pulse of a stellar evolution track with initially two solar masses and metallicity Z=0.01. This choice is a representative example of a low-mass asymptotic giant branch thermal pulse. We construct the initial vertical stratification with a set of polytropes to resemble the stellar evolution structure. Convection is driven by a constant volume heating in a thin layer at the bottom of the unstable layer. We calculate a grid of 2D simulations with different resolutions and heating rates. Our set of simulations includes one low-resolution 3D run. The computational domain includes 11.4 pressure scale heights. He-shell flash convection is dominated by large convective cells that are centered in the lower half of the convection zone. Convective rolls have an almost circular appearance...

  1. Improved nowcasting of precipitation based on convective analysis fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haiden

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The high-resolution analysis and nowcasting system INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis developed at the Austrian national weather service provides three-dimensional fields of temperature, humidity, and wind on an hourly basis, and two-dimensional fields of precipitation rate in 15 min intervals. The system operates on a horizontal resolution of 1 km and a vertical resolution of 100–200 m. It combines surface station data, remote sensing data (radar, satellite, forecast fields of the numerical weather prediction model ALADIN, and high-resolution topographic data. An important application of the INCA system is nowcasting of convective precipitation. Based on fine-scale temperature, humidity, and wind analyses a number of convective analysis fields are routinely generated. These fields include convective boundary layer (CBL flow convergence and specific humidity, lifted condensation level (LCL, convective available potential energy (CAPE, convective inhibition (CIN, and various convective stability indices. Based on the verification of areal precipitation nowcasts it is shown that the pure translational forecast of convective cells can be improved by using a decision algorithm which is based on a subset of the above fields, combined with satellite products.

  2. Treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate) foils by atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge and its influence on cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzminova, Anna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Vandrovcová, Marta [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Shelemin, Artem [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Kylián, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Choukourov, Andrei; Hanuš, Jan [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Bačáková, Lucie [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Effect of atmospheric pressure DBD plasma on PET foils was investigated. • DBD treatment causes increase in surface density of O-containing functional groups. • DBD plasma causes increase of wettability, roughness and complex modulus of PET. • DBD treatment positively influences cells growth on PET. • Enhancement of cell growth on treated PET depends on the cell type. - Abstract: In this contribution an effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sustained in air at atmospheric pressure on surface properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) foils is studied. It is found that exposure of PET to DBD plasma leads to rapid changes of surface chemical composition, wettability, surface morphology as well as mechanical properties of PET surface. In addition, based on biological tests that were performed using two cell types (Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells and HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells), it may be concluded that DBD plasma treatment positively influences cell growth on PET. This effect was found to be connected predominantly with increased surface energy and oxygen content of the surface of treated PET foils.

  3. A data-driven method for the stochastic parametrisation of subgrid-scale tropical convective area fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Gottwald, Georg A; Davies, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Observations of tropical convection from precipitation radar and the concurring large-scale atmospheric state at two locations (Darwin and Kwajalein) are used to establish effective stochastic models to parameterise subgrid-scale tropical convective activity. Two approaches are presented which rely on the assumption that tropical convection induces a stationary equilibrium distribution. In the first approach we parameterise convection variables such as convective area fraction as an instantaneous random realisation conditioned on the large-scale vertical velocities according to a probability density function estimated from the observations. In the second approach convection variables are generated in a Markov process conditioned on the large-scale vertical velocity, allowing for non-trivial temporal correlations. Despite the different prevalent atmospheric and oceanic regimes at the two locations, with Kwajalein being exposed to a purely oceanic weather regime and Darwin exhibiting land-sea interaction, we es...

  4. Flux ropes in the magnetic solar convection zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, S. B. F.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution results are presented on how twisted magnetic flux ropes interact with a magnetized model envelope similar to the solar convection zone. Both the flux ropes and the atmosphere are modelled as idealized 2.5-dimensional concepts using high resolution numerical MHD simulations (on...... of the magnetic flux ropes interact with the magnetic field in the atmosphere in a manner that depends, among other things, on the polarity and strength of the atmospheric field. The results include limits on the necessary and possible twist and polarity of solar magnetic flux ropes....

  5. Differential Epigenetic Effects of Atmospheric Cold Plasma on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Bin; Kim, Byungtak; Bae, Hansol; Lee, Hyunkyung; Lee, Seungyeon; Choi, Eun H; Kim, Sun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (plasma) has emerged as a novel tool for a cancer treatment option, having been successfully applied to a few types of cancer cells, as well as tissues. However, to date, no studies have been performed to examine the effect of plasma on epigenetic alterations, including CpG methylation. In this study, the effects of plasma on DNA methylation changes in breast cancer cells were examined by treating cultured MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, representing estrogen-positive and estrogen-negative cancer cells, respectively, with plasma. A pyrosequencing analysis of Alu indicated that a specific CpG site was induced to be hypomethylated from 23.4 to 20.3% (p plasma treatment in the estrogen-negative MDA-MB-231 cells only. A genome-wide methylation analysis identified "cellular movement, connective tissue development and function, tissue development" and "cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cell death and survival, cellular development" as the top networks. Of the two cell types, the MDA-MB-231 cells underwent a higher rate of apoptosis and a decreased proliferation rate upon plasma treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that plasma induces epigenetic and cellular changes in a cell type-specific manner, suggesting that a careful screening of target cells and tissues is necessary for the potential application of plasma as a cancer treatment option.

  6. Differential Epigenetic Effects of Atmospheric Cold Plasma on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Bin Park

    Full Text Available Cold atmospheric plasma (plasma has emerged as a novel tool for a cancer treatment option, having been successfully applied to a few types of cancer cells, as well as tissues. However, to date, no studies have been performed to examine the effect of plasma on epigenetic alterations, including CpG methylation. In this study, the effects of plasma on DNA methylation changes in breast cancer cells were examined by treating cultured MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, representing estrogen-positive and estrogen-negative cancer cells, respectively, with plasma. A pyrosequencing analysis of Alu indicated that a specific CpG site was induced to be hypomethylated from 23.4 to 20.3% (p < 0.05 by plasma treatment in the estrogen-negative MDA-MB-231 cells only. A genome-wide methylation analysis identified "cellular movement, connective tissue development and function, tissue development" and "cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cell death and survival, cellular development" as the top networks. Of the two cell types, the MDA-MB-231 cells underwent a higher rate of apoptosis and a decreased proliferation rate upon plasma treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that plasma induces epigenetic and cellular changes in a cell type-specific manner, suggesting that a careful screening of target cells and tissues is necessary for the potential application of plasma as a cancer treatment option.

  7. Generating buoyant magnetic flux ropes in solar-like convective dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Our Sun exhibits strong convective dynamo action which results in magnetic flux bundles emerging through the stellar surface as magnetic spots. Global-scale dynamo action is believed to generate large-scale magnetic structures in the deep solar interior through the interplay of convection, rotation, and shear. Portions of these large-scale magnetic structures are then believed to rise through the convective layer, forming magnetic loops which then pierce the photosphere as sunspot pairs. Previous global simulations of 3D MHD convection in rotating spherical shells have demonstrated mechanisms whereby large-scale magnetic wreaths can be generated in the bulk of the convection zone. Our recent simulations have achieved sufficiently high levels of turbulence to permit portions of these wreaths to become magnetically buoyant and rise through the simulated convective layer through a combination of magnetic buoyancy and advection by convective giant cells. These buoyant magnetic loops are created in the bulk of the...

  8. Tornado funnel-shaped cloud as convection in a cloudy layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zavolgenskiy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Analytical model of convection in a thick horizontal cloud layer with free upper and lower boundaries is constructed. The cloud layer is supposed to be subjected to the Coriolis force due to the cloud rotation, which is a typical condition for tornado formation. It is obtained that convection in such system can look as just one rotating cell in contrast to the usual many-cells Benard convection. The tornado-type vortex is different from spatially periodic convective cells because their amplitudes vanish with distance from the vortex axis. The lower boundary at this convection can substantially move out of the initially horizontal cloud layer forming a single vertical vortex with intense upward and downward flows. The results are also applicable to convection in water layer with negative temperature gradient.

  9. SIGMET-convective

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A SIGMET is a concise description of the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified en route weather phenomena which is expected to affect the safety of aircraft...

  10. THEORY OF SIMILARITY OF ELECTRO MEMBRANE SYSTEMS WITH REGARD TO FORCED, GRAVITATIONAL AND ELECTRO CONVECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, we have suggested a general mathematical model of non-stationary and non-isothermal process of a binary electrolyte transfer in dilute solutions in an electro-membrane system (EMS, taking into account the joint action of gravitational convection, forced convection and electro convection in potential dynamic mode. This model is a boundary problem for a system of two-dimensional quasi-linear Navier-Stokes equation and Nernst-Planck-Poisson in partial derivatives equation. We have developed a theory of similarity of the process of heat and mass transfer in electro-membrane systems, specifically, in a desalting channel of electro dialysis apparatus, taking into account joint actions of concentration polarization, space charge, gravity convection, forced convection and electro convection. It is shown that the criterion of electro convection does not directly depend on the initial concentration, and, therefore, electro convection occurs at any initial concentration. At the same time, the criterion of concentration convection linearly dependents on the initial concentration, and, therefore, at high concentrations, concentration convection prevails, while at lower concentrations, the role of gravitational convection begins to fall whereas the role of electro convection increases. The theory of similarity of the process of heat and mass transfer in the desalting channel of electro dialysis apparatus built in this work taking into account the joint action of concentration polarization, space charge, gravity convection, forced convection and electro convection is important for engineering calculations, for scaling the results of experiments in an electro-membrane cell for industrial electro dialysis water desalting apparatus

  11. Roles of charged particles and reactive species on cell membrane permeabilization induced by atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Hokari, Yutaro; Tominami, Kanako; Mokudai, Takayuki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-07-01

    As factors that influence cell membrane permeabilization during direct and indirect atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation, charged particle influx, superoxide anion radicals (O2 -•), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in plasma-irradiated solution were evaluated. These are the three strong candidate factors and might multiply contribute to cell membrane permeabilization. In particular, a shorter plasma diffusion distance leads to the enhancement of the direct effects such as charged particle influx and further increase cell membrane permeability. In addition, O2 -• dissipates over time (a life span of the order of minutes) in plasma-irradiated water, and the deactivation of a plasma-irradiated solution in term of cell membrane permeabilization occurs in a life span of the same order. These results could promote the understanding of the mechanism of plasma-induced cell membrane permeabilization.

  12. Evidence of convective heat transfer enhancement induced by spinodal decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poesio, P; Lezzi, A M; Beretta, G P

    2007-06-01

    Spinodal decomposition can be driven by either diffusion or self-induced convection; the importance of convection relative to diffusion depends on the Péclet number, defined as the ratio between convective and diffusive mass fluxes. Diffusion is the dominating mechanism of phase segregation when the Péclet number is small - i.e., when viscosity and diffusivity are large - or when the domain characteristic size is small. For low-viscosity mixtures, convection is the dominating process and the segregation is very rapid as it takes a few seconds compared to the hours needed in the case of pure diffusion. In such cases, strong convective motion of the phase segregating domains is generated even in small-size systems and is almost independent of the temperature difference as long as it is below the transition value. We study experimentally the enhancement of heat transfer in a 1-mm -thick cell. A water-acetonitrile-toulene mixture is quenched into a two-phase region so as to induce convection-driven spinodal decomposition. The heat transfer rate is measured and compared to that obtained in the absence of convective motion. A substantial reduction in the cooling time obtains in the case of spinodal decomposition. The heat transfer enhancement induced by this self-induced, disordered but effectively convective effect may be exploited in the cooling or heating of small-scale systems whereby forced convection cannot be achieved because of the small sizes involved. A scaling analysis of the data based on the diffuse interface H model for a symmetric mixture near the equilibrium point yields very encouraging agreement and insights.

  13. Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H J [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Shon, C H [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y S; Kim, S [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G C [Department of Oral Anatomy, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kong, M G [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leics LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ki9100m@pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: m.g.kong@lboro.ac.uk

    2009-11-15

    Increased expression of integrins and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is important for the survival, growth and metastasis of melanoma cells. Based on this well-established observation in oncology, we propose to use degradation of integrin and FAK proteins as a potential strategy for melanoma cancer therapy. A low-temperature radio-frequency atmospheric microplasma jet is used to study their effects on the adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells. Microplasma treatment is shown to (1) cause significant cell detachment from the bottom of microtiter plates coated with collagen, (2) induce the death of human melanoma cells, (3) inhibit the expression of integrin {alpha}{sub 2}, integrin {alpha}{sub 4} and FAK on the cell surface and finally (4) change well-stretched actin filaments to a diffuse pattern. These results suggest that cold atmospheric pressure plasmas can strongly inhibit the adhesion of melanoma cells by reducing the activities of adhesion proteins such as integrins and FAK, key biomolecules that are known to be important in malignant transformation and acquisition of metastatic phenotypes.

  14. Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. J.; Shon, C. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, S.; Kim, G. C.; Kong, M. G.

    2009-11-01

    Increased expression of integrins and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is important for the survival, growth and metastasis of melanoma cells. Based on this well-established observation in oncology, we propose to use degradation of integrin and FAK proteins as a potential strategy for melanoma cancer therapy. A low-temperature radio-frequency atmospheric microplasma jet is used to study their effects on the adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells. Microplasma treatment is shown to (1) cause significant cell detachment from the bottom of microtiter plates coated with collagen, (2) induce the death of human melanoma cells, (3) inhibit the expression of integrin α2, integrin α4 and FAK on the cell surface and finally (4) change well-stretched actin filaments to a diffuse pattern. These results suggest that cold atmospheric pressure plasmas can strongly inhibit the adhesion of melanoma cells by reducing the activities of adhesion proteins such as integrins and FAK, key biomolecules that are known to be important in malignant transformation and acquisition of metastatic phenotypes.

  15. Enhancement of cell growth on honeycomb-structured polylactide surface using atmospheric-pressure plasma jet modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuang-Yao; Chang, Chia-Hsing; Yang, Yi-Wei; Liao, Guo-Chun; Liu, Chih-Tung; Wu, Jong-Shinn

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we compare the cell growth results of NIH-3T3 and Neuro-2A cells over 72 h on flat and honeycomb structured PLA films without and with a two-step atmospheric-pressure nitrogen-based plasma jet treatment. We developed a fabrication system used for forming of a uniform honeycomb structure on PLA surface, which can produce two different pore sizes, 3-4 μm and 7-8 μm, of honeycomb pattern. We applied a previously developed nitrogen-based atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet system to treat the PLA film without and with honeycomb structure. NIH-3T3 and a much smaller Neuro-2A cells were cultivated on the films under various surface conditions. The results show that the two-step plasma treatment in combination with a honeycomb structure can enhance cell growth on PLA film, should the cell size be not too smaller than the pore size of honeycomb structure, e.g., NIH-3T3. Otherwise, cell growth would be better on flat PLA film, e.g., Neuro-2A.

  16. Idealized Mesoscale Model Simulations of Open Cellular Convection Over the Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Kelly, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    version of the model, which excluded the effects of topography, surface inhomogeneities and large-scale weather forcing. Cells with an average diameter of 17.4 km developed. Simulations both with and without a capping inversion were made, and the cell-scale kinetic energy budget was calculated for each...... case. By considering all sources of explicit diffusion in the model, the budgets were balanced. In comparison with previous work based on observational studies, the use of three-dimensional, gridded model data afforded the possibility of calculating all terms in the budgets, which showed......The atmospheric conditions during an observed case of open cellular convection over the North Sea were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical model. Wind, temperature and water vapour mixing ratio profiles from the WRF simulation were used to initialize an idealized...

  17. An unstructured-mesh atmospheric model for nonhydrostatic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Szmelter, Joanna; Wyszogrodzki, Andrzej A.

    2013-12-01

    A three-dimensional semi-implicit edge-based unstructured-mesh model is developed that integrates nonhydrostatic anelastic equations, suitable for simulation of small-to-mesoscale atmospheric flows. The model builds on nonoscillatory forward-in-time MPDATA approach using finite-volume discretization and admitting unstructured meshes with arbitrarily shaped cells. The numerical advancements are evaluated with canonical simulations of convective planetary boundary layer and strongly (stably) stratified orographic flows, epitomizing diverse aspects of highly nonlinear nonhydrostatic dynamics. The unstructured-mesh solutions are compared to equivalent results generated with an established structured-grid model and observation.

  18. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induces a Predominantly Necrotic Cell Death via the Microenvironment: e0133120

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    François Virard; Sarah Cousty; Jean-Pierre Cambus; Alexis Valentin; Philippe Kémoun; Franck Clément

    2015-01-01

      Introduction Cold plasma is a partially ionized gas generated by an electric field at atmospheric pressure that was initially used in medicine for decontamination and sterilization of inert surfaces...

  19. Convection in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Donald A

    1992-01-01

    This book provides a user-friendly introduction to the topic of convection in porous media The authors as- sume that the reader is familiar with the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but otherwise the book is self-contained The book will be useful both as a review (for reference) and as a tutorial work, suitable as a textbook in a graduate course or seminar The book brings into perspective the voluminous research that has been performed during the last two decades The field has recently exploded because of worldwide concern with issues such as energy self-sufficiency and pollution of the environment Areas of application include the insulation of buildings and equipment, energy storage and recovery, geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste disposal, chemical reactor engineering, and the storage of heat-generating materials such as grain and coal Geophysical applications range from the flow of groundwater around hot intrusions to the stability of snow against avalanches

  20. Convection in Porous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Donald A

    2013-01-01

    Convection in Porous Media, 4th Edition, provides a user-friendly introduction to the subject, covering a wide range of topics, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors. The presentation is self-contained, requiring only routine mathematics and the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. The book will be of use not only to researchers and practicing engineers as a review and reference, but also to graduate students and others entering the field. The new edition features approximately 1,750 new references and covers current research in nanofluids, cellular porous materials, strong heterogeneity, pulsating flow, and more. Recognized as the standard reference in the field Includes a comprehensive, 250-page reference list Cited over 2300 times to date in its various editions Serves as an introduction for those entering the field and as a comprehensive reference for experienced researchers Features new sections on nanofluids, carbon dioxide sequestration, and applications...

  1. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Buoyant Convection in Geophysical Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorovich, E; Viegas, D; Wyngaard, J

    1998-01-01

    Studies of convection in geophysical flows constitute an advanced and rapidly developing area of research that is relevant to problems of the natural environment. During the last decade, significant progress has been achieved in the field as a result of both experimental studies and numerical modelling. This led to the principal revision of the widely held view on buoyancy-driven turbulent flows comprising an organised mean component with superimposed chaotic turbulence. An intermediate type of motion, represented by coherent structures, has been found to play a key role in geophysical boundary layers and in larger scale atmospheric and hydrospheric circulations driven by buoyant forcing. New aspects of the interaction between convective motions and rotation have recently been discovered and investigated. Extensive experimental data have also been collected on the role of convection in cloud dynamics and microphysics. New theoretical concepts and approaches have been outlined regarding scaling and parameteriz...

  2. Strong increase in convective precipitation in response to higher temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, P.; Moseley, C.; Härter, Jan Olaf Mirko

    2013-01-01

    at higher temperature, faster than the rate of increase in the atmosphere's water-holding capacity, termed the Clausius-Clapeyron rate. Invigoration of convective precipitation (such as thunderstorms) has been favoured over a rise in stratiform precipitation (such as large-scale frontal precipitation......) as a cause for this increase , but the relative contributions of these two types of precipitation have been difficult to disentangle. Here we combine large data sets from radar measurements and rain gauges over Germany with corresponding synoptic observations and temperature records, and separate convective...... and stratiform precipitation events by cloud observations. We find that for stratiform precipitation, extremes increase with temperature at approximately the Clausius-Clapeyron rate, without characteristic scales. In contrast, convective precipitation exhibits characteristic spatial and temporal scales, and its...

  3. Vigorous convection in a sunspot granular light bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Lagg, Andreas; van Noort, Michiel; Danilovic, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Light bridges are the most prominent manifestation of convection in sunspots. The brightest representatives are granular light bridges composed of features that appear to be similar to granules. An in-depth study of the convective motions, temperature stratification, and magnetic field vector in and around light bridge granules is presented with the aim of identifying similarities and differences to typical quiet-Sun granules. Spectropolarimetric data from the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope were analyzed using a spatially coupled inversion technique to retrieve the stratified atmospheric parameters of light bridge and quiet-Sun granules. Central hot upflows surrounded by cooler fast downflows reaching 10 km/s clearly establish the convective nature of the light bridge granules. The inner part of these granules in the near surface layers is field free and is covered by a cusp-like magnetic field configuration. We observe hints of field reversals at the location of the fast downflows. The quiet-Sun granules in ...

  4. 3-D hydrodynamic simulations of convection in A stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N; Steffen, M

    2006-01-01

    Broadening and asymmetry of spectral lines in slowly rotating late A-type stars provide evidence for high-amplitude convective motions. The properties of turbulence observed in the A-star atmospheres are not understood theoretically and contradict results of previous numerical simulations of convection. Here we describe an ongoing effort to understand the puzzling convection signatures of A stars with the help of 3-D hydrodynamic simulations. Our approach combines realistic spectrum synthesis and non-grey hydrodynamic models computed with the CO5BOLD code. We discuss these theoretical predictions and confront them with high-resolution spectra of A stars. Our models have, for the first time, succeeded in reproducing the observed profiles of weak spectral lines without introducing fudge broadening parameters.

  5. INTERMITTENCY AND SCALING IN TURBULENT CONVECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emily S. C. CHING

    2003-01-01

    Both the velocity and temperature measurements taken in turbulent Rayleigh-B'enard convection experiments have been analyzed. It is found that both the velocity and temperature fluctuations are intermittent and can be well-described by the She-Leveque hierarchical structure. A positive correlation between the vertical velocity and the temperature differences is found both at the center,near the sidewall and near the bottom of the convection cell, supporting that buoyancy is significant in the Bolgiano regime. Moreover, the intermittent nature of the temperature fluctuations in the Bolgiano regime can be attributed to the variations in the temperature dissipation rate. However, the relations between the velocity and temperature structure functions and their correlations implied by the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling are not supported by experimental measurements.

  6. Buoyant Magnetic Loops Generated by Global Convective Dynamo Action

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Nicholas J; Brun, A Sacha; Miesch, Mark S; Toomre, Juri

    2012-01-01

    Our global 3D simulations of convection and dynamo action in a Sun-like star reveal that persistent wreaths of strong magnetism can be built within the bulk of the convention zone. Here we examine the characteristics of buoyant magnetic structures that are self-consistently created by dynamo action and turbulent convective motions in a simulation with solar stratification but rotating at three times the current solar rate. These buoyant loops originate within sections of the magnetic wreaths in which turbulent flows amplify the fields to much larger values than is possible through laminar processes. These amplified portions can rise through the convective layer by a combination of magnetic buoyancy and advection by convective giant cells, forming buoyant loops. We measure statistical trends in the polarity, twist, and tilt of these loops. Loops are shown to preferentially arise in longitudinal patches somewhat reminiscent of active longitudes in the Sun, although broader in extent. We show that the strength o...

  7. Observation of dendritic growth under the influence of forced convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchupkina, O.; Shevchenko, N.; Eckert, S.

    2015-06-01

    The directional solidification of Ga-25wt%In alloys within a Hele-Shaw cell was visualized by X-ray radioscopy. The investigations are focused on the impact of melt convection on the dendritic growth. Natural convection occurs during a bottom up solidification because lighter solute is rejected during crystallization. Forced convection was produced by a specific electromagnetic pump. The direction of forced melt flow is almost horizontal at the solidification front. Melt flow induces various effects on grain morphology primarily caused by convective transport of solute, such as a facilitation of the growth of primary trunks or lateral branches, dendrite remelting, fragmentation or freckle formation depending on the dendrite orientation, the flow direction and intensity. Forced flow eliminates solutal plumes and damps local fluctuations of solute. A preferential growth of the secondary arms occurs at the upstream side of the dendrites, whereas high solute concentration at the downstream side inhibits the formation of secondary branches.

  8. Mesoscale characteristics of monsoonal convection and associated stratiform precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Thomas D.; Rutledge, Steven A.

    1993-01-01

    Observations undertaken on 12 January 1990 at Darwin (Australia) are used to document the structure of a monsoonal rainband in a low convective available potential energy low-shear tropical environment. Dual-Doppler radar analyses are employed to investigate the structure and kinematics of the convective and stratiform regions. A system with the characteristics of a relatively short-lived squall line in which warm rain processes play a significant role in the production of precipitation is evident. Planetary boundary layer cold-pool production is important in the organization and motion of the system. A trailing stratiform region is evident with a mean updraft-downdraft circulation, but is composed of in situ decaying convective cells. A storm-relative mesoscale cyclonic circulation is also observed within the stratiform cloud. This vortex was maintained by thermodynamically induced midlevel convergence, convectively generated storm-scale circulations, and their interaction with the background monsoon flow.

  9. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-01

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth’s energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and subsequent impacts on the hydrologic cycle. Global observation and accurate representation of these processes in numerical models is vital to improving our current understanding and future simulations of Earth’s climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales that are associated with convective and stratiform precipitation processes; therefore, they must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, the physical basis for these parameterization schemes needs to be evaluated for general application under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Analogously, space-based remote sensing algorithms designed to retrieve related cloud and precipitation information for use in hydrological, climate, and numerical weather prediction applications often rely on physical “parameterizations” that reliably translate indirectly related instrument measurements to the physical quantity of interest (e.g., precipitation rate). Importantly, both spaceborne retrieval algorithms and model convective parameterization schemes traditionally rely on field campaign data sets as a basis for evaluating and improving the physics of their respective approaches. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the April–May 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States

  10. Complex Convective Thermal Fluxes and Vorticity Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Tellez, Jackson; Sotillos, Laura; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar; Sanchez, Jesus M.; Furmanek, Petr; Diez, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Local Diffusion and the topological structure of vorticity and velocity fields is measured in the transition from a homogeneous linearly stratified fluid to a cellular or layered structure by means of convective cooling and/or heating[1,2]. Patterns arise by setting up a convective flow generated by an array of Thermoelectric devices (Peltier/Seebeck cells) these are controlled by thermal PID generating a buoyant heat flux [2]. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using brine and fresh water in order to form density interfaces and low Prandtl number mixing with temperature gradients. The set of dimensionless parameters define conditions of numeric and small scale laboratory modeling of environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients were computed and visualized [3,4]. When convective heating and cooling takes place the combination of internal waves and buoyant turbulence is much more complicated if the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers are high in order to study entrainment and mixing. Using ESS and selfsimilarity structures in the velocity and vorticity fieds and intermittency [3,5] that forms in the non-homogeneous flow is related to mixing and stiring. The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or nonmixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [6]and gravitational acceleration are analyzed considering the fractal and spectral structure of the fronts like in removable plate experiments for Rayleigh-Taylor flows. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied

  11. Seasonal Scale Convective-Stratiform Pricipitation Variabilities at Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Seasonal Scale Convective-Stratiform Pricipitation Variabilities at Tropics Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) and V Sasi Kumar (2) *Centre for Earth Science Studies, Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) 32. NCC Nagar Peroorkada, Thiruvananthapuram ABSTRACT This study investigates the variabilities of convective and stratiform rainfall from 2011 to 2013 at a tropical coastal station in three seasons viz Pre-Monsoon (March-May), Monsoon (June-September) and Post-Monsoon (October-December). Understanding the climatological variability of these two dominant forms of precipitation and their implications in the total rainfall were the main objectives of this investigation. Variabilities in the frequency & duration of events, rain rate & total number of rain drops distribution in different events and the accumulated amount of rain water were analysed. Based on the ground & radar observations from optical & impact disdrometers, Micro Rain Radar and Atmospheric Electric Field Mill, precipitation events were classified into convective and stratiform in three seasons. Classification was done by the method followed by Testud et al (2001) and as an additional information electrical behaviour of clouds from Atmospheric Electric Field Mill is also used. Events which could not be included in both types were termed as 'mixed precipitation' and were included separately. Diurnal variability of the total rainfall in each seasons were also examined. For both convective and stratiform rainfall there exist distinct day-night differences. During nocturnal hours convective rain draged more attention. In all seasons almost 70% of rain duration and 60% of rain events of convective origin were confined to nocturnal hours. But stratiform rain was not affected by diurnal variations greatly because night time occurrences of stratiform duration and events were less than 50%. Also in Monsoon above 35% of

  12. Engineering Cellular Photocomposite Materials Using Convective Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlin D. Velev

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fabricating industrial-scale photoreactive composite materials containing living cells, requires a deposition strategy that unifies colloid science and cell biology. Convective assembly can rapidly deposit suspended particles, including whole cells and waterborne latex polymer particles into thin (<10 µm thick, organized films with engineered adhesion, composition, thickness, and particle packing. These highly ordered composites can stabilize the diverse functions of photosynthetic cells for use as biophotoabsorbers, as artificial leaves for hydrogen or oxygen evolution, carbon dioxide assimilation, and add self-cleaning capabilities for releasing or digesting surface contaminants. This paper reviews the non-biological convective assembly literature, with an emphasis on how the method can be modified to deposit living cells starting from a batch process to its current state as a continuous process capable of fabricating larger multi-layer biocomposite coatings from diverse particle suspensions. Further development of this method will help solve the challenges of engineering multi-layered cellular photocomposite materials with high reactivity, stability, and robustness by clarifying how process, substrate, and particle parameters affect coating microstructure. We also describe how these methods can be used to selectively immobilize photosynthetic cells to create biomimetic leaves and compare these biocomposite coatings to other cellular encapsulation systems.

  13. Carbon Sequestration in Saline Aquifers: Modeling Diffusive and Convective Transport Of a Carbon-­Dioxide Cap

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2011-05-01

    An increase in the earth’s surface temperature has been directly linked to the rise of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels In the atmosphere and an enhanced greenhouse effect. CO2 sequestration is one of the proposed mitigation Strategies in the effort to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Globally speaking, saline aquifers provide an adequate storage capacity for the world’s carbon emissions, and CO2 sequestration projects are currently underway in countries such as Norway, Germany, Japan, USA, and others. Numerical simulators serve as predictive tools for CO2 storage, yet must model fluid transport behavior while coupling different transport processes together accurately. With regards to CO2 sequestration, an extensive amount of research has been done on the diffusive-convective transport that occurs under a cap of CO2-saturated fluid, which results after CO2 is injected into an aquifer and spreads laterally under an area of low permeability. The diffusive-convective modeling reveals an enhanced storage capacity in saline aquifers, due to the density increase between pure fluid and CO2‐saturated fluid. This work presents the transport modeling equations that are used for diffusive- convective modeling. A cell-centered finite difference method is used, and simulations are run using MATLAB. Two cases are explored in order to compare the results from this work’s self-generated code with the results published in literature. Simulation results match relatively well, and the discrepancy for a delayed onset time of convective transport observed in this work is attributed to numerical artifacts. In fact, onset time in this work is directly attributed to the instability of the physical system: this instability arises from non-linear coupling of fluid flow, transport, and convection, but is triggered by numerical errors in these simulations. Results from this work enable the computation of a value for the numerical constant that appears in the onset time equation that

  14. The stellar atmosphere simulation code Bifrost

    CERN Document Server

    Gudiksen, Boris V; Hansteen, Viggo H; Hayek, Wolfgang; Leenaarts, Jorrit; Martínez-Sykora, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Context: Numerical simulations of stellar convection and photospheres have been developed to the point where detailed shapes of observed spectral lines can be explained. Stellar atmospheres are very complex, and very different physical regimes are present in the convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, transition region and corona. To understand the details of the atmosphere it is necessary to simulate the whole atmosphere since the different layers interact strongly. These physical regimes are very diverse and it takes a highly efficient massively parallel numerical code to solve the associated equations. Aims: The design, implementation and validation of the massively parallel numerical code Bifrost for simulating stellar atmospheres from the convection zone to the corona. Methods: The code is subjected to a number of validation tests, among them the Sod shock tube test, the Orzag-Tang colliding shock test, boundary condition tests and tests of how the code treats magnetic field advection, chromospheric ...

  15. Effects of atmospheric pollutants on somatic and germ cells of Tradescantia pallida (Rose D.R. HUNT cv. purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO A. CRISPIM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical alterations in leaves and DNA damage in cells caused by the accumulation of atmospheric pollutants can be measured by epidermal leaf analyses and Tradescantia micronuclei assay with early pollen tetrad cells. The present study examined the feasibility of using somatic and germ cells of Tradescantia pallida for biomonitoring purposes in the city of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, Brazil. Stomatal, micronucleus and epidermal leaf analyses were performed, using standard methodologies, on plants growing at three locations during six different time periods. Tradescantia micronuclei data were analyzed using SAS 9.2 software package and stomatal data were analyzed using SANEST software. Analyses of stomatal characteristics and micronuclei examination in T. pallida were found to be an efficient tool for monitoring atmospheric pollution. The micronucleus assay suggested that the number of micronuclei in early pollen tetrad cells was related to the intensity of vehicular traffic. Increased number of epidermal cells and stomata and increased stomatal density observed at locations with greater vehicular traffic are likely physiological responses of those plants to the increased gas exchange in highly polluted environments.

  16. Convection in Type 2 supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.S.

    1993-10-15

    Results are presented here from several two dimensional numerical calculations of events in Type II supernovae. A new 2-D hydrodynamics and neutrino transport code has been used to compute the effect on the supernova explosion mechanism of convection between the neutrinosphere and the shock. This convection is referred to as exterior convection to distinguish it from convection beneath the neutrinosphere. The model equations and initial and boundary conditions are presented along with the simulation results. The 2-D code was used to compute an exterior convective velocity to compare with the convective model of the Mayle and Wilson 1-D code. Results are presented from several runs with varying sizes of initial perturbation, as well as a case with no initial perturbation but including the effects of rotation. The M&W code does not produce an explosion using the 2-D convective velocity. Exterior convection enhances the outward propagation of the shock, but not enough to ensure a successful explosion. Analytic estimates of the growth rate of the neutron finger instability axe presented. It is shown that this instability can occur beneath the neutrinosphere of the proto-neutron star in a supernova explosion with a growth time of {approximately} 3 microseconds. The behavior of the high entropy bubble that forms between the shock and the neutrinosphere in one dimensional calculations of supernova is investigated. It has been speculated that this bubble is a site for {gamma}-process generation of heavy elements. Two dimensional calculations are presented of the time evolution of the hot bubble and the surrounding stellar material. Unlike one dimensional calculations, the 2D code fails to achieve high entropies in the bubble. When run in a spherically symmetric mode the 2-D code reaches entropies of {approximately} 200. When convection is allowed, the bubble reaches {approximately} 60 then the bubble begins to move upward into the cooler, denser material above it.

  17. Convection in Type 2 supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas Scott [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-15

    Results are presented here from several two dimensional numerical calculations of events in Type II supernovae. A new 2-D hydrodynamics and neutrino transport code has been used to compute the effect on the supernova explosion mechanism of convection between the neutrinosphere and the shock. This convection is referred to as exterior convection to distinguish it from convection beneath the neutrinosphere. The model equations and initial and boundary conditions are presented along with the simulation results. The 2-D code was used to compute an exterior convective velocity to compare with the convective model of the Mayle and Wilson 1-D code. Results are presented from several runs with varying sizes of initial perturbation, as well as a case with no initial perturbation but including the effects of rotation. The M&W code does not produce an explosion using the 2-D convective velocity. Exterior convection enhances the outward propagation of the shock, but not enough to ensure a successful explosion. Analytic estimates of the growth rate of the neutron finger instability axe presented. It is shown that this instability can occur beneath the neutrinosphere of the proto-neutron star in a supernova explosion with a growth time of ~ 3 microseconds. The behavior of the high entropy bubble that forms between the shock and the neutrinosphere in one dimensional calculations of supernova is investigated. It has been speculated that this bubble is a site for γ-process generation of heavy elements. Two dimensional calculations are presented of the time evolution of the hot bubble and the surrounding stellar material. Unlike one dimensional calculations, the 2D code fails to achieve high entropies in the bubble. When run in a spherically symmetric mode the 2-D code reaches entropies of ~ 200. When convection is allowed, the bubble reaches ~60 then the bubble begins to move upward into the cooler, denser material above it.

  18. Daily spectral effects on concentrating PV solar cells as affected by realistic aerosol optical depth and other atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueymard, Christian A.

    2009-08-01

    This contribution addresses the need for more information about the spectral effect affecting solar cells specifically designed for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) applications. Spectral effects result from differences between the actual (dynamically variable) solar spectrum incident on a solar cell in the field and the standard (fixed) solar spectrum used for rating purposes. A methodology is proposed to quantify this spectral effect at any site where basic atmospheric information exists, and predict what semiconductor material(s) may benefit from operating under non-standard conditions. Using the same SMARTS radiative code as for the development of the improved reference spectrum for concentrating PV rating, an analysis of the spectral sensitivity of five specific PV technologies to varying atmospheric factors is presented, using simulated spectra at 5-nm resolution. (The alternative of using the average photon energy (APE) concept was also considered, but proved inappropriate in the present context.) The technologies investigated here include a 21.5%-efficient CIGS cell, a 22%-efficient crystalline silicon cell (both appropriate for low-concentration applications), as well as three high-performance multijunction cells, which are specifically designed for high-concentration applications. To the difference of most previous studies, the approach taken here considers realistic atmospheric conditions. The proposed Daily Spectral Enhancement Factor (DSEF) is obtained from a typical daily-average incident spectrum, which is purposefully weighted to minimize the incidence of large spectral effects at low sun. Calculations of DSEF are performed here at fifteen world sites from an atmospheric monitoring network. These sites have largely different latitudes and climates, and yet are all potentially interesting for CPV applications. Results are obtained for a typical clear day of January and July, and for each of the five PV technologies just mentioned. This analysis

  19. Deep Teaching in Chemical Engineering Experiment Demonstrated by Taking Determination of the Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient for Atmosphere-Vapor as an Example%化工实验深度教学例析--以“空气-蒸汽对流给热系数测定”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红丽; 舒世立; 黄艳娥

    2014-01-01

    深度教学法要求在教学过程中基于知识体系对基本的教学内容进行深化和拓展。以“空气-蒸汽对流给热系数测定”为例分析化工实验深度教学方法,以引导学生完成对化工基础理论知识的深化理解,并帮助学生逐步建立工程概念。%Deep teaching focuses on deepening and widening the fundamental teaching contents based on the integrity of the knowledge system. A deep teaching was demonstrated inChemical Engineering Experiment by takingDetermination of the Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient for Atmosphere-Vapor as an example in order to induce the students to deeply understand the basic theory and knowledge and to help them to gradually establish their engineering concept.

  20. Regimes of dry convection above wildfires: Idealized numerical simulations and dimensional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Kiefer; Matthew D. Parker; Joseph J. Charney

    2009-01-01

    Wildfires are capable of inducing atmospheric circulations that result predominantly from large temperature anomalies produced by the fire. The fundamental dynamics through which a forest fire and the atmosphere interact to yield different convective regimes is still not well understood. This study uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) model to...

  1. Internally heated convection and Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    CERN Document Server

    Goluskin, David

    2016-01-01

    This Brief describes six basic models of buoyancy-driven convection in a fluid layer: three configurations of internally heated convection and three configurations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The author discusses the main quantities that characterize heat transport in each model, along with the constraints on these quantities. This presentation is the first to place the various models in a unified framework, and similarities and differences between the cases are highlighted. Necessary and sufficient conditions for convective motion are given. For the internally heated cases only, parameter-dependent lower bounds on the mean fluid temperature are proven, and results of past simulations and laboratory experiments are summarized and reanalyzed. The author poses several open questions for future study.

  2. Proliferation assay of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells exposed to atmospheric-pressure plasmas at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Taichi; Ando, Ayumi; Hirano, Kazumi; Ogura, Chika; Kanazawa, Tatsuya; Ikeguchi, Masamichi; Seki, Atsushi; Nishihara, Shoko; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Proliferation assays of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells have been performed with cell culture media exposed to atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APPs), which generate reactive species in the media at room temperature. It is found that serum in cell culture media functions as a scavenger of highly reactive species and tends to protect cells in the media against cellular damage. On the other hand, if serum is not present in a cell culture medium when it is exposed to APP, the medium becomes cytotoxic and cannot be detoxified by serum added afterwards. Plasma-induced cytotoxic media hinder proliferation of mouse ES cells and may even cause cell death. It is also shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that organic compounds in cell culture media are in general not significantly modified by plasma exposure. These results indicate that if there is no serum in media when they are exposed to APPs, highly reactive species (such as OH radicals) generated in the media by the APP exposure are immediately converted to less reactive species (such as H2O2), which can no longer readily react with serum that is added to the medium after plasma exposure. This study has clearly shown that it is these less reactive species, rather than highly reactive species, that make the medium cytotoxic to mouse ES cells.

  3. Magnetic Control of Convection during Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F. W.

    2004-01-01

    An important component in biotechnology, particularly in the area of protein engineering and rational drug design is the knowledge of the precise three-dimensional molecular structure of proteins. The quality of structural information obtained from X-ray diffraction methods is directly dependent on the degree of perfection of the protein crystals. As a consequence, the growth of high quality macromolecular Crystals for diffraction analyses has been the central focus for bio-chemists, biologists, and bioengineers. Macromolecular crystals are obtained from solutions that contain the crystallizing species in equilibrium with higher aggregates, ions, precipitants, other possible phases of the protein, foreign particles, the walls of container, and a likely host of other impurities. By changing transport modes in general, i.e., reduction of convection and Sedimentation as is achieved in "microgravity", we have been able to dramatically affect the movement and distribution of macromolecules in the fluid, and thus their transport, f o d o n of crystal nuclei, and adsorption to the crystal surface. While a limited number of high quality crystals from space flights have been obtained, as the recent National Research Council (NRC) review of the NASA microgravity crystallization program pointed out, the scientific approach and research in crystallization of proteins has been mainly empirical yielding inconclusive results. We postulate that we can reduce convection in ground-based experiments and we can understand the different aspects of convection control through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients. We postulate that limited convection in a magnetic field will provide the environment for the growth of high quality crystals. The approach exploits the variation of fluid magnetic susceptibility with counteracts on for this purpose and the convective damping is realized by appropriately positioning the crystal growth cell so that the magnetic susceptibility

  4. Theory of stellar convection II: first stellar models

    CERN Document Server

    Pasetto, S; Chiosi, E; Cropper, M; Weiss, A

    2015-01-01

    We present here the first stellar models on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD), in which convection is treated according to the novel scale-free convection theory (SFC theory) by Pasetto et al. (2014). The aim is to compare the results of the new theory with those from the classical, calibrated mixing-length (ML) theory to examine differences and similarities. We integrate the equations describing the structure of the atmosphere from the stellar surface down to a few percent of the stellar mass using both ML theory and SFC theory. The key temperature over pressure gradients, the energy fluxes, and the extension of the convective zones are compared in both theories. The analysis is first made for the Sun and then extended to other stars of different mass and evolutionary stage. The results are adequate: the SFC theory yields convective zones, temperature gradients of the ambient and of the convective element, and energy fluxes that are very similar to those derived from the "calibrated" MT theory for main s...

  5. Blending geological observations and convection models to reconstruct mantle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltice, Nicolas; Bocher, Marie; Fournier, Alexandre; Tackley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the state of the Earth mantle and its temporal evolution is fundamental to a variety of disciplines in Earth Sciences, from the internal dynamics to its many expressions in the geological record (postglacial rebound, sea level change, ore deposit, tectonics or geomagnetic reversals). Mantle convection theory is the centerpiece to unravel the present and past state of the mantle. For the past 40 years considerable efforts have been made to improve the quality of numerical models of mantle convection. However, they are still sparsely used to estimate the convective history of the solid Earth, in comparison to ocean or atmospheric models for weather and climate prediction. The main shortcoming is their inability to successfully produce Earth-like seafloor spreading and continental drift self-consistently. Recent convection models have begun to successfully predict these processes. Such breakthrough opens the opportunity to retrieve the recent dynamics of the Earth's mantle by blending convection models together with advanced geological datasets. A proof of concept will be presented, consisting in a synthetic test based on a sequential data assimilation methodology.

  6. Shallow cumulus convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neggers, R.

    2002-01-01

    Clouds play an important role in the earth's climate. Firstly, they are important in the radiative energy budget of the global atmosphere. Clouds absorb and reflect ultraviolet solar radiation, and emit infrared radiation depending on their temperature. Secondly, an important part of

  7. A stochastic parameterization for deep convection using cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, L.; Steinheimer, M.; Bechtold, P.; Geleyn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Cumulus parameterizations used in most operational weather and climate models today are based on the mass-flux concept which took form in the early 1970's. In such schemes it is assumed that a unique relationship exists between the ensemble-average of the sub-grid convection, and the instantaneous state of the atmosphere in a vertical grid box column. However, such a relationship is unlikely to be described by a simple deterministic function (Palmer, 2011). Thus, because of the statistical nature of the parameterization challenge, it has been recognized by the community that it is important to introduce stochastic elements to the parameterizations (for instance: Plant and Craig, 2008, Khouider et al. 2010, Frenkel et al. 2011, Bentsson et al. 2011, but the list is far from exhaustive). There are undoubtedly many ways in which stochastisity can enter new developments. In this study we use a two-way interacting cellular automata (CA), as its intrinsic nature possesses many qualities interesting for deep convection parameterization. In the one-dimensional entraining plume approach, there is no parameterization of horizontal transport of heat, moisture or momentum due to cumulus convection. In reality, mass transport due to gravity waves that propagate in the horizontal can trigger new convection, important for the organization of deep convection (Huang, 1988). The self-organizational characteristics of the CA allows for lateral communication between adjacent NWP model grid-boxes, and temporal memory. Thus the CA scheme used in this study contain three interesting components for representation of cumulus convection, which are not present in the traditional one-dimensional bulk entraining plume method: horizontal communication, memory and stochastisity. The scheme is implemented in the high resolution regional NWP model ALARO, and simulations show enhanced organization of convective activity along squall-lines. Probabilistic evaluation demonstrate an enhanced spread in

  8. Convection in a vertical channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisserand, J-C; Creyssels, M; Gibert, M; Castaing, B; Chilla, F, E-mail: Francesca.Chilla@ens-lyon.f [Universite de Lyon, ENS Lyon, UMR 5672 CNRS, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 7 (France)

    2010-07-15

    The flow generated by heat convection in a long, vertical channel is studied by means of particle imagery velocimetry techniques, with the help of the thermal measurements from a previous paper (Gibert et al 2009 Phys. Fluids 21 035109). We analyse the mean velocity profiles and the Reynolds stresses, and compare the present results with the previous ones obtained in a larger cell and at a larger Reynolds number. We calculate the horizontal temperature profile and the related horizontal heat flux. The pertinence of effective turbulent diffusivity and viscosity is confirmed by the low value of the associated mixing length. We study the one-point and two-point statistics of both velocity components. We show how the concept of turbulent viscosity explains the relations between the local probability density functions (pdf) of fluctuations for temperature, vertical and horizontal velocity components. Despite the low Reynolds number values explored, some conclusions can be drawn about the small scale velocity differences and the related energy cascade.

  9. Parameterization of convective clouds mesoscale convective systems, and convective-generated cirrus. Final report, September 15, 1990--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, W.R.

    1993-11-05

    The overall goal of this research is to develop a scheme to parameterize diabatic heating, moisture/water substance, and momentum transports, and precipitation from mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) for use in general circulation models (GCMs). Our approach is to perform explicit cloud-resolving simulations of MCSs in the spirit of the GEWEX Cloud Systems Study (GCSS), by using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) developed at Colorado State University (CSU). We then perform statistical analyses (conditional sampling, ensemble-averages, trajectory analyses) of simulated MCSs to assist in fabricating a parameterization scheme, calibrating coefficients, and provide independent tests of the efficacy of the parameterization scheme. A cloud-resolving simulation of ordinary cumulonimbi forced by sea breeze fronts has been completed. Analysis of this case and comparison with parameterized convection simulations has resulted in a number of refinements in the scheme. Three three-dimensional, cloud-resolving simulations of MCSs have been completed. Statistical analyses of model-output data are being performed to assist in developing a parameterization scheme of MCSs in general circulation models.

  10. Structures, profile consistency, and transport scaling in electrostatic convection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2005-01-01

    that for interchange modes, profile consistency is in fact due to mixing by persistent large-scale convective cells. This mechanism is not a turbulent diffusion, cannot occur in collisionless systems, and is the analog of the well-known laminar "magnetic flux expulsion" in magneiohydrodynamics. This expulsion process...... involves a "pinch" across closed streamlines and further results in the formation of pressure fingers along the-separatrix of the convective cells. By nature, these coherent structures are dissipative because the mixing process that leads to their formation relies on a finite amount of collisional...... diffusion. Numerical simulations of two-dimensional interchange modes confirm the role of laminar expulsion by convective cells, for profile consistency and structure formation. They also show that the fingerlike pressure structures ultimately control the rate of heat transport across the plasma layer...

  11. Plumes in stellar convection zones

    CERN Document Server

    Zahn, J P

    1999-01-01

    All numerical simulations of compressible convection reveal the presence of strong downwards directed flows. Thanks to helioseismology, such plumes have now been detected also at the top of the solar convection zone, on super- granular scales. Their properties may be crudely described by adopting Taylor's turbulent entrainment hypothesis, whose validity is well established under various conditions. Using this model, one finds that the strong density stratification does not prevent the plumes from traversing the whole convection zone, and that they carry upwards a net energy flux (Rieutord & Zahn 1995). They penetrate to some extent in the adjacent stable region, where they establish a nearly adiabatic stratification. These plumes have a strong impact on the dynamics of stellar convection zones, and they play probably a key role in the dynamo mechanism.

  12. Responses of epidermal cell turgor pressure and photosynthetic activity of leaves of the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Bromeliaceae) after exposure to high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig E; Rux, Guido; Herppich, Werner B

    2013-01-01

    It has been well-established that many epiphytic bromeliads of the atmospheric-type morphology, i.e., with leaf surfaces completely covered by large, overlapping, multicellular trichomes, are capable of absorbing water vapor from the atmosphere when air humidity increases. It is much less clear, however, whether this absorption of water vapor can hydrate the living cells of the leaves and, as a consequence, enhance physiological processes in such cells. The goal of this research was to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides results in an increase in turgor pressure in leaf epidermal cells that subtend the large trichomes, and, by using chlorophyll fluorescence techniques, to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by leaves of this epiphyte results in increased photosynthetic activity. Results of measurements on living cells of attached leaves of this epiphytic bromeliad, using a pressure probe and of whole-shoot fluorescence imaging analyses clearly illustrated that the turgor pressure of leaf epidermal cells did not increase, and the photosynthetic activity of leaves did not increase, following exposure of the leaves to high humidity air. These results experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, that the absorption of water vapor following increases in atmospheric humidity in atmospheric epiphytic bromeliads is mostly likely a physical phenomenon resulting from hydration of non-living leaf structures, e.g., trichomes, and has no physiological significance for the plant's living tissues.

  13. On the relationship between convection intensity of South China Sea summer monsoon and air-sea temperature difference in the tropical oceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Ailan; LIANG Jianyin; GU Dejun; WANG Dongxiao

    2004-01-01

    The annual, interannual and inter-decadal variability of convection intensity of South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon and air-sea temperature difference in the tropical ocean is analyzed, and their relationship is discussed using two data sets of 48-a SODA (simple ocean data assimilation) and NCEP/NCAR. Analyses show that in wintertime Indian Ocean (WIO), springtime central tropical Pacific (SCTP) and summertime South China Sea-West Pacific (SSCSWP), air-sea temperature difference is significantly associated with the convection intensity of South China Sea summer monsoon. Correlation of the inter-decadal time scale (above 10 a) is higher and more stable. There is interdecadal variability of correlation in scales less than 10 a and it is related with the air-sea temperature difference itself for corresponding waters. The inter-decadal variability of the convection intensity during the South China Sea summer monsoon is closely related to the inter-decadal variability of the general circulation of the atmosphere. Since the late period of the 1970s, in the lower troposphere, the cross-equatorial flow from the Southern Hemisphere has intensified. At the upper troposphere layer, the South Asian high and cross-equatorial flow from the Northern Hemisphere has intensified at the same time. Then the monsoon cell has also strengthened and resulted in the reinforcing of the convection of South China Sea summer monsoon.

  14. Roles of convective heating and boundary-layer moisture asymmetry in slowing down the convectively coupled Kelvin waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Mechanisms for an in-phase relationship between convection and low-level zonal wind and the slow propagation of the convectively coupled Kelvin wave (CCKW) are investigated by analyzing satellite-based brightness temperature and reanalysis data and by constructing a simple theoretical model. Observational data analysis reveals an eastward shift of the low-level convergence and moisture relative to the CCKW convective center. The composite vertical structures show that the low-level convergence lies in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) (below 800 hPa), and is induced by the pressure trough above the top of PBL through an Ekman-pumping process. A traditional view of a slower eastward propagation speed compared to the dry Kelvin waves is attributed to the reduction of atmospheric static stability in mid-troposphere due to the convective heating effect. The authors' quantitative assessment of the heating effect shows that this effect alone cannot explain the observed CCKW phase speed. We hypothesize that additional slowing process arises from the effect of zonally asymmetric PBL moisture. A simple theoretical model is constructed to understand the relative role of the heating induced effective static stability effect and the PBL moisture effect. The result demonstrates the important role of the both effects. Thus, PBL-free atmosphere interaction is important in explaining the observed structure and propagation of CCKW.

  15. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment evokes transient oxidative stress in HaCaT keratinocytes and influences cell physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Kristian; Straßenburg, Susanne; Haertel, Beate; Harms, Manuela; Holtz, Sarah; Barton, Annemarie; Masur, Kai; von Woedtke, Thomas; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2014-04-01

    Modern non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma sources enable controllable interaction with biological systems. Their future applications - e.g. wound management - are based on their unique mixture of reactive components sparking both stimulatory as well as inhibitory processes. To gain detailed understanding of plasma-cell interaction and with respect to risk awareness, key mechanisms need to be identified. This study focuses on the impact of an argon non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (kINPen 09) on human HaCaT keratinocytes. With increasing duration, cell viability decreased. In accordance, cells accumulated in G2/M phase within the following 24 h. DNA single-strand breaks were detected immediately after treatment and receded in the aftermath, returning to control levels after 24 h. No directly plasma-related DNA double-strand breaks were detected over the same time. Concurrently, DNA synthesis decreased. Coincident with treatment time, an increase in intracellular 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H(2)DCFDA) conversion increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The radical scavenging activity of culture medium crucially influenced these effects. Thus, ROS changed DNA integrity, and the effectiveness of cellular defence mechanisms characterises the interaction of non-thermal plasma and eukaryotic cells. Effects were time-dependent, indicating an active response of the eukaryotic cells. Hence, a stimulation of eukaryotic cells using short-term non-thermal plasma treatment seems possible, eg in the context of chronic wound care. Long-term plasma treatments stopped in cell proliferation and apoptosis, which might be relevant in controlling neoplastic conditions.

  16. Boundary Layer Ventilation by Convection and Coastal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacre, H.

    2008-12-01

    Several observational studies measuring aerosol in the atmosphere have found multiple aerosol layers located above the marine boundary layer. It is hypothesized that the existence of these layers is influenced by the diurnal variation in the structure of the upwind continental boundary layer. Furthermore, collision between a sea breeze and the prevailing wind can result in enhanced convection at the coast which can also lead to elevated layers of pollution. In this study we investigate the processes responsible for ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer near the coast using the UK Met Office Unified Model. Pollution sources are represented by the constant emission of a passive tracer everywhere over land. The ventilation processes observed include shallow convection, a sea breeze circulation and coastal outflow. Vertical distributions of tracer at the coast are validated qualitatively with AMPEP (Aircraft Measurement of chemical Processing Export fluxes of Pollutants over the UK) CO aircraft measurements and are shown to agree well.

  17. Natural thermal convection in fractured porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, P. M.; Mezon, C.; Mourzenko, V.; Thovert, J. F.; Antoine, R.; Finizola, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the crust, fractures/faults can provide preferential pathways for fluid flow or act as barriers preventing the flow across these structures. In hydrothermal systems (usually found in fractured rock masses), these discontinuities may play a critical role at various scales, controlling fluid flows and heat transfer. The thermal convection is numerically computed in 3D fluid satured fractured porous media. Fractures are inserted as discrete objects, randomly distributed over a damaged volume, which is a fraction of the total volume. The fluid is assumed to satisfy Darcy's law in the fractures and in the porous medium with exchanges between them. All simulations were made for Rayleigh numbers (Ra) equilibrium with the medium), cubic boxes and closed-top conditions. Checks were performed on an unfractured porous medium and the convection cells do start for the theoretical value of Ra, namely 4p². 2D convection was verified up to Ra=800. The influence of parameters such as fracture aperture (or fracture transmissivity), fracture density and fracture length is studied. Moreover, these models are compared to porous media with the same macroscopic permeability. Preliminary results show that the non-uniqueness associated with initial conditions which makes possible either 2D or 3D convection in porous media (Schubert & Straus 1979) is no longer true for fractured porous media (at least for 50

  18. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  19. High throughput measurement of high temperature strength of ceramics in controlled atmosphere and its use on solid oxide fuel cell anode supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Curran, Declan; Rasmussen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    In the development of structural and functional ceramics for high temperature electrochemical conversion devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, their mechanical properties must be tested at operational conditions, i.e. at high temperature and controlled atmospheres. Furthermore, characterization...

  20. Cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma treatment of C6 glioma cells: effects of reactive oxygen species in the medium produced by the plasma on cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuyang; Cheng, Cheng; Gao, Peng; Li, Shaopeng; Shen, Jie; Lan, Yan; Yu, Yongqiang; Chu, Paul K.

    2017-02-01

    An atmospheric-pressure air plasma is employed to treat C6 glioma cells in vitro. To elucidate on the mechanism causing cell death and role of reactive species (RS) in the medium produced by the plasma, the concentration of the long-lived RS such as hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and ozone in the plasma-treated liquid (phosphate-buffered saline solution) is measured. When vitamin C is added to the medium as a ROS quencher, the viability of C6 glioma cells after the plasma treatment is different from that without vitamin C. The results demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2, and O3 constitute the main factors for inactivation of C6 glioma cells and the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) may only play an auxiliary role in cell death.

  1. Cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma treatment of C6 glioma cells: effects of reactive oxygen species in the medium produced by the plasma on cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyang, Wang; Cheng, Cheng; Peng, Gao; Shaopeng, Li; Jie, Shen; Yan, Lan; Yongqiang, Yu; Paul, K. Chu

    2017-02-01

    An atmospheric-pressure air plasma is employed to treat C6 glioma cells in vitro. To elucidate on the mechanism causing cell death and role of reactive species (RS) in the medium produced by the plasma, the concentration of the long-lived RS such as hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and ozone in the plasma-treated liquid (phosphate-buffered saline solution) is measured. When vitamin C is added to the medium as a ROS quencher, the viability of C6 glioma cells after the plasma treatment is different from that without vitamin C. The results demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2, and O3 constitute the main factors for inactivation of C6 glioma cells and the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) may only play an auxiliary role in cell death.

  2. Natural convection characteristics of flat plate collectors. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, K.R.; Wl-Wakil, M.M.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1977-09-01

    The results of an experimental investigation into the convective heat losses in large aspect ratio flat-plate solar collectors are described. An experimental study has been undertaken on a specially designed test cell using a 3 inch Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Air at atmospheric pressure was used as the heat-transfer fluid. The experimental results include interferograms which show the thermal boundary layer formations and the temperature profiles. Local temperature profiles have been analyzed through the use of an optical comparator to determine local Nusselt number profiles, which have, in turn, been integrated to give average heat-transfer results. Angles of inclination from the horizontal of 45, 60, 75 and 90 degrees have been investigated. Aspect ratios from 9 to 36 were examined over a Rayleigh number range of 4,000 to 310,000. Finally, heat-transfer correlations have been developed for the prediction of local Nusselt numbers in the starting and departure corners and for the average heat-transfer results as a function of collector tilt angle.

  3. Mesogranulation as A Distinct Scale of Convection in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Kurt T.; Hathaway, David H.; Khatri, Gaurav; Petitto, Joshua M.

    1998-01-01

    We present evidence for the existence of mesogranulation as a scale of convection distinct from granulation and supergranulation through analysis of full-disk Doppler velocity images of the Sun collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) aboard the NASA/ESA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Our analysis procedures isolate nearly steady flows in the solar photosphere and yield power spectra of convection for spherical harmonic degrees up to I = 1000. Each spectrum exhibits an obvious supergranulation peak at I approximately 130 and a broad secondary peak at I approximately 600 with a distinct break in the spectrum between these peaks at I approximately 300. We believe that this secondary peak is a signature of mesogranulation with typical cell diameters of about 7 Mm. Our standard analysis procedure is to first remove the p-mode oscillation signal by averaging individual Dopplergrams over 17-minute intervals. Next, by fitting to standard functional forms we remove Doppler signals due to the motion of the spacecraft, the convective blueshift, solar rotation including differential rotation, and the meridional circulation in order to produce Dopplergrams dominated by convective motions. By mapping these processed images onto heliographic coordinates and projecting onto spherical harmonics, we produce a power spectrum of solar convection for each 17-minute period. We construct synthetic images and pass them through the same analysis procedure in order to determine the actual solar convection spectrum that reproduces the analyzed results. We find that a small but increasing percentage of high-degree convective power is lost in the analysis as we approach the limit of resolution of the detector but'that the broad, mesogranulation peak at I approximately 600 must be included in the convection spectrum of the synthetic images.

  4. An Expanded Analysis of Nitrogen Ice Convection in Sputnik Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umurhan, Orkan M.; Lyra, Wladimir; Wong, Teresa; McKinnon, William B.; Nimmo, Francis; Howard, Alan D.; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Binzel, Richard; White, Oliver; Stern, S. Alan; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Catherine B.; Weaver, Harold A.; Young, Leslie; New Horizons Geology and Geophysics Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The New Horizons close-encounter flyby of Pluto revealed 20-35 km scale ovoid patterns on the informally named Sputnik Planum. These features have been recently interpreted and shown to arise from the action of solid-state convection of (predominantly) nitrogen ice driven by Pluto's geothermal gradient. One of the major uncertainties in the convection physics centers on the temperature and grain-size dependency of nitrogen ice rheology, which has strong implications for the overturn times of the convecting ice. Assuming nitrogen ice in Sputnik Planum rests on a passive water ice bedrock that conducts Pluto's interior heat flux, and, given the uncertainty of the grain-size distribution of the nitrogen ice in Sputnik Planum, we examine a suite of two-dimensional convection models that take into account the thermal contact between the nitrogen ice layer and the conducting water-ice bedrock for a given emergent geothermal flux. We find for nitrogen ice layers several km deep, the emerging convection efficiently cools the nitrogen-ice water-ice bedrock interface resulting in temperature differences across the convecting layer of 10-20 K (at most) regardless of layer depth. For grain sizes ranging from 0.01 mm to 5 mm the resulting horizontal size to depth ratios of the emerging convection patterns go from 4:1 up to 6:1, suggesting that the nitrogen ice layer in Sputnik Planum may be anywhere between 3.5 and 8 km deep. Such depths are consistent with Sputnik Planum being a large impact basin (in a relative sense) analogous to Hellas on Mars. In this grain-size range we also find, (i) the calculated cell overturn times are anywhere from 1e4 to 5e5 yrs and, (ii) there is a distinct transition from steady state to time dependent convection.

  5. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  6. The stellar atmosphere simulation code Bifrost. Code description and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gudiksen, B.V.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.H.; Hayek, W.; Leenaarts, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837946; Martínez-Sykora, J.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Numerical simulations of stellar convection and photospheres have been developed to the point where detailed shapes of observed spectral lines can be explained. Stellar atmospheres are very complex, and very different physical regimes are present in the convection zone, photosphere,

  7. Convection in a Single Column -- Modelling, Algorithm and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bokhove, Onno; Dedner, Andreas; Esler, Gavin; Norbury, John; Turner, Matthew R; Vanneste, Jacques; Cullen, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The group focused on a model problem of idealised moist air convection in a single column of atmosphere. Height, temperature and moisture variables were chosen to simplify the mathematical representation (along the lines of the Boussinesq approximation in a height variable defined in terms of pressure). This allowed exact simple solutions of the numerical and partial differential equation problems to be found. By examining these, we identify column behaviour, stability issues and explore the feasibility of a more general solution process.

  8. Intraseasonal Variations in Tropical Deep Convection, Tropospheric Mean Temperature and Cloud-Induced Radiative Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Holly S.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    2009-01-01

    Intraseasonal variability of deep convection represents a fundamental mode of variability in the organization of tropical convection. While most studies of intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) have focused on the spatial propagation and dynamics of convectively coupled circulations, we examine the projection of ISOs on the tropically-averaged temperature and energy budget. The area of interest is the global oceans between 20oN/S. Our analysis then focuses on these questions: (i) How is tropospheric temperature related to tropical deep convection and the associated ice cloud fractional amount (ICF) and ice water path (IWP)? (ii) What is the source of moisture sustaining the convection and what role does deep convection play in mediating the PBL - free atmospheric temperature equilibration? (iii) What affect do convectively generated upper-tropospheric clouds have on the TOA radiation budget? Our methodology is similar to that of Spencer et al., (2007) with some modifications and some additional diagnostics of both clouds and boundary layer thermodynamics. A composite ISO time series of cloud, precipitation and radiation quantities built from nearly 40 events during a six-year period is referenced to the atmospheric temperature signal. The increase of convective precipitation cannot be sustained by evaporation within the domain, implying strong moisture transports into the tropical ocean area. While there is a decrease in net TOA radiation that develops after the peak in deep convective rainfall, there seems little evidence that an "Infrared Iris"- like mechanism is dominant. Rather, the cloud-induced OLR increase seems largely produced by weakened convection with warmer cloud tops. Tropical ISO events offer an accessible target for studying ISOs not just in terms of propagation mechanisms, but on their global signals of heat, moisture and radiative flux feedback processes.

  9. Physics of greenhouse effect and convection in warm oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, A. K.; Ramanathan, V.

    1994-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) in roughly 50% of the tropical Pacific Ocean is warm enough (SST greater than 300 K) to permit deep convection. This paper examines the effects of deep convection on the climatological mean vertical distributions of water vapor and its greenhouse effect over such warm oceans. The study, which uses a combination of satellite radiation budget observations, atmospheric soundings deployed from ships, and radiation model calculations, also examines the link between SST, vertical distribution of water vapor, and its greenhouse effect in the tropical oceans. Since the focus of the study is on the radiative effects of water vapor, the radiation model calculations do not include the effects of clouds. The data are grouped into nonconvective and convective categories using SST as an index for convective activity. On average, convective regions are more humid, trap significantly more longwave radiation, and emit more radiation to the sea surface. The greenhouse effect in regions of convection operates as per classical ideas, that is, as the SST increases, the atmosphere traps the excess longwave energy emitted by the surface and reradiates it locally back to the ocean surface. The important departure from the classical picture is that the net (up minus down) fluxes at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere decrease with an increase in SST; that is, the surface and the surface-troposphere column lose the ability to radiate the excess energy to space. The cause of this super greenhouse effect at the surface is the rapid increase in the lower-troposphere humidity with SST; that of the column is due to a combination of increase in humidity in the entire column and increase in the lapse rate within the lower troposphere. The increase in the vertical distribution of humidity far exceeds that which can be attributed to the temperature dependence of saturation vapor pressure; that is, the tropospheric relative humidity is larger in convective

  10. Long- range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective and non-convective conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta; Gheddou, Abdelhakim

    2015-04-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) developed by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is a global system of monitoring stations, using four complementary technologies: seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide. Data from all stations, belonging to IMS, are collected and transmitted to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria. The radionuclide network comprises 80 stations, of which more than 60 are certified. The aim of radionuclide stations is a global monitoring of radioactive aerosols and radioactive noble gases, in particular xenon isotopes, supported by the atmospheric transport modeling (ATM). The aim of this study is to investigate the long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective and non-convective conditions. For that purpose a series of 14 days forward simulations was conducted using the Lagrangian Particle Diffusion Model FLEXPART, designed for calculating the long-range and mesoscale dispersion of air pollution from point sources. The release point was at the ANSTO facility in Australia. The geographical localization to some extent justifies the assumption that the only source of Xe-133 observed at the neighbouring stations, comes from the ANSTO facility. In the simulations the analysed wind data provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) were used with the spatial resolution of 0.5 degree. Studies have been performed to link Xe-133 emissions with detections at the IMS stations supported by the ATM, and to assess the impact of atmospheric convection on non-detections at the IMS stations. The results of quantitative and qualitative comparison will be presented.

  11. The Shallow-to-Deep Transition in Convective Clouds During GoAmazon 2014/5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M. P.; Gostic, C.; Giangrande, S. E.; Mechem, D. B.; Ghate, V. P.; Toto, T.

    2016-12-01

    Nearly two years of observations from the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployed at Manacapuru, Brazil during the GOAmazon 2014/5 campaign are analyzed to investigate the environmental conditions controlling the transition from shallow to deep convective clouds. The Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product, which combines radar and lidar observations to produce best estimates of cloud locations in the vertical column is used to qualitatively define four subsets of convective cloud conditions: 1,2) Transition cases (wet season, dry season), where a period of shallow convective clouds is followed by a period of deep convective clouds and 2) Non-transition cases (wet season, dry season), where shallow convective clouds persist without any subsequent development. For these subsets, observations of the time varying thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere, including the surface heat and radiative fluxes, the profiles of atmospheric state variables, and the ECMWF-derived large-scale advective tendencies, are composited to define averaged properties for each transition state. Initial analysis indicates that the transition state strongly depends on the pre-dawn free-tropospheric humidity, the convective inhibition and surface temperature and humidity with little dependence on the convective available potential energy and surface heat fluxes. The composited environmental thermodynamics are then used to force large-eddy simulations for the four transition states to further evaluate the sensitivity of the transition to the composite thermodynamics versus the importance of larger-scale forcing.

  12. A year of convective vortex activity at Gale crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steakley, Kathryn; Murphy, James

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric convective vortices, which become dust devils when they entrain dust from the surface, are prominent features within Mars' atmosphere which are thought to be a primary contributor to the planet's background dust opacity. Buoyantly produced in convectively unstable layers at a planet's surface, these vertically aligned vortices possess rapidly rotating and ascending near-surface warm air and are readily identified by temporal signatures of reduced atmospheric surface pressure measured within the vortex as it passes by. We investigate such signatures in surface pressure measurements acquired by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover located within Gale crater. During the first 707 sols of the mission, 245 convective vortices are identified with pressure drops in the range of 0.30-2.86 Pa with a median value of 0.67 Pa. The cumulative distribution of their pressure drops follows a power law of slope -2.77 and we observe seasonal and diurnal trends in their activity. The vast majority of these pressure signatures lack corresponding reductions in REMS-measured UV flux, suggesting that these vortices rarely cast shadows upon the rover and therefore are most often dust-free. The relatively weak-magnitude, dustless vortices at Gale crater are consistent with predictions from mesoscale modeling indicating that the planetary boundary layer is suppressed within the crater and are also consistent with the almost complete absence of both dust devils within Mars Science Laboratory camera images and Gale crater surface dust devil streaks within orbiter images.

  13. Effects of atmospheric air plasma treatment of graphite and carbon felt electrodes on the anodic current from Shewanella attached cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifanio, Monica; Inguva, Saikumar; Kitching, Michael; Mosnier, Jean-Paul; Marsili, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    The attachment of electrochemically active microorganisms (EAM) on an electrode is determined by both the chemistry and topography of the electrode surface. Pre-treatment of the electrode surface by atmospheric air plasma introduces hydrophilic functional groups, thereby increasing cell attachment and electroactivity in short-term experiments. In this study, we use graphite and carbon felt electrodes to grow the model EAM Shewanella loihica PV-4 at oxidative potential (0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Cell attachment and electroactivity are measured through electrodynamic methods. Atmospheric air plasma pre-treatment increases cell attachment and current output at graphite electrodes by 25%, while it improves the electroactivity of the carbon felt electrodes by 450%. Air plasma pre-treatment decreased the coulombic efficiency on both carbon felt and graphite electrodes by 60% and 80%, respectively. Microbially produced flavins adsorb preferentially at the graphite electrode, and air plasma pre-treatment results in lower flavin adsorption at both graphite and carbon felt electrodes. Results show that air plasma pre-treatment is a feasible option to increase current output in bioelectrochemical systems.

  14. Inclined layer convection in a colloidal suspension with negative Soret coefficient at large solutal Rayleigh numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italia, Matteo; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Scheffold, Frank; Vailati, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Convection in an inclined layer of fluid is affected by the presence of a component of the acceleration of gravity perpendicular to the density gradient that drives the convective motion. In this work we investigate the solutal convection of a colloidal suspension characterized by a negative Soret coefficient. Convection is induced by heating the suspension from above, and at large solutal Rayleigh numbers (of the order of 10(7)-10(8)) convective spoke patterns form. We show that in the presence of a marginal inclination of the cell as small as 19 mrad the isotropy of the spoke pattern is broken and the convective patterns tend to align in the direction of the inclination. At intermediate inclinations of the order of 33 mrad ordered square patterns are obtained, while at inclination of the order of 67 mrad the strong shear flow determined by the inclination gives rise to ascending and descending sheets of fluid aligned parallel to the direction of inclination.

  15. Rapid PCR thermocycling using microscale thermal convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddu, Radha; Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M

    2011-03-05

    Many molecular biology assays depend in some way on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify an initially dilute target DNA sample to a detectable concentration level. But the design of conventional PCR thermocycling hardware, predominantly based on massive metal heating blocks whose temperature is regulated by thermoelectric heaters, severely limits the achievable reaction speed(1). Considerable electrical power is also required to repeatedly heat and cool the reagent mixture, limiting the ability to deploy these instruments in a portable format. Thermal convection has emerged as a promising alternative thermocycling approach that has the potential to overcome these limitations(2-9). Convective flows are an everyday occurrence in a diverse array of settings ranging from the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and interior, to decorative and colorful lava lamps. Fluid motion is initiated in the same way in each case: a buoyancy driven instability arises when a confined volume of fluid is subjected to a spatial temperature gradient. These same phenomena offer an attractive way to perform PCR thermocycling. By applying a static temperature gradient across an appropriately designed reactor geometry, a continuous circulatory flow can be established that will repeatedly transport PCR reagents through temperature zones associated with the denaturing, annealing, and extension stages of the reaction (Figure 1). Thermocycling can therefore be actuated in a pseudo-isothermal manner by simply holding two opposing surfaces at fixed temperatures, completely eliminating the need to repeatedly heat and cool the instrument. One of the main challenges facing design of convective thermocyclers is the need to precisely control the spatial velocity and temperature distributions within the reactor to ensure that the reagents sequentially occupy the correct temperature zones for a sufficient period of time(10,11). Here we describe results of our efforts to probe the full 3-D velocity and

  16. Turbulent convection in the Sun: modeling in unstructured meshes

    CERN Document Server

    Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Ham, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We adopted an unstructured hydrodynamical solver CharLES to the problem of global convection in the Sun. With the aim to investigate the properties of solar turbulent convection and reproduce differential rotation pattern. We performed simulations in two spherical shells, with 1.3 and 10 million cells. In the first, coarse mesh, the solution does not reproduce realistic convection, and is dominated by numerical effects. In the second mesh, thermal conduction leads to cooling of bottom layers, that could not be compensated by solar irradiance. More simulations in the 10M cells mesh should be performed to investigate the influence of transport coefficients and numerical effects. Our estimate of the code performance suggests, that realistic simulations in even finer grids could be performed for reasonable computational cost.

  17. Effect of gravity convection on interface morphology during solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN MengMeng; CHEN ChangLe; LI ZhanYao; JIN QuanWei

    2007-01-01

    An experimental apparatus consisting of a crystal growth room and a crystal growth observation system was developed for the study of the effect of the gravity convection perpendicular to the growth direction on the growth process by use of model alloy succinonitrile (SCN)-5wt%ethanol. It was found that the convection improves the stability of the interface and causes the downstream alternation of the cell growth direction because of the dual effect of the Stokes force and the gravity. The second dendrite arm facing the flow comes into being earlier than that at another side when the interface transforms cell to dendrite. Then the dendrite at the side facing the flow comes into being earlier. The second dendrite arm facing the flow grows faster and is more developed than that at another side. In addition, the primary dendrite arm spacing increases and the dendrite tip radius decreases under the gravity convection.

  18. Effect of gravity convection on interface morphology during solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An experimental apparatus consisting of a crystal growth room and a crystal growth observation system was developed for the study of the effect of the gravity convection perpendicular to the growth direction on the growth process by use of model alloy succinonitrile (SCN)-5wt%ethanol. It was found that the convection improves the stability of the interface and causes the downstream alternation of the cell growth direction because of the dual effect of the Stokes force and the gravity. The second dendrite arm facing the flow comes into being earlier than that at an- other side when the interface transforms cell to dendrite. Then the dendrite at the side facing the flow comes into being earlier. The second dendrite arm facing the flow grows faster and is more developed than that at another side. In addition, the primary dendrite arm spacing increases and the dendrite tip radius decreases un- der the gravity convection.

  19. ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (AS-PECAN) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D. D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Silver Spring, MD (United States); Geerts, B. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field campaign was a large multi-agency/multi-institutional experiment that targeted nighttime convection events in the central plains of the United States in order to better understand a range of processes that lead to the initiation and upscale growth of deep convection. Both weather and climate models struggle to properly represent the timing and intensity of precipitation in the central United States in their simulations. These models must be able to represent the interactions between the nocturnal stable boundary layer (SBL), the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ), and a reservoir of convectively available potential energy (CAPE) that frequently exists above the SBL. Furthermore, a large fraction of the nocturnal precipitation is due to the organization of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). In particular, there were four research foci for the PECAN campaign: •The initiation of elevated nocturnal convection focus seeks to elucidate the mesoscaleenvironmental characteristics and processes that lead to convection initiation (CI) and provide baseline data on the early evolution of mesoscale convective clusters. •The dynamics and internal structure and microphysics of nocturnal MCSs focus will investigatethe transition from surface-based to elevated storm structure, the interaction of cold pools generated by MCSs with the nocturnal stable boundary layer, and how the organization and evolution of elevated convection is influenced by the SBL and the vertical profile of wind and stability above the LLJ. •The bores and wave-like disturbances focus seeks to advance knowledge of the initiation of boredisturbances by convection, how the vertical profile of stability and winds modulate bore structure, the role of these disturbances in the initiation, maintenance, and organization of deep convection, and their impact on the LLJ and SBL. •The LLJ focus seeks to understand the processes that influence the spatial and

  20. A Convective Cloud Feedback and Spring Arctic Sea Ice Forecasting at High CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot, D. S.; Walker, C. C.; Tziperman, E.

    2008-12-01

    Winter and spring sea ice dramatically cool the Arctic climate during the the coldest seasons of the year and may have remote effects on global climate as well. Accurate forecasting of winter and spring sea ice has significant social and economic benefits. Such forecasting requires the identification and understanding of all the feedbacks that can affect sea ice. A novel convective cloud feedback has recently been proposed in the context of explaining equable climates, e.g., the climate of the Eocene, that might be important for determining future winter and spring sea ice. In this feedback CO2 -initiated warming leads to sea ice reduction, which which allows increased heat and moisture fluxes from the ocean surface, which destabilizes the atmosphere and leads to atmospheric convection. This atmospheric convection produces high and optically thick convective clouds and increases high-altitude moisture levels, both of which trap outgoing longwave radiation and therefore result in a further warming and sea ice loss. Here it is shown that this convective cloud feedback is active during winter in the coupled ocean-sea ice-land-atmosphere global climate models used for the 1%/year CO2 increase to quadrupling scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report. It is further shown that the convective cloud feedback plays an essential role in the elimination of maximum seasonal (spring) sea ice in NCAR's CCSM model, one of the IPCC models that nearly completely loses spring sea ice. This is done by performing a sensitivity analysis using the atmospheric component of CCSM, run at a CO2 concentration of 1120 ppm, by selectively disabling the convective cloud feedback and the ocean heat transport feedback. The result is that both feedbacks are necessary for the elimination of spring sea ice at this CO2 concentration.

  1. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment Induces Anti-Proliferative Effects in Prostate Cancer Cells by Redox and Apoptotic Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weiss

    Full Text Available One of the promising possibilities of the clinical application of cold plasma, so-called cold atmospheric plasma (CAP, is its application on malignant cells and cancer tissue using its anti-neoplastic effects, primarily through the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS. In this study, we investigated the impact of CAP on cellular proliferation and consecutive molecular response mechanisms in established prostate cancer (PC cell lines. PC cells showed a significantly reduced cell growth following CAP treatment as a result of both an immediate increase of intracellular peroxide levels and through the induction of apoptosis indicated by annexin V assay, TUNEL assay, and the evaluation of changes in nuclear morphology. Notably, co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC completely neutralized CAP effects by NAC uptake and rapid conversion to glutathione (GSH. Vitamin C could not counteract the CAP induced effects on cell growth. In summary, relatively short treatments with CAP of 10 seconds were sufficient to induce a significant inhibition of cancer proliferation, as observed for the first time in urogenital cancer. Therefore, it is important to understand the mode of CAP related cell death and clarify and optimize CAP as cancer therapy. Increased levels of peroxides can alter redox-regulated signaling pathways and can lead to growth arrest and apoptosis. We assume that the general intracellular redox homeostasis, especially the levels of cellular GSH and peroxidases such as peroxiredoxins affect the outcome of the CAP treatment.

  2. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment Induces Anti-Proliferative Effects in Prostate Cancer Cells by Redox and Apoptotic Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Gümbel, Denis; Hanschmann, Eva-Maria; Mandelkow, Robert; Gelbrich, Nadine; Zimmermann, Uwe; Walther, Reinhard; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Sckell, Axel; Kramer, Axel; Burchardt, Martin; Lillig, Christopher H; Stope, Matthias B

    2015-01-01

    One of the promising possibilities of the clinical application of cold plasma, so-called cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), is its application on malignant cells and cancer tissue using its anti-neoplastic effects, primarily through the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS). In this study, we investigated the impact of CAP on cellular proliferation and consecutive molecular response mechanisms in established prostate cancer (PC) cell lines. PC cells showed a significantly reduced cell growth following CAP treatment as a result of both an immediate increase of intracellular peroxide levels and through the induction of apoptosis indicated by annexin V assay, TUNEL assay, and the evaluation of changes in nuclear morphology. Notably, co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) completely neutralized CAP effects by NAC uptake and rapid conversion to glutathione (GSH). Vitamin C could not counteract the CAP induced effects on cell growth. In summary, relatively short treatments with CAP of 10 seconds were sufficient to induce a significant inhibition of cancer proliferation, as observed for the first time in urogenital cancer. Therefore, it is important to understand the mode of CAP related cell death and clarify and optimize CAP as cancer therapy. Increased levels of peroxides can alter redox-regulated signaling pathways and can lead to growth arrest and apoptosis. We assume that the general intracellular redox homeostasis, especially the levels of cellular GSH and peroxidases such as peroxiredoxins affect the outcome of the CAP treatment.

  3. High-latitude ionospheric convection during strong interplanetary magnetic field B-y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, C.S.; Sofko, G.J.; Murr, D.

    1999-01-01

    An unusual high-latitude ionospheric pattern was observed on March 23, 1995. ionospheric convection appeared as clockwise merging convection cell focused at 84 degrees magnetic latitude around 1200 MLT. No signature of the viscous convection cell in the afternoon sector was observed....... The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions corresponding to the occurrence of the ionospheric convection were B-x approximate to 1 nT, B-y approximate to 10 nT, and B-z ... conditions. It is found that the location of the convection cell focus in this event is at least two hours earlier than those previously observed and about 5 hours earlier than that predicted by the MHD model. The observations may have some significant implications on the antiparallel merging theory....

  4. Novel thin films deposited on electrospun PCL scaffolds by atmospheric pressure plasma jet for L929 fibroblast cell cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozutok, M.; Baitukha, A.; Arefi-Khonsari, F.; Turkoglu Sasmazel, H.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports on the deposition of PCL homopolymers and poly ɛ-caprolactone-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG) copolymers by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) onto electrospun PCL scaffolds for improving L929 fibroblast cell growth. Polymer deposited scaffolds showed better stability as well as lower CA as compared to those treated with APPJ in Ar alone used as the carrier gas to introduce the precursors due to the formation of polar groups generated during the plasma treatment, such as -OH and/or -COO. Average fiber and porosity sizes were calculated by using SEM photographs and the ImageJ Launcher Software program and higher values were observed for both PCL and PCL-PEG deposited scaffolds than the untreated electrospun PCL scaffolds. XPS analysis showed that C1s% content decreased for PCL deposited (from 82.4% to 71.0%) and PCL-PEG deposited (from 82.4% to 57.7%) and O1s% composition increased for PCL deposited (from 17.6% to 29.0%) and PCL-PEG deposited (from 17.6% to 42.3%) compared to the untreated one. XPS results proved more incorporation of oxygen moieties on the deposited surfaces than the untreated samples giving rise to more hydrophilic surfaces to the deposited ones. Standard in vitro MTT test, Giemsa staining, fluorescence and CLSM imaging techniques were used for the determination of cell viability, adhesion and proliferation. Cell culture experiments showed that PCL-PEG deposited electrospun PCL scaffolds had the most promising cell adhesion, proliferation and growth among the treated scaffolds. The increased average fiber diameter caused by deposition as well as oxygen containing polar groups formed on the surfaces due to the radicals present in the plasma atmosphere provided higher surface area and functionality, respectively, for cells to attach, yielding better biocompatibility performance.

  5. Organization of tropical deep convection in low vertical wind shears: The role of boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezahegn Semie, Addisu; Tompkins, Adrian Mark

    2015-04-01

    Previous Experiments with convection-permitting models have documented the various roles of water vapor, cold pools, and radiative feedbacks in the self-organization of tropical deep convection. Most of these simulations were conducted using idealized conditions with fixed and spatially homogeneous sea surface temperatures (SST), and over large enough domains the feedback mechanisms lead to strongly organized convection. In its equilibrium state the convection occurs in a single organised cluster or band, depending on the system mean wind state, surrounded by regions that are extremely dry and free of deep convection. . We hypothesize that radiative feedbacks involving the surface may provide a strong negative feedback to counter the organisation of convection. For example, the enhanced downwelling short-wave radiation in suppressed area should lead to enhanced SST (sometime termed SST hotspots). Which will ultimately lead to convection if the atmosphere moistens sufficiently to permit it. Similar feedback may occur over land. We therefore extend the numerical idealized experiment framework by including the effect of an interactive lower boundary sea and land conditions such as ocean and land with a range of soil moisture contents. To ascertain how this affects the self-organization of convection we construct a simple set of diagnostics to classify which mechanisms are operating, their relative importance and spacial scales.

  6. On the importance of cloud—cloud interaction to invigorate convective extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Moseley, Christopher; Hohenegger, Cathy; Haerter, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Observational studies have shown that convective extremes are invigorated with increasing temperatures beyond thermodynamic constraints through the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship (e.g. Lenderink and van Meijgaard, Nature Geosci., 2008; Berg et al., Nature Geosci., 2013). This implies that there are changes in the dynamics of the convective showers that are dependent on the environmental conditions. Observations of convective cells lack sufficient resolution to investigate the dynamics in detail. We have therefore applied a large eddy simulator (LES) at a 200 m horizontal resolution to study the dynamical interaction between convective cells in a set of idealized simulations of a full diurnal cycle with a vertical profile of a typical day with convective showers (Moseley et al., Nature Geosci., 2016). The simulations show that the convective cells are subjected to a gradual self-organization over the day, forming larger cell clusters and more intense precipitation. Further, by tracking rain cells, we find that cells that collide with other cells during their lifetime have a different response to changes in the environmental conditions, such as an increase in temperature, than cells that do not interact. Whereas the non-interacting cells remain almost unaffected by the boundary conditions, the colliding cells show a strong invigoration. Interestingly, granting more time for the self-organization to occur has a similar effect as increasing the temperature. We therefore speculate that self-organization is a key element to explain the strong response of convective extremes to increasing temperature. Our results suggest that proper modeling and predicting of convective extremes requires the description of the interaction between convective clouds.

  7. Properties of shallow convection from Large-Eddie simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, Leif; Herzog, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Utilizing Large-Eddie simulations (LES) of isolated individual convective clouds in an idealised conditionally unstable atmosphere and large-domain LES simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE) from the RICO measuring campaign (Rauber et al. 2007), vertical profiles of individual clouds and statistical properties of the cloud ensemble have been extracted and compared against predictions by an 1D entraining parcel model and against the cloud-ensemble model of the CCFM (Wagner and Graf 2010) convection scheme (which comprises a solution of a Lotka-Volterra population dynamics system). For the simulations of isolated clouds it was possible to achieve agreement with the entraining parcel model when simulations were carried out with 2D axisymmetry and the entrainment rate was prescribed using an entraining profile estimated from LES simulation using a passive tracer (in place of the traditional Morton- Turner entrainment rate parameterisation), this agreement was not achieved when comparing against 3D simulations. Integrating the entraining parcel model using the horizontal mean environment profile of the RCE simulation (and so the vertical profile as would be predicted by a climate model) it was not possible to achieve the variation in cloud-top height seen in the RCE simulation, even when greatly increasing the entrainment rate. However, if the near-environment of a convective cloud was used as the environmental profile the variation in cloud-top height was achieved (by varying the cloud-base state variables within values extracted from RCE simulation). This indicates that the near-cloud environment is significantly different that the horizontal mean environment and must be taken into account if the effect of entrainment is to be correctly captured in parameterisations for convection. Finally, size-distribution of convective clouds extracted from RCE simulation showed qualitative agreement with predictions of CCFM's spectrum model.

  8. Large-scale-vortex dynamos in planar rotating convection

    CERN Document Server

    Guervilly, Céline; Jones, Chris A

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated how large-scale vortices may arise spontaneously in rotating planar convection. Here we examine the dynamo properties of such flows in rotating Boussinesq convection. For moderate values of the magnetic Reynolds number ($100 \\lesssim Rm \\lesssim 550$, with $Rm$ based on the box depth and the convective velocity), a large-scale (i.e. system-size) magnetic field is generated. The amplitude of the magnetic energy oscillates in time, out of phase with the oscillating amplitude of the large-scale vortex. The dynamo mechanism relies on those components of the flow that have length scales lying between that of the large-scale vortex and the typical convective cell size; smaller-scale flows are not required. The large-scale vortex plays a crucial role in the magnetic induction despite being essentially two-dimensional. For larger magnetic Reynolds numbers, the dynamo is small scale, with a magnetic energy spectrum that peaks at the scale of the convective cells. In this case, ...

  9. Mammalian cell-transforming potential of traffic-linked ultrafine particulate matter PM0.056 in urban roadside atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mukesh K; Poojan, Shiv; Sultana, Sarwat; Kumar, Sushil

    2014-09-01

    We examined the clastogenic and cell-transforming potential of ultrafine particulate matter fraction PM0.056 of urban ambient aerosol using mammalian cells. PM1.0, PM0.56 and PM0.056 fractions were sampled from roadside atmosphere of an urban area using the cascade impactor MOUDI-NR-110. The potential to induce cytotoxicity, DNA damage and micronuclei formation was examined at the test concentrations of 3, 6, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml using the 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the plasmid relaxation assay and the C3H10T1/2 (10T1/2) cells. The cell-transforming potential was investigated in vitro using 10T1/2 cell transformation assay and the soft agar assay. PM1, PM0.56 and PM0.056 fractions were found to be toxic in dose-dependent manner. These induced cytotoxicity at five test concentrations, the ultrafine particle fraction PM0.056 showed greater cytotoxic potential. PM0.056 induced micronucleus formation in 10T1/2 cells. The effect was statistically significant. The DNA-damaging potential was measured in a plasmid relaxation assay. Both fine and ultrafine particle fraction PM0.56 and PM0.056 displayed greater effect as compared to larger PM1 fraction. DNA damage was found to be dependent on particulate matter intrinsic pro-oxidant chemicals. The ability of the ultrafine particle fraction PM0.056 to induce morphological cell transformation was demonstrated by significant and dose-dependent increases in type III focus formation by morphologically transformed cells in culture flasks and their clonal expansion in soft agar. It is concluded that the traffic-linked ultrafine particle fraction PM0.056 in the atmosphere by the roadside of an urban area is clastogenic and able to induce morphological transformation of mammalian cells.

  10. An Improvement of the Mass Flux Convection Parameterization Scheme and its Sensitivity Tests for Seasonal Prediction over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平凡; 高守亭; 王会军

    2003-01-01

    A modified cumulus parameterization scheme, suitable for use in a seasonal forecast model, is presented. This parameterization scheme is an improvement of the mass flux convection scheme developed by Gregory and Rowntree (1989; 1990). This convection scheme uses a "bulk" cloud model to present an ensemble of convective clouds, and aims to represent shallow, deep, and mid-level convection. At present,this convection scheme is employed in the NCC T63L20 model (National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration). Simulation results with this scheme have revealed some deficiencies in the scheme,although to some extent, it improves the accuracy of the simulation. In order to alleviate the deficiencies and reflect the effect of cumulus convection in the actual atmosphere, the scheme is modified and improved.The improvements include (i) the full estimation of the effects of the large-scale convergence in the lower layer upon cumulus convection, (ii) the revision of the initial convective mass flux, and (iii) the regulation of convective-scale downdrafts. A comparison of the results obtained by using the original model and the modified one shows that the improvement and modification of the original convection scheme is successful in simulating the precipitation and general circulation field, because the modified scheme provides a good simulation of the main features of seasonal precipitation in China, and an analysis of the anomaly correlation coefficient between the simulation and the observations confirms the improved results.

  11. Comparison of Measured and Numerically Simulated Turbulence Statistics in a Convective Boundary Layer Over Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Raj K.; Berg, Larry K.; Kosović, Branko; Mirocha, Jeffrey D.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shaw, William J.

    2016-11-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model can be used to simulate atmospheric processes ranging from quasi-global to tens of m in scale. Here we employ large-eddy simulation (LES) using the WRF model, with the LES-domain nested within a mesoscale WRF model domain with grid spacing decreasing from 12.15 km (mesoscale) to 0.03 km (LES). We simulate real-world conditions in the convective planetary boundary layer over an area of complex terrain. The WRF-LES model results are evaluated against observations collected during the US Department of Energy-supported Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study. Comparison of the first- and second-order moments, turbulence spectrum, and probability density function of wind speed shows good agreement between the simulations and observations. One key result is to demonstrate that a systematic methodology needs to be applied to select the grid spacing and refinement ratio used between domains, to avoid having a grid resolution that falls in the grey zone and to minimize artefacts in the WRF-LES model solutions. Furthermore, the WRF-LES model variables show large variability in space and time caused by the complex topography in the LES domain. Analyses of WRF-LES model results show that the flow structures, such as roll vortices and convective cells, vary depending on both the location and time of day as well as the distance from the inflow boundaries.

  12. Comparison of Measured and Numerically Simulated Turbulence Statistics in a Convective Boundary Layer Over Complex Terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Raj K.; Berg, Larry K.; Kosović, Branko; Mirocha, Jeffrey D.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shaw, William J.

    2016-11-25

    High resolution numerical simulation can provide insight into important physical processes that occur within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The present work employs large eddy simulation (LES) using the Weather Forecasting and Research (WRF) model, with the LES domain nested within mesoscale simulation, to simulate real conditions in the convective PBL over an area of complex terrain. A multiple nesting approach has been used to downsize the grid spacing from 12.15 km (mesoscale) to 0.03 km (LES). A careful selection of grid spacing in the WRF Meso domain has been conducted to minimize artifacts in the WRF-LES solutions. The WRF-LES results have been evaluated with in situ and remote sensing observations collected during the US Department of Energy-supported Columbia BasinWind Energy Study (CBWES). Comparison of the first- and second-order moments, turbulence spectrum, and probability density function (PDF) of wind speed shows good agreement between the simulations and data. Furthermore, the WRF-LES variables show a great deal of variability in space and time caused by the complex topography in the LES domain. The WRF-LES results show that the flow structures, such as roll vortices and convective cells, vary depending on both the location and time of day. In addition to basic studies related to boundary-layer meteorology, results from these simulations can be used in other applications, such as studying wind energy resources, atmospheric dispersion, fire weather etc.

  13. Comparison of Measured and Numerically Simulated Turbulence Statistics in a Convective Boundary Layer Over Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Raj K.; Berg, Larry K.; Kosović, Branko; Mirocha, Jeffrey D.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shaw, William J.

    2017-04-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model can be used to simulate atmospheric processes ranging from quasi-global to tens of m in scale. Here we employ large-eddy simulation (LES) using the WRF model, with the LES-domain nested within a mesoscale WRF model domain with grid spacing decreasing from 12.15 km (mesoscale) to 0.03 km (LES). We simulate real-world conditions in the convective planetary boundary layer over an area of complex terrain. The WRF-LES model results are evaluated against observations collected during the US Department of Energy-supported Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study. Comparison of the first- and second-order moments, turbulence spectrum, and probability density function of wind speed shows good agreement between the simulations and observations. One key result is to demonstrate that a systematic methodology needs to be applied to select the grid spacing and refinement ratio used between domains, to avoid having a grid resolution that falls in the grey zone and to minimize artefacts in the WRF-LES model solutions. Furthermore, the WRF-LES model variables show large variability in space and time caused by the complex topography in the LES domain. Analyses of WRF-LES model results show that the flow structures, such as roll vortices and convective cells, vary depending on both the location and time of day as well as the distance from the inflow boundaries.

  14. Characteristics of convective snow bands along the Swedish east coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeworrek, Julia; Wu, Lichuan; Dieterich, Christian; Rutgersson, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Convective snow bands develop in response to a cold air outbreak from the continent or the frozen sea over the open water surface of lakes or seas. The comparatively warm water body triggers shallow convection due to increased heat and moisture fluxes. Strong winds can align with this convection into wind-parallel cloud bands, which appear stationary as the wind direction remains consistent for the time period of the snow band event, delivering enduring snow precipitation at the approaching coast. The statistical analysis of a dataset from an 11-year high-resolution atmospheric regional climate model (RCA4) indicated 4 to 7 days a year of moderate to highly favourable conditions for the development of convective snow bands in the Baltic Sea region. The heaviest and most frequent lake effect snow was affecting the regions of Gävle and Västervik (along the Swedish east coast) as well as Gdansk (along the Polish coast). However, the hourly precipitation rate is often higher in Gävle than in the Västervik region. Two case studies comparing five different RCA4 model setups have shown that the Rossby Centre atmospheric regional climate model RCA4 provides a superior representation of the sea surface with more accurate sea surface temperature (SST) values when coupled to the ice-ocean model NEMO as opposed to the forcing by the ERA-40 reanalysis data. The refinement of the resolution of the atmospheric model component leads, especially in the horizontal direction, to significant improvement in the representation of the mesoscale circulation process as well as the local precipitation rate and area by the model.

  15. Sensitivity of the simulated precipitation to changes in convective relaxation time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Mishra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the sensitivity of the simulated precipitation to changes in convective relaxation time scale (TAU of Zhang and McFarlane (ZM cumulus parameterization, in NCAR-Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3. In the default configuration of the model, the prescribed value of TAU, a characteristic time scale with which convective available potential energy (CAPE is removed at an exponential rate by convection, is assumed to be 1 h. However, some recent observational findings suggest that, it is larger by around one order of magnitude. In order to explore the sensitivity of the model simulation to TAU, two model frameworks have been used, namely, aqua-planet and actual-planet configurations. Numerical integrations have been carried out by using different values of TAU, and its effect on simulated precipitation has been analyzed.

    The aqua-planet simulations reveal that when TAU increases, rate of deep convective precipitation (DCP decreases and this leads to an accumulation of convective instability in the atmosphere. Consequently, the moisture content in the lower- and mid- troposphere increases. On the other hand, the shallow convective precipitation (SCP and large-scale precipitation (LSP intensify, predominantly the SCP, and thus capping the accumulation of convective instability in the atmosphere. The total precipitation (TP remains approximately constant, but the proportion of the three components changes significantly, which in turn alters the vertical distribution of total precipitation production. The vertical structure of moist heating changes from a vertically extended profile to a bottom heavy profile, with the increase of TAU. Altitude of the maximum vertical velocity shifts from upper troposphere to lower troposphere. Similar response was seen in the actual-planet simulations. With an increase in TAU from 1 h to 8 h, there was a significant improvement in the simulation of the seasonal mean precipitation. The

  16. Analysis of Summertime Convective Initiation in Central Alabama Using the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Robert S.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    During the summer months in the southeastern United States, convective initiation presents a frequent challenge to operational forecasters. Thunderstorm development has traditionally been referred to as random due to their disorganized, sporadic appearance and lack of atmospheric forcing. Horizontal variations in land surface characteristics such as soil moisture, soil type, land and vegetation cover could possibly be a focus mechanism for afternoon convection during the summer months. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) provides a stand-alone land surface modeling framework that incorporates these varying soil and vegetation properties, antecedent precipitation, and atmospheric forcing to represent the soil state at high resolution. The use of LIS as a diagnostic tool may help forecasters to identify boundaries in land surface characteristics that could correlate to favored regions of convection initiation. The NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) team has been collaborating with the National Weather Service Office in Birmingham, AL to help incorporate LIS products into their operational forecasting methods. This paper highlights selected convective case dates from summer 2009 when synoptic forcing was weak, and identifies any boundaries in land surface characteristics that may have contributed to convective initiation. The LIS output depicts the effects of increased sensible heat flux from urban areas on the development of convection, as well as convection along gradients in land surface characteristics and surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. These features may promote mesoscale circulations and/or feedback processes that can either enhance or inhibit convection. With this output previously unavailable to operational forecasters, LIS provides a new tool to forecasters in order to help eliminate the randomness of summertime convective initiation.

  17. Nature, theory and modelling of geophysical convective planetary boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical convective planetary boundary layers (CPBLs) are still poorly reproduced in oceanographic, hydrological and meteorological models. Besides the mean flow and usual shear-generated turbulence, CPBLs involve two types of motion disregarded in conventional theories: 'anarchy turbulence' comprised of the buoyancy-driven plumes, merging to form larger plumes instead of breaking down, as postulated in conventional theory (Zilitinkevich, 1973), large-scale organised structures fed by the potential energy of unstable stratification through inverse energy transfer in convective turbulence (and performing non-local transports irrespective of mean gradients of transporting properties). C-PBLs are strongly mixed and go on growing as long as the boundary layer remains unstable. Penetration of the mixed layer into the weakly turbulent, stably stratified free flow causes turbulent transports through the CPBL outer boundary. The proposed theory, taking into account the above listed features of CPBL, is based on the following recent developments: prognostic CPBL-depth equation in combination with diagnostic algorithm for turbulence fluxes at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries (Zilitinkevich, 1991, 2012, 2013; Zilitinkevich et al., 2006, 2012), deterministic model of self-organised convective structures combined with statistical turbulence-closure model of turbulence in the CPBL core (Zilitinkevich, 2013). It is demonstrated that the overall vertical transports are performed mostly by turbulence in the surface layer and entrainment layer (at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries) and mostly by organised structures in the CPBL core (Hellsten and Zilitinkevich, 2013). Principal difference between structural and turbulent mixing plays an important role in a number of practical problems: transport and dispersion of admixtures, microphysics of fogs and clouds, etc. The surface-layer turbulence in atmospheric and marine CPBLs is strongly enhanced by the velocity shears in

  18. General circulation of giant planet atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Schneider, T.

    2008-12-01

    The atmospheres of the giant planets are driven by differential solar heating and intrinsic heat fluxes emanating from the deep interior. We show that if both processes are taken into account in an energetic consistent manner, the observed large-scale features of the general circulations of all giant planet atmospheres can be reproduced. We use energetically consistent general circulation models to simulate the outer atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. In the models, the solar radiative fluxes are deposited in the upper atmosphere by absorption and scattering, and temporally constant and spatially homogeneous heat fluxes consistent with the observed intrinsic heat fluxes are imposed at the bottom boundary. Convection transports heat from the bottom boundary into the upper atmosphere when the intrinsic heat fluxes are sufficiently strong to generate statically unstable conditions. For Jupiter and Saturn, the intrinsic heat fluxes are strong enough to lead to convection, which generates Rossby waves in the equatorial upper atmosphere. Momentum transport associated with these Rossby waves leads to the generation of equatorial superrotation on Jupiter and Saturn. For Uranus and Neptune, the intrinsic heat fluxes are not strong enough to lead to convection penetrating into the upper atmosphere; as a consequence, the equatorial flow is retrograde. Differences in the optical properties of the atmospheres and in planetary parameters such as the gravitational acceleration and rotation rate can account for the differences in the general circulations of the giant planets, such as the different jet widths and strengths.

  19. Topology Optimization for Convection Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe

    2011-01-01

    This report deals with the topology optimization of convection problems.That is, the aim of the project is to develop, implement and examine topology optimization of purely thermal and coupled thermomechanical problems,when the design-dependent eects of convection are taken into consideration.......This is done by the use of a self-programmed FORTRAN-code, which builds on an existing 2D-plane thermomechanical nite element code implementing during the course `41525 FEM-Heavy'. The topology optimizationfeatures have been implemented from scratch, and allows the program to optimize elastostatic mechanical...

  20. Theory of stellar convection - II. First stellar models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, S.; Chiosi, C.; Chiosi, E.; Cropper, M.; Weiss, A.

    2016-07-01

    We present here the first stellar models on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, in which convection is treated according to the new scale-free convection theory (SFC theory) by Pasetto et al. The aim is to compare the results of the new theory with those from the classical, calibrated mixing-length (ML) theory to examine differences and similarities. We integrate the equations describing the structure of the atmosphere from the stellar surface down to a few per cent of the stellar mass using both ML theory and SFC theory. The key temperature over pressure gradients, the energy fluxes, and the extension of the convective zones are compared in both theories. The analysis is first made for the Sun and then extended to other stars of different mass and evolutionary stage. The results are adequate: the SFC theory yields convective zones, temperature gradients ∇ and ∇e, and energy fluxes that are very similar to those derived from the `calibrated' MT theory for main-sequence stars. We conclude that the old scale dependent ML theory can now be replaced with a self-consistent scale-free theory able to predict correct results, as it is more physically grounded than the ML theory. Fundamentally, the SFC theory offers a deeper insight of the underlying physics than numerical simulations.

  1. Evaluation of Convective Wind Forecasting Methods During High Wind Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    is referred to as a derecho . Derechos are described as long-lived convective systems in the form of long bow-shaped segments of cells. Bow-echoes...within a derecho can cause widespread severe winds causing damage for hundreds of miles during the lifetime of a derecho . The shape of a bow-echo

  2. Adiabatic heating and convection in a porous medium filled with a near-critical fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, E B

    2009-04-01

    Dynamics and heat transfer in a porous medium filled with a fluid phase at parameters near the gas-liquid critical point are studied. A two-dimensional numerical solver based on the hydrodynamic model for a porous medium with a high compressible fluid phase including the van der Waals equation of state is used. In weightlessness, adiabatic heating of fluid phase under the step-temperature heat supply is investigated analytically and numerically. In terrestrial conditions, gravity-driven convection in vertical rectangular cells generated by lateral heating in unsteady and steady-state regimes is simulated. The effects of high compressibility of near-critical fluid phase on convection are studied. Convective motions and heat transfer in horizontal rectangular cells consisting of two porous layers at different porosity and permeability heated from below are simulated as well. Adiabatic heating subjected to hydrostatic compressibility effects, the onset and development of convection, and convective structures in a steady-state regime are analyzed.

  3. Probability distribution of surface wind speed induced by convective adjustment on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaru

    2017-03-01

    The influence of convective adjustment on the spatial structure of Venusian surface wind and probability distribution of its wind speed is investigated using an idealized weather research and forecasting model. When the initially uniform wind is much weaker than the convective wind, patches of both prograde and retrograde winds with scales of a few kilometers are formed during active convective adjustment. After the active convective adjustment, because the small-scale convective cells and their related vertical momentum fluxes dissipate quickly, the large-scale (>4 km) prograde and retrograde wind patches remain on the surface and in the longitude-height cross-section. This suggests the coexistence of local prograde and retrograde flows, which may correspond to those observed by Pioneer Venus below 10 km altitude. The probability distributions of surface wind speed V during the convective adjustment have a similar form in different simulations, with a sharp peak around ∼0.1 m s-1 and a bulge developing on the flank of the probability distribution. This flank bulge is associated with the most active convection, which has a probability distribution with a peak at the wind speed 1.5-times greater than the Weibull fitting parameter c during the convective adjustment. The Weibull distribution P(> V) (= exp[-(V/c)k]) with best-estimate coefficients of Lorenz (2016) is reproduced during convective adjustments induced by a potential energy of ∼7 × 107 J m-2, which is calculated from the difference in total potential energy between initially unstable and neutral states. The maximum vertical convective heat flux magnitude is proportional to the potential energy of the convective adjustment in the experiments with the initial unstable-layer thickness altered. The present work suggests that convective adjustment is a promising process for producing the wind structure with occasionally generating surface winds of ∼1 m s-1 and retrograde wind patches.

  4. Natural convection in polygonal enclosures with inner circular cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibis Saleh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the natural convection induced by a temperature difference between cold outer polygonal enclosure and hot inner circular cylinder. The governing equations are solved numerically using built-in finite element method of COMSOL. The governing parameters considered are the number of polygonal sides, aspect ratio, radiation parameter, and Rayleigh number. We found that the number of contra-rotative cells depended on polygonal shapes. The convection heat transfer becomes constant at L / D > 0 . 77 and the polygonal shapes are no longer sensitive to the Nusselt number profile.

  5. Synergistic Effect of H2O2 and NO2 in Cell Death Induced by Cold Atmospheric He Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Pierre-Marie; Arbabian, Atousa; Fleury, Michel; Bauville, Gérard; Puech, Vincent; Dutreix, Marie; Sousa, João Santos

    2016-07-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPPs) have emerged over the last decade as a new promising therapy to fight cancer. CAPPs' antitumor activity is primarily due to the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), but the precise determination of the constituents linked to this anticancer process remains to be done. In the present study, using a micro-plasma jet produced in helium (He), we demonstrate that the concentration of H2O2, NO2(-) and NO3(-) can fully account for the majority of RONS produced in plasma-activated buffer. The role of these species on the viability of normal and tumour cell lines was investigated. Although the degree of sensitivity to H2O2 is cell-type dependent, we show that H2O2 alone cannot account for the toxicity of He plasma. Indeed, NO2(-), but not NO3(-), acts in synergy with H2O2 to enhance cell death in normal and tumour cell lines to a level similar to that observed after plasma treatment. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of plasma treatment strongly depends on the combination of H2O2 and NO2(-) in determined concentrations. We also show that the interaction of the He plasma jet with the ambient air is required to generate NO2(-) and NO3(-) in solution.

  6. Convection in stellar envelopes a changing paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Spruit, H C

    1996-01-01

    Progress in the theory of stellar convection over the past decade is reviewed. The similarities and differences between convection in stellar envelopes and laboratory convection at high Rayleigh numbers are discussed. Direct numerical simulation of the solar surface layers, with no other input than atomic physics, the equations of hydrodynamics and radiative transfer is now capable of reproducing the observed heat flux, convection velocities, granulation patterns and line profiles with remarkably accuracy. These results show that convection in stellar envelopes is an essentially non-local process, being driven by cooling at the surface. This differs distinctly from the traditional view of stellar convection in terms of local concepts such as cascades of eddies in a mean superadiabatic gradient. The consequences this has for our physical picture of processes in the convective envelope are illustrated with the problems of sunspot heat flux blocking, the eruption of magnetic flux from the base of the convection ...

  7. Cell Attachment and Viability Study of PCL Nano-fiber Modified by Cold Atmospheric Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyabi, Seyed Mohammad; Sharifi, Fereshteh; Irani, Shiva; Zandi, Mojgan; Mivehchi, Houri; Nagheh, Zahra

    2016-06-01

    The field of tissue engineering is an emerging discipline which applies the basic principles of life sciences and engineering to repair and restore living tissues and organs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cold and non-thermal plasma surface modification of poly (ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds on fibroblast cell behavior. Nano-fiber PCL was fabricated through electrospinning technique, and some fibers were then treated by cold and non-thermal plasma. The cell-biomaterial interactions were studied by culturing the fibroblast cells on nano-fiber PCL. Scaffold biocompatibility test was assessed using an inverted microscope. The growth and proliferation of fibroblast cells on nano-fiber PCL were analyzed by MTT viability assay. Cellular attachment on the nano-fiber and their morphology were evaluated using scanning electron microscope. The result of cell culture showed that nano-fiber could support the cellular growth and proliferation by developing three-dimensional topography. The present study demonstrated that the nano-fiber surface modification with cold plasma sharply enhanced the fibroblast cell attachment. Thus, cold plasma surface modification greatly raised the bioactivity of scaffolds.

  8. Effects of variable thermal diffusivity on the structure of convection

    CERN Document Server

    Shcheritsa, O V; Mazhorova, O S

    2016-01-01

    The multiscale flow structure in the solar convection zone - the coexistence of such features as the granules, mesogranules, supergranules and giant cells - has not yet been properly understood. Here, the possible role of one physical factor - variations in the thermal diffusivity - in the formation of a multiscale convection structure is investigated. Thermal convection in a plane horizontal fluid layer is numerically simulated. The temperature dependence of thermal diffusivity is chosen so as to produce a sharp kink in the static temperature profile near the upper layer boundary. As a result, the magnitude of the (negative) static temperature gradient dTs/dz, being small over the most part of the layer thickness, reaches large values in a thin boundary sublayer. To identify the structures on different scales, we apply a smoothing procedure, computational-homology techniques and spectral processing to the temperature field. The flow is found to be a superposition of three cellular structures with three diffe...

  9. Diurnal Cycle of Convection in the East Pacific ITCZ during EPIC-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Cifelli, Robert; Rutledge, Steven A.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last three weeks of September 2001, the EPIC-2001 intensive field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the ITCZ over the Mexican warm pool region (10N, 95W) of the East Pacific. This study focuses on the pronounced observed diurnal cycle of environmental and convective parameters within the experiment domain. Data from three primary sources are examined: the R/V Ronald H. Brown C-band weather radar, 4-hourly soundings from the Brown and the Global Atmospherics, Inc. National Lightning Detection Network (long range product). Satellite data from TRMM, GOES and OV-1 are also used. The domain boundary layer shows a robust daily evolution of moist enthalpy (as reflect by equivalent potential temperature, theta-e, or wet bulb potential temperature, theta-w), with contributions from changes in both dry and moist entropy. Peak theta-w is found after local nightfall; the average diurnal range of theta-w is approximately 1 deg C. A composite diurnal cycle of convective properties was derived from the C-band volume scans, sampled continuously through the experiment at 10 minute updates. Products derived from the volumetric data include a surface PPI, 15 and 30 dBZ echo top height, vertically integrated liquid, and 6 km (mixed phase region) reflectivity CAPPIs. For almost all products, the parameter means showed virtually no diurnal cycle. However, for the upper-level products, the parameter spectra showed a clear peak in the occurrence of deep/vigorous convection (the "tail end of the distribution") between 7-9 UTC (1-3 AM local), while overall frequency of occurrence peaked later, from 12-15 UTC (6-9 AM local). This represents a daily "outbreak" of isolated deep cells a couple of hours after sunset and subsequent growth, organization and decay through the nighttime hours. The coherence of the diurnal cycle of the convective spectrum is impressive given the wide variety of convective organization observed during the experiment, and given the modulation

  10. Analytical solution for the convectively-mixed atmospheric boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwersloot, H.G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the prognostic equations of mixed-layer theory assuming a zeroth order jump at the entrainment zone, analytical solutions for the boundary-layer height evolution are derived with different degrees of accuracy. First, an exact implicit expression for the boundary-layer height for a situation

  11. Atmospheric Forcing of Ocean Convection in the Labrador Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    www.weather.nps.navy.mil/~guestps/labsea LONG-TERM GOAL My long-term goal is to improve our ability to model and predict dynamic and thermodynamic ocean processes...should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...the Weddell Sea. I teach a course on Polar Meteorology to US Navy officers every year and plan to write the first textbook on this topic. I am

  12. How stratified is mantle convection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puster, Peter; Jordan, Thomas H.

    1997-04-01

    We quantify the flow stratification in the Earth's mid-mantle (600-1500 km) in terms of a stratification index for the vertical mass flux, Sƒ (z) = 1 - ƒ(z) / ƒref (z), in which the reference value ƒref(z) approximates the local flux at depth z expected for unstratified convection (Sƒ=0). Although this flux stratification index cannot be directly constrained by observations, we show from a series of two-dimensional convection simulations that its value can be related to a thermal stratification index ST(Z) defined in terms of the radial correlation length of the temperature-perturbation field δT(z, Ω). ST is a good proxy for Sƒ at low stratifications (SƒUniformitarian Principle. The bound obtained here from global tomography is consistent with local seismological evidence for slab flux into the lower mantle; however, the total material flux has to be significantly greater (by a factor of 2-3) than that due to slabs alone. A stratification index, Sƒ≲0.2, is sufficient to exclude many stratified convection models still under active consideration, including most forms of chemical layering between the upper and lower mantle, as well as the more extreme versions of avalanching convection governed by a strong endothermic phase change.

  13. Natural convection from circular cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Boetcher, Sandra K S

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a concise, yet thorough, reference for all heat transfer coefficient correlations and data for all types of cylinders: vertical, horizontal, and inclined. This book covers all natural convection heat transfer laws for vertical and inclined cylinders and is an excellent resource for engineers working in the area of heat transfer engineering.

  14. Cold atmospheric plasma jet effects on V79-4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Andreea-Roxana; Georgescu, N

    2010-01-01

    The effects of cold plasmas are due to charged particles, reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), UV photons, and intense electric field. In order to obtain a more efficient action on mammalian cells (useful for cancer therapy), we used in our studies chemically activated cold plasma (He and O2 gas mixture). V79-4 cells were exposed to plasma jet for different time periods (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150s), using different combinations of helium and oxygen inputs (He:2.5l/min + 02:12.5ml/min; He:2.51/min + O2:25ml/min; He:2.51/min + O2:37.5 ml/min). Using MTT test we demonstrated that plasma jet induced cell viability decrease in all cases. The effect of chemically activated cold plasma--apoptosis or necrosis--depends on gas mixture and treatment period. Taking into account that ROS density in cell microenvironment is related to O2 percent in the gas mixture and treatment period, we can presume that cell death is due to ROS produced in plasma jet.

  15. Effect of additive oxygen gas on cellular response of lung cancer cells induced by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T H; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2014-10-16

    The atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage was utilized to treat human lung cancer cells in vitro. The properties of plasma plume were adjusted by the injection type and flow rate of additive oxygen gas in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The plasma characteristics such as plume length, electric current and optical emission spectra (OES) were measured at different flow rates of additive oxygen to helium. The plasma plume length and total current decreased with an increase in the additive oxygen flow rate. The electron excitation temperature estimated by the Boltzmann plot from several excited helium emission lines increased slightly with the additive oxygen flow. The oxygen atom density in the gas phase estimated by actinometry utilizing argon was observed to increase with the additive oxygen flow. The concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by fluorescence assay was found to be not exactly proportional to that of extracellular ROS (measured by OES), but both correlated considerably. It was also observed that the expression levels of p53 and the phospho-p53 were enhanced in the presence of additive oxygen flow compared with those from the pure helium plasma treatment.

  16. Intensive probing of a clear air convective field by radar and instrumental drone aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An instrumented drone aircraft was used in conjunction with ultrasensitive radar to study the development of a convective field in the clear air. Radar data are presented which show an initial constant growth rate in the height of the convective field of 3.8 m/min, followed by a short period marked by condensation and rapid growth at a rate in excess of 6.1 m/min. Drone aircraft soundings show general features of a convective field including progressive lifting of the inversion at the top of the convection and a cooling of the air at the top of the field. Calculations of vertical heat flux as a function of time and altitude during the early stages of convection show a linear decrease in heat flux with altitude to near the top of the convective field and a negative heat flux at the top. Evidence is presented which supports previous observations that convective cells overshoot their neutral buoyancy level into a region where they are cool and moist compared to their surroundings. Furthermore, only that portion of the convective cell that has overshot its neutral buoyancy level is generally visible to the radar.

  17. Intensive probing of a clear air convective field by radar and instrumental drone aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An instrumented drone aircraft was used in conjunction with ultrasensitive radar to study the development of a convective field in the clear air. Radar data are presented which show an initial constant growth rate in the height of the convective field of 3.8 m/min, followed by a short period marked by condensation and rapid growth at a rate in excess of 6.1 m/min. Drone aircraft soundings show general features of a convective field including progressive lifting of the inversion at the top of the convection and a cooling of the air at the top of the field. Calculations of vertical heat flux as a function of time and altitude during the early stages of convection show a linear decrease in heat flux with altitude to near the top of the convective field and a negative heat flux at the top. Evidence is presented which supports previous observations that convective cells overshoot their neutral buoyancy level into a region where they are cool and moist compared to their surroundings. Furthermore, only that portion of the convective cell that has overshot its neutral buoyancy level is generally visible to the radar.

  18. Convective heat transport in compressible fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Akira; Onuki, Akira

    2002-07-01

    We present hydrodynamic equations of compressible fluids in gravity as a generalization of those in the Boussinesq approximation used for nearly incompressible fluids. They account for adiabatic processes taking place throughout the cell (the piston effect) and those taking place within plumes (the adiabatic temperature gradient effect). Performing two-dimensional numerical analysis, we reveal some unique features of plume generation and convection in transient and steady states of compressible fluids. As the critical point is approached, the overall temperature changes induced by plume arrivals at the boundary walls are amplified, giving rise to overshoot behavior in transient states and significant noise in the temperature in steady states. The velocity field is suggested to assume a logarithmic profile within boundary layers. Random reversal of macroscopic shear flow is examined in a cell with unit aspect ratio. We also present a simple scaling theory for moderate Rayleigh numbers.

  19. Precursory SST anomaliesassociated with the convection over the western Pacificwarm pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The convection over the tropical western Pacific warm pool influences significantly the atmospheric circulation and climate in East Asia. Thus, the precursory signals of the convection may be used in the forecast of summer climate in China. According to the present results, the June- July-August (JJA) mean convection intensity over the warm pool is significantly related to the precursory positive and negative sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the warm pool and in the equatorial central and eastern Pacific, respectively. It is also related to the simultaneous negative surface temperatures west to the Philippines. The analysis on the SSTs associated with the convection over the warm pool in individual month of summer shows that for the convection in June and July, there are precursory SST signals in the warm pool and the equatorial central and eastern Pacific. Therefore, this study shows that only the convection in June and July, rather than that in August, has precursory SST signals, despite the existence of the precursory signals of the JJA mean convection. Accordingly, it is implied that the interaction among the warm pool, equatorial central and eastern Pacific, and the region west to the Philippines may exhibit distinct features in the precursory period (preceding winter and spring) and in the simultaneous period.

  20. High-resolution simulations of shallow and deep convection over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J. P.; Teixeira, J.; Soares, P. M.; Miranda, P. M.

    2008-12-01

    The GCSS WG4 (Grabowski, 2006) case was chosen to study the transition from shallow to deep convection over land. The case was based on an idealization of observations made during the TRMM-LBA (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment) in Rondonia, Brazil, on February 23, 1999. The case considered is a daytime convective development over land, which starts with the growth of a mixed boundary layer, evolving to shallow convective clouds with a later transition from shallow to deep precipitating convection. High resolution simulations of this case have been performed using the French community non-hydrostatic model MesoNH. Different model setups were used, with an emphasis on the sensitivity to model resolution, domain size and to the choice of microphysical parametrizations. A single column model (SCM) is also being developed in order to perform a simulation of the same case. The SCM model includes prognostic equations for the wind components, the thermodynamic variables and the turbulent kinetic energy. The sub-grid turbulent and convective fluxes are parameterized using the Eddy- Diffusivity/Mass-Flux approach (EDMF) which combines the effects of local and non-local transport in a unified scheme. The comparison between the SCM and the Cloud Resolving Model will provide clues to the improvement of the EDMF framework in order to include the effects of deep convection, since currently it is only suitable to represent dry and shallow cumulus convection.

  1. A Review of Cloud-Resolving Model Studies of Convective Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqing WU; Xiaofan LI

    2008-01-01

    Convective processes affect large-scale environments through cloud-radiation interaction.cloud micro-physical processes,and surface rainfall processes.Over the last three decades,cloud-resolving models (CRMs)have demonstrated to be capable of simulating convective-radiative responses to an imposed large-scale forcing.The CRM-produced cloud and radiative properties have been utilized to study the convective-related processes and their ensemble effects on large-scale circulations.This review summarizes the recent progress on the understanding of convective processes with the use of CRM simulations,including precipi-tation processes;cloud microphysical and radiative processes;dynamical processes;precipitation efficiency;diurnal variations of tropical oceanic convection;local-scale atmosphere-ocean coupling processes;and tropi-cal convective-radiative equilibrium states.Two different ongoing applications of CRMs to general circulation models(GCMs)are discussed:replacing convection and cloud schemes for studying the interaction between cloud systems and large-scale circulation,and improving the schemes for climate simulations.

  2. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-10

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the April–May 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, NASA GPM ground validation remote sensors, and new ARM instrumentation purchased with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding. The overarching goal is to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation, and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land that have never before been available.

  3. Thermal scale modeling of radiation-conduction-convection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of thermal scale modeling applied to radiation-conduction-convection systems with particular emphasis on the spacecraft cabin atmosphere/cabin wall thermal interface. The 'modified material preservation,' 'temperature preservation,' 'scaling compromises,' and 'Nusselt number preservation' scale modeling techniques and their inherent limitations and problem areas are described. The compromised scaling techniques of mass flux preservation and heat transfer coefficient preservation show promise of giving adequate thermal similitude while preserving both gas and temperature in the scale model. The use of these compromised scaling techniques was experimentally demonstrated in tests of full scale and 1/4 scale models. Correlation of test results for free and forced convection under various test conditions shows the effectiveness of these scaling techniques. It is concluded that either mass flux or heat transfer coefficient preservation may result in adequate thermal similitude depending on the system to be modeled. Heat transfer coefficient preservation should give good thermal similitude for manned spacecraft scale modeling applications.

  4. Remarks on the Rayleigh-Benard Convection on Spherical Shells

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shouhong

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to study the effect of spherical geometry on dynamic transitions and pattern formation for the Rayleigh-Benard convection. The study is mainly motivated by the importance of spherical geometry and convection in geophysical flows. It is shown in particular that the system always undergoes a continuous (Type-I) transition to a $2l_c$-dimensional sphere $S^{2lc}$, where lc is the critical wave length corresponding to the critical Rayleigh number. Furthermore, it has shown in [12] that it is critical to add nonisotropic turbulent friction terms in the momentum equation to capture the large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. We show in particular that the system with turbulent friction terms added undergoes the same type of dynamic transition, and obtain an explicit formula linking the critical wave number (pattern selection), the aspect ratio, and the ratio between the horizontal and vertical turbulent friction coefficients.

  5. Second order closure for stratified convection: bulk region and overshooting

    CERN Document Server

    Biferale, L; Sbragaglia, M; Scagliarini, A; Toschi, F; Tripiccione, R

    2011-01-01

    The parameterization of small-scale turbulent fluctuations in convective systems and in the presence of strong stratification is a key issue for many applied problems in oceanography, atmospheric science and planetology. In the presence of stratification, one needs to cope with bulk turbulent fluctuations and with inversion regions, where temperature, density -or both- develop highly non-linear mean profiles due to the interactions between the turbulent boundary layer and the unmixed -stable- flow above/below it. We present a second order closure able to cope simultaneously with both bulk and boundary layer regions, and we test it against high-resolution state-of-the-art 2D numerical simulations in a convective and stratified belt for values of the Rayleigh number, up to Ra = 10^9. Data are taken from a Rayleigh-Taylor system confined by the existence of an adiabatic gradient.

  6. Evidence for Gravity Wave Seeding of Convective Ionosphere Storms Initiated by Deep Troposphere Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Dao, E. V.; Holzworth, R. H., II

    2014-12-01

    With the increase in solar activity, the Communications/Outage Forecast System satellite (C/NOFS) now goes below the F peak. As such, we now can study the development of Convective Ionospheric Storms (CIS) and, most importantly, large-scale seeding of the low growth-rate Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability. Two mechanisms have been suggested for such seeding: the Collisional Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (CKHI) and internal atmospheric gravity waves. A number of observations have shown that the spectrum of fully developed topside structures peaks at 600 km and extends to over 1000 km. These structures are exceedingly difficult to explain by CKHI. Here we show that sinusoidal plasma oscillations on the bottomside during daytime develop classical R-T structures on the nightside with the background 600 km structure still apparent. In two case studies, thunderstorm activity was observed east of the sinusoidal features in the two hours preceding the C/NOFS passes. Thus, we argue that convective tropospheric storms are a likely source of these sinusoidal features.

  7. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Inhibits HIV-1 Replication in Macrophages by Targeting Both the Virus and the Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotskova, Olga; Dubrovsky, Larisa; Keidar, Michael; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a specific type of partially ionized gas that is less than 104°F at the point of application. It was recently shown that CAP can be used for decontamination and sterilization, as well as anti-cancer treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of CAP on HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). We demonstrate that pre-treatment of MDM with CAP reduced levels of CD4 and CCR5, inhibiting virus-cell fusion, viral reverse transcription and integration. In addition, CAP pre-treatment affected cellular factors required for post-entry events, as replication of VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1, which by-passes HIV receptor-mediated fusion at the plasma membrane during entry, was also inhibited. Interestingly, virus particles produced by CAP-treated cells had reduced infectivity, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of CAP extended to the second cycle of infection. These results demonstrate that anti-HIV activity of CAP involves the effects on target cells and the virus, and suggest that CAP may be considered for potential application as an anti-HIV treatment. PMID:27783659

  8. Atmospheric-pressure plasma-irradiation inhibits mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation to mesoderm and endoderm but promotes ectoderm differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Taichi; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Nishihara, Shoko

    2016-04-01

    Recently, various effects of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation on living cells have been demonstrated, such as tissue sterilization, blood coagulation, angiogenesis, wound healing, and tumor elimination. However, the effect of plasma-irradiation on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has not yet been clarified. A large number of reactive species are generated by plasma-irradiation in medium, of which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the main species generated. Here, we investigated the effect of plasma-irradiation on the differentiation of mESCs using an embryoid body (EB) formation assay with plasma-irradiated medium or H2O2-supplemented non-irradiated medium. Our findings demonstrated that plasma-irradiated medium potently inhibits the differentiation from mESCs to mesoderm and endoderm by inhibiting Wnt signaling as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. In contrast, both the plasma-irradiated medium and H2O2-supplemented non-irradiated medium enhanced the differentiation to epiblastoid, ectodermal, and neuronal lineages by activation of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) signaling, suggesting that these effects are caused by the H2O2 generated by plasma-irradiation in medium. However, in each case, the differentiation to glial cells remained unaffected. This study is the first demonstration that plasma-irradiation affects the differentiation of mESCs by the regulation of Wnt and FGF4 signaling pathways.

  9. Targeting cancer cells with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by atmospheric-pressure air plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Jun Ahn

    Full Text Available The plasma jet has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for cancer. Anticancer activity of plasma has been reported to involve mitochondrial dysfunction. However, what constituents generated by plasma is linked to this anticancer process and its mechanism of action remain unclear. Here, we report that the therapeutic effects of air plasma result from generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS including H2O2, Ox, OH-, •O2, NOx, leading to depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ROS accumulation. Simultaneously, ROS/RNS activate c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 kinase. As a consequence, treatment with air plasma jets induces apoptotic death in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Pretreatment of the cells with antioxidants, JNK and p38 inhibitors, or JNK and p38 siRNA abrogates the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and impairs the air plasma-induced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that the ROS/RNS generated by plasma trigger signaling pathways involving JNK and p38 and promote mitochondrial perturbation, leading to apoptosis. Therefore, administration of air plasma may be a feasible strategy to eliminate cancer cells.

  10. DBD atmospheric plasma-modified, electrospun, layer-by-layer polymeric scaffolds for L929 fibroblast cell cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surucu, Seda; Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal

    2016-01-01

    This paper reported a study related to atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) Ar + O2 and Ar + N2 plasma modifications to alter surface properties of 3D PCL/Chitosan/PCL layer-by-layer hybrid scaffolds and to improve mouse fibroblast (L929 ATCC CCL-1) cell attachment, proliferation, and growth. The scaffolds were fabricated using electrospinning technique and each layer was electrospun sequentially on top of the other. The surface modifications were performed with an atmospheric pressure DBD plasma under different gas flow rates (50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 sccm) and for different modification times (0.5-7 min), and then the chemical and topographical characterizations of the modified samples were done by contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The samples modified with Ar + O2 plasma for 1 min under 70 cm(3)/min O2 flow rate (71.077° ± 3.578) showed a 18.83% decrease compare to unmodified samples' CA value (84.463° ± 3.864). Comparing with unmodified samples, the average fiber diameter values for plasma-modified samples by Ar + O2 (1 min 70 sccm) and Ar + N2 (40 s 70 sccm) increased 40.756 and 54.295%, respectively. Additionally, the average inter-fiber pore size values exhibited decrease of 37.699 and 48.463% for the same Ar + O2 and Ar + N2 plasma-modified samples, respectively, compare to unmodified samples. Biocompatibility performance was determined with MTT assay, fluorescence, Giemsa, and confocal imaging as well as SEM. The results showed that Ar + O2-based plasma modification increased the hydrophilicity and oxygen functionality of the surface, thus affecting the cell viability and proliferation on/within scaffolds.

  11. An airborne infrared laser spectrometer for in-situ trace gas measurements: application to tropical convection case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Catoire

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A three-channel laser absorption spectrometer called SPIRIT (SPectromètre InfraRouge In situ Toute altitude has been developed for airborne measurements of trace gases in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. More than three different species can be measured simultaneously with high time resolution (each 1.6 s using three individual CW-DFB-QCLs (Continuous Wave Distributed FeedBack Quantum Cascade Lasers coupled to a single Robert multipass optical cell. The lasers are operated in a time-multiplexed mode. Absorption of the mid-infrared radiations occur in the cell (2.8 L with effective path lengths of 134 to 151 m at reduced pressure, with detection achieved using a HgCdTe detector cooled by Stirling cycle. The performances of the instrument are described, in particular precisions of 1, 1 and 3 %, and volume mixing ratio (vmr sensitivities of 0.4, 6 and 2.4 ppbv are determined at 1.6 s for CO, CH4 and N2O, respectively (at 1σ confidence level. Estimated accuracies without calibration are about 6 %. Dynamic measuring ranges of about four decades are established. The first deployment of SPIRIT was realized aboard the Falcon-20 research aircraft operated by DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt within the frame of the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere European project in November-December 2011 over Malaysia. The convective outflows from two large convective systems near Borneo Island (6.0° N–115.5° E and 5.5° N–118.5° E were sampled above 11 km in altitude on 19 November and 9 December, respectively. Correlated enhancements in CO and CH4 vmr were detected when the aircraft crossed the outflow anvil of both systems. These enhancements were interpreted as the fingerprint of transport from the boundary layer up through the convective system and then horizontal advection in the outflow. Using these observations, the fraction of boundary layer air contained in fresh convective outflow was

  12. Cross-Saharan transport of water vapor via recycled cold pool outflows from moist convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M.; Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Marsham, John H.

    2017-02-01

    Very sparse data have previously limited observational studies of meteorological processes in the Sahara. We present an observed case of convectively driven water vapor transport crossing the Sahara over 2.5 days in June 2012, from the Sahel in the south to the Atlas in the north. A daily cycle is observed, with deep convection in the evening generating moist cold pools that fed the next day's convection; the convection then generated new cold pools, providing a vertical recycling of moisture. Trajectories driven by analyses were able to capture the direction of the transport but not its full extent, particularly at night when cold pools are most active, and analyses missed much of the water content of cold pools. The results highlight the importance of cold pools for moisture transport, dust and clouds, and demonstrate the need to include these processes in models in order to improve the representation of Saharan atmosphere.

  13. Interaction of moist convection with zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liming; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Huang, Xianglei

    2006-01-01

    Observations suggest that moist convection plays an important role in the large-scale dynamics of Jupiter's and Saturn's atmospheres. Here we use a reduced-gravity quasigeostrophic model, with a parameterization of moist convection that is based on observations, to study the interaction between moist convection and zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn. Stable jets with approximately the same width and strength as observations are generated in the model. The observed zonal jets violate the barotropic stability criterion but the modeled jets do so only if the flow in the deep underlying layer is westward. The model results suggest that a length scale and a velocity scale associated with moist convection control the width and strength of the jets. The length scale and velocity scale offer a possible explanation of why the jets of Saturn are stronger and wider than those of Jupiter.

  14. Overshooting convection during TRO-pico: mesoscale modelling of two cases hydrating the lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Emmanuel; Marécal, Virginie; Khaykin, Sergey; Amarouche, Nadir; Ghysels, Mélanie; Mappe-Fogaing, Irène; Behera, Abhinna; Held, Gerhard; França, Hermes

    2016-04-01

    One of the main aims of the TRO-pico project (2010-2015) was to study the variability of overshooting convection at the local scale to try to deduce a typical impact on the TTL water at the global scale. In this study, we've identified local maximum in the water vapour profiles gathered by the balloon-borne hygrometers Pico-SDLA and Flash above Bauru, Brazil (22.3 S) during the TRO-pico campaign. We tried to link them to overshooting cells in the surrounding of Bauru with a trajectory analysis. In this study we select a couple of cases of overshooting convection both sampled by the Bauru S-Band radar and by one of the balloon-borne instruments of the TRO-pico campaign in 2012 and 2013. The selected cases are the case of March 13, 2012 (hereafter M12), sounded by both hygrometers Pico-SDLA and FLASH, and the case of January 26, 2013 (hereafter J13), sounded by Pico-SDLA. For the M12 case, local water vapour enhancements at two different altitudes due to two different cells were reported, with local enhancement of about 0.65 ppmv. For the J26 case, the water enhancement was about 1 ppmv. The corresponding mesoscale simulations with the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (BRAMS) using 3 nested grids with horizontal resolution down to 800 m were carried out. Simulation results are compared to Bauru's radar echo tops and and water vapour in situ measurements. As for the M12 simulation, the model is doing a rather good job in reproducing several overshooting cells, both in severity and timing. Associated stratospheric water budget are computed for each cases.

  15. A transilient matrix for moist convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.

    2011-08-15

    A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.

  16. Biological effects of atmospheric particles on human bronchial epithelial cells. Comparison with diesel exhaust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulig, Augustin; Sourdeval, Matthieu; Meyer, Martine; Marano, Francelyne; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated the incre