Modelling of stellar convection
Kupka, Friedrich; Muthsam, Herbert J.
2017-07-01
The review considers the modelling process for stellar convection rather than specific astrophysical results. For achieving reasonable depth and length we deal with hydrodynamics only, omitting MHD. A historically oriented introduction offers first glimpses on the physics of stellar convection. Examination of its basic properties shows that two very different kinds of modelling keep being needed: low dimensional models (mixing length, Reynolds stress, etc.) and "full" 3D simulations. A list of affordable and not affordable tasks for the latter is given. Various low dimensional modelling approaches are put in a hierarchy and basic principles which they should respect are formulated. In 3D simulations of low Mach number convection the inclusion of then unimportant sound waves with their rapid time variation is numerically impossible. We describe a number of approaches where the Navier-Stokes equations are modified for their elimination (anelastic approximation, etc.). We then turn to working with the full Navier-Stokes equations and deal with numerical principles for faithful and efficient numerics. Spatial differentiation as well as time marching aspects are considered. A list of codes allows assessing the state of the art. An important recent development is the treatment of even the low Mach number problem without prior modification of the basic equation (obviating side effects) by specifically designed numerical methods. Finally, we review a number of important trends such as how to further develop low-dimensional models, how to use 3D models for that purpose, what effect recent hardware developments may have on 3D modelling, and others.
Mathematical models of convection
Andreev, Victor K; Goncharova, Olga N; Pukhnachev, Vladislav V
2012-01-01
Phenomena of convection are abundant in nature as well as in industry. This volume addresses the subject of convection from the point of view of both, theory and application. While the first three chapters provide a refresher on fluid dynamics and heat transfer theory, the rest of the book describes the modern developments in theory. Thus it brings the reader to the ""front"" of the modern research. This monograph provides the theoretical foundation on a topic relevant to metallurgy, ecology, meteorology, geo-and astrophysics, aerospace industry, chemistry, crystal physics, and many other fiel
Titan Balloon Convection Model Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...
Nonlinear Pulsations of Convective Stellar Models
Buchler, J. Robert
1999-01-01
We review the numerical modelling of the nonlinear pulsations of classical variable stars with hydrocodes that include the effects of turbulent convection. Despite their simplicity these turbulent convective recipes appear to remove many of the difficulties that radiative codes faced. In particular, the numerical modelling of double mode pulsations has become possible.
Land surface modeling in convection permitting simulations
van Heerwaarden, Chiel; Benedict, Imme
2017-04-01
The next generation of weather and climate models permits convection, albeit at a grid spacing that is not sufficient to resolve all details of the clouds. Whereas much attention is being devoted to the correct simulation of convective clouds and associated precipitation, the role of the land surface has received far less interest. In our view, convective permitting simulations pose a set of problems that need to be solved before accurate weather and climate prediction is possible. The heart of the problem lies at the direct runoff and at the nonlinearity of the surface stress as a function of soil moisture. In coarse resolution simulations, where convection is not permitted, precipitation that reaches the land surface is uniformly distributed over the grid cell. Subsequently, a fraction of this precipitation is intercepted by vegetation or leaves the grid cell via direct runoff, whereas the remainder infiltrates into the soil. As soon as we move to convection permitting simulations, this precipitation falls often locally in large amounts. If the same land-surface model is used as in simulations with parameterized convection, this leads to an increase in direct runoff. Furthermore, spatially non-uniform infiltration leads to a very different surface stress, when scaled up to the course resolution of simulations without convection. Based on large-eddy simulation of realistic convection events at a large domain, this study presents a quantification of the errors made at the land surface in convection permitting simulation. It compares the magnitude of the errors to those made in the convection itself due to the coarse resolution of the simulation. We find that, convection permitting simulations have less evaporation than simulations with parameterized convection, resulting in a non-realistic drying of the atmosphere. We present solutions to resolve this problem.
A new conceptual model of convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walcek, C. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)
1995-09-01
Classical cumulus parameterizations assume that cumulus clouds are entraining plumes of hot air rising through the atmosphere. However, ample evidence shows that clouds cannot be simulated using this approach. Dr. Walcek suggests that cumulus clouds can be reasonably simulated by assuming that buoyant plumes detrain mass as they rise through the atmosphere. Walcek successfully simulates measurements of tropical convection using this detraining model of cumulus convection. Comparisons with measurements suggest that buoyant plumes encounter resistance to upward movement as they pass through dry layers in the atmosphere. This probably results from turbulent mixing and evaporation of cloud water, which generates negatively buoyant mixtures which detrain from the upward moving plume. This mass flux model of detraining plumes is considerably simpler than existing mass flux models, yet reproduces many of the measured effects associated with convective activity. 1 fig.
Model for convection in binary liquids
Hollinger, St.; Lücke, M.; Müller, H. W.
1998-04-01
A minimal, analytically manageable Galerkin type model for convection in binary mixtures subject to realistic boundary conditions is presented. The model elucidates and reproduces the typical bifurcation topology of extended stationary and oscillatory convective states seen for negative Soret coupling: backwards stationary and Hopf bifurcations, saddle node bifurcations to stable strongly nonlinear stationary and traveling wave (TW) states, and merging of the TW solution branch with stationary states. Also unstable standing wave solutions are obtained. A systematic analysis of the concentration balance for liquid mixture parameters has led to a representation of the concentration field in terms of two linear and two nonlinear modes. This truncation captures the important large-scale effects in the laterally averaged concentration field resulting from advective and diffusive mixing. Also the fact that with increasing flow intensity along the TW solution branch the frequency decreases monotonically in the same way as the mixing increases-the variance of the concentration distribution decreases-is ensured and reproduced well. Universal scaling relations between flow intensity, frequency, and variance of the concentration distribution (degree of mixing) in a TW are predicted by the model and have been confirmed by numerical solutions of the full equations. The validity of the model is checked by comparison with numerical solutions of the full field equations.
Venusian Applications of 3D Convection Modeling
Bonaccorso, Timary Annie
2011-01-01
This study models mantle convection on Venus using the 'cubed sphere' code OEDIPUS, which models one-sixth of the planet in spherical geometry. We are attempting to balance internal heating, bottom mantle viscosity, and temperature difference across Venus' mantle, in order to create a realistic model that matches with current planetary observations. We also have begun to run both lower and upper mantle simulations to determine whether layered (as opposed to whole-mantle) convection might produce more efficient heat transfer, as well as to model coronae formation in the upper mantle. Upper mantle simulations are completed using OEDIPUS' Cartesian counterpart, JOCASTA. This summer's central question has been how to define a mantle plume. Traditionally, we have defined a hot plume the region with temperature at or above 40% of the difference between the maximum and horizontally averaged temperature, and a cold plume as the region with 40% of the difference between the minimum and average temperature. For less viscous cases (1020 Pa?s), the plumes generated by that definition lacked vigor, displaying buoyancies 1/100th of those found in previous, higher viscosity simulations (1021 Pa?s). As the mantle plumes with large buoyancy flux are most likely to produce topographic uplift and volcanism, the low viscosity cases' plumes may not produce observable deformation. In an effort to eliminate the smallest plumes, we experimented with different lower bound parameters and temperature percentages.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Förster
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Cluster/EDI electron drift observations above the Northern and Southern polar cap areas for more than seven and a half years (2001–2008 have been used to derive a statistical model of the high-latitude electric potential distribution for summer conditions. Based on potential pattern for different orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF in the GSM y-z-plane, basic convection pattern (BCP were derived, that represent the main characteristics of the electric potential distribution in dependence on the IMF. The BCPs comprise the IMF-independent potential distribution as well as patterns, which describe the dependence on positive and negative IMFBz and IMFBy variations. The full set of BCPs allows to describe the spatial and temporal variation of the high-latitude electric potential (ionospheric convection for any solar wind IMF condition near the Earth's magnetopause within reasonable ranges. The comparison of the Cluster/EDI model with the IZMEM ionospheric convection model, which was derived from ground-based magnetometer observations, shows a good agreement of the basic patterns and its variation with the IMF. According to the statistical models, there is a two-cell antisunward convection within the polar cap for northward IMFBz+≤2 nT, while for increasing northward IMFBz+ there appears a region of sunward convection within the high-latitude daytime sector, which assumes the form of two additional cells with sunward convection between them for IMFBz+≈4–5 nT. This results in a four-cell convection pattern of the high-latitude convection. In dependence of the ±IMFBy contribution during sufficiently strong northward IMFBz conditions, a transformation to three-cell convection patterns takes place.
Modelling of convection during solidification of metal and alloys
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The role of convection during solidification is studied with the help of a mathematical model. The effect of various mush models on convection and consequent macrosegregation is examined with the help of numerical simulations. The predicted macrosegregation profiles are compared with published experimental data.
Simulating North American mesoscale convective systems with a convection-permitting climate model
Prein, Andreas F.; Liu, Changhai; Ikeda, Kyoko; Bullock, Randy; Rasmussen, Roy M.; Holland, Greg J.; Clark, Martyn
2017-10-01
Deep convection is a key process in the climate system and the main source of precipitation in the tropics, subtropics, and mid-latitudes during summer. Furthermore, it is related to high impact weather causing floods, hail, tornadoes, landslides, and other hazards. State-of-the-art climate models have to parameterize deep convection due to their coarse grid spacing. These parameterizations are a major source of uncertainty and long-standing model biases. We present a North American scale convection-permitting climate simulation that is able to explicitly simulate deep convection due to its 4-km grid spacing. We apply a feature-tracking algorithm to detect hourly precipitation from Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) in the model and compare it with radar-based precipitation estimates east of the US Continental Divide. The simulation is able to capture the main characteristics of the observed MCSs such as their size, precipitation rate, propagation speed, and lifetime within observational uncertainties. In particular, the model is able to produce realistically propagating MCSs, which was a long-standing challenge in climate modeling. However, the MCS frequency is significantly underestimated in the central US during late summer. We discuss the origin of this frequency biases and suggest strategies for model improvements.
Analytical model of transient thermal effect on convectional cooled ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 81; Issue 4. Analytical model of transient thermal effect on convectional cooled end-pumped laser rod ... The transient analytical solutions of temperature distribution, stress, strain and optical path difference in convectional cooled end-pumped laser rod are derived.
AN ANALYTIC RADIATIVE-CONVECTIVE MODEL FOR PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robinson, Tyler D. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Catling, David C., E-mail: robinson@astro.washington.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310 (United States)
2012-09-20
We present an analytic one-dimensional radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power-law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric-pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries; (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunlight throughout the atmosphere, which we show can produce either shallow or deep radiative-convective boundaries, depending on the strength of sunlight attenuation; and (3) strongly irradiated giant planets (including hot Jupiters), where we explore the conditions under which these worlds acquire detached convective regions in their mid-tropospheres. Finally, we validate our model and demonstrate its utility through comparisons to the average observed thermal structure of Venus, Jupiter, and Titan, and by comparing computed flux profiles to more complex models.
Lattice Boltzmann model for melting with natural convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huber, Christian [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California - Berkeley, 307 McCone Hall 4767, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States)], E-mail: chuber@seismo.berkeley.edu; Parmigiani, Andrea [Computer Science Department, University of Geneva, 24, Rue du General Dufour, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: andrea.parmigiani@terre.unige.ch; Chopard, Bastien [Computer Science Department, University of Geneva, 24, Rue du General Dufour, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Bastien.Chopard@cui.unige.ch; Manga, Michael [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California - Berkeley, 177 McCone Hall 4767, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States)], E-mail: manga@seismo.berkeley.edu; Bachmann, Olivier [Department of Earth and Space Science, University of Washington, Johnson Hall 070, Seattle WA 98195-1310 (United States)], E-mail: bachmano@u.washington.edu
2008-10-15
We develop a lattice Boltzmann method to couple thermal convection and pure-substance melting. The transition from conduction-dominated heat transfer to fully-developed convection is analyzed and scaling laws and previous numerical results are reproduced by our numerical method. We also investigate the limit in which thermal inertia (high Stefan number) cannot be neglected. We use our results to extend the scaling relations obtained at low Stefan number and establish the correlation between the melting front propagation and the Stefan number for fully-developed convection. We conclude by showing that the model presented here is particularly well-suited to study convection melting in geometrically complex media with many applications in geosciences.
Mathematical models of a diffusion-convection in porous media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anvarbek M. Meirmanov
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Mathematical models of a diffusion-convection in porous media are derived from the homogenization theory. We start with the mathematical model on the microscopic level, which consist of the Stokes system for a weakly compressible viscous liquid occupying a pore space, coupled with a diffusion-convection equation for the admixture. We suppose that the viscosity of the liquid depends on a concentration of the admixture and for this nonlinear system we prove the global in time existence of a weak solution. Next we rigorously fulfil the homogenization procedure as the dimensionless size of pores tends to zero, while the porous body is geometrically periodic. As a result, we derive new mathematical models of a diffusion-convection in absolutely rigid porous media.
Vector cylindrical harmonics for low-dimensional convection models
Kelley, Douglas H; Knox, Catherine A
2016-01-01
Approximate empirical models of thermal convection can allow us to identify the essential properties of the flow in simplified form, and to produce empirical estimates using only a few parameters. Such "low-dimensional" empirical models can be constructed systematically by writing numerical or experimental measurements as superpositions of a set of appropriate basis modes, a process known as Galerkin projection. For Boussinesq convection in a cylinder, those basis modes should be defined in cylindrical coordinates, vector-valued, divergence-free, and mutually orthogonal. Here we construct two such basis sets, one using Bessel functions in the radial direction, and one using Chebyshev polynomials. We demonstrate that each set has those desired characteristics and demonstrate the advantages and drawbacks of each set. We show their use for representing sample simulation data and point out their potential for low-dimensional convection models.
Advances in the WRF model for convection-resolving forecasting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. B. Klemp
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF Model has been designed to be an efficient and flexible simulation system for use across a broad range of weather-forecast and idealized-research applications. Of particular interest is the use of WRF in nonhydrostatic applications in which moist-convective processes are treated explicitly, thereby avoiding the ambiguities of cumulus parameterization. To evaluate the capabilities of WRF for convection-resolving applications, real-time forecasting experiments have been conducted with 4 km horizontal mesh spacing for both convective systems in the central U.S. and for hurricanes approaching landfall in the southeastern U.S. These forecasts demonstrate a good potential for improving the forecast accuracy of the timing and location of these systems, as well as providing more detailed information on their structure and evolution that is not available in current coarser resolution operational forecast models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dean, Caryn L. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
1993-05-01
This report details a radiative-convective model, combining previously developed cumulus, stable cloud and radiation parameterizations with a boundary layer scheme, which was developed in the current study. The cloud model was modified to incorporate the effects of both small and large clouds. The boundary layer model was adapted from a mixed layer model was only slightly modified to couple it with the more sophisticated cloud model. The model was tested for a variety of imposed divergence profiles, which simulate the regions of the tropical ocean from approximately the intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) to the subtropical high region. The sounding used to initialize the model for most of the runs is from the trade wind region of ATEX. For each experiment, the model was run with a timestep of 300 seconds for a period of 7 days.
Convectively Aggregated Structures Across a Hierarchy of Models
Silvers, Levi; Dipankar, Anurag; Hohenegger, Cathy
2015-04-01
Convective clouds are among the most interesting and poorest understood atmospheric phenomena. This study explores the interaction between deep convection and the lower troposphere with a focus on the coupling of deep convection to the lower tropospheric clouds, water vapor, and relative humidity. We are particularly interested in the controlling factors of the cloud amount and cloud size at cloud base across various model set-ups. In particular we seek to determine how the generation of large convective structures depends on the characteristics of the lower troposphere and parameterization choices. Our experiments are analyzed by comparing the mean state, the probability distribution functions of particular quantities, and snapshots in time of the spatial distribution of cloud related fields. It is shown that the formation of aggregated convective structures depends on the different model setups. Experiments performed using an NWP model (ICON-NWP) and two cloud-resolving models (ICON-LES and UCLA-LES) are compared. The ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic (ICON) model is used to provide a unified modeling framework in which both the NWP and CRM versions use the same dynamical core but different physics packages. This allows for a fair comparison between the GCM and CRM and leads to a better understanding of both. To check the robustness of the CRM results we also compare the ICON experiments with the UCLA-LES model. The initial analysis looks at the ICON-NWP and both CRM experiments with a uniform domain size of (1800 km)2 and doubly periodic boundary conditions to determine some of the fundamental differences between the models. The NWP experiment has an effective resolution of 13.5 km while the CRM's have resolutions in the range of 5 km. We run the NWP experiments with the full suit of physics parameterizations as well as with the convection turned off. Further sensitivity studies are then made to isolate some of the key characteristics of the convection in each model
Spectrally-consistent regularization modeling of turbulent natural convection flows
Trias, F. Xavier; Verstappen, Roel; Gorobets, Andrey; Oliva, Assensi
2012-01-01
The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations constitute an excellent mathematical modelization of turbulence. Unfortunately, attempts at performing direct simulations are limited to relatively low-Reynolds numbers because of the almost numberless small scales produced by the non-linear convective
An Analytic Radiative-Convective Model for Planetary Atmospheres
Robinson, T. D.; Catling, D. C.
2012-12-01
A fundamental aspect of planetary atmospheres is the vertical thermal structure. Simple one-dimensional (vertical) models can provide reasonable estimates of a planet's global-mean temperature profile while providing insights into the physics behind the thermal profile of an atmosphere. The best basic models are those that incorporate the minimum amount of complexity while still remaining general enough to provide intuitive understanding. Here, we present an analytic 1-D radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres [1]. We assume that thermal radiative transfer is gray, and we include two shortwave channels for absorbed solar (or stellar) light so that the model can compute realistic stratospheric temperature inversions. A convective profile is placed at the base of the portion of the atmosphere that is in radiative equilibrium, and the model ensures that both the temperature profile and the upwelling flux profile are continuous across the radiation-convection boundary. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. The utility, validity, and generality of our model are demonstrated by applying it to a disparate range of worlds, including Jupiter, Venus, and Titan. Our model can be used to explain general observed phenomena in the Solar System [2], and we explore the behaviors of variants of our model, showing its ability to provide clear insights. Given the wealth of new problems posed by exoplanets, development of an analytic model with few parameters is likely to be useful for future application to such worlds, for which only limited data will be known. Our model can be used to help interpret
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Chiou, Guo-Li
2013-01-01
.... The purpose of this study, therefore, was first to investigate 30 physics students’ mental models of heat convection, and then to examine the relationship between their mental models and predictions of convection-related phenomena...
Development of Ensemble Neural Network Convection Parameterizations for Climate Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fox-Rabinovitz, M. S.; Krasnopolsky, V. M.
2012-05-02
The novel neural network (NN) approach has been formulated and used for development of a NN ensemble stochastic convection parametrization for climate models. This fast parametrization is built based on data from Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) simulations initialized with and forced by TOGA-COARE data. The SAM (System for Atmospheric Modeling), developed by D. Randall, M. Khairoutdinov, and their collaborators, has been used for CRM simulations. The observational data are also used for validation of model simulations. The SAM-simulated data have been averaged and projected onto the GCM space of atmospheric states to implicitly define a stochastic convection parametrization. This parametrization is emulated using an ensemble of NNs. An ensemble of NNs with different NN parameters has been trained and tested. The inherent uncertainty of the stochastic convection parametrization derived in such a way is estimated. Due to these inherent uncertainties, NN ensemble is used to constitute a stochastic NN convection parametrization. The developed NN convection parametrization have been validated in a diagnostic CAM (CAM-NN) run vs. the control CAM run. Actually, CAM inputs have been used, at every time step of the control/original CAM integration, for parallel calculations of the NN convection parametrization (CAM-NN) to produce its outputs as a diagnostic byproduct. Total precipitation (P) and cloudiness (CLD) time series, diurnal cycles, and P and CLD distributions for the large Tropical Pacific Ocean for the parallel CAM-NN and CAM runs show similarity and consistency with the NCEP reanalysis. The P and CLD distributions for the tropical area for the parallel runs have been analyzed first for the TOGA-COARE boreal winter season (November 1992 through February 1993) and then for the winter seasons of the follow-up parallel decadal simulations. The obtained results are encouraging and practically meaningful. They show the validity of the NN approach. This constitutes an
A numerical model of localized convection cells of Euglena suspensions
Iima, Makoto; Shoji, Erika; Yamaguchi, Takayuki
2014-11-01
Suspension of Euglena gracilis shows localized convection cells when it is illuminated form below with strong light intensity. Experiments in an annular container shows that there are two elementary localized structures. One consists of a pair of convection cells and a single region where number density of Euglena is high. The other consists a localized traveling wave. Based on the measurements of the flux of number density, we propose a model of bioconvection incorporating lateral phototaxis effect proportional to the light intensity gradient. Using pseudo spectral method, we performed numerical simulation of this model. We succeed in reproducing one of the localized structures, a convection pair with single region of high number density. Also, when the aspect ratio is large, there are a parameter region where the localized structure and conductive state are both stable, which is suggested by experiments. Spatial distribution of the number density implies that the accumulation of microorganism due to the convective flow causes such bistability. CREST(PJ74100011) and KAKENHI(26400396).
Modeling melt convection in phase-field simulations of solidification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beckermann, C.; Diepers, H.J.; Steinbach, I.; Karma, A.; Tong, X.
1999-09-20
A novel diffuse interface model is presented for the direct numerical simulation of microstructure evolution in solidification processes involving convection in the liquid phase. The solidification front is treated as a moving interface in the diffuse approximation as known from phase-field theories. The no-slip condition between the melt and the solid is realized via a drag resistivity in the diffuse interface region. The model is shown to accurately reproduce the usual sharp interface conditions in the limit of a thin diffuse interface region. A first test of the model is provided for flow through regular arrays of cylinders with a stationary interface. Then, two examples are presented that involve solid/liquid phase-change: (1) coarsening of a mush of a binary alloy, where both the interface curvature and the flow permeability evolve with time, and (2) dendritic growth in the presence of melt convection with particular emphasis on the operating point of the tip.
Nature, theory and modelling of geophysical convective planetary boundary layers
Zilitinkevich, Sergej
2015-04-01
Geophysical convective planetary boundary layers (CPBLs) are still poorly reproduced in oceanographic, hydrological and meteorological models. Besides the mean flow and usual shear-generated turbulence, CPBLs involve two types of motion disregarded in conventional theories: 'anarchy turbulence' comprised of the buoyancy-driven plumes, merging to form larger plumes instead of breaking down, as postulated in conventional theory (Zilitinkevich, 1973), large-scale organised structures fed by the potential energy of unstable stratification through inverse energy transfer in convective turbulence (and performing non-local transports irrespective of mean gradients of transporting properties). C-PBLs are strongly mixed and go on growing as long as the boundary layer remains unstable. Penetration of the mixed layer into the weakly turbulent, stably stratified free flow causes turbulent transports through the CPBL outer boundary. The proposed theory, taking into account the above listed features of CPBL, is based on the following recent developments: prognostic CPBL-depth equation in combination with diagnostic algorithm for turbulence fluxes at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries (Zilitinkevich, 1991, 2012, 2013; Zilitinkevich et al., 2006, 2012), deterministic model of self-organised convective structures combined with statistical turbulence-closure model of turbulence in the CPBL core (Zilitinkevich, 2013). It is demonstrated that the overall vertical transports are performed mostly by turbulence in the surface layer and entrainment layer (at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries) and mostly by organised structures in the CPBL core (Hellsten and Zilitinkevich, 2013). Principal difference between structural and turbulent mixing plays an important role in a number of practical problems: transport and dispersion of admixtures, microphysics of fogs and clouds, etc. The surface-layer turbulence in atmospheric and marine CPBLs is strongly enhanced by the velocity shears in
Convection in a Single Column -- Modelling, Algorithm and Analysis
Bokhove, Onno; Dedner, Andreas; Esler, Gavin; Norbury, John; Turner, Matthew R; Vanneste, Jacques; Cullen, Mike
2016-01-01
The group focused on a model problem of idealised moist air convection in a single column of atmosphere. Height, temperature and moisture variables were chosen to simplify the mathematical representation (along the lines of the Boussinesq approximation in a height variable defined in terms of pressure). This allowed exact simple solutions of the numerical and partial differential equation problems to be found. By examining these, we identify column behaviour, stability issues and explore the feasibility of a more general solution process.
Modified model of convective drying of water-based Caramic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Modified model of convective drying of water-based Caramic suspension for tape casting. Y T Puyate. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Engineering Research Vol. 5 (1&2) 2006: pp. 67-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjer.v5i1.18970 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
Toward a Unified Representation of Atmospheric Convection in Variable-Resolution Climate Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walko, Robert [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)
2016-11-07
The purpose of this project was to improve the representation of convection in atmospheric weather and climate models that employ computational grids with spatially-variable resolution. Specifically, our work targeted models whose grids are fine enough over selected regions that convection is resolved explicitly, while over other regions the grid is coarser and convection is represented as a subgrid-scale process. The working criterion for a successful scheme for representing convection over this range of grid resolution was that identical convective environments must produce very similar convective responses (i.e., the same precipitation amount, rate, and timing, and the same modification of the atmospheric profile) regardless of grid scale. The need for such a convective scheme has increased in recent years as more global weather and climate models have adopted variable resolution meshes that are often extended into the range of resolving convection in selected locations.
A nonlinear model for rotationally constrained convection with Ekman pumping
Julien, Keith; Calkins, Michael A; Knobloch, Edgar; Marti, Philippe; Stellmach, Stephan; Vasil, Geoffrey M
2016-01-01
It is a well established result of linear theory that the influence of differing mechanical boundary conditions, i.e., stress-free or no-slip, on the primary instability in rotating convection becomes asymptotically small in the limit of rapid rotation. This is accounted for by the diminishing impact of the viscous stresses exerted within Ekman boundary layers and the associated vertical momentum transport by Ekman pumping. By contrast, in the nonlinear regime recent experiments and supporting simulations are now providing evidence that the efficiency of heat transport remains strongly influenced by Ekman pumping in the rapidly rotating limit. In this paper, a reduced model is developed for the case of low Rossby number convection in a plane layer geometry with no-slip upper and lower boundaries held at fixed temperatures. A complete description of the dynamics requires the existence of three distinct regions within the fluid layer: a geostrophically balanced interior where fluid motions are predominately ali...
Modeling the natural convective flow of micropolar nanofluids
Bourantas, Georgios
2014-01-01
A micropolar model for nanofluidic suspensions is proposed in order to investigate theoretically the natural convection of nanofluids. The microrotation of the nanoparticles seems to play a significant role into flow regime and in that manner it possibly can interpret the controversial experimental data and theoretical numerical results over the natural convection of nanofluids. Natural convection of a nanofluid in a square cavity is studied and computations are performed for Rayleigh number values up to 106, for a range of solid volume fractions (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.2) and, different types of nanoparticles (Cu, Ag, Al2O3 and TiO 2). The theoretical results show that the microrotation of the nanoparticles in suspension in general decreases overall heat transfer from the heated wall and should not therefore be neglected when computing heat and fluid flow of micropolar fluids, as nanofluids. The validity of the proposed model is depicted by comparing the numerical results obtained with available experimental and theoretical data. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Idealized Cloud-System Resolving Modeling for Tropical Convection Studies
Anber, Usama M.
A three-dimensional limited-domain Cloud-Resolving Model (CRM) is used in idealized settings to study the interaction between tropical convection and the large scale dynamics. The model domain is doubly periodic and the large-scale circulation is parameterized using the Weak Temperature Gradient (WTG) Approximation and Damped Gravity Wave (DGW) methods. The model simulations fall into two main categories: simulations with a prescribed radiative cooling profile, and others in which radiative cooling profile interacts with clouds and water vapor. For experiments with a prescribed radiative cooling profile, radiative heating is taken constant in the vertical in the troposphere. First, the effect of turbulent surface fluxes and radiative cooling on tropical deep convection is studied. In the precipitating equilibria, an increment in surface fluxes produces a greater increase in precipitation than an equal increment in column-integrated radiative heating. The gross moist stability remains close to constant over a wide range of forcings. With dry initial conditions, the system exhibits hysteresis, and maintains a dry state with for a wide range of net energy inputs to the atmospheric column under WTG. However, for the same forcings the system admits a rainy state when initialized with moist conditions, and thus multiple equilibria exist under WTG. When the net forcing is increased enough that simulations, which begin dry, eventually develop precipitation. DGW, on the other hand, does not have the tendency to develop multiple equilibria under the same conditions. The effect of vertical wind shear on tropical deep convection is also studied. The strength and depth of the shear layer are varied as control parameters. Surface fluxes are prescribed. For weak wind shear, time-averaged rainfall decreases with shear and convection remains disorganized. For larger wind shear, rainfall increases with shear, as convection becomes organized into linear mesoscale systems. This non
A Thermal Plume Model for the Martian Convective Boundary Layer
Colaïtis, Arnaud; Hourdin, Frédéric; Rio, Catherine; Forget, François; Millour, Ehouarn
2013-01-01
The Martian Planetary Boundary Layer [PBL] is a crucial component of the Martian climate system. Global Climate Models [GCMs] and Mesoscale Models [MMs] lack the resolution to predict PBL mixing which is therefore parameterized. Here we propose to adapt the "thermal plume" model, recently developed for Earth climate modeling, to Martian GCMs, MMs, and single-column models. The aim of this physically-based parameterization is to represent the effect of organized turbulent structures (updrafts and downdrafts) on the daytime PBL transport, as it is resolved in Large-Eddy Simulations [LESs]. We find that the terrestrial thermal plume model needs to be modified to satisfyingly account for deep turbulent plumes found in the Martian convective PBL. Our Martian thermal plume model qualitatively and quantitatively reproduces the thermal structure of the daytime PBL on Mars: superadiabatic near-surface layer, mixing layer, and overshoot region at PBL top. This model is coupled to surface layer parameterizations taking ...
Sensitivity simulations of superparameterised convection in a general circulation model
Rybka, Harald; Tost, Holger
2015-04-01
Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs) covering a horizontal grid spacing from a few hundred meters up to a few kilometers have been used to explicitly resolve small-scale and mesoscale processes. Special attention has been paid to realistically represent cloud dynamics and cloud microphysics involving cloud droplets, ice crystals, graupel and aerosols. The entire variety of physical processes on the small-scale interacts with the larger-scale circulation and has to be parameterised on the coarse grid of a general circulation model (GCM). Since more than a decade an approach to connect these two types of models which act on different scales has been developed to resolve cloud processes and their interactions with the large-scale flow. The concept is to use an ensemble of CRM grid cells in a 2D or 3D configuration in each grid cell of the GCM to explicitly represent small-scale processes avoiding the use of convection and large-scale cloud parameterisations which are a major source for uncertainties regarding clouds. The idea is commonly known as superparameterisation or cloud-resolving convection parameterisation. This study presents different simulations of an adapted Earth System Model (ESM) connected to a CRM which acts as a superparameterisation. Simulations have been performed with the ECHAM/MESSy atmospheric chemistry (EMAC) model comparing conventional GCM runs (including convection and large-scale cloud parameterisations) with the improved superparameterised EMAC (SP-EMAC) modeling one year with prescribed sea surface temperatures and sea ice content. The sensitivity of atmospheric temperature, precipiation patterns, cloud amount and types is observed changing the embedded CRM represenation (orientation, width, no. of CRM cells, 2D vs. 3D). Additionally, we also evaluate the radiation balance with the new model configuration, and systematically analyse the impact of tunable parameters on the radiation budget and hydrological cycle. Furthermore, the subgrid
Modeling free convective gravitational effects in chemical vapor deposition
Stinespring, C. D.; Annen, K. D.
1987-01-01
In this paper, a combined fluid-mechanics, mass-transport, and chemistry model describing CVD in an open-tube atmospheric-pressure flow reactor is developed. The model allows gas-phase reactions to proceed to equilibrium and accounts for finite reaction rates at the surface of the deposition substrate. This model is a useful intermediate step toward a model employing fully rate-limited chemistry. The model is used to predict the effects of free convection on flow patterns, temperature and species-concentration profiles, and local deposition rates for silicon deposited by silane pyrolysis. These results are discussed in terms of implications for CVD of silicon and other compounds, microgravity studies, and techniques for testing and validating the model.
Mesoscale Modeling of Marangoni Convection in Evaporating Colloidal Droplets
Zhao, Mingfei; Yong, Xin
2017-11-01
In this work, we develop a three-dimensional free-energy-based multiphase lattice Boltzmann-Brownian dynamics model with thermal effects for elucidating particle dynamics in evaporating nanoparticle-laden droplets in the presence of Marangoni convection. The introduction of thermal effects enables the development of the 3D internal flow structures due to concomitant inhomogeneous evaporation at the droplet surface and thermal conduction inside the droplet. In particular, the model is capable of capturing thermal Marangoni flow along the surface of droplets and its interplay with the internal flow. We calculate the temperature field separately and consider the thermal effect as a forcing term in the lattice Boltzmann model. We first model non-evaporating droplets loaded with nanoparticles and the effects of temperature field on the flow structure. By implementing evaporation, we probe the self-assembly of nanoparticles inside the droplets or at the liquid-vapor interface. We analyze the microstructure of nanoparticle assemblies through radial distribution functions and structure factors. Our findings provide critical insights into the dynamics of nanoparticle self-assembly in evaporating fluid mass with Marangoni convection. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1538090.
FINGERING CONVECTION AND CLOUDLESS MODELS FOR COOL BROWN DWARF ATMOSPHERES
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Tremblin, P.; Amundsen, D. S.; Mourier, P.; Baraffe, I.; Chabrier, G.; Drummond, B. [Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Homeier, D. [Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CRAL, UMR CNRS 5574, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Venot, O., E-mail: tremblin@astro.ex.ac.uk, E-mail: pascal.tremblin@cea.fr [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)
2015-05-01
This work aims to improve the current understanding of the atmospheres of brown dwarfs, especially cold ones with spectral types T and Y, whose modeling is a current challenge. Silicate and iron clouds are believed to disappear at the photosphere at the L/T transition, but cloudless models fail to reproduce correctly the spectra of T dwarfs, advocating for the addition of more physics, e.g., other types of clouds or internal energy transport mechanisms. We use a one-dimensional radiative/convective equilibrium code ATMO to investigate this issue. This code includes both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium chemistry and solves consistently the PT structure. Included opacity sources are H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}-He, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, K, Na, and TiO, VO if they are present in the atmosphere. We show that the spectra of Y dwarfs can be accurately reproduced with a cloudless model if vertical mixing and NH{sub 3} quenching are taken into account. T dwarf spectra still have some reddening in, e.g., J–H, compared to cloudless models. This reddening can be reproduced by slightly reducing the temperature gradient in the atmosphere. We propose that this reduction of the stabilizing temperature gradient in these layers, leading to cooler structures, is due to the onset of fingering convection, triggered by the destabilizing impact of condensation of very thin dust.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Keller
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Diurnal moist convection is an important element of summer precipitation over Central Europe and the Alps. It is poorly represented in models using parameterized convection. In this study, we investigate the diurnal cycle of convection during 11 days in June 2007 using the COSMO model. The numerical simulations are compared with satellite measurements of GERB and SEVIRI, AVHRR satellite-based cloud properties and ground-based precipitation and temperature measurements. The simulations use horizontal resolutions of 12 km (convection-parameterizing model, CPM and 2 km (convection-resolving model, CRM and either a one-moment microphysics scheme (1M or a two-moment microphysics scheme (2M.They are conducted for a computational domain that covers an extended Alpine area from Northern Italy to Northern Germany. The CPM with 1M exhibits a significant overestimation of high cloud cover. This results in a compensation effect in the top of the atmosphere energy budget due to an underestimation of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR and an overestimation of reflected solar radiation (RSR. The CRM reduces high cloud cover and improves the OLR bias from a domain mean of −20.1 to −2.6 W/m2. When using 2M with ice sedimentation in the CRM, high cloud cover is further reduced. The stronger diurnal cycle of high cloud cover and associated convection over the Alps, compared to less mountainous regions, is well represented by the CRM but underestimated by the CPM. Despite substantial differences in high cloud cover, the use of a 2M has no significant impact on the diurnal cycle of precipitation. Furthermore, a negative mid-level cloud bias is found for all simulations.
MODELING OF CONVECTIVE FLOWS IN PNEUMOBASED OBJECTS. Part 1
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B. M. Khrustalyov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A computer modeling process of three-dimensional forced convection proceeding from computation of thermodynamic parameters of pneumo basic buildings (pneumo supported structures is presented. The mathematical model of numerical computation method of temperature and velocity fields, pressure profile in the object is developed using the package Solid works and is provided by grid methods on specified software. Special Navier–Stokes, Clapeyron–Mendeleev, continuity and thermal-conductivity equations are used to calculate parameters in the building with four supply and exhaust channels. Differential equations are presented by algebraic equation systems, initial-boundary conditions are changed by differential conditions for mesh functions and their solutions are performed by algebraic operations. In this article the following is demonstrated: in pneumo basic buildings convective and heat flows are identical structures near the surfaces in unlimited space, but in single-multiply shells (envelopescirculation lines take place, geometrical sizes of which depend on thermal-physical characteristics of gas(airin envelopes, radiation reaction with heated surfaces of envelopes with sphere, earth surface, neighboring buildings. Natural surveys of pneumo-basic buildings of different purposes were carried out in Minsk, in different cities of Belarus and Russia, including temperature fields of external and internal surfaces of air envelopes, relative humidity, thermal (heatflows, radiation characteristics and others.The results of research work are illustrated with diagrams of temperature, velocity, density and pressure dependent on coordinates and time.
Choosing an adequate FEM grid for global mantle convection modelling
Thieulot, Cedric
2016-04-01
Global numerical models of mantle convection are typically run on a grid which represents a hollow sphere. In the context of using the Finite Element method, there are many ways to discretise a hollow sphere by means of cuboids in a regular fashion (adaptive mesh refinement is here not considered). I will here focus on the following two: the cubed sphere [1], which is a quasi-uniform mapping of a cube to a sphere (considering both equidistant and equiangular projections), and the 12-block grid used for instance in CITCOM [2]. By means of simple experiments, I will show that at comparable resolutions (and all other things being equal), the 12-block grid is surprisingly vastly superior to the cubed-sphere grid, when used in combination with trilinear velocity - constant pressure elements, while being more difficult to build/implement. [1] C. Ronchi, R. Iacono, and P. S. Paolucci, The "Cubed Sphere": A New Method for the Solution of Partial Differential Equations in Spherical Geometry, Journal of Computational Physics, 124, p93-114 (1996). [2] S. Zhong and M.T. Zuber and L.N. Moresi and M. Gurnis, Role of temperature-dependent viscosity and surface plates in spherical shell models of mantle convection, Journal of Geophysical Research, 105 (B5), p 11,063-11,082 (2000).
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Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Liu, Yi-Chin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Air Resources Board, Sacramento California USA; Xu, Kuan-Man [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA; North, Kirk [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montréal Québec Canada; Collis, Scott [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA; Dong, Xiquan [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks North Dakota USA; Zhang, Guang J. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Chen, Qian [Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Kollias, Pavlos [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA
2015-04-27
The ultimate goal of this study is to improve the representation of convective transport by cumulus parameterization for mesoscale and climate models. As Part 1 of the study, we perform extensive evaluations of cloud-resolving simulations of a squall line and mesoscale convective complexes in midlatitude continent and tropical regions using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with spectral bin microphysics (SBM) and with two double-moment bulk microphysics schemes: a modified Morrison (MOR) and Milbrandt and Yau (MY2). Compared to observations, in general, SBM gives better simulations of precipitation and vertical velocity of convective cores than MOR and MY2 and therefore will be used for analysis of scale dependence of eddy transport in Part 2. The common features of the simulations for all convective systems are (1) themodel tends to overestimate convection intensity in the middle and upper troposphere, but SBM can alleviate much of the overestimation and reproduce the observed convection intensity well; (2) the model greatly overestimates Ze in convective cores, especially for the weak updraft velocity; and (3) the model performs better for midlatitude convective systems than the tropical system. The modeled mass fluxes of the midlatitude systems are not sensitive to microphysics schemes but are very sensitive for the tropical case indicating strong microphysics modification to convection. Cloud microphysical measurements of rain, snow, and graupel in convective cores will be critically important to further elucidate issues within cloud microphysics schemes
Modelling of convective heat and mass transfer in rotating flows
Shevchuk, Igor V
2016-01-01
This monograph presents results of the analytical and numerical modeling of convective heat and mass transfer in different rotating flows caused by (i) system rotation, (ii) swirl flows due to swirl generators, and (iii) surface curvature in turns and bends. Volume forces (i.e. centrifugal and Coriolis forces), which influence the flow pattern, emerge in all of these rotating flows. The main part of this work deals with rotating flows caused by system rotation, which includes several rotating-disk configurations and straight pipes rotating about a parallel axis. Swirl flows are studied in some of the configurations mentioned above. Curvilinear flows are investigated in different geometries of two-pass ribbed and smooth channels with 180° bends. The author demonstrates that the complex phenomena of fluid flow and convective heat transfer in rotating flows can be successfully simulated using not only the universal CFD methodology, but in certain cases by means of the integral methods, self-similar and analyt...
MODELING OF CONVECTIVE STREAMS IN PNEUMOBASIC OBJECTS (Part 2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. M. Khroustalev
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents modeling for investigation of aerodynamic processes on area sections (including a group of complex constructional works for different regimes of drop and wind streams and temperature conditions and in complex constructional works (for different regimes of heating and ventilation. There were developed different programs for innovation problems solution in the field of heat and mass exchange in three-dimensional space of pres- sures-speeds-temperatures of оbjects.The field of uses of pneumobasic objects: construction and roof of tennis courts, hockey pitches, swimming pools , and also exhibitions’ buildings, circus buildings, cafes, aqua parks, studios, mobile objects of medical purposes, hangars, garages, construction sites, service sta- tions and etc. Advantages of such objects are the possibility and simplicity of multiple instal- lation and demolition works. Their large-scale implementation is determined by temperature- moisture conditions under the shells.Analytical and calculating researches, real researches of thermodynamic parameters of heat and mass exchange, multifactorial processes of air in pneumobasic objects, their shells in a wide range of climatic parameters of air (January – December in the Republic of Belarus, in many geographical latitudes of many countries have shown that the limit of the possibility of optimizing wind loads, heat flow, acoustic effects is infinite (sports, residential, industrial, warehouse, the military-technical units (tanks, airplanes, etc.. In modeling of convective flows in pneumobasic objects (part 1 there are processes with higher dynamic parameters of the air flow for the characteristic pneumobasic object, carried out the calculation of the velocity field, temperature, pressure at the speed of access of air through the inflow holes up to 5 m/sec at the moments of times (20, 100, 200, 400 sec. The calculation was performed using the developed mathematical
Ettammal, S.; Zhang, G. J.; Chen, R.
2014-12-01
Closure is the main component of a mass flux-based convective parameterization scheme and it determines the amount of convection under a given large-scale condition. In this study, we use cloud-resolving model output from simulations of both tropical and midlatitude convection to evaluate commonly used closures for a range of global climate model (GCM) horizontal resolutions, taking convective precipitation and mass flux at 600 hPa as measures for deep convection. To mimic different GCM horizontal resolutions, we use high resolution CRM data to create domain averages representing GCM horizontal resolutions of 128 km, 64 km, 32 km, 16 km, 8 km and 4 km. Lead-lag correlation analysis shows that except moisture convergence and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), none of the other closure variables evaluated in this study show any relationship with convection for the six subdomain sizes. It is found that the correlation between moisture convergence and convective precipitation is largest when moisture convergence leads convection. This correlation weakens as the subdomain size decreases to 8 km or smaller. Although convective precipitation and mass flux increase with moisture convergence, as the subdomain size increases the rate at which they increase becomes smaller. This suggests that moisture convergence-based closure should scale down the predicted mass flux for given moisture convergence as GCM resolution increases. Lead-lag correlation and composite analysis show that TKE is largely a result of convection and therefore its use in a closure variable is not supported.
Lipsey, Lindsay; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Cloetingh, Sierd
2015-04-01
the fracture network geometry within the aquifer. In summary, convective upwellings can create significant temperature enhancements relative to conductive profile and in agreement with the observations in the LTG-01 carbonates. This enhancement is critically dependent on the aquifer thickness and geothermal gradient. Given a gradient of 39°C/km and aquifer thickness of 600 m, a temperature of 203°C can be obtained at a depth of 4500 m directly above upwelling zones. Contrarily, downwelling zones result in a temperature of 185°C at the same depth. This demonstrates the strong spatial variability of thermal anomalies in convective fractured aquifers at large depth and can have strong effects on exploration opportunity and risk of prospective areas. Numerical models can facilitate in exploration workflows to assess thermal variation and location of upwelling zones.
Evaluation of cloud convection and tracer transport in a three-dimensional chemical transport model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Feng
2011-06-01
Full Text Available We investigate the performance of cloud convection and tracer transport in a global off-line 3-D chemical transport model. Various model simulations are performed using different meteorological (reanalyses (ERA-40, ECMWF operational and ECMWF Interim to diagnose the updraft mass flux, convective precipitation and cloud top height.
The diagnosed upward mass flux distribution from TOMCAT agrees quite well with the ECMWF reanalysis data (ERA-40 and ERA-Interim below 200 hPa. Inclusion of midlevel convection improves the agreement at mid-high latitudes. However, the reanalyses show strong convective transport up to 100 hPa, well into the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, which is not captured by TOMCAT. Similarly, the model captures the spatial and seasonal variation of convective cloud top height although the mean modelled value is about 2 km lower than observed.
The ERA-Interim reanalyses have smaller archived upward convective mass fluxes than ERA-40, and smaller convective precipitation, which is in better agreement with satellite-based data. TOMCAT captures these relative differences when diagnosing convection from the large-scale fields. The model also shows differences in diagnosed convection with the version of the operational analyses used, which cautions against using results of the model from one specific time period as a general evaluation.
We have tested the effect of resolution on the diagnosed modelled convection with simulations ranging from 5.6° × 5.6° to 1° × 1°. Overall, in the off-line model, the higher model resolution gives stronger vertical tracer transport, however, it does not make a large change to the diagnosed convective updraft mass flux (i.e., the model results using the convection scheme fail to capture the strong convection transport up to 100 hPa as seen in the archived convective mass fluxes. Similarly, the resolution of the forcing winds in the higher resolution CTM does not make a
A shallow convection parameterization for the non-hydrostatic MM5 mesoscale model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seaman, N.L.; Kain, J.S.; Deng, A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
1996-04-01
A shallow convection parameterization suitable for the Pennsylvannia State University (PSU)/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) is being developed at PSU. The parameterization is based on parcel perturbation theory developed in conjunction with a 1-D Mellor Yamada 1.5-order planetary boundary layer scheme and the Kain-Fritsch deep convection model.
Drying modelling of defrosted pork meat under forced convection conditions.
Clemente, G; Bon, J; Sanjuán, N; Mulet, A
2011-07-01
Drying is the lengthiest and the most energy consuming step during the production of dry-cured ham, affecting also the curing process and consequently product quality. In order to manage the drying process, it is quite interesting to establish the complexity of model needed. For that purpose, pork meat cylinders (Biceps femoris and Semimembranosus muscles) were dehydrated under forced convection conditions (25°C and air velocity 0.6±0.1, 2.0±0.1 and 2.8±0.1 m/s). Experimental drying kinetics were modelled by means of 4 diffusion models: model 1 (not considering shrinkage and no external resistance), model 2 (considering shrinkage and no external resistance), model 3 (not considering shrinkage and considering external resistance) and model 4 (considering both shrinkage and external resistance). From the effective diffusivity values identified, it was concluded that when external resistance was negligible (air velocity 2.0±0.1 and 2.8±0.1 m/s), the results obtained for D(e) with the four models were the same. Nevertheless, when external resistance was not negligible (0.6±0.1 m/s) the D(e) identified was influenced by the model due to the fact that models 1 and 2 neglect that resistance and for that reason they do not describe experimental conditions properly. The effect of shrinkage did not influence the identified D(e) values for the drying conditions considered. In order to model water losses in meat curing chambers, external resistance must be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Modelling of intermittent microwave convective drying: parameter sensitivity
Zhang, Zhijun; Qin, Wenchao; Shi, Bin; Gao, Jingxin; Zhang, Shiwei
2017-06-01
The reliability of the predictions of a mathematical model is a prerequisite to its utilization. A multiphase porous media model of intermittent microwave convective drying is developed based on the literature. The model considers the liquid water, gas and solid matrix inside of food. The model is simulated by COMSOL software. Its sensitivity parameter is analysed by changing the parameter values by ±20%, with the exception of several parameters. The sensitivity analysis of the process of the microwave power level shows that each parameter: ambient temperature, effective gas diffusivity, and evaporation rate constant, has significant effects on the process. However, the surface mass, heat transfer coefficient, relative and intrinsic permeability of the gas, and capillary diffusivity of water do not have a considerable effect. The evaporation rate constant has minimal parameter sensitivity with a ±20% value change, until it is changed 10-fold. In all results, the temperature and vapour pressure curves show the same trends as the moisture content curve. However, the water saturation at the medium surface and in the centre show different results. Vapour transfer is the major mass transfer phenomenon that affects the drying process.
Modelling of intermittent microwave convective drying: parameter sensitivity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Zhijun
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The reliability of the predictions of a mathematical model is a prerequisite to its utilization. A multiphase porous media model of intermittent microwave convective drying is developed based on the literature. The model considers the liquid water, gas and solid matrix inside of food. The model is simulated by COMSOL software. Its sensitivity parameter is analysed by changing the parameter values by ±20%, with the exception of several parameters. The sensitivity analysis of the process of the microwave power level shows that each parameter: ambient temperature, effective gas diffusivity, and evaporation rate constant, has significant effects on the process. However, the surface mass, heat transfer coefficient, relative and intrinsic permeability of the gas, and capillary diffusivity of water do not have a considerable effect. The evaporation rate constant has minimal parameter sensitivity with a ±20% value change, until it is changed 10-fold. In all results, the temperature and vapour pressure curves show the same trends as the moisture content curve. However, the water saturation at the medium surface and in the centre show different results. Vapour transfer is the major mass transfer phenomenon that affects the drying process.
Development of a mechanistic model for forced convection subcooled boiling
Shaver, Dillon R.
The focus of this work is on the formulation, implementation, and testing of a mechanistic model of subcooled boiling. Subcooled boiling is the process of vapor generation on a heated wall when the bulk liquid temperature is still below saturation. This is part of a larger effort by the US DoE's CASL project to apply advanced computational tools to the simulation of light water reactors. To support this effort, the formulation of the dispersed field model is described and a complete model of interfacial forces is formulated. The model has been implemented in the NPHASE-CMFD computer code with a K-epsilon model of turbulence. The interfacial force models are built on extensive work by other authors, and include novel formulations of the turbulent dispersion and lift forces. The complete model of interfacial forces is compared to experiments for adiabatic bubbly flows, including both steady-state and unsteady conditions. The same model is then applied to a transient gas/liquid flow in a complex geometry of fuel channels in a sodium fast reactor. Building on the foundation of the interfacial force model, a mechanistic model of forced-convection subcooled boiling is proposed. This model uses the heat flux partitioning concept and accounts for condensation of bubbles attached to the wall. This allows the model to capture the enhanced heat transfer associated with boiling before the point of net generation of vapor, a phenomenon consistent with existing experimental observations. The model is compared to four different experiments encompassing flows of light water, heavy water, and R12 at different pressures, in cylindrical channels, an internally heated annulus, and a rectangular channel. The experimental data includes axial and radial profiles of both liquid temperature and vapor volume fraction, and the agreement can be considered quite good. The complete model is then applied to simulations of subcooled boiling in nuclear reactor subchannels consistent with the
Modeling approaches to natural convection in porous media
Su, Yan
2015-01-01
This book provides an overview of the field of flow and heat transfer in porous medium and focuses on presentation of a generalized approach to predict drag and convective heat transfer within porous medium of arbitrary microscopic geometry, including reticulated foams and packed beds. Practical numerical methods to solve natural convection problems in porous media will be presented with illustrative applications for filtrations, thermal storage and solar receivers.
Guo-Li Chiou
2013-01-01
Although prediction is claimed to be a prime function of mental models, to what extent students can run their mental models to make predictions of physical phenomena remains uncertain. The purpose of this study, therefore, was first to investigate 30 physics students’ mental models of heat convection, and then to examine the relationship between their mental models and predictions of convection-related phenomena. A series of semistructured interviews was conducted to probe the participants’ m...
Improving the simulation of convective dust storms in regional-to-global models
Foroutan, Hosein; Pleim, Jonathan E.
2017-09-01
Convective dust storms have significant impacts on atmospheric conditions and air quality and are a major source of dust uplift in summertime. However, regional-to-global models generally do not accurately simulate these storms, a limitation that can be attributed to (1) using a single mean value for wind speed per grid box, i.e., not accounting for subgrid wind variability and (2) using convective parametrizations that poorly simulate cold pool outflows. This study aims to improve the simulation of convective dust storms by tackling these two issues. Specifically, we incorporate a probability distribution function for surface wind in each grid box to account for subgrid wind variability due to dry and moist convection. Furthermore, we use lightning assimilation to increase the accuracy of the convective parameterization and simulated cold pool outflows. This updated model framework is used to simulate a massive convective dust storm that hit Phoenix, AZ, on 6 July 2011. The results show that lightning assimilation provides a more realistic simulation of precipitation features, including timing and location, and the resulting cold pool outflows that generated the dust storm. When those results are combined with a dust model that accounts for subgrid wind variability, the prediction of dust uplift and concentrations are considerably improved compared to the default model results. This modeling framework could potentially improve the simulation of convective dust storms in global models, regional climate simulations, and retrospective air quality studies.
Kuang, Z.
2015-12-01
Organization in a moist convecting atmosphere is investigated using the super-parameterized community atmosphere model (SPCAM) in aquaplanet setting with constant surface temperature, with and without planetary rotation. Without radiative and surface feedbacks, convective organization is dominated by convectively coupled gravity waves without planetary rotation and convectively coupled equatorial waves when there is planetary rotation. This behavior is well captured when the cloud resolving model (CRM) in SPCAM is replaced by its linear response function, computed following Kuang (2010), for the state of radiative convective equilibrium (RCE). With radiative feedback, however, convection self-aggregates, and with planetary rotation, the tropical zonal wavenumber-frequency spectrum features a red noise background. These behaviors in the presence of the radiative feedback are not captured when the CRM is replaced by its linear response function around the RCE state with radiative feedback included in the construction. Implications to organization in a moist convecting atmosphere will be discussed. Kuang, Z., Linear response functions of a cumulus ensemble to temperature and moisture perturbations and implication to the dynamics of convectively coupled waves, J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 941-962, (2010)
Development of the Rice Convection Model as a Space Weather Tool
2015-05-31
AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0129 TR-2015-0129 DEVELOPMENT OF THE RICE CONVECTION MODEL AS A SPACE WEATHER TOOL Frank R. Toffoletto, et al...Development of the Rice Convection Model as a Space Weather Tool 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-13-1-0222 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER... Convection Model (RCM) can provide a superior space-weather product. The work under this preliminary project consisted of a modest amount of code development
A simple dynamical model of cumulus convection for data assimilation research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Würsch
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A simplified model for cumulus convection has been developed, with the aim of providing a computationally inexpensive, but physically plausible, environment for developing methods for convective-scale data assimilation. Key processes, including gravity waves, conditional instability and precipitation formation, are represented, and parameter values are chosen to reproduce the most important space and time scales of cumulus clouds. The model is shown to reproduce the classic life cycle of an isolated convective storm. When provided with a low amplitude noise source to trigger convection, the model produces a statistically steady state with cloud size and cloud spacing distributions similar to those found in radiative-convective equilibrium simulations using a cloud resolving model. Results are also shown for convection triggered by flow over an orgraphic obstacle, where depending on the wind speed two regimes are found with convection trapped over the mountain, or propagating downstream. The model features prognostic variables for wind and rain that can be used to compute synthetic observations for data assimilation experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.
2013-08-01
By applying a cloud tracking algorithm to tropical convective systems simulated by a regional high resolution model, the study documents environmental conditions before and after convective systems are initiated over ocean and land by following them during their lifetime. The comparative roles of various environmental fields in affecting the lifetime of convection are also quantified. The statistics of lifetime, maximum area, propagation speed and direction of the simulated deep convection agrees well with geostationary satellite observations. Over ocean, convective systems enhance surface fluxes through the associated wind gusts as well as cooling and drying of the boundary layer. A significant relationship is found between the mean surface fluxes during their lifetime and the longevity of the systems which in turn is related to the initial intensity of the moist updraft and to a lesser extent upper level shear. Over land, on the other hand, convective activity suppresses surface fluxes through cloud cover and the lifetime of convection is related to the upper level shear during their lifetime and strength of the heat fluxes several hours before the initiation of convection. For systems of equal lifetime, those over land are significantly more intense than those over ocean especially during early stages of their lifetime.
Sparse identification of a predator-prey system from simulation data of a convection model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dam, Magnus; Brøns, Morten; Rasmussen, Jens Juul
2017-01-01
of a convection problem. A convection model with a pressure source centered at the inner boundary models the edge dynamics of a magnetically confined plasma. The convection problem undergoes a sequence of bifurcations as the strength of the pressure source increases. The time evolution of the energies...... of the pressure profile, the turbulent flow, and the zonal flow capture the fundamental dynamic behavior of the full system. By applying the sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics (SINDy) method, we identify a predator-prey type dynamical system that approximates the underlying dynamics of the three energy...
a Model of the Ion Chemistry of Electrified Convection
Boldi, Robert A.
To examine the chemical effects of the reactions induced by the ions, electrons, and photons produced in and around a lightning channel, a two-dimensional, axisymmetric dynamical/chemical model of electrified convection has been developed. This model considers ~ 800 thermal and photochemical reactions among 165 neutrals, ions, water clusters, and electrons; effects of pressure, temperature, and electric fields upon the reaction coefficients are explicitly considered. Because the aim of this thesis is to focus on ion production and their subsequent gas-phase reactions, aqueous-phase chemistry has not been considered (although heterogeneous loss is represented) and the dynamics and microphysics are specified in a relatively simple manner. The ion and UV-photon generation mechanisms dominate the overall production of many neutrals such as atomic O, N, and H, and are responsible for elevated mixing ratios of the sparingly soluble or short-lived chemical families that derive from these species (i.e. NO_ {x}, O_{x}). In general, the ion and UV-induced reactions contribute equally to the production of both O(^3 P ) and O(^1 D) and consequently are equally important in the overall chemistry of O _3 and OH and other derivative chemical species. The Electrified model represents a net-loss process for some chemical species, primarily due to enhanced in -cloud OH levels. On a global basis this model accounts for the annual destruction of 1.8 Tg of CO, 0.45 Tg of CH_4, and 2 times 10^{-4} Tg of OCS. Once again, these are small fractions of the currently estimated annual source strengths of these species (1600 Tg CO, 525 Tg CH_4, and 0.4 Tg OCS). This model is now being refined to include (1) a better representation of heterogeneous loss to the ice phase and (2) feedback between space charge (ions) and the electric field and it is being expanded to include the full range of aqueous-phase chemistry. Additionally (1) a better understanding of the electric-field-strength dependent
Shang, De-Yi
2012-01-01
This book presents recent developments in our systematic studies of hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, as well as accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids (FFNF). These new developments provided in this book are (i) novel system of analysis models based on the developed New Similarity Analysis Method; (ii) a system of advanced methods for treatment of gas temperature- dependent physical properties, and liquid temperature- dependent physical properties; (iii) the organically combined models of the governing mathematical models with those on treatment model of variable physical properties; (iv) rigorous approach of overcoming a challenge on accurate solution of three-point boundary value problem related to two-phase film boiling and condensation; and (v) A pseudo-similarity method of dealing with thermal boundary layer of FFNF for greatly simplifies the heat-transfer analysis and numerical calculati...
Analytical model of transient thermal effect on convectional cooled ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The transient analytical solutions of temperature distribution, stress, strain and optical path difference in convectional cooled end-pumped laser rod are derived. The results are compared with other works and good agreements are found. The effects of increasing the edge cooling and face cooling are studied.
Modelling of convection during solidification of metal and alloys
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
Solidification is the heart of many important manufacturing processes such as casting, welding, laser processing, crystal growth etc. It is governed by a number of interacting governing phenomena like transport of energy and solute, convection, nucleation, growth etc. and properties of solidified components like segregation, ...
A micro-convection model for thermal conductivity of nanofluids
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Increase in the specific surface area as well as Brownian motion are supposed to be the most significant reasons for the anomalous enhancement in thermal conductivity of nanofluids. This work presents a semi-empirical approach for the same by emphasizing the above two effects through micro-convection. A new way of ...
Numerical Modeling of Deep Mantle Flow: Thermochemical Convection and Entrainment
Mulyukova, Elvira; Steinberger, Bernhard; Dabrowski, Marcin; Sobolev, Stephan
2013-04-01
) upwelling of the ambient material in the vicinity of the dense material (mechanism of selective withdrawal (Lister, 1989)), and (iii) cold downwellings sliding along the bottom boundary, and forcing the dense material upwards. The objective of this study is to compare the efficiency of entrainment by each of these mechanisms, and its dependence on the density and viscosity anomaly of the dense material with respect to the ambient mantle. To perform this study, we have developed a two-dimensional FEM code to model thermal convection in a hollow cylinder domain with presence of chemical heterogeneities, and using a realistic viscosity profile. We present the results of the simulations that demonstrate the entrainment mechanisms described above. In addition, we perfom numerical experiments in a Cartesian box domain, where the bottom right boundary of the box is deformed to resemble the geometry of an LLSVP edge. In some of the experiments, the bottom left part of the boundary is moving towards the right boundary, simulating a slab sliding along the core-mantle boundary towards an LLSVP. These experiments allow a detailed study of the process of entrainment, and its role in the thermochemical evolution of the Earth.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Del Genio, Anthony D. [NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies (GISS), New York, NY (United States)
2016-03-11
Over this period the PI and his performed a broad range of data analysis, model evaluation, and model improvement studies using ARM data. These included cloud regimes in the TWP and their evolution over the MJO; M-PACE IOP SCM-CRM intercomparisons; simulations of convective updraft strength and depth during TWP-ICE; evaluation of convective entrainment parameterizations using TWP-ICE simulations; evaluation of GISS GCM cloud behavior vs. long-term SGP cloud statistics; classification of aerosol semi-direct effects on cloud cover; depolarization lidar constraints on cloud phase; preferred states of the winter Arctic atmosphere, surface, and sub-surface; sensitivity of convection to tropospheric humidity; constraints on the parameterization of mesoscale organization from TWP-ICE WRF simulations; updraft and downdraft properties in TWP-ICE simulated convection; insights from long-term ARM records at Manus and Nauru.
Model of two-temperature convective transfer in porous media
Gruais, Isabelle; Poliševski, Dan
2017-12-01
In this paper, we study the asymptotic behaviour of the solution of a convective heat transfer boundary problem in an ɛ -periodic domain which consists of two interwoven phases, solid and fluid, separated by an interface. The fluid flow and its dependence with respect to the temperature are governed by the Boussinesq approximation of the Stokes equations. The tensors of thermal diffusion of both phases are ɛ -periodic, as well as the heat transfer coefficient which is used to describe the first-order jump condition on the interface. We find by homogenization that the two-scale limits of the solutions verify the most common system used to describe local thermal non-equilibrium phenomena in porous media (see Nield and Bejan in Convection in porous media, Springer, New York, 1999; Rees and Pop in Transport phenomena in porous media III, Elsevier, Oxford, 2005). Since now, this system was justified only by volume averaging arguments.
Mamgain, Ashu; Rajagopal, E. N.; Mitra, A. K.; Webster, S.
2017-12-01
There are increasing efforts towards the prediction of high-impact weather systems and understanding of related dynamical and physical processes. High-resolution numerical model simulations can be used directly to model the impact at fine-scale details. Improvement in forecast accuracy can help in disaster management planning and execution. National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) has implemented high-resolution regional unified modeling system with explicit convection embedded within coarser resolution global model with parameterized convection. The models configurations are based on UK Met Office unified seamless modeling system. Recent land use/land cover data (2012-2013) obtained from Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) are also used in model simulations. Results based on short-range forecast of both the global and regional models over India for a month indicate that convection-permitting simulations by the high-resolution regional model is able to reduce the dry bias over southern parts of West Coast and monsoon trough zone with more intense rainfall mainly towards northern parts of monsoon trough zone. Regional model with explicit convection has significantly improved the phase of the diurnal cycle of rainfall as compared to the global model. Results from two monsoon depression cases during study period show substantial improvement in details of rainfall pattern. Many categories in rainfall defined for operational forecast purposes by Indian forecasters are also well represented in case of convection-permitting high-resolution simulations. For the statistics of number of days within a range of rain categories between `No-Rain' and `Heavy Rain', the regional model is outperforming the global model in all the ranges. In the very heavy and extremely heavy categories, the regional simulations show overestimation of rainfall days. Global model with parameterized convection have tendency to overestimate the light rainfall days and
Hill, T. W.
1994-01-01
The unexpected patterns of high-latitude auroral luminosity and ionospheric convection that are observed when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has a northward orientation have inspired a variety of theoretical interpretations. The existing models, all referring to steady-state conditions, can be classified according to the topology of the polar magnetic field lines and of the polar-cap convection streamlines. The classes of model include: (1) a closed magnetosphere model, (2) a conventional open model with a distorted, but topologically unchanged, polar-cap boundary, (3) a conventional open model with distorted, but topologically unchanged, polar-cap convection cells, (4) a modified open model with 'lobe convection cells' contained wholly on open magnetic-field lines, and (5) a modified open model with a bifurcated polar cap. The third and fourth types require significant regions of sunward flow on open polar-cap field lines, a concept that presents serious theoretical difficulties. The other three types appear equally viable from a theoretical point of view, and the comparison against observations is an ongoing enterprise. Outstanding theoretical questions include (a) how do observed structures in the polar ionosphere map along magnetic field lines into the magnetosphere?, (b) what is the mechanism that drives the observed sunward convection at highest latitudes on the day side?, and (c) what role does time dependence play in the observed phenomena?
Asteroseismic Constraints on the Models of Hot B Subdwarfs: Convective Helium-Burning Cores
Schindler, Jan-Torge; Green, Elizabeth M.; Arnett, W. David
2017-10-01
Asteroseismology of non-radial pulsations in Hot B Subdwarfs (sdB stars) offers a unique view into the interior of core-helium-burning stars. Ground-based and space-borne high precision light curves allow for the analysis of pressure and gravity mode pulsations to probe the structure of sdB stars deep into the convective core. As such asteroseismological analysis provides an excellent opportunity to test our understanding of stellar evolution. In light of the newest constraints from asteroseismology of sdB and red clump stars, standard approaches of convective mixing in 1D stellar evolution models are called into question. The problem lies in the current treatment of overshooting and the entrainment at the convective boundary. Unfortunately no consistent algorithm of convective mixing exists to solve the problem, introducing uncertainties to the estimates of stellar ages. Three dimensional simulations of stellar convection show the natural development of an overshooting region and a boundary layer. In search for a consistent prescription of convection in one dimensional stellar evolution models, guidance from three dimensional simulations and asteroseismological results is indispensable.
Jin, Byung-Ju; Smith, Alex J; Verkman, Alan S
2016-12-01
A "glymphatic system," which involves convective fluid transport from para-arterial to paravenous cerebrospinal fluid through brain extracellular space (ECS), has been proposed to account for solute clearance in brain, and aquaporin-4 water channels in astrocyte endfeet may have a role in this process. Here, we investigate the major predictions of the glymphatic mechanism by modeling diffusive and convective transport in brain ECS and by solving the Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations, using realistic ECS geometry for short-range transport between para-arterial and paravenous spaces. Major model parameters include para-arterial and paravenous pressures, ECS volume fraction, solute diffusion coefficient, and astrocyte foot-process water permeability. The model predicts solute accumulation and clearance from the ECS after a step change in solute concentration in para-arterial fluid. The principal and robust conclusions of the model are as follows: (a) significant convective transport requires a sustained pressure difference of several mmHg between the para-arterial and paravenous fluid and is not affected by pulsatile pressure fluctuations; (b) astrocyte endfoot water permeability does not substantially alter the rate of convective transport in ECS as the resistance to flow across endfeet is far greater than in the gaps surrounding them; and (c) diffusion (without convection) in the ECS is adequate to account for experimental transport studies in brain parenchyma. Therefore, our modeling results do not support a physiologically important role for local parenchymal convective flow in solute transport through brain ECS. © 2016 Jin et al.
Convection and Overshoot in Models of γ Doradus and δ Scuti Stars
Lovekin, C. C.; Guzik, J. A.
2017-11-01
We investigate the pulsation properties of stellar models that are representative of δ Scuti and γ Doradus variables. We have calculated a grid of stellar models from 1.2 to 2.2 M ⊙, including the effects of both rotation and convective overshoot using MESA, and we investigate the pulsation properties of these models using GYRE. We discuss the observable patterns in the frequency spacing for p modes and the period spacings for g modes. Using the observable patterns in the g mode period spacings, it may be possible to observationally constrain the convective overshoot and rotation of a model. We also calculate the pulsation constant (Q) for all models in our grid and investigate the variation with convective overshoot and rotation. The variation in the Q values of the radial modes can be used to place constraints on the convective overshoot and rotation of stars in this region. As a test case, we apply this method to a sample of 22 High-Amplitude δ Scuti stars (HADS) and provide estimates for the convective overshoot of the sample.
Chiou, Guo-Li
2013-01-01
Although prediction is claimed to be a prime function of mental models, to what extent students can run their mental models to make predictions of physical phenomena remains uncertain. The purpose of this study, therefore, was first to investigate 30 physics students' mental models of heat convection, and then to examine the relationship between…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo-Li Chiou
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Although prediction is claimed to be a prime function of mental models, to what extent students can run their mental models to make predictions of physical phenomena remains uncertain. The purpose of this study, therefore, was first to investigate 30 physics students’ mental models of heat convection, and then to examine the relationship between their mental models and predictions of convection-related phenomena. A series of semistructured interviews was conducted to probe the participants’ mental models and predictions of heat convection, and the constant comparative method was adopted for data analysis. The results reveal that the participants held a variety of mental models of heat convection, and nearly half held flawed mental models rather than a scientifically compatible one. In addition, while many participants attempted to run their mental models to make a prediction at the beginning stage of solving an interview problem, the relationship between the models and predictions became increasingly complex as the problem solving process continued. The relationships between mental models and predictions, however, could be better understood by considering the completeness of a mental model, the scale of analyzing mental models, and the retrieval of different formats of mental representations.
Coexisting pulses in a model for binary-mixture convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riecke, H.; Rappel, W. [Department of Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, Northeastern University, 111 Dana Research Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)
1995-11-27
We address the striking coexistence of localized waves (``pulses``) of different lengths, which was observed in recent experiments and full numerical simulations of binary-mixture convection. Using a set of extended Ginzburg-Landau equations, we show that this multiplicity finds a natural explanation in terms of the competition of two distinct, physical localization mechanisms; one arises from dispersion and the other from a concentration mode. This competition is absent in the standard Ginzburg-Landau equation. It may also be relevant in other waves coupled to a large-scale field. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital The} {ital American} {ital Physical} {ital Society}.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masaki Yoshida
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The periodic assembly and dispersal of continental fragments, referred to as the supercontinent cycle, bear close relation to the evolution of mantle convection and plate tectonics. Supercontinent formation involves complex processes of “introversion” (closure of interior oceans, “extroversion” (closure of exterior oceans, or a combination of these processes in uniting dispersed continental fragments. Recent developments in numerical modeling and advancements in computation techniques enable us to simulate Earth's mantle convection with drifting continents under realistic convection vigor and rheology in Earth-like geometry (i.e., 3D spherical-shell. We report a numerical simulation of 3D mantle convection, incorporating drifting deformable continents, to evaluate supercontinent processes in a realistic mantle convection regime. Our results show that supercontinents are assembled by a combination of introversion and extroversion processes. Small-scale thermal heterogeneity dominates deep mantle convection during the supercontinent cycle, although large-scale upwelling plumes intermittently originate under the drifting continents and/or the supercontinent.
A model of convection-induced oscillatory structure formation in peritectic alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mazumder, P.; Trivedi, R.; Karma, A.
2000-04-01
In the two-phase region of a peritectic system, experimental studies have shown that the primary phase ({alpha}) often forms a large treelike structure that is surrounded by the peritectic phase ({beta}). The formation of this novel structure has been attributed to the presence of convection in the liquid. Here, specific physical mechanisms of convection-induced treelike structure formation are proposed. A mathematical model based on advection-diffusion of solute, with prototype flows for advection, is presented and solved numerically to show that an oscillating fluid motion can give rise to a complex oscillatory, treelike structure. Three different regimes are established: diffusive, steady convective, and unsteady convective regimes. In the diffusive regime, a banded structure is predicted within a narrow composition range, and the spacing of the bands is dictated by the nucleation undercoolings of the two phases. Under steady convection, the primary phase transforms into the peritectic phase with a curved {alpha}:{beta} interface. Finally, in the presence of oscillating convection, a treelike shape of the primary phase is predicted, as observed experimentally.
The relationship between mixed Rossby-gravity waves and convection in a general circulation model
Hess, Peter G.; Hendon, Harry H.; Battisti, David S.
1993-01-01
We investigate the relationship between mixed Rossby-gravity waves (MRGWs) and convection in a general circulation model. The experiments described are performed in a general circulation model with the lower boundary set to that of an ocean surface everywhere. Several experiments are run varying the convective parameterization scheme (using either a modified Kuo scheme or a moist convective adjustment scheme) and varying the tropical sea surface temperatures (specified to be zonally symmetric in all cases), thereby changing the location of the modeled intertropical convergence zones (ITCZs). The appearance of a robust MRGW occurs when the sea surface temperature is such that two ITCZs straddle the equator. The particular sea surface temperature distribution used and the parameterization scheme for convection also affect the structure and strength of the modeled MRGW. The vertical structure of MRGWs is analyzed in the experiment in which this wave mode is the most energetic. We show that MRGWs of several different zonal length scales exist in the troposphere in association with convection; however, it is only the longer length scales which can be discerned in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.
Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Dickerson, Russell R.
1989-01-01
Vertical profiles of net photochemical ozone production rates and total tropospheric column production rates were estimated using two models, a simple photochemical box model and a time-dependent one-dimensional transport/kinetics model. Photochemical production of ozone is found to dominate over destruction throughout the vertical extent of the troposphere over the central United States during typical summertime convective conditions. The column net production can be enhanced by the transport of the ozone precursors NO and NMHC from the boundary layer to the free troposphere by convective activity.
Salt tectonics and shallow subseafloor fluid convection: Models of coupled fluid-heat-salt transport
Wilson, A.; Ruppel, C.
2007-01-01
Thermohaline convection associated with salt domes has the potential to drive significant fluid flow and mass and heat transport in continental margins, but previous studies of fluid flow associated with salt structures have focused on continental settings or deep flow systems of importance to petroleum exploration. Motivated by recent geophysical and geochemical observations that suggest a convective pattern to near-seafloor pore fluid flow in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoMex), we devise numerical models that fully couple thermal and chemical processes to quantify the effects of salt geometry and seafloor relief on fluid flow beneath the seafloor. Steady-state models that ignore halite dissolution demonstrate that seafloor relief plays an important role in the evolution of shallow geothermal convection cells and that salt at depth can contribute a thermal component to this convection. The inclusion of faults causes significant, but highly localized, increases in flow rates at seafloor discharge zones. Transient models that include halite dissolution show the evolution of flow during brine formation from early salt-driven convection to later geothermal convection, characteristics of which are controlled by the interplay of seafloor relief and salt geometry. Predicted flow rates are on the order of a few millimeters per year or less for homogeneous sediments with a permeability of 10−15 m2, comparable to compaction-driven flow rates. Sediment permeabilities likely fall below 10−15 m2 at depth in the GoMex basin, but such thermohaline convection can drive pervasive mass transport across the seafloor, affecting sediment diagenesis in shallow sediments. In more permeable settings, such flow could affect methane hydrate stability, seafloor chemosynthetic communities, and the longevity of fluid seeps.
Peters, Karsten; Crueger, Traute; Jakob, Christian; Möbis, Benjamin
2017-03-01
We implement a Stochastic Multicloud Model (SMCM) in an observation-informed configuration into the convection scheme of the state-of-the-art GCM ECHAM6.3. The SMCM configuration we use here has been tuned to represent observed tropical convection by associating the occurrence and strength of deep convection to midtropospheric vertical velocity and relative humidity. We show that compared to the ECHAM6.3 standard model, the SMCM-modified version shows improved capacity to simulate features of tropical intraseasonal variability, including MJO-like disturbances, without significantly distorting the mean model climate. This improvement goes in hand with ameliorated coupling of atmospheric convection to tropospheric moisture and spatiotemporal coherence of tropical convection compared to reanalysis and observations. We attribute these effects to (i) improved coupling of triggering and suppression of deep convective events to the model's large-scale environment and (ii) the observations-informed closure formulation which leads to an overall reduction of deep convective mass fluxes. Sensitivity tests show that while (ii) improves the convection-moisture relationship, it is (i) which improves the spatiotemporal coherence of tropical rainfall and is important for MJO simulation. Further, the simulated spatiotemporal coherence of tropical rainfall is an intrinsic property of the convection schemes themselves and not of their parameters. We stress that this study serves as a proof-of-concept and motivates further efforts towards building a novel convection parameterization with the SMCM as a central element.
Modelling and interpreting the isotopic composition of water vapour in convective updrafts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Bolot
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The isotopic compositions of water vapour and its condensates have long been used as tracers of the global hydrological cycle, but may also be useful for understanding processes within individual convective clouds. We review here the representation of processes that alter water isotopic compositions during processing of air in convective updrafts and present a unified model for water vapour isotopic evolution within undiluted deep convective cores, with a special focus on the out-of-equilibrium conditions of mixed-phase zones where metastable liquid water and ice coexist. We use our model to show that a combination of water isotopologue measurements can constrain critical convective parameters, including degree of supersaturation, supercooled water content and glaciation temperature. Important isotopic processes in updrafts include kinetic effects that are a consequence of diffusive growth or decay of cloud particles within a supersaturated or subsaturated environment; isotopic re-equilibration between vapour and supercooled droplets, which buffers isotopic distillation; and differing mechanisms of glaciation (droplet freezing vs. the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process. As all of these processes are related to updraft strength, particle size distribution and the retention of supercooled water, isotopic measurements can serve as a probe of in-cloud conditions of importance to convective processes. We study the sensitivity of the profile of water vapour isotopic composition to differing model assumptions and show how measurements of isotopic composition at cloud base and cloud top alone may be sufficient to retrieve key cloud parameters.
Uncertainty associated with convective wet removal of entrained aerosols in a global climate model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Croft
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The uncertainties associated with the wet removal of aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases are investigated in a global aerosol-climate model (ECHAM5-HAM under a set of limiting assumptions for the wet removal of the entrained aerosols. The limiting assumptions for the wet removal of entrained aerosols are negligible scavenging and vigorous scavenging (either through activation, with size-dependent impaction scavenging, or with the prescribed fractions of the standard model. To facilitate this process-based study, an explicit representation of cloud-droplet-borne and ice-crystal-borne aerosol mass and number, for the purpose of wet removal, is introduced into the ECHAM5-HAM model. This replaces and is compared with the prescribed cloud-droplet-borne and ice-crystal-borne aerosol fraction scavenging scheme of the standard model.
A 20% to 35% uncertainty in simulated global, annual mean aerosol mass burdens and optical depth (AOD is attributed to different assumptions for the wet removal of aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases. Assumptions about the removal of aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases control modeled upper tropospheric aerosol concentrations by as much as one order of magnitude.
Simulated aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases contribute 20% to 50% of modeled global, annual mean aerosol mass convective wet deposition (about 5% to 10% of the total dry and wet deposition, depending on the aerosol species, when including wet scavenging of those entrained aerosols (either by activation, size-dependent impaction, or with the prescribed fraction scheme. Among the simulations, the prescribed fraction and size-dependent impaction schemes yield the largest global, annual mean aerosol mass convective wet deposition (by about two-fold. However, the prescribed fraction scheme has more vigorous convective mixed-phase wet removal (by two to five-fold relative to the size-dependent impaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Leif; Lenschow, Donald H.; Gurarie, David
2010-01-01
We have developed a simple, steady-state, one-dimensional second-order closure model to obtain continuous profiles of turbulent fluxes and mean concentrations of non-conserved scalars in a convective boundary layer without shear. As a basic tool we first set up a model for conserved species with ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mainka, J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica (LNCC), CMC 6097, Av. Getulio Vargas 333, 25651-075 Petropolis, RJ, Caixa Postal 95113 (Brazil); Maranzana, G.; Thomas, A.; Dillet, J.; Didierjean, S.; Lottin, O. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee (LEMTA), Universite de Lorraine, 2, avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54504 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); LEMTA, CNRS, 2, avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54504 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)
2012-10-15
A one-dimensional (1D) model of oxygen transport in the diffusion media of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) is presented, which considers convection perpendicular to the electrode in addition to diffusion. The resulting analytical expression of the convecto-diffusive impedance is obtained using a convection-diffusion equation instead of a diffusion equation in the case of classical Warburg impedance. The main hypothesis of the model is that the convective flux is generated by the evacuation of water produced at the cathode which flows through the porous media in vapor phase. This allows the expression of the convective flux velocity as a function of the current density and of the water transport coefficient {alpha} (the fraction of water being evacuated at the cathode outlet). The resulting 1D oxygen transport impedance neglects processes occurring in the direction parallel to the electrode that could have a significant impact on the cell impedance, like gas consumption or concentration oscillations induced by the measuring signal. However, it enables us to estimate the impact of convection perpendicular to the electrode on PEMFC impedance spectra and to determine in which conditions the approximation of a purely diffusive oxygen transport is valid. Experimental observations confirm the numerical results. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
An acoustic-convective splitting-based approach for the Kapila two-phase flow model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eikelder, M.F.P. ten, E-mail: m.f.p.teneikelder@tudelft.nl [EDF R& D, AMA, 7 boulevard Gaspard Monge, 91120 Palaiseau (France); Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Daude, F. [EDF R& D, AMA, 7 boulevard Gaspard Monge, 91120 Palaiseau (France); IMSIA, UMR EDF-CNRS-CEA-ENSTA 9219, Université Paris Saclay, 828 Boulevard des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau (France); Koren, B.; Tijsseling, A.S. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2017-02-15
In this paper we propose a new acoustic-convective splitting-based numerical scheme for the Kapila five-equation two-phase flow model. The splitting operator decouples the acoustic waves and convective waves. The resulting two submodels are alternately numerically solved to approximate the solution of the entire model. The Lagrangian form of the acoustic submodel is numerically solved using an HLLC-type Riemann solver whereas the convective part is approximated with an upwind scheme. The result is a simple method which allows for a general equation of state. Numerical computations are performed for standard two-phase shock tube problems. A comparison is made with a non-splitting approach. The results are in good agreement with reference results and exact solutions.
Laboratory-numerical models of rapidly rotating convection in planetary cores
Cheng, J. S.; Stellmach, S.; Ribeiro, A.; Grannan, A.; King, E. M.; Aurnou, J. M.
2015-04-01
We present laboratory and numerical models investigating the behavioural regimes of rapidly rotating convection in high-latitude planetary core-style settings. Our combined laboratory-numerical approach, utilizing simplified geometries, can access more extreme parameters (e.g. Rayleigh numbers Ra ≲ 1013; Nusselt numbers Nu ≲ 103; Ekman numbers E ≳ 3 × 10- 8) than current global-scale dynamo simulations. Using flow visualizations and heat transfer measurements, we study the axialized flows that exist near the onset of rotating convection, as well as the 3-D flows that develop with stronger forcing. With water as the working fluid (Prandtl number Pr ≃ 7), we find a steep scaling trend for rapidly rotating convective heat transfer, Nu ˜ (Ra/RaC)3.6, that is associated with the existence of coherent, axialized columns. This rapidly rotating trend is steeper than the trends found at moderate values of the Ekman number, and continues a trend of ever-steepening scalings as the rotation rate of the system is increased. In contrast, in more strongly forced or lower rotation rate cases, the heat transfer scaling consistently follows a shallower slope equivalent to that of non-rotating convection systems. The steep heat transfer scaling in the columnar convection regime, corroborated by our laboratory flow visualizations, imply that coherent, axial columns have a relatively narrow range of stability. Thus, we hypothesize that coherent convection columns are not stable in planetary core settings, where the Ekman number is estimated to be ˜10-15. As a consequence, convective motions in the core may not be related to the columnar motions found in present-day global-scale models. Instead, we hypothesize that turbulent rotating convection cascades energy upwards from 3-D motions to large-scale quasi-2-D flow structures that are capable of efficiently generating planetary-scale magnetic fields. We argue that the turbulent regimes of rapidly rotating convection are
Duan, S.; Wright, J. S.; Romps, D. M.
2016-12-01
Atmospheric water isotopes have been proposed as potentially powerful constraints on the physics of convective clouds and parameterizations of convective processes in models. We have previously derived an analytical model of water vapor (H2O) and one of its heavy isotopes (HDO) in convective environments based on a bulk-plume convective water budget in radiative convective equilibrium. This analytical model provides a useful starting point for examining the joint responses of water vapor and its isotopic composition to changes in convective parameters; however, certain idealistic assumptions are required to make the model analytically solvable. Here, we develop a more flexible numerical framework that enables a wider range of model configurations and includes additional isotopic tracers. This model provides a bridge between Rayleigh distillation, which is simple but inflexible, and more complicated convection schemes and cloud resolving models, which are more realistic but also more difficult to perturb and interpret. Application of realistic in-cloud water profiles in our model produces vertical distributions of δD that qualitatively match satellite observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). We test the sensitivity of water vapor and its isotopic composition to a wide range of perturbations in the model parameters and their vertical profiles. In this presentation, we focus especially on establishing constraints for convective entrainment and precipitation efficiency. We conclude by discussing the potential application of this model as part of a larger water isotope toolkit for use with offline diagnostics provided by reanalyses and GCMs.
Robertson, Franklin R.; Roads, John; Oglesby, Robert; Marshall, Susan
2004-01-01
One of the most fundamental properties of the global heat balance is the net heat input into the tropical atmosphere that helps drive the planetary atmospheric circulation. Although broadly understood in terms of its gross structure and balance of source / sink terms, incorporation of the relevant processes in predictive models is still rather poor. The work reported here examines the tropical radiative and water cycle behavior as produced by four contemporary climate models. Among these are the NSIPP-2 (NASA Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project) which uses the RAS convective parameterization; the FVCCM, a code using finite volume numerics and the CCM3.6 physics; FVCCM-MCRAS again having the finite volume numerics, but MCRAS convective parameterization and a different radiation treatment; and, finally, the NCEP GSM which uses the RAS. Using multi-decadal integrations with specified SSTs we examine the statistics of radiative / convective processes and associated energy transports, and then estimate model energy flux sensitivities to SST changes. In particular the behavior of the convective parameterizations is investigated. Additional model integrations are performed specifically to assess the importance representing convective inhibition in regulating convective cloud-top structure and moisture detrainment as well as controlling surface energy fluxes. To evaluate the results of these experiments, a number of satellite retrievals are used: TRMM retrievals of vertical reflectivity structure, rainfall rate, and inferred diabatic heating are analyzed to show both seasonal and interannual variations in vertical structure of latent heat release. Top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes from ERBS and CERES are used to examine shortwave and longwave cloud forcing and to deduce required seasonal energy transports. Retrievals of cloud properties from ISCCP and water vapor variations from SSM/T-2 are also used to understand behavior of the humidity fields. These observations
Glesener, G. B.; Aurnou, J. M.
2010-12-01
The Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory (MEDL) at UCLA is developing a mantle convection physical model to assist educators with the pedagogy of Earth’s interior processes. Our design goal consists of two components to help the learner gain conceptual understanding by means of visual interactions without the burden of distracters, which may promote alternative conceptions. Distracters may be any feature of the conceptual model that causes the learner to use inadequate mental artifact to help him or her understand what the conceptual model is intended to convey. The first component, and most important, is a psychological component that links properties of “everyday things” (Norman, 1988) to the natural phenomenon, mantle convection. Some examples of everyday things may be heat rising out from a freshly popped bag of popcorn, or cold humid air falling from an open freezer. The second component is the scientific accuracy of the conceptual model. We would like to simplify the concepts for the learner without sacrificing key information that is linked to other natural phenomena the learner will come across in future science lessons. By taking into account the learner’s mental artifacts in combination with a simplified, but accurate, representation of what scientists know of the Earth’s interior, we expect the learner to have the ability to create an adequate qualitative mental simulation of mantle convection. We will be presenting some of our prototypes of this mantle convection physical model at this year’s poster session and invite constructive input from our colleagues.
Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage
Allen, Rebecca
2015-04-01
ABSTRACT Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage Rebecca Allen Geological CO2 storage is an engineering feat that has been undertaken around the world for more than two decades, thus accurate modeling of flow and transport behavior is of practical importance. Diffusive and convective transport are relevant processes for buoyancy-driven convection of CO2 into underlying fluid, a scenario that has received the attention of numerous modeling studies. While most studies focus on Darcy-scale modeling of this scenario, relatively little work exists at the pore-scale. In this work, properties evaluated at the pore-scale are used to investigate the transport behavior modeled at the Darcy-scale. We compute permeability and two different forms of tortuosity, namely hydraulic and diffusive. By generating various pore ge- ometries, we find hydraulic and diffusive tortuosity can be quantitatively different in the same pore geometry by up to a factor of ten. As such, we emphasize that these tortuosities should not be used interchangeably. We find pore geometries that are characterized by anisotropic permeability can also exhibit anisotropic diffusive tortuosity. This finding has important implications for buoyancy-driven convection modeling; when representing the geological formation with an anisotropic permeabil- ity, it is more realistic to also account for an anisotropic diffusivity. By implementing a non-dimensional model that includes both a vertically and horizontally orientated 5 Rayleigh number, we interpret our findings according to the combined effect of the anisotropy from permeability and diffusive tortuosity. In particular, we observe the Rayleigh ratio may either dampen or enhance the diffusing front, and our simulation data is used to express the time of convective onset as a function of the Rayleigh ratio. Also, we implement a lattice Boltzmann model for thermal convective flows, which we treat as an analog for
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ku David N
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The finite volume solver Fluent (Lebanon, NH, USA is a computational fluid dynamics software employed to analyse biological mass-transport in the vasculature. A principal consideration for computational modelling of blood-side mass-transport is convection-diffusion discretisation scheme selection. Due to numerous discretisation schemes available when developing a mass-transport numerical model, the results obtained should either be validated against benchmark theoretical solutions or experimentally obtained results. Methods An idealised aneurysm model was selected for the experimental and computational mass-transport analysis of species concentration due to its well-defined recirculation region within the aneurysmal sac, allowing species concentration to vary slowly with time. The experimental results were obtained from fluid samples extracted from a glass aneurysm model, using the direct spectrophometric concentration measurement technique. The computational analysis was conducted using the four convection-diffusion discretisation schemes available to the Fluent user, including the First-Order Upwind, the Power Law, the Second-Order Upwind and the Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinetics (QUICK schemes. The fluid has a diffusivity of 3.125 × 10-10 m2/s in water, resulting in a Peclet number of 2,560,000, indicating strongly convection-dominated flow. Results The discretisation scheme applied to the solution of the convection-diffusion equation, for blood-side mass-transport within the vasculature, has a significant influence on the resultant species concentration field. The First-Order Upwind and the Power Law schemes produce similar results. The Second-Order Upwind and QUICK schemes also correlate well but differ considerably from the concentration contour plots of the First-Order Upwind and Power Law schemes. The computational results were then compared to the experimental findings. An average error of 140
Luong, Thang
2018-01-22
A commonly noted problem in the simulation of warm season convection in the North American monsoon region has been the inability of atmospheric models at the meso-β scales (10 s to 100 s of kilometers) to simulate organized convection, principally mesoscale convective systems. With the use of convective parameterization, high precipitation biases in model simulations are typically observed over the peaks of mountain ranges. To address this issue, the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization scheme has been modified with new diagnostic equations to compute the updraft velocity, the convective available potential energy closure assumption, and the convective trigger function. The scheme has been adapted for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). A numerical weather prediction-type simulation is conducted for the North American Monsoon Experiment Intensive Observing Period 2 and a regional climate simulation is performed, by dynamically downscaling. In both of these applications, there are notable improvements in the WRF model-simulated precipitation due to the better representation of organized, propagating convection. The use of the modified KF scheme for atmospheric model simulations may provide a more computationally economical alternative to improve the representation of organized convection, as compared to convective-permitting simulations at the kilometer scale or a super-parameterization approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Arteta
2009-09-01
Full Text Available The general objective of this series of two papers is to evaluate long duration limited-area simulations with idealised tracers as a possible tool to assess the tracer transport in chemistry-transport models (CTMs. In this second paper we analyse the results of three simulations using different horizontal and vertical resolutions. The goal is to study the impact of the model spatial resolution on convective transport of idealized tracer in the tropics. The reference simulation (REF uses a 60 km horizontal resolution and 300 m vertically in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS. A 20 km horizontal resolution simulation (HR is run as well as a simulation with 850 m vertical resolution in the UTLS (CVR. The simulations are run for one month during the SCOUT-O3 field campaign. Aircraft data, TRMM rainrate estimates and radiosoundings have been used to evaluate the simulations. They show that the HR configuration gives generally a better agreement with the measurements than the REF simulation. The CVR simulation gives generally the worst results. The vertical distribution of the tropospheric tracers for the simulations has a similar shape with a ~15 km altitude maximum for the 6h-lifetime tracer of 0.4 ppbv for REF, 1.2 for HR and 0.04 for CVR. These differences are related to the dynamics produced by the three simulations that leads to larger values of the upward velocities on average for HR and lower for CVR compared to REF. HR simulates more frequent and stronger convection leading to enhanced fluxes compared to REF and higher detrainment levels compared to CVR. HR provides also occasional overshoots over the cold point dynamical barrier. For the stratospheric tracers the differences between the three simulations are small. The diurnal cycle of the fluxes of all tracers in the Tropical Tropopause Layer exhibits a maximum linked to the maximum of convective activity.
Bao, Jiawei; Sherwood, Steven C.; Colin, Maxime; Dixit, Vishal
2017-10-01
The behavior of tropical extreme precipitation under changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is investigated with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) in three sets of idealized simulations: small-domain tropical radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE), quasi-global "aquapatch", and RCE with prescribed mean ascent from the tropical band in the aquapatch. We find that, across the variations introduced including SST, large-scale circulation, domain size, horizontal resolution, and convective parameterization, the change in the degree of convective organization emerges as a robust mechanism affecting extreme precipitation. Higher ratios of change in extreme precipitation to change in mean surface water vapor are associated with increases in the degree of organization, while lower ratios correspond to decreases in the degree of organization. The spread of such changes is much larger in RCE than aquapatch tropics, suggesting that small RCE domains may be unreliable for assessing the temperature-dependence of extreme precipitation or convective organization. When the degree of organization does not change, simulated extreme precipitation scales with surface water vapor. This slightly exceeds Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) scaling, because the near-surface air warms 10-25% faster than the SST in all experiments. Also for simulations analyzed here with convective parameterizations, there is an increasing trend of organization with SST.
Effects of the Representation of Convection on the Modelling of Hurricane Tomas (2010
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Irene Marras
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The cumulus parameterization is widely recognised as a crucial factor in tropical meteorology: this paper intends to shed further light on the effects of convection parameterization on tropical cyclones’ numerical predictions in the “grey zone” (10–1 km grid spacing. Ten experiments are devised by combining five different convection treatments over the innermost, 5 km grid spacing, domain, and two different global circulation model datasets (IFS and ERA-Interim. All ten experiments are finally analysed and compared to observations provided by the National Hurricane Center’s best track record and multisatellite rainfall measurements. Results manifestly point to the superiority of employing no convective parameterization at the scale of 5 km versus the usage of any of those provided by WRF to reproduce the case study of Hurricane Tomas, which hit the Lesser Antilles and Greater Antilles in late October and early November 2010.
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M Safaei
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In the present study, first the turbulent natural convection and then laminar mixed convection of air flow was solved in a room and the calculated outcomes are compared with results of other scientists and after showing validation of calculations, aforementioned flow is solved as a turbulent mixed convection flow, using the valid turbulence models Standard k-ε, RNG k-ε and RSM. To solve governing differential equations for this flow, finite volume method was used. This method is a specific case of residual weighting method. The results show that at high Richardson Numbers, the flow is rather stationary at the center of the enclosure. Moreover, it is distinguished that when Richardson Number increases the maximum of local Nusselt decreases. Therefore, it can be said that less number of Richardson Number, more rate of heat transfer.
Modeling and analysis for general non-isothermal convective phase field systems
Haas, Robert
2007-01-01
In this work general non-isothermal phase field models for multi-phase and multi-component systems are considered. The modelling of the free energy by Ginzburg-Landau functionals for multi-phase systems is considered and analyzed theoretically and numerically. Furthermore a general non-isothermal phase field model for convective systems with multiple components and phases has been derived. Finally for a isothermal multi-phase phase field model the existence of a solution is proved in...
Low-frequency oscillations in radiative-convective models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Qi; Randall, D.A.
1991-12-31
Although eastward propagation is usually regarded as an essential feature of the low-frequency ``Madden-Julian oscillation`` observed in the tropical atmosphere, many observations indicate that there is an important stationary or quasi-stationary component of the oscillation. Yasunari (1979), for example, investigated the stationary 30--60 day variation in upper tropospheric cloudiness in the Asian summer monsoon region. In a case study of the 30--60 day oscillation. Hsu et al. (1990) found a strong stationary oscillation of the divergence, outgoing longwave mdiadon and other fields. A recent observational study by Weickmann and Khalsa (1990) offers further evidence that the Madden-Julian oscillation has an important stationary component. In this paper, we present evidence that intraseasonal oscillations can be produced by local radiative and convective processes. This suggests that the observed propagating Madden-Julian wave is produced by interactions between these local processes and the large scale motion field, and is not essential for the existence of the observed oscillation.
Low-frequency oscillations in radiative-convective models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Qi; Randall, D.A.
1991-01-01
Although eastward propagation is usually regarded as an essential feature of the low-frequency Madden-Julian oscillation'' observed in the tropical atmosphere, many observations indicate that there is an important stationary or quasi-stationary component of the oscillation. Yasunari (1979), for example, investigated the stationary 30--60 day variation in upper tropospheric cloudiness in the Asian summer monsoon region. In a case study of the 30--60 day oscillation. Hsu et al. (1990) found a strong stationary oscillation of the divergence, outgoing longwave mdiadon and other fields. A recent observational study by Weickmann and Khalsa (1990) offers further evidence that the Madden-Julian oscillation has an important stationary component. In this paper, we present evidence that intraseasonal oscillations can be produced by local radiative and convective processes. This suggests that the observed propagating Madden-Julian wave is produced by interactions between these local processes and the large scale motion field, and is not essential for the existence of the observed oscillation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Fierli
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We present the analysis of the impact of convection on the composition of the tropical tropopause layer region (TTL in West-Africa during the AMMA-SCOUT campaign. Geophysica M55 aircraft observations of water vapor, ozone, aerosol and CO_{2} during August 2006 show perturbed values at altitudes ranging from 14 km to 17 km (above the main convective outflow and satellite data indicates that air detrainment is likely to have originated from convective cloud east of the flights. Simulations of the BOLAM mesoscale model, nudged with infrared radiance temperatures, are used to estimate the convective impact in the upper troposphere and to assess the fraction of air processed by convection. The analysis shows that BOLAM correctly reproduces the location and the vertical structure of convective outflow. Model-aided analysis indicates that convection can influence the composition of the upper troposphere above the level of main outflow for an event of deep convection close to the observation site. Model analysis also shows that deep convection occurring in the entire Sahelian transect (up to 2000 km E of the measurement area has a non negligible role in determining TTL composition.
Absolute and convective instabilities in a one-dimensional Brusselator flow model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuznetsov, S.P.; Mosekilde, Erik; Dewel, G.
1997-01-01
The paper considers a one-dimensional Brusselator model with a uniform flow of the mixture of reaction components. An absolute as well as a convective instability can arise for both the Hopf and the Turing modes. The corresponding linear stability analysis is presented and supported by the result...
ADOPT: A tool for automatic detection of tectonic plates at the surface of convection models
Mallard, C.; Jacquet, B.; Coltice, N.
2017-08-01
Mantle convection models with plate-like behavior produce surface structures comparable to Earth's plate boundaries. However, analyzing those structures is a difficult task, since convection models produce, as on Earth, diffuse deformation and elusive plate boundaries. Therefore we present here and share a quantitative tool to identify plate boundaries and produce plate polygon layouts from results of numerical models of convection: Automatic Detection Of Plate Tectonics (ADOPT). This digital tool operates within the free open-source visualization software Paraview. It is based on image segmentation techniques to detect objects. The fundamental algorithm used in ADOPT is the watershed transform. We transform the output of convection models into a topographic map, the crest lines being the regions of deformation (plate boundaries) and the catchment basins being the plate interiors. We propose two generic protocols (the field and the distance methods) that we test against an independent visual detection of plate polygons. We show that ADOPT is effective to identify the smaller plates and to close plate polygons in areas where boundaries are diffuse or elusive. ADOPT allows the export of plate polygons in the standard OGR-GMT format for visualization, modification, and analysis under generic softwares like GMT or GPlates.
Numerical modelling of convective heat transport by air flow in permafrost talus slopes
Wicky, Jonas; Hauck, Christian
2017-06-01
Talus slopes are a widespread geomorphic feature in the Alps. Due to their high porosity a gravity-driven internal air circulation can be established which is forced by the gradient between external (air) and internal (talus) temperature. The thermal regime is different from the surrounding environment, leading to the occurrence of permafrost below the typical permafrost zone. This phenomenon has mainly been analysed by field studies and only few explicit numerical modelling studies exist. Numerical simulations of permafrost sometimes use parameterisations for the effects of convection but mostly neglect the influence of convective heat transfer in air on the thermal regime. In contrast, in civil engineering many studies have been carried out to investigate the thermal behaviour of blocky layers and to improve their passive cooling effect. The present study further develops and applies these concepts to model heat transfer in air flows in a natural-scale talus slope. Modelling results show that convective heat transfer has the potential to develop a significant temperature difference between the lower and the upper parts of the talus slope. A seasonally alternating chimney-effect type of circulation develops. Modelling results also show that this convective heat transfer leads to the formation of a cold reservoir in the lower part of the talus slope, which can be crucial for maintaining the frozen ground conditions despite increasing air temperatures caused by climate change.
A film model for free convection over a vertical porous plate with blowing or suction
Brouwers, Jos
1993-01-01
A film model is described for free convective heat transfer and friction in the presence of wall suction or injection. The analysis yields a thermal correction factor, which appears to be the classical (Ackermann) expression, and a novel friction correction factor, derived here for the first time.
Improving the simulation of convective dust storms in regional-to-global models
Convective dust storms have significant impacts on atmospheric conditions and air quality and are a major source of dust uplift in summertime. However, regional-to-global models generally do not accurately simulate these storms, a limitation that can be attributed to (1) using a ...
Idealized Mesoscale Model Simulations of Open Cellular Convection Over the Sea
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vincent, Claire Louise; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Kelly, Mark C.
2012-01-01
The atmospheric conditions during an observed case of open cellular convection over the North Sea were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical model. Wind, temperature and water vapour mixing ratio profiles from the WRF simulation were used to initialize an idealized ...
Statistical Modelling of the Wind Damage from Convective Events in Europe
Grieser, Jürgen; Jewson, Steve
2010-05-01
Downbursts and tornados arising from thunderstorms can cause severe property damage. The damage from individual events is orders of magnitude lower than the damage from single large-scale winter storms like Lothar in 1999. However, the average annual loss (AAL) due to such "high-frequency" events is still of the order of billions of Euros simply because they occur much more often than the "low frequency" winter storms. Because these events are so numerous a detailed physically-based modelling approach, similar to that used for modelling the losses due to the low frequency storms, is very difficult. As an alternative, we describe a statistical model, based on physical considerations. The basis for our model is a statistical relationship between the synoptic situation, as derived from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, and observed insured losses, both for several years and for several countries in Europe. The obvious idea of trying build a multiple linear regression model that predicts the loss data from the synoptic data fails due to heteroscedasticity in the losses. Instead, we have built a model that separates the occurrence and the severity of high frequency events. With respect to occurrence, we model the probability of a loss occurring at all as a function of the synoptic situation. We use a generalized linear regression with a logit transfer function to predict the 2-state variable (loss or no loss) as a function of convection indices. With respect to severity, we model the probability-density function (pdf) of the observed loss ratio (expressed by location and scale parameters) as a function of convection indices. The parameters are fitted using Maximum Likelihood. We have tested a number of convection indices and we have only used those which are found to contribute significantly in case that a loss occurs. This approach yields a pdf of loss magnitude as a function of day and location given that a loss occurs and the synoptic situation is known. Sets of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karma, A.; Rappel, W.J. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Fuh, B.C.; Trivedi, R. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
1998-05-01
The formation of banded microstructure in peritectic systems is examined theoretically in both diffusive and convective regimes. A rigorous model is developed in the diffusive regime that describes the non-steady-state growth of alternate solid {alpha} and {beta} phase bands with a planar solid-liquid interface. The model is extended to incorporate the effect of convection by assuming that solute diffusion takes place within a boundary layer of constant thickness, with a uniform composition in the mixed liquid zone outside this layer. The model predicts that convection effects in a semi-infinite sample narrow the composition range over which extended banding can occur, and the spacing of bands is reduced compared to the diffusive growth model. In a finite length sample, convection is shown to lead only to the transient formation of bands. In this transient banding regime, only a few bands with a variable width are formed, and this transient banding process can occur over a wide range of compositions inside the two-phase peritectic region. Directional solidification studies in the Pb-Bi system show transient bands and agree qualitatively with these predictions. However, the basic mechanism of band formation observed in this system is found to be significantly different from the one assumed in the model. A new mechanism of banding is proposed in which continuous growth of both phases is present instead of nucleation at the boundary of the pre-existing phase. This mechanism yields an oscillatory structure with a shorter spatial periodicity than the band spacing predicted by the purely diffusive or boundary layer convective models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nee Alexander
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert’s law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary. According to the results of the integral heat transfer analysis were established that the average Nusselt number (Nuav increasing occurs up to τ = 200 (dimensionless time. Further Nuav has changed insignificantly due to the temperature field equalization near the interfaces “gas – wall”.
A model study on the influence of overshooting convection on TTL water vapour
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. E. E. Hassim
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Overshooting deep convection that penetrates into the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL is thought to have an important role in regulating the water vapour content of this region. Yet, the net effect of such convection and the dominant mechanisms remain unclear. This study uses two idealised three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulations to examine the influence of overshooting convection on water vapour when it penetrates into two different TTL environments, one supersaturated and the other subsaturated with respect to ice. These simulations show that the overshooting convection plays a direct role in driving the ambient environment towards ice saturation through either net moistening (subsaturated TTL or net dehydration (supersaturated TTL. Moreover, in these cases the extent of dehydration in supersaturated conditions is greater than the moistening in subsaturated conditions. With the aid of modelled passive tracers, the relative roles of transport, mixing and ice microphysics are assessed; ultimately, ice sublimation and scavenging processes play the most important role in defining the different TTL relative humidity tendencies. In addition, significant moistening in both cases is modelled well into the subsaturated tropical lower stratosphere (up to 450 K, even though the overshooting turrets only reach approximately 420 K. It is shown that this moistening is the result of jumping cirrus, which is induced by the localised upward transport and mixing of TTL air following the collapse of the overshooting turret.
The thermo-vibrational convection in microgravity condition. Ground-based modelling.
Zyuzgin, A. V.; Putin, G. F.; Harisov, A. F.
In 1995-2000 at orbital station "Mir" has been carried out the series of experiments with the equipment "Alice" for the studying regimes of heat transfer in the supercritical fluids under influence inertial microaccelerations. The experiments have found out existence of the thermo-vibrational and thermo-inertial convective movements in the real weightlessness[1] and controlling microgravity fields[2]. However regarding structures of thermovibrational convection the results of experiments have inconsistent character. Therefore carrying out the ground-based modeling of the given problem is actually. In this work in laboratory conditions were investigated the thermo-vibrational convective movements from the dot heat source at high-frequency vibrations of the cavity with the fluid and presence quasi-static microacceleration. As the result of ground-based modeling, the regimes of convective flows, similar observed in the space experiment are received. Evolution of the convective structures and the spatial-temporary characteristics of movements are investigated in a wide range of the problem parameters. The control criteria and its critical value are determined. The received results well coordinated to the data of space experiments and allow adding and expanding representation about thermo-vibrational effects in conditions of real weightlessness and remove the contradictions concerning structures thermo-vibrational convective flows, received at the analysis of the given orbital experiments. The research described in this publication was made possible in part by Russian Foundation for Basic Research and Administration of Perm Region, Russia, under grant 04-02-96038, and Award No. PE-009-0 of the U.S. Civilian Research & Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union (CRDF). A.V. Zyuzgin, A. I. Ivanov, V. I. Polezhaev, G. F. Putin, E. B. Soboleva Convective Motions in Near-Critical Fluids under Real Zero-Gravity Conditions. Cosmic Research
Ship plume dispersion rates in convective boundary layers for chemistry models
Chosson, F.; Paoli, R.; B. Cuenot
2008-01-01
International audience; Detailed ship plume simulations in various convective boundary layer situations have been performed using a Lagrangian Dispersion Model driven by a Large Eddy Simulation Model. The simulations focus on early stage (1–2 h) of plume dispersion regime and take into account the effects of plume rise on dispersion. Results are presented in an attempt to provide to chemical modellers community a realistic description of the impact of characteristic dispersion on exhaust ship...
Tackley, Paul
2017-04-01
It is generally thought that the early Earth's mantle was hotter than today, which using conventional convective scalings should have led to vigorous convection and mixing. Geochemical observations, however, suggest that mixing was not as rapid as would be expected, leading to the suggestion that early Earth had stagnant lid convection [Debaille et al., 2003]. Additionally, the mantle's thermal evolution is difficult to explain using conventional scalings because early heat loss would have been too rapid, which has led to the hypothesis that plate tectonics convection does not follow the conventional convective scalings [Korenaga, 2003]. One physical process that could be important in this context is partial melting leading to crustal production, which has been shown to have the major effects of buffering mantle temperature and carrying a significant fraction of the heat from hot mantle [Nakagawa & Tackley, 2012], making plate tectonics easier [Lourenco et al., 2016], and causing compositional differentiation of the mantle that can buffer core heat loss [Nakagawa & Tackley, 2010]. Here, the influence of this process on mantle mixing is examined, using secular thermo-chemical models that simulate Earth's evolution over 4.5 billion years. Mixing is quantified both in terms of how rapidly stretching occurs, and in terms of dispersion: how rapidly initially close heterogeneities are dispersed horizontally and vertically through the mantle. It is found that convection with plate tectonics, melting and crustal production does not follow the conventional Nu-Ra and velocity-Ra scalings derived from boundary-layer theory, and thus mixing in the early Earth is much less rapid than earlier thought. Reasons for this will be analysed in this presentation.
Modeling Convection of Water Vapor into the Mid-latitude Summer Stratosphere
Clapp, C.; Leroy, S. S.; Anderson, J. G.
2016-12-01
Water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) from the tropics to the poles is important both radiatively and chemically. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas, and increases in water vapor concentrations in the UTLS lead to cooling at these levels and induce warming at the surface [Forster and Shine, 1999; 2002; Solomon et al., 2010]. Water vapor is also integral to stratospheric chemistry. It is the dominant source of OH in the lower stratosphere [Hanisco et al., 2001], and increases in water vapor concentrations promote stratospheric ozone loss by raising the reactivity of several key heterogeneous reactions as well as by promoting the growth of reactive surface area [Anderson et al., 2012; Carslaw et al., 1995; Carslaw et al., 1997; Drdla and Muller , 2012; Kirk-Davidoff et al., 1999; Shi et al., 2001]. However, the processes that control the distribution and phase of water in this region of the atmosphere are not well understood. This is especially true at mid-latitudes where several different dynamical mechanisms are capable of influencing UTLS water vapor concentrations. The contribution by deep convective storm systems that penetrate into the lower stratosphere is the least well understood and the least well represented in global models because of the small spatial scales and short time scales over which convection occurs. To address this issue, we have begun a modeling study to investigate the convective injection of water vapor from the troposphere into the stratosphere in the mid-latitudes. Fine-scale models have been previously used to simulate convection from the troposphere to the stratosphere [e.g., Homeyer et al., 2014]. Here we employ the Advanced Research Weather and Research Forecasting model (ARW) at 3-km resolution to resolve convection over the mid-western United States during August of 2013 including a storm system observed by SEAC4RS. We assess the transport of water vapor into the stratosphere over the model
Fan, J.; Han, B.; Varble, A.; Morrison, H.; North, K.; Kollias, P.; Chen, B.; Dong, X.; Giangrande, S. E.; Khain, A.; Lin, Y.; Mansell, E.; Milbrandt, J.; Stenz, R.; Thompson, G.; Wang, Y.
2016-12-01
The large spread in CRM model simulations of deep convection and aerosol effects on deep convective clouds (DCCs) makes it difficult to (1) further our understanding of deep convection and (2) define "benchmarks" and then limit their use in parameterization developments. A constrained model intercomparsion study on a mid-latitude mesoscale squall line is performed using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model at 1-km horizontal grid spacing with eight cloud microphysics schemes to understand specific processes that lead to the large spreads of simulated convection and precipitation. Various observational data are employed to evaluate the baseline simulations. All simulations tend to produce a wider convective area but a much narrower stratiform area. The magnitudes of virtual potential temperature drop, pressure rise, and wind speed peak associated with the passage of the gust front are significantly smaller compared with the observations, suggesting simulated cool pools are weaker. Simulations generally overestimate the vertical velocity and radar reflectivity in convective cores compared with the retrievals. The modeled updraft velocity and precipitation have a significant spread across eight schemes. The spread of updraft velocity is the combination of both low-level pressure perturbation gradient (PPG) and buoyancy. Both PPG and thermal buoyancy are small for simulations of weak convection but both are large for those of strong convection. Ice-related parameterizations contribute majorly to the spread of updraft velocity, while they are not the reason for the large spread of precipitation. The understandings gained in this study can help to focus future observations and parameterization development.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nee Alexander
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of radiant heating of a closed rectangular area under conditions of convective heat transfer at the external boundaries is passed. The fields of temperature and stream function, illustrating the unsteady nature of the heat transfer were obtained. The extent influence of convective heat transfer at the external boundaries on the circulating flows formation in the gas cavity are shown.
Cloud-scale model intercomparison of chemical constituent transport in deep convection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. C. Barth
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Transport and scavenging of chemical constituents in deep convection is important to understanding the composition of the troposphere and therefore chemistry-climate and air quality issues. High resolution cloud chemistry models have been shown to represent convective processing of trace gases quite well. To improve the representation of sub-grid convective transport and wet deposition in large-scale models, general characteristics, such as species mass flux, from the high resolution cloud chemistry models can be used. However, it is important to understand how these models behave when simulating the same storm. The intercomparison described here examines transport of six species. CO and O_{3}, which are primarily transported, show good agreement among models and compare well with observations. Models that included lightning production of NO_{x} reasonably predict NO_{x} mixing ratios in the anvil compared with observations, but the NO_{x} variability is much larger than that seen for CO and O_{3}. Predicted anvil mixing ratios of the soluble species, HNO_{3}, H_{2}O_{2}, and CH_{2}O, exhibit significant differences among models, attributed to different schemes in these models of cloud processing including the role of the ice phase, the impact of cloud-modified photolysis rates on the chemistry, and the representation of the species chemical reactivity. The lack of measurements of these species in the convective outflow region does not allow us to evaluate the model results with observations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiji, L.M. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2006-07-01
Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the following ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters. (orig.)
Modeling of Diffusive Convective and Electromechanical Processes in PEM fuel cells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bang, Mads
and chemical species. Since analytical solutions to these three dimensional convections diffusion problems can rarely be obtained, the CFX code makes use of a finite volume discretization and numerical techniques, in order to obtain a solution. The model developed solves the convective and diffusive transport...... of the gaseous phase in the fuel cell and allows prediction of the concentration of the species present. A special feature of the approach developed is a method that allows detailed modelling and prediction of electrode kinetics. The transport of electrons in the gas diffusion layer and catalyst layer, as well....... The proposed model makes it possible to predict the effect of geometrical and material properties on fuel cells performance, which means that the model can predict how the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and catalyst layers physical properties affects the distribution of current density, and how this affects...
Modelling solid-convective flash pyrolysis of straw and wood in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bech, Niels; Larsen, Morten Boberg; Jensen, Peter Arendt
2009-01-01
Less than a handful of solid-convective pyrolysis reactors for the production of liquid fuel from biomass have been presented and for only a single reactor a detailed mathematical model has been presented. In this article we present a predictive mathematical model of the pyrolysis process...... in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor, a novel solid-convective flash pyrolysis reactor. The model relies on the original concept for ablative pyrolysis of particles being pyrolysed through the formation of an intermediate liquid compound which is further degraded to form liquid organics, char, and gas. To describe...... the kinetics of the pyrolysis reactions the Broido-Shafizadeh scheme is employed with cellulose parameters for wood and modified parameters for straw to include the catalytic effect of its alkali-containing ash content. The model describes the presented experimental results adequately for engineering purposes...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
A. N. Ostrikov; E. U. Zheltouhova
2013-01-01
A mathematical model of combined radiation and convection drying of fruit and vegetable chips with pulsed energy supply is developed, the model describes the change in temperature and moisture content...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niyogi, Devdutta S. [Purdue
2013-06-07
The CLASIC experiment was conducted over the US southern great plains (SGP) in June 2007 with an objective to lead an enhanced understanding of the cumulus convection particularly as it relates to land surface conditions. This project was design to help assist with understanding the overall improvement of land atmosphere convection initiation representation of which is important for global and regional models. The study helped address one of the critical documented deficiency in the models central to the ARM objectives for cumulus convection initiation and particularly under summer time conditions. This project was guided by the scientific question building on the CLASIC theme questions: What is the effect of improved land surface representation on the ability of coupled models to simulate cumulus and convection initiation? The focus was on the US Southern Great Plains region. Since the CLASIC period was anomalously wet the strategy has been to use other periods and domains to develop the comparative assessment for the CLASIC data period, and to understand the mechanisms of the anomalous wet conditions on the tropical systems and convection over land. The data periods include the IHOP 2002 field experiment that was over roughly same domain as the CLASIC in the SGP, and some of the DOE funded Ameriflux datasets.
Analysis of subgrid models of heat convection by symmetry group theory
Razafindralandy, Dina; Hamdouni, Aziz
2007-04-01
Symmetries, i.e. transformations which leave the set of the solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations unchanged, play an important role in turbulence (conservation laws, wall laws, …). They should not be destroyed by turbulence models. The symmetries of the heat convection equations are then presented, for a non-isothermal fluid. Next, common subgrid stress tensor and flux models are analyzed, using the symmetry approach. To cite this article: D. Razafindralandy, A. Hamdouni, C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).
Zhang, Guang J.; Wu, Xiaoqing; Zeng, Xiping; Mitovski, Toni
2016-10-01
The fractional entrainment rate in convective clouds is an important parameter in current convective parameterization schemes of climate models. In this paper, it is estimated using a 1-km-resolution cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulation of convective clouds from TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment). The clouds are divided into different types, characterized by cloud-top heights. The entrainment rates and moist static energy that is entrained or detrained are determined by analyzing the budget of moist static energy for each cloud type. Results show that the entrained air is a mixture of approximately equal amount of cloud air and environmental air, and the detrained air is a mixture of ~80 % of cloud air and 20 % of the air with saturation moist static energy at the environmental temperature. After taking into account the difference in moist static energy between the entrained air and the mean environment, the estimated fractional entrainment rate is much larger than those used in current convective parameterization schemes. High-resolution (100 m) large-eddy simulation of TWP-ICE convection was also analyzed to support the CRM results. It is shown that the characteristics of entrainment rates estimated using both the high-resolution data and CRM-resolution coarse-grained data are similar. For each cloud category, the entrainment rate is high near cloud base and top, but low in the middle of clouds. The entrainment rates are best fitted to the inverse of in-cloud vertical velocity by a second order polynomial.
White, Bethan; Gryspeerdt, Edward; Stier, Philip; Morrison, Hugh; Thompson, Gregory; Kipling, Zak
2017-10-01
This study investigates the hydrometeor development and response to cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) perturbations in convection-permitting model configurations. We present results from a real-data simulation of deep convection in the Congo basin, an idealised supercell case, and a warm-rain large-eddy simulation (LES). In each case we compare two frequently used double-moment bulk microphysics schemes and investigate the response to CDNC perturbations. We find that the variability among the two schemes, including the response to aerosol, differs widely between these cases. In all cases, differences in the simulated cloud morphology and precipitation are found to be significantly greater between the microphysics schemes than due to CDNC perturbations within each scheme. Further, we show that the response of the hydrometeors to CDNC perturbations differs strongly not only between microphysics schemes, but the inter-scheme variability also differs between cases of convection. Sensitivity tests show that the representation of autoconversion is the dominant factor that drives differences in rain production between the microphysics schemes in the idealised precipitating shallow cumulus case and in a subregion of the Congo basin simulations dominated by liquid-phase processes. In this region, rain mass is also shown to be relatively insensitive to the radiative effects of an overlying layer of ice-phase cloud. The conversion of cloud ice to snow is the process responsible for differences in cold cloud bias between the schemes in the Congo. In the idealised supercell case, thermodynamic impacts on the storm system using different microphysics parameterisations can equal those due to aerosol effects. These results highlight the large uncertainty in cloud and precipitation responses to aerosol in convection-permitting simulations and have important implications not only for process studies of aerosol-convection interaction, but also for global modelling studies of
The role of viscosity contrast on plume structure in laboratory modeling of mantle convection
Prakash, Vivek N; Arakeri, Jaywant H
2016-01-01
We have conducted laboratory experiments to model important aspects of plumes in mantle convection. We focus on the role of the viscosity ratio U (between the ambient fluid and the plume fluid) in determining the plume structure and dynamics. In our experiments, we are able to capture geophysical convection regimes relevant to mantle convection both for hot spots (when U > 1) and plate-subduction (when U < 1) regimes. The planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique is used for flow visualization and characterizing the plume structures. The convection is driven by compositional buoyancy generated by the perfusion of lighter fluid across a permeable mesh and the viscosity ratio U is systematically varied over a range from 1/300 to 2500. The planform, near the bottom boundary for U=1, exhibits a well-known dendritic line plume structure. As the value of U is increased, a progressive morphological transition is observed from the dendritic-plume structure to discrete spherical plumes, accompanied with th...
Convective instability and boundary driven oscillations in a reaction-diffusion-advection model
Vidal-Henriquez, Estefania; Zykov, Vladimir; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Gholami, Azam
2017-10-01
In a reaction-diffusion-advection system, with a convectively unstable regime, a perturbation creates a wave train that is advected downstream and eventually leaves the system. We show that the convective instability coexists with a local absolute instability when a fixed boundary condition upstream is imposed. This boundary induced instability acts as a continuous wave source, creating a local periodic excitation near the boundary, which initiates waves travelling both up and downstream. To confirm this, we performed analytical analysis and numerical simulations of a modified Martiel-Goldbeter reaction-diffusion model with the addition of an advection term. We provide a quantitative description of the wave packet appearing in the convectively unstable regime, which we found to be in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations. We characterize this new instability and show that in the limit of high advection speed, it is suppressed. This type of instability can be expected for reaction-diffusion systems that present both a convective instability and an excitable regime. In particular, it can be relevant to understand the signaling mechanism of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum that may experience fluid flows in its natural habitat.
On oscillatory convection with the Cattaneo–Christov hyperbolic heat-flow model
Bissell, J. J.
2015-01-01
Adoption of the hyperbolic Cattaneo–Christov heat-flow model in place of the more usual parabolic Fourier law is shown to raise the possibility of oscillatory convection in the classic Bénard problem of a Boussinesq fluid heated from below. By comparing the critical Rayleigh numbers for stationary and oscillatory convection, Rc and RS respectively, oscillatory convection is found to represent the preferred form of instability whenever the Cattaneo number C exceeds a threshold value CT≥8/27π2≈0.03. In the case of free boundaries, analytical approaches permit direct treatment of the role played by the Prandtl number P1, which—in contrast to the classical stationary scenario—can impact on oscillatory modes significantly owing to the non-zero frequency of convection. Numerical investigation indicates that the behaviour found analytically for free boundaries applies in a qualitatively similar fashion for fixed boundaries, while the threshold Cattaneo number CT is computed as a function of P1∈[10−2,10+2] for both boundary regimes. PMID:25792960
Using a Convection Model to Predict Altitudes of White Stork Migration Over Central Israel
Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Liechti, Olivier; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Leshem, Yossi
Soaring migrants such as storks, pelicans and large birds of prey rely on thermal convection during migration. The convection model ALPTHERM was designed to predict the onset, strength, duration and depth of thermal convection for varying topographies for glider pilots, based on atmospheric conditions at midnight. We tested ALPTHERM predictions as configured for two topographies of central Israel, the Coastal Plains and the Judean and Samarian Mountains in order to predict altitudes of migrating white storks (Ciconia ciconia). Migrating flocks of white storks were tracked with a motorized glider, to measure maximum altitudes of migration during spring 2000. A significant positive correlation was found between the maximum daily altitudes of migration measured and the predicted upper boundary of thermal convection for the Coastal Plains and Samarian Mountains. Thirty-minute predictions for the Coastal Plains and Samarian Mountains correlated positively with measured maximum migration altitudes per thermal. ALPTHERM forecasts can be used to alter flight altitudes in both civil and especially military aviation and reduce the hazard of serious aircraft collisions with soaring migrants.
Topological bifurcations of coherent structures and dimension reduction of plasma convection models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dam, Magnus
Research in fusion energy seeks to develop a green, safe, and sustainable energy source. Nuclear fusion can be achieved by heating a hydrogen gas to temperatures of millions of kelvin. At fusion temperatures, some or all the electrons leave the atomic nucleus of the hydrogen atom. This results...... to understand the evolution of these structures. We apply a dynamical systems approach to quantitatively describe the time evolution of these structures. Three state variables describe blobs in a plasma convection model. A critical point of a variable deﬁnes a feature point where that variable is signiﬁcant....... For a range of Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers, we analyze the bifurcations of the critical points of the three variables with time as the main bifurcation parameter. Plasma simulations can be computationally demanding. We apply a Galerkin method to approximate a plasma convection model with a reduced model...
Dynamic Modeling of Natural Convection Solar Energy Flat Plate ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The analytical solutions to the dynamic model of an air-heating flat plate solar energy thermal collector were validated by direct measurement from a physical model constructed for that purpose, of the temperatures of the cover and absorber plates, the inlet and outlet fluids, and the ambient air from morning to evening for ...
Electrical Resistivity Imaging and Hydrodynamic Modeling of Convective Fingering in a Sabkha Aquifer
Van Dam, Remke; Eustice, Brian; Hyndman, David; Wood, Warren; Simmons, Craig
2014-05-01
Free convection, or fluid motion driven by density differences, is an important groundwater flow mechanism that can enhance transport and mixing of heat and solutes in the subsurface. Various issues of environmental and societal relevance are exacerbated convective mixing; it has been studied in the context of dense contaminant plumes, nuclear waste disposal, greenhouse gas sequestration, the impacts of sea level rise and saline intrusion on drinking water resources. The basic theory behind convective flow in porous media is well understood, but important questions regarding this process in natural systems remain unanswered. Most previous research on this topic has focused on theory and modeling, with only limited attention to experimental studies and field measurements. The few published studies present single snapshots, making it difficult to quantify transient changes in these systems. Non-invasive electrical methods have the potential to exploit the relation between solute concentrations and electrical conductance of a fluid, and thereby estimate fluid salinity differences in time and space. We present the results of a two-year experimental study at a shallow sabkha aquifer in the United Arab Emirates, about 50 km southwest of the city of Abu Dhabi along the coast of the Arabian Gulf, that was designed to explore the transient nature of free convection. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data documented the presence of convective fingers following a significant rainfall event. One year later, the complex fingering pattern had completely disappeared. This observation is supported by analysis of the aquifer solute budget as well as hydrodynamic modeling of the system. The transient dynamics of the gravitational instabilities in the modeling results are in agreement with the timing observed in the time-lapse ERT data. Our experimental observations and modeling are consistent with the hypothesis that the instabilities arose from a dense brine that infiltrated
Carbon dioxide sequestration: Modeling the diffusive and convective transport under a CO2 cap
Allen, Rebecca
2012-01-01
A rise in carbon dioxide levels from industrial emissions is contributing to the greenhouse effect and global warming. CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers is a strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels. Scientists and researchers rely on numerical simulators to predict CO2 storage by modeling the fluid transport behaviour. Studies have shown that after CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer, undissolved CO2 rises due to buoyant forces and will spread laterally away from the injection site under an area of low permeability. CO2 from this ‘capped\\' region diffuses into the fluid underlying it, and the resulting CO2-fluid mixture increases in density. This increase in density leads to gravity-driven convection. Accordingly, diffusive-convective transport is important to model since it predicts an enhanced storage capacity of the saline aquifer. This work incorporates the diffusive and convective transport processes into the transport modeling equation, and uses a self-generated code. Discretization of the domain is done with a cell-centered finite difference method. Cases are set up using similar parameters from published literature in order to compare results. Enhanced storage capacity is predicted in this work, similar to work done by others. A difference in the onset of convective transport between this work and published results is noticed and discussed in this paper. A sensitivity analysis is performed on the density model used in this work, and on the diffusivity value assumed. The analysis shows that the density model and diffusivity value is a key component on simulation results. Also, perturbations are added to porosity and permeability in order to see the effect of perturbations on the onset of convection, and results agree with similar findings by others. This work provides a basis for studying other cases, such as the impact of heterogeneity on the diffusion-convective transport. An extension of this work may involve the use of an equation of state to
Representation of tropical deep convection in atmospheric models – Part 2: Tracer transport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. R. Hoyle
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The tropical transport processes of 14 different models or model versions were compared, within the framework of the SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere project. The tested models range from the regional to the global scale, and include numerical weather prediction (NWP, chemical transport, and chemistry-climate models. Idealised tracers were used in order to prevent the model's chemistry schemes from influencing the results substantially, so that the effects of modelled transport could be isolated. We find large differences in the vertical transport of very short-lived tracers (with a lifetime of 6 h within the tropical troposphere. Peak convective outflow altitudes range from around 300 hPa to almost 100 hPa among the different models, and the upper tropospheric tracer mixing ratios differ by up to an order of magnitude. The timing of convective events is found to be different between the models, even among those which source their forcing data from the same NWP model (ECMWF. The differences are less pronounced for longer lived tracers, however they could have implications for modelling the halogen burden of the lowermost stratosphere through transport of species such as bromoform, or short-lived hydrocarbons into the lowermost stratosphere. The modelled tracer profiles are strongly influenced by the convective transport parameterisations, and different boundary layer mixing parameterisations also have a large impact on the modelled tracer profiles. Preferential locations for rapid transport from the surface into the upper troposphere are similar in all models, and are mostly concentrated over the western Pacific, the Maritime Continent and the Indian Ocean. In contrast, models do not indicate that upward transport is highest over western Africa.
Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclones to Parameterized Convection in the NASA GEOS5 Model
Lim, Young-Kwon; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Reale, Oreste; Lee, Myong-In; Molod, Andrea M.; Suarez, Max J.
2014-01-01
The sensitivity of tropical cyclones (TCs) to changes in parameterized convection is investigated to improve the simulation of TCs in the North Atlantic. Specifically, the impact of reducing the influence of the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) scheme-based parameterized convection is explored using the Goddard Earth Observing System version5 (GEOS5) model at 0.25 horizontal resolution. The years 2005 and 2006 characterized by very active and inactive hurricane seasons, respectively, are selected for simulation. A reduction in parameterized deep convection results in an increase in TC activity (e.g., TC number and longer life cycle) to more realistic levels compared to the baseline control configuration. The vertical and horizontal structure of the strongest simulated hurricane shows the maximum lower-level (850-950hPa) wind speed greater than 60 ms and the minimum sea level pressure reaching 940mb, corresponding to a category 4 hurricane - a category never achieved by the control configuration. The radius of the maximum wind of 50km, the location of the warm core exceeding 10 C, and the horizontal compactness of the hurricane center are all quite realistic without any negatively affecting the atmospheric mean state. This study reveals that an increase in the threshold of minimum entrainment suppresses parameterized deep convection by entraining more dry air into the typical plume. This leads to cooling and drying at the mid- to upper-troposphere, along with the positive latent heat flux and moistening in the lower-troposphere. The resulting increase in conditional instability provides an environment that is more conducive to TC vortex development and upward moisture flux convergence by dynamically resolved moist convection, thereby increasing TC activity.
Modeling Monomer Transport by Convection during Olefin Polymerization
Parasu Veera, U.; Weickert, G.; Agarwal, U.S.
2002-01-01
During olefin polymerization on heterogeneous catalyst, a catalyst particle undergoes fragmentation, and the formed polymer gets deposited on the fragments. These polymer-coated fragments (microparticles) together form a porous polymer particle (macroparticle). The multigrain model (MGM) gives a
Model of convection mass transfer in titanium alloy at low energy high current electron beam action
Sarychev, V. D.; Granovskii, A. Yu; Nevskii, S. A.; Konovalov, S. V.; Gromov, V. E.
2017-01-01
The convection mixing model is proposed for low-energy high-current electron beam treatment of titanium alloys, pre-processed by heterogeneous plasma flows generated via explosion of carbon tape and powder TiB2. The model is based on the assumption vortices in the molten layer are formed due to the treatment by concentrated energy flows. These vortices evolve as the result of thermocapillary convection, arising because of the temperature gradient. The calculation of temperature gradient and penetration depth required solution of the heat problem with taking into account the surface evaporation. However, instead of the direct heat source the boundary conditions in phase transitions were changed in the thermal conductivity equation, assuming the evaporated material takes part in the heat exchange. The data on the penetration depth and temperature distribution are used for the thermocapillary model. The thermocapillary model embraces Navier-Stocks and convection heat transfer equations, as well as the boundary conditions with the outflow of evaporated material included. The solution of these equations by finite elements methods pointed at formation of a multi-vortices structure when electron-beam treatment and its expansion over new zones of material. As the result, strengthening particles are found at the depth exceeding manifold their penetration depth in terms of the diffusion mechanism.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Lockwood
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical model for predicting the evolution of the pattern of ionospheric convection in response to general time-dependent magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and in the cross-tail current sheet of the geomagnetic tail. The model quantifies the concepts of ionospheric flow excitation by Cowley and Lockwood (1992, assuming a uniform spatial distribution of ionospheric conductivity. The model is demonstrated using an example in which travelling reconnection pulses commence near noon and then move across the dayside magnetopause towards both dawn and dusk. Two such pulses, 8min apart, are used and each causes the reconnection to be active for 1min at every MLT that they pass over. This example demonstrates how the convection response to a given change in the interplanetary magnetic field (via the reconnection rate depends on the previous reconnection history. The causes of this effect are explained. The inherent assumptions and the potential applications of the model are discussed. Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions
Petrie, Ruth Elizabeth; Bannister, Ross Noel; Priestley Cullen, Michael John
2017-12-01
In developing methods for convective-scale data assimilation (DA), it is necessary to consider the full range of motions governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (including non-hydrostatic and ageostrophic flow). These equations describe motion on a wide range of timescales with non-linear coupling. For the purpose of developing new DA techniques that suit the convective-scale problem, it is helpful to use so-called toy models that are easy to run and contain the same types of motion as the full equation set. Such a model needs to permit hydrostatic and geostrophic balance at large scales but allow imbalance at small scales, and in particular, it needs to exhibit intermittent convection-like behaviour. Existing toy models are not always sufficient for investigating these issues. A simplified system of intermediate complexity derived from the Euler equations is presented, which supports dispersive gravity and acoustic modes. In this system, the separation of timescales can be greatly reduced by changing the physical parameters. Unlike in existing toy models, this allows the acoustic modes to be treated explicitly and hence inexpensively. In addition, the non-linear coupling induced by the equation of state is simplified. This means that the gravity and acoustic modes are less coupled than in conventional models. A vertical slice formulation is used which contains only dry dynamics. The model is shown to give physically reasonable results, and convective behaviour is generated by localised compressible effects. This model provides an affordable and flexible framework within which some of the complex issues of convective-scale DA can later be investigated. The model is called the ABC model after the three tunable parameters introduced: A (the pure gravity wave frequency), B (the modulation of the divergent term in the continuity equation), and C (defining the compressibility).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. E. Petrie
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In developing methods for convective-scale data assimilation (DA, it is necessary to consider the full range of motions governed by the compressible Navier–Stokes equations (including non-hydrostatic and ageostrophic flow. These equations describe motion on a wide range of timescales with non-linear coupling. For the purpose of developing new DA techniques that suit the convective-scale problem, it is helpful to use so-called toy models that are easy to run and contain the same types of motion as the full equation set. Such a model needs to permit hydrostatic and geostrophic balance at large scales but allow imbalance at small scales, and in particular, it needs to exhibit intermittent convection-like behaviour. Existing toy models are not always sufficient for investigating these issues. A simplified system of intermediate complexity derived from the Euler equations is presented, which supports dispersive gravity and acoustic modes. In this system, the separation of timescales can be greatly reduced by changing the physical parameters. Unlike in existing toy models, this allows the acoustic modes to be treated explicitly and hence inexpensively. In addition, the non-linear coupling induced by the equation of state is simplified. This means that the gravity and acoustic modes are less coupled than in conventional models. A vertical slice formulation is used which contains only dry dynamics. The model is shown to give physically reasonable results, and convective behaviour is generated by localised compressible effects. This model provides an affordable and flexible framework within which some of the complex issues of convective-scale DA can later be investigated. The model is called the ABC model after the three tunable parameters introduced: A (the pure gravity wave frequency, B (the modulation of the divergent term in the continuity equation, and C (defining the compressibility.
N'Doye, Ibrahima
2015-05-25
In this paper, a dynamical fractional viscoelastic fluids convection model in porous media is proposed and its chaotic behavior is studied. A preformed equilibrium points analysis indicates the conditions where chaotic dynamics can be observed, and show the existence of chaos. The behavior and stability analysis of the integer-order and the fractional commensurate and non-commensurate orders of a fractional viscoelastic fluids system, which exhibits chaos, are presented as well.
Dynamic Modeling of Natural Convection Solar Energy Collectors ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This was confirmed when the transient terms were completely deleted as the maximum values of the output parameters and their times of occurrence remained the same in both cases. The developed output expressions (in closed form) for the dynamic model of flat plate solar energy air heating collectors can easily be used ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhixin Yang
Full Text Available The onset of double diffusive convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous layer is studied when the fluid and solid phase are not in local thermal equilibrium. The modified Darcy model is used for the momentum equation and a two-field model is used for energy equation each representing the fluid and solid phases separately. The effect of thermal non-equilibrium on the onset of double diffusive convection is discussed. The critical Rayleigh number and the corresponding wave number for the exchange of stability and over-stability are obtained, and the onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically and discussed numerically.
Yang, Zhixin; Wang, Shaowei; Zhao, Moli; Li, Shucai; Zhang, Qiangyong
2013-01-01
The onset of double diffusive convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous layer is studied when the fluid and solid phase are not in local thermal equilibrium. The modified Darcy model is used for the momentum equation and a two-field model is used for energy equation each representing the fluid and solid phases separately. The effect of thermal non-equilibrium on the onset of double diffusive convection is discussed. The critical Rayleigh number and the corresponding wave number for the exchange of stability and over-stability are obtained, and the onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically and discussed numerically.
Freytag, B.; Liljegren, S.; Höfner, S.
2017-04-01
Context. Observations of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with increasing spatial resolution reveal new layers of complexity of atmospheric processes on a variety of scales. Aims: To analyze the physical mechanisms that cause asymmetries and surface structures in observed images, we use detailed 3D dynamical simulations of AGB stars; these simulations self-consistently describe convection and pulsations. Methods: We used the CO5BOLD radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce an exploratory grid of global "star-in-a-box" models of the outer convective envelope and the inner atmosphere of AGB stars to study convection, pulsations, and shock waves and their dependence on stellar and numerical parameters. Results: The model dynamics are governed by the interaction of long-lasting giant convection cells, short-lived surface granules, and strong, radial, fundamental-mode pulsations. Radial pulsations and shorter wavelength, traveling, acoustic waves induce shocks on various scales in the atmosphere. Convection, waves, and shocks all contribute to the dynamical pressure and, thus, to an increase of the stellar radius and to a levitation of material into layers where dust can form. Consequently, the resulting relation of pulsation period and stellar radius is shifted toward larger radii compared to that of non-linear 1D models. The dependence of pulsation period on luminosity agrees well with observed relations. The interaction of the pulsation mode with the non-stationary convective flow causes occasional amplitude changes and phase shifts. The regularity of the pulsations decreases with decreasing gravity as the relative size of convection cells increases. The model stars do not have a well-defined surface. Instead, the light is emitted from a very extended inhomogeneous atmosphere with a complex dynamic pattern of high-contrast features. Conclusions: Our models self-consistently describe convection, convectively generated acoustic noise, fundamental-mode radial
Brun, A. S.; Turck-Chièze, S.; Zahn, J. P.
1999-11-01
In previous work, we have shown that recent updated standard solar models cannot reproduce the radial profile of the sound speed at the base of the convective zone and fail to predict the photospheric lithium abundance. In parallel, helioseismology has shown that the transition from differential rotation in the convective zone to almost uniform rotation in the radiative solar interior occurs in a shallow layer called the tachocline. This layer is presumably the seat of a large-scale circulation and of turbulent motions. Here we introduce a macroscopic transport term in the structure equations that is based on a hydrodynamical description of the tachocline proposed by Spiegel & Zahn, and we calculate the mixing induced within this layer. We discuss the influence of different parameters that represent the tachocline thickness, the Brunt-Väisälä frequency at the base of the convective zone, and the time dependence of this mixing process along the Sun's evolution. We show that the introduction of such a process inhibits the microscopic diffusion by about 25%. Starting from models including a pre-main-sequence evolution, we obtain (1) a good agreement with observed photospheric chemical abundance of light elements such as 3He, 4He, 7Li, and 9Be; (2) a smooth composition gradient at the base of the convective zone; and (3) a significant improvement of the sound-speed square difference between the seismic Sun and the models in this transition region when we allow the photospheric heavy-element abundance to adjust, within the observational incertitude, as a result of the action of this mixing process. The impact on neutrino predictions is also discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. M. Liu
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the impacts of overshooting convection at a local scale on the water distribution in the tropical UTLS. Overshooting convection is assumed to be one of the processes controlling the entry of water vapour mixing ratio in the stratosphere by injecting ice crystals above the tropopause which later sublimate and hydrate the lower stratosphere. For this purpose, we quantify the individual impact of two cases of overshooting convection in Africa observed during SCOUT-AMMA: the case of 4 August 2006 over Southern Chad which is likely to have influenced the water vapour measurements by micro-SDLA and FLASH-B from Niamey on 5 August, and the case of a mesoscale convective system over Aïr on 5 August 2006. We make use of high resolution (down to 1 km horizontally nested grid simulations with the three-dimensional regional atmospheric model BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modelling System. In both cases, BRAMS succeeds in simulating the main features of the convective activity, as well as overshooting convection, though the exact position and time of the overshoots indicated by MSG brightness temperature difference is not fully reproduced (typically 1° displacement in latitude compared with the overshoots indicated by brightness temperature difference from satellite observations for both cases, and several hours shift for the Aïr case on 5 August 2006. Total water budgets associated with these two events show a significant injection of ice particles above the tropopause with maximum values of about 3.7 ton s^{−1} for the Chad case (4 August and 1.4 ton s^{−1} for the Aïr case (5 August, and a total upward cross tropopause transport of about 3300 ton h^{−1} for the Chad case and 2400 ton h^{−1} for the Aïr case in the third domain of simulation. The order of magnitude of these modelled fluxes is lower but comparable with similar studies in other tropical areas based on
A semi-analytical model for mean concentration in a convective boundary layer
Cassiani, Massimo; Giostra, Umberto
A model to predict the mean concentration field in convective conditions is proposed. This model is inspired by the probability density function (pdf) models, retaining their assumption of splitting a plume into updraft and a downdraft components. However, the proposed model is more flexible than the pdf models since it includes the effects of turbulence inhomogeneity and it can be adapted to non-stationary conditions. The formulation of the model ensures that in the limit of zero skewness a traditional Gaussian model is obtained. Thus, the model is applicable to conditions ranging from neutral to unstable. The model is solved numerically, but time consumption is negligible. Despite its simplicity, the model shows good performance compared to classical experiments and to more complex and physically consistent numerical models.
Pina, A.; Schumacher, R. S.; Denning, S.
2015-12-01
Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) is a Class I Airshed designated under the Clean Air Act. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in the Park has been a known problem since weekly measurements of wet deposition of inorganic N began in the 1980s by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). The addition of N from urban and agriculture emissions along the Colorado Front Range to montane ecosystems degrades air quality/visibility, water quality, and soil pH levels. Based on NADP data during summers 1994-2014, wet N deposition at Beaver Meadows in RMNP exhibited a bimodal gamma distribution. In this study, we identified meteorological transport mechanisms for 3 high wet-N deposition events (all events were within the secondary peak of the gamma distribution) using the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The NARR was used to identify synoptic-scale influences on the transport; the WRF model was used to analyze the convective transport of pollutants from a concentrated animal feeding operation near Greeley, Colorado, USA. The WRF simulation included a passive tracer from the feeding operation and a convection-permitting horizontal spacing of 4/3 km. The three cases suggest (a) synoptic-scale moisture and flow patterns are important for priming summer transport events and (b) convection plays a vital role in the transport of Front Range pollutants into RMNP.
Maksimov Vyacheslav I.; Nagornova Tatiana A.; Shestakov Igor A.
2015-01-01
Results of mathematical modeling of convective heat transfer in air area surrounded on all sides enclosing structures, in the presence of heat source at the lower boundary of the media are presented. Solved the system of differential equations of unsteady Navier-Stokes equations with the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The process of convective heat transfer is calculated using the models of turbulence Prandtl and Prandtl-Reichard. Takes into account the processes of heat exchang...
A multisensor evaluation of the asymmetric convective model, version 2, in southeast Texas.
Kolling, Jenna S; Pleim, Jonathan E; Jeffries, Harvey E; Vizuete, William
2013-01-01
There currently exist a number of planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes that can represent the effects of turbulence in daytime convective conditions, although these schemes remain a large source of uncertainty in meteorology and air quality model simulations. This study evaluates a recently developed combined local and nonlocal closure PBL scheme, the Asymmetric Convective Model, version 2 (ACM2), against PBL observations taken from radar wind profilers, a ground-based lidar, and multiple daytime radiosonde balloon launches. These observations were compared against predictions of PBLs from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.1 with the ACM2 PBL scheme option, and the Fifth-Generation Meteorological Model (MM5) version 3.7.3 with the Eta PBL scheme option that is currently being used to develop ozone control strategies in southeast Texas. MM5 and WRF predictions during the regulatory modeling episode were evaluated on their ability to predict the rise and fall of the PBL during daytime convective conditions across southeastern Texas. The MM5 predicted PBLs consistently underpredicted observations, and were also less than the WRF PBL predictions. The analysis reveals that the MM5 predicted a slower rising and shallower PBL not representative of the daytime urban boundary layer. Alternatively, the WRF model predicted a more accurate PBL evolution improving the root mean square error (RMSE), both temporally and spatially. The WRF model also more accurately predicted vertical profiles of temperature and moisture in the lowest 3 km of the atmosphere. Inspection of median surface temperature and moisture time-series plots revealed higher predicted surface temperatures in WRF and more surface moisture in MM5. These could not be attributed to surface heat fluxes, and thus the differences in performance of the WRF and MM5 models are likely due to the PBL schemes. An accurate depiction of the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of mixed convection flows in buildings enclosures
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Kayne, Alexander; Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)
2013-07-01
In recent years Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are increasingly used to model the air circulation and temperature environment inside the rooms of residential and office buildings to gain insight into the relative energy consumptions of various HVAC systems for cooling/heating for climate control and thermal comfort. This requires accurate simulation of turbulent flow and heat transfer for various types of ventilation systems using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations of fluid dynamics. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) or Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of Navier-Stokes equations is computationally intensive and expensive for simulations of this kind. As a result, vast majority of CFD simulations employ RANS equations in conjunction with a turbulence model. In order to assess the modeling requirements (mesh, numerical algorithm, turbulence model etc.) for accurate simulations, it is critical to validate the calculations against the experimental data. For this purpose, we use three well known benchmark validation cases, one for natural convection in 2D closed vertical cavity, second for forced convection in a 2D rectangular cavity and the third for mixed convection in a 2D square cavity. The simulations are performed on a number of meshes of different density using a number of turbulence models. It is found that k-epsilon two-equation turbulence model with a second-order algorithm on a reasonable mesh gives the best results. This information is then used to determine the modeling requirements (mesh, numerical algorithm, turbulence model etc.) for flows in 3D enclosures with different ventilation systems. In particular two cases are considered for which the experimental data is available. These cases are (1) air flow and heat transfer in a naturally ventilated room and (2) airflow and temperature distribution in an atrium. Good agreement with the experimental data and computations of other investigators is obtained.
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Danko, G.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Bahrami, D.; Halecky, N.
2009-10-01
A coupled thermal-hydrologic-airflow model is developed, solving for the transport processes within a waste emplacement drift and the surrounding rockmass together at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Natural, convective air flow as well as heat and mass transport in a representative emplacement drift during post-closure are explicitly simulated, using the MULTIFLUX model. The conjugate, thermal-hydrologic transport processes in the rockmass are solved with the TOUGH2 porous-media simulator in a coupled way to the in-drift processes. The new simulation results show that large-eddy turbulent flow, as opposed to small-eddy flow, dominate the drift air space for at least 5000 years following waste emplacement. The size of the largest, longitudinal eddy is equal to half of the drift length, providing a strong axial heat and moisture transport mechanism from the hot to the cold drift sections. The in-drift results are compared to those from simplified models using a surrogate, dispersive model with an equivalent dispersion coefficient for heat and moisture transport. Results from the explicit, convective velocity simulation model provide higher axial heat and moisture fluxes than those estimated from the previously published, simpler, equivalent-dispersion models, in addition to showing differences in temperature, humidity and condensation rate distributions along the drift length. A new dispersive model is also formulated, giving a time- and location-variable function that runs generally about ten times higher in value than the highest dispersion coefficient currently used in the Yucca Mountain Project as an estimate for the equivalent dispersion coefficient in the emplacement drift. The new dispersion coefficient variation, back-calculated from the convective model, can adequately describe the heat and mass transport processes in the emplacement drift example.
Principal interval decomposition framework for POD-based model reduction of convective flows
San, Omer; Borggaard, Jeff
2015-11-01
A principal interval decomposition (PID) framework is proposed to build more reliable reduced-order models for unsteady flow problems. The PID method optimizes the lengths of the time windows over which proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is performed and can be highly effective in building reduced-order models for convective problems. The performance of these POD models with and without using the PID approach is investigated by applying these methods to the unsteady lock-exchange flow problem modeled by solving the Boussinesq equations in vorticity-streamfunction formulation. This benchmark problem exhibits a strong shear flow induced by a temperature jump and results in the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. This is considered a challenging benchmark problem for the development of reduced order models. The predictive performance of our model is then analyzed over a wide range of computational modeling and physical parameters. It is shown that the PID approach provides a significant improvement in accuracy over the standard Galerkin POD reduced-order model. Our numerical assessment of the PID shows that it may represent a reliable model reduction tool for convection-dominated, unsteady-flow problems.
Ulvrova, Martina; Williams, Simon; Coltice, Nicolas; Tackley, Paul
2017-04-01
Plate tectonics is a prominent feature on Earth. Together with the underlying convecting mantle, plates form a self-organized system. In order to understand the dynamics of the coupled system, subduction of the lithospheric plates plays the key role since it links the exterior with the interior of the planet. In this work we study subduction initiation and death with respect to the position of the continental rafts. Using thermo-mechanical numerical calculations we investigate global convection models featuring self-consistent plate tectonics and continental drifting employing a pseudo-plastic rheology and testing the effect of a free surface. We consider uncompressible mantle convection in Boussinesq approximation that is basaly and internaly heated. Our calculations indicate that the presence of the continents alterns stress distribution within a certain distance from the margins. Intra-oceanic subudction initiation is favorable during super-continent cycles while the initiation at passive continental margin prevails when continents are dispersed. The location of subduction initiation is additionally controlled by the lithospheric strength. Very weak lithosphere results in domination of intra-oceanic subduction initiation. The subduction zones die more easily in the vicinity of the continent due to the strong rheological contrast between the oceanic and continental lithosphere. In order to compare our findings with subduction positions through time recorded on Earth, we analyse subduction birth in global plate reconstruction back to 410 My.
Bližňák, Vojtěch; Sokol, Zbyněk; Zacharov, Petr
2017-02-01
An evaluation of convective cloud forecasts performed with the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model COSMO and extrapolation of cloud fields is presented using observed data derived from the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). The present study focuses on the nowcasting range (1-5 h) for five severe convective storms in their developing stage that occurred during the warm season in the years 2012-2013. Radar reflectivity and extrapolated radar reflectivity data were assimilated for at least 6 h depending on the time of occurrence of convection. Synthetic satellite imageries were calculated using radiative transfer model RTTOV v10.2, which was implemented into the COSMO model. NWP model simulations of IR10.8 μm and WV06.2 μm brightness temperatures (BTs) with a horizontal resolution of 2.8 km were interpolated into the satellite projection and objectively verified against observations using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (CORR) and Fractions Skill Score (FSS) values. Naturally, the extrapolation of cloud fields yielded an approximately 25% lower RMSE, 20% higher CORR and 15% higher FSS at the beginning of the second forecasted hour compared to the NWP model forecasts. On the other hand, comparable scores were observed for the third hour, whereas the NWP forecasts outperformed the extrapolation by 10% for RMSE, 15% for CORR and up to 15% for FSS during the fourth forecasted hour and 15% for RMSE, 27% for CORR and up to 15% for FSS during the fifth forecasted hour. The analysis was completed by a verification of the precipitation forecasts yielding approximately 8% higher RMSE, 15% higher CORR and up to 45% higher FSS when the NWP model simulation is used compared to the extrapolation for the first hour. Both the methods yielded unsatisfactory level of precipitation forecast accuracy from the fourth forecasted hour onward.
A new climate modeling framework for convection-resolving simulation at continental scale
Charpilloz, Christophe; di Girolamo, Salvatore; Arteaga, Andrea; Fuhrer, Oliver; Hoefler, Torsten; Schulthess, Thomas; Schär, Christoph
2017-04-01
Major uncertainties remain in our understanding of the processes that govern the water cycle in a changing climate and their representation in weather and climate models. Of particular concern are heavy precipitation events of convective origin (thunderstorms and rain showers). The aim of the crCLIM project [1] is to propose a new climate modeling framework that alleviates the I/O-bottleneck in large-scale, convection-resolving climate simulations and thus to enable new analysis techniques for climate scientists. Due to the large computational costs, convection-resolving simulations are currently restricted to small computational domains or very short time scales, unless the largest available supercomputers system such as hybrid CPU-GPU architectures are used [3]. Hence, the COSMO model has been adapted to run on these architectures for research and production purposes [2]. However, the amount of generated data also increases and storing this data becomes infeasible making the analysis of simulations results impractical. To circumvent this problem and enable high-resolution models in climate we propose a data-virtualization layer (DVL) that re-runs simulations on demand and transparently manages the data for the analysis, that means we trade off computational effort (time) for storage (space). This approach also requires a bit-reproducible version of the COSMO model that produces identical results on different architectures (CPUs and GPUs) [4] that will be coupled with a performance model in order enable optimal re-runs depending on requirements of the re-run and available resources. In this contribution, we discuss the strategy to develop the DVL, a first performance model, the challenge of bit-reproducibility and the first results of the crCLIM project. [1] http://www.c2sm.ethz.ch/research/crCLIM.html [2] O. Fuhrer, C. Osuna, X. Lapillonne, T. Gysi, M. Bianco, and T. Schulthess. "Towards gpu-accelerated operational weather forecasting." In The GPU Technology
Chaotic, subduction-like downflows in a spherical model of convection in the earth's mantle
Glatzmaier, Gary A.; Schubert, Gerald; Bercovici, Dave
1990-01-01
Model calculations are described for a compressible fluid in a three-dimensional spherical shell with 80 percent of the surface heat flow generated within the model mantle. The numerical solutions are strongly chaotic, with surface planforms dominated by long curvilinear downflows reminiscent of the descending slabs in the earth's mantle. The results suggest that descending slabs play an important part in driving mantle convection, and that their chaotic evolution may influence the spatial and temporal behavior of plates and thus the dispersal and aggregation of continents.
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Fedorovich, E.; Kaiser, R. [Univ. Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Hydrologie und Wasserwirtschaft (Germany)
1997-10-01
We present results from a parallel wind-tunnel/large-eddy simulation (LES) model study of mixing and entrainment in the atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) longitudinally developing over a heated surface. The advection-type entrainment of warmer air from upper turbulence-free layers into the growing CBL has been investigated. Most of numerical and laboratory model studies of the CBL carried out so far dealt with another type of entrainment, namely the non-steady one, regarding the CBL growth as a non-stationary process. In the atmosphere, both types of the CBL development can take place, often being superimposed. (au)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. White
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the hydrometeor development and response to cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC perturbations in convection-permitting model configurations. We present results from a real-data simulation of deep convection in the Congo basin, an idealised supercell case, and a warm-rain large-eddy simulation (LES. In each case we compare two frequently used double-moment bulk microphysics schemes and investigate the response to CDNC perturbations. We find that the variability among the two schemes, including the response to aerosol, differs widely between these cases. In all cases, differences in the simulated cloud morphology and precipitation are found to be significantly greater between the microphysics schemes than due to CDNC perturbations within each scheme. Further, we show that the response of the hydrometeors to CDNC perturbations differs strongly not only between microphysics schemes, but the inter-scheme variability also differs between cases of convection. Sensitivity tests show that the representation of autoconversion is the dominant factor that drives differences in rain production between the microphysics schemes in the idealised precipitating shallow cumulus case and in a subregion of the Congo basin simulations dominated by liquid-phase processes. In this region, rain mass is also shown to be relatively insensitive to the radiative effects of an overlying layer of ice-phase cloud. The conversion of cloud ice to snow is the process responsible for differences in cold cloud bias between the schemes in the Congo. In the idealised supercell case, thermodynamic impacts on the storm system using different microphysics parameterisations can equal those due to aerosol effects. These results highlight the large uncertainty in cloud and precipitation responses to aerosol in convection-permitting simulations and have important implications not only for process studies of aerosol–convection interaction, but also for
AM06-14-015 Numerical analyses of MHD convection with use of the Hartmann layer modeling
田川, 俊夫; Toshio, Tagawa; 首都大; Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, TMU
2006-01-01
In the presence of a uniform magnetic field, some characteristics of the convective flows in enclosures are presented numerically. The direction of the uniform magnetic field is parallel to the main circulation of convection flow. The well known analytical solution in the Hartmann layers allows taking directly their influence via new boundary conditions for the core flow. This modeling of the new boundary conditions saves important memory and CPU resources, and its solution is much closer to ...
Chaudhuri, A.; Rajaram, H.; Viswanathan, H.
2013-09-01
The early stage of hypogene karstification is investigated using a coupled thermohydrochemical model of a mountain hydrologic system, in which water enters along a water table and descends to significant depth (˜1 km) before ascending through a central high-permeability fracture. The model incorporates reactive alteration driven by dissolution/precipitation of limestone in a carbonic acid system, due to both temperature- and pressure-dependent solubility, and kinetics. Simulations were carried out for homogeneous and heterogeneous initial fracture aperture fields, using the FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer) code. Initially, retrograde solubility is the dominant mechanism of fracture aperture growth. As the fracture transmissivity increases, a critical Rayleigh number value is exceeded at some stage. Buoyant convection is then initiated and controls the evolution of the system thereafter. For an initially homogeneous fracture aperture field, deep well-organized buoyant convection rolls form. For initially heterogeneous aperture fields, preferential flow suppresses large buoyant convection rolls, although a large number of smaller rolls form. Even after the onset of buoyant convection, dissolution in the fracture is sustained along upward flow paths by retrograde solubility and by additional "mixing corrosion" effects closer to the surface. Aperture growth patterns in the fracture are very different from those observed in simulations of epigenic karst systems, and retain imprints of both buoyant convection and preferential flow. Both retrograde solubility and buoyant convection contribute to these differences. The paper demonstrates the potential value of coupled models as tools for understanding the evolution and behavior of hypogene karst systems.
GeoFramework: Coupling multiple models of mantle convection within a computational framework
Tan, E.; Choi, E.; Thoutireddy, P.; Gurnis, M.; Aivazis, M.
2006-06-01
Solver coupling can extend the capability of existing modeling software and provide a new venue to address previously intractable problems. A software package has been developed to couple geophysical solvers, demonstrating a method to accurately and efficiently solve multiscale geophysical problems with reengineered software using a computational framework (Pyre). Pyre is a modeling framework capable of handling all aspects of the specification and launching of numerical investigations. We restructured and ported CitcomS, a finite element code for mantle convection, into the Pyre framework. Two CitcomS solvers are coupled to investigate the interaction of a plume at high resolution with global mantle flow at low resolution. A comparison of the coupled models with parameterized models demonstrates the accuracy and efficiency of the coupled models and illustrates the limitations and utility of parameterized models.
Do convection-permitting models improve the representation of the impact of LUC?
Vanden Broucke, Sam; Van Lipzig, Nicole
2017-10-01
In this study we assess the added value of convection permitting scale (CPS) simulations in studies using regional climate models to quantify the bio-geophysical climate impact of land-use change (LUC). To accomplish this, a comprehensive model evaluation methodology is applied to both non-CPS and CPS simulations. The main characteristics of the evaluation methodology are (1) the use of paired eddy-covariance site observations (forest vs open land) and (2) a simultaneous evaluation of all surface energy budget components. Results show that although generally satisfactory, non-CPS simulations fall short of completely reproducing the observed LUC signal because of three key biases. CPS scale simulations succeed at significantly reducing two of these biases, namely, those in daytime shortwave radiation and daytime sensible heat flux. Also, CPS slightly reduces a third bias in nighttime incoming longwave radiation. The daytime improvements can be attributed partially to the switch from parameterized to explicit convection, the associated improvement in the simulation of afternoon convective clouds, and resulting surface energy budget and atmospheric feedbacks. Also responsible for the improvements during daytime is a better representation of surface heterogeneity and thus, surface roughness. Meanwhile, the modest nighttime longwave improvement can be attributed to increased vertical atmospheric resolution. However, the model still fails at reproducing the magnitude of the observed nighttime longwave difference. One possible explanation for this persistent bias is the nighttime radiative effect of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions over the forest site. A correlation between estimated emission rates and the observed nighttime longwave difference, as well as the persistence of the longwave bias provide support for this hypothesis. However, more research is needed to conclusively determine if the effect indeed exists.
S-process nucleosynthesis in AGB models with the FST prescription for convection
Yagüe, A.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Ventura, P.; Lugaro, M.
The chemical evolution of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars depends greatly on the input physics (e.g., mass loss recipe, convective model). Variations in the hot bottom burning (HBB) strength, third dredge-up (TDU) efficiency and AGB evolutionary timescale are among the main consequences of adopting different input physics. The ATON evolutionary code stands apart from others in that it uses the Blöcker mass loss prescription and the Full Spectrum of Turbulence (FST) convective model. We have developed an s-process module for ATON by extending the element network from 30 to 320 elements, which uses the physical inputs (such as temperature or density) calculated by ATON. Here we present the first preliminary results of s-process nucleosynthesis for ATON AGB models with different progenitor masses. These preliminary results are compared with predictions from other AGB nucleosynthesis models that use different input physics. We also outline our future tasks to improve the current s-process ATON simulations.
Self-consistent generation of continental crust in global mantle convection models
Jain, Charitra; Rozel, Antoine; Tackley, Paul
2017-04-01
Numerical modeling commonly shows that mantle convection and continents have strong feedbacks on each other (Philips and Coltice, JGR 2010; Heron and Lowman, JGR 2014), but the continents are always inserted a priori while basaltic (oceanic) crust is generated self-consistently in such models (Rolf et al., EPSL 2012). We aim to implement self-consistent generation of continental crust in global models of mantle convection using StagYY (Tackley, PEPI 2008). The silica-rich continental crust appears to have been formed by fractional melting and crystallization in episodes of relatively rapid growth from late Archean to late Proterozoic eras (3-1 Ga) (Hawkesworth & Kemp, Nature 2006). It takes several stages of differentiation to generate continental crust. First, the basaltic magma is extracted from the pyrolitic mantle. Second, it goes through eclogitic transformation and then partially melts to form Na-rich Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) which rise to form proto-continents (Rudnick, Nature 1995; Herzberg & Rudnick, Lithos 2012). TTGs dominate the grey gneiss complexes which make up most of the continental crust. Based on the melting conditions proposed by Moyen (Lithos, 2011), we parameterize TTG formation and henceforth, the continental crust. Continental crust can also be destroyed by subduction or delamination. We will investigate continental growth and destruction history in the models spanning the age of the Earth.
Ship plume dispersion rates in convective boundary layers for chemistry models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Chosson
2008-08-01
Full Text Available Detailed ship plume simulations in various convective boundary layer situations have been performed using a Lagrangian Dispersion Model driven by a Large Eddy Simulation Model. The simulations focus on the early stage (1–2 h of plume dispersion regime and take into account the effects of plume rise on dispersion. Results are presented in an attempt to provide to atmospheric chemistry modellers a realistic description of characteristic dispersion impact on exhaust ship plume chemistry. Plume dispersion simulations are used to derive analytical dilution rate functions. Even though results exhibit striking effects of plume rise parameter on dispersion patterns, it is shown that initial buoyancy fluxes at ship stack have a minor effect on plume dilution rate. After initial high dispersion regimes a simple characteristic dilution time scale can be used to parameterize the subgrid plume dilution effect in large-scale chemistry models. The results show that this parameter is directly related to the typical turn-over time scale of the convective boundary layer.
Topological bifurcations in the evolution of coherent structures in a convection model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dam, Magnus; Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker
2017-01-01
Blob filaments are coherent structures in a turbulent plasma flow. Understanding the evolution of these structures is important to improve magnetic plasma confinement. Three state variables describe blob filaments in a plasma convection model. A dynamical systems approach analyzes the evolution...... of these three variables. A critical point of a variable defines a feature point for a region where that variable is significant. For a range of Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers, the bifurcations of the critical points of the three variables are investigated with time as the primary bifurcation parameter...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luisa Malaguti
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with a degenerate reaction-diffusion equation, including aggregative movements and convective terms. The model also incorporates a real parameter causing the change from a purely diffusive to a diffusive-aggregative and to a purely aggregative regime. Existence and qualitative properties of traveling wave solutions are investigated, and estimates of their threshold speeds are furnished. Further, the continuous dependence of the threshold wave speed and of the wave profiles on a real parameter is studied, both when the process maintains its diffusion-aggregation nature and when it switches from it to another regime.
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Zhang, Guang J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
2016-11-07
The fundamental scientific objectives of our research are to use ARM observations and the NCAR CAM5 to understand the large-scale control on convection, and to develop improved convection and cloud parameterizations for use in GCMs.
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van Lier-Walqui, Marcus; Fridlind, Ann; Ackerman, Andrew S; Collis, Scott; Helmus, Jonathan; MacGorman, Donald R; North, Kirk; Kollias, Pavlos; Posselt, Derek J
2016-02-01
The representation of deep convection in general circulation models is in part informed by cloud-resolving models (CRMs) that function at higher spatial and temporal resolution; however, recent studies have shown that CRMs often fail at capturing the details of deep convection updrafts. With the goal of providing constraint on CRM simulation of deep convection updrafts, ground-based remote sensing observations are analyzed and statistically correlated for four deep convection events observed during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Since positive values of specific differential phase observed above the melting level are associated with deep convection updraft cells, so-called columns are analyzed using two scanning polarimetric radars in Oklahoma: the National Weather Service Vance WSR-88D (KVNX) and the Department of Energy C-band Scanning Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR). KVNX and C-SAPR volumes and columns are then statistically correlated with vertical winds retrieved via multi-Doppler wind analysis, lightning flash activity derived from the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array, and KVNX differential reflectivity . Results indicate strong correlations of volume above the melting level with updraft mass flux, lightning flash activity, and intense rainfall. Analysis of columns reveals signatures of changing updraft properties from one storm event to another as well as during event evolution. Comparison of to shows commonalities in information content of each, as well as potential problems with associated with observational artifacts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yared Abayneh Abebe
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Modelling floods and flood-related disasters has become priority for many researchers and practitioners. Currently, there are several options that can be used for modelling floods in urban areas and the present work attempts to investigate effectiveness of different model formulations in modelling supercritical and transcritical flow conditions. In our work, we use the following three methods for modelling one-dimensional (1D flows: the MIKE 11 flow model, Kutija’s method, and the Roe scheme. We use two methods for modelling two-dimensional (2D flows: the MIKE21 flow model and a non-inertia 2D model. Apart from the MIKE11 and MIKE21 models, the code for all other models was developed and used for the purposes of the present work. The performance of the models was evaluated using hypothetical case studies with the intention of representing some configurations that can be found in urban floodplains. The present work does not go into the assessment of these models in modelling various topographical features that may be found on urban floodplains, but rather focuses on how they perform in simulating supercritical and transcritical flows. The overall findings are that the simplified models which ignore convective acceleration terms (CATs in the momentum equations may be effectively used to model urban flood plains without a significant loss of accuracy.
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Lahsasni, S.; Mahrouz, M. [Unite de Chimie Agroalimentaire (LCOA), Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco); Kouhila, M.; Idlimam, A.; Jamali, A. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Marrakech (Morocco). Lab. d' Energie Solaire et Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales
2004-02-01
This paper presents the thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel. For these purposes, an indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for drying experiments. Moreover, the prickly pear peel is sufficiently dried in the ranges of 32 to 36 {sup o} C of ambient air temperature, 50 to 60 {sup o}C of drying air temperature, 23 to 34% of relative humidity, 0.0277 to 0.0833 m{sup 3}/s of drying air flow rate and 200 to 950 W/m{sup 2} of daily solar radiation. The experimental drying curves show only a falling drying rate period. The main factor in controlling the drying rate was found to be the drying air temperature. The drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Also, the experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a number of mathematical models. The Midilli-Kucuk drying model was found to satisfactorily describe the solar drying curves of prickly pear peel with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998 and chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}) of 4.6572 10{sup -5}. (Author)
Minko, K. B.; Yankov, G. G.; Milman, O. O.; Krylov, V. S.
2017-11-01
This paper presents the results of validation a model in which the flow of a vapour—air mixture is described by the Navier–Stokes equations for laminar regime or by the RANS equations for turbulent regime and the condensate film is considered using a one-dimensional model. The data available from the literature was employed to verify the proposed model for forced convection condensation with and without noncondensables. The numerical results are in good agreement with the literature experimental data. A description is presented of the details of the numerical implementation of the algorithm developed. The results of the addition test to validate the assumptions and simplifications used in the model are also presented.
Chen, Sheng; Tölke, Jonas; Krafczyk, Manfred
2009-08-01
Natural convection within an enclosed circular annular cavity formed by two concentric vertical cylinders is of fundamental interest and practical importance. Generally, the assumption of axisymmetric thermal flow is adopted for simulating such natural convections and the validity of the assumption of axisymmetric thermal flow is still held even for some turbulent convection. Usually the Rayleigh numbers (Ra) of realistic flows are very high. However, the work to design suitable and efficient lattice Boltzmann (LB) models on such flows is quite rare. To bridge the gap, in this paper a simple LB subgrid-scale (SGS) model, which is based on our recent work [S. Chen, J. Tölke, and M. Krafczyk, Phys. Rev. E 79, 016704 (2009); S. Chen, J. Tölke, S. Geller, and M. Krafczyk, Phys. Rev. E 78, 046703 (2008)], is proposed for simulating convectional flow with high Ra within an enclosed circular annular cavity. The key parameter for the SGS model can be quite easily and efficiently evaluated by the present model. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the present model works well for a large range of Ra and Prandtl number (Pr). Though in the present study a popularly used static Smagorinsky turbulence model is adopted to demonstrate how to develop a LB SGS model for simulating axisymmetric thermal flows with high Ra, other state-of-the-art turbulence models can be incorporated into the present model in the same way. In addition, the present model can be extended straightforwardly to simulate other axisymmetric convectional flows with high Ra, for example, turbulent convection with internal volumetric heat generation in a vertical cylinder, which is an important simplified representation of a nuclear reactor.
Lompar, Miloš; Ćurić, Mladjen; Romanic, Djordje
2017-09-01
Despite an important role the aerosols play in all stages of cloud lifecycle, their representation in numerical weather prediction models is often rather crude. This paper investigates the effects the explicit versus implicit inclusion of aerosols in a microphysics parameterization scheme in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) model has on cloud dynamics and microphysics. The testbed selected for this study is a severe mesoscale convective system with supercells that struck west and central parts of Serbia in the afternoon of July 21, 2014. Numerical products of two model runs, i.e. one with aerosols explicitly (WRF-AE) included and another with aerosols implicitly (WRF-AI) assumed, are compared against precipitation measurements from surface network of rain gauges, as well as against radar and satellite observations. The WRF-AE model accurately captured the transportation of dust from the north Africa over the Mediterranean and to the Balkan region. On smaller scales, both models displaced the locations of clouds situated above west and central Serbia towards southeast and under-predicted the maximum values of composite radar reflectivity. Similar to satellite images, WRF-AE shows the mesoscale convective system as a merged cluster of cumulonimbus clouds. Both models over-predicted the precipitation amounts; WRF-AE over-predictions are particularly pronounced in the zones of light rain, while WRF-AI gave larger outliers. Unlike WRF-AI, the WRF-AE approach enables the modelling of time evolution and influx of aerosols into the cloud which could be of practical importance in weather forecasting and weather modification. Several likely causes for discrepancies between models and observations are discussed and prospects for further research in this field are outlined.
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L. Ruby Leung
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Cloud resolving model simulations and vector analysis are used to develop a quantitative method of assessing regional variations in the relationships between various large-scale environmental variables and the transition to deep convection. Results of the CRM simulations from three tropical regions are used to cluster environmental conditions under which transition to deep convection does and does not take place. Projections of the large-scale environmental variables on the difference between these two clusters are used to quantify the roles of these variables in the transition to deep convection. While the transition to deep convection is most sensitive to moisture and vertical velocity perturbations, the details of the profiles of the anomalies vary from region to region. In comparison, the transition to deep convection is found to be much less sensitive to temperature anomalies over all three regions. The vector formulation presented in this study represents a simple general framework for quantifying various aspects of how the transition to deep convection is sensitive to environmental conditions.
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Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.
2012-11-01
Cloud resolving model simulations and vector analysis are used to develop a quantitative method of assessing regional variations in the relationships between various large-scale environmental variables and the transition to deep convection. Results of the CRM simulations from three tropical regions are used to cluster environmental conditions under which transition to deep convection does and does not take place. Projections of the large-scale environmental variables on the difference between these two clusters are used to quantify the roles of these variables in the transition to deep convection. While the transition to deep convection is most sensitive to moisture and vertical velocity perturbations, the details of the profiles of the anomalies vary from region to region. In comparison, the transition to deep convection is found to be much less sensitive to temperature anomalies over all three regions. The vector formulation presented in this study represents a simple general framework for quantifying various aspects of how the transition to deep convection is sensitive to environmental conditions.
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Perović Bojan D.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to show how the inclination angle affects natural convection from a flat-plate photovoltaic module which is mounted on the ground surface. In order to model this effect, novel correlations for natural convection from isothermal flat plates are developed by using the fundamental dimensionless number. On the basis of the available experimental and numerical results, it is shown that the natural convection correlations correspond well with the existing empirical correlations for vertical, inclined, and horizontal plates. Five additional correlations for the critical Grashof number are derived from the available data, three indicating the onset of transitional flow regime and two indicating the onset of flow separation. The proposed correlations cover the entire range of inclination angles and the entire range of Prandtl numbers. This paper also provides two worked examples, one for natural convection combined with radiation and one for natural convection combined with forced convection and radiation. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR33046
Zhao, Rijie; Gao, Jianrong; Kao, Andrew; Pericleous, Koulis
2017-10-01
Dendritic growth velocities of pure Fe under static magnetic fields of intensity ranging from B = 0 T to B = 6 T were measured using a high speed camera. The data measured at undercoolings up to ΔT = 190 K show a depression followed by a recovery of the growth velocities as the magnetic field intensity increased from a low range, B = 1-3 T to a high range, B = 4-6 T. These magnetic field effects are similar to those previously observed for pure Ni and can be attributed to competing thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic (TEMHD) convection patterns in the local liquid. The experimental measurements for the two metals were modelled using a three-dimensional dendritic growth theory taking into account convection to estimate the effective flow velocities in the tip growth direction. The calculated effective flow velocities identify two undercooling dependences and a distinct type of magnetic field intensity dependence in common for the two metals. In comparison, the calculated effective flow velocities for pure Fe are generally smaller in magnitude. This difference between the two metals can be related to their differences in material-dependent properties as is revealed by a simple model proposed for a transverse TEMHD flow.
A new conceptual model for whole mantle convection and the origin of hotspot plumes
Yoshida, Masaki
2014-08-01
A new conceptual model of mantle convection is constructed for consideration of the origin of hotspot plumes, using recent evidence from seismology, high-pressure experiments, geodynamic modeling, geoid inversion studies, and post-glacial rebound analyses. This conceptual model delivers several key points. Firstly, some of the small-scale mantle upwellings observed as hotspots on the Earth's surface originate at the base of the mantle transition zone (MTZ), in which the Archean granitic continental material crust (TTG; tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) with abundant radiogenic elements is accumulated. Secondly, the TTG crust and the subducted oceanic crust that have accumulated at the base of MTZ could act as thermal or mechanical insulators, leading to the formation of a hot and less viscous layer just beneath the MTZ; which may enhance the instability of plume generation at the base of the MTZ. Thirdly, the origin of some hotspot plumes is isolated from the large low shear-wave velocity provinces (LLSVPs) under Africa and the South Pacific. I consider that the conceptual model explains why almost all the hotspots around Africa are located above the margins of the African LLSVP. Because a planetary-scale trench system surrounding a “Pangean cell” has been spatially stable throughout the Phanerozoic, a large amount of the oceanic crustal layer is likely to be trapped in the MTZ under the Pangean cell. Therefore, under Africa, almost all of the hotspot plumes originate from the base of the MTZ, where a large amount of TTG and/or oceanic crusts has accumulated. This conceptual model may explain the fact that almost all the hotspots around Africa are located on margins above the African LLSVP. It is also considered that some of the hotspot plumes under the South Pacific thread through the TTG/oceanic crusts accumulated around the bottom of the MTZ, and some have their roots in the South Pacific LLSVP while others originate from the MTZ. The numerical simulations
Schlemmer, Linda; Schmidli, Juerg; Schär, Christoph
2014-05-01
The use of parametrization schemes for the representation of moist convection implies major uncertainties in current climate projections. Here we introduce an idealized cloud-resolving modeling (CRM) framework for the study of mid-latitude diurnal convection over land. The framework is used to assess the sensitivity of the soil-moisture precipitation feedback and associated heavy precipitation events from first principles. The model is run for 30 days. Using a relaxation strategy, approximate equilibrium is reached after about 16 days. In this state, termed "diurnal equilibrium", the diurnal cycle of moist convection repeats itself more or less from day to day. Using this framework we investigate the sensitivity of the diurnal convection and resulting cloud development to changes in atmospheric temperature, lapse-rate and soil moisture content that could result from anthropogenic climate change. We find that the temperature stratification of the environment has a dominant influence on the depth and intensity of convection. If the background profile is more stably stratified, more clouds develop and the intensity of convection increases considerably. More unstable profiles in contrast lead to deeper convection that continues over a longer time span. For warmer atmospheres, the increase of water vapor enhances moreover cloud amount. A decrease of soil moisture reduces precipitation amounts and leads to the development of very localized precipitation patches. Concerning the distribution of precipitation intensities, we find an increase of heavy precipitation events if a warming of the atmosphere goes together with a stabilization of the atmosphere as is projected by many climate models. These increases are however smaller than expected from Clausius Clapeyron scaling. Reductions of soil moisture on the other hand decrease precipitation over all intensities.
Coupling models of crustal deformation and mantle convection: An application of GeoFramework
Choi, E.; Thoutireddy, P.; Lavier, L.; Quenette, S.; Tan, E.; Gurnis, M.; Aivazis, M.; Appelbe, B.
2004-12-01
Crustal and mantle deformation are two closely coupled dynamical systems, usually solved in isolation. To numerically solve this problem, it is desirable to have both the crust and mantle as active components of the dynamics. However, materials composing the crust and mantle respond to loading differently and two different constitutive relations are necessary to describe the rheology of this system. Deformations also occur over a wide range of length scales: from a few 100 m for fault zones to well over 104 km for the largest scales involved in mantle convection. As a result, the numerical cost for a single model to resolve all of these spatial features while also incorporating distinct material types is prohibitive. Coupling two distinct modeling codes within a computational framework is a natural avenue to tackle the multi-material and multi-scale dynamics associated with the crust-mantle system. Using GeoFramework (http://geoframework.org), an extension of the Pyre, Python-based modeling framework, the SNAC and CitcomS codes are dynamically coupled. CitcomS has been used in variety of studies of mantle convection; this finite element package has been entirely reengineered within the Pyre environment. SNAC is based on the FLAC algorithm and is well-suited to modeling crustal deformation because it can deal with linear elastic, Maxwell viscoelastic, or elastoplastic rheology with a Mohr-Coulomb criterion. Using the Pyre-coupled SNAC and CitcomS codes, we run 3D numerical experiments of the extension of lithosphere in the presence of a rising mantle plume within a regional spherical geometry. The full thickness of the crust is simulated with SNAC and mantle convection with CitcomS. In the far field, deformation is partly driven by prescribed velocities described by two diverging plates around a single Euler pole. This specific setting for the problem is intended to help understand the evolution of the Red Sea and Afar triple junction. We will show the dynamic
Hansen, Z.; Back, L. E.
2016-12-01
There is a large observed contrast in the lightning flash rate per unit precipitation between land and ocean in the tropics. Higher lightning flash rates are associated with faster updraft velocities, and thus greater lightning flash rate per unit precipitation is associated with faster updrafts per unit precipitation, a clear measure of convective intensity. As it is the land regions exhibiting the greater lightning flash rate per unit precipitation, there is an expectation that tropical land areas exhibit greater convective intensity than tropical oceans. Using a cloud resolving model (CRM) we tested whether the application of a diurnal cycle in sea surface temperature (SST) over a portion of the domain would result in faster updrafts per unit precipitation over that domain. We applied a Bernoulli sampling technique to the area of oscillating SST to give it the same effective mean precipitation as the fixed SST area. Once the mean precipitation values were equal, it was found that there were no differences in high intensity updraft velocity that could be associated with lightning flash rate per unit precipitation variations in the real world.
Rotationally-driven axisymmetric oscillatory convection in a semitransparent Czochralski melt model
Faiez, Reza; Rezaei, Yazdan
2017-01-01
A numerical study was carried out to investigate the effect of surface tension-driven convection on the transition of flow modes in an axisymmetric Czochralski oxide melt model. Computational results were obtained over a reasonably wide range of the crystal dummy rotation rate for the cases with and without Marangoni effect. The transition of the flow from steady-state to an axisymmetric oscillatory one was found to be occurred at a threshold value of the ratio between buoyancy and the rotationally-driven forces, which is considerably smaller in the presence of the Marangoni flow. This was shown that, in the presence of thermocapillary forces, the descending cold plume has a larger impact on the thermal field if compared to the case in which the Marangoni effect was ignored. Depending on the circumstances, each of the two different mechanisms, i.e., the rotating Rayleigh-Benard instability and the baroclinic instability, may play a dominant role in the steady-oscillatory flow transition. Thermocapillary effect on the mechanism of instability giving rise to the transition of the convective flow was studied.
The upward-driven pendulum: a (mechanical) toy model of convection
Maas, L. R. M.; Buijsman, D. J.
2003-04-01
A mechanical toy model of convection will be presented. It consists of a pendulum that is clamped in between two cogwheels that drive it upwards. As soon as the centre-of-mass is raised above the vertical position of the horizontal axis around which the pendulum can rotate, gravity will cause the pendulum to topple. Once the centre-of-mass is below the axial position, the rotation sense of the coghweels is changed, and the pendulum is again driven upwards. The height to which the pendulum grows depends sensitively upon the angle between gravity and pendulum (which has been checked in a certain direction as soon as its angular momentum has been drained by friction). Depending on the driving speed, this may lead to chaotic or regular behaviour of the pendulum. This behaviour mimicks that of the one-parameter, diffusionless Lorenz equations [2], itself a simplification of the Lorenz-63 equations, which govern also the dynamics of the centre-of-mass of a uniformly stratified fluid subject to differential heating [1]. This suggests an interpretation of convection in terms of the (possibly chaotic) dynamics of the centre-of-mass of a fluid. [1] Maas, LRM, 1994 Tellus 46a, 671, [2] van der Schrier G. and LRM Maas, 2000, Physica D 141,19
Zhong, Shijie; Zuber, Maria T.; Moresi, Louis; Gurnis, Michael
2000-05-01
Layered viscosity, temperature-dependent viscosity, and surface plates have an important effect on the scale and morphology of structure in spherical models of mantle convection. We find that long-wavelength structures can be produced either by a layered viscosity with a weak upper mantle or temperature-dependent viscosity even in the absence of surface plates, corroborating earlier studies. However, combining the layered viscosity structure with a temperature-dependent viscosity results in structure with significantly shorter wavelengths. Our models show that the scale of convection is mainly controlled by the surface plates, supporting the previous two-dimensional studies. Our models with surface plates, layered and temperature-dependent viscosity, and internal heating explain mantle structures inferred from seismic tomography. The models show that hot upwellings initiate at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) with linear structures, and as they depart from CMB, the linear upwellings quickly change into quasi-cylindrical plumes that dynamically interact with the ambient mantle and surface plates while ascending through the mantle. A linear up welling structure is generated again at shallow depths (maintained throughout the mantle. The tendency for linear upwelling and downwelling structures to break into plume-like structures is stronger at higher Rayleigh numbers. Our models also show that downwellings to first-order control surface plate motions and the locations and horizontal motion of upwellings. Upwellings tend to form at stagnation points predicted solely from the buoyancy forces of downwellings. Temperature-dependent viscosity greatly enhances the ascending velocity of developed upwelling plumes, and this may reduce the influence of global mantle flow on the motion of plumes. Our results can explain the anticorrelation between hotspot distribution and fast seismic wave speed anomalies in the lower mantle and may also have significant implications to the
Simulating deep convection with a shallow convection scheme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Hohenegger
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Convective processes profoundly affect the global water and energy balance of our planet but remain a challenge for global climate modeling. Here we develop and investigate the suitability of a unified convection scheme, capable of handling both shallow and deep convection, to simulate cases of tropical oceanic convection, mid-latitude continental convection, and maritime shallow convection. To that aim, we employ large-eddy simulations (LES as a benchmark to test and refine a unified convection scheme implemented in the Single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM. Our approach is motivated by previous cloud-resolving modeling studies, which have documented the gradual transition between shallow and deep convection and its possible importance for the simulated precipitation diurnal cycle.
Analysis of the LES reveals that differences between shallow and deep convection, regarding cloud-base properties as well as entrainment/detrainment rates, can be related to the evaporation of precipitation. Parameterizing such effects and accordingly modifying the University of Washington shallow convection scheme, it is found that the new unified scheme can represent both shallow and deep convection as well as tropical and mid-latitude continental convection. Compared to the default SCAM version, the new scheme especially improves relative humidity, cloud cover and mass flux profiles. The new unified scheme also removes the well-known too early onset and peak of convective precipitation over mid-latitude continental areas.
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A. N. Ostrikov
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model of combined radiation and convection drying of fruit and vegetable chips with pulsed energy supply is developed, the model describes the change in temperature and moisture content during the period of constant and periods of decreasing drying rate.
Coltice, Nicolas; Seton, Maria; Rolf, Tobias; Müller, R. Dietmar; Tackley, Paul J.
2013-04-01
The theory of plate tectonics theory has enabled possible the reconstruction of the ancient seafloor and paleogeography. Over 50 years of data collection and kinematic reconstruction efforts, plate models have improved significantly (Seton et al., 2012) although reconstructions of ancient seafloor are naturally limited by the limited preservation of of very old seafloor. It is challenging to reconstruct ancient ocean basins and associated plate boundaries for times earlier than 200 Ma, since seafloor of this age is not preserved. This means we can merely reconstruct only 5% of the history of the planet in this fashion. However, geodynamic models can now help evaluate how seafloor spreading may evolve over longer time periods, since recent developments of numerical models of mantle convection with pseudo-plasticity can generate long-term solutions that simulate a form of seafloor spreading (Moresi and Solomatov, 1998; Tackley, 2000a; Tackley, 2000b). The introduction of models of continental lithosphere further improves the quality of the predictions: the computed distribution of seafloor ages reproduces the consumption of young seafloor as observed on the present-day Earth (Coltice et al., 2012). The time-dependence of the production of new seafloor has long been debated and there is no consensus on how much it has varied in the past 150My, and how it could have fluctuated over longer time-scales. Using plate reconstructions, Parsons (1982) and Rowley (2002) proposed the area vs. age distribution of the seafloor could have experienced limited fluctuations in the past 150My while others suggest stronger variations would fit the observations equally well (Seton et al., 2009. Here we propose to investigate the global dynamics of seafloor spreading using state-of-the-art plate reconstructions and geodynamic models. We focus on the evolution of the distribution of seafloor ages because fundamental geophysical observations like mantle heat flow or sea level provide
Multipathing within LLSVPs in models of thermal and thermochemical mantle convection
Nowacki, A.; Walpole, J.; Davies, R.; Heck, H. V.; Wookey, J. M.; Davies, H.
2016-12-01
Two regions at the base of Earth's mantle (the Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces, or LLSVPs) are seismically slow and comprise a large proportion of the lowermost few hundred km of the mantle. It is debated whether these regions might be the remnants of a basal magma ocean or other Earth-forming processes, in which case the regions may provide information about Earth's history. However, it is still uncertain what the current physical properties of the LLSVPs are. Is the cause of the LLSVPs' seismic signature primarily thermal or chemical? One argument for a largely chemical origin is that seismically `sharp sides' can be inferred from waves which exhibit `multipathing' (the arrival of more than one wave due to refraction) when traversing these regions. This implies strong gradients in velocity which are seemingly unlikely to be sustained in a purely thermal situation, where diffusive processes and convection would act to equilibrate temperatures over short length scales (of a few tens of km). We address this by simulating mantle convection with Earth-like parameters in a 3D spherical geometry for two end-member cases: an isochemical (T) mantle, and a thermochemical (TC) case where a global, dense layer exists initially at the base of the mantle. We impose 200 Ma of plate motion history, track the location of the dense material, and convert both models to seismic velocity using a thermodynamical database (Stixrude & Lithgow-Bertelloni, GJI, 2005, 2011). Previous work has shown the cases are not easily distinguishable tomographically, so we seek to reproduce observations of `sharp sides' by creating finite-frequency synthetics at relatively high frequencies ( 0.2 Hz), using the spectral element method. We find that in a number of regions in both T and TC models, we observe multipathing in Sdiff waves which traverse the LLSVPs. Events beneath Tonga recorded in southern Africa yield strongly azimuth-dependent arrival times, as expected by features in the convection
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Maksimov Vyacheslav I.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Results of mathematical modeling of convective heat transfer in air area surrounded on all sides enclosing structures, in the presence of heat source at the lower boundary of the media are presented. Solved the system of differential equations of unsteady Navier-Stokes equations with the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The process of convective heat transfer is calculated using the models of turbulence Prandtl and Prandtl-Reichard. Takes into account the processes of heat exchange region considered with the environment. Is carried out the analysis of the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient at interfaces “air – enclosures”. The distributions average along the gas temperature range are obtained.
Jin, Byung-Ju; Smith, Alex J.
2016-01-01
A “glymphatic system,” which involves convective fluid transport from para-arterial to paravenous cerebrospinal fluid through brain extracellular space (ECS), has been proposed to account for solute clearance in brain, and aquaporin-4 water channels in astrocyte endfeet may have a role in this process. Here, we investigate the major predictions of the glymphatic mechanism by modeling diffusive and convective transport in brain ECS and by solving the Navier–Stokes and convection–diffusion equations, using realistic ECS geometry for short-range transport between para-arterial and paravenous spaces. Major model parameters include para-arterial and paravenous pressures, ECS volume fraction, solute diffusion coefficient, and astrocyte foot-process water permeability. The model predicts solute accumulation and clearance from the ECS after a step change in solute concentration in para-arterial fluid. The principal and robust conclusions of the model are as follows: (a) significant convective transport requires a sustained pressure difference of several mmHg between the para-arterial and paravenous fluid and is not affected by pulsatile pressure fluctuations; (b) astrocyte endfoot water permeability does not substantially alter the rate of convective transport in ECS as the resistance to flow across endfeet is far greater than in the gaps surrounding them; and (c) diffusion (without convection) in the ECS is adequate to account for experimental transport studies in brain parenchyma. Therefore, our modeling results do not support a physiologically important role for local parenchymal convective flow in solute transport through brain ECS. PMID:27836940
Große, Fabian; Pätsch, Johannes; Backhaus, Jan O
2014-01-01
In the recent past observational and modelling studies have shown that the vertical displacement of water parcels, and therefore, phytoplankton particles in regions of deep-reaching convection plays a key role in late winter/early spring primary production. The underlying mechanism describes how convection cells capture living phytoplankton cells and recurrently expose them to sunlight. This study presents a parameterisation called `phytoconvection' which focuses on the influence of convection on primary production. This parameterisation was implemented into a three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical model and applied to the Northwestern European Continental Shelf and areas of the adjacent Northeast Atlantic. The simulation was compared to a `conventional' parameterisation with respect to its influence on phytoplankton concentrations during the annual cycle and its effect on the carbon cycle. The simulation using the new parameterisation showed good agreement with observation data recorded during winter, whe...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grosse, Fabian; Lindemann, Christian; Pätch, Johannes
2014-01-01
In the recent past observational and modelling studies have shown that the vertical displacement of water parcels, and therefore, phytoplankton particles in regions of deep-reaching convection plays a key role in latewinter/ early spring primary production. The underlying mechanism describes how...... convection cells capture living phytoplankton cells and recurrently expose them to sunlight. This study presents a parameterisation alled ‘phytoconvection’which focusses on the influence of convection on primary production. This parameterisationwas implemented into a three-dimensional physical......–biogeochemical model and applied to the Northwestern European Continental Shelf and areas of the adjacent Northeast Atlantic. The simulation was compared to a ‘conventional’ parameterisation with respect to its influence on phytoplankton concentrations during the annual cycle and its effect on the carbon cycle...
A zonally symmetric model for the monsoon-Hadley circulation with stochastic convective forcing
De La Chevrotière, Michèle; Khouider, Boualem
2017-02-01
Idealized models of reduced complexity are important tools to understand key processes underlying a complex system. In climate science in particular, they are important for helping the community improve our ability to predict the effect of climate change on the earth system. Climate models are large computer codes based on the discretization of the fluid dynamics equations on grids of horizontal resolution in the order of 100 km, whereas unresolved processes are handled by subgrid models. For instance, simple models are routinely used to help understand the interactions between small-scale processes due to atmospheric moist convection and large-scale circulation patterns. Here, a zonally symmetric model for the monsoon circulation is presented and solved numerically. The model is based on the Galerkin projection of the primitive equations of atmospheric synoptic dynamics onto the first modes of vertical structure to represent free tropospheric circulation and is coupled to a bulk atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model. The model carries bulk equations for water vapor in both the free troposphere and the ABL, while the processes of convection and precipitation are represented through a stochastic model for clouds. The model equations are coupled through advective nonlinearities, and the resulting system is not conservative and not necessarily hyperbolic. This makes the design of a numerical method for the solution of this system particularly difficult. Here, we develop a numerical scheme based on the operator time-splitting strategy, which decomposes the system into three pieces: a conservative part and two purely advective parts, each of which is solved iteratively using an appropriate method. The conservative system is solved via a central scheme, which does not require hyperbolicity since it avoids the Riemann problem by design. One of the advective parts is a hyperbolic diagonal matrix, which is easily handled by classical methods for hyperbolic equations, while
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Dyrboel, Susanne
1998-05-01
Fibrous materials are some of the most widely used materials for thermal insulation. In this project the focus of interest has been on fibrous materials for building application. Interest in improving the thermal properties of insulation materials is increasing as legislation is being tightened to reduce the overall energy consumption. A knowledge of the individual heat transfer mechanisms - whereby heat is transferred within a particular material is an essential tool to improve continuously the thermal properties of the material. Heat is transferred in fibrous materials by four different transfer mechanisms: conduction through air, conduction through fibres, thermal radiation and convection. In a particular temperature range the conduction through air can be regarded as a constant, and conduction through fibres is an insignificant part of the total heat transfer. Radiation, however, constitutes 25-40% of the total heat transfer in light fibrous materials. In Denmark and a number of other countries convection in fibrous materials is considered as non-existent when calculating heat transmission as well as when designing building structures. Two heat transfer mechanisms have been the focus of the current project: radiation heat transfer and convection. The radiation analysis serves to develop a model that can be used in further work to gain a wider knowledge of the way in which the morphology of the fibrous material, i.e. fibre diameter distribution, fibre orientation distribution etc., influences the radiation heat transfer under different conditions. The convection investigation serves to examine whether considering convection as non-existent is a fair assumption to use in present and future building structures. The assumption applied in practically is that convection makes a notable difference only in very thick insulation, at external temperatures below -20 deg. C, and at very low densities. For large thickness dimensions the resulting heat transfer through the
Gyrostatic extensions of the Howard-Krishnamurti model of thermal convection with shear
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C. Tong
2008-02-01
Full Text Available The Howard & Krishnamurti (1986 low-order model (LOM of Rayleigh-Bénard convection with spontaneous vertical shear can be extended to incorporate various additional physical effects, such as externally forced vertical shear and magnetic field. Designing such extended LOMs so that their mathematical structure is isomorphic to those of systems of coupled gyrostats, with damping and forcing, allows for a modular approach while respecting conservation laws. Energy conservation (in the limit of no damping and forcing prevents solutions that diverge to infinity, which are present in the original Howard & Krishnamurti LOM. The first LOM developed here (as a candidate model of transverse rolls involves adding a new Couette mode to represent externally forced vertical shear. The second LOM is a modification of the Lantz (1995 model for magnetoconvection with shear. The modification eliminates an invariant manifold in the original model that leads to potentially unphysical behavior, namely solutions that diverge to infinity, in violation of energy conservation. This paper reports the first extension of the coupled gyrostats modeling framework to incorporate externally forced vertical shear and magnetoconvection with shear. Its aim is to demonstrate better model building techniques that avoid pathologies present in earlier models; consequently we do not focus here on analysis of dynamics or model validation.
1D-Var temperature retrievals from microwave radiometer and convective scale model
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Pauline Martinet
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the potential of ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR for providing accurate temperature retrievals by combining convective scale numerical models and brightness temperatures (BTs. A one-dimensional variational (1D-Var retrieval technique has been tested to optimally combine MWR and 3-h forecasts from the French convective scale model AROME. A microwave profiler HATPRO (Humidity and Temperature PROfiler was operated during 6 months at the meteorological station of Bordeaux (Météo France. MWR BTs were monitored against simulations from the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator 2 radiative transfer model. An overall good agreement was found between observations and simulations for opaque V-band channels but large errors were observed for channels the most affected by liquid water and water vapour emissions (51.26 and 52.28 GHz. 1D-Var temperature retrievals are performed in clear-sky and cloudy conditions using a screening procedure based on cloud base height retrieval from ceilometer observations, infrared radiometer temperature and liquid water path derived from the MWR observations. The 1D-Var retrievals were found to improve the AROME forecasts up to 2 km with a maximum gain of approximately 50 % in root-mean-square-errors (RMSE below 500 m. They were also found to outperform neural network retrievals. A static bias correction was proposed to account for systematic instrumental errors. This correction was found to have a negligible impact on the 1D-Var retrievals. The use of low elevation angles improves the retrievals up to 12 % in RMSE in cloudy-sky in the first layers. The present implementation achieved a RMSE with respect to radiosondes within 1 K in clear-sky and 1.3 K in cloudy-sky conditions for temperature.
Continental-scale convection-permitting modeling of the current and future climate of North America
Liu, Changhai; Ikeda, Kyoko; Rasmussen, Roy; Barlage, Mike; Newman, Andrew J.; Prein, Andreas F.; Chen, Fei; Chen, Liang; Clark, Martyn; Dai, Aiguo; Dudhia, Jimy; Eidhammer, Trude; Gochis, David; Gutmann, Ethan; Kurkute, Sopan; Li, Yanping; Thompson, Gregory; Yates, David
2017-07-01
Orographic precipitation and snowpack provide a vital water resource for the western U.S., while convective precipitation accounts for a significant part of annual precipitation in the eastern U.S. As a result, water managers are keenly interested in their fate under climate change. However, previous studies of water cycle changes in the U.S. have been conducted with climate models of relatively coarse resolution, leading to potential misrepresentation of key physical processes. This paper presents results from a high-resolution climate change simulation that permits convection and resolves mesoscale orography at 4-km grid spacing over much of North America using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two 13-year simulations were performed, consisting of a retrospective simulation (October 2000-September 2013) with initial and boundary conditions from ERA-interim and a future climate sensitivity simulation with modified reanalysis-derived initial and boundary conditions through adding the CMIP5 ensemble-mean high-end emission scenario climate change. The retrospective simulation is evaluated by validating against Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) and an ensemble of gridded observational datasets. It shows overall good performance capturing the annual/seasonal/sub-seasonal precipitation and surface temperature climatology except for a summer dry and warm bias in the central U.S. In particular, the WRF seasonal precipitation agrees with SNOTEL observations within a few percent over the mountain ranges, providing confidence in the model's estimation of western U.S. seasonal snowfall and snowpack. The future climate simulation forced with warmer and moister perturbed boundary conditions enhances annual and winter-spring-fall seasonal precipitation over most of the contiguous United States (CONUS), but suppresses summertime precipitation in the central U.S. The WRF-downscaled climate change simulations provide a high-resolution dataset (i.e., High-Resolution CONUS
Tao, Wei-Kuo; Li, Xiaowen; Khain, Alexander; Matsui, Toshihisa; Lang, Stephen; Simpson, Joanne
2010-01-01
Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds NRC [2001]." The aerosol effect on Clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect, is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. In this paper, a cloud-resolving model (CRM) with detailed spectral-bin microphysics was used to examine the effect of aerosols on three different deep convective cloud systems that developed in different geographic locations: South Florida, Oklahoma and the Central Pacific, In all three cases, rain reaches the ground earlier for the low CCN (clean) case. Rain suppression is also evident in all three cases with high CCN (dirty) case. However, this suppression only occurs during the first hour of the simulations. During the mature stages of the simulations, the effects of increasing aerosol concentration range from rain suppression in the Oklahoma case, to almost no effect in the Florida case, to rain enhancement in the Pacific case. These results show the complexity of aerosol interactions with convection. The model results suggest that evaporative cooling is a key process in determining whether high CCN reduces or enhances precipitation. Stronger evaporative cooling can produce a stronger cold pool and thus stronger low-level convergence through interactions
Prediction of traffic convective instability with spectral analysis of the Aw–Rascle–Zhang model
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Belletti, Francois, E-mail: francois.belletti@berkeley.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Huo, Mandy, E-mail: mhuo@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Litrico, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.litrico@lyonnaise-des-eaux.fr [LyRE, R& D center of SUEZ environnement, Bordeaux (France); Bayen, Alexandre M., E-mail: bayen@berkeley.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Berkeley (United States)
2015-10-09
Highlights: • We linearize and diagonalize the ARZ model. We give a Froude number for traffic. • Spectral domain transfer functions are derived and decompose the model. • The linearized system is convectively unstable in the free-flow regime. • We conduct experiments with the linearized model on the NGSIM dataset. • We show that the linearization does not destroy the accuracy of the model. - Abstract: This article starts from the classical Aw–Rascle–Zhang (ARZ) model for freeway traffic and develops a spectral analysis of its linearized version. A counterpart to the Froude number in hydrodynamics is defined that enables a classification of the nature of vehicle traffic flow using the explicit solution resulting from the analysis. We prove that our linearization about an equilibrium is stable for congested regimes and unstable otherwise. NGSIM data for congested traffic trajectories is used so as to confront the linearized model's predictions to actual macroscopic behavior of traffic. The model is shown to achieve good accuracy for speed and flow. In particular, it accounts for the advection of oscillations on boundaries into the interior domain where the PDE under study is solved.
Hund, S J; Antaki, J F
2011-01-01
Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection–diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, Ψ, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis. PMID:19809124
Density-driven free-convection model for isotopically fractionated geogenic nitrate in sabkha brine
Wood, Warren W.; Böhlke, John Karl
2017-01-01
Subsurface brines with high nitrate (NO3−) concentration are common in desert environments as atmospheric nitrogen is concentrated by the evaporation of precipitation and little nitrogen uptake. However, in addition to having an elevated mean concentration of ∼525 mg/L (as N), NO3− in the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi is enriched in 15N (mean δ15N ∼17‰), which is an enigma. A NO3− solute mass balance analysis of the sabkha aquifer system suggests that more than 90% of the nitrogen is from local atmospheric deposition and the remainder from ascending brine. In contrast, isotopic mass balances based on Δ17O, δ15N, and δ18O data suggest approximately 80 to 90% of the NO3− could be from ascending brine. As the sabkha has essentially no soil, no vegetation, and no anthropogenic land or water use, we propose to resolve this apparent contradiction with a density-driven free-convection transport model. In this conceptual model, the density of rain is increased by solution of surface salts, transporting near-surface oxygenated NO3− bearing water downward where it encounters reducing conditions and mixes with oxygen-free ascending geologic brines. In this environment, NO3− is partially reduced to nitrogen gas (N2), thus enriching the remaining NO3− in heavy isotopes. The isotopically fractionated NO3− and nitrogen gas return to the near-surface oxidizing environment on the upward displacement leg of the free-convection cycle, where the nitrogen gas is released to the atmosphere and new NO3− is added to the system from atmospheric deposition. This recharge/recycling process has operated over many cycles in the 8000-year history of the shallow aquifer, progressively concentrating and isotopically fractionating the NO3−.
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Jun–Ichi Yano
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The research network “Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models” was organized with European funding (COST Action ES0905 for the period of 2010–2014. Its extensive brainstorming suggests how the subgrid-scale parameterization problem in atmospheric modeling, especially for convection, can be examined and developed from the point of view of a robust theoretical basis. Our main cautions are current emphasis on massive observational data analyses and process studies. The closure and the entrainment–detrainment problems are identified as the two highest priorities for convection parameterization under the mass–flux formulation. The need for a drastic change of the current European research culture as concerns policies and funding in order not to further deplete the visions of the European researchers focusing on those basic issues is emphasized.
Nie, Ji; Sobel, Adam H
2016-01-01
Extratropical extreme precipitation events are usually associated with large-scale flow disturbances, strong ascent and large latent heat release. The causal relationships between these factors are often not obvious, however, and the roles of different physical processes in producing the extreme precipitation event can be difficult to disentangle. Here, we examine the large-scale forcings and convective heating feedback in the precipitation events which caused the 2010 Pakistan flood within the Column Quasi-Geostrophic framework. A cloud-revolving model (CRM) is forced with the large-scale forcings (other than large-scale vertical motion) computed from the quasi-geostrophic omega equation with input data from a reanalysis data set, and the large-scale vertical motion is diagnosed interactively with the simulated convection. Numerical results show that the positive feedback of convective heating to large-scale dynamics is essential in amplifying the precipitation intensity to the observed values. Orographic li...
Transport of bacteria in porous media: II. A model for convective Transport and growth.
Sarkar, A K; Georgiou, G; Sharma, M M
1994-08-05
A model is presented for the coupled processes of bacterial growth and convective transport of bacteria has been modeled using a fractional flow approach. The various mechanisms of bacteria retention can be incorporated into the model through selection of an appropriate shape of the fractional flow curve. Permeability reduction due to pore plugging by bacteria was simulated using the effective medium theory. In porous media, the rates of transport and growth of bacteria, the generation of metabolic products, and the consumption of nutrients are strongly coupled processes. Consequently, the set of governing conservation equations form a set of coupled, nonlinear partial differential equations that were solved numerically. Reasonably good agreement between the model and experimental data has been obtained indicating that the physical processes incorporated in the model are adequate. The model has been used to predict the in situ transport and growth of bacteria, nutrient consumption, and metabolite production. It can be particularly useful in simulating laboratory experiments and in scaling microbial-enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation processes to the field. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Application of the diffusion-convection equation to modeling the infection by histoplasma-capsulatum
Jaime, Sergio A.
2013-05-01
Using computer algebra, the respiratory infection of the histoplasma capsulatum fungus was modeled and analyzed; the effects of the infection could also be described as a change in the lungs capacity to expand (associated with its elastic modulus). A further analysis to the immune system was also done in order to describe and model the way the body can handle those kinds of infections once they are hosted in the body. Using those models we can describe the behavior of the respiratory infection and then how to reduce or control its effects. As an investigation in the medical field, we need to test the models obtained and compare the results with the real infection behavior. The models where made based on the diffusive-convective equation; giving some initial and boundary conditions, we can get to the results obtained, which can describe how the infection is spreading and with a previous study of the immune system, the infection control done by the body can also be modeled.
Numerical Modeling of Deep Mantle Convection: Advection and Diffusion Schemes for Marker Methods
Mulyukova, Elvira; Dabrowski, Marcin; Steinberger, Bernhard
2013-04-01
Thermal and chemical evolution of Earth's deep mantle can be studied by modeling vigorous convection in a chemically heterogeneous fluid. Numerical modeling of such a system poses several computational challenges. Dominance of heat advection over the diffusive heat transport, and a negligible amount of chemical diffusion results in sharp gradients of thermal and chemical fields. The exponential dependence of the viscosity of mantle materials on temperature also leads to high gradients of the velocity field. The accuracy of many numerical advection schemes degrades quickly with increasing gradient of the solution, while the computational effort, in terms of the scheme complexity and required resolution, grows. Additional numerical challenges arise due to a large range of length-scales characteristic of a thermochemical convection system with highly variable viscosity. To examplify, the thickness of the stem of a rising thermal plume may be a few percent of the mantle thickness. An even thinner filament of an anomalous material that is entrained by that plume may consitute less than a tenth of a percent of the mantle thickness. We have developed a two-dimensional FEM code to model thermochemical convection in a hollow cylinder domain, with a depth- and temperature-dependent viscosity representative of the mantle (Steinberger and Calderwood, 2006). We use marker-in-cell method for advection of chemical and thermal fields. The main advantage of perfoming advection using markers is absence of numerical diffusion during the advection step, as opposed to the more diffusive field-methods. However, in the common implementation of the marker-methods, the solution of the momentum and energy equations takes place on a computational grid, and nodes do not generally coincide with the positions of the markers. Transferring velocity-, temperature-, and chemistry- information between nodes and markers introduces errors inherent to inter- and extrapolation. In the numerical scheme
Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.
2012-01-01
The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center is a collaborative partnership between NASA and operational forecasting partners, including a number of National Weather Service forecast offices. SPoRT provides real-time NASA products and capabilities to help its partners address specific operational forecast challenges. One challenge that forecasters face is using guidance from local and regional deterministic numerical models configured at convection-allowing resolution to help assess a variety of mesoscale/convective-scale phenomena such as sea-breezes, local wind circulations, and mesoscale convective weather potential on a given day. While guidance from convection-allowing models has proven valuable in many circumstances, the potential exists for model improvements by incorporating more representative land-water surface datasets, and by assimilating retrieved temperature and moisture profiles from hyper-spectral sounders. In order to help increase the accuracy of deterministic convection-allowing models, SPoRT produces real-time, 4-km CONUS forecasts using a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (hereafter SPoRT-WRF) that includes unique NASA products and capabilities including 4-km resolution soil initialization data from the Land Information System (LIS), 2-km resolution SPoRT SST composites over oceans and large water bodies, high-resolution real-time Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composites derived from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, and retrieved temperature and moisture profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). NCAR's Model Evaluation Tools (MET) verification package is used to generate statistics of model performance compared to in situ observations and rainfall analyses for three months during the summer of 2012 (June-August). Detailed analyses of specific severe weather outbreaks during the summer
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Colomer, G. [Lab. de Termotecnia i Energetica, Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), ETSEIAT, c/Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)]. E-mail: cttc@cttc.upc.edu; Consul, R. [Lab. de Termotecnia i Energetica, Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), ETSEIAT, c/Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Oliva, A. [Lab. de Termotecnia i Energetica, Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), ETSEIAT, c/Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)]. E-mail: oliva@cttc.upc.edu
2007-09-15
The coupling between non-gray radiation heat transfer and convection-conduction heat transfer is studied. The spectral line weighted sum of gray gases model (SLW) is used to account for non-gray radiation properties. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of the different approaches used when calculating the parameters of the SLW model. Such strategies include the use of optimized model coefficients to reduce the number of operations, and the interpolation of the distribution function instead of the use of mathematical correlations. Non-gray calculations are also compared to gray solutions using the Planck mean absorption coefficient, which can be also calculated with the SLW model. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is solved by means of the discrete ordinates method (DOM). A natural convection driven cavity is chosen to couple radiation and conduction-convection energy transfer. Several cases, with a significant variation of the ratio between radiation to convection heat transfer, as well as the ratio between radiation to conduction heat transfer, are discussed.
Theeuwes, N.E.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Krikken, F.; Holtslag, A.A.M.
2010-01-01
Lake effect snow is a shallow convection phenomenon during cold air advection over a relatively warm lake. A severe case of lake effect snow over Lake Erie on 24 December 2001 was studied with the MM5 and WRF mesoscale models. This particular case provided over 200 cm of snow in Buffalo (NY), caused
Gibbs, J.A.; Fedorovich, E.; Eijk, A.M.J. van
2011-01-01
Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model predictions using different boundary layer schemes and horizontal grid spacings were compared with observational and numerical large-eddy simulation data for conditions corresponding to a dry atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) over the southern
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Shahnam Javadi
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the $(G'/G$-expansion method is applied to solve a biological reaction-convection-diffusion model arising in mathematical biology. Exact traveling wave solutions are obtained by this method. This scheme can be applied to a wide class of nonlinear partial differential equations.
Convective adjustment timescale (τ) for cumulus clouds is one of the most influential parameters controlling parameterized convective precipitation in climate and weather simulation models at global and regional scales. Due to the complex nature of deep convection, a pres...
Improving Convection Parameterization Using ARM Observations and NCAR Community Atmosphere Model
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Zhang, Guang J [Scripps Institution of Oceanography
2013-07-29
Highlight of Accomplishments: We made significant contribution to the ASR program in this funding cycle by better representing convective processes in GCMs based on knowledge gained from analysis of ARM/ASR observations. In addition, our work led to a much improved understanding of the interaction among aerosol, convection, clouds and climate in GCMs.
Extreme rainfall in South East France: added value of a convection-permitting regional climate model
Alias, Antoinette; Déqué, Michel; Somot, Samuel
2016-04-01
EURO-CORDEX simulations are based on 12 km numerical model. They represent with some accuracy, compared to global coupled models used in CMIP, the surface elevation in mountainous regions. As a consequence, the geographical distribution of precipitation is better at regional scale, and the frequency of high precipitation is more realistic. However these models do not explicitly resolve the convective phenomena which are responsible for the heavy accumulated rainfall. Arome model is derived from Aladin model (used in EURO-CORDEX) but uses non-hydrostatic equations, 2.5 km horizontal resolution, and a dedicated set of physical parameterizations. Its domain covers South-East France, a region which undergoes severe rainfall events in autumn. We present ERA-interim driven simulations with Aladin (12 km) driving Arome (2.5 km). The analysis is focussed on daily and hourly precipitation in extended autumn (ASOND) in the central part of the domain. We compare Aladin (i.e. EURO-CORDEX) and Arome simulations in their ability to simulate observed data.
Nie, Ji; Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Sobel, Adam H.
2016-09-01
Extratropical extreme precipitation events are usually associated with large-scale flow disturbances, strong ascent, and large latent heat release. The causal relationships between these factors are often not obvious, however, the roles of different physical processes in producing the extreme precipitation event can be difficult to disentangle. Here we examine the large-scale forcings and convective heating feedback in the precipitation events, which caused the 2010 Pakistan flood within the Column Quasi-Geostrophic framework. A cloud-revolving model (CRM) is forced with large-scale forcings (other than large-scale vertical motion) computed from the quasi-geostrophic omega equation using input data from a reanalysis data set, and the large-scale vertical motion is diagnosed interactively with the simulated convection. Numerical results show that the positive feedback of convective heating to large-scale dynamics is essential in amplifying the precipitation intensity to the observed values. Orographic lifting is the most important dynamic forcing in both events, while differential potential vorticity advection also contributes to the triggering of the first event. Horizontal moisture advection modulates the extreme events mainly by setting the environmental humidity, which modulates the amplitude of the convection's response to the dynamic forcings. When the CRM is replaced by either a single-column model (SCM) with parameterized convection or a dry model with a reduced effective static stability, the model results show substantial discrepancies compared with reanalysis data. The reasons for these discrepancies are examined, and the implications for global models and theoretical models are discussed.
Li, M.; Black, B. A.; Zhong, S.; Manga, M.; Rudolph, M. L.; Olson, P.
2015-12-01
How does the Earth's deep mantle convection affect surface climate change? Volcanism in various geological settings, including mid-ocean ridges, volcanic arcs, rift zones and sites with intraplate volcanism, releases volatiles to Earth's surface. The amount and composition of these volatiles influence the evolution Earth's ocean, crust and atmosphere, which in turn control the evolution of the biosphere. While there are constraints of Earth's degassing from the geochemistry of samples in some localized regions, a quantification of the time evolution of degassing on a global scale remains largely unknown.In this study, we run geodynamical calculations with a full 3D spherical geometry to explore the amount of partial melting in the shallow part of Earth's mantle and implied degassing at a global scale. The plate motion history for the last 200 Ma or longer is employed as time-dependent velocity boundary condition for mantle flow. Using the temperature, pressure and composition in mantle convection models, we calculate the degree of partial melting in different geological settings. We show that the melt flux at mid-ocean ridges generally increases linearly with the speed of plates, with some perturbations due to changes of length of mid-ocean ridges. Generally, this melt flux is about 2-3 times in the past 200 million years than that of the present-day Earth. The present-day melt flux is ~20 km3/year, but this value reaches ~40 km3/year at about 80Ma, and ~60 km3/year at about 120-160Ma. Given estimates of volatile content in the source regions where partial melting occurs and the melt flux we calculate, we quantify the evolution of degassing rate (of CO2) at mid-ocean ridges, hotspots, large igneous provinces, and subduction zones.
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Colman, R.A.; Mcavaney, B.J. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne (Australia)
1995-02-01
Three equilibrium doubled CO2 experiments have been performed using the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre atmospheric general circulation model. These experiments used identical versions of the model, apart from changes in the convective parameterization and the horizontal resolution. The penetrative convection parameterizations used were variants of the Tiedtke (1989) mass flux and Kuo (1974) schemes. The shallow convection was also varied in strength. In the control climate the mass flux scheme produces a warmer, moister troposphere, with substantially more high cloud than the Kuo scheme. The precipitation distributions agree reasonably with observations overall, although the mass flux scheme gives improvements in some regions. The increase in resolution is generally found to have a smaller impact upon the climate than the change in convection. Under a doubling of atmospheric CO2, the equilibrium responses of all three experiments were extremely similar in surface and tropospheric temperatures and humidity changes. The model response is at the low end of the scale of simulated climate change, consistent with a strong negative feedback found due to clouds. This feedback is similar to that found in earlier fixed season experiments. It appears to be insensitive to differences in cloud cover simulated in the control climates of the present experiments.
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Carolina M. Sánchez-Sáenz
2015-12-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mathematical modeling enables dimensioning of dryers, optimization of drying conditions and the evaluation of process performance. The aim of this research was to describe the behavior of orange bagasse drying using Page's and Fick's second law models, and to assess activation energy (using Arrhenius equation, moisture content, water activity and bulk density of product at the end of the process. The drying experimental assays were performed in 2011 with convective air temperature between 36 and 64 ºC and infrared radiation application time in the range from 23 to 277 s in accordance with the experimental central composite rotatable design. Analysis of variance and F-test were applied to results. At the end of the drying process, moisture content was about 0.09 to 0.87 db and water activity was between 0.25 and 0.87. Bulk density did not vary under studied conditions. Empirical Page's model demonstrated better representation of experimental data than the Fick's model for spheres. Activation energy values were about 18.491; 14.975 and 11.421 kJ mol-1 for infrared application times of 60; 150 e 244 s, respectively.
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Nordlund Åke
2009-04-01
Full Text Available We review the properties of solar convection that are directly observable at the solar surface, and discuss the relevant underlying physics, concentrating mostly on a range of depths from the temperature minimum down to about 20 Mm below the visible solar surface.The properties of convection at the main energy carrying (granular scales are tightly constrained by observations, in particular by the detailed shapes of photospheric spectral lines and the topology (time- and length-scales, flow velocities, etc. of the up- and downflows. Current supercomputer models match these constraints very closely, which lends credence to the models, and allows robust conclusions to be drawn from analysis of the model properties.At larger scales the properties of the convective velocity field at the solar surface are strongly influenced by constraints from mass conservation, with amplitudes of larger scale horizontal motions decreasing roughly in inverse proportion to the scale of the motion. To a large extent, the apparent presence of distinct (meso- and supergranulation scales is a result of the folding of this spectrum with the effective “filters” corresponding to various observational techniques. Convective motions on successively larger scales advect patterns created by convection on smaller scales; this includes patterns of magnetic field, which thus have an approximately self-similar structure at scales larger than granulation.Radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of solar surface convection can be used as 2D/3D time-dependent models of the solar atmosphere to predict the emergent spectrum. In general, the resulting detailed spectral line profiles agree spectacularly well with observations without invoking any micro- and macroturbulence parameters due to the presence of convective velocities and atmosphere inhomogeneities. One of the most noteworthy results has been a significant reduction in recent years in the derived solar C, N, and O abundances with
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Cegla, H. M.; Watson, C. A. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Oshagh, M.; Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C. [Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, PT4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Shelyag, S., E-mail: h.cegla@qub.ac.uk [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia)
2016-03-01
Observations of the Rossiter–McLaughlin (RM) effect provide information on star–planet alignments, which can inform planetary migration and evolution theories. Here, we go beyond the classical RM modeling and explore the impact of a convective blueshift that varies across the stellar disk and non-Gaussian stellar photospheric profiles. We simulated an aligned hot Jupiter with a four-day orbit about a Sun-like star and injected center-to-limb velocity (and profile shape) variations based on radiative 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of solar surface convection. The residuals between our modeling and classical RM modeling were dependent on the intrinsic profile width and v sin i; the amplitude of the residuals increased with increasing v sin i and with decreasing intrinsic profile width. For slowly rotating stars the center-to-limb convective variation dominated the residuals (with amplitudes of 10 s of cm s{sup −1} to ∼1 m s{sup −1}); however, for faster rotating stars the dominant residual signature was due a non-Gaussian intrinsic profile (with amplitudes from 0.5 to 9 m s{sup −1}). When the impact factor was 0, neglecting to account for the convective center-to-limb variation led to an uncertainty in the obliquity of ∼10°–20°, even though the true v sin i was known. Additionally, neglecting to properly model an asymmetric intrinsic profile had a greater impact for more rapidly rotating stars (e.g., v sin i = 6 km s{sup −1}) and caused systematic errors on the order of ∼20° in the measured obliquities. Hence, neglecting the impact of stellar surface convection may bias star–planet alignment measurements and consequently theories on planetary migration and evolution.
Constraints on core-mantle boundary topography from models of thermal and thermochemical convection
Deschamps, Frédéric; Rogister, Yves; Tackley, Paul J.
2018-01-01
Mantle flow induces dynamic topography at the core-mantle boundary (CMB), with distribution and amplitude that depend on details of the flow. To assess whether observations of CMB topography can give constraints on deep mantle structure, we determine CMB dynamic topography associated with different models of mantle convection, including thermochemical and purely thermal models. We investigate the influence of key controlling parameters, specifically the thermal viscosity ratio (ΔηT) and, for thermochemical models, the density contrast (ΔρC) and viscosity ratio (ΔηC) between primordial and regular materials. In purely thermal models, plume clusters induce positive topography with an amplitude that decreases with increasing ΔηT. In thermochemical models with moderate density contrasts, around 100-200 kg m-3, reservoirs of dense material induce depressions in CMB topography, surrounded by a ridge of positive topography. The average depression depth and ridge height increase with increasing ΔρC and ΔηC, but decrease with increasing ΔηT. We find that for purely thermal models or thermochemical models with ΔρC ˜ 90 kg m-3 and less, the long-wavelength (spherical harmonic degrees up to l = 4) dynamic topography and shear wave velocity anomalies predicted by thermochemical distributions anticorrelate. By contrast, for models with ΔρC ≥ 100 kg m-3 and ΔηC > 1, long-wavelength dynamic topography and shear wave velocity anomalies correlate well. This potentially provides a test to infer the nature, that is, either purely or mostly thermal (ΔρC ≤ 100 kg m-3 m-3) or strongly thermochemical (ΔρC ≥ 100 kg m-3), of the low shear wave velocity provinces observed by global tomographic images. The presence of post-perovskite, provided that its viscosity is similar to that of bridgmanite, does not alter these conclusions.
Observing Convective Aggregation
Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita
2017-11-01
Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.
Observing Convective Aggregation
Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita
2017-06-01
Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.
3D modelling of coupled mass and heat transfer of a convection-oven roasting process.
Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist V; Adler-Nissen, Jens
2013-04-01
A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer describing oven roasting of meat has been developed from first principles. The proposed mechanism for the mass transfer of water is modified and based on a critical literature review of the effect of heat on meat. The model equations are based on a conservation of mass and energy, coupled through Darcy's equations of porous media - the water flow is mainly pressure-driven. The developed model together with theoretical and experimental assessments were used to explain the heat and water transport and the effect of the change in microstructure (permeability, water binding capacity and elastic modulus) that occur during the meat roasting process. The developed coupled partial differential equations were solved by using COMSOL Multiphysics®3.5 and state variables are predicted as functions of both position and time. The proposed mechanism was partially validated by experiments in a convection oven where temperatures were measured online. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heister, Timo; Dannberg, Juliane; Gassmöller, Rene; Bangerth, Wolfgang
2017-08-01
Computations have helped elucidate the dynamics of Earth's mantle for several decades already. The numerical methods that underlie these simulations have greatly evolved within this time span, and today include dynamically changing and adaptively refined meshes, sophisticated and efficient solvers, and parallelization to large clusters of computers. At the same time, many of the methods - discussed in detail in a previous paper in this series - were developed and tested primarily using model problems that lack many of the complexities that are common to the realistic models our community wants to solve today. With several years of experience solving complex and realistic models, we here revisit some of the algorithm designs of the earlier paper and discuss the incorporation of more complex physics. In particular, we re-consider time stepping and mesh refinement algorithms, evaluate approaches to incorporate compressibility, and discuss dealing with strongly varying material coefficients, latent heat, and how to track chemical compositions and heterogeneities. Taken together and implemented in a high-performance, massively parallel code, the techniques discussed in this paper then allow for high resolution, 3-D, compressible, global mantle convection simulations with phase transitions, strongly temperature dependent viscosity and realistic material properties based on mineral physics data.
Leitsin, V. N.; Dmitrieva, M. A.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Ishchenko, A. N.; Ponomarev, S. A.
2017-12-01
Convective combustion presents intensive exothermic chemical transformations occurring due to the heating of the material and the start of chemical transformations in the final layer of the parent material as a result of the convection of heated gas or liquid from the combustion area into the reactive material through a chain of interconnected pores. The convective combustion in an initially proof reactive material is possible provided that a system of through pores is formed immediately before the combustion front in the process of failure of the original structure of the reactive material. However, the actual mechanisms of these processes are unclear. The common features of all models used to study the conditions for the transition of layered combustion to convective are the application of approaches of the mechanics of multiphase media and various hypotheses about the launch of chemical transformations due to heat transfer from filtering heated reaction products and heating due to a viscoplastic dissipation of pore collapse energy. The topical issues are the estimates of the resonance mode of the formation of a through porosity system ahead of the front of chemical transformations of an impenetrable heterogeneous system that includes discrete components capable of intensive chemical transformations, initiator particles. In this paper, we present a new approach to modeling and investigating the failure of a reactive composite medium ahead of the propagation wave front, from the position of the dynamics of a deformed heterogeneous object with a structure.
Observational and modeling study of a mesoscale convective system during the HyMeX - SOP1
Dafis, S.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Giannaros, T. M.; Bartzokas, A.
2017-05-01
An intense and fast moving convective line that crossed Massif Central/Cévennes-Vivarais area (south France) during the field campaign of Hydrological Cycle in Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX) - Special Observing Period 1 (SOP1) is examined. The mesoscale analysis demonstrates a complex convective system with a V-shape in the Infrared (IR) satellite imagery and a squall line pattern on the radar imagery. Ground stations observed up to 60 mm h- 1 of rain accumulation, while the lightning activity, as observed by 4 detection networks, was also exceptionally high. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to simulate this convective episode and sensitivity tests were performed with various microphysics and convective parameterization schemes. Satellite data from Meteosat SEVIRI Rapid Scanning Service were used in conjunction with radar, lightning and rain gauge data to conclude on the best simulation for which WRF model exhibits a rather precise and realistic distribution and evolution of the precipitation patterns. Finally, a study of the microphysics was performed indicating the interconnection of graupel with lightning activity, confirming recent results, compared against a sophisticated hydrometeor classification radar algorithm and lightning data.
Elsayed Yousef, Ahmed; Ehsan, M. Azhar; Almazroui, Mansour; Assiri, Mazen E.; Al-Khalaf, Abdulrahman K.
2017-02-01
A new closure and a modified detrainment for the simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SAS) cumulus parameterization scheme are proposed. In the modified convective scheme which is named as King Abdulaziz University (KAU) scheme, the closure depends on both the buoyancy force and the environment mean relative humidity. A lateral entrainment rate varying with environment relative humidity is proposed and tends to suppress convection in a dry atmosphere. The detrainment rate also varies with environment relative humidity. The KAU scheme has been tested in a single column model (SCM) and implemented in a coupled global climate model (CGCM). Increased coupling between environment and clouds in the KAU scheme results in improved sensitivity of the depth and strength of convection to environmental humidity compared to the original SAS scheme. The new scheme improves precipitation simulation with better representations of moisture and temperature especially during suppressed convection periods. The KAU scheme implemented in the Seoul National University (SNU) CGCM shows improved precipitation over the tropics. The simulated precipitation pattern over the Arabian Peninsula and Northeast African region is also improved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jakob, Christian [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)
2015-02-26
This report summarises an investigation into the relationship of tropical thunderstorms to the atmospheric conditions they are embedded in. The study is based on the use of radar observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Darwin run under the auspices of the DOE Atmospheric Systems Research program. Linking the larger scales of the atmosphere with the smaller scales of thunderstorms is crucial for the development of the representation of thunderstorms in weather and climate models, which is carried out by a process termed parametrisation. Through the analysis of radar and wind profiler observations the project made several fundamental discoveries about tropical storms and quantified the relationship of the occurrence and intensity of these storms to the large-scale atmosphere. We were able to show that the rainfall averaged over an area the size of a typical climate model grid-box is largely controlled by the number of storms in the area, and less so by the storm intensity. This allows us to completely rethink the way we represent such storms in climate models. We also found that storms occur in three distinct categories based on their depth and that the transition between these categories is strongly related to the larger scale dynamical features of the atmosphere more so than its thermodynamic state. Finally, we used our observational findings to test and refine a new approach to cumulus parametrisation which relies on the stochastic modelling of the area covered by different convective cloud types.
Fosser, G.; Khodayar, S.; Berg, P.
2017-03-01
To investigate the climate change in the next 30 years over a complex terrain in southwestern Germany, simulations performed with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at convection-permitting resolution are compared to simulations at 7 km resolution with parameterised convection. An earlier study has shown the main benefits of convection-permitting resolution in the hourly statistics and the diurnal cycle of precipitation intensities. Here, we investigate whether the improved simulation of precipitation in the convection-permitting model is affecting future climate projections in summer. Overall, the future scenario (ECHAM5 with A1B forcing) brings weak changes in mean precipitation, but stronger hourly intensities in the morning and less frequent but more intense daily precipitation. The two model simulations produce similar changes in climate, despite differences in their physical characteristics linked to the formation of convective precipitation. A significant increase in the morning precipitation probably due to large-scale forced convection is found when considering only the most extreme events (above 50 mm/day). In this case, even the diurnal cycles of precipitation and convection-related indices are similar between resolutions, leading to the conclusion that the 7 km model sufficiently resolves the most extreme convective events. In this region and time periods, the 7 km resolution is deemed sufficient for most assessments of near future precipitation change. However, conclusions could be dependent on the characteristics of the region of investigation.
Lydon, Thomas J.; Fox, Peter A.; Sofia, Sabatino
1993-01-01
We have updated a previous attempt to incorporate within a solar model a treatment of convection based upon numerical simulations of convection rather than mixing-length theory (MLT). We have modified our formulation of convection for a better treatment of the kinetic energy flux. Our solar model has been updated to include a complete range of OPAL opacities, the Debye-Hueckel correction to the equation of state, helium diffusion due to gravitational settling, and atmospheres by Kurucz. We construct a series of models using both MLT and our revised formulation of convection and the compared results to measurements of the solar radius, the solar luminosity, and the depth of the solar convection zone as inferred from helioseismology. We find X(solar) = 0.702 +/- 0.005, Y(solar) = 0.278 +/- 0.005, and Z(solar) = 0.0193 +/- 0.0005.
Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiun-Dar
2017-06-01
The importance of precipitating mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) has been quantified from TRMM precipitation radar and microwave imager retrievals. MCSs generate more than 50% of the rainfall in most tropical regions. MCSs usually have horizontal scales of a few hundred kilometers (km); therefore, a large domain with several hundred km is required for realistic simulations of MCSs in cloud-resolving models (CRMs). Almost all traditional global and climate models do not have adequate parameterizations to represent MCSs. Typical multiscale modeling frameworks (MMFs) may also lack the resolution (4 km grid spacing) and domain size (128 km) to realistically simulate MCSs. The impact of MCSs on precipitation is examined by conducting model simulations using the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE, a CRM) model and Goddard MMF that uses the GCEs as its embedded CRMs. Both models can realistically simulate MCSs with more grid points (i.e., 128 and 256) and higher resolutions (1 or 2 km) compared to those simulations with fewer grid points (i.e., 32 and 64) and low resolution (4 km). The modeling results also show the strengths of the Hadley circulations, mean zonal and regional vertical velocities, surface evaporation, and amount of surface rainfall are weaker or reduced in the Goddard MMF when using more CRM grid points and higher CRM resolution. In addition, the results indicate that large-scale surface evaporation and wind feedback are key processes for determining the surface rainfall amount in the GMMF. A sensitivity test with reduced sea surface temperatures shows both reduced surface rainfall and evaporation.
The impact of mesoscale convective systems on global precipitation: A modeling study
Tao, Wei-Kuo
2017-04-01
The importance of precipitating mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) has been quantified from TRMM precipitation radar and microwave imager retrievals. MCSs generate more than 50% of the rainfall in most tropical regions. Typical MCSs have horizontal scales of a few hundred kilometers (km); therefore, a large domain and high resolution are required for realistic simulations of MCSs in cloud-resolving models (CRMs). Almost all traditional global and climate models do not have adequate parameterizations to represent MCSs. Typical multi-scale modeling frameworks (MMFs) with 32 CRM grid points and 4 km grid spacing also might not have sufficient resolution and domain size for realistically simulating MCSs. In this study, the impact of MCSs on precipitation processes is examined by conducting numerical model simulations using the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE) and Goddard MMF (GMMF). The results indicate that both models can realistically simulate MCSs with more grid points (i.e., 128 and 256) and higher resolutions (1 or 2 km) compared to those simulations with less grid points (i.e., 32 and 64) and low resolution (4 km). The modeling results also show that the strengths of the Hadley circulations, mean zonal and regional vertical velocities, surface evaporation, and amount of surface rainfall are either weaker or reduced in the GMMF when using more CRM grid points and higher CRM resolution. In addition, the results indicate that large-scale surface evaporation and wind feed back are key processes for determining the surface rainfall amount in the GMMF. A sensitivity test with reduced sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is conducted and results in both reduced surface rainfall and evaporation.
Analysis and Modeling of Trace Gases and Aerosols in Severe Convection: The 22 June 2012 DC3 Case
Barth, M. C.; Apel, E. C.; Bela, M.; Fried, A.; Fuchs, B.; Pickering, K. E.; Pollack, I. B.; Rutledge, S. A.
2016-12-01
The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaign aimed to quantify and characterize the dynamics, physics, lightning, and transport of trace gases and aerosols in convection, as well as the chemical aging of convective outflow plumes in the upper troposphere. These goals were met by deploying radars, lightning mapping arrays, weather balloons, and aircraft to sample storms in northeast Colorado, west Texas to central Oklahoma, and northern Alabama. Here, we use one case, 22 June 2012 severe convection in northeast Colorado and southwest Nebraska, as an example for quantifying and predicting convective transport of trace gases and aerosols, lightning flash rate, lightning production of nitrogen oxides, and subsequent ozone production downwind of the storms. This case was unique in that one severe storm ingested a wildfire smoke plume at 7 km altitude while other storms in the area did not. Several analyses of this case have been done using the aircraft composition measurements, dual-Doppler and polarimetric radar products, and lightning mapping array data. It was determined that the storm unaffected by the High Park fire smoke plume had a 4.8±0.9%/km entrainment rate and estimated scavenging efficiencies of CH2O, H2O2, CH3OOH, SO2, and HNO3 of 41±4%, 79±19, 44±47%, 92±4%, 95±12%, respectively. Total (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning flash rates were 98-106 flashes per minute when the aircraft were sampling the outflow of the storms, resulting in an estimate of lightning-NOx production of 142±25 moles NO per flash. Box modeling simulations estimate the production of O3 in the convective outflow of these storms to be 11-14 ppbv over 2 days. These results are used to evaluate the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to learn how well a state-of-the-art model represents the storm processing of trace gases. The WRF-Chem simulations are analyzed further to examine the effect of aerosols in the smoke plume on
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir M. Krasnopolsky
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A novel approach based on the neural network (NN ensemble technique is formulated and used for development of a NN stochastic convection parameterization for climate and numerical weather prediction (NWP models. This fast parameterization is built based on learning from data simulated by a cloud-resolving model (CRM initialized with and forced by the observed meteorological data available for 4-month boreal winter from November 1992 to February 1993. CRM-simulated data were averaged and processed to implicitly define a stochastic convection parameterization. This parameterization is learned from the data using an ensemble of NNs. The NN ensemble members are trained and tested. The inherent uncertainty of the stochastic convection parameterization derived following this approach is estimated. The newly developed NN convection parameterization has been tested in National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM. It produced reasonable and promising decadal climate simulations for a large tropical Pacific region. The extent of the adaptive ability of the developed NN parameterization to the changes in the model environment is briefly discussed. This paper is devoted to a proof of concept and discusses methodology, initial results, and the major challenges of using the NN technique for developing convection parameterizations for climate and NWP models.
Matthews, K. J.; Flament, N. E.; Williams, S.; Müller, D.; Gurnis, M.
2014-12-01
The Late Cretaceous to mid Eocene (~85-45 Ma) evolution of the southwest Pacific has been the subject of starkly contrasting plate reconstruction models, reflecting sparse and ambiguous data. Disparate models of (1) west-dipping subduction and back-arc basin opening to the east of the Lord Howe Rise, (2) east-dipping subduction and back-arc basin closure to the east of the Lord Howe Rise, and (3) tectonic quiescence with no subduction have all been proposed for this time frame. To help resolve this long-standing problem we test a new southwest Pacific reconstruction using global mantle flow models with imposed plate motions. The kinematic model incorporates east to northeast directed rollback of a west-dipping subduction zone between 85 and 55 Ma, accommodating opening of the South Loyalty back-arc basin to the east of New Caledonia. At 55 Ma there is a plate boundary reorganization in the region. West-dipping subduction and back-arc basin spreading end, and there is initiation of northeast dipping subduction within the back-arc basin. Consumption of South Loyalty Basin seafloor continues until 45 Ma, when obduction onto New Caledonia begins. West-dipping Tonga-Kermadec subduction initiates at this time at the relict Late Cretaceous-earliest Eocene subduction boundary. We use the 3D spherical mantle convection code CitcomS coupled to the plate reconstruction software GPlates, with plate motions and evolving plate boundaries imposed since 230 Ma. The predicted present-day mantle structure is compared to S- and P-wave seismic tomography models, which can be used to infer the presence of slab material in the mantle at locations where fast velocity anomalies are imaged. This workflow enables us to assess the forward-modeled subduction history of the region.
Stein, Robert F
2012-07-13
Convection is the transport of energy by bulk mass motions. Magnetic fields alter convection via the Lorentz force, while convection moves the fields via the curl(v×B) term in the induction equation. Recent ground-based and satellite telescopes have increased our knowledge of the solar magnetic fields on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Magneto-convection modelling has also greatly improved recently as computers become more powerful. Three-dimensional simulations with radiative transfer and non-ideal equations of state are being performed. Flux emergence from the convection zone through the visible surface (and into the chromosphere and corona) has been modelled. Local, convectively driven dynamo action has been studied. The alteration in the appearance of granules and the formation of pores and sunspots has been investigated. Magneto-convection calculations have improved our ability to interpret solar observations, especially the inversion of Stokes spectra to obtain the magnetic field and the use of helioseismology to determine the subsurface structure of the Sun.
Model Based Analysis of Forced and Natural Convection Effects in an Electrochemical Cell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D Brunner
2017-03-01
Full Text Available High purity copper, suitable for electrical applications, can only be obtained by electro-winning. The hallmark of this process is its self-induced natural convection through density variations of the electrolyte at both anode and cathode. In order to do this, first the full dynamic complexity of the process needs to be understood. Thus an OpenFoam®-based 2D model of the process has been created. This finite-volume multiphysics approach solves the laminar momentum and copper-ion species conservation equations, as well as local copper-ion conversion kinetics. It uses a Boussinesq approximation to simulate the species-momentum coupling, namely natural draft forces induced by variations of the spatial copper concentration within the fluid. The model shows good agreement with benchmark-cases of real-life electrochemical cells found in literature. An additional flow was imposed at the bottom of a small scale electrochemical cell in order to increase the ionic transport and thereby increase the overall performance of the cell. In a small scale electrochemical cell in strictly laminar flow, the overall performance could be increased and stratification decreased.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. S. Johnston
2013-12-01
Full Text Available An earlier method to determine the mean response of upper-tropospheric water to localised deep convective systems (DC systems is improved and applied to the EC-Earth climate model. Following Zelinka and Hartmann (2009, several fields related to moist processes and radiation from various satellites are composited with respect to the local maxima in rain rate to determine their spatio-temporal evolution with deep convection in the central Pacific Ocean. Major improvements to the earlier study are the isolation of DC systems in time so as to prevent multiple sampling of the same event, and a revised definition of the mean background state that allows for better characterisation of the DC-system-induced anomalies. The observed DC systems in this study propagate westward at ~4 m s−1. Both the upper-tropospheric relative humidity and the outgoing longwave radiation are substantially perturbed over a broad horizontal extent and for periods >30 h. The cloud fraction anomaly is fairly constant with height but small maximum can be seen around 200 hPa. The cloud ice water content anomaly is mostly confined to pressures greater than 150 hPa and reaches its maximum around 450 hPa, a few hours after the peak convection. Consistent with the large increase in upper-tropospheric cloud ice water content, albedo increases dramatically and persists about 30 h after peak convection. Applying the compositing technique to EC-Earth allows an assessment of the model representation of DC systems. The model captures the large-scale responses, most notably for outgoing longwave radiation, but there are a number of important differences. DC systems appear to propagate eastward in the model, suggesting a strong link to Kelvin waves instead of equatorial Rossby waves. The diurnal cycle in the model is more pronounced and appears to trigger new convection further to the west each time. Finally, the modelled ice water content anomaly peaks at pressures greater than 500 h
Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.
2017-10-01
We study rapidly rotating Boussinesq convection driven by internal heating in a full sphere. We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation for the velocity field, whereas the temperature field is 3-D. This approximation allows us to perform simulations for Ekman numbers down to 10-8, Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (˜10-1) and Reynolds numbers up to 3 × 104. Persistent zonal flows composed of multiple jets form as a result of the mixing of potential vorticity. For the largest Rayleigh numbers computed, the zonal velocity is larger than the convective velocity despite the presence of boundary friction. The convective structures and the zonal jets widen when the thermal forcing increases. Prograde and retrograde zonal jets are dynamically different: in the prograde jets (which correspond to weak potential vorticity gradients) the convection transports heat efficiently and the mean temperature tends to be homogenized; by contrast, in the cores of the retrograde jets (which correspond to steep gradients of potential vorticity) the dynamics is dominated by the propagation of Rossby waves, resulting in the formation of steep mean temperature gradients and the dominance of conduction in the heat transfer process. Consequently, in quasi-geostrophic systems, the width of the retrograde zonal jets controls the efficiency of the heat transfer.
Fan, J.; Han, B.; Morrison, H.; Varble, A.; Mansell, E.; Milbrandt, J.; Wang, Y.; Lin, Y.; Dong, X.; Giangrande, S. E.; Jensen, M. P.; Collis, S. M.; North, K.; Kollias, P.
2015-12-01
The large spread in CRM model simulations of deep convection and aerosol effects on deep convective clouds (DCCs) makes it difficult (1) to further our understanding of deep convection and (2) to define "benchmarks" and recommendations for their use in parameterization developments. Past model intercomparison studies used different models with different complexities of dynamic-microphysics interactions, making it hard to isolate the causes of differences between simulations. In this intercomparison study, we employed a much more constrained approach - with the same model and same experiment setups for simulations with different cloud microphysics schemes (one-moment, two-moment, and bin models). Both the piggybacking and interactive approaches are employed to explore the major microphysical processes that control the model differences and the significance of their feedback to dynamics through latent heating/cooling and cold pool characteristics. Real-case simulations are conducted for the squall line case 20 May 2011 from the MC3E field campaign. Results from the piggybacking approach show substantially different responses of the microphysics schemes to the same dynamical fields. Although the interactive microphysics-dynamics simulations buffer some differences compared with those from the piggyback runs, large differences still exist and are mainly contributed by ice microphysical processes parameterizations. The presentation will include in-depth analyses of the major microphysical processes for the squall line case, the significance of the feedback of the processes to dynamics, and how those results differ in different cloud microphysics schemes.
McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Medlin, Jeffrey; Wood, Lance
2014-01-01
Convection-allowing numerical weather simula- tions have often been shown to produce convective storms that have significant sensitivity to choices of model physical parameterizations. Among the most important of these sensitivities are those related to cloud microphysics, but planetary boundary layer parameterizations also have a significant impact on the evolution of the convection. Aspects of the simulated convection that display sensitivity to these physics schemes include updraft size and intensity, simulated radar reflectivity, timing and placement of storm initi- ation and decay, total storm rainfall, and other storm features derived from storm structure and hydrometeor fields, such as predicted lightning flash rates. In addition to the basic parameters listed above, the simulated storms may also exhibit sensitivity to im- posed initial conditions, such as the fields of soil temper- ature and moisture, vegetation cover and health, and sea and lake water surface temperatures. Some of these sensitivities may rival those of the basic physics sensi- tivities mentioned earlier. These sensitivities have the potential to disrupt the accuracy of short-term forecast simulations of convective storms, and thereby pose sig- nificant difficulties for weather forecasters. To make a systematic study of the quantitative impacts of each of these sensitivities, a matrix of simulations has been performed using all combinations of eight separate microphysics schemes, three boundary layer schemes, and two sets of initial conditions. The first version of initial conditions consists of the default data from large-scale operational model fields, while the second features specialized higher- resolution soil conditions, vegetation conditions and water surface temperatures derived from datasets created at NASA's Short-term Prediction and Operational Research Tran- sition (SPoRT) Center at the National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL. Simulations as
Chatfield, Robert B.; Delany, Anthony C.
1990-10-01
Biomass burning throughout the inhabited portions of the tropics generates precursors which lead to significant local atmospheric ozone pollution. Several simulations show how this smog could be only an easily observed, local manifestation of a much broader increase in tropospheric ozone. We illustrate basic processes with a one-dimensional time-dependent model that is closer to true meteorological motions than commonly used eddy diffusion models. Its application to a representative region of South America gives reasonable simulations of the local pollutants measured there. Three illustrative simulations indicate the importance of dilution, principally due to vertical transport, in increasing the efficiency of ozone production, possibly enough for high ozone to be apparent on a very large, intercontinental scale. In the first, cook-then-mix, simulation the nitrogen oxides and other burning-produced pollutants are confined to a persistently subsident fair weather boundary layer for several days, and the resultant ozone is found to have only a transient influence on the whole column of tropospheric ozone. In the second, mix-then-cook, simulation the effect of typical cumulonimbus convection, which vents an actively polluted boundary layer, is to make a persistent increase in the tropical ozone column. Such a broadly increased ozone column is observed over the the populated "continental" portion of the tropics. A third simulation averages all emission, transport, and deposition parameters, representing one column in a global tropospheric model that does not simulate individual weather events. This "oversmoothing" simulation produces 60% more ozone than observed or otherwise modeled. Qualitatively similar overprediction is suggested for all models which average significantly in time or space, as all need do. Clearly, simulating these O3 levels will depend sensitively on knowledge of the timing of emissions and transport.
Allen, Rebecca
2011-05-01
An increase in the earth’s surface temperature has been directly linked to the rise of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels In the atmosphere and an enhanced greenhouse effect. CO2 sequestration is one of the proposed mitigation Strategies in the effort to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Globally speaking, saline aquifers provide an adequate storage capacity for the world’s carbon emissions, and CO2 sequestration projects are currently underway in countries such as Norway, Germany, Japan, USA, and others. Numerical simulators serve as predictive tools for CO2 storage, yet must model fluid transport behavior while coupling different transport processes together accurately. With regards to CO2 sequestration, an extensive amount of research has been done on the diffusive-convective transport that occurs under a cap of CO2-saturated fluid, which results after CO2 is injected into an aquifer and spreads laterally under an area of low permeability. The diffusive-convective modeling reveals an enhanced storage capacity in saline aquifers, due to the density increase between pure fluid and CO2‐saturated fluid. This work presents the transport modeling equations that are used for diffusive- convective modeling. A cell-centered finite difference method is used, and simulations are run using MATLAB. Two cases are explored in order to compare the results from this work’s self-generated code with the results published in literature. Simulation results match relatively well, and the discrepancy for a delayed onset time of convective transport observed in this work is attributed to numerical artifacts. In fact, onset time in this work is directly attributed to the instability of the physical system: this instability arises from non-linear coupling of fluid flow, transport, and convection, but is triggered by numerical errors in these simulations. Results from this work enable the computation of a value for the numerical constant that appears in the onset time equation that
Certainty and Uncertainty in Convection Permitting Modelling: Downscaling the CESM Large Ensemble
Gutmann, E. D.; Ikeda, K.; Clark, M. P.; Rasmussen, R.; Arnold, J.; Deser, C.
2016-12-01
Uncertainty may be uncomfortable, but certainty is absurd. This is particularly true for climate projections because we cannot hope to perform the sort of verification that is performed for other uncertain predictions such as weather forecasting. Here we approach the problem by examining the fundamental uncertainty in the climate system driven by chaotic internal variability. To do this, we downscaled six members of the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE) using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) run at convection permitting (4km grid) scales. These simulations are performed for the period Oct. 1990 - Oct. 1999 and Oct. 2071 - Oct. 2080 over the Colorado Headwaters region, and comparisons in current climate are made to observations from the SNOTEL network. Despite differences in the CESM ensemble members, the WRF simulations show consistent seasonal trends in elevation dependent warming; however the trends in elevation dependent precipitation show no consistent patterns. In addition, one ensemble member, which had a large increase in precipitation, showed a much weaker warming response because the snow albedo feedback permitted this member to stay cooler near the surface in the mountains. This suggests that consistent land surface temperature feedbacks in WRF provide some increases in certainty that are missing for precipitation. We then examine changes in extreme precipitation events in the WRF simulations. Finally, we have also downscaled all 40 members of CESM-LE using the Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research model (ICAR). ICAR is used to examine changes in cool-season orographic precipitation using two different microphysics schemes. ICAR and WRF provide similar results for the six ensemble members downscaled with WRF, while ICAR provides the capability to examine the full range of uncertainty, including some uncertainty due to the choice of model physics. We compute both the mean change in WRF, CESM and ICAR, as well as
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. C. Rana
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the thermosolutal convection in compressible Walters' (model B′ elastico-viscous fluid permeated with suspended particles in a porous medium is considered. For the porous medium, the Brinkman model is employed. By applying normal mode analysis method, the dispersion relation has been derived and solved analytically. It is observed that the medium permeability, suspended particles, gravity field and viscoelasticity introduce oscillatory modes. For stationary convection, it is observed that the Darcy number and stable solute gradient have stabilizing effects whereas the suspended particles and medium permeability has destabilizing effects on the system. The effects of Darcy number, stable solute gradient, suspended particles and medium permeability has also been shown graphically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, J.Y.; Donskoi, E.; McElwain, D.L.S.; Wibberley, L.J. [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). School of Mathematical Science
2005-07-01
A mathematical model of the coal-based direct reduction process of iron ore in a pellet composed of coal and iron ore mixture is investigated using a finite-control volume method. Heat transfer by conduction in the solid, convection by gaseous media inside, and radiation from the surroundings of the pellet are included in the model. The pellet is assumed to be spherical initially and the temperature around the pellet is taken to be symmetric about an axis passing through the centre. The parameters of the process, such as thermal conductivity, specific heats, and heats of the reaction, are all temperature dependent. The shrinkage/swelling of the pellet is also considered. We find that the effect of convection on the temperature and on the overall average reduction is small. However, the effect on the local concentration of the reaction components is significant. We predict that a uniform surrounding temperature field around the pellet yields a better average reduction.
Umakanth, U.
2015-11-07
The aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of regional climate model (RegCM) version 4.4 over south Asian CORDEX domain to simulate seasonal mean and monsoon intraseasonal oscillations (MISOs) during Indian summer monsoon. Three combinations of Grell (G) and Emanuel (E) cumulus schemes namely, RegCM-EG, RegCM-EE and RegCM-GE have been used. The model is initialized at 1st January, 2000 for a 13-year continuous simulation at a spatial resolution of 50 km. The models reasonably simulate the seasonal mean low level wind pattern though they differ in simulating mean precipitation pattern. All models produce dry bias in precipitation over Indian land region except in RegCM-EG where relatively low value of dry bias is observed. On seasonal scale, the performance of RegCM-EG is more close to observation though it fails at intraseasonal time scales. In wave number-frequency spectrum, the observed peak in zonal wind (850 hPa) at 40–50 day scale is captured by all models with a slight change in amplitude, however, the 40–50 day peak in precipitation is completely absent in RegCM-EG. The space–time characteristics of MISOs are well captured by RegCM-EE over RegCM-GE, however it fails to show the eastward propagation of the convection across the Maritime Continent. Except RegCM-EE all other models completely underestimates the moisture advection from Equatorial Indian Ocean onto Indian land region during life-cycle of MISOs. The characteristics of MISOs are studied for strong (SM) and weak (WM) monsoon years and the differences in model performances are analyzed. The wavelet spectrum of rainfall over central India denotes that, the SM years are dominated by high frequency oscillations (period <20 days) whereas little higher periods (>30 days) along with dominated low periods (<20 days) observed during WM years. During SM, RegCM-EE is dominated with high frequency oscillations (period <20 days) whereas in WM, RegCM-EE is dominated with periods >20
The life cycle of continental rifts: Numerical models of plate tectonics and mantle convection.
Ulvrova, Martina; Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon
2017-04-01
Plate tectonic processes and mantle convection form a self-organized system whose surface expression is characterized by repeated Wilson cycles. Conventional numerical models often capture only specific aspects of plate-mantle interaction, due to imposed lateral boundary conditions or simplified rheologies. Here we study continental rift evolution using a 2D spherical annulus geometry that does not require lateral boundary conditions. Instead, continental extension is driven self-consistently by slab pull, basal drag and trench suction forces. We use the numerical code StagYY to solve equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy and transport of material properties. This code is capable of computing mantle convection with self-consistently generated Earth-like plate tectonics using a pseudo-plastic rheology. Our models involve an incompressible mantle under the Boussinesq approximation with internal heat sources and basal heating. Due to the 2D setup, our models allow for a comparably high resolution of 10 km at the mantle surface and 15 km at the core mantle boundary. Viscosity variations range over 7 orders of magnitude. We find that the causes for rift initiation are often related to subduction dynamics. Some rifts initiate due to increasing slab pull, others because of developing trench suction force, for instance by closure of an intra-oceanic back-arc basin. In agreement with natural settings, our models reproduce rifts forming in both young and old collision zones. Our experiments show that rift dynamics follow a characteristic evolution, which is independent of the specific setting: (1) continental rifts initiate during tens of million of years at low extension rates (few millimetres per year) (2) the extension velocity increases during less than 10 million years up to several tens of millimetres per year. This speed-up takes place before lithospheric break-up and affects the structural architecture of rifted margins. (3) high divergence rates
Numerical modeling of double-diffusive convection in ice slurry storage tank
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kousksou, T.; Zeraouli, Y. [Laboratoire de Thermique, Energetique et Procedes, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Avenue de l' Universite, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); Arid, A. [Laboratoire de Thermique, Energetique et Procedes, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Avenue de l' Universite, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); Laboratoire d' Energetique, Mecanique des Fluides et Sciences des Materiaux, Universite Abdelmalek Essaidi, 90000 Tetouan (Morocco); Majid, J. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Fes, Universite Sidi Mohamed Ibn Abdelah, Route d' Imouzzer BP 2427 (Morocco)
2010-12-15
The interaction between laminar Rayleigh-Benard convection and non-isothermal melting process is studied for the case of ice slurry kept in a rectangular cavity heated from the bottom. Clear visualization of the Rayleigh-Benard convective cells and their interaction with the melting front are obtained. It is observed that the convective cells are characterized by zones of up-flow and down-flow, resulting in the development of a nonplanar interface. Because of the continuous advancement of the solid/liquid interface, the effective solid height of the cavity keeps decreasing. The results include also the evolution of the solid-liquid interface, the local temperature and the ice mass fraction inside the storage tank. (author)
Scaled model studies of decay heat removal by natural convection for sodium cooled reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoffmann, H. (Institut fuer Angewandte Thermo- und Fluiddynamik (IATF), Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)); Weinberg, D. (Institut fuer Angewandte Thermo- und Fluiddynamik (IATF), Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)); Marten, K. (Institut fuer Angewandte Thermo- und Fluiddynamik (IATF), Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)); Schnetgoeke, G. (Institut fuer Angewandte Thermo- und Fluiddynamik (IATF), Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany))
1993-06-01
Thermohydraulic experiments were performed with water in order to simulate decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool-type sodium cooled reactor. Two water test rigs of different scales were used, namely, RAMONA (1:20) and NEPTUN (1:5). RAMONA was taken to study the transition from nominal operation by forced convection to decay heat removal operation by natural convection. Steady-state similarity tests were carried out in both facilities. All tests provide a basis for verification of computer programs. Calculations performed with the three-dimensional code FLUTAN proved that the thermohydraulic processes are quantitatively mastered, even for the very complex geometry of the NEPTUN test rig. (orig.)
Clapp, C.; Leroy, S. S.; Anderson, J. G.
2015-12-01
Water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) from the tropics to the poles is important both radiatively and chemically. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas, and increases in water vapor concentrations in the UTLS lead to cooling at these levels and induce warming at the surface [Forster and Shine, 1999; 2002;Solomon et al., 2010]. Water vapor is also integral to stratospheric chemistry. It is the dominant source of OH in the lower stratosphere [ Hanisco et al. , 2001], and increases in water vapor concentrations promote stratospheric ozone loss by raising the reactivity of several key heterogeneous reactions as well as by promoting the growth of reactive surface area [Anderson et al., 2012; Carslaw et al., 1995; Carslaw et al., 1997; Drdla and Muller , 2012; Kirk-Davidoff et al., 1999; Shi et al., 2001]. However, the processes that control the distribution and phase of water in this region of the atmosphere are not well understood. This is especially true at mid-latitudes where several different dynamical mechanisms are capable of influencing UTLS water vapor concentrations. The contribution by deep convective storm systems that penetrate into the lower stratosphere is the least well understood and the least well represented in global models because of the small spatial scales and short time scales over which convection occurs. To address this issue, we have begun a modeling study to investigate the convective injection of water vapor from the troposphere into the stratosphere in the mid-latitudes. Fine-scale models have been previously used to simulate convection from the troposphere to the stratosphere [e.g., Homeyer et al., 2014]. Here we employ the Advanced Research Weather and Research Forecasting model (ARW) at 3-km resolution to resolve convection over the eastern United States during August of 2007 and August of 2013. We conduct a comparison of MERRA, the reanalysis used to initialize ARW, and the model output to assess
Freire, Livia S.; Dias, Nelson L.
2013-12-01
The ability of slab models for the growth of the convective boundary layer (CBL) to work in the presence of residual layers above is analyzed in detail with a large data set from the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE)-87 and FIFE-89 experiments. We confirm that the critical element that allows the models to predict the growth as the CBL coalesces with the residual layer is the adoption of a variable lapse rate above the growing CBL. This is not a new finding per se, as several previous studies in the literature have adopted this strategy. Different parameterizations of a slab model, based on the turbulence kinetic energy budget at the top of the CBL, were tested, and the inclusion of the storage and dissipation terms did not improve the model. Among the alternatives for choosing the lapse rate as the CBL grows, fair results are obtained with a simple choice of two values, with absolute mean errors of the order of 270 m for cases with and without a residual layer. Both lapse rates, representative of the residual layer and the free atmosphere, are obtained from the first morning sounding. Finally, an alternative model for the CBL growth into a residual layer that assumes a zero-lapse rate above the CBL did not perform well with the FIFE data.
Glatzmaier, Gary
2013-01-01
This book provides readers with the skills they need to write computer codes that simulate convection, internal gravity waves, and magnetic field generation in the interiors and atmospheres of rotating planets and stars. Using a teaching method perfected in the classroom, Gary Glatzmaier begins by offering a step-by-step guide on how to design codes for simulating nonlinear time-dependent thermal convection in a two-dimensional box using Fourier expansions in the horizontal direction and finite differences in the vertical direction. He then describes how to implement more efficient and accura
McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Wood, Lance
2014-01-01
Inspection of output from various configurations of high-resolution, explicit convection forecast models such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model indicates significant sensitivity to the choices of model physics pararneterizations employed. Some of the largest apparent sensitivities are related to the specifications of the cloud microphysics and planetary boundary layer physics packages. In addition, these sensitivities appear to be especially pronounced for the weakly-sheared, multicell modes of deep convection characteristic of the Deep South of the United States during the boreal summer. Possible ocean-land sensitivities also argue for further examination of the impacts of using unique ocean-land surface initialization datasets provided by the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRn Center to select NOAAlNWS weather forecast offices. To obtain better quantitative understanding of these sensitivities and also to determine the utility of the ocean-land initialization data, we have executed matrices of regional WRF forecasts for selected convective events near Mobile, AL (MOB), and Houston, TX (HGX). The matrices consist of identically initialized WRF 24-h forecasts using any of eight microphysics choices and any of three planetary boWldary layer choices. The resulting 24 simulations performed for each event within either the MOB or HGX regions are then compared to identify the sensitivities of various convective storm metrics to the physics choices. Particular emphasis is placed on sensitivities of precipitation timing, intensity, and coverage, as well as amount and coverage oflightuing activity diagnosed from storm kinematics and graupel in the mixed phase layer. The results confirm impressions gleaned from study of the behavior of variously configured WRF runs contained in the ensembles produced each spring at the Center for the Analysis and Prediction of Storms, but with the benefit of more straightforward control of the
McCaul, E. W., Jr.; Case, J. L.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Srikishen, J.; Medlin, J. M.; Wood, L.
2014-01-01
Inspection of output from various configurations of high-resolution, explicit convection forecast models such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model indicates significant sensitivity to the choices of model physics parameterizations employed. Some of the largest apparent sensitivities are related to the specifications of the cloud microphysics and planetary boundary layer physics packages. In addition, these sensitivities appear to be especially pronounced for the weakly-sheared, multicell modes of deep convection characteristic of the Deep South of the United States during the boreal summer. Possible ocean-land sensitivities also argue for further examination of the impacts of using unique ocean-land surface initialization datasets provided by the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT Center to select NOAA/NWS weather forecast offices. To obtain better quantitative understanding of these sensitivities and also to determine the utility of the ocean-land initialization data, we have executed matrices of regional WRF forecasts for selected convective events near Mobile, AL (MOB), and Houston, TX (HGX). The matrices consist of identically initialized WRF 24-h forecasts using any of eight microphysics choices and any of three planetary boundary layer choices. The resulting 24 simulations performed for each event within either the MOB or HGX regions are then compared to identify the sensitivities of various convective storm metrics to the physics choices. Particular emphasis is placed on sensitivities of precipitation timing, intensity, and coverage, as well as amount and coverage of lightning activity diagnosed from storm kinematics and graupel in the mixed phase layer. The results confirm impressions gleaned from study of the behavior of variously configured WRF runs contained in the ensembles produced each spring at the Center for the Analysis and Prediction of Storms, but with the benefit of more straightforward control of the
Modeling mixing convection analysis of discrete partially filled porous channel for optimum design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed G. Ghorab
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Mixing convection flow inside a convergent horizontal channel partially filled with porous material and a clear channel are investigated numerically in the present study. Four discrete heat sources with uniform heat flux have been applied on the bottom surface of the channel. Three different channel exit heights are studied (He = 1, 0.5 and 0.25. The thermal and flow-field analysis inside the channel is investigated for different wide range of Reynolds number (50 ⩽ Re ⩽ 300, Darcy number (10−2 ⩽ Da ⩽ 10−6, Richardson number (0 ⩽ Ri ⩽ 100 and Prandtl number (0.7 ⩽ Pr ⩽ 10. The present study carried out the effect of the channel exit height, Richardson number, Reynolds number, Darcy number and Prandtl number on the flow-field, the Nusselt number and the overall heat transfer performance. The Brinkman–Forchheimer–extended Darcy model is used to solve the governing equations of the fluid in the porous medium. The results reveal that the boundary layer thickness and flow velocity increase at high Richardson number for both porous and clear channels. The overall Nusselt number increases significantly for further increase in Darcy number, particularly for Ri > 10. The smallest channel exit height (He = 0.25 provides a high Nusselt number and low overall heat transfer performances. Furthermore, Richardson number has a small significant effect on overall Nusselt number and heat transfer performance at low Prandtl number.
van Summeren, J.R.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835730
2008-01-01
In modern geoscience, mounting evidence in support of large-scale lateral variations in the composition of Earth's deep mantle has fueled the debate on the structure and evolution of mantle convection. Seismological data supports the view that material transport across the mantle transition zone is
Hilst, R.D. van der; Kárason, H.
1999-01-01
Tomographic imaging indicates that slabs of subducted lithosphere can sink deep into Earth's lower mantle. The view that convective flow is stratified at 660-kilometer depth and preserves a relatively pristine lower mantle is therefore not tenable. However, a range of geophysical evidence indicates
Numerical modelling of thermal convection in the Luttelgeest carbonate platform, the Netherlands
Lipsey, L.; Pluymaekers, M.; Goldberg, T.; Oversteeg, K. van; Ghazaryan, L.; Cloetingh, S.; van Wees, J.D.
2016-01-01
The presence of convective fluid flow in permeable layers can create zones of anomalously high temperature which can be exploited for geothermal energy. Temperature measurements from the Luttelgeest-01 (LTG-01) well in the northern onshore region of the Netherlands indicate variations in the thermal
Mathematical Modeling of Microwave-Assisted Convective Heating and Drying of Grapes
This research studied the processing performance and product quality of Thompson seedless grapes dried using microwave-assisted convective hot air drying as well as the effect of blanching and dipping pretreatments. Two pretreatment methods were compared, dipping into 2% ethyl oleate (V/V) and 5% p...
Liu, Yi-Chin; Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Guang J.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Ghan, Steven J.
2015-04-01
Following Part I, in which 3-D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of a squall line and mesoscale convective complex in the midlatitude continental and the tropical regions are conducted and evaluated, we examine the scale dependence of eddy transport of water vapor, evaluate different eddy transport formulations, and improve the representation of convective transport across all scales by proposing a new formulation that more accurately represents the CRM-calculated eddy flux. CRM results show that there are strong grid-spacing dependencies of updraft and downdraft fractions regardless of altitudes, cloud life stage, and geographical location. As for the eddy transport of water vapor, updraft eddy flux is a major contributor to total eddy flux in the lower and middle troposphere. However, downdraft eddy transport can be as large as updraft eddy transport in the lower atmosphere especially at the mature stage of midlatitude continental convection. We show that the single-updraft approach significantly underestimates updraft eddy transport of water vapor because it fails to account for the large internal variability of updrafts, while a single downdraft represents the downdraft eddy transport of water vapor well. We find that using as few as three updrafts can account for the internal variability of updrafts well. Based on the evaluation with the CRM simulated data, we recommend a simplified eddy transport formulation that considers three updrafts and one downdraft. Such formulation is similar to the conventional one but much more accurately represents CRM-simulated eddy flux across all grid scales.
Weng, Kevin C; Hashizume, Rintaro; Noble, Charles O; Serwer, Laura P; Drummond, Daryl C; Kirpotin, Dmitri B; Kuwabara, Anne M; Chao, Lucy X; Chen, Fanqing F; James, Charles D; Park, John W
2013-12-01
The aim of this work is to evaluate combining targeting strategy and convection-enhanced delivery in brain tumor models by imaging quantum dot-immunoliposome hybrid nanoparticles. An EGF receptor-targeted, quantum dot-immunoliposome hybrid nanoparticle (QD-IL) was synthesized. In vitro uptake was measured by flow cytometry and intracellular localization was imaged by confocal microscopy. In the in vivo study, QD-ILs were delivered to intracranial xenografts via convection-enhanced delivery and fluorescence was monitored noninvasively in real-time. QD-ILs exhibited specific and efficient uptake in vitro and exhibited approximately 1.3- to 5.0-fold higher total fluorescence compared with nontargeted counterpart in intracranial brain tumor xenografts in vivo. QD-ILs serve as an effective imaging agent in vitro and in vivo, and the data suggest that ligand-directed liposomal nanoparticles in conjunction with convection-enhanced delivery may offer therapeutic benefits for glioblastoma treatment as a result of specific and efficient uptake by malignant cells.
Elliott, E.; Yu, S.; Kooperman, G. J.; Morrison, H.; Wang, M.; Pritchard, M. S.
2014-12-01
Microphysical and resolution sensitivities of explicitly resolved convection within mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in the central United States are well documented in the context of single case studies simulated by cloud resolving models (CRMs) under tight boundary and initial condition constraints. While such an experimental design allows researchers to causatively isolate the effects of CRM microphysical and resolution parameterizations on modeled MCSs, it is still challenging to produce conclusions generalizable to multiple storms. The uncertainty associated with the results of such experiments comes both from the necessary physical constraints imposed by the limited CRM domain as well as the inability to evaluate or control model internal variability. A computationally practical method to minimize these uncertainties is the use of super-parameterized (SP) global climate models (GCMs), in which CRMs are embedded within GCMs to allow their free interaction with one another as orchestrated by large-scale global dynamics. This study uses NCAR's SP Community Atmosphere Model 5 (SP-CAM5) to evaluate microphysical and horizontal resolution sensitivities in summer ensembles of nocturnal MCSs in the central United States. Storm events within each run were identified using an objective empirical orthogonal function (EOF) algorithm, then further calibrated to harmonize individual storm signals and account for the temporal and spatial heterogeneity between them. Three summers of control data from a baseline simulation are used to assess model internal interannual variability to measure its magnitude relative to sensitivities in a number of distinct experimental runs with varying CRM parameters. Results comparing sensitivities of convective intensity to changes in fall speed assumptions about dense rimed species, one- vs. two-moment microphysics, and CRM horizontal resolution will be discussed.
Herrera-Gutiérrez, Manuel E; Seller-Pérez, Gemma; Arias-Verdú, Dolores; Granados, Maria M; Dominguez, Juan M; Navarrete, Rocío; Morgaz, Juán; Gómez-Villamandos, Rafael
2012-10-01
Replacement therapies based on the use of convection have value for the removal of inflammatory mediators. Such therapies have been proposed for the management of septic shock, but diffusion has not proved useful in this scenario, unless high-flow membranes are used. The exact role of diffusion in these cases remains to be clarified because continuous replacement therapies are usually delivered with low-flow membranes and mixed convection-diffusion modalities. However, studies specifically addressing this problem have not been performed. Our aim was to define the efficacy of hemofiltration (convection) and hemodialysis (diffusion) in cytokine clearance and hemodynamic improvement in an experimental model of septic shock. Shock was induced in 15 beagle dogs (weight 10-15 kg) by infusion of 1 mg/kg of ultrapure Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide diluted in 20 mL saline for 10 minutes. Five animals were followed without interventions (controls), five animals were treated with convection (100 mL kg h) for 6 hours, and five animals were treated with diffusion (100 mL kg h) for 6 hours. All subjects in the control group died during the study, whereas all treated subjects survived. Mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, systolic variability volume, systemic vascular resistances, dPMax, and pulmonary compliance improved in treated subjects. However, the differences in mean arterial pressure and cardiac output were significant only in the convection group and not in the diffusion-treated group.Tumor necrosis factor α rose equally in all groups and decreased only in treated subjects. Interleukin 6 rose in the three groups but decreased only in the convection group and remained unchanged in the control and diffusion groups. Convection and diffusion improved survival and hemodynamic parameters in a septic shock model. Improvement was more pronounced with convection, a difference that may be explained by convective clearance of cytokines.
Rossby numbers of fully convective and partially convective stars
Landin, Natália R.; Mendes, Luiz T. S.
2017-10-01
In this work, we investigate the stellar magnetic activity in the theoretical point of view, through the use of stellar structure and evolution models. We present theoretical values of convective turnover times and Rossby numbers for low-mass stars, calculated with the ATON stellar structure and evolution code. We concentrate our analysis on fully convective and partially convective stars motivated by recent observations of X-ray emission of slowly rotating fully convective stars, which suggest that the presence of a tachocline is not a central key for magnetic fields generation. We investigate the behavior of the convective turnover time evolution, as well as its radial profile inside the star. A discussion about the location where the convective turnover time is calculated in the stellar interior is also addressed. Our theoretical results are compared to observational data from low-mass stars.
Miller, Timothy L.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Cohen, Charles; Mackaro, Jessica
2009-01-01
The Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) is a system of models that have been developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to support NASA's earth science research in data analysis, observing system modeling and design, climate and weather prediction, and basic research. The work presented used GEOS-5 with 0.25o horizontal resolution and 72 vertical levels (up to 0.01 hP) resolving both the troposphere and stratosphere, with closer packing of the levels close to the surface. The model includes explicit (grid-scale) moist physics, as well as convective parameterization schemes. Results will be presented that will demonstrate strong dependence in the results of modeling of a strong hurricane on the type of convective parameterization scheme used. The previous standard (default) option in the model was the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) scheme, which uses a quasi-equilibrium closure. In the cases shown, this scheme does not permit the efficient development of a strong storm in comparison with observations. When this scheme is replaced by a modified version of the Kain-Fritsch scheme, which was originally developed for use on grids with intervals of order 25 km such as the present one, the storm is able to develop to a much greater extent, closer to that of reality. Details of the two cases will be shown in order to elucidate the differences in the two modeled storms.
Neitzel, G. P.; Law, C. C.; Jankowski, D. F.; Mittelmann, H. D.
1991-01-01
Energy-stability theory has been applied to investigate the stability properties of thermocapillary convection in a half-zone model of the float-zone crystal-growth process. An earlier axisymmetric model has been extended to permit nonaxisymmetric disturbances, thus determining sufficient conditions for stability to disturbances of arbitrary amplitude. The results for nonaxisymmetric disturbances are compared with earlier axisymmetric results, with linear-stability results for a geometry with an infinitely long aspect ratio and with stability boundaries from recent laboratory experiments.
The source location of mantle plumes from 3D spherical models of mantle convection
Li, Mingming; Zhong, Shijie
2017-11-01
Mantle plumes are thought to originate from thermal boundary layers such as Earth's core-mantle boundary (CMB), and may cause intraplate volcanism such as large igneous provinces (LIPs) on the Earth's surface. Previous studies showed that the original eruption sites of deep-sourced LIPs for the last 200 Myrs occur mostly above the margins of the seismically-observed large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in the lowermost mantle. However, the mechanism that leads to the distribution of the LIPs is not clear. The location of the LIPs is largely determined by the source location of mantle plumes, but the question is under what conditions mantle plumes form outside, at the edges, or above the middle of LLSVPs. Here, we perform 3D geodynamic calculations and theoretical analyses to study the plume source location in the lowermost mantle. We find that a factor of five decrease of thermal expansivity and a factor of two increase of thermal diffusivity from the surface to the CMB, which are consistent with mineral physics studies, significantly reduce the number of mantle plumes forming far outside of thermochemical piles (i.e., LLSVPs). An increase of mantle viscosity in the lowermost mantle also reduces number of plumes far outside of piles. In addition, we find that strong plumes preferentially form at/near the edges of piles and are generally hotter than that forming on top of piles, which may explain the observations that most LIPs occur above LLSVP margins. However, some plumes originated at pile edges can later appear above the middle of piles due to lateral movement of the plumes and piles and morphologic changes of the piles. ∼65-70% strong plumes are found within 10 degrees from pile edges in our models. Although plate motion exerts significant controls over the large-scale mantle convection in the lower mantle, mantle plume formation at the CMB remains largely controlled by thermal boundary layer instability which makes it difficult to predict geographic
Assimilation of zenith total delays in the AROME France convective scale model: a recent assessment
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Jean-Francois Mahfouf
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The impact of assimilating GPS zenith total delays (ZTD in the convective scale model AROME is assessed over a 1-month period in summer 2013. The experimental set-up is similar to the current operational usage at Météo-France where the observing system has been expanded in July 2013 in a three-dimensional variational (3D-Var data assimilation scheme with a 3-hour cycling. Three experiments are performed. In a baseline experiment the GPS ZTD provided through the E-GVAP programme are withdrawn from the observing system (NOGPS. In a second experiment, GPS ZTD from E-GVAP are included in the observing system, representing the operational configuration at Météo-France (EGVAP. The last experiment is similar to EGVAP but new ZTD observations processed by the University of Luxembourg are also assimilated on top of all other observations (UL01. In the first stage, it has been verified through a systematic comparison with model counterparts that the quality of ZTD data processed by the University of Luxembourg is similar to the one provided by other analysis centres from the E-GVAP programme. After a number of quality controls, it has been possible to assimilate around 90 additional observations on top of around 600 stations from E-GVAP every 3 hours. Despite the small fraction of observations assimilated in AROME that ZTD represent (<2%, it is shown that they systematically improve the atmospheric humidity short-range forecasts by a comparison with other observing systems informative about water vapour (radiosoundings, satellite radiances, surface networks even though it is by small amounts. When examining objective precipitation scores over France, the improvement brought by the UL01 stations on top of E-GVAP is systematic for all daily precipitation thresholds. Examination of several case studies reveals the ability of the ZTD observations to modify the intensity and location of precipitating areas in accordance with previous studies. The addition
Convection and stellar oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarslev, Magnus Johan
2017-01-01
of stars. For stars like the sun, energy transport in the outer layers occurs mainly through turbulent convection. Here, pressure mode oscillations are essentially propagating sound waves, whose properties can be altered by interaction with the turbulent motion of the gas. This has always been a problem...... for asteroseismology, because of the challenges inherent in modelling turbulent convection in 1D stellar models. As a result of oversimplifying the physics near the surface, theoretical calculations systematically overestimate the oscillation frequencies. This has become known as the asteroseismic surface effect. Due...... to lacking better options, this frequency difference is typically corrected for with ad-hoc formulae. The topic of this thesis is the improvement of 1D stellar convection models and the effects this has on asteroseismic properties. The source of improvements is 3D simulations of radiation...
van Lipzig, Nicole; Brisson, Erwan; Van Weverberg, Kwinten; Demuzere, Matthias; Devis, Annemarie; Saeed Saeed, Sajjad; Stengel, Martin
2017-04-01
Convection-permitting climate model are promising tools for improved representation of extremes, but the number of regions for which these models have been evaluated are still rather limited to make robust conclusions. In addition, an integrated interpretation of near-surface characteristics (typically temperature and precipitation) together with cloud properties is limited. The objective of this presentation is to comprehensively evaluate the performance of a 'state-of-the-art' regional convection-permitting climate model for a mid-latitude coastal region with little orographic forcing. For this purpose, an 11-year integration with the COSMO-CLM model at Convection-Permitting Scale (CPS) using a grid spacing of 2.8 km was compared with in-situ and satellite-based observations of precipitation, temperature, cloud properties and radiation (both at the surface and the top of the atmosphere). CPS clearly improves the representation of precipitation, in especially the diurnal cycle, intensity and spatial distribution of hourly precipitation. Improvements in the representation of temperature are less obvious. In fact the CPS integration overestimates both low and high temperature extremes. The underlying cause for the overestimation of high temperature extremes was attributed to deficiencies in the cloud properties: The modelled cloud fraction is only 46 % whereas a cloud fraction of 65 % was observed. Surprisingly, the effect of this deficiency was less pronounced at the radiation balance at the top of the atmosphere due to a compensating error, in particular an overestimation of the reflectivity of clouds when they are present. Overall, a better representation of convective precipitation and a very good representation of the daily cycle in different cloud types were demonstrated. However, to overcome remaining deficiencies, additional efforts are necessary to improve cloud characteristics in CPS. This will be a challenging task due to compensating deficiencies that
Tests of a Convective Cloud Model with Soundings During the TCM-90 Field Experiment
1992-03-01
Meteorology Robert L. Haney, Chai an Department of Meteorology ii ABSTRACT A new proposed scheme for representing cumulus convection in a large-scale...towers and the total heating at lower levels ( Houze 1989). In particular, its propensity to mix with the environment and sink as a result of evaporative...observations. Technical Report NPS MR-91-006, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943. 66 Houze , R. A., Jr., 1989: Observed structure of
Ng, Hok K.; Grabbe, Shon; Mukherjee, Avijit
2010-01-01
The optimization of traffic flows in congested airspace with varying convective weather is a challenging problem. One approach is to generate shortest routes between origins and destinations while meeting airspace capacity constraint in the presence of uncertainties, such as weather and airspace demand. This study focuses on development of an optimal flight path search algorithm that optimizes national airspace system throughput and efficiency in the presence of uncertainties. The algorithm is based on dynamic programming and utilizes the predicted probability that an aircraft will deviate around convective weather. It is shown that the running time of the algorithm increases linearly with the total number of links between all stages. The optimal routes minimize a combination of fuel cost and expected cost of route deviation due to convective weather. They are considered as alternatives to the set of coded departure routes which are predefined by FAA to reroute pre-departure flights around weather or air traffic constraints. A formula, which calculates predicted probability of deviation from a given flight path, is also derived. The predicted probability of deviation is calculated for all path candidates. Routes with the best probability are selected as optimal. The predicted probability of deviation serves as a computable measure of reliability in pre-departure rerouting. The algorithm can also be extended to automatically adjust its design parameters to satisfy the desired level of reliability.
Mayor, T S; Couto, S; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M
2015-12-01
The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s(-1)) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 10(2)-3 × 10(5)). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow
Prueitt, Melvin L.
1994-01-01
Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode.
Planetary Ice-Oceans: Numerical Modeling Study of Ice-Shell Growth in Convecting Two-Phase Systems
Allu Peddinti, Divya; McNamara, Allen
2017-04-01
Several icy bodies in the Solar system such as the icy moons Europa and Enceladus exhibit signs of subsurface oceans underneath an ice-shell. For Europa, the geologically young surface, the presence of surface features and the aligned surface chemistry pose interesting questions about formation of the ice-shell and its interaction with the ocean below. This also ties in with its astrobiological potential and implications for similar ice-ocean systems elsewhere in the cosmos. The overall thickness of the H2O layer on Europa is estimated to be 100-150 km while the thickness of the ice-shell is debated. Additionally, Europa is subject to tidal heating due to interaction with Jupiter's immense gravity field. It is of interest to understand how the ice-shell thickness varies in the presence of tidal internal heating and the localization of heating in different regions of the ice-shell. Thus this study aims to determine the effect of tidal internal heating on the growth rate of the ice-shell over time. We perform geodynamic modeling of the ice-ocean system in order to understand how the ice-shell thickness changes with time. The convection code employs the ice Ih-water phase diagram in order to model the two-phase convecting ice-ocean system. All the models begin from an initial warm thick ocean that cools from the top. The numerical experiments analyze three cases: case 1 with no tidal internal heating in the system, case 2 with constant tidal internal heating in the ice and case 3 with viscosity-dependent tidal internal heating in the ice. We track the ice-shell thickness as a function of time as the system cools. Modeling results so far have identified that the shell growth rate changes substantially at a point in time that coincides with a change in the planform of ice-convection cells. Additionally, the velocity vs depth plots indicate a shift from a conduction dominant to a convection dominant ice regime. We compare the three different cases to provide a
Awais, Muhammad; Awan, Saeed Ehsan; Iqbal, Khalid; Khan, Zuhaib Ashfaq; Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor
2018-03-01
The effect of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model for the hydro-magnetic mixed convective flow of a non-Newtonian fluid is presented. The flow over a wall having variable thickness is anticipated under the influence of transverse magnetic field and internal heat generation/absorption effects. Mathematical formulation has been performed by making use of the suitable transformations. Convergence analysis has been performed and the optimal values are computed by employing optimal homotopy analysis method. The effects of physical parameters are elaborated in depth via graphical and numerical illustrations.
Interaction Between Convection and Pulsation
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Günter Houdek
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This article reviews our current understanding of modelling convection dynamics in stars. Several semi-analytical time-dependent convection models have been proposed for pulsating one-dimensional stellar structures with different formulations for how the convective turbulent velocity field couples with the global stellar oscillations. In this review we put emphasis on two, widely used, time-dependent convection formulations for estimating pulsation properties in one-dimensional stellar models. Applications to pulsating stars are presented with results for oscillation properties, such as the effects of convection dynamics on the oscillation frequencies, or the stability of pulsation modes, in classical pulsators and in stars supporting solar-type oscillations.
Li, Mingming; Black, Benjamin; Zhong, Shijie; Manga, Michael; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Olson, Peter
2016-07-01
The Earth's surface volcanism exerts first-order controls on the composition of the atmosphere and the climate. On Earth, the majority of surface volcanism occurs at mid-ocean ridges. In this study, based on the dependence of melt fraction on temperature, pressure, and composition, we compute melt production and degassing rate at mid-ocean ridges from three-dimensional global mantle convection models with plate motion history as the surface velocity boundary condition. By incorporating melting in global mantle convection models, we connect deep mantle convection to surface volcanism, with deep and shallow mantle processes internally consistent. We compare two methods to compute melt production: a tracer method and an Eulerian method. Our results show that melt production at mid-ocean ridges is mainly controlled by surface plate motion history, and that changes in plate tectonic motion, including plate reorganizations, may lead to significant deviation of melt production from the expected scaling with seafloor production rate. We also find a good correlation between melt production and degassing rate beneath mid-ocean ridges. The calculated global melt production and CO2 degassing rate at mid-ocean ridges varies by as much as a factor of 3 over the past 200 Myr. We show that mid-ocean ridge melt production and degassing rate would be much larger in the Cretaceous, and reached maximum values at ˜150-120 Ma. Our results raise the possibility that warmer climate in the Cretaceous could be due in part to high magmatic productivity and correspondingly high outgassing rates at mid-ocean ridges during that time.
Parameterizing convective organization
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Brian Earle Mapes
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Lateral mixing parameters in buoyancy-driven deep convection schemes are among the most sensitive and important unknowns in atmosphere models. Unfortunately, there is not a true optimum value for plume mixing rate, but rather a dilemma or tradeoff: Excessive dilution of updrafts leads to unstable stratification bias in the mean state, while inadequate dilution allows deep convection to occur too easily, causing poor space and time distributions and variability. In this too-small parameter space, compromises are made based on competing metrics of model performance. We attempt to escape this “entrainment dilemma” by making bulk plume parameters (chiefly entrainment rate depend on a new prognostic variable (“organization,” org meant to reflect the rectified effects of subgrid-scale structure in meteorological fields. We test an org scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5 with a new unified shallow-deep convection scheme (UW-ens, a 2-plume version of the University of Washington scheme. Since buoyant ascent involves natural selection, subgrid structure makes convection systematically deeper and stronger than the pure unorganized case: plumes of average (or randomly sampled air rising in the average environment. To reflect this, org is nonnegative, but we leave it dimensionless. A time scale characterizes its behavior (here ∼3 h for a 2o model. Currently its source is rain evaporation, but other sources can be added easily. We also let org be horizontally transported by advection, as a mass-weighted mean over the convecting layer. Linear coefficients link org to a plume ensemble, which it assists via: 1 plume base warmth above the mean temperature 2 plume radius enhancement (reduced mixing, and 3 increased probability of overlap in a multi-plume scheme, where interactions benefit later generations (this part has only been implemented in an offline toy column model. Since rain evaporation is a source for org, it functions as a time
Anomalously Weak Solar Convection
Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.
2012-01-01
Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures on a spectrum of scales. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations, though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. Here, we analyze observations of the wavefield in the solar photosphere using techniques of time-distance helioseismology to image flows in the solar interior. We downsample and synthesize 900 billion wavefield observations to produce 3 billion cross-correlations, which we average and fit, measuring 5 million wave travel times. Using these travel times, we deduce the underlying flow systems and study their statistics to bound convective velocity magnitudes in the solar interior, as a function of depth and spherical- harmonic degree l..Within the wavenumber band l convective velocities are 20-100 times weaker than current theoretical estimates. This constraint suggests the prevalence of a different paradigm of turbulence from that predicted by existing models, prompting the question: what mechanism transports the heat flux of a solar luminosity outwards? Advection is dominated by Coriolis forces for wavenumbers l convection may be quasi-geostrophic. The fact that isorotation contours in the Sun are not coaligned with the axis of rotation suggests the presence of a latitudinal entropy gradient.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Luiz Boldrini
2003-11-01
Full Text Available We study the existence and regularity of weak solutions of a phase field type model for pure material solidification in presence of natural convection. We assume that the non-stationary solidification process occurs in a two dimensional bounded domain. The governing equations of the model are the phase field equation coupled with a nonlinear heat equation and a modified Navier-Stokes equation. These equations include buoyancy forces modelled by Boussinesq approximation and a Carman-Koseny term to model the flow in mushy regions. Since these modified Navier-Stokes equations only hold in the non-solid regions, which are not known a priori, we have a free boundary-value problem.
Convection Heat Transfer Modeling of Ag Nanofluid Using Different Viscosity Theories
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Ali Bakhsh Kasaeian
2012-04-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this paper, the effects of adding nanoparticles (including Ag to a fluid media for improving free convection heat transfer were analysed. The free convective heat transfer was assumed to be in laminar flow regime, and the corresponding calculations and solutions were all done by the integral method. Water, as a Newtonian fluid, was considered as the base and all relevant thermo physical properties of the nanofluids were considered to be unvarying. The calculations performed and the graphs generated showed that, in general, the addition of nanoparticles to the fluid media resulted in an increment or improvement of its heat transfer coefficient. With increase in the concentration of the nanoparticles, the heat transfer rate of the fluid also increased. The increment in heat transfer is also dependent on the nanoparticles’ thermal conductivity and the viscosity theory which was utilized in the calculations. In this study, four different theories were used to calculate the viscosities of the nanofluids. The effects of viscosity on the nanofluids’ thermal conductivity were apparent from the calculations which were performed for nanoparticle concentrations of 4% or less. ABSTRAK: Kajian ini menganalisis kesan penambahan nanopartikel Ag ke dalam media bendalir bagi tujuan pembaikkan pemindahan haba perolakan bebas. Perolakan bebas diandaikan berada di zon aliran laminar, di mana penyelesaian dan pengiraan telah dilakukan mengunakan kaedah kamilan. Air yang merupakan cecair Newtonian, dianggap sebagai asas dan sifat terma fizikal nanocecair dianggapkan tidak berubah. Mengikut pengiraan yang dilakukan dan graf yang diplotkan, umumnya penambahan nanopartikel kepada media bendalir menyebabkan peningkatan dan pengembangan pekali pemindahan haba. Kadar pemindahan haba meningkat dengan nanopartikel. Peningkatan pemindahan haba juga bergantung kepada pengalir haba nanopartikel dan teori kelikatan yang digunakan. Di dalam kajian ini, empat
Mukhopadhyay, P.; Goswami, B.; Santra, A.; Ganai, M.; Krishna, R. P. M.; Mahakur, M.; Khairoutdinov, M.; Goswami, B. N.
2014-12-01
It is well known that Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM) shows limited skill in capturing the Tropical Intraseasonal Oscillations (TISO). As the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) is adopted for operational monsoon forecast of India, improving its bias will directly benefit the operational forecast and finally the society. Keeping this in background, we felt, improving the cloud and convection parameterization of CFS (version2) is the need of the hour. A first attempt is made to improve the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall from diurnal through daily to seasonal scale. Experiments with Simplified Arakawa Schubert (SAS) and a revised SAS (RSAS) schemes are carried out to make 15 years climate run (free run). It is clearly seen that the use of RSAS is able to improve some of the biases of CFSv2 with SAS. Improvement is seen in the annual seasonal cycle, onset and withdrawal but most importantly the rainfall probability distribution function (PDF). The PDF of diurnal rainfall has significantly improved with respect to even a high resolution CFSv2 T382. The improvement of diurnal cycle of total rainfall is found to be contributed by the improvement of convective rainfall. However, the cold tropospheric temperature bias, low cloud fractions need further improvement. As the RSAS could only improve the convective rainfall but not the resolved scale process, the existing Zhao and Carr microphysics scheme is replaced by WSM6 scheme with six class of hydrometeors. The incorporation of WSM6 along with RSAS appears to make a significant improvement in the systematic biases of CFSv2 in the intraseasonal scale. It is able to capture the cloud processes much realistically and show a significant improvement in simulating the tropical waves and TISO. As a part of improving the cloud processes in CFSv2, we have attempted Superparameterization technique and have developed a SP-CFS (superparameterized (SP)). The CFSv2 used for SP is at T62 resolution. SP-CFS simulates an
Putnam, WilliamM.
2011-01-01
In 2008 the World Modeling Summit for Climate Prediction concluded that "climate modeling will need-and is ready-to move to fundamentally new high-resolution approaches to capitalize on the seamlessness of the weather-climate continuum." Following from this, experimentation with very high-resolution global climate modeling has gained enhanced priority within many modeling groups and agencies. The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5) has been enhanced to provide a capability for the execution at the finest horizontal resolutions POS,SIOle with a global climate model today. Using this high-resolution, non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5, we have developed a unique capability to explore the intersection of weather and climate within a seamless prediction system. Week-long weather experiments, to mUltiyear climate simulations at global resolutions ranging from 3.5- to 14-km have demonstrated the predictability of extreme events including severe storms along frontal systems, extra-tropical storms, and tropical cyclones. The primary benefits of high resolution global models will likely be in the tropics, with better predictions of the genesis stages of tropical cyclones and of the internal structure of their mature stages. Using satellite data we assess the accuracy of GEOS-5 in representing extreme weather phenomena, and their interaction within the global climate on seasonal time-scales. The impacts of convective parameterization and the frequency of coupling between the moist physics and dynamics are explored in terms of precipitation intensity and the representation of deep convection. We will also describe the seasonal variability of global tropical cyclone activity within a global climate model capable of representing the most intense category 5 hurricanes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yi-Chin; Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Guang J.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Ghan, Steven J.
2015-04-27
Following Part I, in which 3-D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of a squall line and mesoscale convective complex in the mid-latitude continental and the tropical regions are conducted and evaluated, we examine the scale-dependence of eddy transport of water vapor, evaluate different eddy transport formulations, and improve the representation of convective transport across all scales by proposing a new formulation that more accurately represents the CRM-calculated eddy flux. CRM results show that there are strong grid-spacing dependencies of updraft and downdraft fractions regardless of altitudes, cloud life stage, and geographical location. As for the eddy transport of water vapor, updraft eddy flux is a major contributor to total eddy flux in the lower and middle troposphere. However, downdraft eddy transport can be as large as updraft eddy transport in the lower atmosphere especially at the mature stage of 38 mid-latitude continental convection. We show that the single updraft approach significantly underestimates updraft eddy transport of water vapor because it fails to account for the large internal variability of updrafts, while a single downdraft represents the downdraft eddy transport of water vapor well. We find that using as few as 3 updrafts can account for the internal variability of updrafts well. Based on evaluation with the CRM simulated data, we recommend a simplified eddy transport formulation that considers three updrafts and one downdraft. Such formulation is similar to the conventional one but much more accurately represents CRM-simulated eddy flux across all grid scales.
Lang, S. E.; Tao, W. K.; Wu, D.
2016-12-01
The Goddard Convective-Stratiform Heating (or CSH) algorithm is used to retrieve estimates of cloud heating over the global Tropics using TRMM rainfall data and a set of look-up-tables (LUTs) derived from a series of multi-week cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations using the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (or GCE). These simulations link satellite observables (i.e., surface rainfall and stratiform fraction) with cloud heating profiles, which are not directly observable. The strength of the algorithm relies in part on the representativeness of the simulations; more realistic simulations provide a stronger link between the observables and simulated heating profiles. The current "TRMM" version of the CSH algorithm relies on 2D GCE simulations using an improved version of the Goddard 3-class ice scheme (3ICE), a moderate-sized domain, and 1-km horizontal resolution. Updating the LUTs, which are suitable for tropical and continental summertime environments requires new, more realistic GCE simulations. New simulations are performed using a new, improved 4-class ice scheme, which has been shown to outperform the 3ICE scheme, especially for intense convection. Additional grid configurations are also tested and evaluated to find the best overall setup to for re-deriving and updating the CSH tropical/summertime LUTs.
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Domingo A. Tarzia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We complete the Solomon-Wilson-Alexiades’s mushy zone model (Solomon, 1982 for the one-phase Lamé-Clapeyron-Stefan problem by obtaining explicit solutions when a convective or heat flux boundary condition is imposed on the fixed face for a semi-infinite material. We also obtain the necessary and sufficient condition on data in order to get the explicit solutions for both cases which is new with respect to the original model. Moreover, when these conditions are satisfied, the two phase-change problems are equivalent to the same problem with a temperature boundary condition on the fixed face and therefore an inequality for the coefficient which characterized one of the two free interfaces of the model is also obtained.
van den Berg, Wim; Kramer, Matthijs; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Hartmann, Hugo; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan
2017-04-01
Regional models like the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model use nested domains to save computational effort. However, studies have shown that sudden resolution changes between the nests can cause artefacts. The novel global Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) runs on Voronoi meshes that allow for a smooth resolution transition towards the desired high resolution in the region of interest, hereby minimizing the aforementioned artefacts. To our knowledge, this is the first study where MPAS is assessed over Europe focussing on mesoscale weather events. Three events have been assessed: a synoptic gale over the North Sea, a föhn wind in Switzerland, and a case of organised convection with hail over the Netherlands. We used three different Voronoi meshes, and compared the MPAS simulations to MeteoGroup's WRF output and observations. We also discuss and compare the computational requirements between MPAS and WRF.
Matsui, Toshihisa; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Stephen E.; Satoh, Masaki; Hashino, Tempei; Kubota, Takuji
2016-01-01
A 14-year climatology of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) collocated multi-sensor signal statistics reveal a distinct land-ocean contrast as well as geographical variability of precipitation type, intensity, and microphysics. Microphysics information inferred from the TRMM precipitation radar and Microwave Imager (TMI) show a large land-ocean contrast for the deep category, suggesting continental convective vigor. Over land, TRMM shows higher echo-top heights and larger maximum echoes, suggesting taller storms and more intense precipitation, as well as larger microwave scattering, suggesting the presence of morelarger frozen convective hydrometeors. This strong land-ocean contrast in deep convection is invariant over seasonal and multi-year time-scales. Consequently, relatively short-term simulations from two global storm-resolving models can be evaluated in terms of their land-ocean statistics using the TRMM Triple-sensor Three-step Evaluation via a satellite simulator. The models evaluated are the NASA Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) and the Non-hydrostatic Icosahedral Cloud Atmospheric Model (NICAM). While both simulations can represent convective land-ocean contrasts in warm precipitation to some extent, near-surface conditions over land are relatively moisture in NICAM than MMF, which appears to be the key driver in the divergent warm precipitation results between the two models. Both the MMF and NICAM produced similar frequencies of large CAPE between land and ocean. The dry MMF boundary layer enhanced microwave scattering signals over land, but only NICAM had an enhanced deep convection frequency over land. Neither model could reproduce a realistic land-ocean contrast in in deep convective precipitation microphysics. A realistic contrast between land and ocean remains an issue in global storm-resolving modeling.
Rohrmann, Alexander; Strecker, Manfred R.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Mulch, Andreas; Sachse, Dirk; Pingel, Heiko; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Schilgen, Taylor F.; Montero, Carolina
2015-04-01
Globally, changes in stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen (δ18O and δD) in the meteoric water cycle result from distillation and evaporation processes. Isotope fractionation occurs when air masses rise in elevation, cool, and reduce their water-vapor holding capacity with decreasing temperature. As such, d18O and dD values from a variety of sedimentary archives are often used to reconstruct changes in continental paleohydrology as well as paleoaltimetry of mountain ranges. Based on 234 stream-water samples, we demonstrate that areas experiencing deep convective storms in the eastern south-central Andes (22 - 28° S) do not show the commonly observed relationship between δ18O and δD with elevation. These convective storms arise from intermontane basins, where diurnal heating forces warm air masses upward, resulting in cloudbursts and raindrop evaporation. Especially at the boundary between the tropical and extra-tropical atmospheric circulation regimes where deep-convective storms are very common (~ 26° to 32° N and S), the impact of such storms may yield non-systematic stable isotope-elevation relationships as convection dominates over adiabatic lifting of air masses. Because convective storms can reduce or mask the depletion of heavy isotopes in precipitation as a function of elevation, linking modern or past topography to patterns of stable isotope proxy records can be compromised in mountainous regions, and atmospheric circulation models attempting to predict stable isotope patterns must have sufficiently high spatial resolution to capture the fractionation dynamics of convective cells. Rohrmann, A. et al. Can stable isotopes ride out the storms? The role of convection for water isotopes in models, records, and paleoaltimetry studies in the central Andes. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 407, 187-195 (2014).
Cloud-resolving model intercomparison of an MC3E squall line case: Part I—Convective updrafts
Fan, Jiwen; Han, Bin; Varble, Adam; Morrison, Hugh; North, Kirk; Kollias, Pavlos; Chen, Baojun; Dong, Xiquan; Giangrande, Scott E.; Khain, Alexander; Lin, Yun; Mansell, Edward; Milbrandt, Jason A.; Stenz, Ronald; Thompson, Gregory; Wang, Yuan
2017-09-01
An intercomparison study of a midlatitude mesoscale squall line is performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 1 km horizontal grid spacing with eight different cloud microphysics schemes to investigate processes that contribute to the large variability in simulated cloud and precipitation properties. All simulations tend to produce a wider area of high radar reflectivity (Ze > 45 dBZ) than observed but a much narrower stratiform area. The magnitude of the virtual potential temperature drop associated with the gust front passage is similar in simulations and observations, while the pressure rise and peak wind speed are smaller than observed, possibly suggesting that simulated cold pools are shallower than observed. Most of the microphysics schemes overestimate vertical velocity and Ze in convective updrafts as compared with observational retrievals. Simulated precipitation rates and updraft velocities have significant variability across the eight schemes, even in this strongly dynamically driven system. Differences in simulated updraft velocity correlate well with differences in simulated buoyancy and low-level vertical perturbation pressure gradient, which appears related to cold pool intensity that is controlled by the evaporation rate. Simulations with stronger updrafts have a more optimal convective state, with stronger cold pools, ambient low-level vertical wind shear, and rear-inflow jets. Updraft velocity variability between schemes is mainly controlled by differences in simulated ice-related processes, which impact the overall latent heating rate, whereas surface rainfall variability increases in no-ice simulations mainly because of scheme differences in collision-coalescence parameterizations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.S. Hashmi
Full Text Available In this study, we have constructed a mathematical model to investigate the heat source/sink effects in mixed convection axisymmetric flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting Oldroyd-B fluid between two infinite isothermal stretching disks. The effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating are also considered in the heat equation. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables. The series solution of these dimensionless equations is constructed by using homotopy analysis method. The convergence of the obtained solution is carefully examined. The effects of various involved parameters on pressure, velocity and temperature profiles are comprehensively studied. A graphical analysis has been presented for various values of problem parameters. The numerical values of wall shear stress and Nusselt number are computed at both upper and lower disks. Moreover, a graphical and tabular explanation for critical values of Frank-Kamenetskii regarding other flow parameters. Keywords: Isothermal stretching disk, Mixed convection, Viscous dissipation, Joule heating
Hoteit, Hussein
2017-12-29
Computation of the distribution of species in hydrocarbon reservoirs from diffusions (thermal, molecular, and pressure) and natural convection is an important step in reservoir initialization. Current methods, which are mainly based on the conventional finite difference approach, may not be numerically efficient in fractured and other media with complex heterogeneities. In this work, the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method combined with the mixed finite element (MFE) method is used for the calculation of compositional variation in fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs. The use of unstructured gridding allows efficient computations for fractured media when the crossflow equilibrium concept is invoked. The DG method has less numerical dispersion than the upwind finite difference (FD) methods. The MFE method ensures continuity of fluxes at the interface of the grid elements. We also use the local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) method instead of the MFE calculate the diffusion fluxes. Results from several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency, robustness, and accuracy of the model. Various features of convection and diffusion in homogeneous, layered, and fractured media are also discussed.
Shepherd, Tristan J.; Walsh, Kevin J.
2017-08-01
This study investigates the effect of the choice of convective parameterization (CP) scheme on the simulated tracks of three intense tropical cyclones (TCs), using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We focus on diagnosing the competing influences of large-scale steering flow, beta drift and convectively induced changes in track, as represented by four different CP schemes (Kain-Fritsch (KF), Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ), Grell-3D (G-3), and the Tiedtke (TD) scheme). The sensitivity of the results to initial conditions, model domain size and shallow convection is also tested. We employ a diagnostic technique by Chan et al. (J Atmos Sci 59:1317-1336, 2002) that separates the influence of the large-scale steering flow, beta drift and the modifications of the steering flow by the storm-scale convection. The combined effect of the steering flow and the beta drift causes TCs typically to move in the direction of the wavenumber-1 (WN-1) cyclonic potential vorticity tendency (PVT). In instances of asymmetrical TCs, the simulated TC motion does not necessarily match the motion expected from the WN-1 PVT due to changes in the convective pattern. In the present study, we test this concept in the WRF simulations and investigate whether if the diagnosed motion from the WN-1 PVT and the TC motion do not match, this can be related to the emerging evolution of changes in convective structure. Several systematic results are found across the three cyclone cases. The sensitivity of TC track to initial conditions (the initialisation time and model domain size) is less than the sensitivity of TC track to changing the CP scheme. The simulated track is not overly sensitive to shallow convection in the KF, BMJ, and TD schemes, compared to the track difference between CP schemes. The G3 scheme, however, is highly sensitive to shallow convection being used. Furthermore, while agreement between the simulated TC track direction and the WN-1 diagnostic is usually good, there are
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lukianova, R.; Hanuise, C.; Christiansen, Freddy
2008-01-01
We compare the SuperDARN convection patterns with the predictions of a new numerical model of the global distribution of ionospheric electric potentials. The model utilizes high-precision statistical maps of field-aligned currents (FAC) derived from measurements made by polar-orbiting low-altitud...
Liu, Q
2016-01-01
In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is presented for convection heat transfer in porous media at the representative elementary volume (REV) scale. The model is developed in the framework of the double-distribution-function (DDF) approach: an MRT-LB model of the density distribution function with the D3Q19 lattice (or D3Q15 lattice) is proposed to simulate the flow field based on the generalized non-Darcy model, while an MRT-LB model of the temperature distribution function with the D3Q7 lattice is proposed to simulate the temperature filed. The present model is employed to simulate mixed convection flow in a porous channel and natural convection in a cubical porous cavity. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the present model in solving 3D convection heat transfer problems in porous media. The numerical results also demonstrate that the present model is approximately second-order accuracy in space. In addition, an ...
Numerical modeling of time-dependent bio-convective stagnation flow of a nanofluid in slip regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rakesh Kumar
Full Text Available A numerical investigation of unsteady stagnation point flow of bioconvective nanofluid due to an exponential deforming surface is made in this research. The effects of Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, slip velocity and thermal jump are incorporated in the nanofluid model. By utilizing similarity transformations, the highly nonlinear partial differential equations governing present nano-bioconvective boundary layer phenomenon are reduced into ordinary differential system. The resultant expressions are solved for numerical solution by employing a well-known implicit finite difference approach termed as Keller-box method (KBM. The influence of involved parameters (unsteadiness, bioconvection Schmidt number, velocity slip, thermal jump, thermophoresis, Schmidt number, Brownian motion, bioconvection Peclet number on the distributions of velocity, temperature, nanoparticle and motile microorganisms concentrations, the coefficient of local skin-friction, rate of heat transport, Sherwood number and local density motile microorganisms are exhibited through graphs and tables. Keywords: Unsteadiness, Bio-convection, Slip regime, Stagnation point flow, Numerical modeling
Bonneville, A.; Harcouët, V.; Guillou-Frottier, L.; Adler, P.
2006-12-01
Fluid convection in faulted zones is recognized as an important mechanism for mineralization as it leads to fluid flow and mass transport. In order to investigate if 3D free convection in faults could be at the origin of a giant ore deposits such as the Palaeoproterozoic ore deposits of the Ashanti belt in Ghana, we have conducted several numerical simulations of heat and fluid flow applied to a realistic geological model. Such deposits are generally late orogenic and most of them are located at the vicinity of or within major structural accidents associated with particular fluid circulations and temperature distributions. In Ghana, deposits are concentrated along the western flank of the Ashanti greenstone belt where fault concentration is the highest and connection between them is maximal. In this region, several factors, identified in the field, are expected to affect hydrothermal fluid flows : (1) a 10 km-wide faulted zone is associated with a lateral permeability gradient ; (2) sedimentary and conglomeratic basins surround the faulted zone;(3) magmatic intrusions are located within the fault and at its vicinity. Our approach is defined by two steps: first, the numerical code solves equations related to heat transfer and fluid-flow in porous media with the above-cited appropriate boundary conditions; second, from the results of the modelling, we calculated the rock alteration index, RAI, which is proportional to the scalar product of the velocity by the temperature gradient. This index illustrates the geochemical alteration potential and depends on parameters such as gold solubility; it is used to identify regions where precipitation or dissolution can occur. Hydrothermal circulations are first investigated by the study of different synthetic cases corresponding to simplified models applicable to situations similar to the ones encountered in Ghana. In the case of a simple geometry, implying a fault zone surrounded by a sedimentary basin, transitions from 2D
Computational Modelling of Couette Flow of Nanofluids with Viscous Heating and Convective Cooling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oluwole Daniel Makinde
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The combined effect of viscous heating and convective cooling on Couette flow and heat transfer characteristics of water base nanofluids containing Copper Oxide (CuO and Alumina (Al2O3 as nanoparticles is investigated. It is assumed that the nanofluid flows in a channel between two parallel plates with the channel’s upper plate accelerating and exchange heat with the ambient surrounding following the Newton’s law of cooling, while the lower plate is stationary and maintained at a constant temperature. Using appropriate similarity transformation, the governing Navier-Stokes and the energy equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These equations are solved analytically by regular perturbation method with series improvement technique and numerically by an efficient Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration technique coupled with shooting method. The effects of the governing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction, pressure drop and Nusselt number are presented graphically, and discussed quantitatively.
A mixture theory model for the forced convection flow through an unsaturated wellbore
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martins-Costa, M.L. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Gama, R.M.S. da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2005-02-01
This work studies the dynamics of the filling up of a rigid cylindrical porous matrix by a Newtonian fluid and the heat transfer associated phenomenon. A mixture theory approach is employed to obtain a preliminary local description for non-isothermal flows through a wellbore. The mixture consists of three overlapping continuous constituents, representing the porous matrix (solid constituent), the Newtonian fluid (liquid constituent) and an inert gas included to account for the compressibility of the mixture as a whole. Assuming the convective flow on radial direction only, a set of four non-linear partial differential equations describes the problem. Its hydrodynamic part - a non-linear hyperbolic system - is approximated by means of a Glimm's scheme, combined with an operator splitting technique, while an implicit finite difference scheme is used to simulate the thermal part. Some examples illustrate the proposed strategy. (Author)
Berndt, E. B.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Folmer, M. J.; Jedlovec, G. J.
2014-01-01
Non-convective wind events commonly occur with passing extratropical cyclones and have significant societal and economic impacts. Since non-convective winds often occur in the absence of specific phenomena such as a thunderstorm, tornado, or hurricane, the public are less likely to heed high wind warnings and continue daily activities. Thus non-convective wind events result in as many fatalities as straight line thunderstorm winds. One physical explanation for non-convective winds includes tropopause folds. Improved model representation of stratospheric air and associated non-convective wind events could improve non-convective wind forecasts and associated warnings. In recent years, satellite data assimilation has improved skill in forecasting extratropical cyclones; however errors still remain in forecasting the position and strength of extratropical cyclones as well as the tropopause folding process. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of assimilating satellite temperature and moisture retrieved profiles from hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounders (i.e. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)) on the model representation of the tropopause fold and an associated high wind event that impacted the Northeast United States on 09 February 2013. Model simulations using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW) were conducted on a 12-km grid with cycled data assimilation mimicking the operational North American Model (NAM). The results from the satellite assimilation run are compared to a control experiment (without hyperspectral IR retrievals), 32-km North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) interpolated to a 12-km grid, and 13-km Rapid Refresh analyses.
Berndt, Emily B.; Zavodsky, Bradley T; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Elmer, Nicholas J.
2013-01-01
Non-convective wind events commonly occur with passing extratropical cyclones and have significant societal and economic impacts. Since non-convective winds often occur in the absence of specific phenomena such as a thunderstorm, tornado, or hurricane, the public are less likely to heed high wind warnings and continue daily activities. Thus non-convective wind events result in as many fatalities as straight line thunderstorm winds. One physical explanation for non-convective winds includes tropopause folds. Improved model representation of stratospheric air and associated non-convective wind events could improve non-convective wind forecasts and associated warnings. In recent years, satellite data assimilation has improved skill in forecasting extratropical cyclones; however errors still remain in forecasting the position and strength of extratropical cyclones as well as the tropopause folding process. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of assimilating satellite temperature and moisture retrieved profiles from hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounders (i.e. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)) on the model representation of the tropopause fold and an associated high wind event that impacted the Northeast United States on 09 February 2013. Model simulations using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW) were conducted on a 12-km grid with cycled data assimilation mimicking the operational North American Model (NAM). The results from the satellite assimilation run are compared to a control experiment (without hyperspectral IR retrievals), North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) reanalysis, and Rapid Refresh analyses.
Trujillo, Macarena; Bon, Jose; Berjano, Enrique
2017-09-01
(1) To analyse rehydration, thermal convection and increased electrical conductivity as the three phenomena which distinguish the performance of internally cooled electrodes (IC) and internally cooled wet (ICW) electrodes during radiofrequency ablation (RFA), (2) Implement a RFA computer model with an ICW which includes these phenomena and (3) Assess their relative influence on the thermal and electrical tissue response and on the coagulation zone size. A 12-min RFA in liver was modelled using an ICW electrode (17 G, 3 cm tip) by an impedance-control pulsing protocol with a constant current of 1.5 A. A model of an IC electrode was used to compare the ICW electrode performance and the computational results with the experimental results. Rehydration and increased electrical conductivity were responsible for an increase in coagulation zone size and a delay (or absence) in the occurrence of abrupt increases in electrical impedance (roll-off). While the increased electrical conductivity had a remarkable effect on enlarging the coagulation zone (an increase of 0.74 cm for differences in electrical conductivity of 0.31 S/m), rehydration considerably affected the delay in roll-off, which, in fact, was absent with a sufficiently high rehydration level. In contrast, thermal convection had an insignificant effect for the flow rates considered (0.05 and 1 mL/min). Computer results suggest that rehydration and increased electrical conductivity were mainly responsible for the absence of roll-off and increased size of the coagulation zone, respectively, and in combination allow the thermal and electrical performance of ICW electrodes to be modelled during RFA.
Lee, Jonghyun; SanSoucie, Michael P.
2017-08-01
Materials research is being conducted using an electromagnetic levitator installed in the International Space Station. Various metallic alloys were tested to elucidate unknown links among the structures, processes, and properties. To accomplish the mission of these space experiments, several ground-based activities have been carried out. This article presents some of our ground-based supporting experiments and numerical modeling efforts. Mass evaporation of Fe50Co50, one of flight compositions, was predicted numerically and validated by the tests using an electrostatic levitator (ESL). The density of various compositions within the Fe-Co system was measured with ESL. These results are being served as reference data for the space experiments. The convection inside a electromagnetically-levitated droplet was also modeled to predict the flow status, shear rate, and convection velocity under various process parameters, which is essential information for designing and analyzing the space experiments of some flight compositions influenced by convection.
Monroy-Rios, E.; Beddows, P. A.
2015-12-01
Despite being deeply buried, the topography and geophysical characteristics of the multi-ring Chicxulub impact structure are reflected on the now subaerial Yucatan Peninsula with aligned arcs of cenotes (sinkholes), forming the "Ring of Cenotes". A pending question is the determination of the geological, geochemical, structural features and associated processes that have led to void development, and the upwards propagation of the voids, cross cutting over 1000 m of super-deposited carbonate sequences. Drawing from the published literature on drill core and geophysical surveys undertaken by Pemex, UNAM, and IODP/ICDP, numerical modeling, and general carbonate platform hydrothermal reactive transport models, we provide a conceptual model for the genesis of the Ring of Cenotes. In horizontally bedded carbonate platforms, geothermal gradients will drive convective flow, with strong vertical components specifically in the platform center. In the Yucatan Platform, a high occurrence of anhydrite and dolomite at depth evokes early burial dolomitization and anhydritization, sourcing Mg from seawater. The Chicxulub impact near the center of the platform produced a low permeability and high thermal conductivity melt rock that arguably extends to the basement rock at 3.5 km below surface. Heat of impact enforced the pre-existing geothermal circulation pattern, and even with depletion of the heat of impact, the high thermal conductivity of the crystalline melt would lead to enhanced geothermal gradients in the center of the platform. The cenotes overlying the crater are deep (150+ m) vertical shafts with most (but not all) breaching the surface. The pit geomorphology suggests a bottom-up formation. Excess Si in the shallow groundwater points to a convective circulation with strong vertical components geochemically linking the granodioritic basement rock to the surface. Water temperature and conductivity profiles support ongoing vertical flux in some deep pit cenotes. Within
Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.
1960-03-22
An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.
Liu, Y. C.; Fan, J.; Zhang, G. J.; Xu, K. M.; Ghan, S. J.
2014-12-01
Convective momentum transport (CMT) has been demonstrated to have a large impact on global atmospheric circulation in both observational and numerical studies. In General Circulation Models (GCMs) CMT is often parameterized in a simple way by assuming that in-cloud horizontal momentum depends only on lateral entrainment and detrainment rates [Schneider and Lindzen, 1976]. In addition to lateral entrainment and detrainment rates the effect of perturbation pressure gradient force induced by convection (Pc) on momentum transport is significant. Because it is the most complicated term to be parameterized, a very simple form of products among a constant coefficient, mass flux, and environment vertical wind shear was employed to parameterize it [Gregory et al., 1997]. In addition, none of these CMT parameterizations deal with the scale problems. Thus, the goal of this study is to evaluate the past CMT parameterizations and explore the scale dependencies of Pc and CMT using Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) coupled with the most sophisticated spectral-bin microphysics. Our preliminary results show that the parameterized CMT from the top-hat approach is underestimated especially at the gray zone scale (~4-50 km); using the simplified 3-updraft and 1-downdraft formulation proposed in our previous study for eddy transport of moisture, the CMT can be represented well. The formulation also produced a more accurate mass flux compared to the top-hat approach, which can potentially improve the parameterization of Pc. We investigate the relative contributions from linear and nonlinear forcing to Pc at different model grid spacing (dx). Our results show that the assumption that non-linear forcing is much smaller than linear force is valid only at dx > 128 km and dx < 8 km. At the dx = 32~16 km, linear and nonlinear forcings become compatible, suggesting a more sophisticated formula for Pc might be needed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Marécal
2010-05-01
Full Text Available The present paper is a preliminary study preparing the introduction of reversible trace gas uptake by ice particles into a 3-D cloud resolving model. For this a 3-D simulation of a tropical deep convection cloud was run with the BRAMS cloud resolving model using a two-moment bulk microphysical parameterization. Trajectories within the convective clouds were computed from these simulation outputs along which the variations of the pristine ice, snow and aggregate mixing ratios and concentrations were extracted. The reversible uptake of 11 trace gases by ice was examined assuming applicability of Langmuir isotherms using recently evaluated (IUPAC laboratory data. The results show that ice uptake is only significant for HNO_{3}, HCl, CH_{3}COOH and HCOOH. For H_{2}O_{2}, using new results for the partition coefficient results in significant partitioning to the ice phase for this trace gas also. It was also shown that the uptake is largely dependent on the temperature for some species. The adsorption saturation at the ice surface for large gas mixing ratios is generally not a limiting factor except for HNO_{3} and HCl for gas mixing ratio greater than 1 ppbv. For HNO_{3}, results were also obtained using a trapping theory, resulting in a similar order of magnitude of uptake, although the two approaches are based on different assumptions. The results were compared to those obtained using a BRAMS cloud simulation based on a single-moment microphysical scheme instead of the two moment scheme. We found similar results with a slightly more important uptake when using the single-moment scheme which is related to slightly higher ice mixing ratios in this simulation. The way to introduce these results in the 3-D cloud model is discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Polezhaev, V I; Gorbunov, A A; Nikitin, S A; Soboleva, E B [Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: polezh@ipmnet.ru
2009-02-01
New numerical results on thermal gravity-driven convection in a layer filled with near-critical {sup 3}He and heated from below are presented. Corrections of conditions for convection onset are discussed. The heat transfer calibrations near the critical point are tested using experimental data. Stratification effects are analysed. As found, space environment that suppresses the strong density gradients near the critical point may provoke the enhancement of convection compared to the terrestrial conditions.
Internally heated convection and Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Goluskin, David
2016-01-01
This Brief describes six basic models of buoyancy-driven convection in a fluid layer: three configurations of internally heated convection and three configurations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The author discusses the main quantities that characterize heat transport in each model, along with the constraints on these quantities. This presentation is the first to place the various models in a unified framework, and similarities and differences between the cases are highlighted. Necessary and sufficient conditions for convective motion are given. For the internally heated cases only, parameter-dependent lower bounds on the mean fluid temperature are proven, and results of past simulations and laboratory experiments are summarized and reanalyzed. The author poses several open questions for future study.
Hashmi, M. S.; Khan, N.; Ullah Khan, Sami; Rashidi, M. M.
In this study, we have constructed a mathematical model to investigate the heat source/sink effects in mixed convection axisymmetric flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting Oldroyd-B fluid between two infinite isothermal stretching disks. The effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating are also considered in the heat equation. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables. The series solution of these dimensionless equations is constructed by using homotopy analysis method. The convergence of the obtained solution is carefully examined. The effects of various involved parameters on pressure, velocity and temperature profiles are comprehensively studied. A graphical analysis has been presented for various values of problem parameters. The numerical values of wall shear stress and Nusselt number are computed at both upper and lower disks. Moreover, a graphical and tabular explanation for critical values of Frank-Kamenetskii regarding other flow parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Reimer
2007-04-01
Full Text Available An improved independent precipitation data set with the horizontal resolution of 7×7 km grid over central Europe was generated (Free University of Berlin (FUB-precipitation analysis. For scale dependent evaluation of the Local model (LM of the German Weather service, the precipitation data were separated into convective and stratiform fractions. To analyse precipitation amounts an interpolation scheme is used which contains the data set of "present weather" (ww, rain gauges and cloud types from the WMO-network in hourly resolution from the year 1992 until 2004 together with satellite cloud types derived from Meteosat-7 data. The structural analyses of cloud classes from satellite data as well as clouds from the synoptic observations were used to develop a statistical interpolation procedure to build up an independent precipitation analysis in resolution corresponding to the LM grid.
Rostami, M.; Zeitlin, V.
2017-12-01
We show how the properties of the Mars polar vortex can be understood in the framework of a simple shallow-water type model obtained by vertical averaging of the adiabatic “primitive” equations, and “improved” by inclusion of thermal relaxation and convective fluxes due to the phase transitions of CO 2, the major constituent of the Martian atmosphere. We perform stability analysis of the vortex, show that corresponding mean zonal flow is unstable, and simulate numerically non-linear saturation of the instability. We show in this way that, while non-linear adiabatic saturation of the instability tends to reorganize the vortex, the diabatic effects prevent this, and thus provide an explanation of the vortex form and longevity.
National Convective Weather Diagnostic
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...
Goloviznin, V. M.; Korotkin, I. A.; Finogenov, S. A.
2016-12-01
Some numerical results for the two- and three-dimensional de Vahl Davis benchmark are presented. This benchmark describes thermal convection in a square (cubic) cavity with vertical heated walls in a wide range of Rayleigh numbers (104 to 1014), which covers both laminar and highly turbulent f lows. Turbulent f lows are usually described using a turbulence model with parameters that depend on the Rayleigh number and require adjustment. An alternative is Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) methods, but they demand extremely large computational grids. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in DNS methods with an incomplete resolution, which, in some cases, are able to provide acceptable results without resolving Kolmogorov scales. On the basis of this approach, the so-called parameter-free computational techniques have been developed. These methods cover a wide range of Rayleigh numbers and allow computing various integral properties of heat transport on relatively coarse computational grids. In this paper, a new numerical method based on the CABARET scheme is proposed for solving the Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation. This technique does not involve a turbulence model or any tuning parameters and has a second-order approximation scheme in time and space on uniform and nonuniform grids with a minimal computational stencil. Testing the technique on the de Vahl Davis benchmark and a sequence of refined grids shows that the method yields integral heat f luxes with a high degree of accuracy for both laminar and highly turbulent f lows. For Rayleigh numbers up to 1014, a several percent accuracy is achieved on an extremely coarse grid consisting of 20 × 20 cells refined toward the boundary. No definite or comprehensive explanation of this computational phenomenon has been given. Cautious optimism is expressed regarding the perspectives of using the new method for thermal convection computations at low Prandtl numbers typical of liquid metals.
Convection without eddy viscosity: An attempt to model the interiors of giant planets
Ingersoll, A. P.
1986-01-01
In the theory of hydrostatic quasi-geostrophic flow in the Earth's atmosphere the principal results do not depend on the eddy viscosity. This contrasts with published theories of convection in deep rotating fluid spheres, where the wavelength of the fastest growing disturbance varies as E sup 1/3, where E, the Ekman number, is proportional to the eddy viscosity. A new theory of quasi-columnar motions in stably stratified fluid spheres attempts to capture the luck of the meteorologists. The theory allows one to investigate the stability of barotropic and baroclinic zonal flows that extend into the planetary interior. It is hypothesized that the internal heat Jupiter and Saturn comes out not radially but on sloping surfaces defined by the internal entropy distribution. To test the hypothesis one searches for basic states in which the wavelength of the fastest-growing disturbance remains finite as E tends to zero, and is which the heat flux vector is radially outward and poleward.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varble, A. C.; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Collis, Scott M.; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben
2014-12-27
Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observed radar reflectivity fields and dual-Doppler retrievals of vertical wind speeds in an attempt to explain published results showing a high bias in simulated convective radar reflectivity aloft. This high bias results from ice water content being large, which is a product of large, strong convective updrafts, although hydrometeor size distribution assumptions modulate the size of this bias. Snow reflectivity can exceed 40 dBZ in a two-moment scheme when a constant bulk density of 100 kg m-3 is used. Making snow mass more realistically proportional to area rather than volume should somewhat alleviate this problem. Graupel, unlike snow, produces high biased reflectivity in all simulations. This is associated with large amounts of liquid water above the freezing level in updraft cores. Peak vertical velocities in deep convective updrafts are greater than dual-Doppler retrieved values, especially in the upper troposphere. Freezing of large rainwater contents lofted above the freezing level in simulated updraft cores greatly contributes to these excessive upper tropospheric vertical velocities. Strong simulated updraft cores are nearly undiluted, with some showing supercell characteristics. Decreasing horizontal grid spacing from 900 meters to 100 meters weakens strong updrafts, but not enough to match observational retrievals. Therefore, overly intense simulated updrafts may partly be a product of interactions between convective dynamics, parameterized microphysics, and large-scale environmental biases that promote different convective modes and strengths than observed.
Post, V.E.A.; Simmons, C.T.
2009-01-01
Using sand tank experiments and numerical models, local-scale solute-transport processes associated with free convection in both the region surrounding as well as within discrete low-permeability strata are explored. Different permeability geometries and contrasts between high- and low-permeability
Convection in Type 2 supernovae
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, Douglas Scott [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
1993-10-15
Results are presented here from several two dimensional numerical calculations of events in Type II supernovae. A new 2-D hydrodynamics and neutrino transport code has been used to compute the effect on the supernova explosion mechanism of convection between the neutrinosphere and the shock. This convection is referred to as exterior convection to distinguish it from convection beneath the neutrinosphere. The model equations and initial and boundary conditions are presented along with the simulation results. The 2-D code was used to compute an exterior convective velocity to compare with the convective model of the Mayle and Wilson 1-D code. Results are presented from several runs with varying sizes of initial perturbation, as well as a case with no initial perturbation but including the effects of rotation. The M&W code does not produce an explosion using the 2-D convective velocity. Exterior convection enhances the outward propagation of the shock, but not enough to ensure a successful explosion. Analytic estimates of the growth rate of the neutron finger instability axe presented. It is shown that this instability can occur beneath the neutrinosphere of the proto-neutron star in a supernova explosion with a growth time of ~ 3 microseconds. The behavior of the high entropy bubble that forms between the shock and the neutrinosphere in one dimensional calculations of supernova is investigated. It has been speculated that this bubble is a site for γ-process generation of heavy elements. Two dimensional calculations are presented of the time evolution of the hot bubble and the surrounding stellar material. Unlike one dimensional calculations, the 2D code fails to achieve high entropies in the bubble. When run in a spherically symmetric mode the 2-D code reaches entropies of ~ 200. When convection is allowed, the bubble reaches ~60 then the bubble begins to move upward into the cooler, denser material above it.
Ittner, Karl Peter; Bachfischer, Markus; Zimmermann, Markus; Taeger, Kai
2004-06-01
Trauma patients with accidental hypothermia have adverse outcomes when compared with normothermic patients. Studies with a small number of mild hypothermic volunteers suggested that convective warming is more effective than warming with 12 volt resistive heating blankets. In a laboratory study, we compared the warming effectiveness of two electric blankets and convective air warming. The average speed of convective rewarming during anaesthesia in patients is approximately 0.6 degree C per hour. Accordingly, calibration of the dummy was performed with increasing amounts of water during convective warming until we reached a temperature gain of 0.6 degree C per hour. The following warming experiments were performed: 12 volt electric warming blanket (SH6012, Hella); 12 volt electric warming blanket (Thermamed, whole-body blanket); convective air warming (Warm Touch, Mallinckrodt, whole-body blanket). Each experiment was repeated four times. The temperature development was measured and recorded online. Convective warming increased the dummy temperature 0.6 degree C per hour, Thermamed 0.3 degree C per hour (Pwarming) and two Hella blankets 0.2 degree C per hour (Pwarming). Our laboratory investigation confirmed the superiority of convective warming over resistive heating. Efforts should be made to incorporate convective warming into the out-of-hospital treatment of trauma patients.
The convective cover of the stellar model having the chemical composition: X = 0.628 and Z = 0.047
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Tatomir E.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the way the integrated equations describe the structure of the convective cover is presented. Also given are the numerical results of the convective cover considering null and not-null conditions at the surface of the star.
Sentić, Stipo; Sessions, Sharon L.
2017-06-01
The weak temperature gradient (WTG) approximation is a method of parameterizing the influences of the large scale on local convection in limited domain simulations. WTG simulations exhibit multiple equilibria in precipitation; depending on the initial moisture content, simulations can precipitate or remain dry for otherwise identical boundary conditions. We use a hypothesized analogy between multiple equilibria in precipitation in WTG simulations, and dry and moist regions of organized convection to study tropical convective organization. We find that the range of wind speeds that support multiple equilibria depends on sea surface temperature (SST). Compared to the present SST, low SSTs support a narrower range of multiple equilibria at higher wind speeds. In contrast, high SSTs exhibit a narrower range of multiple equilibria at low wind speeds. This suggests that at high SSTs, organized convection might occur with lower surface forcing. To characterize convection at different SSTs, we analyze the change in relationships between precipitation rate, atmospheric stability, moisture content, and the large-scale transport of moist entropy and moisture with increasing SSTs. We find an increase in large-scale export of moisture and moist entropy from dry simulations with increasing SST, which is consistent with a strengthening of the up-gradient transport of moisture from dry regions to moist regions in organized convection. Furthermore, the changes in diagnostic relationships with SST are consistent with more intense convection in precipitating regions of organized convection for higher SSTs.
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A. D. M. Walker
2016-01-01
Full Text Available When studying magnetospheric convection, it is often necessary to map the steady-state electric field, measured at some point on a magnetic field line, to a magnetically conjugate point in the other hemisphere, or the equatorial plane, or at the position of a satellite. Such mapping is relatively easy in a dipole field although the appropriate formulae are not easily accessible. They are derived and reviewed here with some examples. It is not possible to derive such formulae in more realistic geomagnetic field models. A new method is described in this paper for accurate mapping of electric fields along field lines, which can be used for any field model in which the magnetic field and its spatial derivatives can be computed. From the spatial derivatives of the magnetic field three first order differential equations are derived for the components of the normalized element of separation of two closely spaced field lines. These can be integrated along with the magnetic field tracing equations and Faraday's law used to obtain the electric field as a function of distance measured along the magnetic field line. The method is tested in a simple model consisting of a dipole field plus a magnetotail model. The method is shown to be accurate, convenient, and suitable for use with more realistic geomagnetic field models.
Walker, A. D. M.; Sofko, G. J.
2016-01-01
When studying magnetospheric convection, it is often necessary to map the steady-state electric field, measured at some point on a magnetic field line, to a magnetically conjugate point in the other hemisphere, or the equatorial plane, or at the position of a satellite. Such mapping is relatively easy in a dipole field although the appropriate formulae are not easily accessible. They are derived and reviewed here with some examples. It is not possible to derive such formulae in more realistic geomagnetic field models. A new method is described in this paper for accurate mapping of electric fields along field lines, which can be used for any field model in which the magnetic field and its spatial derivatives can be computed. From the spatial derivatives of the magnetic field three first order differential equations are derived for the components of the normalized element of separation of two closely spaced field lines. These can be integrated along with the magnetic field tracing equations and Faraday's law used to obtain the electric field as a function of distance measured along the magnetic field line. The method is tested in a simple model consisting of a dipole field plus a magnetotail model. The method is shown to be accurate, convenient, and suitable for use with more realistic geomagnetic field models.
Goergen, Klaus; Keune, Jessica; Gasper, Fabian; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Sulis, Mauro; Knist, Sebastian; Ohlwein, Christian; Kollet, Stefan; Simmer, Clemens; Vereecken, Harry
2014-05-01
High-resolution regional atmospheric or fully coupled model runs at resolutions below 5 km can explicitly resolve e.g. convective processes and small-scale surface heterogeneities like land-use patterns, topography or coastlines. This has multiple effects on local wind systems, surface fluxes, flux partitioning, boundary layer evolution and land-atmosphere coupling as a whole, influencing convection and clouds and precipitation intensity and thereby also the hydrological cycle. Continent-wide model domains in this context offer the potential to investigate processes and their variances across multiple spatial scales and watersheds. Such model runs are however technically and computationally demanding. Here we primarily show the feasibility of such model runs for continental model domains and give an indication of a possible added value of these simulations. The experiment design consists of two simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the Terrestrial Systems Modelling Platform (TerrSysMP) that are run on a common grid for a 3 km European model domain (more than 2.3 Mio. grid elements) for two months January and July 2010. The model domain is inscribed into the official Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) EUR-11 model grid (about 12 km). The WRF model is used with the Noah LSM and a climate mode setup similar to runs performed for EURO-CORDEX. Its forcing is derived from these 3-hourly 50-level validation runs on the EUR-11 grid. The relatively new TerrSysMP has been developed in the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 32. It is a fully coupled integrated model system where the NWP model COSMO, the LSM CLM and the variably saturated subsurface flow model ParFlow are externally coupled with the OASIS3 coupler. It allows for a complete simulation of the hydrologic cycle from the bedrock across the land surface into the atmosphere. TerrSysMP is driven by a high-resolution regional re-analysis based on the COSMO NWP
Turner, Andrew; Bhat, Ganapati; Evans, Jonathan; Madan, Ranju; Marsham, John; Martin, Gill; Mitra, Ashis; Mrudula, Gm; Parker, Douglas; Pattnaik, Sandeep; Rajagopal, En; Taylor, Christopher; Tripathi, Sachchida
2017-04-01
The INCOMPASS project uses data from a field and aircraft measurement campaign during the 2016 monsoon onset to better understand and predict monsoon rainfall. The monsoon supplies the majority of water in South Asia, however modelling and forecasting the monsoon from days to the season ahead is limited by large model errors that develop quickly. Likely problems lie in physical parametrizations such as convection, the boundary layer and land surface. At the same time, lack of detailed observations prevents more thorough understanding of monsoon circulation and its interaction with the land surface; a process governed by boundary layer and convective cloud dynamics. From May to July 2016, INCOMPASS used a modified BAe-146 jet aircraft operated by the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM), for the first project of this scale in India. The India and UK team flew around 100 hours of science sorties from bases in northern and southern India. Flights from Lucknow in the northern plains took measurements to the west and southeast to allow sampling of the complete contrast from dry desert air to the humid environment over the north Bay of Bengal. These routes were repeated in the pre-monsoon and monsoon phases, measuring contrasting surface and boundary layer structures. In addition, flights from the southern base in Bengaluru measured contrasts from the Arabian Sea, across the intense rains of the Western Ghats mountains, over the rain shadow in southeast India and over the southern Bay of Bengal. Flight planning was performed with the aid of forecasts from a new UK Met Office 4km limited area model. INCOMPASS also installed a network of surface flux towers, as well as operating a cloud-base ceilometer and performing intensive radiosonde launches from a supersite in Kanpur. Here we will outline preliminary results from the field campaign including new observations of the surface, boundary layer structure and atmospheric profiles from aircraft data. We
REVERSALS IN THE 6-CELLS CONVECTION DRIVEN
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G.M. Vodinchar
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We describe the large-scale model geodynamo, which based on indirect data of inhomogeneities in the density of the Earth’s core. Convection structure is associated with spherical harmonic Y24 , which defines the basic poloidal component of velocity. Coriolis drift of this mode determines the toroidal component of velocity. Thus, 6 convective cells are formed. The model takes into account the feedback effect of the magnetic field on convection. It was ascertained that the model contains stable regimes of field generation. The velocity of convection and the dipole component of the magnetic field are close to the observed ones.
Gentile, Sabrina; Ferretti, Rossella; Silvio Marzano, Frank
2010-05-01
The tropics are one of the most important regions for the exchange and transport of water vapor and chemical species from the upper troposphere to the lower stratosphere; changes in emissions of chemicals at the ground or how quickly they are carried aloft could cause the chemistry of the stratosphere to change and as a consequence the net radiative balance. The tropical storms are one of the main devices for this type of interaction. In Australia, the tropical thunderstorms have different possible sources; in particular the development of equatorial events is related to convergence zones typical of the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). One of the deepest convective systems of the globe is the tropical thunderstorm Hector that develops almost daily in the Tiwi Islands, near Darwin city (tropical northern Australia), during the pre-monsoon period and break monsoon. The thunderstorm Hector has been observed to reach to altitudes of 20 km and thus potentially in the lower stratosphere, so it represents one of processes for exchange between the troposphere and the stratosphere. Hector is the topics of numerous campaigns because of difficulties in its predictability: during the SCOUT-O3 project (Stratosphere-Climate Links with emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere), a campaign was held on Tiwi Islands to the purposes of improving the understanding of the interaction between convection and the tropical tropopause layer. In the framework of this UE project a study of Hector tropical thunderstorm is performed to the aim of evaluating the vertical transport. The triggering factor together with the microphysical structure of this deep tropical cyclone has been investigated using MM5V3 and the new model WRF with data from the TRMM Precipitation Radar and from TRMM Microwave Imager. A comparison between the hydrometers retrieved by the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) and the one detected by the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) has been carried out. The model
Price, M. G.; Davies, J. H.
2018-02-01
Knowledge of Earth's past mantle structure is inherently unknown. This lack of knowledge presents problems in many areas of Earth science, including in mantle circulation modelling (MCM). As a mathematical model of mantle convection, MCMs require boundary and initial conditions. While boundary conditions are readily available from sources such as plate reconstructions for the upper surface, and as free slip at the core-mantle boundary, the initial condition is not known. MCMs have historically `created' an initial condition using long `spin up' processes using the oldest available plate reconstruction period available. While these do yield good results when models are run to present day, it is difficult to infer with confidence results from early in a model's history. Techniques to overcome this problem are now being studied in geodynamics, such as by assimilating the known internal structure (e.g. from seismic tomography) of Earth at present day backwards in time. One such method is to use an iterative process known as the forward-adjoint method. While this is an efficient means of solving this inverse problem, it still strains all but the most cutting edge computational systems. In this study we endeavour to profile the effectiveness of this method using synthetic test cases as our known data source. We conclude that savings in terms of computational expense for forward-adjoint models can be achieved by streamlining the time-stepping of the calculation, as well as determining the most efficient method of updating initial conditions in the iterative scheme. Furthermore, we observe that in the models presented, there exists an upper limit on the time interval over which solutions will practically converge, although this limit is likely to be linked to Rayleigh number.
High performance computing (HPC) requirements for the new generation variable grid resolution (VGR) global climate models differ from that of traditional global models. A VGR global model with 15 km grids over the CONUS stretching to 60 km grids elsewhere will have about ~2.5 tim...
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M. Esfandiary
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of turbulent forced convection flow of water- alumina nanofluid in a uniformly heated pipe has been thoroughly investigated. In numerical study, single and two-phase models have been used. In single-phase modeling of nanofluid, thermal and flow properties of nanofluid have been considered to be dependent on temperature and volume fraction. Effects of volume fraction and Reynolds number (3000
D'Antona, Francesca; Mazzitelli, Italo
1994-01-01
We present tabular and graphic results on the computation of pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks of Population I stellar structures from 2.5 to approximately 0.015 solar mass. Deuterium and lithium burning are followed in detail. The chosen input physics gives M approximately 0.018 solar mass as minimum mass for deuterium burning and M approximately 0.065 solar mass as minimum mass for lithium burning. While we adopt the approximations of hydrostatic equilibrium, no mass accretion and no mass loss, we have taken care to include several updates in the input physics, among them two different sets of the more recent available low-temperature opacities, and we test two different models of overdiabatic convection (the mixing-available low-temperature opacities, and we test two different models of overdiabatic convection (the mixing-length theory (MLT) with the mixing-length scale calibrated on the solar model, and the recent Canuto & Mazzitelli (CM) model). The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram location of tracks turns out to be largely model-dependent, especially for M less than or equal to 0.6 solar mass, and we are able to relate the cause of the large differences (up to 0.04 dex in Teff at 0.3 solar mass) with opacity and with the details of the convection model adopted. Since we are not able to provide 'first principle' physical reasons to choose among models, we consider these tracks as 'tests', in the hope that significant comparisons with observations can exclude some models or provide hints toward a better understanding of convection. Nevertheless, we feel obliged to call the reader's attention to the fact that theoretical Teff's, especially in the red, are intrinsically ill-determined, and no sound observational interpretation critically depending on the Teff's can be presently performed, contrary to the current habit due to an exceedingly 'faithful' use of the MLT.
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A. Seifert
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Possible aerosol-cloud-precipitation effects over Germany are investigated using the COSMO model in a convection-permitting configuration close to the operational COSMO-DE. Aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation are modeled by using an advanced two-moment microphysical parameterization taking into account aerosol assumptions for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN as well as ice nuclei (IN. Simulations of three summer seasons have been performed with various aerosol assumptions, and are analysed regarding surface precipitation, cloud properties, and the indirect aerosol effect on near-surface temperature. We find that the CCN and IN assumptions have a strong effect on cloud properties, like condensate amounts of cloud water, snow and rain as well as on the glaciation of the clouds, but the effects on surface precipitation are – when averaged over space and time – small. This robustness can only be understood by the combined action of microphysical and dynamical processes. On one hand, this shows that clouds can be interpreted as a buffered system where significant changes to environmental parameters, like aerosols, have little effect on the resulting surface precipitation. On the other hand, this buffering is not active for the radiative effects of clouds, and the changes in cloud properties due to aerosol perturbations may have a significant effect on radiation and near-surface temperature.
Zhou, Bowen; Xue, Ming; Zhu, Kefeng
2017-04-01
Compared to the representation of vertical turbulent mixing through various PBL schemes, the treatment of horizontal turbulence mixing in the boundary layer within mesoscale models, with O(10) km horizontal grid spacing, has received much less attention. In mesoscale models, subgrid-scale horizontal fluxes most often adopt the gradient-diffusion assumption. The horizontal mixing coefficients are usually set to a constant, or through the 2D Smagorinsky formulation, or in some cases based on the 1.5-order turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) closure. In this work, horizontal turbulent mixing parameterizations using physically based characteristic velocity and length scales are proposed for the convective boundary layer based on analysis of a well-resolved, wide-domain large-eddy simulation (LES). The proposed schemes involve different levels of sophistication. The first two schemes can be used together with first-order PBL schemes, while the third uses TKE to define its characteristic velocity scale and can be used together with TKE-based higher-order PBL schemes. The current horizontal mixing formulations are also assessed a priori through the filtered LES results to illustrate their limitations. The proposed parameterizations are tested a posteriori in idealized simulations of turbulent dispersion of a passive scalar. Comparisons show improved horizontal dispersion by the proposed schemes, and further demonstrate the weakness of the current schemes.
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L. Costantino
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this work we perform numerical simulations of convective gravity waves (GWs, using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model. We first run an idealized, simplified and highly resolved simulation with model top at 80 km. Below 60 km of altitude, a vertical grid spacing smaller than 1 km is supposed to reliably resolve the effects of GW breaking. An eastward linear wind shear interacts with the GW field generated by a single convective thunderstorm. After 70 min of integration time, averaging within a radius of 300 km from the storm centre, results show that wave breaking in the upper stratosphere is largely dominated by saturation effects, driving an average drag force up to −41 m s−1 day−1. In the lower stratosphere, mean wave drag is positive and equal to 4.4 m s−1 day−1. In a second step, realistic WRF simulations are compared with lidar measurements from the NDACC network (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes of gravity wave potential energy (Ep over OHP (Haute-Provence Observatory, southern France. Using a vertical grid spacing smaller than 1 km below 50 km of altitude, WRF seems to reliably reproduce the effect of GW dynamics and capture qualitative aspects of wave momentum and energy propagation and transfer to background mean flow. Averaging within a radius of 120 km from the storm centre, the resulting drag force for the study case (2 h storm is negative in the higher (−1 m s−1 day−1 and positive in the lower stratosphere (0.23 m s−1 day−1. Vertical structures of simulated potential energy profiles are found to be in good agreement with those measured by lidar. Ep is mostly conserved with altitude in August while, in October, Ep decreases in the upper stratosphere to grow again in the lower mesosphere. On the other hand, the magnitude of simulated wave energy is clearly underestimated with respect to lidar data by about 3–4 times.
Parsakhoo, Zahra; Shao, Yaping
2017-04-01
Near-surface turbulent mixing has considerable effect on surface fluxes, cloud formation and convection in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Its quantifications is however a modeling and computational challenge since the small eddies are not fully resolved in Eulerian models directly. We have developed a Lagrangian stochastic model to demonstrate multi-scale interactions between convection and land surface heterogeneity in the atmospheric boundary layer based on the Ito Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) for air parcels (particles). Due to the complexity of the mixing in the ABL, we find that linear Ito SDE cannot represent convections properly. Three strategies have been tested to solve the problem: 1) to make the deterministic term in the Ito equation non-linear; 2) to change the random term in the Ito equation fractional, and 3) to modify the Ito equation by including Levy flights. We focus on the third strategy and interpret mixing as interaction between at least two stochastic processes with different Lagrangian time scales. The model is in progress to include the collisions among the particles with different characteristic and to apply the 3D model for real cases. One application of the model is emphasized: some land surface patterns are generated and then coupled with the Large Eddy Simulation (LES).
Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Vanclooster, Marnik
2012-05-01
Solute transport in partially saturated soils is largely affected by fluid velocity distribution and pore size distribution within the solute transport domain. Hence, it is possible to describe the solute transport process in terms of the pore size distribution of the soil, and indirectly in terms of the soil hydraulic properties. In this paper, we present a conceptual approach that allows predicting the parameters of the Convective Lognormal Transfer model from knowledge of soil moisture and the Soil Moisture Characteristic (SMC), parameterized by means of the closed-form model of Kosugi (1996). It is assumed that in partially saturated conditions, the air filled pore volume act as an inert solid phase, allowing the use of the Arya et al. (1999) pragmatic approach to estimate solute travel time statistics from the saturation degree and SMC parameters. The approach is evaluated using a set of partially saturated transport experiments as presented by Mohammadi and Vanclooster (2011). Experimental results showed that the mean solute travel time, μ(t), increases proportionally with the depth (travel distance) and decreases with flow rate. The variance of solute travel time σ²(t) first decreases with flow rate up to 0.4-0.6 Ks and subsequently increases. For all tested BTCs predicted solute transport with μ(t) estimated from the conceptual model performed much better as compared to predictions with μ(t) and σ²(t) estimated from calibration of solute transport at shallow soil depths. The use of μ(t) estimated from the conceptual model therefore increases the robustness of the CLT model in predicting solute transport in heterogeneous soils at larger depths. In view of the fact that reasonable indirect estimates of the SMC can be made from basic soil properties using pedotransfer functions, the presented approach may be useful for predicting solute transport at field or watershed scales. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martins, G.; Pereira, J. T. V.
1996-11-01
Natural convection flow and heat and mass transfer resulting from the combined effects of thermal and mass diffusion occurring in the evaporator of a triple-fluid (NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O-H{sub 2}) absorption refrigeration system was studied by modelling. Significant similarities between the boundary conditions of constant heat flux and convective condition with similar heat flux densities were observed. Overall results led to the conclusion that the geometric parameters of the tube, such as length and radius, are by far the most important influencing parameters in the characteristics of the buoyancy flow induced inside the tube. The absorber of this this type of refrigeration system also has been studied by modelling. In this case the attention was focused on counter-current fluid flow. It was suggested that the model described here could be used as an efficient tool in designing, simulating and optimizing evaporators in absorption refrigeration systems. 22 refs., 14 figs.
Rotating convection in a viscoelastic magnetic fluid
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Pérez, L.M. [Departamento de Fíisica y Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain); Laroze, D., E-mail: dlarozen@uta.cl [Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Díaz, P. [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Casilla 54 D, Temuco (Chile); Martinez-Mardones, J. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Mancini, H.L. [Departamento de Fíisica y Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain)
2014-09-01
We report theoretical and numerical results on convection for a magnetic fluid in a viscoelastic carrier liquid under rotation. The viscoelastic properties are given by the Oldroyd model. We obtain explicit expressions for the convective thresholds in terms of the parameters of the system in the case of idealized boundary conditions. We also calculate numerically the convective thresholds for the case of realistic boundary conditions. The effects of the rheology and of the rotation rate on the instability thresholds for a diluted magnetic suspension are emphasized. - Highlights: • Ferrofluids. • Thermal convection. • Viscoelastic model. • Realistic boundary conditions.
Heinzeller, Dominikus; Duda, Michael G.; Kunstmann, Harald
2017-04-01
With strong financial and political support from national and international initiatives, exascale computing is projected for the end of this decade. Energy requirements and physical limitations imply the use of accelerators and the scaling out to orders of magnitudes larger numbers of cores then today to achieve this milestone. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these Exascale computing systems, existing applications need to undergo significant development. The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is a novel set of Earth system simulation components and consists of an atmospheric core, an ocean core, a land-ice core and a sea-ice core. Its distinct features are the use of unstructured Voronoi meshes and C-grid discretisation to address shortcomings of global models on regular grids and the use of limited area models nested in a forcing data set, with respect to parallel scalability, numerical accuracy and physical consistency. Here, we present work towards the application of the atmospheric core (MPAS-A) on current and future high performance computing systems for problems at extreme scale. In particular, we address the issue of massively parallel I/O by extending the model to support the highly scalable SIONlib library. Using global uniform meshes with a convection-permitting resolution of 2-3km, we demonstrate the ability of MPAS-A to scale out to half a million cores while maintaining a high parallel efficiency. We also demonstrate the potential benefit of a hybrid parallelisation of the code (MPI/OpenMP) on the latest generation of Intel's Many Integrated Core Architecture, the Intel Xeon Phi Knights Landing.
Bidispersive-inclined convection
Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian
2016-01-01
A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934
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Rechou, A. [La Reunion Univ., St. Denis Messag, Ile de La Reunion (France). Lab. de l' Atmosphere et des Cyclones; Arnault, J.; Dalin, P.; Kirkwood, S. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden)
2013-03-01
Orography is a well-known source of gravity and inertia-gravity waves in the atmosphere. Other sources, such as convection, are also known to be potentially important but the large amplitude of orographic waves over Scandinavia has generally precluded the possibility to study such other sources experimentally in this region. In order to better understand the origin of stratospheric gravity waves observed by the VHF radar ESRAD (Esrange MST radar) over Kiruna, in Arctic Sweden (67.88 N, 21.10 E), observations have been compared to simulations made using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with and without the effects of orography and clouds. This case study concerns gravity waves observed from 00:00 UTC on 18 February to 12:00 UTC on 20 February 2007. We focus on the wave signatures in the static stability field and vertical wind deduced from the simulations and from the observations as these are the parameters which are provided by the observations with the best height coverage. As is common at this site, orographic gravity waves were produced over the Scandinavian mountains and observed by the radar. However, at the same time, southward propagation of fronts in the Barents Sea created short-period waves which propagated into the stratosphere and were transported, embedded in the cyclonic winds, over the radar site. (orig.)
Low-dimensional model of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection in a Cartesian cell with square domain
Bailon-Cuba, Jorge
2011-01-01
A low-dimensional model (LDM) for turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection in a Cartesian cell with square domain, based on the Galerkin projection of the Boussinesq equations onto a finite set of empirical eigenfunctions, is presented. The empirical eigenfunctions are obtained from a joint Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) of the velocity and temperature fields using the Snapshot Method on the basis of a direct numerical simulation (DNS). The resulting LDM is a quadratic inhomogeneous system of coupled ordinary differential equations which we use to describe the long-time temporal evolution of the large-scale mode amplitudes for a Rayleigh number of 1e5 and a Prandtl number of 0.7. The truncation to a finite number of degrees of freedom, that does not exceed a number of 310 for the present, requires the additional implementation of an eddy viscosity-diffusivity to capture the missing dissipation of the small-scale modes. The magnitude of this additional dissipation mechanism is determined by requiring statis...
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Safikhani Hamed
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, the laminar mixed convection of Al2O3-Water nanofluid flow in a horizontal flat tube has been numerically simulated. The two-phase mixture model has been employed to solve the nanofluid flow, and constant heat flux has been considered as the wall boundary condition. The effects of different and important parameters such as the Reynolds number (Re, Grashof number (Gr, nanoparticles volume fraction (Φ and nanoparticle diameter (dp on the thermal and hydrodynamic performances of nanofluid flow have been analyzed. The results of numerical simulation were compared with similar existing data and good agreement is observed between them. It will be demonstrated that the Nusselt number (Nu and the friction factor (Cf are different for each of the upper, lower, left and right walls of the flat tube. The increase of Re, Gr and f and the reduction of dp lead to the increase of Nu. Similarly, the increase of Re and f results in the increase of Cf. Therefore, the best way to increase the amount of heat transfer in flat tubes using nanofluids is to increase the Gr and reduce the dp.
Fok, Mei-Ching; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Buzulukova, Natalia; Glocer, Alex
2010-01-01
Distinctive sources of ions reside in the plasmasphere, plasmasheet, and ring current regions at discrete energies constitute the major plasma populations in the inner/middle magnetosphere. They contribute to the electrodynamics of the ionosphere-magnetosphere system as important carriers of the global current system, in triggering; geomagnetic storm and substorms, as well as critical components of plasma instabilities such as reconnection and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the magnetospheric boundaries. Our preliminary analysis of in-situ measurements shoves the complexity of the plasmas pitch angle distributions at particularly the cold and warm plasmas, vary dramatically at different local times and radial distances from the Earth in response to changes in solar wind condition and Dst index. Using an MHD-ring current coupled code, we model the convection and interaction of cold, warm and energetic ions of plasmaspheric, plasmasheet, and ring current origins in the inner magnetosphere. We compare our simulation results with in-situ and remotely sensed measurements from recent instrumentation on Geotail, Cluster, THEMIS, and TWINS spacecraft.
Shabat, Yael Ben; Shitzer, Avraham; Fiala, Dusan
2014-08-01
Wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCETs) were estimated by a modified Fiala's whole body thermoregulation model of a clothed person. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients applied in the computations concurrently with environmental radiation effects were taken from a recently derived human-based correlation. Apart from these, the analysis followed the methodology used in the derivation of the currently used wind chill charts. WCET values are summarized by the following equation: Results indicate consistently lower estimated facial skin temperatures and consequently higher WCETs than those listed in the literature and used by the North American weather services. Calculated dynamic facial skin temperatures were additionally applied in the estimation of probabilities for the occurrence of risks of frostbite. Predicted weather combinations for probabilities of "Practically no risk of frostbite for most people," for less than 5 % risk at wind speeds above 40 km h-1, were shown to occur at air temperatures above -10 °C compared to the currently published air temperature of -15 °C. At air temperatures below -35 °C, the presently calculated weather combination of 40 km h-1/-35 °C, at which the transition for risks to incur a frostbite in less than 2 min, is less conservative than that published: 60 km h-1/-40 °C. The present results introduce a fundamentally improved scientific basis for estimating facial skin temperatures, wind chill temperatures and risk probabilities for frostbites over those currently practiced.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saha, K.; Abu-Ramadan, E.; Li, X. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering
2010-07-01
Renewable energy sources are currently being investigated for their reliability, efficiency, and applicability. Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternatives to conventional diesel fuels in compression-ignition (CI) engines. This paper reported on a study that compared pure biodiesel, pure diesel and blended fuels using a comprehensive multicomponent droplet vaporization model. The model considers the difference in the gas phase diffusivity of diesel and biodiesel vapors. The paper presented the vaporization characteristics of pure diesel, pure biodiesel fuel droplets as well as the effect of mixing them in different proportions (B20 and B50). The model successfully predicted the vaporization history of a multicomponent droplet. The modeling study revealed that biodiesel droplets evaporate at a slower rate than the diesel droplets because of relatively low vapor pressure. As such, the blending of diesel fuel with small proportions of biodiesel will result in an increase in the evaporation time of diesel fuel to some extent. 31 refs., 6 figs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tao Zhi
2016-10-01
Full Text Available A variety of turbulence models were used to perform numerical simulations of heat transfer for hydrocarbon fuel flowing upward and downward through uniformly heated vertical pipes at supercritical pressure. Inlet temperatures varied from 373 K to 663 K, with heat flux ranging from 300 kW/m2 to 550 kW/m2. Comparative analyses between predicted and experimental results were used to evaluate the ability of turbulence models to respond to variable thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure. It was found that the prediction performance of turbulence models is mainly determined by the damping function, which enables them to respond differently to local flow conditions. Although prediction accuracy for experimental results varied from condition to condition, the shear stress transport (SST and launder and sharma models performed better than all other models used in the study. For very small buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration due to variations in density lead to the impairment of heat transfer occurring in the vicinity of pseudo-critical points, and heat transfer was enhanced at higher temperatures through the combined action of four thermophysical properties: density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat. For very large buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration effect was over predicted by the LS and AB models.
Fierro, Elisa; Capitanio, Fabio A.; Schettino, Antonio; Morena Salerno, V.
2017-04-01
We use numerical modeling to investigate the coupling of mantle instabilities and surface tectonics along lithospheric steps developing during rifting. We address whether edge driven convection (EDC) beneath rifted continental margins and shear flow during rift-drift transition can play a role in the observed post-rift compressive tectonic evolution of the divergent continental margins along the Red Sea. We run a series of 2D simulations to examine the relationship between the maximum compression and key geometrical parameters of the step beneath continental margins, such as the step height due to lithosphere thickness variation and the width of the margins, and test the effect of rheology varying temperature- and stress-dependent viscosity in the lithosphere and asthenosphere. The development of instabilities is initially illustrated as a function of these parameters, to show the controls on the lithosphere strain distribution and magnitude. We then address the transient evolution of the instabilities to characterize their duration. In an additional suite of models, we address the development of EDC during plate motions, thus accounting for the mantle shearing due to spreading. Our results show an increase of strain with the step height as well as with the margin width up to 200 km. After this value the influence of ridge margin can be neglected. Strain rates are, then, quantified for a range of laboratory-constrained constitutive laws for mantle and lithosphere forming minerals. These models propose a viable mechanism to explain the post-rift tectonic inversion observed along the Arabian continental margin and the episodic ultra-fast sea floor spreading in the central Red Sea, where the role of EDC has been invoked.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. P. Grosvenor
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Simulations of overshooting, tropical deep convection using a Cloud Resolving Model with bulk microphysics are presented in order to examine the effect on the water content of the TTL (Tropical Tropopause Layer and lower stratosphere. This case study is a subproject of the HIBISCUS (Impact of tropical convection on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere at global scale campaign, which took place in Bauru, Brazil (22° S, 49° W, from the end of January to early March 2004.
Comparisons between 2-D and 3-D simulations suggest that the use of 3-D dynamics is vital in order to capture the mixing between the overshoot and the stratospheric air, which caused evaporation of ice and resulted in an overall moistening of the lower stratosphere. In contrast, a dehydrating effect was predicted by the 2-D simulation due to the extra time, allowed by the lack of mixing, for the ice transported to the region to precipitate out of the overshoot air.
Three different strengths of convection are simulated in 3-D by applying successively lower heating rates (used to initiate the convection in the boundary layer. Moistening is produced in all cases, indicating that convective vigour is not a factor in whether moistening or dehydration is produced by clouds that penetrate the tropopause, since the weakest case only just did so. An estimate of the moistening effect of these clouds on an air parcel traversing a convective region is made based on the domain mean simulated moistening and the frequency of convective events observed by the IPMet (Instituto de Pesquisas Meteorológicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista radar (S-band type at 2.8 Ghz to have the same 10 dBZ echo top height as those simulated. These suggest a fairly significant mean moistening of 0.26, 0.13 and 0.05 ppmv in the strongest, medium and weakest cases, respectively, for heights between 16 and 17 km. Since the cold point and WMO (World Meteorological Organization tropopause in
Ben Yaghlene, H; Leguerinel, I; Hamdi, M; Mafart, P
2009-07-31
In this study, predictive microbiology and food engineering were combined in order to develop a new analytical model predicting the bacterial growth under dynamic temperature conditions. The proposed model associates a simplified primary bacterial growth model without lag, the secondary Ratkowsky "square root" model and a simplified two-parameter heat transfer model regarding an infinite slab. The model takes into consideration the product thickness, its thermal properties, the ambient air temperature, the convective heat transfer coefficient and the growth parameters of the micro organism of concern. For the validation of the overall model, five different combinations of ambient air temperature (ranging from 8 degrees C to 12 degrees C), product thickness (ranging from 1 cm to 6 cm) and convective heat transfer coefficient (ranging from 8 W/(m(2) K) to 60 W/(m(2) K)) were tested during a cooling procedure. Moreover, three different ambient air temperature scenarios assuming alternated cooling and heating stages, drawn from real refrigerated food processes, were tested. General agreement between predicted and observed bacterial growth was obtained and less than 5% of the experimental data fell outside the 95% confidence bands estimated by the bootstrap percentile method, at all the tested conditions. Accordingly, the overall model was successfully validated for isothermal and dynamic refrigeration cycles allowing for temperature dynamic changes at the centre and at the surface of the product. The major impact of the convective heat transfer coefficient and the product thickness on bacterial growth during the product cooling was demonstrated. For instance, the time needed for the same level of bacterial growth to be reached at the product's half thickness was estimated to be 5 and 16.5 h at low and high convection level, respectively. Moreover, simulation results demonstrated that the predicted bacterial growth at the air ambient temperature cannot be assumed to be
Simulating moist convection with a quasi-elastic sigma coordinate model
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Bopape, Mary-Jane M
2012-10-01
Full Text Available has become a reality. This has led to a renewed and worldwide effort to develop Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs). A CRM called the Nonhydrostatic Sigma-coordinate Model (NSM) is currently being developed at the Council for Scientific and Industrial... that precipitating particles (rainwater, snow and graupel) follow a gamma distribution and it predicts the mixing ratios of six water species. Cloud water and ice are assumed to be mono-dispersed and to have a negligible terminal speed. Simulations with the PURDUE...
Simulation of the sea breeze front with a model of moist convection
Berg, L.C.J. van de; Oerlemans, J.
1985-01-01
Although in general the sea breeze can be considered as a mesoscale atmospheric circulation, the sea-breeze front has a much smaller scale. Simulation of the development of a sea-breeze front should therefore be preferably done with a non-hydrostatic model, with high spatial resolution (grid
3D modelling of coupled mass and heat transfer of a convection-oven roasting process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Gernaey, Krist
2013-01-01
are based on a conservation of mass and energy, coupled through Darcy's equations of porous media - the water flow is mainly pressure-driven. The developed model together with theoretical and experimental assessments were used to explain the heat and water transport and the effect of the change...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. M. Shkapov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper provides a mathematical model of thermo-gravity convection in a large volume vertical cylinder. The heat is removed from the product via the cooling jacket at the top of the cylinder. We suppose that a laminar fluid motion takes place. The model is based on the NavierStokes equation, the equation of heat transfer through the wall, and the heat transfer equation. The peculiarity of the process in large volume tanks was the distribution of the physical parameters of the coordinates that was taken into account when constructing the model. The model corresponds to a process of wort beer fermentation in the cylindrical-conical tanks (CCT. The CCT volume is divided into three zones and for each zone model equations was obtained. The first zone has an annular cross-section and it is limited to the height by the cooling jacket. In this zone the heat flow from the cooling jacket to the product is uppermost. Model equation of the first zone describes the process of heat transfer through the wall and is presented by linear inhomogeneous differential equation in partial derivatives that is solved analytically. For the second and third zones description there was a number of engineering assumptions. The fluid was considered Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. Convective motion considered in the Boussinesq approximation. The effect of viscous dissipation is not considered. The topology of fluid motion is similar to the cylindrical Poiseuille. The second zone model consists of the Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates with the introduction of a simplified and the heat equation in the liquid layer. The volume that is occupied by an upward convective flow pertains to the third area. Convective flows do not mix and do not exchange heat. At the start of the process a medium has the same temperature and a zero initial velocity in the whole volume that allows us to specify the initial conditions for the process. The paper shows the
The convection electric field in auroral substorms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.
2001-01-01
Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) electric field and ion drift data are used in a statistical study of the ionospheric convection electric field in bulge-type auroral substorms. Thirty-one individual DE 2 substorm crossings were carefully selected and organized by the use of global auroral images obtained...... this database enabled us to compile a model of the ionospheric convection electric field. The characteristics of the premidnight convection reversal show a pronounced local time dependency. Far west of the surge it is a fairly well defined point reversal or convection shear. Approaching the surge and within...... the surge it is a region of weak electric fields increasing in width toward midnight that separates regions of equatorward and poleward electric fields. Therefore we adopt the term Harang region rather than the Harang discontinuity for the premidnight convection reversal. A relatively narrow convection...
Mabood, F.; Ibrahim, S. M.; Kumar, P. V.; Khan, W. A.
A mathematical model has been developed using Tiwari-Das model to study the MHD stagnation-point flow and heat transfer characteristics of an electrically conducting nanofluid over a vertical permeable shrinking/stretching sheet in the presence of viscous dissipation. Formulated partial differential equations are converted into a set of ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformation. Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method with shooting technique is applied to solve the resulting coupled ordinary differential equations. The profiles for velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number for various parameters are displayed through graphs and tabular forms. In this problem, we considered two types of nanoparticles, namely, copper (Cu) and Alumina (Al2O3) with water as base fluid.
Mathematical modeling of convective air drying of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Vega-Gálvez
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.
Constraining central Neo-Tethys Ocean reconstructions with mantle convection models
Nerlich, Rainer; Colli, Lorenzo; Ghelichkhan, Siavash; Schuberth, Bernhard; Bunge, Hans-Peter
2017-04-01
A striking feature of the Indian Ocean is a distinct geoid low south of India, pointing to a regionally anomalous mantle density structure. Equally prominent are rapid plate convergence rate variations between India and SE Asia, particularly in Late Cretaceous/Paleocene times. Both observations are linked to the central Neo-Tethys Ocean subduction history, for which competing scenarios have been proposed. Here we evaluate three alternative reconstructions by assimilating their associated time-dependent velocity fields in global high-resolution geodynamic Earth models, allowing us to predict the resulting seismic mantle heterogeneity and geoid signal. Our analysis reveals that a geoid low similar to the one observed develops naturally when a long-lived back-arc basin south of Eurasia's paleomargin is assumed. A quantitative comparison to seismic tomography further supports this model. In contrast, reconstructions assuming a single northward dipping subduction zone along Eurasia's margin or models incorporating a temporary southward dipping intraoceanic subduction zone cannot sufficiently reproduce geoid and seismic observations.
Ogita, Shogo; Endo, Toshiki; Sugiyama, Shinichiro; Saito, Ryuta; Inoue, Tomoo; Sumiyoshi, Akira; Nonaka, Hiroi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Tominaga, Teiji
2017-05-01
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a technique allowing local infusion of therapeutic agents into the central nervous system, circumventing the blood-brain or spinal cord barrier. To evaluate the utility of nimustine hydrochloride (ACNU) CED in controlling tumor progression in an experimental spinal cord glioma model. Toxicity studies were performed in 42 rats following the administration of 4 μl of ACNU CED into the mid-thoracic spinal cord at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg/ml. Behavioral analyses and histological evaluations were performed to assess ACNU toxicity in the spinal cord. A survival study was performed in 32 rats following the implantation of 9 L cells into the T8 spinal cord. Seven days after the implantation, rats were assigned to four groups: ACNU CED (0.25 mg/ml; n = 8); ACNU intravenous (i.v.) (0.4 mg; n = 8); saline CED (n = 8); saline i.v. (n = 8). Hind limb movements were evaluated daily in all rats for 21 days. Tumor sizes were measured histologically. The maximum tolerated ACNU concentration was 0.25 mg/ml. Preservation of hind limb motor function and tumor growth suppression was observed in the ACNU CED (0.25 mg/ml) and ACNU i.v. groups. Antitumor effects were more prominent in the ACNU CED group especially in behavioral analyses (P < 0.05; log-rank test). ACNU CED had efficacy in controlling tumor growth and preserving neurological function in an experimental spinal cord tumor model. ACNU CED can be a viable treatment option for spinal cord high-grade glioma.
Lam, Miu Fei; Foo, Stacy W L; Thomas, Meghan G; Lind, Christopher R P
2014-01-15
Acute convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a neurosurgical delivery technique that allows for precise and uniform distribution of an infusate to a brain structure. It remains experimental due to difficulties in ensuring successful delivery. Real-time monitoring is able to provide immediate feedback on cannula placement, infusate distribution, and if the infusion is proceeding as planned or is failing due to reflux or catheter obstruction. Pressure gradient is the driving force behind CED, with the infusion pressure being directly proportional to the flow-rate. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using infusion-line pressure profiling to distinguish in real-time between succeeding and failing CED infusions. To do so we delivered cresyl violet dye at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μl/min via CED in vitro using 0.6% agarose gel and in vivo to the rat striatum. Infusions that failed in agarose gel models could only be differentiated late during the procedures. In the rat in vivo model, the infusion-line profiles of obstructed infusions were not distinctive from those of successful infusions. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for real-time visualisation of cannula placement and infusate distribution. Particularly for animal pre-clinical work, it would be advantageous to supplement MRI with a cheap, accessible technique to monitor infusions and provide a real-time measure of infusion success or failure. Infusion-line pressure monitoring was of limited value in identifying successful CED with small volume infusions, whilst its utility for large volume infusion remains unknown. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Topology optimisation of natural convection problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alexandersen, Joe; Aage, Niels; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe
2014-01-01
This paper demonstrates the application of the density-based topology optimisation approach for the design of heat sinks and micropumps based on natural convection effects. The problems are modelled under the assumptions of steady-state laminar flow using the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations...... coupled to the convection-diffusion equation through the Boussinesq approximation. In order to facilitate topology optimisation, the Brinkman approach is taken to penalise velocities inside the solid domain and the effective thermal conductivity is interpolated in order to accommodate differences...... for designing heat sink geometries cooled by natural convection and micropumps powered by natural convection. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
National Convective Weather Forecast
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NCWF is an automatically generated depiction of: (1) current convection and (2) extrapolated signficant current convection. It is a supplement to, but does NOT...
Cohen, Charles
1998-01-01
A method is developed which uses numerical tracers to make accurate diagnoses of entraimnent and detrainment rates and of the properties of the entrained and detrained air in numerically simulated clouds. The numerical advection scheme is modified to make it nondispersive, as required by the use of the tracers. Tests of the new method are made, and an appropriate definition of clouds is selected. Distributions of mixing fractions in the model consistently show maximums at the end points, for nearly undilute environmental air or nearly undilute cloud air, with a uniform distribution between. The cumulonimbus clouds simulated here entrain air that had been substantially changed by the clouds, and detrained air that is not necessarily representative of the cloud air at the same level.
Finite element modelling and simulation of free convection heat transfer in solar oven
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobamowo, M.G.; Ogunmola, B.Y.; Ayerin A.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos (Nigeria)
2013-07-01
The use of solar energy for baking, heating or drying represents a sustainable way of solar energy applications with negligible negative effects. Solar oven is an alternative to conventional oven that rely heavily on coal and wood or Electric oven that uses the power from the National grid of which the end users have little or no control. Since the Solar oven uses no fuel and it costs nothing to run, it uses are widely promoted especially in situations where minimum fuel consumption or fire risks are considered highly important. As useful as the Solar Oven proved, it major setback in the area of applications has been its future sustainability. For the use of Solar Oven/Cookers to be sustained in the future, the design and development of solar oven must rely on sound analytical tools. Therefore, this work focused on the design and development of the solar oven. To test the performance of the Small Solar Oven a 5000cm3 beaker of water was put into the Oven and the temperature of the water was found to reach 810C after about 3hrs under an average ambient temperature of 300C. On no load test, the oven reached a maximum temperature of 112oC in 6hrs. In order to carry out the parametric studies and improve the performance of the Solar Oven, Mathematical models were developed and solved by using Characteristics-Based Split (CBS) Finite Element Method. The Model results were compared with the Experimental results and a good agreement was found between the two results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sheyko, A.A.; Finlay, Chris; Marti, P.
We present a set of numerical dynamo models with the convection strength varied by a factor of 30 and the ratio of magnetic to viscous diffusivities by a factor of 20 at rapid rotation rates (E =nu/(2 Omega d^2 ) = 10-6 and 10-7 ) using a heat flux outer BC. This regime has been little explored...... on the structure of the dynamos and how this changes in relation to the selection of control parameters, a comparison with the proposed rotating convection and dynamo scaling laws, energy spectra of steady solutions and inner core rotation rates. Magnetic field on the CMB. E=2.959*10-7, Ra=6591.0, Pm=0.05, Pr=1....
Owen, L. W.; Rapp, J.; Canik, J.; Lore, J. D.
2017-11-01
Data-constrained interpretative analyses of plasma transport in convection dominated helicon discharges in the Proto-MPEX linear device, and predictive calculations with additional Electron Cyclotron Heating/Electron Bernstein Wave (ECH/EBW) heating, are reported. The B2.5-Eirene code, in which the multi-fluid plasma code B2.5 is coupled to the kinetic Monte Carlo neutrals code Eirene, is used to fit double Langmuir probe measurements and fast camera data in front of a stainless-steel target. The absorbed helicon and ECH power (11 kW) and spatially constant anomalous transport coefficients that are deduced from fitting of the probe and optical data are additionally used for predictive simulations of complete axial distributions of the densities, temperatures, plasma flow velocities, particle and energy fluxes, and possible effects of alternate fueling and pumping scenarios. The somewhat hollow electron density and temperature radial profiles from the probe data suggest that Trivelpiece-Gould wave absorption is the dominant helicon electron heating source in the discharges analyzed here. There is no external ion heating, but the corresponding calculated ion temperature radial profile is not hollow. Rather it reflects ion heating by the electron-ion equilibration terms in the energy balance equations and ion radial transport resulting from the hollow density profile. With the absorbed power and the transport model deduced from fitting the sheath limited discharge data, calculated conduction limited higher recycling conditions were produced by reducing the pumping and increasing the gas fueling rate, resulting in an approximate doubling of the target ion flux and reduction of the target heat flux.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sahin Ahmed
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This study focuses analytically on the oscillatory hydromagnetic flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically-conducting, non-Newtonian fluid in an inclined, rotating channel with non-conducting walls, incorporating couple stress effects. The model is then non-dimensionalized with appropriate variables and shown to be controlled by the inverse Ekman number (K2 = 1/Ek, the hydromagnetic body force parameter (M, channel inclination (α, Grashof number (Gr, Prandtl number (Pr, oscillation frequency (ω and time variable (ωT. Analytical solutions are derived using complex variables. Excellent agreement is obtained between both previous and present work. The influence of the governing parameters on the primary velocity, secondary velocity, temperature (θ, primary and secondary flow discharges per unit depth in the channel, and frictional shear stresses due to primary and secondary flow, is studied graphically and using tables. Applications of the study arise in the simulation of the manufacture of electrically-conducting polymeric liquids and hydromagnetic energy systems exploiting rheological working fluids.
Spurious multiple equilibria introduced by convective adjustment
Toom, Matthijs den; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Wubs, Fred W.
2011-01-01
The application of bifurcation analysis to ocean climate models is substantially hampered by difficulties associated with the use of convective adjustment, i.e. a parameterisation of convection in which the vertical diffusion of heat and salt is greatly enhanced whenever the water column becomes
Convective penetration in a young sun
Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group
2018-01-01
To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
PRINGLE,SCOTT E.; COOPER,CLAY A.; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.
2000-12-21
An experimental investigation was conducted to study double-diffusive finger convection in a Hele-Shaw cell by layering a sucrose solution over a more-dense sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. The solutal Rayleigh numbers were on the order of 60,000, based upon the height of the cell (25 cm), and the buoyancy ratio was 1.2. A full-field light transmission technique was used to measure a dye tracer dissolved in the NaCl solution. They analyze the concentration fields to yield the temporal evolution of length scales associated with the vertical and horizontal finger structure as well as the mass flux. These measures show a rapid progression through two early stages to a mature stage and finally a rundown period where mass flux decays rapidly. The data are useful for the development and evaluation of numerical simulators designed to model diffusion and convection of multiple components in porous media. The results are useful for correct formulation at both the process scale (the scale of the experiment) and effective scale (where the lab-scale processes are averaged-up to produce averaged parameters). A fundamental understanding of the fine-scale dynamics of double-diffusive finger convection is necessary in order to successfully parameterize large-scale systems.
He, You; Risi, Camille; Gao, Jing; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Yao, Tandong; Lai, Chun-Ta; Ding, Yongjian; Worden, John; Frankenberg, Christian; Chepfer, Helene; Cesana, Gregory
2015-05-01
Precipitation isotopologues recorded in natural archives from the southern Tibetan Plateau may document past variations of Indian monsoon intensity. The exact processes controlling the variability of precipitation isotopologue composition must therefore first be deciphered and understood. This study investigates how atmospheric convection affects the summer variability of δ18O in precipitation (δ18Op) and δD in water vapor (δDv) at the daily scale. This is achieved using isotopic data from precipitation samples at Lhasa, isotopic measurements of water vapor retrieved from satellites (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), GOSAT) and atmospheric general circulation modeling. We reveal that both δ18Op and δDv at Lhasa are well correlated with upstream convective activity, especially above northern India. First, during days of strong convection, northern India surface air contains large amounts of vapor with relatively low δDv. Second, when this low-δDv moisture is uplifted toward southern Tibet, this initial depletion in HDO is further amplified by Rayleigh distillation as the vapor moves over the Himalayan. The intraseasonal variability of the isotopologue composition of vapor and precipitation over the southern Tibetan Plateau results from these processes occurring during air mass transportation.
Arroyo-Torres, B.; Wittkowski, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Scholz, M.; Freytag, B.; Marcaide, J. M.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Wood, P. R.; Abellan, F. J.
2015-03-01
Aims: This research has two main goals. First, we present the atmospheric structure and the fundamental parameters of three red supergiants (RSGs), increasing the sample of RSGs observed by near-infrared spectro-interferometry. Additionally, we test possible mechanisms that may explain the large observed atmospheric extensions of RSGs. Methods: We carried out spectro-interferometric observations of the RSGs V602 Car, HD 95687, and HD 183589 in the near-infrared K-band (1.92-2.47 μm) with the VLTI/AMBER instrument at medium spectral resolution (R ~ 1500). To categorize and comprehend the extended atmospheres, we compared our observational results to predictions by available hydrostatic PHOENIX, available 3D convection, and new 1D self-excited pulsation models of RSGs. Results: Our near-infrared flux spectra of V602 Car, HD 95687, and HD 183589 are well reproduced by the PHOENIX model atmospheres. The continuum visibility values are consistent with a limb-darkened disk as predicted by the PHOENIX models, allowing us to determine the angular diameter and the fundamental parameters of our sources. Nonetheless, in the case of V602 Car and HD 95686, the PHOENIX model visibilities do not predict the large observed extensions of molecular layers, most remarkably in the CO bands. Likewise, the 3D convection models and the 1D pulsation models with typical parameters of RSGs lead to compact atmospheric structures as well, which are similar to the structure of the hydrostatic PHOENIX models. They can also not explain the observed decreases in the visibilities and thus the large atmospheric molecular extensions. The full sample of our RSGs indicates increasing observed atmospheric extensions with increasing luminosity and decreasing surface gravity, and no correlation with effective temperature or variability amplitude. Conclusions: The location of our RSG sources in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is confirmed to be consistent with the red limits of recent evolutionary tracks
Yang, Xuguang; Shi, Baochang; Chai, Zhenhua
2014-07-01
In this paper, two modified lattice Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) models for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and convection-diffusion equations are proposed via the addition of correction terms in the evolution equations. Utilizing this modification, the value of the dimensionless relaxation time in the LBGK model can be kept in a proper range, and thus the stability of the LBGK model can be improved. Although some gradient operators are included in the correction terms, they can be computed efficiently using local computational schemes such that the present LBGK models still retain the intrinsic parallelism characteristic of the lattice Boltzmann method. Numerical studies of the steady Poiseuille flow and unsteady Womersley flow show that the modified LBGK model has a second-order convergence rate in space, and the compressibility effect in the common LBGK model can be eliminated. In addition, to test the stability of the present models, we also performed some simulations of the natural convection in a square cavity, and we found that the results agree well with those reported in the previous work, even at a very high Rayleigh number (Ra = 10(12)).
Bettaibi, Soufiene; Kuznik, Frédéric; Sediki, Ezeddine
2016-02-01
This paper presents a numerical study of thermosolutal mixed convection in rectangular enclosure with sliding top lid. The fluid flow is solved by the multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), whereas the temperature and concentration fields are computed by finite difference method (FDM). The main objective of this study is to investigate the accuracy and the effectiveness of such model to predict thermodynamics for heat and mass transfer in a driven cavity. This model is validated with different numerical methods in the current literature. A good agreement is obtained between our results and previous works. The different comparisons demonstrate the robustness and the accuracy of the proposed approach.
Weiner, Andre; Bothe, Dieter
2017-10-01
This paper presents a novel subgrid scale (SGS) model for simulating convection-dominated species transport at deformable fluid interfaces. One possible application is the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of mass transfer from rising bubbles. The transport of a dissolving gas along the bubble-liquid interface is determined by two transport phenomena: convection in streamwise direction and diffusion in interface normal direction. The convective transport for technical bubble sizes is several orders of magnitude higher, leading to a thin concentration boundary layer around the bubble. A true DNS, fully resolving hydrodynamic and mass transfer length scales results in infeasible computational costs. Our approach is therefore a DNS of the flow field combined with a SGS model to compute the mass transfer between bubble and liquid. An appropriate model-function is used to compute the numerical fluxes on all cell faces of an interface cell. This allows to predict the mass transfer correctly even if the concentration boundary layer is fully contained in a single cell layer around the interface. We show that the SGS-model reduces the resolution requirements at the interface by a factor of ten and more. The integral flux correction is also applicable to other thin boundary layer problems. Two flow regimes are investigated to validate the model. A semi-analytical solution for creeping flow is used to assess local and global mass transfer quantities. For higher Reynolds numbers ranging from Re = 100 to Re = 460 and Péclet numbers between Pe =104 and Pe = 4 ṡ106 we compare the global Sherwood number against correlations from literature. In terms of accuracy, the predicted mass transfer never deviates more than 4% from the reference values.
Case, Jonathan L.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Santos, Pablo; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.
2009-01-01
One of the most challenging weather forecast problems in the southeastern U.S. is daily summertime pulse convection. During the summer, atmospheric flow and forcing are generally weak in this region; thus, convection typically initiates in response to local forcing along sea/lake breezes, and other discontinuities often related to horizontal gradients in surface heating rates. Numerical simulations of pulse convection usually have low skill, even in local predictions at high resolution, due to the inherent chaotic nature of these precipitation systems. Forecast errors can arise from assumptions within physics parameterizations, model resolution limitations, as well as uncertainties in both the initial state of the atmosphere and land surface variables such as soil moisture and temperature. For this study, it is hypothesized that high-resolution, consistent representations of surface properties such as soil moisture and temperature, ground fluxes, and vegetation are necessary to better simulate the interactions between the land surface and atmosphere, and ultimately improve predictions of local circulations and summertime pulse convection. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Center has been conducting studies to examine the impacts of high-resolution land surface initialization data generated by offline simulations of the NASA Land Informatiot System (LIS) on subsequent numerical forecasts using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Case et al. 2008, to appear in the Journal of Hydrometeorology). Case et al. presents improvements to simulated sea breezes and surface verification statistics over Florida by initializing WRF with land surface variables from an offline LIS spin-up run, conducted on the exact WRF domain and resolution. The current project extends the previous work over Florida, focusing on selected case studies of typical pulse convection over the southeastern U.S., with an emphasis on improving local short-term WRF
Internal Wave Generation by Convection
Lecoanet, Daniel Michael
In nature, it is not unusual to find stably stratified fluid adjacent to convectively unstable fluid. This can occur in the Earth's atmosphere, where the troposphere is convective and the stratosphere is stably stratified; in lakes, where surface solar heating can drive convection above stably stratified fresh water; in the oceans, where geothermal heating can drive convection near the ocean floor, but the water above is stably stratified due to salinity gradients; possible in the Earth's liquid core, where gradients in thermal conductivity and composition diffusivities maybe lead to different layers of stable or unstable liquid metal; and, in stars, as most stars contain at least one convective and at least one radiative (stably stratified) zone. Internal waves propagate in stably stratified fluids. The characterization of the internal waves generated by convection is an open problem in geophysical and astrophysical fluid dynamics. Internal waves can play a dynamically important role via nonlocal transport. Momentum transport by convectively excited internal waves is thought to generate the quasi-biennial oscillation of zonal wind in the equatorial stratosphere, an important physical phenomenon used to calibrate global climate models. Angular momentum transport by convectively excited internal waves may play a crucial role in setting the initial rotation rates of neutron stars. In the last year of life of a massive star, convectively excited internal waves may transport even energy to the surface layers to unbind them, launching a wind. In each of these cases, internal waves are able to transport some quantity--momentum, angular momentum, energy--across large, stable buoyancy gradients. Thus, internal waves represent an important, if unusual, transport mechanism. This thesis advances our understanding of internal wave generation by convection. Chapter 2 provides an underlying theoretical framework to study this problem. It describes a detailed calculation of the
Probing the transition from shallow to deep convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuang, Zhiming [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Gentine, Pierre [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
2016-05-01
In this funded project we highlighted the components necessary for the transition from shallow to deep convection. In particular we defined a prototype of shallow to deep convection, which is currently being implemented in the NASA GISS model. We also tried to highlight differences between land and oceanic convection.
Maity, S.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.; Mandal, M.; Nayak, S.
2017-11-01
In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the sensitivity of land surface models (LSM) and cumulus convection schemes (CCS) using a regional climate model, RegCM Version-4.1 in simulating the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). Numerical experiments were conducted in seasonal scale (May-September) for three consecutive years: 2007, 2008, 2009 with two LSMs (Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS), Community Land Model (CLM 3.5) and five CCSs (MIT, KUO, GRELL, GRELL over land and MIT over ocean (GL_MO), GRELL over ocean and MIT over land (GO_ML)). Important synoptic features are validated using various reanalysis datasets and satellite derived products from TRMM and CRU data. Seasonally averaged surface temperature is reasonably well simulated by the model using both the LSMs along with CCSs namely, MIT, GO_ML and GL_MO schemes. Model simulations reveal slight warm bias using these schemes whereas significant cold bias is seen with KUO and GRELL schemes during all three years. It is noticed that the simulated Somali Jet (SJ) is weak in all simulations except MIT scheme in the simulations with (both BATS and CLM) in which the strength of SJ reasonably well captured. Although the model is able to simulate the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) and Sub-Tropical Westerly Jet (STWJ) with all the CCSs in terms of their location and strength, the performance of MIT scheme seems to be better than the rest of the CCSs. Seasonal rainfall is not well simulated by the model. Significant underestimation of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) is observed over Central and North West India. Spatial distribution of seasonal ISMR is comparatively better simulated by the model with MIT followed by GO_ML scheme in combination with CLM although it overestimates rainfall over heavy precipitation zones. On overall statistical analysis, it is noticed that RegCM4 shows better skill in simulating ISM with MIT scheme using CLM.
Sun, Xuguang; Xue, Ming; Brotzge, Jerald; McPherson, Renee A.; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Xiu-Qun
2016-12-01
A significant challenge with dynamical downscaling of climate simulations is the ability to accurately represent convection and precipitation. The use of convection-permitting resolutions avoids cumulus parameterization, which is known to be a large source of uncertainty. A regional climate model (RCM) based on the Weather Research and Forecasting model is configured with a 4 km grid spacing and applied to the U.S. Great Plains, a region characterized by many forms of weather and climate extremes. The 4 km RCM is evaluated by running it in a hindcast mode over the central U.S. region for a 10 year period, forced at the boundary by the 32 km North America Regional Reanalysis. The model is also run at a 25 km grid spacing, but with cumulus parameterization turned on for comparison. The 4 km run more successfully reproduces certain observed features of the Great Plains May-through-August precipitation. In particular, the magnitude of extreme precipitation and the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Great Plains are better simulated. The 4 km run more realistically simulates the low-level jet and related atmospheric circulations that transport and redistribute moisture from Gulf of Mexico. The convection-permitting RCM may therefore produce better dynamical downscaling of future climate when nested within global model climate projections, especially for extreme precipitation magnitudes. The 4 km and 25 km simulations do share similar precipitation biases, including low biases over the central Great Plains and high biases over the Rockies. These biases appear linked to circulation biases in the simulations, but determining of the exact causes will require extensive, separate studies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tran, Chi Thanh
2007-12-15
Severe accidents in a Light Water Reactor (LWR) have been a subject of the research for the last three decades. The research in this area aims to further understanding of the inherent physical phenomena and reduce the uncertainties surrounding their quantification, with the ultimate goal of developing models that can be applied to safety analysis of nuclear reactors. The research is also focusing on evaluation of the proposed accident management schemes for mitigating the consequences of such accidents. During a hypothetical severe accident, whatever the scenario, there is likelihood that the core material will be relocated and accumulated in the lower plenum in the form of a debris bed or a melt pool. Physical phenomena involved in a severe accident progression are complex. The interactions of core debris or melt with the reactor structures depend very much on the debris bed or melt pool thermal hydraulics. That is why predictions of heat transfer during melt pool formation in the reactor lower head are important for the safety assessment. The main purpose of the present study is to advance a method for describing turbulent natural convection heat transfer of a melt pool, and to develop a computational platform for cost-effective, sufficiently-accurate numerical simulations and analyses of Core Melt-Structure-Water Interactions in the LWR lower head during a postulated severe core-melting accident. Given the insights gained from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, a physics-based model and computationally-efficient tools are developed for multi-dimensional simulations of transient thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the lower plenum of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) during the late phase of an in-vessel core melt progression. A model is developed for the core debris bed heat up and formation of a melt pool in the lower head of the reactor vessel, and implemented in a commercial CFD code. To describe the natural convection heat transfer inside the
Elliott, Elizabeth J.; Yu, Sungduk; Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Morrison, Hugh; Wang, Minghuai; Pritchard, Michael S.
2016-06-01
The sensitivities of simulated mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in the central U.S. to microphysics and grid configuration are evaluated here in a global climate model (GCM) that also permits global-scale feedbacks and variability. Since conventional GCMs do not simulate MCSs, studying their sensitivities in a global framework useful for climate change simulations has not previously been possible. To date, MCS sensitivity experiments have relied on controlled cloud resolving model (CRM) studies with limited domains, which avoid internal variability and neglect feedbacks between local convection and larger-scale dynamics. However, recent work with superparameterized (SP) GCMs has shown that eastward propagating MCS-like events are captured when embedded CRMs replace convective parameterizations. This study uses a SP version of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (SP-CAM5) to evaluate MCS sensitivities, applying an objective empirical orthogonal function algorithm to identify MCS-like events, and harmonizing composite storms to account for seasonal and spatial heterogeneity. A five-summer control simulation is used to assess the magnitude of internal and interannual variability relative to 10 sensitivity experiments with varied CRM parameters, including ice fall speed, one-moment and two-moment microphysics, and grid spacing. MCS sensitivities were found to be subtle with respect to internal variability, and indicate that ensembles of over 100 storms may be necessary to detect robust differences in SP-GCMs. These results emphasize that the properties of MCSs can vary widely across individual events, and improving their representation in global simulations with significant internal variability may require comparison to long (multidecadal) time series of observed events rather than single season field campaigns.
Behera, Abhinna; Rivière, Emmanuel; Marécal, Virginie; Claud, Chantal; Rysman, Jean-François; Geneviève, Seze
2016-04-01
Water vapour budget is a key component in the earth climate system. In the tropical upper troposphere, lower stratosphere (UTLS), it plays a central role both on the radiative and the chemical budget. Its abundance is mostly driven by slow ascent above the net zero radiative heating level followed by ice crystals' formation and sedimentation, so called the cold trap. In contrast to this large scale temperature driven process, overshooting convection penetrating the stratosphere could be one piece of the puzzle. It has been proven to hydrate the lower stratosphere at the local scale. Satellite-borne H2O instruments can not measure with a fine enough resolution the water vapour enhancements caused by overshooting convection. The consequence is that it is difficult to estimate the role of overshooting deep convection at the global scale. Using a mesoscale model i.e., Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (BRAMS), past atmospheric conditions have been simulated for the full wet season i.e., Nov 2012 to Mar 2013 having a single grid with horizontal resolution of 20 km × 20km over a large part of Brazil and South America. This resolution is too coarse to reproduce overshooting convection in the model, so that this simulation should be used as a reference (REF) simulation, without the impact of overshooting convection in the TTL water budget. For initialisation, as well as nudging the grid boundary in every 6 hours, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses has been used. The size distribution of hydrometeors and number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are fitted in order to best reproduce accumulated precipitations derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Similarly, GOES and MSG IR mages have been thoroughly compared with model's outputs, using image correlation statistics for the position of the clouds. The model H2O variability during the wet season, is compared with the in situ balloon-borne measurements during
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hagos, Samson M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Feng, Zhe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burleyson, Casey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lim, Kyo-Sun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Long, Charles N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wu, Di [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States); Thompson, Gregory [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
2014-11-12
Regional cloud permitting model simulations of cloud populations observed during the 2011 ARM Madden Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment/ Dynamics of Madden-Julian Experiment (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign are evaluated against radar and ship-based measurements. Sensitivity of model simulated surface rain rate statistics to parameters and parameterization of hydrometeor sizes in five commonly used WRF microphysics schemes are examined. It is shown that at 2 km grid spacing, the model generally overestimates rain rate from large and deep convective cores. Sensitivity runs involving variation of parameters that affect rain drop or ice particle size distribution (more aggressive break-up process etc) generally reduce the bias in rain-rate and boundary layer temperature statistics as the smaller particles become more vulnerable to evaporation. Furthermore significant improvement in the convective rain-rate statistics is observed when the horizontal grid-spacing is reduced to 1 km and 0.5 km, while it is worsened when run at 4 km grid spacing as increased turbulence enhances evaporation. The results suggest modulation of evaporation processes, through parameterization of turbulent mixing and break-up of hydrometeors may provide a potential avenue for correcting cloud statistics and associated boundary layer temperature biases in regional and global cloud permitting model simulations.
Schlesinger, Rosert E.
1990-06-01
This paper presents preliminary results from an investigation into the feedback between convective storms and their new surroundings, using output from a three-dimensional anelastic cloud-scale model. Convective feedback budgets for heat, moisture and horizontal momentum are diagnosed from horizontally Reynolds-averaged governing equations, analogous to the theory of Anthes. There is limited horizontal scale separation between the active convection area and the averaging area, which at 30 km on a side is comparable to one grid cell of a typical mesoscale numerical weather prediction model.The simulation is run with an idealized midlatitude severe thunderstorm sounding. The resulting storm displays several supercell features. These include a vigorous erect large-diameter updraft that splits at lower levels, a vaulted weak echo region in the lower part of the main (right flank) updraft core, and a midlevel mesovortex couplet with cyclonic vorticity in the main updraft.The vertical profiles of the various budget terms show several findings of potential relevance to cumulus parameterization. The vertical eddy transport (flux divergence) is highly important to each budget; it significantly raises the height of the maximum apparent heat source and lowers the height of the maximum apparent moisture sink, and acts to reduce the net tropospheric vertical wind shear. At the same time, the horizontal eddy momentum transport and the mean horizontal pressure gradient force both act strongly to sharpen the tropopause-level jet, so that the net shear is little changed. The horizontal eddy transport is much less important to the heat budget, and remains negligible for moisture. Mean storage contributes significantly to the apparent source for each budget under consideration. Other terms derived by Anthes but ignored in existing cumulus parameterizations (the resultant of eddy storage, transport of mean fields by the eddy wind, and transport of eddy fields by the mean wind) become
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Salzmann
2008-05-01
Full Text Available A cloud system resolving model including photo-chemistry (CSRMC has been developed based on a prototype version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and is used to study influences of deep convection on chemistry in the TOGA COARE/CEPEX region. Lateral boundary conditions for trace gases are prescribed from global chemistry-transport simulations, and the vertical advection of trace gases by large scale dynamics, which is not reproduced in a limited area cloud system resolving model, is taken into account. The influences of deep convective transport and of lightning on NO_{x}, O_{3}, and HO_{x}(=HO_{2}+OH, in the vicinity of the deep convective systems are investigated in a 7-day 3-D 248×248 km^{2} horizontal domain simulation and several 2-D sensitivity runs with a 500 km horizontal domain. Mid-tropospheric entrainment is more important on average for the upward transport of O_{3} in the 3-D run than in the 2-D runs, but at the same time undiluted O_{3}-poor air from the marine boundary layer reaches the upper troposphere more frequently in the 3-D run than in the 2-D runs, indicating the presence of undiluted convective cores. In all runs, in situ lightning is found to have only minor impacts on the local O_{3} budget. Near zero O_{3} volume mixing ratios due to the reaction with lightning-produced NO are only simulated in a 2-D sensitivity run with an extremely high number of NO molecules per flash, which is outside the range of current estimates. The fraction of NO_{x} chemically lost within the domain varies between 20 and 24% in the 2-D runs, but is negligible in the 3-D run, in agreement with a lower average NO_{x} concentration in the 3-D run despite a greater number of flashes. Stratosphere to troposphere transport of O_{3} is simulated to occur episodically in thin filaments in the 2-D runs, but on average net upward transport
Henz, D. R.; Hashino, T.; Tripoli, G. J.; Smith, E. A.
2009-12-01
This study is being conducted to examine the distribution, variability, and formation-decay processes of TTL cirrus associated with tropical deep convection using the University of Wisconsin Non-Hydrostatic modeling system (NMS). The experimental design is based on Tripoli, Hack and Kiehl (1992) which explicitly simulates the radiative-convective equilibrium of the tropical atmosphere over extended periods of weeks or months using a 2D periodic cloud resolving model. The experiment design includes a radiation parameterization to explicitly simulate radiative transfer through simulated crystals. Advanced Microphysics Prediction System (AMP) will be used to simulate microphysics by employing SHIPS (Spectral Habit Ice Prediction System) for ice, SLiPS (Spectral Liquid Prediction System) for droplets, and SAPS (Spectral Aerosol Prediction System) for aerosols. The ice scheme called SHIPS is unique in that ice particle properties (such as size, particle density, and crystal habitats) are explicitly predicted in a CRM (Hashino and Tripoli, 2007, 2008). The Advanced Microphysics Prediction System (AMPS) technology provides a particularly strong tool that effectively enables the explicit modeling of the TTL cloud microphysics and dynamical processes which has yet to be accomplished by more traditional bulk microphysics approaches.
Anderson, Daniel C.; Nicely, Julie M.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Canty, Timothy P.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Apel, Eric C.; Baidar, Sunil; Bannan, Thomas J.; Blake, Nicola J.; Chen, Dexian; Dix, Barbara; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Hall, Samuel R.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Gregory Huey, L.; Josse, Beatrice; Jöckel, Patrick; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Koenig, Theodore K.; Le Breton, Michael; Marécal, Virginie; Morgenstern, Olaf; Oman, Luke D.; Pan, Laura L.; Percival, Carl; Plummer, David; Revell, Laura E.; Rozanov, Eugene; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Stenke, Andrea; Sudo, Kengo; Tilmes, Simone; Ullmann, Kirk; Volkamer, Rainer; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Zeng, Guang
2017-10-01
Formaldehyde (HCHO) directly affects the atmospheric oxidative capacity through its effects on HOx. In remote marine environments, such as the tropical western Pacific (TWP), it is particularly important to understand the processes controlling the abundance of HCHO because model output from these regions is used to correct satellite retrievals of HCHO. Here we have used observations from the Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) field campaign, conducted during January and February 2014, to evaluate our understanding of the processes controlling the distribution of HCHO in the TWP as well as its representation in chemical transport/climate models. Observed HCHO mixing ratios varied from 500 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) near the surface to 75 pptv in the upper troposphere. Recent convective transport of near surface HCHO and its precursors, acetaldehyde and possibly methyl hydroperoxide, increased upper tropospheric HCHO mixing ratios by 33% (22 pptv); this air contained roughly 60% less NO than more aged air. Output from the CAM-Chem chemistry transport model (2014 meteorology) as well as nine chemistry climate models from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (free-running meteorology) are found to uniformly underestimate HCHO columns derived from in situ observations by between 4 and 50%. This underestimate of HCHO likely results from a near factor of two underestimate of NO in most models, which strongly suggests errors in NOx emissions inventories and/or in the model chemical mechanisms. Likewise, the lack of oceanic acetaldehyde emissions and potential errors in the model acetaldehyde chemistry lead to additional underestimates in modeled HCHO of up to 75 pptv ( 15%) in the lower troposphere.
Effects of Deep Convection on Atmospheric Chemistry
Pickering, Kenneth E.
2007-01-01
This presentation will trace the important research developments of the last 20+ years in defining the roles of deep convection in tropospheric chemistry. The role of deep convection in vertically redistributing trace gases was first verified through field experiments conducted in 1985. The consequences of deep convection have been noted in many other field programs conducted in subsequent years. Modeling efforts predicted that deep convection occurring over polluted continental regions would cause downstream enhancements in photochemical ozone production in the middle and upper troposphere due to the vertical redistribution of ozone precursors. Particularly large post-convective enhancements of ozone production were estimated for convection occurring over regions of pollution from biomass burning and urban areas. These estimates were verified by measurements taken downstream of biomass burning regions of South America. Models also indicate that convective transport of pristine marine boundary layer air causes decreases in ozone production rates in the upper troposphere and that convective downdrafts bring ozone into the boundary layer where it can be destroyed more rapidly. Additional consequences of deep convection are perturbation of photolysis rates, effective wet scavenging of soluble species, nucleation of new particles in convective outflow, and the potential fix stratosphere-troposphere exchange in thunderstorm anvils. The remainder of the talk will focus on production of NO by lightning, its subsequent transport within convective clouds . and its effects on downwind ozone production. Recent applications of cloud/chemistry model simulations combined with anvil NO and lightning flash observations in estimating NO Introduction per flash will be described. These cloud-resolving case-study simulations of convective transport and lightning NO production in different environments have yielded results which are directly applicable to the design of lightning
Magnetic Fields in the Solar Convection Zone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fan Yuhong
2004-07-01
Full Text Available Recent studies of the dynamic evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the solar convection zone are reviewed with focus on emerging flux tubes responsible for the formation of solar active regions. The current prevailing picture is that active regions on the solar surface originate from strong toroidal magnetic fields generated by the solar dynamo mechanism at the thin tachocline layer at the base of the solar convection zone. Thus the magnetic fields need to traverse the entire convection zone before they reach the photosphere to form the observed solar active regions. This review discusses results with regard to the following major topics: 1. the equilibrium properties of the toroidal magnetic fields stored in the stable overshoot region at the base of the convection zone, 2. the buoyancy instability associated with the toroidal magnetic fields and the formation of buoyant magnetic flux tubes, 3. the rise of emerging flux loops through the solar convective envelope as modeled by the thin flux tube calculations which infer that the field strength of the toroidal magnetic fields at the base of the solar convection zone is significantly higher than the value in equipartition with convection, 4. the minimum twist needed for maintaining cohesion of the rising flux tubes, 5. the rise of highly twisted kink unstable flux tubes as a possible origin of d -sunspots, 6. the evolution of buoyant magnetic flux tubes in 3D stratified convection, 7. turbulent pumping of magnetic flux by penetrative compressible convection, 8. an alternative mechanism for intensifying toroidal magnetic fields to significantly super-equipartition field strengths by conversion of the potential energy associated with the superadiabatic stratification of the solar convection zone, and finally 9. a brief overview of our current understanding of flux emergence at the surface and post-emergence evolution of the subsurface magnetic fields.
Energy stability of thermocapillary convection in a model of the float-zone crystal-growth process
Shen, Y.; Neitzel, G. P.; Jankowski, D. F.; Mittelmann, H. D.
1990-01-01
Energy stability theory has been applied to a basic state of thermocapillary convection occurring in a cylindrical half-zone of finite length to determine conditions under which the flow will be stable. Because of the finite length of the zone, the basic state must be determined numerically. Instead of obtaining stability criteria by solving the related Euler-Lagrange equations, the variational problem is attacked directly by discretization of the integrals in the energy identity using finite differences. Results of the analysis are values of the Marangoni number below which axisymmetric disturbances to the basic state will decay, for various values of the other parameters governing the problem.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tison, J.-L.; Zhou, Shaola J. G.; Thomas, D. N.
2012-01-01
nucleation occurs while the concentration in the ice goes well above the theoretical one, calculated from brine equilibrium under temperature and salinity changes and observed brine volumes. This phase change locks the gases within the sea ice structure, preventing "degassing" of the ice, as is observed...... concentration in the ice above the one initially acquired within the skeletal layer. Convective processes will also occur on ice decay, when ice permeability is restored and the Rayleigh number reaches a critical value. The Barrow data set shows that these events, can be strong enough to redistribute the gases...
Kuscu, Murat; Akan, Ozgur B
2018-01-01
We consider a microfluidic molecular communication (MC) system, where the concentration-encoded molecular messages are transported via fluid flow-induced convection and diffusion, and detected by a surface-based MC receiver with ligand receptors placed at the bottom of the microfluidic channel. The overall system is a convection-diffusion-reaction system that can only be solved by numerical methods, e.g., finite element analysis (FEA). However, analytical models are key for the information and communication technology (ICT), as they enable an optimisation framework to develop advanced communication techniques, such as optimum detection methods and reliable transmission schemes. In this direction, we develop an analytical model to approximate the expected time course of bound receptor concentration, i.e., the received signal used to decode the transmitted messages. The model obviates the need for computationally expensive numerical methods by capturing the nonlinearities caused by laminar flow resulting in parabolic velocity profile, and finite number of ligand receptors leading to receiver saturation. The model also captures the effects of reactive surface depletion layer resulting from the mass transport limitations and moving reaction boundary originated from the passage of finite-duration molecular concentration pulse over the receiver surface. Based on the proposed model, we derive closed form analytical expressions that approximate the received pulse width, pulse delay and pulse amplitude, which can be used to optimize the system from an ICT perspective. We evaluate the accuracy of the proposed model by comparing model-based analytical results to the numerical results obtained by solving the exact system model with COMSOL Multiphysics.
Modeling the moist-convective atmosphere with a Quasi-3-D Multiscale Modeling Framework (Q3D MMF)
Jung, Joon-Hee; Arakawa, Akio
2014-03-01
The Q3D MMF (Quasi-Three-Dimensional Multiscale Modeling Framework) is a new generation of MMF that replaces the conventional subgrid-scale parameterizations in general circulation models (GCMs) with explicit simulations of cloud and associated processes by cloud-resolving models (CRMs). In the Q3D MMF, 3-D CRMs are applied to the channel domains that extend over GCM grid cells. To avoid "double counting" of the large-scale effects, only the eddy effects simulated by the CRMs are implemented into the GCM as far as the transports are concerned, while the total effects are implemented for diabatic processes. The CRMs recognize the large-scale horizontal inhomogeneity through the lateral boundary conditions obtained from the GCM through interpolation. To maintain compatibility between the GCM and CRMs, the averages of CRM variables over the GCM grid spacing are relaxed to the corresponding GCM variables with the advective time scale. To evaluate the Q3D MMF, a transition from a wave to strong vortices is simulated in an idealized horizontal domain. Comparison with a fully 3-D benchmark simulation shows that the Q3D MMF successfully predicts the evolution of the vortices. It also captures important statistics such as the domain-averaged surface precipitation rate, turbulent fluxes and subgrid-scale (co)variances. From tests with 3-D and 2-D CRMs, respectively, it is concluded that the ability to recognize large-scale inhomogeneities is primarily responsible for the successful performance of the Q3D MMF. It is also demonstrated that the use of two perpendicular sets of CRMs has positive impacts on the simulation.
Kristiawan, Budi; Santoso, Budi; Juwana, Wibawa Endra; Ramadhan, Raden Mahesa; Riandana, Ivan
2017-01-01
Laminar convective heat transfer of TiO2/water nanofluids flowing through in tube has been studied numerically using a CFD code (ANSYS Fluent Release 14.5). 2D axisymmetric configuration was applied to a horizontal circular straight tube with 2000 mm in length and 4.0 mm in inner diameter. Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation (SIMPLE) was performed to couple the pressure and velocity. The convergence of the iterative solution was carefully monitored less than 10-4. The temperature distributions of nanofluids flow at Reynolds number of 900 and 1500 were mapped for a circular tube subjected to constant wall heat flux boundary conditions of 4000 W/m2. By considering the mean temperature of nanofluids, the two-phase mixture model using Eulerian approach was performed to analyze numerically convective heat transfer for titania nanoparticle concentrations of 0.24, 0.60, 1.18 vol.%. The well-known Shah and London equation was used to validate this numerical study at developing laminar flow regime. The computed numerical data has a better agreement with the prediction from Shah-London correlation rather than the centerline temperature. The results show that the two-phase mixture model using Eulerian approach considering the mean temperature has succeeded to evaluate accurately.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. K. Morley
2006-05-01
Full Text Available Using a numerical implementation of the cowlock92 model of flow excitation in the magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI system, we show that both an expanding (on a ~12-min timescale and a quasi-instantaneous response in ionospheric convection to the onset of magnetopause reconnection can be accommodated by the Cowley-Lockwood conceptual framework. This model has a key feature of time dependence, necessarily considering the history of the coupled MI system. We show that a residual flow, driven by prior magnetopause reconnection, can produce a quasi-instantaneous global ionospheric convection response; perturbations from an equilibrium state may also be present from tail reconnection, which will superpose constructively to give a similar effect. On the other hand, when the MI system is relatively free of pre-existing flow, we can most clearly see the expanding nature of the response. As the open-closed field line boundary will frequently be in motion from such prior reconnection (both at the dayside magnetopause and in the cross-tail current sheet, it is expected that there will usually be some level of combined response to dayside reconnection.
Morley, S. K.; Lockwood, M.
2006-05-01
Using a numerical implementation of the cowlock92 model of flow excitation in the magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) system, we show that both an expanding (on a ~12-min timescale) and a quasi-instantaneous response in ionospheric convection to the onset of magnetopause reconnection can be accommodated by the Cowley-Lockwood conceptual framework. This model has a key feature of time dependence, necessarily considering the history of the coupled MI system. We show that a residual flow, driven by prior magnetopause reconnection, can produce a quasi-instantaneous global ionospheric convection response; perturbations from an equilibrium state may also be present from tail reconnection, which will superpose constructively to give a similar effect. On the other hand, when the MI system is relatively free of pre-existing flow, we can most clearly see the expanding nature of the response. As the open-closed field line boundary will frequently be in motion from such prior reconnection (both at the dayside magnetopause and in the cross-tail current sheet), it is expected that there will usually be some level of combined response to dayside reconnection.
Tulich, S. N.
2015-06-01
This paper describes a general method for the treatment of convective momentum transport (CMT) in large-scale dynamical solvers that use a cyclic, two-dimensional (2-D) cloud-resolving model (CRM) as a "superparameterization" of convective-system-scale processes. The approach is similar in concept to traditional parameterizations of CMT, but with the distinction that both the scalar transport and diagnostic pressure gradient force are calculated using information provided by the 2-D CRM. No assumptions are therefore made concerning the role of convection-induced pressure gradient forces in producing up or down-gradient CMT. The proposed method is evaluated using a new superparameterized version of the Weather Research and Forecast model (SP-WRF) that is described herein for the first time. Results show that the net effect of the formulation is to modestly reduce the overall strength of the large-scale circulation, via "cumulus friction." This statement holds true for idealized simulations of two types of mesoscale convective systems, a squall line, and a tropical cyclone, in addition to real-world global simulations of seasonal (1 June to 31 August) climate. In the case of the latter, inclusion of the formulation is found to improve the depiction of key synoptic modes of tropical wave variability, in addition to some aspects of the simulated time-mean climate. The choice of CRM orientation is also found to importantly affect the simulated time-mean climate, apparently due to changes in the explicit representation of wide-spread shallow convective regions.
Pleticha, Josef; Maus, Timothy P; Christner, Jodie A; Marsh, Michael P; Lee, Kendall H; Hooten, W Michael; Beutler, Andreas S
2014-10-01
Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are critical anatomical structures involved in nociception. Intraganglionic (IG) drug delivery is therefore an important route of administration for novel analgesic therapies. Although IG injection in large animal models is highly desirable for preclinical biodistribution and toxicology studies of new drugs, no method to deliver pharmaceutical agents into the DRG has been reported in any large species. The present study describes a minimally invasive technique of IG agent delivery in domestic swine, one of the most common large animal models. The technique utilizes CT guidance for DRG targeting and a custom-made injection assembly for convection enhanced delivery (CED) of therapeutic agents directly into DRG parenchyma. The DRG were initially visualized by CT myelography to determine the optimal access route to the DRG. The subsequent IG injection consisted of 3 steps. First, a commercially available guide needle was advanced to a position dorsolateral to the DRG, and the dural root sleeve was punctured, leaving the guide needle contiguous with, but not penetrating, the DRG. Second, the custom-made stepped stylet was inserted through the guide needle into the DRG parenchyma. Third, the stepped stylet was replaced by the custom-made stepped needle, which was used for the IG CED. Initial dye injections performed in pig cadavers confirmed the accuracy of DRG targeting under CT guidance. Intraganglionic administration of adeno-associated virus in vivo resulted in a unilateral transduction of the injected DRG, with 33.5% DRG neurons transduced. Transgene expression was also found in the dorsal root entry zones at the corresponding spinal levels. The results thereby confirm the efficacy of CED by the stepped needle and a selectivity of DRG targeting. Imaging-based modeling of the procedure in humans suggests that IG CED may be translatable to the clinical setting.
Stochastic Convection Parameterizations
Teixeira, Joao; Reynolds, Carolyn; Suselj, Kay; Matheou, Georgios
2012-01-01
computational fluid dynamics, radiation, clouds, turbulence, convection, gravity waves, surface interaction, radiation interaction, cloud and aerosol microphysics, complexity (vegetation, biogeochemistry, radiation versus turbulence/convection stochastic approach, non-linearities, Monte Carlo, high resolutions, large-Eddy Simulations, cloud structure, plumes, saturation in tropics, forecasting, parameterizations, stochastic, radiation-clod interaction, hurricane forecasts
Joseph J. Charney; Brian E. Potter
2017-01-01
Convection and downbursts are connected meteorological phenomena with the potential to affect fire behavior and thereby alter the evolution of a wildland fire. Meteorological phenomena related to convection and downbursts are often discussed in the context of fire behavior and smoke. The physical mechanisms that contribute to these phenomena are interrelated, but the...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping
2013-03-14
This three-year project, in cooperation with Professor Bob Houze at University of Washington, has been successfully finished as planned. Both ARM (the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program) data and cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations were used to identify the water budgets of clouds observed in two international field campaigns. The research results achieved shed light on several key processes of clouds in climate change (or general circulation models), which are summarized below. 1. Revealed the effect of mineral dust on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) Two international field campaigns near a desert and a tropical coast provided unique data to drive and evaluate CRM simulations, which are TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment) and AMMA (the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis). Studies of the two campaign data were contrasted, revealing that much mineral dust can bring about large MCSs via ice nucleation and clouds. This result was reported as a PI presentation in the 3rd ASR Science Team meeting held in Arlington, Virginia in March 2012. A paper on the studies was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2013). 2. Identified the effect of convective downdrafts on ice crystal concentration Using the large-scale forcing data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP (the Southern Great Plains) and other field campaigns, Goddard CRM simulations were carried out in comparison with radar and satellite observations. The comparison between model and observations revealed that convective downdrafts could increase ice crystal concentration by up to three or four orders, which is a key to quantitatively represent the indirect effects of ice nuclei, a kind of aerosol, on clouds and radiation in the Tropics. This result was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2011) and summarized in the DOE/ASR Research Highlights Summaries (see http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/RMjY5/view). 3. Used radar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Bossuet
Full Text Available Systematic westerly biases in the southern hemisphere wintertime flow and easterly equatorial biases are experienced in the Météo-France climate model. These biases are found to be much reduced when a simple parameterization is introduced to take into account the vertical momentum transfer through the gravity waves excited by deep convection. These waves are quasi-stationary in the frame of reference moving with convection and they propagate vertically to higher levels in the atmosphere, where they may exert a significant deceleration of the mean flow at levels where dissipation occurs. Sixty-day experiments have been performed from a multiyear simulation with the standard 31 levels for a summer and a winter month, and with a T42 horizontal resolution. The impact of this parameterization on the integration of the model is found to be generally positive, with a significant deceleration in the westerly stratospheric jet and with a reduction of the easterly equatorial bias. The sensitivity of the Météo-France climate model to vertical resolution is also investigated by increasing the number of vertical levels, without moving the top of the model. The vertical resolution is increased up to 41 levels, using two kinds of level distribution. For the first, the increase in vertical resolution concerns especially the troposphere (with 22 levels in the troposphere, and the second treats the whole atmosphere in a homogeneous way (with 15 levels in the troposphere; the standard version of 31 levels has 10 levels in the troposphere. A comparison is made between the dynamical aspects of the simulations. The zonal wind and precipitation are presented and compared for each resolution. A positive impact is found with the finer tropospheric resolution on the precipitation in the mid-latitudes and on the westerly stratospheric jet, but the general impact on the model climate is weak, the physical parameterizations used appear to be mostly independent to the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Bossuet
1998-02-01
Full Text Available Systematic westerly biases in the southern hemisphere wintertime flow and easterly equatorial biases are experienced in the Météo-France climate model. These biases are found to be much reduced when a simple parameterization is introduced to take into account the vertical momentum transfer through the gravity waves excited by deep convection. These waves are quasi-stationary in the frame of reference moving with convection and they propagate vertically to higher levels in the atmosphere, where they may exert a significant deceleration of the mean flow at levels where dissipation occurs. Sixty-day experiments have been performed from a multiyear simulation with the standard 31 levels for a summer and a winter month, and with a T42 horizontal resolution. The impact of this parameterization on the integration of the model is found to be generally positive, with a significant deceleration in the westerly stratospheric jet and with a reduction of the easterly equatorial bias. The sensitivity of the Météo-France climate model to vertical resolution is also investigated by increasing the number of vertical levels, without moving the top of the model. The vertical resolution is increased up to 41 levels, using two kinds of level distribution. For the first, the increase in vertical resolution concerns especially the troposphere (with 22 levels in the troposphere, and the second treats the whole atmosphere in a homogeneous way (with 15 levels in the troposphere; the standard version of 31 levels has 10 levels in the troposphere. A comparison is made between the dynamical aspects of the simulations. The zonal wind and precipitation are presented and compared for each resolution. A positive impact is found with the finer tropospheric resolution on the precipitation in the mid-latitudes and on the westerly stratospheric jet, but the general impact on the model climate is weak, the physical parameterizations used appear to be mostly independent to the
Seismic sounding of convection in the Sun
Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.
2015-11-01
Thermal convection is the dominant mechanism of energy transport in the outer envelope of the Sun (one-third by radius). It drives global fluid circulations and magnetic fields observed on the solar surface. Convection excites a broadband spectrum of acoustic waves that propagate within the interior and set up modal resonances. These acoustic waves, also called seismic waves, are observed at the surface of the Sun by space- and ground-based telescopes. Seismic sounding, the study of these seismic waves to infer the internal properties of the Sun, constitutes helioseismology. Here we review our knowledge of solar convection, especially that obtained through seismic inference. Several characteristics of solar convection, such as differential rotation, anisotropic Reynolds stresses, the influence of rotation on convection and supergranulation, are considered. On larger scales, several inferences suggest that convective velocities are substantially smaller than those predicted by theory and simulations. This discrepancy challenges the models of internal differential rotation that rely on convective stresses as a driving mechanism and provide an important benchmark for numerical simulations. In collaboration with Shravan Hanasoge, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai and Laurent Gizon, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Goettingen.
Sugiyama, Shin-Ichiro; Saito, Ryuta; Funamoto, Kenichi; Nakayama, Toshio; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Yamashita, Yoji; Inoue, Tomoo; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Tominaga, Teiji
2013-10-01
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a technique that delivers therapeutic agents directly and effectively into the brain parenchyma. Application of CED is now under investigation as a new treatment for various diseases. Diffuse brainstem glioma is one of the important candidates that could be targeted with CED. Especially when targeting brainstem lesions, prediction of drug distribution prior to CED will be necessary. This study evaluated the computational simulation of CED in the primate brainstem using a simplified model. Three in vivo experiments infusing gadolinium solution into the non-human primate brainstem were analyzed. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired during infusion of a total of 300 μl gadolinium solution. Computational simulation reconstructed the surface geometry of the brainstem from the MR images. The volume of the whole structure was meshed by grid generating software. Under the assumptions that the brainstem surface was rigid and the interior was filled with cerebrospinal fluid, the equations of continuity and Darcy's law were solved within a computational fluid dynamics package using a finite volume method. The results of computational simulations were compared with those of the in vivo experiments. The distribution volume (Vd) in the simulations corresponded well with the in vivo experiments. Under the condition without massive 'catheter back flow', computational simulations predicted almost 70% of the Vd of the in vivo experiments. The simplified computational simulations were consistent with the experiments in vivo. The methodology used in this study can be applied to predict convective drug distribution in the primate brainstem.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pruess, Karsten; Zhang, Keni
2008-11-17
For purposes of geologic storage, CO2 would be injected into saline formations at supercritical temperature and pressure conditions, and would form a separate phase that is immiscible with the aqueous phase (brine). At typical subsurface temperature and pressure conditions, supercritical CO2 (scCO2) has lower density than the aqueous phase and would experience an upward buoyancy force. Accordingly, the CO2 is expected to accumulate beneath the caprock at the top of the permeable interval, and could escape from the storage formation wherever (sub-)vertical pathways are available, such as fractures or faults through the caprock, or improperly abandoned wells. Over time, an increasing fraction of CO2 may dissolve in the aqueous phase, and eventually some of the aqueous CO2 may react with rock minerals to form poorly soluble carbonates. Dissolution into the aqueous phase and eventual sequestration as carbonates are highly desirable processes as they would increase permanence and security of storage. Dissolution of CO2 will establish phase equilibrium locally between the overlying CO2 plume and the aqueous phase beneath. If the aqueous phase were immobile, CO2 dissolution would be limited by the rate at which molecular diffusion can remove dissolved CO2 from the interface between CO2-rich and aqueous phases. This is a slow process. However, dissolution of CO2 is accompanied by a small increase in the density of the aqueous phase, creating a negative buoyancy force that can give rise to downward convection of CO2-rich brine, which in turn can greatly accelerate CO2 dissolution. This study explores the process of dissolution-diffusion-convection (DDC), using high-resolution numerical simulation. We find that geometric features of convection patterns are very sensitive to small changes in problem specifications, reflecting self-enhancing feedbacks and the chaotic nature of the process. Total CO2 dissolution rates on the other hand are found to be quite robust against
Convection and Mixing in Classical Novae Precursors
Dursi, L. J.; Calder, A. C.; Alexakis, A.; Truran, J. W.; Zingale, M.; Times, F. X.; Ricker, P. M.; Fryxell, B.; Olson, K.; Rosner, R.; MacNeice, P.
2002-06-01
To explain observed abundances from classical nova outbursts, and to help explain their energetics, nova models must incorporate a mechanism that will dredge up the heavier white dwarf material into the lighter accreted atmosphere. One proposed mechanism relies on the fluid motions from an early convective phase to do the mixing. We present recent work investigating two aspects of this mechanism. We examine results from two-dimensional simulations of classical nova precursor models that demonstrate the beginning of a convective phase during the `simmering' of a nova precursor. We use a new hydrostatic equilibrium hydrodynamics module recently developed for the adaptive-mesh code FLASH. The two-dimensional models are based on the one-dimensional models of Ami Glasner (Glasner et al. 1997), and were evolved with FLASH from a pre-convective state to the onset of convection. The onset of convection induces a velocity field near the C,O/H,He interface, which can then cause mixing through interactions with gravity waves. We show results from simulations of these wind-wave interactions, and estimate whether the `wind' caused by the convection could induce sufficient dredge-up to power a classical novae. This research has been supported by the US. Department of Energy under grant no. B341495 to the ASCI Flash Center at the University of Chicago
The influence of embedded convection on orographic precipitation
Cannon, D. J.
An in-depth analysis of the dynamical and microphysical processes by which embedded convection influences orographic precipitation, and the representation of these processes in numerical models, is presented. Benchmark idealised convection-permitting simulations are conducted to quantify the impact of embedded convection on orographic precipitation over a broad range of parameter space. Clouds that form over tall and wide mountains (e.g., the Washington Cascades) are found to be highly efficient at forming precipitations even in the absence of embedded convection. When embedded convection develops in such clouds, it produces competing effects that cancel to yield little change in the area-averaged precipitation rate. In contrast, for short and narrow mountains (e.g., the UK Pennines), stratiform precipitation formation is highly inefficient and so rapid precipitation formation within convective updraughts significantly enhances the area-averaged precipitation rate (by up to 133%). A novel analytical model of convective orographic precipitation is developed which successfully reproduces many of the benchmark simulation trends. Simplified representations of the dynamical and microphysical processes governing mixed-phase stratiform and convective clouds are developed to represent a flow with embedded convection. Finally, the representation of embedded convection in idealised simulations employing a commonly-used convection parameterisation scheme is evaluated relative to the benchmark simulations. Significant over-predictions (of up to 90%) in the area-averaged precipitation accumulations are found. Inexpensive modifications to the parameterisation such as changes to both the treatment of precipitation and the trigger function, as well as the introduction of convective memory (representing convective cell advection), may significantly improve the parameterisation of embedded convection in operational numerical weather prediction models.
Added value of convection-permitting reanalyses
Wahl, S.; Keller, J. D.; Ohlwein, C.; Hense, A.; Friederichs, P.; Crewell, S.
2016-12-01
Atmospheric reanalyses are a state-of-the-art tool to generate consistent and realistic state estimates of the atmospheric system. They are used for validation of meteorological and hydrological models, climate monitoring, and renewable energy applications, amongst others. Current reanalyses are mainly global, while regional reanalyses are emerging for North America, the polar region, and most recently for Europe. Due to the horizontal resolution used, deep convection is still parameterized even in the regional reanalyses. However, convective parameterization is a major source of errors and uncertainties in atmospheric models. Therefore, it is expected that convection permitting reanalysis systems are able to adequately simulate the mechanisms leading to high-impact weather, notably heavy precipitation and winds related to deep moist convection. A novel convective-scale regional reanalysis system for Central Europe (COSMO-REA2) has been developed by the Hans-Ertel Center for Weather Research - Climate Monitoring Branch. The system is based on the COSMO model and uses a nudging scheme for the assimilation of observational data. In addition, radar-derived rain rates are assimilated through a latent heat nudging scheme. With a horizontal grid-spacing of 2 km, the model parameterization for deep moist convective processes is turned off. As we expect the largest benefit of the convection-permitting system for precipitation, the evaluation focuses on this essential climate variable (ECV). Furthermore, precipitation is crucial for climate monitoring purposes, e.g., in the form of extreme precipitation which is an major cause of severe damages and societal costs in Europe. This study illustrates the added value of the convective-scale reanalysis compared to coarser gridded regional European and global reanalyses.
Johnson, Daniel E.; Tao, W.-K.; Simpson, J.; Sui, C.-H.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Interactions between deep tropical clouds over the western Pacific warm pool and the larger-scale environment are key to understanding climate change. Cloud models are an extremely useful tool in simulating and providing statistical information on heat and moisture transfer processes between cloud systems and the environment, and can therefore be utilized to substantially improve cloud parameterizations in climate models. In this paper, the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud-resolving model is used in multi-day simulations of deep tropical convective activity over the Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). Large-scale temperature and moisture advective tendencies, and horizontal momentum from the TOGA-COARE Intensive Flux Array (IFA) region, are applied to the GCE version which incorporates cyclical boundary conditions. Sensitivity experiments show that grid domain size produces the largest response to domain-mean temperature and moisture deviations, as well as cloudiness, when compared to grid horizontal or vertical resolution, and advection scheme. It is found that a minimum grid-domain size of 500 km is needed to adequately resolve the convective cloud features. The control experiment shows that the atmospheric heating and moistening is primarily a response to cloud latent processes of condensation/evaporation, and deposition/sublimation, and to a lesser extent, melting of ice particles. Air-sea exchange of heat and moisture is found to be significant, but of secondary importance, while the radiational response is small. The simulated rainfall and atmospheric heating and moistening, agrees well with observations, and performs favorably to other models simulating this case.
Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations
Holloway, Christopher E.
2017-06-01
To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15 day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibrium. Analysis of the budget of the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy shows that control runs have significant positive contributions to organization from radiation and negative contributions from surface fluxes and transport, similar to idealized runs once they become aggregated. Despite identical lateral boundary conditions for all experiments in each case, systematic differences in mean column water vapor (CWV), CWV distribution shape, and CWV autocorrelation length scale are found between the different sensitivity runs, particularly for those without interactive radiation, showing that there are at least some similarities in sensitivities to these feedbacks in both idealized and realistic simulations (although the organization of precipitation shows less sensitivity to interactive radiation). The magnitudes and signs of these systematic differences are consistent with a rough equilibrium between (1) equalization due to advection from the lateral boundaries and (2) disaggregation due to the absence of interactive radiation, implying disaggregation rates comparable to those in idealized runs with aggregated initial conditions and noninteractive radiation. This points to a plausible similarity in the way that radiation feedbacks maintain aggregated convection in both idealized simulations and the real world.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding the processes that lead to the organization of tropical rainstorms is an important challenge for weather
Cui, Shuqi; Hong, Ning; Shi, Baochang; Chai, Zhenhua
2016-04-01
In this paper, we will focus on the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model for two-dimensional convection-diffusion equations (CDEs), and analyze the discrete effect on the halfway bounce-back (HBB) boundary condition (or sometimes called bounce-back boundary condition) of the MRT model where three different discrete velocity models are considered. We first present a theoretical analysis on the discrete effect of the HBB boundary condition for the simple problems with a parabolic distribution in the x or y direction, and a numerical slip proportional to the second-order of lattice spacing is observed at the boundary, which means that the MRT model has a second-order convergence rate in space. The theoretical analysis also shows that the numerical slip can be eliminated in the MRT model through tuning the free relaxation parameter corresponding to the second-order moment, while it cannot be removed in the single-relaxation-time model or the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model unless the relaxation parameter related to the diffusion coefficient is set to be a special value. We then perform some simulations to confirm our theoretical results, and find that the numerical results are consistent with our theoretical analysis. Finally, we would also like to point out the present analysis can be extended to other boundary conditions of lattice Boltzmann models for CDEs.
Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa
2014-01-01
Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....
Bednarz, Tomasz Piotr; Lei, Chengwang; Patterson, John C.
2009-07-01
The present experimental investigation is concerned with the transient flow response in a reservoir model to periodic heating and cooling at the water surface. The experiment reveals a stable stratification of the water body during the heating phase and an unsteady mixing flow in the reservoir during the cooling phase. It is shown that thermal instabilities play an important role in breaking up the residual circulation and initiating a reverse flow circulation in deep waters after the switch of thermal forcing from heating to cooling. Moreover, the heating from the water surface results in a stable large-scale convective roll that is clearly observed in the experiment. The present flow visualization is carried out with the application of thermo-chromic liquid crystals. Quantitative temperature and velocity fields are extracted using Particle Image Thermometry and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques. Understanding of the flow mechanisms pertinent to this problem is important for predicting the transport of nutrients and pollutants across reservoirs.
Osczevski, Randall J.
2014-08-01
Ben Shabat et al. (Int J Biometeorol 56(4):639-51, 2013) present revised charts for wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCET) and facial skin temperatures (FST) that differ significantly from currently accepted charts. They credit these differences to their more sophisticated calculation model and to the human-based equation that it used for finding the convective heat transfer coefficient (Ben Shabat and Shitzer, Int J Biometeorol 56:639-651, 2012). Because a version of the simple model that was used to create the current charts accurately reproduces their results when it uses the human-based equation, the differences that they found must be entirely due to this equation. In deriving it, Ben Shabat and Shitzer assumed that all of the heat transfer from the surface of their cylindrical model was due to forced convection alone. Because several modes of heat transfer were occurring in the human experiments they were attempting to simulate, notably radiation, their coefficients are actually total external heat transfer coefficients, not purely convective ones, as the calculation models assume. Data from the one human experiment that used heat flux sensors supports this conclusion and exposes the hazard of using a numerical model with several adjustable parameters that cannot be measured. Because the human-based equation is faulty, the values in the proposed charts are not correct. The equation that Ben Shabat et al. (Int J Biometeorol 56(4):639-51, 2013) propose to calculate WCET should not be used.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varble, Adam [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City Utah USA; Zipser, Edward J. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City Utah USA; Fridlind, Ann M. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York New York USA; Zhu, Ping [Department of Earth Sciences, Florida International University, Miami Florida USA; Ackerman, Andrew S. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York New York USA; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire d' Aerologie, University of Toulouse/CNRS, Toulouse France; Collis, Scott [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA; Fan, Jiwen [Department of Climate Physics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Hill, Adrian [Met Office, Exeter UK; Shipway, Ben [Met Office, Exeter UK
2014-12-18
Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on 23-24 January 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observed radar reflectivity fields and dual-Doppler retrievals of vertical wind speeds in an attempt to explain published results showing a high bias in simulated convective radar reflectivity aloft. This high bias results from ice water content being large, which is a product of large, strong convective updrafts, although hydrometeor size distribution assumptions modulate the size of this bias. Making snow mass more realistically proportional to D2 rather than D3 eliminates unrealistically large snow reflectivities over 40 dBZ in some simulations. Graupel, unlike snow, produces high biased reflectivity in all simulations, which is partly a result of parameterized microphysics, but also partly a result of overly intense simulated updrafts. Peak vertical velocities in deep convective updrafts are greater than dual-Doppler retrieved values, especially in the upper troposphere. Freezing of liquid condensate, often rain, lofted above the freezing level in simulated updraft cores greatly contributes to these excessive upper tropospheric vertical velocities. The strongest simulated updraft cores are nearly undiluted, with some of the strongest showing supercell characteristics during the multicellular (pre-squall) stage of the event. Decreasing horizontal grid spacing from 900 to 100 meters slightly weakens deep updraft vertical velocity and moderately decreases the amount of condensate aloft, but not enough to match observational retrievals. Therefore, overly intense simulated updrafts may additionally be a product of unrealistic interactions between convective dynamics, parameterized microphysics, and the large-scale model forcing that promote different convective strengths than observed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xingbao Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator (ACCESS is used to test the sensitivity of heavy precipitation to various model configurations: horizontal resolution, domain size, rain rate assimilation, perturbed physics, and initial condition uncertainties, through a series of convection-permitting simulations of three heavy precipitation (greater than 200 mm day−1 cases in different synoptic backgrounds. The larger disparity of intensity histograms and rainfall fluctuation caused by different model configurations from their mean and/or control run indicates that heavier precipitation forecasts have larger uncertainty. A cross-verification exercise is used to quantify the impacts of different model parameters on heavy precipitation. The dispersion of skill scores with control run used as “truth” shows that the impacts of the model resolution and domain size on the quantitative precipitation forecast are not less than those of perturbed physics and initial field uncertainties in these not intentionally selected heavy precipitation cases. The result indicates that model resolution and domain size should be considered as part of probabilistic precipitation forecasts and ensemble prediction system design besides the model initial field uncertainty.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S LAOUAR
2015-06-01
Full Text Available La présente étude numérique concerne la convection naturelle qui se développe à l’intérieur d’une enceinte fermée orientée plein sud et soumise à une température chaude périodique dans le temps sur la demi-face supérieure sud. Sur la demi-face inférieure nord on impose une température constante froide, alors que, les autres parois sont adiabatiques. Les paramètres de l’étude sont l’amplitude adimensionnelle de la température excitatrice A (0
Topology Optimisation for Coupled Convection Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alexandersen, Joe
This thesis deals with topology optimisation for coupled convection problems. The aim is to extend and apply topology optimisation to steady-state conjugate heat transfer problems, where the heat conduction equation governs the heat transfer in a solid and is coupled to thermal transport in a sur......This thesis deals with topology optimisation for coupled convection problems. The aim is to extend and apply topology optimisation to steady-state conjugate heat transfer problems, where the heat conduction equation governs the heat transfer in a solid and is coupled to thermal transport...... in a surrounding uid, governed by a convection-diffusion equation, where the convective velocity field is found from solving the isothermal incompressible steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. Topology optimisation is also applied to steady-state natural convection problems. The modelling is done using stabilised...... finite elements, the formulation and implementation of which was done partly during a special course as prepatory work for this thesis. The formulation is extended with a Brinkman friction term in order to facilitate the topology optimisation of fluid flow and convective cooling problems. The derived...
Parodi, Antonio; Ferraris, Luca; Gallus, William; Maugeri, Maurizio; Molini, Luca; Siccardi, Franco; Boni, Giorgio
2017-05-01
Highly localized and persistent back-building mesoscale convective systems represent one of the most dangerous flash-flood-producing storms in the north-western Mediterranean area. Substantial warming of the Mediterranean Sea in recent decades raises concerns over possible increases in frequency or intensity of these types of events as increased atmospheric temperatures generally support increases in water vapour content. However, analyses of the historical record do not provide a univocal answer, but these are likely affected by a lack of detailed observations for older events. In the present study, 20th Century Reanalysis Project initial and boundary condition data in ensemble mode are used to address the feasibility of performing cloud-resolving simulations with 1 km horizontal grid spacing of a historic extreme event that occurred over Liguria: the San Fruttuoso case of 1915. The proposed approach focuses on the ensemble Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model runs that show strong convergence over the Ligurian Sea (17 out of 56 members) as these runs are the ones most likely to best simulate the event. It is found that these WRF runs generally do show wind and precipitation fields that are consistent with the occurrence of highly localized and persistent back-building mesoscale convective systems, although precipitation peak amounts are underestimated. Systematic small north-westward position errors with regard to the heaviest rain and strongest convergence areas imply that the reanalysis members may not be adequately representing the amount of cool air over the Po Plain outflowing into the Ligurian Sea through the Apennines gap. Regarding the role of historical data sources, this study shows that in addition to reanalysis products, unconventional data, such as historical meteorological bulletins, newspapers, and even photographs, can be very valuable sources of knowledge in the reconstruction of past extreme events.
Entropy Production in Convective Hydrothermal Systems
Boersing, Nele; Wellmann, Florian; Niederau, Jan
2016-04-01
Exploring hydrothermal reservoirs requires reliable estimates of subsurface temperatures to delineate favorable locations of boreholes. It is therefore of fundamental and practical importance to understand the thermodynamic behavior of the system in order to predict its performance with numerical studies. To this end, the thermodynamic measure of entropy production is considered as a useful abstraction tool to characterize the convective state of a system since it accounts for dissipative heat processes and gives insight into the system's average behavior in a statistical sense. Solving the underlying conservation principles of a convective hydrothermal system is sensitive to initial conditions and boundary conditions which in turn are prone to uncertain knowledge in subsurface parameters. There exist multiple numerical solutions to the mathematical description of a convective system and the prediction becomes even more challenging as the vigor of convection increases. Thus, the variety of possible modes contained in such highly non-linear problems needs to be quantified. A synthetic study is carried out to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in a finite porous layer heated from below. Various two-dimensional models are created such that their corresponding Rayleigh numbers lie in a range from the sub-critical linear to the supercritical non-linear regime, that is purely conductive to convection-dominated systems. Entropy production is found to describe the transient evolution of convective processes fairly well and can be used to identify thermodynamic equilibrium. Additionally, varying the aspect ratio for each Rayleigh number shows that the variety of realized convection modes increases with both larger aspect ratio and higher Rayleigh number. This phenomenon is also reflected by an enlarged spread of entropy production for the realized modes. Consequently, the Rayleigh number can be correlated to the magnitude of entropy production. In cases of moderate
Phenomenology of turbulent convection
Verma, Mahendra; Chatterjee, Anando; Kumar, Abhishek; Samtaney, Ravi
2016-11-01
We simulate Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) in which a fluid is confined between two thermally conducting plates. We report results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of RBC turbulence on 40963 grid, the highest resolution hitherto reported, on 65536 cores of Cray XC40, Shaheen II, at KAUST. The non-dimensional parameters of our simulation are: the Rayleigh number Ra = 1 . 1 ×1011 (the highest ever for a pseudo-spectral simulation) and Prandtl number of unity. We present energy flux diagnostics of shell-to-shell (in wave number space) transfer. Furthermore, noting that convective flows are anisotropic due to buoyancy, we quantify anisotropy by subdividing each wavenumber shell into rings and quantify ring energy spectrum. An outstanding question in convective turbulence is the wavenumber scaling of the energy spectrum. Our pseudo-spectral simulations of turbulent thermal convection coupled with novel energy transfer diagnostics have provided a definitive answer to this question. We conclude that convective turbulence exhibits behavior similar to fluid turbulence, that is, Kolmogorov's k - 5 / 3 spectrum with forward and local energy transfers, along with a nearly isotropic energy distribution. The supercomputer Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.
Observed structure of mesoscale convective systems and implications for large-scale heating
Houze, Robert A., Jr.
1989-01-01
The model for the idealized tropical mesoscale convective system proposed by Houze (1982) is examined. Observations of the structure of mesoscale convective systems are used to determine the applicability of the conceptual model. Data on the vertical distribution of vertical air motion in the convective and stratiform regions of mesoscale convective systems are discussed and the treatment of this distribution in Houze's model is considered.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Radkevich
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The 3D CFD model to simulate the pollutant transfer after accidents was developed. The model is based on the transport gradient model. The results of numerical experiments are presented.
Murphy, B. N.; Julin, J.; Riipinen, I.; Ekman, A. M. L.
2015-10-01
The difficulty in assessing interactions between atmospheric particles and clouds is due in part to the chemical complexity of the particles and to the wide range of length and timescales of processes occurring simultaneously during a cloud event. The new Cloud-Resolving Model with Organics (CRM-ORG) addresses these interactions by explicitly predicting the formation, transport, uptake, and re-release of surrogate organic compounds consistent with the volatility basis set framework within a nonhydrostatic, three-dimensional cloud-resolving model. CRM-ORG incorporates photochemical production, explicit condensation/evaporation of organic and inorganic vapors, and a comprehensive set of four different mechanisms describing particle formation from organic vapors and sulfuric acid. We simulate two deep convective cloud events over the Amazon rain forest in March 1998 and compare modeled particle size distributions with airborne observations made during the time period. The model predictions agree well with the observations for Aitken mode particles in the convective outflow (10-14 km) but underpredict nucleation mode particles by a factor of 20. A strong in-cloud particle formation process from organic vapors alone is necessary to reproduce even relatively low ultrafine particle number concentrations (~1500 cm-3). Sensitivity tests with variable initial aerosol loading and initial vertical aerosol profile demonstrate the complexity of particle redistribution and net gain or loss in the cloud. In-cloud particle number concentrations could be enhanced by as much as a factor of 3 over the base case simulation in the cloud outflow but were never reduced by more than a factor of 2 lower than the base. Additional sensitivity cases emphasize the need for constrained estimates of surface tension and affinity of organic vapors to ice surfaces. When temperature-dependent organic surface tension is introduced to the new particle formation mechanisms, the number concentration of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bau, H.H. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
1995-12-31
Using stability theory, numerical simulations, and in some instances experiments, it is demonstrated that the critical Rayleigh number for the bifurcation (1) from the no-motion (conduction) state to the motion state and (2) from time-independent convection to time-dependent, oscillatory convection in the thermal convection loop and Rayleigh-Benard problems can be significantly increased or decreased. This is accomplished through the use of a feedback controller effectuating small perturbations in the boundary data. The controller consists of sensors which detect deviations in the fluid`s temperature from the motionless, conductive values and then direct actuators to respond to these deviations in such a way as to suppress the naturally occurring flow instabilities. Actuators which modify the boundary`s temperature/heat flux are considered. The feedback controller can also be used to control flow patterns and generate complex dynamic behavior at relatively low Rayleigh numbers.
Further on integrator circuit analogy for natural convection
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Khane, Vaibhav [Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 225 Fulton Hall, 300W. 13th St., Rolla, MO-65409 (United States); Usman, Shoaib, E-mail: usmans@mst.ed [Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 225 Fulton Hall, 300W. 13th St., Rolla, MO-65409 (United States)
2010-03-15
This research is an extension of the previous work on the development of an integrator (RC) circuit analogy for natural convection. This analogy has been proven experimentally as well as by numerical simulations. Additional Rayleigh-Benard convection numerical simulations were performed to investigate DELTAT (temperature difference between source and sink) dependence of the thermal resistance of a natural convection system. Our results suggest that analogous to voltage dependent resistor (VDR) in electrical engineering, DELTAT dependent thermal resistance is observed in natural convection system. This DELTAT dependent thermal resistance leads to a variable time constant. Moreover, this research also suggests that for a natural convection system, in addition to the thermal capacitance a kinetic energy capacitance also exists. The relative contribution of kinetic energy capacitance depends on Rayleigh number. These results provide significant step forward towards development of a new inexpensive modeling and transient analysis tool for a natural convection system.
Tyler, D., Jr.; Barnes, J. R.
Background: Atmospheric mesoscale modeling [performed in support of Mars Science Laboratory Entry Descent and Landing (MSL EDL) at Ls=151o] is used in a high-resolution investigation of the complex circulation in and near Gale Crater. Model results show that afternoon Convective Boundary Layer depths are dramatically suppressed over the northern crater floor. For nearly the same locations, excursions from the expected surface pressure cycle are large, with daytime lows and nighttime highs that exceed the expected values by ~1.5%. Method: The 20-sol meteorological mean diurnal cycle is constructed for the innermost 4 km nest of the OSU Mars Mesoscale Model (OSU MMM). In examining the mean diurnal cycle, important forcings are identified. Numerous slices of winds and potential temperature are used to describe the circulation. Additionally, a diagnostic surface pressure field (based on the relationship between surface pressure and topography) is constructed to provide a dynamically unmodified surface pressure field. The difference between the actual surface pressure field and the diagnostic field is examined, identifying the locations and amplitudes of surface pressure excursions. The relationship between surface pressure excursions and dynamics is investigated. Conclusion: This study reveals that intra-scale interactions (between the larger-scale slope flows across the dichotomy boundary and those caused by Mt. Sharp and the rim walls of Gale Crater) excite smaller-scale circulations that modify the vertical temperature structure most significantly over the northern crater floor. Analysis shows that these circulations are generally mass-conserving, producing subsidence during the day and upwelling at night, and are largely responsible for modifying the temperature of a deep (~3 km) column of air. The modified vertical temperature profile is seen to correspond better with elevation above the mean regional topography than elevation above local topography (the "typical
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oreper, G.M.; Eagar, T.W.; Szekely, J.
1982-11-01
A mathematical model was developed to account for convection and temperature distributions in stationary arc weld pools driven by buoyancy, electromagnetic and surface tension forces. It is shown that the electromagnetic and surface tension forces dominate the flow behavior. In some cases, these forces produce double circulation loops, which are indirectly confirmed by experimental measurements of segregation in the weld pool. It is also shown that the surface tension driven flows are very effective in dissipating the incident energy flux on the pool surface which, in turn, reduces the vaporization from the weld pool.
Low enthalpy convective system in Western Ohio
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cannon, M.S.; Tabet, C.A.; Eckstein, Y.
1980-01-01
A distinct positive anomaly in the temperatures of the shallow (Pleistocene) aquifers along the Cincinnati-Findlay Arch in Western Ohio coincides with a low geothermal gradient. A conceptual model of convective currents associated with a tensional fault and/or fracture system along the crest of the Arch is suggested as an explanation of the anomaly. Hydrochemical information indicates that various quantities of warmer ground water, with the composition characteristics of deep bedrock aquifers, is present as an admixture in the shallow aquifers. This confirms the conceptual model of convection in fractures.
CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...
Numerical Investigations of Convective Initiation in Barbados
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Whitehall
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Localized convection in Barbados accounts for hazardous conditions and a significant percentage of the island’s annual rainfall. The feature results in rainfall accumulations exceeding 50 mm in 3 hours or less, over isolated locations. Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF simulations are conducted for a rapid convective initiated and heavy precipitation event of 26 August 2008 over Barbados. The simulation results from the 1 km grid resolution domain depict that the shallow topography on the island plays a significant role in enhancing convective activity under weak synoptically disturbed conditions. The model results also demonstrate that the driving forces for the development of deep convective clouds include low-level moisture convergence that form as a result of the temperature differential between the land and the ocean and forced low-level uplift as a result of the blocking by the topography. The high-resolution WRF simulations demonstrate its capability to accurately capture the low-level flow over the island, as well as the orientation of the divergence and convergence patterns throughout the depth of the atmosphere. These results are heartening to use the WRF as a resource for studying deep convection in Barbados for disaster managers and water resource managers.
Nachaisin, Mali; Teeta, Suminya; Deejing, Konlayut; Pharanat, Wanida
2017-09-01
Instant food is a product produced for convenience for consumer. Qualities are an important attribute of food materials reflecting consumer acceptance. The most problem of instant rice is casehardening during drying process resulted in the longer rehydration time. The objective of this research was to study the qualities of shredded Thai-style instant rice under a combined gas-fired infrared and air convection drying. Additionally, the mathematical models for gas-fired infrared assisted thin-layer drying of shredded Thai-style rice for traditional was investigated. The thin-layer drying of shredded Thai-style rice was carried out under gas-fired infrared intensities of 1000W/m2, air temperatures of 70°C and air velocities of 1 m/s. The drying occurred in the falling rate of drying period. The Page model was found to satisfactorily describe the drying behavior of shredded Thai-style rice, providing the highest R2 (0.997) and the lowest MBE and RMSE (0.01 and 0.18) respectively. A 9 point hedonic test showed in softness and color, but odor and overall acceptance were very similar.
Chaotic convection in a rotating fluid layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vinod K. Gupta
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A study of thermal convection in a rotating fluid layer is investigated based on the dynamical systems approach. A system of differential equation like Lorenz model has been obtained by using Galerkin-truncated approximation. The chaotic convection is investigated in a rotating fluid layer. A low-dimensional, Lorenz-like model was obtained using Galerkin truncated approximation. The fourth-order Runge–Kutta method is employed to obtain the numerical solution of Lorenz-like system of equations. We found that there is proportional relation between Taylor number and the scaled Rayleigh number R. This means that chaotic behavior can be delayed (for increasing value of R when we increase the scaled Taylor number. We conclude that the transition from steady convection to chaos depends on the level of Taylor number.
Mohr, Karen Irene; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.
2013-01-01
The present generation of general circulation models (GCM) use parameterized cumulus schemes and run at hydrostatic grid resolutions. To improve the representation of cloud-scale moist processes and landeatmosphere interactions, a global, Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) coupled to the Land Information System (LIS) has been developed at NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. The MMFeLIS has three components, a finite-volume (fv) GCM (Goddard Earth Observing System Ver. 4, GEOS-4), a 2D cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble, GCE), and the LIS, representing the large-scale atmospheric circulation, cloud processes, and land surface processes, respectively. The non-hydrostatic GCE model replaces the single-column cumulus parameterization of fvGCM. The model grid is composed of an array of fvGCM gridcells each with a series of embedded GCE models. A horizontal coupling strategy, GCE4fvGCM4Coupler4LIS, offered significant computational efficiency, with the scalability and I/O capabilities of LIS permitting landeatmosphere interactions at cloud-scale. Global simulations of 2007e2008 and comparisons to observations and reanalysis products were conducted. Using two different versions of the same land surface model but the same initial conditions, divergence in regional, synoptic-scale surface pressure patterns emerged within two weeks. The sensitivity of largescale circulations to land surface model physics revealed significant functional value to using a scalable, multi-model land surface modeling system in global weather and climate prediction.
Kehler-Poljak, Gabrijela; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Kvakić, Marko; Šariri, Kristina; Večenaj, Željko
2017-11-01
This study investigates the sensitivity of a high-resolution mesoscale atmospheric model in the model reproduction of thermally induced local wind (i.e., sea breezes, SB) on the development of deep convection (Cb). The three chosen cases are simulated by the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model at three (nested) model domains, whereas the area of the interest is Istria (peninsula in the northeastern Adriatic). The sensitivity tests are accomplished by modifying (1) the model setup, (2) the model topography and (3) the sea surface temperature (SST) distribution. The first set of simulations (over the three 1.5-day periods during summer) is conducted by modifying the model setup, i.e., microphysics and the boundary layer parameterizations. The same events are simulated with the modified topography where the mountain heights in Istria are reduced to 30% of their initial height. The SST distribution has two representations in the model: a constant SST field from the ECMWF skin temperature analysis and a varying SST field, which is provided by hourly geostationary satellite data. A comprehensive set of numerical experiments is statistically analyzed through several different approaches (i.e., the standard statistical measures, the spectral method and the image moment analysis). The overall model evaluation of each model setup revealed certain advantages of one model setup over the others. The numerical tests with the modified topography showed the influence of reducing the mountains heights on the pre-thunderstorm characteristics due to: (1) decrease of sensible heat flux and mid-tropospheric moisture and (2) change of slope-SB wind system. They consequently affect the evolution and dimensions of SBs and the features of the thunderstorm itself: timing, location and intensity (weaker storm). The implementation of the varying SST field in the model have an impact on the characteristics and dynamics of the SB and finally on the accuracy of Cb evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zengliang Zang
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The aerosol optical depth (AOD from satellites or ground-based sun photometer spectral observations has been widely used to estimate ground-level PM2.5 concentrations by regression methods. The boundary layer height (BLH is a popular factor in the regression model of AOD and PM2.5, but its effect is often uncertain. This may result from the structures between the stable and convective BLHs and from the calculation methods of the BLH. In this study, the boundary layer is divided into two types of stable and convective boundary layer, and the BLH is calculated using different methods from radiosonde data and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalysis data for the station in Beijing, China during 2014–2015. The BLH values from these methods show significant differences for both the stable and convective boundary layer. Then, these BLHs were introduced into the regression model of AOD-PM2.5 to seek the respective optimal BLH for the two types of boundary layer. It was found that the optimal BLH for the stable boundary layer is determined using the method of surface-based inversion, and the optimal BLH for the convective layer is determined using the method of elevated inversion. Finally, the optimal BLH and other meteorological parameters were combined to predict the PM2.5 concentrations using the stepwise regression method. The results indicate that for the stable boundary layer, the optimal stepwise regression model includes the factors of surface relative humidity, BLH, and surface temperature. These three factors can significantly enhance the prediction accuracy of ground-level PM2.5 concentrations, with an increase of determination coefficient from 0.50 to 0.68. For the convective boundary layer, however, the optimal stepwise regression model includes the factors of BLH and surface wind speed. These two factors improve the determination coefficient, with a relatively low increase from 0.65 to 0.70. It is found that the
Sert, İsmail Ozan; Sezer-Uzol, Nilay
2016-09-01
Computational fluid dynamics simulations for initially hydro-dynamically fully developed laminar flow with nanofluids in a circular duct under constant wall temperature condition are performed with two-phase mixture model by using Fluent software. Thermal behaviors of the system are investigated for constant wall temperature condition for Al2O3/water nanofluid. Hamilton-Crosser model and the Brownian motion effect are used for the thermal conductivity model of nanofluid instead of the Fluent default model for mixtures which gives extraordinary high thermal conductivity values and is valid for macro systems. Also, thermal conductivity and viscosity of the base fluid are taken as temperature dependent. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction, nanoparticle size, and inlet Peclet number on the heat transfer enhancement are investigated. The results are compared with single-phase results which give slightly lower heat transfer coefficient values than the results of two-phase mixture model.
Scaling regimes in spherical shell rotating convection
Gastine, T; Aubert, J
2016-01-01
Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in rotating spherical shells can be considered as a simplified analogue of many astrophysical and geophysical fluid flows. Here, we use three-dimensional direct numerical simulations to study this physical process. We construct a dataset of more than 200 numerical models that cover a broad parameter range with Ekman numbers spanning $3\\times 10^{-7} \\leq E \\leq 10^{-1}$, Rayleigh numbers within the range $10^3 < Ra < 2\\times 10^{10}$ and a Prandtl number unity. We investigate the scaling behaviours of both local (length scales, boundary layers) and global (Nusselt and Reynolds numbers) properties across various physical regimes from onset of rotating convection to weakly-rotating convection. Close to critical, the convective flow is dominated by a triple force balance between viscosity, Coriolis force and buoyancy. For larger supercriticalities, a subset of our numerical data approaches the asymptotic diffusivity-free scaling of rotating convection $Nu\\sim Ra^{3/2}E^{2}$ in ...
Importance of convective parameterization in ENSO predictions
Zhu, Jieshun; Kumar, Arun; Wang, Wanqiu; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Huang, Bohua; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.
2017-06-01
This letter explored the influence of atmospheric convection scheme on El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) predictions using a set of hindcast experiments. Specifically, a low-resolution version of the Climate Forecast System version 2 is used for 12 month hindcasts starting from each April during 1982-2011. The hindcast experiments are repeated with three atmospheric convection schemes. All three hindcasts apply the identical initialization with ocean initial conditions taken from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and atmosphere/land initial states from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Assessments indicate a substantial sensitivity of the sea surface temperature prediction skill to the different convection schemes, particularly over the eastern tropical Pacific. For the Niño 3.4 index, the anomaly correlation skill can differ by 0.1-0.2 at lead times longer than 2 months. Long-term simulations are further conducted with the three convection schemes to understand the differences in prediction skill. By conducting heat budget analyses for the mixed-layer temperature anomalies, it is suggested that the convection scheme having the highest skill simulates stronger and more realistic coupled feedbacks related to ENSO. Particularly, the strength of the Ekman pumping feedback is better represented, which is traced to more realistic simulation of surface wind stress. Our results imply that improving the mean state simulations in coupled (ocean-atmosphere) general circulation model (e.g., ameliorating the Intertropical Convergence Zone simulation) might further improve our ENSO prediction capability.
Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor
Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan
2012-11-01
It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.
Rasmussen, K. L.; Prein, A. F.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Ikeda, K.; Liu, C.
2017-11-01
Novel high-resolution convection-permitting regional climate simulations over the US employing the pseudo-global warming approach are used to investigate changes in the convective population and thermodynamic environments in a future climate. Two continuous 13-year simulations were conducted using (1) ERA-Interim reanalysis and (2) ERA-Interim reanalysis plus a climate perturbation for the RCP8.5 scenario. The simulations adequately reproduce the observed precipitation diurnal cycle, indicating that they capture organized and propagating convection that most climate models cannot adequately represent. This study shows that weak to moderate convection will decrease and strong convection will increase in frequency in a future climate. Analysis of the thermodynamic environments supporting convection shows that both convective available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition (CIN) increase downstream of the Rockies in a future climate. Previous studies suggest that CAPE will increase in a warming climate, however a corresponding increase in CIN acts as a balancing force to shift the convective population by suppressing weak to moderate convection and provides an environment where CAPE can build to extreme levels that may result in more frequent severe convection. An idealized investigation of fundamental changes in the thermodynamic environment was conducted by shifting a standard atmospheric profile by ± 5 °C. When temperature is increased, both CAPE and CIN increase in magnitude, while the opposite is true for decreased temperatures. Thus, even in the absence of synoptic and mesoscale variations, a warmer climate will provide more CAPE and CIN that will shift the convective population, likely impacting water and energy budgets on Earth.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira, Paulo A.L.; Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: paulo.alves.ferreira@usp.br, E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico; Franca, Elvis J., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)
2013-07-01
Under the perspective of knowing the results of the processes which moves the sedimentary dynamics in coastal environments and assisting works related to the historic of impacts generated in these systems by human occupation, this study shows a practical application of the mathematic-chemical model of diffusion-convection (MDC) of the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs in sedimentary columns for the evaluation of recent sedimentation rates in a Brazilian coastal system. {sup 137}Cs is an artificial radionuclide characterized by its high fission yield and half-life of about 30 years. It is already widely used in this kind of study by reason of its 1963's global peak. The MDC will improve the generated results as the levels of radioactivity of this nuclide are low in the Southern Hemisphere, where this element's main source is the atmospheric fallout from past nuclear explosions, and due to the fact that it is an element with non-negligible vertical mobility. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Khan
Full Text Available The present article scrutinizes the steady three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD flow of Powell-Eyring nanofluid with convective and the nanoparticles mass flux conditions. Additionally, the features of heat transfer phenomenaâs are carried out by utilizing the non-linear thermal radiation. Suitable transformations convert the nonlinear PDEs to the nonlinear ODEs and then tackled numerically by bvp4c technique. The properties of numerous amending parameters to the heat and mass transfer features are portrayed graphically and deliberated in detail. The achieved results reveal that amassed values of magnetic parameter M and Biot number Î³ enhance the temperature distribution and its thickness of boundary layer. Also, it is identified that the impact of Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt on concentration field are relatively conflicting. In order to recognize the validity of the current effort, the influence of pertinent fluid parameters are conferred in details. Furthermore, to comprehend the legitimacy of numerical computation a comparison between Matlab package bvp4c and shooting technique with RK Fehlberg method is presented in this scrutiny and alleged a tremendous agreement. Keywords: Three-dimensional flow, EyringâPowell model fluid, Nanoparticles, Non-linear thermal radiation, New mass flux boundary conditions
Laser induced ponderomotive convection in water
Shneider, M N
2015-01-01
A new mechanism for inducing convection during IR laser interaction with water or any absorbing polar liquid is described theoretically. The numerical simulations performed using the developed model show that the ponderomotive force produces water flow in the direction of the laser beam propagation. In the later stage of interaction, when water temperature rises, the Archimedes force becomes first comparable and then dominant producing convection directed against the vector of gravitational acceleration (upward). The theoretical estimates and the numerical simulations predict fluid dynamics that is similar to the observed in the previous experiments.
Heat transfer of laminar mixed convection of liquid
Shang, De-Yi
2016-01-01
This book presents a new algorithm to calculate fluid flow and heat transfer of laminar mixed convection. It provides step-by-step tutorial help to learn quickly how to set up the theoretical and numerical models of laminar mixed convection, to consider the variable physical properties of fluids, to obtain the system of numerical solutions, to create a series of formalization equations for the convection heat transfer by using a curve-fitting approach combined with theoretical analysis and derivation. It presents the governing ordinary differential equations of laminar mixed convection, equivalently transformed by an innovative similarity transformation with the description of the related transformation process. A system of numerical calculations of the governing ordinary differential equations is presented for the water laminar mixed convection. A polynomial model is induced for convenient and reliable treatment of variable physical properties of liquids. The developed formalization equations of mixed convec...
Free convection film flows and heat transfer
Shang, Deyi
2010-01-01
Presents development of systematic studies for hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, and accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids. This book provides a system of analysis models with a developed velocity component method.
Determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient
Spierings, D.; Bosman, F.; Peters, T.; Plasschaert, F.
The value of the convective heat transfer coefficient (htc) is determined under different loading conditions by using a computer aided method. The thermal load has been applied mathematically as well as experimentally to the coronal surface of an axisymmetric tooth model. To verify the assumptions
Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past dec...
Bejan, Adrian
2013-01-01
Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.
Spherical-shell boundaries for two-dimensional compressible convection in a star
Pratt, J.; Baraffe, I.; Goffrey, T.; Geroux, C.; Viallet, M.; Folini, D.; Constantino, T.; Popov, M.; Walder, R.
2016-10-01
Context. Studies of stellar convection typically use a spherical-shell geometry. The radial extent of the shell and the boundary conditions applied are based on the model of the star investigated. We study the impact of different two-dimensional spherical shells on compressible convection. Realistic profiles for density and temperature from an established one-dimensional stellar evolution code are used to produce a model of a large stellar convection zone representative of a young low-mass star, like our sun at 106 ye