WorldWideScience

Sample records for controls plant architecture

  1. Widespread mechanosensing controls the structure behind the architecture in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamant, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Mechanical forces play an instructing role for many aspects of animal cell biology, such as division, polarity and fate. Although the associated mechanoperception pathways still remain largely elusive in plants, physical cues have long been thought to guide development in parallel to biochemical factors. With the development of new imaging techniques, micromechanics tools and modeling approaches, the role of mechanical signals in plant development is now re-examined and fully integrated with modern cell biology. Using recent examples from the literature, I propose to use a multiscale perspective, from the whole plant down to the cell wall, to fully appreciate the diversity of developmental processes that depend on mechanical signals. Incidentally, this also illustrates how conceptually rich this field is. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of plant architecture by distinctive TALE homeobox gene interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838063

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotes, transcription factor (TF)-based network is a widely used mechanism to regulate fundamental developmental processes. Both animals and plants utilize three-amino-acid-loop-extension (TALE) homeodomain (HD) transcription factors to subdivide their body plan. In animals, MEIS/PBC TF

  3. Evaluation of digital fault-tolerant architectures for nuclear power plant control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on four fault-tolerant architectures that were evaluated for their potential reliability in service as control systems of nuclear power plants. The reliability analyses showed that human- and software-related common cause failures and single points of failure in the output modules are dominant contributors to system unreliability. The four architectures are triple-modular-redundant, both synchronous and asynchronous, and also dual synchronous and asynchronous. The evaluation includes a review of design features, an analysis of the importance of coverage, and reliability analyses of fault-tolerant systems. Reliability analyses based on data from several industries that have fault-tolerant controllers were used to estimate the mean-time-between-failures of fault-tolerant controllers and to predict those failure modes that may be important in nuclear power plants

  4. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Mauro-Herrera

    Full Text Available The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail. In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  5. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Doust, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail). In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  6. Evaluation of digital fault-tolerant architectures for nuclear power plant control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Four fault tolerant architectures were evaluated for their potential reliability in service as control systems of nuclear power plants. The reliability analyses showed that human- and software-related common cause failures and single points of failure in the output modules are dominant contributors to system unreliability. The four architectures are triple-modular-redundant (TMR), both synchronous and asynchronous, and also dual synchronous and asynchronous. The evaluation includes a review of design features, an analysis of the importance of coverage, and reliability analyses of fault tolerant systems. An advantage of fault-tolerant controllers over those not fault tolerant, is that fault-tolerant controllers continue to function after the occurrence of most single hardware faults. However, most fault-tolerant controllers have single hardware components that will cause system failure, almost all controllers have single points of failure in software, and all are subject to common cause failures. Reliability analyses based on data from several industries that have fault-tolerant controllers were used to estimate the mean-time-between-failures of fault-tolerant controllers and to predict those failures modes that may be important in nuclear power plants. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Gravity response mechanisms of lateral organs and the control of plant architecture in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, J.; Hangarter, R.

    Most research on gravity responses in plants has focused on primary roots and shoots, which typically grow in a vertical orientation. However, the patterns of lateral organ formation and their growth orientation, which typically are not vertical, govern plant architecture. For example, in Arabidopsis, when lateral roots emerge from the primary root, they grow at a nearly horizontal orientation. As they elongate, the roots slowly curve until they eventually reach a vertical orientation. The regulation of this lateral root orientation is an important component affecting the overall root system architecture. We have found that this change in orientation is not simply due to the onset of gravitropic competence, as non-vertical lateral roots are capable of both positive and negative gravitropism. Thus, the horizontal growth of the new lateral roots is determined by what is called the gravitropic set-point angle (GSA). In Arabidopsis shoots, rosette leaves and inflorescence branches also display GSA-dependent developmental changes in their orientation. The developmental control of the GSA of lateral organs in Arabidopsis provides us with a useful system for investigating the components involved in regulating directionality of tropistic responses. We have identified several Arabidopsis mutants that have either altered lateral root orientations, altered orientation of lateral organs in the shoot, or both, but maintain normal primary organ orientation. The mgsa ({m}odified {g}ravitropic {s}et-point {a}ngle) mutants with both altered lateral root and shoot orientation show that there are common components in the regulation of growth orientation in the different organs. Rosette leaves and lateral roots also have in common a regulation of positioning by red light. Further molecular and physiological analyses of the GSA mutants will provide insight into the basis of GSA regulation and, thus, a better understanding of how gravity controls plant architecture. [This work was

  8. Architecture of central control system for the 10 MW ECRH-plant at W7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braune, H. [Max-Plank-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)], E-mail: harald.braune@ipp.mpg.de; Brand, P. [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institut fuer Plasmaforschung Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Erckmann, V.; Jonitz, L. [Max-Plank-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Leonhardt, W.; Mellein, D. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association EURATOM-FZK, IHM, FZK, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Michel, G. [Max-Plank-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Mueller, G. [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institut fuer Plasmaforschung Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Purps, F. [Max-Plank-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Schlueter, K.-H. [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institut fuer Plasmaforschung Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Winkler, M. [Max-Plank-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) is the main heating method for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X) which is presently under construction at IPP Greifswald. The mission of W7-X is to demonstrate the inherent steady state capability of stellarators at reactor relevant plasma parameters. A modular 10 MW ECRH-plant at 140 GHz with 1 MW CW-capability power for each module is also under construction to support the scientific objectives. The commissioning of the ECRH-plant is well under way; three gyrotrons are operational. The strict modular design allows to operate each gyrotron separately and independent from all others. The ECRH-plant consists of many devices such as gyrotrons and high voltage power supplies, superconductive magnets, collector sweep coils, gyrotron cooling systems with many water circuits and last but not least the quasi-optical transmission line for microwaves with remote controlled mirrors and further water cooled circuits. All these devices are essential for a CW operation. A steady state ECRH has specific requirements on the stellarator machine itself, on the microwave sources, transmission elements and in particular on the central control system. The quasi steady state operation (up to 30 min) asks for real time microwave power adjustment during the different segments of one stellarator discharge. Therefore, the ECRH-plant must operate with a maximum reliability and availability. A capable central control system is an important condition to achieve this goal. The central control system for the 10 MW ECRH-plant at W7-X comprises three main parts. In detail these are the voltage and current regulation of each gyrotron, the interlock system to prevent the gyrotrons from damages and the remote control system based on a hierarchy set of PLCs and computers. The architecture of this central control system is presented.

  9. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun [PONUTech Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  10. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun

    2014-01-01

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  11. The ITER Fast Plant System Controller ATCA prototype Real-Time Software Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, B.B.; Santos, B.; Carvalho, P.F.; Neto, A.; Boncagni, L.; Batista, A.J.N.; Correia, M.; Sousa, J.; Gonçalves, B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► High performance ATCA systems for fast control and data acquisition. ► IEEE1588 timing system and synchronization. ► Plasma control algorithms. ► Real-time control software frameworks. ► Targeted for nuclear fusion experiments with long duration discharges. -- Abstract: IPFN is developing a prototype Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) based in ATCA embedded technologies dedicated to ITER CODAC data acquisition and control tasks in the sub-millisecond range. The main goal is to demonstrate the usability of the ATCA standard and its enhanced specifications for the high speed, very high density parallel data acquisition needs of the most demanding ITER tokamak plasma Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems. This effort included the in-house development of a new family of high performance ATCA I/O and timing boards. The standard ITER software system CODAC Core System (CCS) v3.1, with the control based in the EPICS system does not cover yet the real-time requirements fulfilled by this hardware, so a new set of software components was developed for this specific platform, attempting to integrate and leverage the new features in CSS, for example the Multithreaded Application Real Time executor (MARTe) software framework, the new Data Archiving Network (DAN) solution, an ATCA IEEE-1588-2008 timing interface, and the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) for system monitoring and remote management. This paper presents the overall software architecture for the ATCA FPSC, as well a discussion on the ITER constrains and design choices and finally a detailed description of the software components already developed

  12. The ITER Fast Plant System Controller ATCA prototype Real-Time Software Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, B.B., E-mail: bernardo@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, B.; Carvalho, P.F.; Neto, A. [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Boncagni, L. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati Research Centre, Division of Fusion Physics, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Batista, A.J.N.; Correia, M.; Sousa, J.; Gonçalves, B. [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► High performance ATCA systems for fast control and data acquisition. ► IEEE1588 timing system and synchronization. ► Plasma control algorithms. ► Real-time control software frameworks. ► Targeted for nuclear fusion experiments with long duration discharges. -- Abstract: IPFN is developing a prototype Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) based in ATCA embedded technologies dedicated to ITER CODAC data acquisition and control tasks in the sub-millisecond range. The main goal is to demonstrate the usability of the ATCA standard and its enhanced specifications for the high speed, very high density parallel data acquisition needs of the most demanding ITER tokamak plasma Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems. This effort included the in-house development of a new family of high performance ATCA I/O and timing boards. The standard ITER software system CODAC Core System (CCS) v3.1, with the control based in the EPICS system does not cover yet the real-time requirements fulfilled by this hardware, so a new set of software components was developed for this specific platform, attempting to integrate and leverage the new features in CSS, for example the Multithreaded Application Real Time executor (MARTe) software framework, the new Data Archiving Network (DAN) solution, an ATCA IEEE-1588-2008 timing interface, and the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) for system monitoring and remote management. This paper presents the overall software architecture for the ATCA FPSC, as well a discussion on the ITER constrains and design choices and finally a detailed description of the software components already developed.

  13. Protein Kinases in Shaping Plant Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Wang, Bo; Xin, Xiaoyun; Ren, Dongtao

    2018-02-13

    Plant architecture, the three-dimensional organization of the plant body, includes the branching pattern and the size, shape, and position of organs. Plant architecture is genetically controlled and is influenced by environmental conditions. The regulations occur at most of the stages from the first division of the fertilized eggs to the final establishment of plant architecture. Among the various endogenous regulators, protein kinases and their associated signaling pathways have been shown to play important roles in regulating the process of plant architecture establishment. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the mechanisms by which plant architecture formation is regulated by protein kinases, especially mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Neural Architectures for Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James K.

    1991-01-01

    The cerebellar model articulated controller (CMAC) neural architectures are shown to be viable for the purposes of real-time learning and control. Software tools for the exploration of CMAC performance are developed for three hardware platforms, the MacIntosh, the IBM PC, and the SUN workstation. All algorithm development was done using the C programming language. These software tools were then used to implement an adaptive critic neuro-control design that learns in real-time how to back up a trailer truck. The truck backer-upper experiment is a standard performance measure in the neural network literature, but previously the training of the controllers was done off-line. With the CMAC neural architectures, it was possible to train the neuro-controllers on-line in real-time on a MS-DOS PC 386. CMAC neural architectures are also used in conjunction with a hierarchical planning approach to find collision-free paths over 2-D analog valued obstacle fields. The method constructs a coarse resolution version of the original problem and then finds the corresponding coarse optimal path using multipass dynamic programming. CMAC artificial neural architectures are used to estimate the analog transition costs that dynamic programming requires. The CMAC architectures are trained in real-time for each obstacle field presented. The coarse optimal path is then used as a baseline for the construction of a fine scale optimal path through the original obstacle array. These results are a very good indication of the potential power of the neural architectures in control design. In order to reach as wide an audience as possible, we have run a seminar on neuro-control that has met once per week since 20 May 1991. This seminar has thoroughly discussed the CMAC architecture, relevant portions of classical control, back propagation through time, and adaptive critic designs.

  15. SCADA Architecture for Natural Gas plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turc Traian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Natural Gas Plant SCADA architecture. The main purpose of SCADA system is remote monitoring and controlling of any industrial plant. The SCADA hardware architecture is based on multi-dropping system allowing connecting a large number of different fiels devices. The SCADA Server gathers data from gas plant and stores data to a MtSQL database. The SCADA server is connected to other SCADA client application offers a intuitive and user-friendly HMI. The main benefit of using SCADA is real time displaying of gas plant state. The main contriobution of the authors consists in designing SCADA architecture based on multi-dropping system and Human Machine Interface.

  16. Aspects of Wind Power Plant Collector Network Layout and Control Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    ecent developments in wind turbine technology go towards the installation of larger Wind Power Plants (WPPs) both onshore and offshore. As wind power penetration level increases, power system operators are challenged by the penetration impacts to maintain reliability and stability of power system....... Therefore, connection topology and control concepts of large WPPs should be carefully investigated to improve the overall performance of both the WPP and the power systems. This paper aims to present a general overview of the design considerations for the electrical layout of WPPs and the WPP control...... strategy for optimum power generation while fulfilling the power system operators requirements....

  17. Fuzzy logic controller architecture for water level control in nuclear power plant steam generator using ANFIS training method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Ekrami, AmirHasan; Naseri, Zahra

    2003-01-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a fuzzy logic controller is applied to control the steam generator water level in a pressurized water reactor. The method does not require a detailed mathematical model of the object to be controlled. It is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial membership functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generator while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input-output mapping based on both human knowledge (in the from of fuzzy if - then rules) and stipulated input-output data. This fuzzy logic controller is applied to the steam generator level control by computer simulations. The simulation results confirm the excellent performance of this control architecture in compare with a well-turned PID controller. (author)

  18. High performance image acquisition and processing architecture for fast plant system controllers based on FPGA and GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, J.; Sanz, D.; Guillén, P.; Esquembri, S.; Arcas, G. de; Ruiz, M.; Vega, J.; Castro, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • To test an image acquisition and processing system for Camera Link devices based in a FPGA, compliant with ITER fast controllers. • To move data acquired from the set NI1483-NIPXIe7966R directly to a NVIDIA GPU using NVIDIA GPUDirect RDMA technology. • To obtain a methodology to include GPUs processing in ITER Fast Plant Controllers, using EPICS integration through Nominal Device Support (NDS). - Abstract: The two dominant technologies that are being used in real time image processing are Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Graphical Processor Unit (GPU) due to their algorithm parallelization capabilities. But not much work has been done to standardize how these technologies can be integrated in data acquisition systems, where control and supervisory requirements are in place, such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). This work proposes an architecture, and a development methodology, to develop image acquisition and processing systems based on FPGAs and GPUs compliant with ITER fast controller solutions. A use case based on a Camera Link device connected to an FPGA DAQ device (National Instruments FlexRIO technology), and a NVIDIA Tesla GPU series card has been developed and tested. The architecture proposed has been designed to optimize system performance by minimizing data transfer operations and CPU intervention thanks to the use of NVIDIA GPUDirect RDMA and DMA technologies. This allows moving the data directly between the different hardware elements (FPGA DAQ-GPU-CPU) avoiding CPU intervention and therefore the use of intermediate CPU memory buffers. A special effort has been put to provide a development methodology that, maintaining the highest possible abstraction from the low level implementation details, allows obtaining solutions that conform to CODAC Core System standards by providing EPICS and Nominal Device Support.

  19. High performance image acquisition and processing architecture for fast plant system controllers based on FPGA and GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, J., E-mail: jnieto@sec.upm.es [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Sanz, D.; Guillén, P.; Esquembri, S.; Arcas, G. de; Ruiz, M. [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • To test an image acquisition and processing system for Camera Link devices based in a FPGA, compliant with ITER fast controllers. • To move data acquired from the set NI1483-NIPXIe7966R directly to a NVIDIA GPU using NVIDIA GPUDirect RDMA technology. • To obtain a methodology to include GPUs processing in ITER Fast Plant Controllers, using EPICS integration through Nominal Device Support (NDS). - Abstract: The two dominant technologies that are being used in real time image processing are Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Graphical Processor Unit (GPU) due to their algorithm parallelization capabilities. But not much work has been done to standardize how these technologies can be integrated in data acquisition systems, where control and supervisory requirements are in place, such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). This work proposes an architecture, and a development methodology, to develop image acquisition and processing systems based on FPGAs and GPUs compliant with ITER fast controller solutions. A use case based on a Camera Link device connected to an FPGA DAQ device (National Instruments FlexRIO technology), and a NVIDIA Tesla GPU series card has been developed and tested. The architecture proposed has been designed to optimize system performance by minimizing data transfer operations and CPU intervention thanks to the use of NVIDIA GPUDirect RDMA and DMA technologies. This allows moving the data directly between the different hardware elements (FPGA DAQ-GPU-CPU) avoiding CPU intervention and therefore the use of intermediate CPU memory buffers. A special effort has been put to provide a development methodology that, maintaining the highest possible abstraction from the low level implementation details, allows obtaining solutions that conform to CODAC Core System standards by providing EPICS and Nominal Device Support.

  20. Control of plant architecture by the TALE homeobox genes ATH1 and PENNYWISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjens, B.P.W.

    2007-01-01

    In plants, pattern formation is an ongoing process that starts during embryogenesis and lasts the entire life span. Most of the plant adult body is formed post-embryonically by continuous organogenic potential of the root and shoot meristems. Proper shoot apical meristem (SAM) function requires

  1. Controlling plant architecture by manipulation of gibberellic acid signalling in petunia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberellic acid (GA), a plant hormone, regulates many crucial growth and developmental processes, including seed germination, leaf expansion, induction of flowering and stem elongation. A common problem in the production of ornamental potted plants is undesirably tall growth, so inhibitors of gibbe...

  2. Microgrids architectures and control

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziargyriou, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Microgrids are the most innovative area in the electric power industry today. Future microgrids could exist as energy-balanced cells within existing power distribution grids or stand-alone power networks within small communities. A definitive presentation on all aspects of microgrids, this text examines the operation of microgrids - their control concepts and advanced architectures including multi-microgrids. It takes a logical approach to overview the purpose and the technical aspects of microgrids, discussing the social, economic and environmental benefits to power system operation. The bo

  3. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  4. Control architectures for IT management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ting

    2003-01-01

    This paper summaries the three financial control architectures for IT department in an enterprise or organization, they are unallocated cost center, allocated cost center and profit center, analyses the characteristics of them and in the end gives the detailed suggestions for choosing these control architectures. (authors)

  5. A distributed architecture in the control of the PWR 1300 MW nuclear plants of electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guesnier, G.; Varaldi, G.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1974, EDF has developed the control and instrumentation technology in its nuclear power plants. Technological improvements in microelectronics led to the development by CGEE ALSTHOM of automation equipment, so called CONTROBLOC, meeting the following objectives: introduction of automation at high security and availability level; progressive implementation in design offices and on sites by operators not specialized in electronics or data processing; great flexibility, permitting the configuration of various systems; survivability to first failure; and capability of self-diagnosis. Characterized by modular, programmed and multiplexed structure with distributed software, the CONTROBLOC equipment is under commissioning in the first 1300 MW nuclear plant. An introduction is given to the main characteristics of the equipment peculiar to 1300 MW power plants, and descriptions are offered of working methods adopted by the design offices, problems met during development, and operating conditions in the first months. (auth)

  6. Architectural switches in plant thylakoid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2013-10-01

    Recent progress in elucidating the structure of higher plants photosynthetic membranes provides a wealth of information. It allows generation of architectural models that reveal well-organized and complex arrangements not only on whole membrane level, but also on the supramolecular level. These arrangements are not static but highly responsive to the environment. Knowledge about the interdependency between dynamic structural features of the photosynthetic machinery and the functionality of energy conversion is central to understanding the plasticity of photosynthesis in an ever-changing environment. This review summarizes the architectural switches that are realized in thylakoid membranes of green plants.

  7. Architecture and Vector Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Knols, Bart GJ; Kirby, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    , closing of eaves and insecticide treated bednets. All of these interventions have an effect on the indoor climate. Temperature, humidity and airflow are critical for a comfortable climate. Air-conditioning and fans allow us to control indoor climate, but many people in Africa and Asia who carry the brunt...... of vector-borne diseases have no access to electricity. Many houses in the hot, humid regions of Asia have adapted to the environment, they are built of porous materials and are elevated on stilts features which allow a comfortable climate even in the presence of bednets and screens. In contrast, many...... buildings in Africa and Asia in respect to their indoor climate characteristics and finally, show how state-of-the-art 3D modelling can predict climate characteristics and help to optimize buildings....

  8. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  9. Layered distributed architecture for plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravamuthan, G.; Verma, Yachika; Ranjan, Jyoti; Chachondia, Alka S.; Ganesh, G.

    2005-01-01

    The development of plant automation system and associated software remains one of the greatest challenges to the widespread implementation of highly adaptive re-configurable automation technology. This paper presents a layered distributed architecture for a plant automation system designed to support rapid reconfiguration and redeployment of automation components. The paper first presents evolution of automation architecture and their associated environment in the past few decades and then presents the concept of layered system architecture and the use of automation components to support the construction of a wide variety of automation system. It also highlights the role of standards and technology, which can be used in the development of automation components. We have attempted to adhere to open standards and technology for the development of automation component at a various layers. It also highlights the application of this concept in the development of an Operator Information System (OIS) for Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). (author)

  10. Architecture and aesthetics of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreu, P.

    1977-01-01

    Having first analysed the main aesthetical and architectural problems related to the establishment of nuclear sites, the first results of the description is given of studies undertaken by a group of architects asked by E.D.F. to conceive the main buildings of a nuclear power plant and to imagine their insert in the site [fr

  11. Controlling material reactivity using architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kyle

    2017-06-01

    The reactivity of thermites can be tailored through selection of several parameters, and can range from very slow burns to rapid deflagrations. 3D printing is a rapidly emerging field, and offers the potential to build architected parts. Here we sought to explore whether controlling such features could be a suitable path forward for gaining additional control of the reactivity. This talk discusses several new methods for preparing thermite samples with controlled architectures using 3D printing. Additionally, we demonstrate that the architecture can play a role in the reactivity of an object. Our results suggest that architecture can be used to tailor the convective and/or advective energy transport during a deflagration, thus enhancing or retarding the reaction. The results are promising in that they give researchers an additional way of controlling the energy release rate without defaulting to the conventional approach of changing the formulation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-708525. In collaboration with: Cheng Zhu, Eric Duoss, Matt Durban, Alex Gash, Alexandra Golobic, Michael Grapes, David Kolesky, Joshua Kuntz, Jennifer Lewis, Christopher Spadaccini; LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LAB.

  12. Architecture of conference control functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, Nadia; Crowcroft, Jon

    1999-11-01

    Conference control is an integral part in many-to-many communications that is used to manage and co-ordinate multiple users in conferences. There are different types of conferences which require different types of control. Some of the features of conference control may be user invoked while others are for internal management of a conference. In recent years, ITU (International Telecommunication Union) and IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) have standardized two main models of conferencing, each system providing a set of conference control functionalities that are not easily provided in the other one. This paper analyzes the main activities appropriate for different types of conferences and presents an architecture for conference control called GCCP (Generic Conference Control Protocol). GCCP interworks different types of conferencing and provides a set of conference control functions that can be invoked by users directly. As an example of interworking, interoperation of IETF's SIP and ITU's H.323 call control functions have been examined here. This paper shows that a careful analysis of a conferencing architecture can provide a set of control functions essential for any group communication model that can be extensible if needed.

  13. Baseline Architecture of ITER Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallander, A.; Di Maio, F.; Journeaux, J.-Y.; Klotz, W.-D.; Makijarvi, P.; Yonekawa, I.

    2011-08-01

    The control system of ITER consists of thousands of computers processing hundreds of thousands of signals. The control system, being the primary tool for operating the machine, shall integrate, control and coordinate all these computers and signals and allow a limited number of staff to operate the machine from a central location with minimum human intervention. The primary functions of the ITER control system are plant control, supervision and coordination, both during experimental pulses and 24/7 continuous operation. The former can be split in three phases; preparation of the experiment by defining all parameters; executing the experiment including distributed feed-back control and finally collecting, archiving, analyzing and presenting all data produced by the experiment. We define the control system as a set of hardware and software components with well defined characteristics. The architecture addresses the organization of these components and their relationship to each other. We distinguish between physical and functional architecture, where the former defines the physical connections and the latter the data flow between components. In this paper, we identify the ITER control system based on the plant breakdown structure. Then, the control system is partitioned into a workable set of bounded subsystems. This partition considers at the same time the completeness and the integration of the subsystems. The components making up subsystems are identified and defined, a naming convention is introduced and the physical networks defined. Special attention is given to timing and real-time communication for distributed control. Finally we discuss baseline technologies for implementing the proposed architecture based on analysis, market surveys, prototyping and benchmarking carried out during the last year.

  14. The dynamic relationship between plant architecture and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, E David

    2014-01-01

    In this review, structural and functional changes are described in single-species, even-aged, stands undergoing competition for light. Theories of the competition process as interactions between whole plants have been advanced but have not been successful in explaining these changes and how they vary between species or growing conditions. This task now falls to researchers in plant architecture. Research in plant architecture has defined three important functions of individual plants that determine the process of canopy development and competition: (i) resource acquisition plasticity; (ii) morphogenetic plasticity; (iii) architectural variation in efficiency of interception and utilization of light. In this review, this research is synthesized into a theory for competition based on five groups of postulates about the functioning of plants in stands. Group 1: competition for light takes place at the level of component foliage and branches. Group 2: the outcome of competition is determined by the dynamic interaction between processes that exert dominance and processes that react to suppression. Group 3: species differences may affect both exertion of dominance and reaction to suppression. Group 4: individual plants may simultaneously exhibit, in different component parts, resource acquisition and morphogenetic plasticity. Group 5: mortality is a time-delayed response to suppression. Development of architectural models when combined with field investigations is identifying research needed to develop a theory of architectural influences on the competition process. These include analyses of the integration of foliage and branch components into whole-plant growth and precise definitions of environmental control of morphogenetic plasticity and its interaction with acquisition of carbon for plant growth.

  15. Quantification of complex modular architecture in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Catherine; Kaandorp, Jaap; Jansson, Fredrik; Puillandre, Nicolas; Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Cornette, Raphaël; Jabbour, Florian; Coudert, Yoan; Patiño, Jairo; Flot, Jean-François; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2018-04-01

    Morphometrics, the assignment of quantities to biological shapes, is a powerful tool to address taxonomic, evolutionary, functional and developmental questions. We propose a novel method for shape quantification of complex modular architecture in thalloid plants, whose extremely reduced morphologies, combined with the lack of a formal framework for thallus description, have long rendered taxonomic and evolutionary studies extremely challenging. Using graph theory, thalli are described as hierarchical series of nodes and edges, allowing for accurate, homologous and repeatable measurements of widths, lengths and angles. The computer program MorphoSnake was developed to extract the skeleton and contours of a thallus and automatically acquire, at each level of organization, width, length, angle and sinuosity measurements. Through the quantification of leaf architecture in Hymenophyllum ferns (Polypodiopsida) and a fully worked example of integrative taxonomy in the taxonomically challenging thalloid liverwort genus Riccardia, we show that MorphoSnake is applicable to all ramified plants. This new possibility of acquiring large numbers of quantitative traits in plants with complex modular architectures opens new perspectives of applications, from the development of rapid species identification tools to evolutionary analyses of adaptive plasticity. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Planning and architectural safety considerations in designing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konsowa, Ahmed A.

    2009-01-01

    To achieve optimum safety and to avoid possible hazards in nuclear power plants, considering architectural design fundamentals and all operating precautions is mandatory. There are some planning and architectural precautions should be considered to achieve a high quality design and construction of nuclear power plant with optimum safety. This paper highlights predicted hazards like fire, terrorism, aircraft crash attacks, adversaries, intruders, and earthquakes, proposing protective actions against these hazards that vary from preventing danger to evacuating and sheltering people in-place. For instance; using safeguards program to protect against sabotage, theft, and diversion. Also, site and building well design focusing on escape pathways, emergency exits, and evacuation zones, and the safety procedures such as; evacuation exercises and sheltering processes according to different emergency classifications. In addition, this paper mentions some important codes and regulations that control nuclear power plants design, and assessment methods that evaluate probable risks. (author)

  17. Evolutionary dynamics of protein domain architecture in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xue-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domains are the structural, functional and evolutionary units of the protein. Protein domain architectures are the linear arrangements of domain(s in individual proteins. Although the evolutionary history of protein domain architecture has been extensively studied in microorganisms, the evolutionary dynamics of domain architecture in the plant kingdom remains largely undefined. To address this question, we analyzed the lineage-based protein domain architecture content in 14 completed green plant genomes. Results Our analyses show that all 14 plant genomes maintain similar distributions of species-specific, single-domain, and multi-domain architectures. Approximately 65% of plant domain architectures are universally present in all plant lineages, while the remaining architectures are lineage-specific. Clear examples are seen of both the loss and gain of specific protein architectures in higher plants. There has been a dynamic, lineage-wise expansion of domain architectures during plant evolution. The data suggest that this expansion can be largely explained by changes in nuclear ploidy resulting from rounds of whole genome duplications. Indeed, there has been a decrease in the number of unique domain architectures when the genomes were normalized into a presumed ancestral genome that has not undergone whole genome duplications. Conclusions Our data show the conservation of universal domain architectures in all available plant genomes, indicating the presence of an evolutionarily conserved, core set of protein components. However, the occurrence of lineage-specific domain architectures indicates that domain architecture diversity has been maintained beyond these core components in plant genomes. Although several features of genome-wide domain architecture content are conserved in plants, the data clearly demonstrate lineage-wise, progressive changes and expansions of individual protein domain architectures, reinforcing

  18. Access control and service-oriented architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leune, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Access Control and Service-Oriented Architectures" investigates in which way logical access control can be achieved effectively, in particular in highly dynamic environments such as service-oriented architectures (SOA's). The author combines state-of-the-art best-practice and projects these onto the

  19. The architecture of LAMOST observatory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Jin Ge; Yu Xiaoqi; Wan Changsheng; Hao Likai; Li Xihua

    2005-01-01

    The design of architecture is the one of the most important part in development of Observatory Control System (OCS) for LAMOST. Based on the complexity of LAMOST, long time of development for LAMOST and long life-cycle of OCS system, referring many kinds of architecture pattern, the architecture of OCS is established which is a component-based layered system using many patterns such as the MVC and proxy. (authors)

  20. Architectural Considerations for Holonic Shop Floor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Bilberg, Arne

    1997-01-01

    of the HMS concept, followed by an investigation regard-ing the development of shop floor control architectures. This will include a summary of the ongoing research on HMS, and current results regarding the development of a holonic SFC architecture in a cellular manufacturing perspective. The paper...

  1. An architecture for implementation of multivariable controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    Browse > Conferences> American Control Conference, Prev | Back to Results | Next » An architecture for implementation of multivariable controllers 786292 searchabstract Niemann, H. ; Stoustrup, J. ; Dept. of Autom., Tech. Univ., Lyngby This paper appears in: American Control Conference, 1999....... Proceedings of the 1999 Issue Date : 1999 Volume : 6 On page(s): 4029 - 4033 vol.6 Location: San Diego, CA Meeting Date : 02 Jun 1999-04 Jun 1999 Print ISBN: 0-7803-4990-3 References Cited: 7 INSPEC Accession Number: 6403075 Digital Object Identifier : 10.1109/ACC.1999.786292 Date of Current Version : 06...... august 2002 Abstract An architecture for implementation of multivariable controllers is presented in this paper. The architecture is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera parameterization of all stabilizing controllers. By using this architecture for implementation of multivariable controllers...

  2. Migration of supervisory machine control architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, B.; Weber, S.; Deursen, van A.; Nord, R.; Medvidovic, N.; Krikhaar, R.; Stafford, J.; Bosch, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this position paper, we discuss a first step towards an approach for the migration of supervisory machine control (SMC) architectures. This approach is based on the identification of SMC concerns and the definition of corresponding transformation rules.

  3. Telerobotic Control Architecture Including Force-Reflection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the implementation of a telerobotic control architecture to manipulate a standard six-degree-of-freedom robot via a unique seven-degree-of-freedom force-reflecting exoskeleton...

  4. Supervisory Control System Architecture for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL; Cole, Daniel L [University of Pittsburgh; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL; Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular SMR Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular advanced SMR (AdvSMR) plants. This research activity advances the state-of-the art by incorporating decision making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides a brief history of hierarchical functional architectures and the current state-of-the-art, describes a reference AdvSMR to show the dependencies between systems, presents a hierarchical structure for supervisory control, indicates the importance of understanding trip setpoints, applies a new theoretic approach for comparing architectures, identifies cyber security controls that should be addressed early in system design, and describes ongoing work to develop system requirements and hardware/software configurations.

  5. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  6. Partially Decentralized Control Architectures for Satellite Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Bauer, Frank H.

    2002-01-01

    In a partially decentralized control architecture, more than one but less than all nodes have supervisory capability. This paper describes an approach to choosing the number of supervisors in such au architecture, based on a reliability vs. cost trade. It also considers the implications of these results for the design of navigation systems for satellite formations that could be controlled with a partially decentralized architecture. Using an assumed cost model, analytic and simulation-based results indicate that it may be cheaper to achieve a given overall system reliability with a partially decentralized architecture containing only a few supervisors, than with either fully decentralized or purely centralized architectures. Nominally, the subset of supervisors may act as centralized estimation and control nodes for corresponding subsets of the remaining subordinate nodes, and act as decentralized estimation and control peers with respect to each other. However, in the context of partially decentralized satellite formation control, the absolute positions and velocities of each spacecraft are unique, so that correlations which make estimates using only local information suboptimal only occur through common biases and process noise. Covariance and monte-carlo analysis of a simplified system show that this lack of correlation may allow simplification of the local estimators while preserving the global optimality of the maneuvers commanded by the supervisors.

  7. An architecture for fault tolerant controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    degradation in the sense of guaranteed degraded performance. A number of fault diagnosis problems, fault tolerant control problems, and feedback control with fault rejection problems are formulated/considered, mainly from a fault modeling point of view. The method is illustrated on a servo example including......A general architecture for fault tolerant control is proposed. The architecture is based on the (primary) YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing compensators and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The approach suggested can be applied...

  8. The Genetic Basis of Plant Architecture in 10 Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qingchun; Xu, Yuancheng; Li, Kun; Peng, Yong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Wenqiang; Li, Lin; Yan, Jianbing

    2017-10-01

    Plant architecture is a key factor affecting planting density and grain yield in maize ( Zea mays ). However, the genetic mechanisms underlying plant architecture in diverse genetic backgrounds have not been fully addressed. Here, we performed a large-scale phenotyping of 10 plant architecture-related traits and dissected the genetic loci controlling these traits in 10 recombinant inbred line populations derived from 14 diverse genetic backgrounds. Nearly 800 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with major and minor effects were identified as contributing to the phenotypic variation of plant architecture-related traits. Ninety-two percent of these QTLs were detected in only one population, confirming the diverse genetic backgrounds of the mapping populations and the prevalence of rare alleles in maize. The numbers and effects of QTLs are positively associated with the phenotypic variation in the population, which, in turn, correlates positively with parental phenotypic and genetic variations. A large proportion (38.5%) of QTLs was associated with at least two traits, suggestive of the frequent occurrence of pleiotropic loci or closely linked loci. Key developmental genes, which previously were shown to affect plant architecture in mutant studies, were found to colocalize with many QTLs. Five QTLs were further validated using the segregating populations developed from residual heterozygous lines present in the recombinant inbred line populations. Additionally, one new plant height QTL, qPH3 , has been fine-mapped to a 600-kb genomic region where three candidate genes are located. These results provide insights into the genetic mechanisms controlling plant architecture and will benefit the selection of ideal plant architecture in maize breeding. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Control of Macromolecular Architectures for Renewable Polymers: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuanbing

    The development of sustainable polymers from nature biomass is growing, but facing fierce competition from existing petrochemical-based counterparts. Controlling macromolecular architectures to maximize the properties of renewable polymers is a desirable approach to gain advantages. Given the complexity of biomass, there needs special consideration other than traditional design. In the presentation, I will talk about a few case studies on how macromolecular architectures could tune the properties of sustainable bioplastics and elastomers from renewable biomass such as resin acids (natural rosin) and plant oils.

  10. An integrated architecture for the ITER RH control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, David Thomas; Tesini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Control system architecture integrating ITER remote handling equipment systems. ► Standard control system architecture for remote handling equipment systems. ► Research and development activities to validate control system architecture. ► Standardization studies to select standard parts for control system architecture. - Abstract: The ITER remote handling (RH) system has been divided into 7 major equipment system procurements that deliver complete systems (operator interfaces, equipment controllers, and equipment) according to task oriented functional specifications. Each equipment system itself is an assembly of transporters, power manipulators, telemanipulators, vehicular systems, cameras, and tooling with a need for controllers and operator interfaces. From an operational perspective, the ITER RH systems are bound together by common control rooms, operations team, and maintenance team; and will need to achieve, to a varying degree, synchronization of operations, co-operation on tasks, hand-over of components, and sharing of data and resources. The separately procured RH systems must, therefore, be integrated to form a unified RH system for operation from the RH control rooms. The RH system will contain a heterogeneous mix of specially developed RH systems and off-the-shelf RH equipment and parts. The ITER Organization approach is to define a control system architecture that supports interoperable heterogeneous modules, and to specify a standard set of modules for each system to implement within this architecture. Compatibility with standard parts for selected modules is required to limit the complexity for operations and maintenance. A key requirement for integrating the control system modules is interoperability, and no module should have dependencies on the implementation details of other modules. The RH system is one of the ITER Plant systems that are integrated and coordinated through the hierarchical structure of the ITER CODAC system

  11. Integrated control and diagnostic system architectures for future installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.; March-Leuba, J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear reactors of the 21st century will employ increasing levels of automation and fault tolerance to increase availability, reduce accident risk, and lower operating costs. Key developments in control algorithms, fault diagnostics, fault tolerance, and distributed communications are needed to implement the fully automated plant. It will be equally challenging to integrate developments in separate information and control fields into a cohesive system, which collectively achieves the overall goals of improved safety, reliability, maintainability, and cost-effectiveness. Under the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), the US Department of Energy is sponsoring a project to address some of the technical issues involved in meeting the long-range goal of 21st century reactor control systems. This project involves researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of Tennessee, and North Carolina State University. The research tasks under this project focus on some of the first-level breakthroughs in control design, diagnostic techniques, and information system design that will provide a path to enable the design process to be automated in the future. This paper describes the conceptual development of an integrated nuclear plant control and information system architecture, which incorporates automated control system development that can be traced to a set of technical requirements. The expectation is that an integrated plant architecture with optimal control and efficient use of diagnostic information can reduce the potential for operational errors and minimize challenges to the plant safety systems

  12. On Control Strategies for Responsive Architectural Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Parigi, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The present paper considers control of responsive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability. The general scope of...

  13. Intelligent perception control based on a blackboard architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taibi, I.; Koenig, A.; Vacherand, F.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, is described the intelligent perception control system GESPER which is presently equipped with a set of three cameras, a telemeter and a camera associated with a structured strip light. This system is of great interest for all our robotic applications as it is capable of autonomously planning, triggering acquisitions, integrating and interpreting multisensory data. The GESPER architecture, based on the blackboard model, provides a generic development method for indoor and outdoor perception. The modularity and the independence of the knowledge sources make the software evolving easily without breaking down the architecture. New sensors and/or new data processing can be integrated by the addition of new knowledge sources that modelize them. At present, first results are obtained in our testbed hall which simulates the nuclear plant as gives similar experimental conditions. Our ongoing research concerns the improvement of fusion algorithms and the embedding of the whole system (hardware and software) on target robots and distributed architecture

  14. MPS beam control software architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauter, K.; Crane, M.

    1993-01-01

    The new Machine Protection System (MPS) now being tested at SLAC has a beam control subsystem resident in processors located close to the beam monitoring devices within the machine. There are two types of beam control micros: Algorithm Processors (AP's) which collect and evaluate data from monitoring devices, and a Supervisor (SUPE) which collects and evaluates data from all the AP's. The SUPE also receives the global machine beamcode indicating beam presence, and passes it on to the AP's. The SUPE receives the beamcode pattern from the Master Pattern Generator (MPG) via a shared-memory communication link. MIL-1553 serial communication is used between the SUPE and the AP's, and between the AP's and the monitoring devices. Multitasking software is used to allow high priority handling of data evaluation and low priority handling of host/user interfacing and event reporting. Pipelining of data between acquisition and evaluation and reporting is used to accommodate the processing capacity, while still supporting full processing at the 36OHz broadcast rate of the beamcode pattern

  15. MPS beam control software architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauter, K.; Crane, M.

    1993-04-01

    The new Machine Protection System (MPS) now being tested at SLAC has a beam control subsystem resident in processors located close to the beam monitoring devices within the machine. There are two types of beam control micros: Algorithm Processors (AP's) which collect and evaluate data from monitoring devices, and a Supervisor (SUPE) which collects and evaluates data from all the AP's. The SUPE also receives the global machine beamcode indicating beam presence, and passes it on to the AP's. The SUPE receives the beamcode pattern from the Master Pattern Generator (MPG) via a shared-memory communication link. MIL-1553 serial communication is used between the SUPE and the AP's, and between the AP's and the monitoring devices. Multitasking software is used to allow high priority handling of data evaluation and low priority handling of host/user interfacing and event reporting. Pipelining of data between acquisition and evaluation and reporting is used to accomodate the processing capacity, while still supporting full processing at the 360Hz broadcast rate of the beamcode pattern

  16. Plant architecture and prey distribution influence foraging behavior of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo, Lessando M; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2012-01-01

    The arrangement, number, and size of plant parts may influence predator foraging behavior, either directly, by altering the rate or pattern of predator movement, or, indirectly, by affecting the distribution and abundance of prey. We report on the effects of both plant architecture and prey distribution on foraging by the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae), on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Plants differed in leaf number (2- or 6-leafed), and there were associated differences in leaf size, plant height, and relative proportions of plant parts; but all had the same total surface area. The prey, the twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), were distributed either on the basal leaf or on all leaves. The effect of plant architecture on predator foraging behavior varied depending on prey distribution. The dimensions of individual plant parts affected time allocated to moving and feeding, but they did not appear to influence the frequency with which predators moved among different plant parts. Overall, P. persimilis moved less, and fed upon prey longer, on 6-leafed plants with prey on all leaves than on plants representing other treatment combinations. Our findings suggest that both plant architecture and pattern of prey distribution should be considered, along with other factors such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles, in augmentative biological control programs.

  17. Control of renewable distributed power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bullich Massagué, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this master thesis is to design a power plant controller for a photo- voltaic (PV) power plant. In a first stage, the current situation of the status of the electrical grid is analysed. The electrical network structure is moving from a conventional system (with centralized power generation, unidirectional power ows, easy control) to a smart grid system consisting on distributed generation, renewable energies, smart and complex control architecture and ...

  18. Engineering Plant Architecture via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Alteration of Strigolactone Biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Butt, Haroon; Jamil, Muhammad; Wang, Jian You; Al-Babili, Salim; Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2018-01-01

    Precision plant genome engineering holds much promise for targeted improvement of crop traits via unprecedented single-base level control over the genetic material. Strigolactones (SLs) are a key determinant of plant architecture, known for their role in inhibiting shoot branching (tillering). Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 in rice (Oryza sativa) for targeted disruption of CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 7 (CCD7), which controls a key step in SL biosynthesis. The ccd7 mutants exhibited a striking increase in tillering, combined with a dwarf phenotype, which could be rescued by application of the synthetic SL analog GR24. Striga germination assays and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed that root exudates of ccd7 mutants were also SL deficient. Taken together, our results show the power of CRISPR/Cas9 for targeted engineering of plant architecture and for elucidating the molecular underpinnings of architecture-related traits.

  19. Engineering Plant Architecture via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Alteration of Strigolactone Biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Butt, Haroon

    2018-01-28

    Precision plant genome engineering holds much promise for targeted improvement of crop traits via unprecedented single-base level control over the genetic material. Strigolactones (SLs) are a key determinant of plant architecture, known for their role in inhibiting shoot branching (tillering). Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 in rice (Oryza sativa) for targeted disruption of CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 7 (CCD7), which controls a key step in SL biosynthesis. The ccd7 mutants exhibited a striking increase in tillering, combined with a dwarf phenotype, which could be rescued by application of the synthetic SL analog GR24. Striga germination assays and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed that root exudates of ccd7 mutants were also SL deficient. Taken together, our results show the power of CRISPR/Cas9 for targeted engineering of plant architecture and for elucidating the molecular underpinnings of architecture-related traits.

  20. Can we manipulate root system architecture to control soil erosion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, A.; Dodd, I. C.; Quinton, J. N.

    2015-09-01

    Soil erosion is a major threat to soil functioning. The use of vegetation to control erosion has long been a topic for research. Much of this research has focused on the above-ground properties of plants, demonstrating the important role that canopy structure and cover plays in the reduction of water erosion processes. Less attention has been paid to plant roots. Plant roots are a crucial yet under-researched factor for reducing water erosion through their ability to alter soil properties, such as aggregate stability, hydraulic function and shear strength. However, there have been few attempts to specifically manipulate plant root system properties to reduce soil erosion. Therefore, this review aims to explore the effects that plant roots have on soil erosion and hydrological processes, and how plant root architecture might be manipulated to enhance its erosion control properties. We demonstrate the importance of root system architecture for the control of soil erosion. We also show that some plant species respond to nutrient-enriched patches by increasing lateral root proliferation. The erosional response to root proliferation will depend upon its location: at the soil surface dense mats of roots may reduce soil erodibility but block soil pores thereby limiting infiltration, enhancing runoff. Additionally, in nutrient-deprived regions, root hair development may be stimulated and larger amounts of root exudates released, thereby improving aggregate stability and decreasing erodibility. Utilizing nutrient placement at specific depths may represent a potentially new, easily implemented, management strategy on nutrient-poor agricultural land or constructed slopes to control erosion, and further research in this area is needed.

  1. A dynamical model for plant cell wall architecture formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, B.M.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a dynamical mathematical model to explain cell wall architecture in plant cells. The highly regular textures observed in cell walls reflect the spatial organisation of the cellulose microfibrils (CMFs), the most important structural component of cell walls. Based on a geometrical theory

  2. ADP1 Affects Plant Architecture by Regulating Local Auxin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs. PMID:24391508

  3. The LHC dipole test control architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorskaya, E.; Samojlov, V.; Raimondo, A.; Rijllart, A.

    2003-01-01

    The next large accelerator project at CERN is the Large Hadron Collider, which is foreseen to be installed in the existing LEP tunnel, and scheduled to be commissioned in 2007. For this project, 1200 15-metre long dipole magnets need to be tested at CERN in warm and cold conditions on dedicated test benches that are under development. The final LHC dipole series test set-up will consist of 12 benches organized in 6 clusters of two benches sharing the largest and most expensive devices. This sharing is made possible by a deliberate de-phasing of the tests among magnets, ensuring an optimum use of resources, such as cryogenics and power equipment, without limiting the total throughput. An offered two-level control architecture includes: 1) the Test 'Master' that drives the test for a cluster; 2) the Resource 'Manager' that allocates common devices and central resources. The implementation of this architecture is done in the LabVIEW environment

  4. Architecture of WEST plasma control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenel, N.; Nouailletas, R.; Barana, O.; Brémond, S.; Moreau, P.; Guillerminet, B.; Balme, S.; Allegretti, L.; Mannori, S.

    2014-01-01

    To operate advanced plasma scenario (long pulse with high stored energy) in present and future tokamak devices under safe operation conditions, the control requirements of the plasma control system (PCS) leads to the development of advanced feedback control and real time handling exceptions. To develop these controllers and these exceptions handling strategies, a project aiming at setting up a flight simulator has started at CEA in 2009. Now, the new WEST (W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project deals with modifying Tore Supra into an ITER-like divertor tokamak. This upgrade impacts a lot of systems including Tore Supra PCS and is the opportunity to improve the current PCS architecture to implement the previous works and to fulfill the needs of modern tokamak operation. This paper is dealing with the description of the architecture of WEST PCS. Firstly, the requirements will be presented including the needs of new concepts (segments configuration, alternative (or backup) scenario, …). Then, the conceptual design of the PCS will be described including the main components and their functions. The third part will be dedicated to the proposal RT framework and to the technologies that we have to implement to reach the requirements

  5. Future control architecture and emerging observability needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morch, Andrei Z.; Jakobsen, Sigurd Hofsmo; Visscher, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the first findings from workpackage "Increased Observability" in EU FP7 project ELECTRA. Accommodation of intermittent generation into the network and its reliable operation require a gradual evolution of the network structure and in particular improvement of its monitoring...... or observing. The present practices of observing distribution networks are quite limited and vary from country to country. New network architectures are expected to evolve in the close future, including web-of-cells (concept defined in ELECTRA), which will result in new control schemes, significantly different...

  6. Concept of a computer network architecture for complete automation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.

    1990-01-01

    The state of the art in automation of nuclear power plants has been largely limited to computerized data acquisition, monitoring, display, and recording of process signals. Complete automation of nuclear power plants, which would include plant operations, control, and management, fault diagnosis, and system reconfiguration with efficient and reliable man/machine interactions, has been projected as a realistic goal. This paper presents the concept of a computer network architecture that would use a high-speed optical data highway to integrate diverse, interacting, and spatially distributed functions that are essential for a fully automated nuclear power plant

  7. Control Architecture for Future Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai

    for assessment of control architecture of electric power systems with a means-ends perspective. Given this purpose-oriented understanding of a power system, the increasingly stochastic nature of this problem shall be addressed and approaches for robust, distributed control will be proposed and analyzed....... The introduction of close-to-real-time markets is envisioned to enable fast distributed resource allocation while guaranteeing system stability. Electric vehicles will be studied as a means of distributed reversible energy storage and a flexible power electronic interface, with application to the case......This project looks at control of future electric power grids with a high proportion of wind power and a large number of decentralized power generation, consumption and storage units participating to form a reliable supply of electrical energy. The first objective is developing a method...

  8. Controller Architecture Design for MMC-HVDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG, B.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Compared with high voltage direct current (HVDC, the primary and secondary systems of modular multilevel converter based HVDC (MMC-HVDC are complicated. And the characteristics of the control system determine the properties of the MMC-HVDC system to a certain extent. This paper investigates the design of control architecture. First, the structure and parameters of the 21-level MMC-HVDC are designed. Second, the framework of the control system is studied in details and a complete control system is established. The communication mode and content are built between each layer, and the control system program is developed and debugged. Then The steady state test platform of the sub-module and the relevant control system are designed. Finally, the steady-state tests and the system test of the physical MMC-HVDC simulation system are conducted, which prove that the SMC can control the sub-module (SM efficiently, and the control system could realize efficient start and stop of the physical system. Meanwhile, the capacitor voltage balance between the sub-modules and the basic fault protection and control of the DC voltage and power are verified to be effective.

  9. Extension of an existing control and monitoring system: architecture 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulabaille, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Tore Supra Tokamak is controlled by Architecture 7. This system comprises 3 levels: Man-machine system, automatism management and exchanges with the plant. Performing it presents, nevertheless some limitations: time response is only half a second allowing to manage 95% of Tore Supra processes, the remaining 5% requires one millisecond. The first aim is the extension of functionalities by a fast automat giving one microsecond cycle. The fast automat is applied to the poloidal field. Of main concern for fusion experiments it allows the creation of a plasma current. The second aim is the possibility to use softwares found on the computer market [fr

  10. Using Service Oriented Architecture in a Generic Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Poulsen, Bjarne; Træholt, Chresten

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find and describe a suitable software framework that can be used to help implement the concept of a Generic Virtual Power Plant in the future power system. The Generic Virtual Power Plant concept, along with the utilization of distributed energy resources, has many...... the Generic Virtual Power Plant, an array of different software design principles, patterns and architectures must be applied. Especially Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can aid in implementing the Generic Virtual Power Plant.......The purpose of this paper is to find and describe a suitable software framework that can be used to help implement the concept of a Generic Virtual Power Plant in the future power system. The Generic Virtual Power Plant concept, along with the utilization of distributed energy resources, has many...... interesting properties that can influence the future shape of power markets. The concept holds many promises including cheaper power to the consumer, a more flexible and responsive power production and the support of a more environment-friendly development. In order to realize a software solution supporting...

  11. 1480 W Plts Solar Power Plant Architecture With Solar Tracker For Controlling Microcontroller-Based Solar Panel In Tigaraja Village Sub-District Of Tigadolok Regency Of Simalungun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Samosir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy has become a basic need for human being. In some remote areas however electricity is unreachable and poses a taboo subject and cannot be enjoyed by local people such as in Tigaraja Village Sub-District of Tigadolok Regency of Simalungun. The sun is a renewable energy that it is beneficial for power plant use. With PLTS solar energy can be changed into the sun through the solar panel. Battery Charge Regulator BCR operates stabilizing voltage from solar panel to battery. The battery will save electrical power to be distributed for household consumption. Since battery power has direct current however Inverter operates changing its direct current into alternating current. To optimize absorption of solar energy a servo motor is used to make solar panel moving by following the suns path. Arduino Uno as direct control of solar panel using solar sensor gives current for servo motor. Then the servo motor can move in reverse and forward. Therefore Household goods like water pumps lamps and televisions have been worked when people come home from their work.

  12. Plant control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masuo; Ono, Makoto.

    1995-01-01

    A plant control device comprises an intellectual instrumentation group for measuring a predetermined process amount, an intellectual equipment group operating in accordance with a self-countermeasure, a system information space for outputting system information, a system level monitoring and diagnosing information generalization section for outputting system information, a system level maintenance information generalization section for outputting information concerning maintenance, a plant level information space and a plant level information generalization section. Each of them determines a state of the plant autonomously, and when abnormality is detected, each of the intellectual instrumentation, equipments and systems exchange information with each other, to conduct required operations including operations of intellectual robots, as required. Appropriate countermeasures for gauges, equipments and systems can be conducted autonomously at a place where operators can not access to improve reliability of complicate operations in the working site, as well as improve plant safety and reliability. (N.H.)

  13. Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Mareike; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2017-12-01

    The fungal kingdom comprises some of the most devastating plant pathogens. Sequencing the genomes of fungal pathogens has shown a remarkable variability in genome size and architecture. Population genomic data enable us to understand the mechanisms and the history of changes in genome size and adaptive evolution in plant pathogens. Although transposable elements predominantly have negative effects on their host, fungal pathogens provide prominent examples of advantageous associations between rapidly evolving transposable elements and virulence genes that cause variation in virulence phenotypes. By providing homogeneous environments at large regional scales, managed ecosystems, such as modern agriculture, can be conducive for the rapid evolution and dispersal of pathogens. In this Review, we summarize key examples from fungal plant pathogen genomics and discuss evolutionary processes in pathogenic fungi in the context of molecular evolution, population genomics and agriculture.

  14. A high performance architecture for accelerator controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.; Hunt, S.M; Lue, H.; Saltmarsh, C.G.; Parker, C.R.C.B.

    1991-01-01

    The demands placed on the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) control system due to large distances, high bandwidth and fast response time required for operation will require a fresh approach to the data communications architecture of the accelerator. The prototype design effort aims at providing deterministic communication across the accelerator complex with a response time of < 100 ms and total bandwidth of 2 Gbits/sec. It will offer a consistent interface for a large number of equipment types, from vacuum pumps to beam position monitors, providing appropriate communications performance for each equipment type. It will consist of highly parallel links to all equipment: those with computing resources, non-intelligent direct control interfaces, and data concentrators. This system will give each piece of equipment a dedicated link of fixed bandwidth to the control system. Application programs will have access to all accelerator devices which will be memory mapped into a global virtual addressing scheme. Links to devices in the same geographical area will be multiplexed using commercial Time Division Multiplexing equipment. Low-level access will use reflective memory techniques, eliminating processing overhead and complexity of traditional data communication protocols. The use of commercial standards and equipment will enable a high performance system to be built at low cost

  15. A high performance architecture for accelerator controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.; Hunt, S.M.; Lue, H.; Saltmarsh, C.G.; Parker, C.R.C.B.

    1991-03-01

    The demands placed on the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) control system due to large distances, high bandwidth and fast response time required for operation will require a fresh approach to the data communications architecture of the accelerator. The prototype design effort aims at providing deterministic communication across the accelerator complex with a response time of <100 ms and total bandwidth of 2 Gbits/sec. It will offer a consistent interface for a large number of equipment types, from vacuum pumps to beam position monitors, providing appropriate communications performance for each equipment type. It will consist of highly parallel links to all equipments: those with computing resources, non-intelligent direct control interfaces, and data concentrators. This system will give each piece of equipment a dedicated link of fixed bandwidth to the control system. Application programs will have access to all accelerator devices which will be memory mapped into a global virtual addressing scheme. Links to devices in the same geographical area will be multiplexed using commercial Time Division Multiplexing equipment. Low-level access will use reflective memory techniques, eliminating processing overhead and complexity of traditional data communication protocols. The use of commercial standards and equipment will enable a high performance system to be built at low cost. 1 fig

  16. Multiple Estimation Architecture in Discrete-Time Adaptive Mixing Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Baldi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive mixing control (AMC is a recently developed control scheme for uncertain plants, where the control action coming from a bank of precomputed controller is mixed based on the parameter estimates generated by an on-line parameter estimator. Even if the stability of the control scheme, also in the presence of modeling errors and disturbances, has been shown analytically, its transient performance might be sensitive to the initial conditions of the parameter estimator. In particular, for some initial conditions, transient oscillations may not be acceptable in practical applications. In order to account for such a possible phenomenon and to improve the learning capability of the adaptive scheme, in this paper a new mixing architecture is developed, involving the use of parallel parameter estimators, or multi-estimators, each one working on a small subset of the uncertainty set. A supervisory logic, using performance signals based on the past and present estimation error, selects the parameter estimate to determine the mixing of the controllers. The stability and robustness properties of the resulting approach, referred to as multi-estimator adaptive mixing control (Multi-AMC, are analytically established. Besides, extensive simulations demonstrate that the scheme improves the transient performance of the original AMC with a single estimator. The control scheme and the analysis are carried out in a discrete-time framework, for easier implementation of the method in digital control.

  17. Developing a System Architecture for Holonic Shop Floor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christian; Langer, Gilad; Alting, Leo

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of research regarding the emerging theory of Holonic Manufacturing Systems. This theory and in particular its corresponding reference architecture serves as the basis for the development of a system-architecture for shop floor control systems in a multi-cellular c......This paper describes the results of research regarding the emerging theory of Holonic Manufacturing Systems. This theory and in particular its corresponding reference architecture serves as the basis for the development of a system-architecture for shop floor control systems in a multi...

  18. Architecture of SPIDER control and data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.; Soppelsa, A.; Barbalace, A.; Paolucci, F.; Sartori, F.; Barbato, P.; Breda, M.; Capobianco, R.; Molon, F.; Moressa, M.; Polato, S.; Simionato, P.; Zampiva, E.

    2012-01-01

    The ITER Heating Neutral Beam injectors will be implemented in three steps: development of the ion source prototype, development of the full injector prototype, and, finally, construction of up to three ITER injectors. The first two steps will be carried out in the ITER neutral beam test facility under construction in Italy. The ion source prototype, referred to as SPIDER, which is currently in the development phase, is a complex experiment involving more than 20 plant units and operating with beam-on pulses lasting up to 1 h. As for control and data acquisition it requires fast and slow control (cycle time around 0.1 ms and 10 ms, respectively), synchronization (10 ns resolution), and data acquisition for about 1000 channels (analogue and images) with sampling frequencies up to tens of MS/s, data throughput up to 200 MB/s, and data storage volume of up to tens of TB/year. The paper describes the architecture of the SPIDER control and data acquisition system, discussing the SPIDER requirements and the ITER CODAC interfaces and specifications for plant system instrumentation and control.

  19. A development of digital plant protection system architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, S. H.; Park, H. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Seo, Y. S.; Gu, I. S.

    2000-01-01

    The digital plant protection system (DPPS) which have a large number of advantages compared to current analog protection system has been developed in various field. The major disadvantages of digital system are, however, vulnerable to faults of processor and software. To overcome the disadvantages, the concept of segment and partition in a channel has been developed. Each segment in a channel is divided from sensor to reactor trip and engineered safety features, which is based on the functional diversity of input signals against the various plant transient phenomena. Each partition allocates the function module to an independent processing module in order to process and isolate the faults of each module of a segment. A communication system based on the deterministic protocol with the predictable and hard real-time characteristics has been developed in order to link the various modules within a segment. The self-diagnostics including online test and periodic test procedures are developed in order to increase the safety, reliability and availability of DPPS. The developed DPPS uses the off-the-shelf DSP (digital signal processor) and adopts VME bus architecture, which have sufficient operation experience in the industry. The verification and validation and quality assurance of software has been developed and the architecture and protocol of deterministic communication system has been researched

  20. Distributed and decentralized control architectures for converter-interfaced microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Wu, Dan; Shafiee, Qobad

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives a summary on recently available technologies for decentralized and distributed control of microgrids. They can be classified into two general categories: 1) power line communication based architectures and 2) multi-agent based architectures. The essential control methods and info......This paper gives a summary on recently available technologies for decentralized and distributed control of microgrids. They can be classified into two general categories: 1) power line communication based architectures and 2) multi-agent based architectures. The essential control methods...... and information sharing algorithms applied in these architectures are reviewed and examined in a hierarchical manner, in order to point out benefits they will bring to future microgrid applications. The paper is concluded with a summary on existing methods and a discussion on future development trends....

  1. Different micromanipulation applications based on common modular control architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipola, Risto; Vallius, Tero; Pudas, Marko; Röning, Juha

    2010-01-01

    This paper validates a previously introduced scalable modular control architecture and shows how it can be used to implement research equipment. The validation is conducted by presenting different kinds of micromanipulation applications that use the architecture. Conditions of the micro-world are very different from those of the macro-world. Adhesive forces are significant compared to gravitational forces when micro-scale objects are manipulated. Manipulation is mainly conducted by automatic control relying on haptic feedback provided by force sensors. The validated architecture is a hierarchical layered hybrid architecture, including a reactive layer and a planner layer. The implementation of the architecture is modular, and the architecture has a lot in common with open architectures. Further, the architecture is extensible, scalable, portable and it enables reuse of modules. These are the qualities that we validate in this paper. To demonstrate the claimed features, we present different applications that require special control in micrometer, millimeter and centimeter scales. These applications include a device that measures cell adhesion, a device that examines properties of thin films, a device that measures adhesion of micro fibers and a device that examines properties of submerged gel produced by bacteria. Finally, we analyze how the architecture is used in these applications.

  2. An Overview on SDN Architectures with Multiple Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othmane Blial

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined networking offers several benefits for networking by separating the control plane from the data plane. However, networks’ scalability, reliability, and availability remain as a big issue. Accordingly, multicontroller architectures are important for SDN-enabled networks. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of SDN multicontroller architectures. It presents SDN and its main instantiation OpenFlow. Then, it explains in detail the differences between multiple types of multicontroller architectures, like the distribution method and the communication system. Furthermore, it provides already implemented and under research examples of multicontroller architectures by describing their design, their communication process, and their performance results.

  3. Between architecture and model: Strategies for cognitive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels

    One major limitation of current cognitive architectures is that models are typically constructed in an “empty” architecture, and that the knowledge specifications (typically production rules) are specific to the particular task. This means that general cognitive control strategies have to be

  4. Modelling of control system architecture for next-generation accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shi-Yao; Kurokawa, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Functional, hardware and software system architectures define the fundamental structure of control systems. Modelling is a protocol of system architecture used in system design. This paper reviews various modellings adopted in past ten years and suggests a new modelling for next generation accelerators. (author)

  5. An Architectural Style for Closed-loop Process-Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Eriksen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    This report describes an architectural style for distributed closed-loop process control systems with high performance and hard real-time constraints. The style strikes a good balance between the architectural qualities of performance and modifiability/maintainability that traditionally are often...

  6. An Architectural Style for Closed-loop Process-Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    This report describes an architectural style for distributed closed-loop process control systems with high performance and hard real-time constraints. The style strikes a good balance between the architectural qualities of performance and modifiability/maintainability that traditionally are often...

  7. Control architecture of power systems: Modeling of purpose and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Many new technologies with novel control capabilities have been developed in the context of “smart grid” research. However, often it is not clear how these capabilities should best be integrated in the overall system operation. New operation paradigms change the traditional control architecture...... of power systems and it is necessary to identify requirements and functions. How does new control architecture fit with the old architecture? How can power system functions be specified independent of technology? What is the purpose of control in power systems? In this paper, a method suitable...... for semantically consistent modeling of control architecture is presented. The method, called Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM), is applied to the case of system balancing. It was found that MFM is capable of capturing implicit control knowledge, which is otherwise difficult to formalize. The method has possible...

  8. Architecture of high reliable control systems using complex software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallec, M.

    1990-01-01

    The problems involved by the use of complex softwares in control systems that must insure a very high level of safety are examined. The first part makes a brief description of the prototype of PROSPER system. PROSPER means protection system for nuclear reactor with high performances. It has been installed on a French nuclear power plant at the beginnning of 1987 and has been continually working since that time. This prototype is realized on a multi-processors system. The processors communicate between themselves using interruptions and protected shared memories. On each processor, one or more protection algorithms are implemented. Those algorithms use data coming directly from the plant and, eventually, data computed by the other protection algorithms. Each processor makes its own acquisitions from the process and sends warning messages if some operating anomaly is detected. All algorithms are activated concurrently on an asynchronous way. The results are presented and the safety related problems are detailed. - The second part is about measurements' validation. First, we describe how the sensors' measurements will be used in a protection system. Then, a proposal for a method based on the techniques of artificial intelligence (expert systems and neural networks) is presented. - The last part is about the problems of architectures of systems including hardware and software: the different types of redundancies used till now and a proposition of a multi-processors architecture which uses an operating system that is able to manage several tasks implemented on different processors, which verifies the good operating of each of those tasks and of the related processors and which allows to carry on the operation of the system, even in a degraded manner when a failure has been detected are detailed [fr

  9. Architecture of distributed control system at Hazira (Paper No. 3.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nema, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The architecture of control system at Heavy Water Plant, Hazira has a physically centralized and functionally de-centralized configuration. The sub-systems for the functional areas such as automation system (AS), operating and monitoring system (OS) and communication system (CS) are described. (author). 3 figs

  10. Aquatic plant control research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Rinehart, B.N. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ghio, E.G. [Pacific Gas & Electric Company, San Francisco, CA (United States). Hydro Generation Engineering

    1997-05-01

    The Northwest region of the United States contains extensive canal systems that transport water for hydropower generation. Nuisance plants, including algae, that grow in these systems reduce their hydraulic capacity through water displacement and increased surface friction. Most control methods are applied in an ad hoc fashion. The goal of this work is to develop cost-effective, environmentally sound, long-term management strategies to prevent and control nuisance algal growth. This paper reports on a multi-year study, performed in collaboration with the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, to investigate algal growth in their canal systems, and to evaluate various control methodologies. Three types of controls, including mechanical, biological and chemical treatment, were selected for testing and evaluation. As part of this study, water quality data were collected and algal communities were sampled from numerous stations throughout the distribution system at regular intervals. This study resulted in a more comprehensive understanding of conditions leading to the development of nuisance algal growth, a better informed selection of treatment plans, and improved evaluation of the effectiveness for the control strategies selected for testing.

  11. A Virtual Power Plant Architecture for the Demand-Side Management of Smart Prosumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pasetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a conceptual study on a Virtual Power Plant (VPP architecture for the optimal management of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs owned by prosumers participating in Demand-Side Management (DSM programs. Compared to classical VPP architectures, which aim to aggregate several DERs dispersed throughout the electrical grid, in the proposed VPP architecture the supervised physical domain is limited to single users, i.e., to single Points of Delivery (PODs of the distribution network. The VPP architecture is based on a service-oriented approach, where multiple agents cooperate to implement the optimal management of the prosumer’s assets, by also considering different forms of Demand Response (DR requests. The considered DR schemes range from Price-Based DRs to Event-Based DRs, covering both the normal operating functions and the emergency control requests applied in modern distribution networks. With respect to centralized approaches, in this study the control perspective is moved from the system level to the single prosumer’s level, who is allowed to independently provide flexible power profiles through the aggregation of multiple DERs. A generalized optimization model, formulated as a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP problem, is also introduced. Such a model is able to compute the optimal scheduling of a prosumer’s assets by considering both DR requests and end-users’ requirements in terms of comfort levels while minimizing the costs.

  12. A software architecture for a transportation control tower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgrass, A.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Pourmirza, S.; Völzer, H.; Weske, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    A Transportation Control Tower is a software application that facilitates transportation planners with easily monitoring and dispatching transportation resources. This paper presents a software architecture for such an application. It focuses in particular on the novel aspects of the software

  13. Modular reconfigurable machines incorporating modular open architecture control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachee, J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available degrees of freedom on a single platform. A corresponding modular Open Architecture Control (OAC) system is presented. OAC overcomes the inflexibility of fixed proprietary automation, ensuring that MRMs provide the reconfigurability and extensibility...

  14. Distributed Control Architectures for Precision Spacecraft Formations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LaunchPoint Technologies, Inc. (LaunchPoint) proposes to develop synthesis methods and design architectures for distributed control systems in precision spacecraft...

  15. THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM OF ROBOTICS OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Shavetov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the architecture for the universal remote control system of robotics objects over the Internet global network. Control objects are assumed to be located at a considerable distance from a reference device or end-users. An overview of studies on the subject matter of remote control of technical objects is given. A structure chart of the architecture demonstrating the system usage in practice is suggested. Server software is considered that makes it possible to work with technical objects connected to the server as with a serial port and organize a stable tunnel connection between the controlled object and the end-user. The proposed architecture has been successfully tested on mobile robots Parallax Boe-Bot and Lego Mindstorms NXT. Experimental data about values of time delays are given demonstrating the effectiveness of the considered architecture.

  16. Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a ''standard model''. The ''standard model'' consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the ''standard model'' to determine if the requirements of ''non-standard'' architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the ''standard model'' are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural feature

  17. Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a open-quotes standard modelclose quotes. The open-quotes standard modelclose quotes consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes to determine if the requirements of open-quotes non-standardclose quotes architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural features

  18. FPGA implementation of bit controller in double-tick architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobylecki, Michał; Kania, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the two original architectures of programmable bit controllers built on FPGAs. Programmable Logic Controllers (which include, among other things programmable bit controllers) built on FPGAs provide a efficient alternative to the controllers based on microprocessors which are expensive and often too slow. The presented and compared methods allow for the efficient implementation of any bit control algorithm written in Ladder Diagram language into the programmable logic system in accordance with IEC61131-3. In both cases, we have compared the effect of the applied architecture on the performance of executing the same bit control program in relation to its own size.

  19. Fourier Transform Spectrometer Controller for Partitioned Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Keymeulen, D.; Berisford, D.

    2013-01-01

    The current trend in spacecraft computing is to integrate applications of different criticality levels on the same platform using no separation. This approach increases the complexity of the development, verification and integration processes, with an impact on the whole system life cycle. Resear......, such as avionics and automotive. In this paper we investigate the challenges of developing and the benefits of integrating a scientific instrument, namely a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, in such a partitioned architecture....

  20. An architecture for agile shop floor control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Alting, Leo

    2000-01-01

    as shop floor control. This paper presents the Holonic Multi-cell Control System (HoMuCS) architecture that allows for design and development of holonic shop floor control systems. The HoMuCS is a shop floor control system which is sometimes referred to as a manufacturing execution system...

  1. Genetic and Molecular Mechanisms of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Maize Inflorescence Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manfei; Zhong, Wanshun; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Zuxin

    2018-03-01

    The establishment of inflorescence architecture is critical for the reproduction of flowering plant species. The maize plant generates two types of inflorescences, the tassel and the ear, and their architectures have a large effect on grain yield and yield-related traits that are genetically controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Since ear and tassel architecture are deeply affected by the activity of inflorescence meristems, key QTLs and genes regulating meristematic activity have important impacts on inflorescence development and show great potential for optimizing grain yield. Isolation of yield trait-related QTLs is challenging, but these QTLs have direct application in maize breeding. Additionally, characterization and functional dissection of QTLs can provide genetic and molecular knowledge of quantitative variation in inflorescence architecture. In this review, we summarize currently identified QTLs responsible for the establishment of ear and tassel architecture and discuss the potential genetic control of four ear-related and four tassel-related traits. In recent years, several inflorescence architecture-related QTLs have been characterized at the gene level. We review the mechanisms of these characterized QTLs.

  2. A distributed hierarchical architecture of expert systems for supervisory control of multimodular nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaduy, P.J.; Brittain, C.R.; Rovere, L.A.; Gove, N.B.

    1991-01-01

    A hierarchical supervisory control architecture has being implemented at ORNL to coordinate the controllers of a multimodular nuclear plant. The supervisory controller form a network of distributed expert system interfaced with a real-time simulation of the plant, the plant's automatic controllers, and the human operator. The main goal of the supervisory controllers is to maintain the plant operating within safety envelopes while optimizing availability, minimizing stress to components and operators, and facilitating operations. Representative rules implementing strategies for situation dependent reassignment of process goals by embedding diagnostics into the control philosophy are discussed. It should noted that the control philosophies here described use the ALMR concept for illustration purposes and are not part of the official ALMR design at this time. 3 refs., 1 fig

  3. Add Control: plant virtualization for control solutions in WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiza, M; Bengoechea, A; Grau, P; De Keyser, W; Nopens, I; Brockmann, D; Steyer, J P; Claeys, F; Urchegui, G; Fernández, O; Ayesa, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of the research work carried out in the Add Control project, which proposes an extension of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models and modelling architectures used in traditional WWTP simulation tools, addressing, in addition to the classical mass transformations (transport, physico-chemical phenomena, biological reactions), all the instrumentation, actuation and automation & control components (sensors, actuators, controllers), considering their real behaviour (signal delays, noise, failures and power consumption of actuators). Its ultimate objective is to allow a rapid transition from the simulation of the control strategy to its implementation at full-scale plants. Thus, this paper presents the application of the Add Control simulation platform for the design and implementation of new control strategies at the WWTP of Mekolalde.

  4. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  5. Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Clear, Nic

    2014-01-01

    When discussing science fiction’s relationship with architecture, the usual practice is to look at the architecture “in” science fiction—in particular, the architecture in SF films (see Kuhn 75-143) since the spaces of literary SF present obvious difficulties as they have to be imagined. In this essay, that relationship will be reversed: I will instead discuss science fiction “in” architecture, mapping out a number of architectural movements and projects that can be viewed explicitly as scien...

  6. A plant control system development approach for IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Brittain, C.R.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Conway, L.E.; Oriani, L.

    2003-01-01

    The plant control system concept for the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) will make use of integrated control, diagnostic, and decision modules to provide a highly automated intelligent control capability. The plant control system development approach established for IRIS involves determination and verification of control strategies based on whole-plant simulation; identification of measurement, control, and diagnostic needs; development of an architectural framework in which to integrate an intelligent plant control system; and design of the necessary control and diagnostic elements for implementation and validation. This paper describes key elements of the plant control system development approach established for IRIS and presents some of the strategies and methods investigated to support the desired control capabilities. (author)

  7. Nova control system: goals, architecture, and system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suski, G.J.; Duffy, J.M.; Gritton, D.G.; Holloway, F.W.; Krammen, J.R.; Ozarski, R.G.; Severyn, J.R.; Van Arsdall, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    The control system for the Nova laser must operate reliably in a harsh pulse power environment and satisfy requirements of technical functionality, flexibility, maintainability and operability. It is composed of four fundamental subsystems: Power Conditioning, Alignment, Laser Diagnostics, and Target Diagnostics, together with a fifth, unifying subsystem called Central Controls. The system architecture utilizes a collection of distributed microcomputers, minicomputers, and components interconnected through high speed fiber optic communications systems. The design objectives, development strategy and architecture of the overall control system and each of its four fundamental subsystems are discussed. Specific hardware and software developments in several areas are also covered

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis Using Olive Varieties and Breeding Progenies Identifies Candidate Genes Involved in Plant Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Plaza, Juan J; Ortiz-Martín, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; García-López, Carmen; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Luque, Francisco; Trelles, Oswaldo; Bejarano, Eduardo R; De La Rosa, Raúl; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2016-01-01

    Plant architecture is a critical trait in fruit crops that can significantly influence yield, pruning, planting density and harvesting. Little is known about how plant architecture is genetically determined in olive, were most of the existing varieties are traditional with an architecture poorly suited for modern growing and harvesting systems. In the present study, we have carried out microarray analysis of meristematic tissue to compare expression profiles of olive varieties displaying differences in architecture, as well as seedlings from their cross pooled on the basis of their sharing architecture-related phenotypes. The microarray used, previously developed by our group has already been applied to identify candidates genes involved in regulating juvenile to adult transition in the shoot apex of seedlings. Varieties with distinct architecture phenotypes and individuals from segregating progenies displaying opposite architecture features were used to link phenotype to expression. Here, we identify 2252 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated to differences in plant architecture. Microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR carried out on genes with functional annotation likely related to plant architecture. Twelve of these genes were further analyzed in individual seedlings of the corresponding pool. We also examined Arabidopsis mutants in putative orthologs of these targeted candidate genes, finding altered architecture for most of them. This supports a functional conservation between species and potential biological relevance of the candidate genes identified. This study is the first to identify genes associated to plant architecture in olive, and the results obtained could be of great help in future programs aimed at selecting phenotypes adapted to modern cultivation practices in this species.

  9. Architecture of the modern accelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samardzic, B.; Drndarevic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Well defined concept of the system and construction plan are the important conditions for the successful realization of the accelerator control system. In this paper the modern concept of accelerator control system as well as guidelines for its efficient development have been presented. Described concept could be applied for the design of control systems for other types of facilities for experimental physics and for industrial process control. (author)

  10. The CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] control system architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bork, R.

    1987-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on CEBAF's computer control system. This control system will utilize computers in a distributed, networked configuration. The architecture, networking and operating system of the computers, and preliminary performance data are presented. We will also discuss the design of the operator consoles and the interfacing between the computers and CEBAF's instrumentation and operating equipment

  11. A Brief Overview of Gesture Control Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Gîlcă

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This papers deals with a detailed study of the literature about artificial vision systems and the applications where they can be used, such as: gesture interpretation for robot control, telephone control and the video control as well as presenting the structure of two vision systems: one for face recognition and the second to achieve the detection of multiple-touch finger.

  12. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  13. Flora robotica -- An Architectural System Combining Living Natural Plants and Distributed Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Heiko; Divband Soorati, Mohammad; Heinrich, Mary Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Key to our project flora robotica is the idea of creating a bio-hybrid system of tightly coupled natural plants and distributed robots to grow architectural artifacts and spaces. Our motivation with this ground research project is to lay a principled foundation towards the design and implementation...... of flora robotica, such as the continuous growth process of architectural artifacts and self-repair of living architecture....

  14. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  15. APT LLRF control system functionality and architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, A.H.; Rohlev, A.S.; Ziomek, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    1% amplitude and l degree phase. The feedback control system requires a phase-stable RF reference subsystem signal to correctly phase each cavity. Also, instead of a single klystron RF source for individual accelerating cavities, multiple klystrons will drive a string of resonantly coupled cavities, based on input from a single LLRF feedback control system. To achieve maximum source efficiency, we will be employing single fast feedback controls around individual klystrons such that the gain and phase characteristics of each will be ''identical.'' In addition, resonance control is performed by providing a proper drive signal to structure cooling water valves in order to keep the cavity resonant during operation. To quickly respond to RF shutdowns, and hence rapid accelerating cavity cool- down, due to RF fault conditions, drive frequency agility in the main feedback control subsystem will also be incorporated. Top level block diagrams will be presented and described for each of the aforementioned subsystems as they will first be developed and demonstrated on the Low Energy Demonstrator Accelerator (LEDA) The low-level RF (LLRF) control system for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) will perform various functions. Foremost is the feedback control of the accelerating fields within the cavity in order to maintain field stability within

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study for Nine Plant Architecture Traits in Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum [ (L Moench], an important grain and forage crop, is receiving significant attention as a lignocellulosic feedstock because of its water-use efficiency and high biomass yield potential. Because of the advancement of genotyping and sequencing technologies, genome-wide association study (GWAS has become a routinely used method to investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying natural phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed a GWAS for nine grain and biomass-related plant architecture traits to determine their overall genetic architecture and the specific association of allelic variants in gibberellin (GA biosynthesis and signaling genes with these phenotypes. A total of 101 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP representative regions were associated with at least one of the nine traits, and two of the significant markers correspond to GA candidate genes, ( and (, affecting plant height and seed number, respectively. The resolution of a previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL for leaf angle on chromosome 7 was increased to a 1.67 Mb region containing seven candidate genes with good prospects for further investigation. This study provides new knowledge of the association of GA genes with plant architecture traits and the genomic regions controlling variation in leaf angle, stem circumference, internode number, tiller number, seed number, panicle exsertion, and panicle length. The GA gene affecting seed number variation ( and the genomic region on chromosome 7 associated with variation in leaf angle are also important outcomes of this study and represent the foundation of future validation studies needed to apply this knowledge in breeding programs.

  17. APT LLRF control system functionality and architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, A.H.; Rohlev, A.S.; Ziomek, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    The low-level RF (LLRF) control system for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) will perform various functions. Foremost is the feedback control of the accelerating fields within the cavity in order to maintain field stability within ± 1% amplitude and 1 degree phase. The feedback control system requires a phase-stable RF reference subsystem signal to correctly phase each cavity. Also, instead of a single klystron RF source for individual accelerating cavities, multiple klystrons will drive a string of resonantly coupled cavities, based on input from a single LLRF feedback control system. To achieve maximum source efficiency, we will be employing single fast feedback controls around individual klystrons such that the gain and phase characteristics of each will be 'identical'. In addition, the resonance condition of the cavities is monitored and maintained. To quickly respond to RF shutdowns, and hence rapid accelerating cavity cool-down, due to RF fault conditions, drive frequency agility in the main feedback control subsystem will also be incorporated. Top level block diagrams will be presented and described as they will first be developed and demonstrated on the Low Energy Demonstrator Accelerator (LEDA). (author)

  18. A portable modular architecture for robotic manipulator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    A control architecture has been developed to provide a framework for robotic manipulator control. This architecture, called the Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA), has been successfully applied to two different manipulator systems. MICA is a portable system in two respects. First, it can be used for the control of different types of manipulator systems. Second, the MICA code is portable across several operating environments. This portability allows the sharing of common control code among various systems. A major portion of MICA is the precise control of multiple processors that have to be coordinated to control a manipulator system. By having NUCA control the processor synchronization, the system developer can concentrate on the specific aspects of a new manipulator system. MICA also provides standard functions for trajectory generation that can be used for most manipulators. Custom trajectory generators can be easily added to suit the needs of a particular robotic control system. Another facility that MICA provides is a simulation of the manipulator, allowing the control code to be simulated before trying it on a manipulator system. Using this technique, one can develop code for a manipulator system without risking damage to the arm during development

  19. Nuclear architecture and landscape: the power plant creates the site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, Claude; Bouvier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    The implementation, from 1974, of the French nuclear programme, was associated with an 'Architecture Plan' requested by Michel Hug, Equipment Manager at power utility EDF. The objective was to create an architecture language specific to nuclear power. Far from trying to hide the nuclear power stations, the nuclear architecture college conversely designed one set of ambitious and powerful shapes. Systematically associated to one landscape and to one colourist, the architect sought to use in the best possible way the potentialities available on one site. The power station should not blend in with the landscape, but on the contrary, participate in the creation of a fresh landscape

  20. A flexible architecture for advanced process control solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faron, Kamyar; Iourovitski, Ilia

    2005-05-01

    Advanced Process Control (APC) is now mainstream practice in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Over the past decade and a half APC has evolved from a "good idea", and "wouldn"t it be great" concept to mandatory manufacturing practice. APC developments have primarily dealt with two major thrusts, algorithms and infrastructure, and often the line between them has been blurred. The algorithms have evolved from very simple single variable solutions to sophisticated and cutting edge adaptive multivariable (input and output) solutions. Spending patterns in recent times have demanded that the economics of a comprehensive APC infrastructure be completely justified for any and all cost conscious manufacturers. There are studies suggesting integration costs as high as 60% of the total APC solution costs. Such cost prohibitive figures clearly diminish the return on APC investments. This has limited the acceptance and development of pure APC infrastructure solutions for many fabs. Modern APC solution architectures must satisfy the wide array of requirements from very manual R&D environments to very advanced and automated "lights out" manufacturing facilities. A majority of commercially available control solutions and most in house developed solutions lack important attributes of scalability, flexibility, and adaptability and hence require significant resources for integration, deployment, and maintenance. Many APC improvement efforts have been abandoned and delayed due to legacy systems and inadequate architectural design. Recent advancements (Service Oriented Architectures) in the software industry have delivered ideal technologies for delivering scalable, flexible, and reliable solutions that can seamlessly integrate into any fabs" existing system and business practices. In this publication we shall evaluate the various attributes of the architectures required by fabs and illustrate the benefits of a Service Oriented Architecture to satisfy these requirements. Blue

  1. Control Architecture Modeling for Future Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai

    electricity exchange. However, at the same time, it seems that the overall system design cannot keep up by simply adapting in response to changes, but that also new strategies have to be designed in anticipation. Changes to the electricity markets have been suggested to adapt to the limited predictability...... of wind power, and several new control strategies have been proposed, in particular to enable the control of distributed energy resources, including for example, distributed generation or electric vehicles. Market designs addressing the procurement of balancing resources are highly dependent...... on the operation strategies specifying the resource requirements. How should one decide which control strategy and market configuration is best for a future power system? Most research up to this point has addressed single isolated aspects of this design problem. Those of the ideas that fit with current markets...

  2. MPS Vax monitor and control software architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.; Spencer, N.; Underwood, K.; VanOlst, D.; Zelanzy, M.

    1993-04-01

    The new Machine Protection System (MPS) now being tested at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) includes monitoring and controlling facilities integrated into the existing VAX control system. The actual machine protection is performed by VME micros which control the beam repetition rate on a pulse-by-pulse basis based on measurements from fault detectors. The VAX is used to control and configure the VME micros, configure custom CAMAC modules providing the fault detector inputs, monitor and report faults and system errors, update the SLC database, and interface with the user. The design goals of the VAX software include a database-driven system to allow configuration changes without code changes, use of a standard TCP/IP-based message service for communication, use of existing SLCNET micros for CAMAC configuration, security and verification features to prevent unauthorized access, error and alarm logging and display updates as quickly as possible, and use of touch panels and X-windows displays for the user interface

  3. Hierarchical Control Architecture for Demand Response in Smart Grid Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    , a number of issues, including DR enabling technologies, control strategy, and control architecture, are still under discussion. This paper outlines novel control requirements based on the categorization of existing DR techniques. More specifically, the roles and responsibilities of smart grid actors...... effective tool for optimum asset utilization and to avoid or delay the need for new infrastructure investment. Furthermore, most of the power networks are under the process of reconfiguration to realize the concept of smart grid and are at the transforming stage to support various forms of DR. However...... for every DR category are allotted and their mode of interactions to coordinate individual as well as coordinative goals is described. Next, hierarchical control architecture (HCA) is developed for the overall coordination of control strategies for individual DR categories. The involved issues are discussed...

  4. A Flexible and Configurable Architecture for Automatic Control Remote Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalúz, Martin; García-Zubía, Javier; Fikar, Miroslav; Cirka, Luboš

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach in hardware and software architecture design for implementation of remote laboratories for automatic control. In our contribution, we show the solution with flexible connectivity at back-end, providing features of multipurpose usage with different types of experimental devices, and fully configurable…

  5. Architectural conceptual definition of the CAREM-25 reactor's control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.C.; Santome, D.; Drexler, J.; Escudero, S.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents the conceptual definition of the CAREM 25 reactor's digital and monitoring control system structure. The requirements of the system are analyzed and different implementation alternatives are studied where possible basic architectures of the system and its topology are considered and evaluated. (Author) [es

  6. Flexible distributed architecture for semiconductor process control and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Aaron E.; Boning, Duane S.; McIlrath, Michael B.

    1997-01-01

    Semiconductor fabrication requires an increasingly expensive and integrated set of tightly controlled processes, driving the need for a fabrication facility with fully computerized, networked processing equipment. We describe an integrated, open system architecture enabling distributed experimentation and process control for plasma etching. The system was developed at MIT's Microsystems Technology Laboratories and employs in-situ CCD interferometry based analysis in the sensor-feedback control of an Applied Materials Precision 5000 Plasma Etcher (AME5000). Our system supports accelerated, advanced research involving feedback control algorithms, and includes a distributed interface that utilizes the internet to make these fabrication capabilities available to remote users. The system architecture is both distributed and modular: specific implementation of any one task does not restrict the implementation of another. The low level architectural components include a host controller that communicates with the AME5000 equipment via SECS-II, and a host controller for the acquisition and analysis of the CCD sensor images. A cell controller (CC) manages communications between these equipment and sensor controllers. The CC is also responsible for process control decisions; algorithmic controllers may be integrated locally or via remote communications. Finally, a system server images connections from internet/intranet (web) based clients and uses a direct link with the CC to access the system. Each component communicates via a predefined set of TCP/IP socket based messages. This flexible architecture makes integration easier and more robust, and enables separate software components to run on the same or different computers independent of hardware or software platform.

  7. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Theodoridis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  8. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseti Cesare

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  9. Islanding Control Architecture in future smart grid with both demand and wind turbine control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    , which is the focus of this paper, available resources including both DG units and demand should be fully utilized as reserves. The control and coordination among different resources requires an integral architecture to serve the purpose. This paper develops the Islanding Control Architecture (ICA...

  10. Bio-inspired adaptive feedback error learning architecture for motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolu, Silvia; Vanegas, Mauricio; Luque, Niceto R; Garrido, Jesús A; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    This study proposes an adaptive control architecture based on an accurate regression method called Locally Weighted Projection Regression (LWPR) and on a bio-inspired module, such as a cerebellar-like engine. This hybrid architecture takes full advantage of the machine learning module (LWPR kernel) to abstract an optimized representation of the sensorimotor space while the cerebellar component integrates this to generate corrective terms in the framework of a control task. Furthermore, we illustrate how the use of a simple adaptive error feedback term allows to use the proposed architecture even in the absence of an accurate analytic reference model. The presented approach achieves an accurate control with low gain corrective terms (for compliant control schemes). We evaluate the contribution of the different components of the proposed scheme comparing the obtained performance with alternative approaches. Then, we show that the presented architecture can be used for accurate manipulation of different objects when their physical properties are not directly known by the controller. We evaluate how the scheme scales for simulated plants of high Degrees of Freedom (7-DOFs).

  11. Do Architectural Design Decisions Improve the Understanding of Software Architecture? Two Controlled Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahin, M.; Liang, P.; Li, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Architectural design decision (ADD) and its design rationale, as a paradigm shift on documenting and enriching architecture design description, is supposed to facilitate the understanding of architecture and the reasoning behind the design rationale, which consequently improves the architecting

  12. Scenario design : adaptive architecture for command and control experiment eight

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Frankie J.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Adaptive Architectures for Command and Control (A2C2) project is an ongoing research effort sponsored by the Office of Naval Research to explore adaptation in joint command and control. The objective of the project's eighth experiment is to study the adjustments that organizations make when they are confronted with a scenario for which their organizational is ill-suited. To accomplish this, teams will each be in one of two fundame...

  13. Improved design architecture to minimize functional complexity of plant protection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, JaeCheon

    2016-01-01

    An improved design architecture method to minimize the functional complexity of PPS (Plant Protection System) is proposed in this work. Firstly, the design concerns are identified with both AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis. AHP is able to identify the source of design concerns using pairwise comparison. AHP result shows CCF is the primary concern and the complexity is the secondly. Even though complexity is the second largest concern to the effectiveness of digital I&C system, but it has not been highlighted as CCF. This is the reason why this work focuses on the sources of complexity to maximize the effectiveness of digital system in the viewpoint of design architecture. The proposed methods are, separating non-safety functions from bistable logics and simplifying communication links and network. In order to verify the new concept, EFFBD (Enhanced Functional Flow Block Diagram) models are developed for two bistable logics of PPS and the complexities are measured using Halstead’s program maintainability measures. This measure specifies what provokes functional complexity. Periodic testing and operating bypass function are the source of complexity in this analysis.

  14. Improved design architecture to minimize functional complexity of plant protection system for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, JaeCheon, E-mail: jcjung@kings.ac.kr

    2016-12-01

    An improved design architecture method to minimize the functional complexity of PPS (Plant Protection System) is proposed in this work. Firstly, the design concerns are identified with both AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis. AHP is able to identify the source of design concerns using pairwise comparison. AHP result shows CCF is the primary concern and the complexity is the secondly. Even though complexity is the second largest concern to the effectiveness of digital I&C system, but it has not been highlighted as CCF. This is the reason why this work focuses on the sources of complexity to maximize the effectiveness of digital system in the viewpoint of design architecture. The proposed methods are, separating non-safety functions from bistable logics and simplifying communication links and network. In order to verify the new concept, EFFBD (Enhanced Functional Flow Block Diagram) models are developed for two bistable logics of PPS and the complexities are measured using Halstead’s program maintainability measures. This measure specifies what provokes functional complexity. Periodic testing and operating bypass function are the source of complexity in this analysis.

  15. Genetic architecture of plant stress resistance : Multi-trait genome-wide association mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoen, Manus P M; Davila Olivas, Nelson H.; Kloth, Karen J.; Coolen, Silvia; Huang, Ping Ping; Aarts, Mark G M; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna A.; Bakker, Jaap; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Broekgaarden, Colette; Bucher, Johan; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; Cheng, Xi; Fradin, Emilie F.; Jongsma, Maarten A.; Julkowska, Magdalena M.; Keurentjes, Joost J B; Ligterink, Wilco; Pieterse, Corné M J; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Smant, Geert; Testerink, Christa; Usadel, Björn; van Loon, Joop J A; van Pelt, Johan A.; van Schaik, Casper C.; van Wees, Saskia C M; Visser, Richard G F; Voorrips, Roeland; Vosman, Ben; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Warmerdam, Sonja; Wiegers, Gerrie L.; van Heerwaarden, Joost; Kruijer, Willem; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.; Dicke, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Plants are exposed to combinations of various biotic and abiotic stresses, but stress responses are usually investigated for single stresses only. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture underlying plant responses to 11 single stresses and several of their combinations by phenotyping 350

  16. Supervisory control in a distributed, hierarchical architecture for a multimodular LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaduy, P.J.; Brittain, C.R.; Rovere, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the directions and present status of the research in supervisory control for multimodular nuclear plants being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of US Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Controls Program. First, the hierarchical supervisory control structure envisioned for a Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) multimodular LMR is discussed. Next, the architecture of the supervisory module closest to the process actuators and its implementation for demonstration in a network of CPU's are presented. 12 refs., 3 figs

  17. INSTRUMENTATION CONTROLLING INDUSTRIAL PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Владимировна Чувашлова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze theoretical and practical basis of controlling and to provide implementation guidelines for enterprise controlling. The problem of controlling implementation was considered by two criteria: sphere of application and time of validity.Taking into account sphere of application criterion the objectives can be achieved by certain tools, namely: management accounting in the form of profit and loss statement; information flow in the form of workflow system and mapping of business processes; planning which includes budgeting and monitoring that could in turn allow to compare performance to predetermined standards, plans or objectives; responsibility accounting.The second criterion that is time of validity is considered as strategic.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-39

  18. Biogas plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasevicius, L.; Dervinis, G.; Macerauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents intelligent control system for the pig farm biogas production process. The system uses a fuzzy logic models based on knowledge of experts and operators. Four fuzzy models are introduced. The adequacy of fuzzy models is verified using real data and MATLAB simulation. Proposed expert system is implemented into traditional SCADA system for biogas process prediction and failure analyzing. (authors)

  19. ERECTA signaling controls Arabidopsis inflorescence architecture through chromatin-mediated activation of PRE1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hanyang; Zhao, Lihua; Wang, Lulu; Zhang, Man; Su, Zhenxia; Cheng, Yan; Zhao, Heming; Qin, Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Flowering plants display a remarkable diversity in inflorescence architecture, and pedicel length is one of the key contributors to this diversity. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the receptor-like kinase ERECTA (ER) mediated signaling pathway plays important roles in regulating inflorescence architecture by promoting cell proliferation. However, the regulating mechanism remains elusive in the pedicel. Genetic interactions between ERECTA signaling and the chromatin remodeling complex SWR1 in the control of inflorescence architecture were studied. Comparative transcriptome analysis was applied to identify downstream components. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and nucleosome occupancy was further investigated. The results indicated that the chromatin remodeler SWR1 coordinates with ERECTA signaling in regulating inflorescence architecture by activating the expression of PRE1 family genes and promoting pedicel elongation. It was found that SWR1 is required for the incorporation of the H2A.Z histone variant into nucleosomes of the whole PRE1 gene family and the ERECTA controlled expression of PRE1 gene family through regulating nucleosome dynamics. We propose that utilization of a chromatin remodeling complex to regulate gene expression is a common theme in developmental control across kingdoms. These findings shed light on the mechanisms through which chromatin remodelers orchestrate complex transcriptional regulation of gene expression in coordination with a developmental cue. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Memory intensive functional architecture for distributed computer control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmler, D.G.

    1983-10-01

    A memory-intensive functional architectue for distributed data-acquisition, monitoring, and control systems with large numbers of nodes has been conceptually developed and applied in several large-scale and some smaller systems. This discussion concentrates on: (1) the basic architecture; (2) recent expansions of the architecture which now become feasible in view of the rapidly developing component technologies in microprocessors and functional large-scale integration circuits; and (3) implementation of some key hardware and software structures and one system implementation which is a system for performing control and data acquisition of a neutron spectrometer at the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor. The spectrometer is equipped with a large-area position-sensitive neutron detector

  1. Process control in biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Efficient monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion (AD) processes are necessary in order to enhance biogas plant performance. The aim of monitoring and controlling the biological processes is to stabilise and optimise the production of biogas. The principles of process analytical technology...

  2. The message architecture of the LEP control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaber, J.; van der Stok, P.; Frammery, V.; Gareyte, C.; Rausch, R.

    1985-01-01

    The LEP control system will be constructed as a global communication system where microprocessors will be used everywhere, from the management of the communication mechanisms, the execution of complex control procedures, and the supervision of the equipment. To achieve this, the global control problem has been cut into sizeable functions which will be encapsulated into microprocessor modules containing enough hardware for the function to be mostly self-contained. This leads to a function architecture where messages are exchanged between the functions on miscellaneous media. It is shown how these message exchanges can be organized into a uniform flow of data all through the system

  3. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies

  4. A new architecture for Fermilab's cryogenic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolucha, J.; Frank, A.; Seino, K.; Lackey, S.

    1992-01-01

    In order to achieve design energy in the Tevatron, the magnet system will be operated at lower temperatures. The increased requirements of operating the Tevatron at lower temperatures necessitated a major upgrade to the both the hardware and software components of the cryogenic control system. The new architecture is based on a distributed topology which couples Fermilab designed I/O subsystems to high performance, 80386 execution processors via a variety of networks including: Arcnet, iPSB, and token ring. (author)

  5. Integrated dataset of anatomical, morphological, and architectural traits for plant species in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Azizan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a dataset, which provides information on the structural diversity of some endemic tropical species in Madagascar. The data were from CIRAD xylotheque (since 1937, and were also collected during various fieldworks (since 1964. The field notes and photographs were provided by French botanists; particularly by Francis Hallé. The dataset covers 250 plant species with anatomical, morphological, and architectural traits indexed from digitized wood slides and fieldwork documents. The digitized wood slides were constituted by the transverse, tangential, and radial sections with three optical magnifications. The main specific anatomical traits can be found within the digitized area. Information on morphological and architectural traits were indexed from digitized field drawings including notes and photographs. The data are hosted in the website ArchiWood (http://archiwood.cirad.fr. Keywords: Morpho-architectural traits, Plant architecture, Wood anatomy, Madagascar

  6. An Information Theoretic Framework and Self-organizing Agent- based Sensor Network Architecture for Power Plant Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loparo, Kenneth [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Kolacinski, Richard [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Threeanaew, Wanchat [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Agharazi, Hanieh [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-01-30

    A central goal of the work was to enable both the extraction of all relevant information from sensor data, and the application of information gained from appropriate processing and fusion at the system level to operational control and decision-making at various levels of the control hierarchy through: 1. Exploiting the deep connection between information theory and the thermodynamic formalism, 2. Deployment using distributed intelligent agents with testing and validation in a hardware-in-the loop simulation environment. Enterprise architectures are the organizing logic for key business processes and IT infrastructure and, while the generality of current definitions provides sufficient flexibility, the current architecture frameworks do not inherently provide the appropriate structure. Of particular concern is that existing architecture frameworks often do not make a distinction between ``data'' and ``information.'' This work defines an enterprise architecture for health and condition monitoring of power plant equipment and further provides the appropriate foundation for addressing shortcomings in current architecture definition frameworks through the discovery of the information connectivity between the elements of a power generation plant. That is, to identify the correlative structure between available observations streams using informational measures. The principle focus here is on the implementation and testing of an emergent, agent-based, algorithm based on the foraging behavior of ants for eliciting this structure and on measures for characterizing differences between communication topologies. The elicitation algorithms are applied to data streams produced by a detailed numerical simulation of Alstom’s 1000 MW ultra-super-critical boiler and steam plant. The elicitation algorithm and topology characterization can be based on different informational metrics for detecting connectivity, e.g. mutual information and linear correlation.

  7. Integration of Sensors, Controllers and Instruments Using a Novel OPC Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Isaías; Calderón, Antonio José; Barragán, Antonio Javier; Andújar, José Manuel

    2017-06-27

    The interconnection between sensors, controllers and instruments through a communication network plays a vital role in the performance and effectiveness of a control system. Since its inception in the 90s, the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control (OPC) protocol has provided open connectivity for monitoring and automation systems. It has been widely used in several environments such as industrial facilities, building and energy automation, engineering education and many others. This paper presents a novel OPC-based architecture to implement automation systems devoted to R&D and educational activities. The proposal is a novel conceptual framework, structured into four functional layers where the diverse components are categorized aiming to foster the systematic design and implementation of automation systems involving OPC communication. Due to the benefits of OPC, the proposed architecture provides features like open connectivity, reliability, scalability, and flexibility. Furthermore, four successful experimental applications of such an architecture, developed at the University of Extremadura (UEX), are reported. These cases are a proof of concept of the ability of this architecture to support interoperability for different domains. Namely, the automation of energy systems like a smart microgrid and photobioreactor facilities, the implementation of a network-accessible industrial laboratory and the development of an educational hardware-in-the-loop platform are described. All cases include a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to automate and control the plant behavior, which exchanges operative data (measurements and signals) with a multiplicity of sensors, instruments and supervisory systems under the structure of the novel OPC architecture. Finally, the main conclusions and open research directions are highlighted.

  8. Architectures and Algorithms for Control and Diagnostics of Coupled-Bunch Instabilities in Circular Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2003-07-08

    Modern light sources and circular colliders employ large numbers of high-intensity particle bunches in order to achieve high luminosity. The electromagnetic coupling of bunches via resonant structures causes coherent instabilities at high beam currents. Achieving high luminosity requires the control of such unstable motion. Feedback control is challenging due to wideband nature of the problem with up to 250 MHz bandwidths required. This thesis presents digital signal processing architectures and diagnostic techniques for control of longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities. Diagnostic capabilities integrated into the feedback system allow one to perform fast transient measurements of unstable dynamics by perturbing the beam from the controlled state via feedback and recording the time-domain response. Such measurements enable one to thoroughly characterize plant (beam) dynamics as well as performance of the feedback system. Beam dynamics can change significantly over the operating range of accelerator currents and energies . Here we present several methods for design of robust stabilizing feedback controllers. Experimental results from several accelerators are presented. A new baseband architecture for transverse feedback is described that compactly implements the digital processing functions using field-programmable gate array devices. The architecture is designed to be software configurable so that the same hardware can be used for instability control in different accelerators.

  9. Architectures and Algorithms for Control and Diagnostics of Coupled-Bunch Instabilities in Circular Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2003-01-01

    Modern light sources and circular colliders employ large numbers of high-intensity particle bunches in order to achieve high luminosity. The electromagnetic coupling of bunches via resonant structures causes coherent instabilities at high beam currents. Achieving high luminosity requires the control of such unstable motion. Feedback control is challenging due to wideband nature of the problem with up to 250 MHz bandwidths required. This thesis presents digital signal processing architectures and diagnostic techniques for control of longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities. Diagnostic capabilities integrated into the feedback system allow one to perform fast transient measurements of unstable dynamics by perturbing the beam from the controlled state via feedback and recording the time-domain response. Such measurements enable one to thoroughly characterize plant (beam) dynamics as well as performance of the feedback system. Beam dynamics can change significantly over the operating range of accelerator currents and energies . Here we present several methods for design of robust stabilizing feedback controllers. Experimental results from several accelerators are presented. A new baseband architecture for transverse feedback is described that compactly implements the digital processing functions using field-programmable gate array devices. The architecture is designed to be software configurable so that the same hardware can be used for instability control in different accelerators

  10. Control system devices : architectures and supply channels overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, Jason; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Mulder, John C.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes a research project to examine the hardware used in automated control systems like those that control the electric grid. This report provides an overview of the vendors, architectures, and supply channels for a number of control system devices. The research itself represents an attempt to probe more deeply into the area of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) - the specialized digital computers that control individual processes within supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The report (1) provides an overview of control system networks and PLC architecture, (2) furnishes profiles for the top eight vendors in the PLC industry, (3) discusses the communications protocols used in different industries, and (4) analyzes the hardware used in several PLC devices. As part of the project, several PLCs were disassembled to identify constituent components. That information will direct the next step of the research, which will greatly increase our understanding of PLC security in both the hardware and software areas. Such an understanding is vital for discerning the potential national security impact of security flaws in these devices, as well as for developing proactive countermeasures.

  11. Architectural concept for the ITER Plasma Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutterer, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Treutterer@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Humphreys, D., E-mail: humphreys@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Raupp, G., E-mail: Gerhard.Raupp@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Schuster, E., E-mail: schuster@lehigh.edu [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Snipes, J., E-mail: Joseph.Snipes@iter.org [ITER Organization, 13115 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); De Tommasi, G., E-mail: detommas@unina.it [CREATE/Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Walker, M., E-mail: walker@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Winter, A., E-mail: Axel.Winter@iter.org [ITER Organization, 13115 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-05-15

    The plasma control system is a key instrument for successfully investigating the physics of burning plasma at ITER. It has the task to execute an experimental plan, known as pulse schedule, in the presence of complex relationships between plasma parameters like temperature, pressure, confinement and shape. The biggest challenge in the design of the control system is to find an adequate breakdown of this task in a hierarchy of feedback control functions. But it is also important to foresee structures that allow handling unplanned exceptional situations to protect the machine. Also the management of the limited number of actuator systems for multiple targets is an aspect with a strong impact on system architecture. Finally, the control system must be flexible and reconfigurable to cover the manifold facets of plasma behaviour and investigation goals. In order to prepare the development of a control system for ITER plasma operation, a conceptual design has been proposed by a group of worldwide experts and reviewed by an ITER panel in 2012. In this paper we describe the fundamental principles of the proposed control system architecture and how they were derived from a systematic collection and analysis of use cases and requirements. The experience and best practices from many fusion devices and research laboratories, augmented by the envisaged ITER specific tasks, build the foundation of this collection. In the next step control functions were distilled from this input. An analysis of the relationships between the functions allowed sequential and parallel structures, alternate branches and conflicting requirements to be identified. Finally, a concept of selectable control layers consisting of nested “compact controllers” was synthesised. Each control layer represents a cascaded scheme from high-level to elementary controllers and implements a control hierarchy. The compact controllers are used to resolve conflicts when several control functions would use the same

  12. Architectural concept for the ITER Plasma Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutterer, W.; Humphreys, D.; Raupp, G.; Schuster, E.; Snipes, J.; De Tommasi, G.; Walker, M.; Winter, A.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma control system is a key instrument for successfully investigating the physics of burning plasma at ITER. It has the task to execute an experimental plan, known as pulse schedule, in the presence of complex relationships between plasma parameters like temperature, pressure, confinement and shape. The biggest challenge in the design of the control system is to find an adequate breakdown of this task in a hierarchy of feedback control functions. But it is also important to foresee structures that allow handling unplanned exceptional situations to protect the machine. Also the management of the limited number of actuator systems for multiple targets is an aspect with a strong impact on system architecture. Finally, the control system must be flexible and reconfigurable to cover the manifold facets of plasma behaviour and investigation goals. In order to prepare the development of a control system for ITER plasma operation, a conceptual design has been proposed by a group of worldwide experts and reviewed by an ITER panel in 2012. In this paper we describe the fundamental principles of the proposed control system architecture and how they were derived from a systematic collection and analysis of use cases and requirements. The experience and best practices from many fusion devices and research laboratories, augmented by the envisaged ITER specific tasks, build the foundation of this collection. In the next step control functions were distilled from this input. An analysis of the relationships between the functions allowed sequential and parallel structures, alternate branches and conflicting requirements to be identified. Finally, a concept of selectable control layers consisting of nested “compact controllers” was synthesised. Each control layer represents a cascaded scheme from high-level to elementary controllers and implements a control hierarchy. The compact controllers are used to resolve conflicts when several control functions would use the same

  13. Hierarchical Surface Architecture of Plants as an Inspiration for Biomimetic Fog Collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Barthlott, W; Koch, K

    2015-12-08

    Fog collectors can enable us to alleviate the water crisis in certain arid regions of the world. A continuous fog-collection cycle consisting of a persistent capture of fog droplets and their fast transport to the target is a prerequisite for developing an efficient fog collector. In regard to this topic, a biological superior design has been found in the hierarchical surface architecture of barley (Hordeum vulgare) awns. We demonstrate here the highly wettable (advancing contact angle 16° ± 2.7 and receding contact angle 9° ± 2.6) barbed (barb = conical structure) awn as a model to develop optimized fog collectors with a high fog-capturing capability, an effective water transport, and above all an efficient fog collection. We compare the fog-collection efficiency of the model sample with other plant samples naturally grown in foggy habitats that are supposed to be very efficient fog collectors. The model sample, consisting of dry hydrophilized awns (DH awns), is found to be about twice as efficient (fog-collection rate 563.7 ± 23.2 μg/cm(2) over 10 min) as any other samples investigated under controlled experimental conditions. Finally, a design based on the hierarchical surface architecture of the model sample is proposed for the development of optimized biomimetic fog collectors.

  14. Advanced nuclear plant control complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarola, K.; Jamison, S.; Manazir, R.M.; Rescorl, R.L.; Harmon, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel in the control room. A separate data processing system, which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board. The discrete indicator and alarm system and the data processing system receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accidental conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof. (author)

  15. Distributed Control Architecture for Gas Turbine Engine. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of engine control systems from centralized to distributed architecture is both necessary and enabling for future aeropropulsion applications. The continued growth of adaptive control applications and the trend to smaller, light weight cores is a counter influence on the weight and volume of control system hardware. A distributed engine control system using high temperature electronics and open systems communications will reverse the growing trend of control system weight ratio to total engine weight and also be a major factor in decreasing overall cost of ownership for aeropropulsion systems. The implementation of distributed engine control is not without significant challenges. There are the needs for high temperature electronics, development of simple, robust communications, and power supply for the on-board electronics.

  16. New control architecture for the SPS accelerator at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissler, K.H.; Rausch, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Control System for the 450 Gev proton accelerator SPS at CERN was conceived and implemented some 18 years ago. The 16 Bit minicomputers with their proprietary operating system and interconnection with a dedicated network do not permit the use of modern workstations, international communication standards and industrial software packages. The upgrading of the system has therefore become necessary. After a short review of the history and the current state of the SPS control system, the paper describes how CERN's new control architecture, which will be common to all accelerators, will be realized at the SPS. The migration path ensuring a smooth transition to the final system is outlined. Once the SPS upgrade is complete and following some enhancements to the LEP control system, the operator in the SPS/LEP control center will be working in a single uniform control environment. (author)

  17. Modelling and controlling hydropower plants

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Hernandez, German Ardul; Jones, Dewi Ieuan

    2013-01-01

    Hydroelectric power stations are a major source of electricity around the world; understanding their dynamics is crucial to achieving good performance.  Modelling and Controlling Hydropower Plants discusses practical and well-documented cases of modelling and controlling hydropower station modelling and control, focussing on a pumped storage scheme based in Dinorwig, North Wales.  Single-input-single-output and multiple-input-multiple-output models, which cover the linear and nonlinear characteristics of pump-storage hydroelectric power stations, are reviewed. The most important dynamic features are discussed, and the verification of these models by hardware in the loop simulation is described. To show how the performance of a pump-storage hydroelectric power station can be improved, classical and modern controllers are applied to simulated models of the Dinorwig power plant. These include PID, fuzzy approximation, feed-forward and model-based predictive control with linear and hybrid prediction models. Mod...

  18. A Multi-Agent Control Architecture for a Robotic Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Galindo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Assistant robots like robotic wheelchairs can perform an effective and valuable work in our daily lives. However, they eventually may need external help from humans in the robot environment (particularly, the driver in the case of a wheelchair to accomplish safely and efficiently some tricky tasks for the current technology, i.e. opening a locked door, traversing a crowded area, etc. This article proposes a control architecture for assistant robots designed under a multi-agent perspective that facilitates the participation of humans into the robotic system and improves the overall performance of the robot as well as its dependability. Within our design, agents have their own intentions and beliefs, have different abilities (that include algorithmic behaviours and human skills and also learn autonomously the most convenient method to carry out their actions through reinforcement learning. The proposed architecture is illustrated with a real assistant robot: a robotic wheelchair that provides mobility to impaired or elderly people.

  19. A Risk Management Architecture for Emergency Integrated Aircraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Gregory E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced engine operation--operation that is beyond normal limits--has the potential to improve the adaptability and safety of aircraft in emergency situations. Intelligent use of enhanced engine operation to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft requires sophisticated risk estimation techniques and a risk management system that spans the flight and propulsion controllers. In this paper, an architecture that weighs the risks of the emergency and of possible engine performance enhancements to reduce overall risk to the aircraft is described. Two examples of emergency situations are presented to demonstrate the interaction between the flight and propulsion controllers to facilitate the enhanced operation.

  20. Architectural and structural engineering aspects of protective design for nuclear power plants against terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musacchio, J.M.; Rozen, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of several threat studies which have been performed, provides collective data on costs, and discusses, in a general sense, architectural/structural aspects of passive protection design measures which have been developed and utilized at several nuclear power plants. By combining relevant architectural and structural measures in the standard design, it is possible to substantially reduce the vulnerability of nuclear power plants to terrorist attack and the estimated damage to a manageable level with a minimal investment. (orig./HP)

  1. The LHC Collimator Controls Architecture - Design and beam tests

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Gander, P; Jonker, M; Lamont, M; Losito, R; Masi, A; Sobczak, M

    2007-01-01

    The LHC collimation system will require simultaneous management by the LHC control system of more than 500 jaw positioning mechanisms in order to ensure the required beam cleaning and machine protection performance in all machine phases, from injection at 450 GeV to collision at 7 TeV. Each jaw positionis a critical parameter for the machine safety. In this paper, the architecture of the LHC collimator controls is presented. The basic design to face the accurate control of the LHC collimators and the interfaces to the other components of LHC Software Application and control infrastructures are described. The full controls system has been tested in a real accelerator environment in the CERN SPS during beam tests with a full scale collimator prototype. The results and the lessons learned are presented.

  2. A structured architecture for advanced plasma control experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    Recent new and improved plasma control regimes have evolved from enhancements to the systems responsible for managing the plasma configuration on the DIII-D tokamak. The collection of hardware and software components designed for this purpose is known at DIII-D as the Plasma Control System or PCS. Several new user requirements have contributed to the rapid growth of the PCS. Experiments involving digital control of the plasma vertical position have resulted in the addition of new high performance processors to operate in real-time. Recent studies in plasma disruptions involving the use of neural network based software have resulted in an increase in the number of input diagnostic signals sampled. Better methods for estimating the plasma shape and position have brought about numerous software changes and the addition of several new code modules. Furthermore, requests for performing multivariable control and feedback on the current profile are continuing to add to the demands being placed on the PCS. To support all of these demands has required a structured yet flexible hardware and software architecture for maintaining existing capabilities and easily adding new ones. This architecture along with a general overview of the DIII-D Plasma Control System is described. In addition, the latest improvements to the PCS are presented

  3. Design and Architecture of SST-1 basic plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kirit, E-mail: kpatel@ipr.res.in; Raju, D.; Dhongde, J.; Mahajan, K.; Chudasama, H.; Gulati, H.; Chauhan, A.; Masand, H.; Bhandarkar, M.; Pradhan, S.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Reflective Memory network. • FPAG based Timing system for trigger distribution. • IRIG-B network for GPS time synchronization. • PMC based Digital Signal Processors and VME. • Simultaneous sampling ADC. - Abstract: Primary objective of SST-1 Plasma control system is to achieve Plasma position, shape and current profile control. Architecture of control system for SST-1 is distributed in nature. Fastest control loop time requirement of 100 μs is achieved using VME based simultaneous sampling ADCs, PMC based quad core DSP, Reflective Memory [RFM] based real-time network, VME based real-time trigger distribution network and Ethernet network. All the control loops for shape control, position control and current profile control share common signals from Magnetic diagnostic so it is planned to accommodate all the algorithms on the same PMC based quad core DSP module TS C-43. RFM based real-time data network replicate data from one node to next node in a ring network topology at sustained throughput rate of 13.4 MBps. Real-time Timing System network provides guaranteed trigger distribution in 3.8 μs from one node to all node of the network. Monitoring and configuration of different systems participating in the operation of SST-1 is done by Ethernet network. Magnetic sensors data is acquired using Pentek 6802 simultaneously sampling ADC card at the rate of 10KSPS. All the real-time raw data along with the control data will be archived using RFM network and SCSI HDD for the experiment duration of 1000 s. RFM network is also planned for real-time plotting of key parameter of Plasma during long experiment. After experiment this data is transferred to central storage server for archival purpose. This paper discusses the architecture and hardware implementation of the control system by describing all the involved hardware and software along with future plans for up-gradations.

  4. Developing architecture for upgrading I and C systems of an operating nuclear power plant using a quality attribute-driven design method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yong Suk; Keum, Jong Yong [SMART Technology Validation Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150-1 Dukjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Soo, E-mail: hskim401@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chungnam Nat' l Univ., 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents the architecture for upgrading the instrumentation and control (I and C) systems of a Korean standard nuclear power plant (KSNP) as an operating nuclear power plant. This paper uses the analysis results of KSNP's I and C systems performed in a previous study. This paper proposes a Preparation-Decision-Design-Assessment (PDDA) process that focuses on quality oriented development, as a cyclical process to develop the architecture. The PDDA was motivated from the practice of architecture-based development used in software engineering fields. In the preparation step of the PDDA, the architecture of digital-based I and C systems was setup for an architectural goal. Single failure criterion and determinism were setup for architectural drivers. In the decision step, defense-in-depth, diversity, redundancy, and independence were determined as architectural tactics to satisfy the single failure criterion, and sequential execution was determined as a tactic to satisfy the determinism. After determining the tactics, the primitive digital-based I and C architecture was determined. In the design step, 17 systems were selected from the KSNP's I and C systems for the upgrade and functionally grouped based on the primitive architecture. The overall architecture was developed to show the deployment of the systems. The detailed architecture of the safety systems was developed by applying a 2-out-of-3 voting logic, and the detailed architecture of the non-safety systems was developed by hot-standby redundancy. While developing the detailed architecture, three ways of signal transmission were determined with proper rationales: hardwire, datalink, and network. In the assessment step, the required network performance, considering the worst-case of data transmission was calculated: the datalink was required by 120 kbps, the safety network by 5 Mbps, and the non-safety network by 60 Mbps. The architecture covered 17 systems out of 22 KSNP's I and C

  5. Developing architecture for upgrading I and C systems of an operating nuclear power plant using a quality attribute-driven design method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yong Suk; Keum, Jong Yong; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the architecture for upgrading the instrumentation and control (I and C) systems of a Korean standard nuclear power plant (KSNP) as an operating nuclear power plant. This paper uses the analysis results of KSNP's I and C systems performed in a previous study. This paper proposes a Preparation–Decision–Design–Assessment (PDDA) process that focuses on quality oriented development, as a cyclical process to develop the architecture. The PDDA was motivated from the practice of architecture-based development used in software engineering fields. In the preparation step of the PDDA, the architecture of digital-based I and C systems was setup for an architectural goal. Single failure criterion and determinism were setup for architectural drivers. In the decision step, defense-in-depth, diversity, redundancy, and independence were determined as architectural tactics to satisfy the single failure criterion, and sequential execution was determined as a tactic to satisfy the determinism. After determining the tactics, the primitive digital-based I and C architecture was determined. In the design step, 17 systems were selected from the KSNP's I and C systems for the upgrade and functionally grouped based on the primitive architecture. The overall architecture was developed to show the deployment of the systems. The detailed architecture of the safety systems was developed by applying a 2-out-of-3 voting logic, and the detailed architecture of the non-safety systems was developed by hot-standby redundancy. While developing the detailed architecture, three ways of signal transmission were determined with proper rationales: hardwire, datalink, and network. In the assessment step, the required network performance, considering the worst-case of data transmission was calculated: the datalink was required by 120 kbps, the safety network by 5 Mbps, and the non-safety network by 60 Mbps. The architecture covered 17 systems out of 22 KSNP's I and C systems. The

  6. Chapter 8. Controlling plant competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Monsen

    2004-01-01

    Generally, range or wildlife habitat improvement projects seek to achieve desirable plants through the elimination or replacement of undesirable species or both. Control measures are thus designed to: (1) reduce the competitive effects of existing species (Evans and Young 1987a,b; Robertson and Pearse 1945), (2) allow the establishment of seeded species (Harper and...

  7. High-throughput volumetric reconstruction for 3D wheat plant architecture studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For many tiller crops, the plant architecture (PA, including the plant fresh weight, plant height, number of tillers, tiller angle and stem diameter, significantly affects the grain yield. In this study, we propose a method based on volumetric reconstruction for high-throughput three-dimensional (3D wheat PA studies. The proposed methodology involves plant volumetric reconstruction from multiple images, plant model processing and phenotypic parameter estimation and analysis. This study was performed on 80 Triticum aestivum plants, and the results were analyzed. Comparing the automated measurements with manual measurements, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE in the plant height and the plant fresh weight was 2.71% (1.08cm with an average plant height of 40.07cm and 10.06% (1.41g with an average plant fresh weight of 14.06g, respectively. The root mean square error (RMSE was 1.37cm and 1.79g for the plant height and plant fresh weight, respectively. The correlation coefficients were 0.95 and 0.96 for the plant height and plant fresh weight, respectively. Additionally, the proposed methodology, including plant reconstruction, model processing and trait extraction, required only approximately 20s on average per plant using parallel computing on a graphics processing unit (GPU, demonstrating that the methodology would be valuable for a high-throughput phenotyping platform.

  8. Plant components and authenticity of landscape architecture monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Pejchal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants specifications emphasize the fundamental meaning of the “fourth space dimension” – time by their usage: (a the space cannot be composed as a static image; (b some used plants are not the planned part of the target state; (c delayed onset of full functionality; (d substantial importance of care for achieving and maintaining of the full functionality; (e cultivation measures must be implemented in a certain time period, i.e. the “time window”; (f replacement of already obsolete generation of full-grown and long-aged trees with a new generation is often carried out in the amended site conditions and different social situation. Historical authenticity of the plant components has the following specifics: (a its basic assumption may not be the original specimens of plants, it is the preservation of the principle contained in this original substance; (b the period during which the plant is able to represent the principle of the original substance is often shorter than the length of its existence; (c gradual recovery of surviving individuals is often difficult to impossible in plants groups and stands; (d it is often impossible to meet the recommendations of Venice Charter to not to apply the hypothesis and differentiation of added parts from the original ones. There was not paid enough attention to following aspects of the authenticity of plant components: (a the importance of particular developmental stages of the element; (b the role of age structure (the same age – different age for different types of elements; (c the effect of different length of the existence of space-formative elements (different periods of their recovery to the overall composition effect; (d role of historical technologies.

  9. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAO Silveira

    Full Text Available Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences of Miconia albicans (SW. Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS, shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE and woodlands (cerradão, CD. As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  10. Distributed sensor architecture for intelligent control that supports quality of control and quality of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Simó-Ten, José-Enrique; Simarro, Raúl; Benet, Ginés

    2015-02-25

    This paper is part of a study of intelligent architectures for distributed control and communications systems. The study focuses on optimizing control systems by evaluating the performance of middleware through quality of service (QoS) parameters and the optimization of control using Quality of Control (QoC) parameters. The main aim of this work is to study, design, develop, and evaluate a distributed control architecture based on the Data-Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems (DDS) communication standard as proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG). As a result of the study, an architecture called Frame-Sensor-Adapter to Control (FSACtrl) has been developed. FSACtrl provides a model to implement an intelligent distributed Event-Based Control (EBC) system with support to measure QoS and QoC parameters. The novelty consists of using, simultaneously, the measured QoS and QoC parameters to make decisions about the control action with a new method called Event Based Quality Integral Cycle. To validate the architecture, the first five Braitenberg vehicles have been implemented using the FSACtrl architecture. The experimental outcomes, demonstrate the convenience of using jointly QoS and QoC parameters in distributed control systems.

  11. Distributed Sensor Architecture for Intelligent Control that Supports Quality of Control and Quality of Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Luis Poza-Lujan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a study of intelligent architectures for distributed control and communications systems. The study focuses on optimizing control systems by evaluating the performance of middleware through quality of service (QoS parameters and the optimization of control using Quality of Control (QoC parameters. The main aim of this work is to study, design, develop, and evaluate a distributed control architecture based on the Data-Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems (DDS communication standard as proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG. As a result of the study, an architecture called Frame-Sensor-Adapter to Control (FSACtrl has been developed. FSACtrl provides a model to implement an intelligent distributed Event-Based Control (EBC system with support to measure QoS and QoC parameters. The novelty consists of using, simultaneously, the measured QoS and QoC parameters to make decisions about the control action with a new method called Event Based Quality Integral Cycle. To validate the architecture, the first five Braitenberg vehicles have been implemented using the FSACtrl architecture. The experimental outcomes, demonstrate the convenience of using jointly QoS and QoC parameters in distributed control systems.

  12. Applicability of Agent-Based Technology for Acquisition, Monitoring and Process Control Systems at Real Time for Distributed Architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorao, Carlos; Fontanini, H; Fernandez, R

    2000-01-01

    Modern industrial plants are characterized by their large size and higher complexity of the processes involved in their operations.The real time monitoring systems of theses plants must be used a distributed architecture.Due to the pressure of competitive markets, an efficient adaptability to changes must be present in the plants.Modifications in the plants due to changes in the lay-out, the introduction of newer supervision, control and monitoring technologies must not affect the integrity of the systems.The aim of this work is give an introduction to the agent-based technology and analyze it advantage for the development of a modern monitoring system

  13. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouril, Roman; Kereiche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J.; Croce, Roberta; Kereïche, Sami

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II ( PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it

  14. Architecturally integrated PV system at the Ford Bridgend Engine Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, K.; Phillips, R.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the project was to design and install a solar photovoltaic (PV) plant that could be retrofitted into an existing factory and to evaluate the cost and advantages of using the most recent advances in photovoltaic technology as follows: to demonstrate the use of the latest mono crystalline silicon technology within a large scale manufacturing environment, with the long term view of designing a state of the art installation for use in an environmentally sensitive {sup F}actory of the Future{sup .} To determine the performance and operating costs of a photovoltaic plant in northern latitudes thus providing data for the potential use of similar integrated systems elsewhere in the UK and Northern Europe. To evaluate the long term behaviour of an integrated system and its component parts. To demonstrate the feasibility of retrofitting PV roof lights into a fully operational manufacturing plant. To provide natural daylight into the manufacturing facility thereby improving the working environment, enhancing productivity and reducing the electrical lighting load within the plant during daylight hours. (author)

  15. BRSMG Uai: common bean cultivar with carioca grain type and upright plant architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The common bean cultivar with carioca grain type, BRSMG Uai, is recommended for cultivation in Minas Gerais and stands out for its upright plant architecture, which facilitates cultivation and mechanical harvesting. This cultivar has high yield potential and is resistant to the major races of anthracnose that occur in region.

  16. The Contrasting Roles of Growth Traits and Architectural Traits in Diversity Maintenance in Clonal Plant Communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wildová, Radka; Goldberg, D. E.; Herben, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 6 (2012), s. 693-706 ISSN 0003-0147 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1471 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : individual based model * coexistence * cempetitive exclusion * plant architecture * spatial traits Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.552, year: 2012

  17. Genetic improvement of the shoot architecture and yield in soya bean plants via the manipulation of GmmiR156b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhengxi; Su, Chao; Yun, Jinxia; Jiang, Qiong; Wang, Lixiang; Wang, Youning; Cao, Dong; Zhao, Fang; Zhao, Qingsong; Zhang, Mengchen; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Kong, Fanjiang; Liu, Baohui; Tong, Yiping; Li, Xia

    2018-05-05

    The optimization of plant architecture in order to breed high-yielding soya bean cultivars is a goal of researchers. Tall plants bearing many long branches are desired, but only modest success in reaching these goals has been achieved. MicroRNA156 (miR156)-SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) gene modules play pivotal roles in controlling shoot architecture and other traits in crops like rice and wheat. However, the effects of miR156-SPL modules on soya bean architecture and yield, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects, remain largely unknown. In this study, we achieved substantial improvements in soya bean architecture and yield by overexpressing GmmiR156b. Transgenic plants produced significantly increased numbers of long branches, nodes and pods, and they exhibited an increased 100-seed weight, resulting in a 46%-63% increase in yield per plant. Intriguingly, GmmiR156b overexpression had no significant impact on plant height in a growth room or under field conditions; however, it increased stem thickness significantly. Our data indicate that GmmiR156b modulates these traits mainly via the direct cleavage of SPL transcripts. Moreover, we found that GmSPL9d is expressed in the shoot apical meristem and axillary meristems (AMs) of soya bean, and that GmSPL9d may regulate axillary bud formation and branching by physically interacting with the homeobox gene WUSCHEL (WUS), a central regulator of AM formation. Together, our results identify GmmiR156b as a promising target for the improvement of soya bean plant architecture and yields, and they reveal a new and conserved regulatory cascade involving miR156-SPL-WUS that will help researchers decipher the genetic basis of plant architecture. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Model based controls and the AGS booster controls system architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    For the past three years the Accelerator Controls Section has been responsible for the development of the Heavy Ion Transfer Line (HITL) used to inject heavy ions created at the Tandem Van de Graaff into the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). This was recognized as an opportunity to test new ideas for control of a beam line, which if successful, could be implemented in an upgrade of the existing control system for the AGS. The in place control system for the AGS consisted of DEC PDP10 computer as the primary computer interface to the accelerator via three control room consoles, and keeper of the device database. For the HITL project it was decided to make the control system a true distributed network putting more computing power down at the device level via intelligent subsystems. A network of Apollo workstations was added at the host level. Apollos run a distributed operating system and are connected to each other by the Domain Token Ring Network. The Apollos were seen as the new primary computers for consoles with each console containing at least one Apollo. These hosts and all other subsystems are connected to each other via an in house developed LAN (RELWAY). The design of the control system developed for HITL was mostly successful. The proposed AGS Booster is designed to be a synchrotron injector for the AGS. With the forthcoming development of the Booster for the AGS an opportunity has again developed to implement new ideas for accelerator control. One weakness of the HITL control system is the limited cpu power and poor debugging facilities of the stations

  19. Small Hydropower Plants in Pomerania: The Example of Evolution of Modern Industrial Brick Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macikowski, Bartosz

    2017-10-01

    Modernism is usually recognized and associated with the aesthetics of the International Style, represented by white-plastered, horizontally articulated architecture with skimpy decoration, where function was the main imperative of the architects’ ambitions. In Northern Europe though, Modernism also revealed its brick face, representing different manners, styles, and appearances. The brick face of Modernism reflected, in fact, the complexity of the modern change, breaking ties with the historic styles of the 19th century and being still present in the beginning of the 20th century. Regardless of the cosmopolitan character of the International Style and its unified aesthetics, architects tried to find and keep shades of individuality. This was especially visible in the references to either regional or even local traditions. This diversity of modernistic architecture is intensified by its different functions. The language of industrial architecture derives its forms directly from its nature of pure functional idiom, devoted to economic and functional optimization. The industrial form usually seems subordinate to the technical nature of objects. But regardless of that, in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century we can observe an interesting evolution of styles and tendencies in industrial architecture, even in such a narrow and specific field like the architecture of small hydropower plants. The purpose of the research was to recognize the evolution of the architectural form of hydropower plants as a developing branch of industry in the first half of the 20th century. In Pomerania, during this period, a dynamic growth of investments took place, which concerned the use of the Pomeranian rivers’ potential to produce electric energy. At the end of the 19th century, electricity had a strong meaning as a symbol of a radical civilizational change, which influenced also the aesthetic aspects of architecture. This could suggest that the architecture of

  20. A technique system for the measurement, reconstruction and character extraction of rice plant architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xumeng Li

    Full Text Available This study developed a technique system for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures, which have challenged functional-structural plant modeling for decades and have become the foundation of the design of ideo-plant architectures. The system uses the location-separation-measurement method (LSMM for the collection of data on the canopy architecture and the analytic geometry method for the reconstruction and visualization of the three-dimensional (3D digital architecture of the rice plant. It also uses the virtual clipping method for extracting the key traits of the canopy architecture such as the leaf area, inclination, and azimuth distribution in spatial coordinates. To establish the technique system, we developed (i simple tools to measure the spatial position of the stem axis and azimuth of the leaf midrib and to capture images of tillers and leaves; (ii computer software programs for extracting data on stem diameter, leaf nodes, and leaf midrib curves from the tiller images and data on leaf length, width, and shape from the leaf images; (iii a database of digital architectures that stores the measured data and facilitates the reconstruction of the 3D visual architecture and the extraction of architectural traits; and (iv computation algorithms for virtual clipping to stratify the rice canopy, to extend the stratified surface from the horizontal plane to a general curved surface (including a cylindrical surface, and to implement in silico. Each component of the technique system was quantitatively validated and visually compared to images, and the sensitivity of the virtual clipping algorithms was analyzed. This technique is inexpensive and accurate and provides high throughput for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures. The technique provides a more practical method of data collection to serve functional-structural plant models of rice and for the

  1. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    OpenAIRE

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouřil, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C2S2M2 supercomplex were isolated. Ch...

  2. Model based controls and the AGS booster controls system architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Transfer Line used to inject heavy ions created at the Tandem Van de Graaff into the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) is briefly discussed, particularly as regards its control system

  3. The control architecture of the D0 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Fredrick Bartlett et al.

    2002-01-01

    From a controls viewpoint, contemporary high energy physics collider detectors are comparable in complexity to small to medium size accelerators: however, their controls requirements often differ significantly. D0, one of two collider experiments at Fermilab, has recently started a second, extended running period that will continue for the next five years. EPICS [1], an integrated set of software building blocks for implementing a distributed control system, has been adapted to satisfy the slow controls needs of the D0 detector by (1) extending the support for new device types and an additional field bus, (2) by the addition of a global event reporting system that augments the existing EPICS alarm support, and (3) by the addition of a centralized database with supporting tools for defining the configuration of the control system. This paper discusses the control architecture of the current D0 experiment, how the EPICS system was extended to meet the control requirements of a large, high-energy physics detector, and how a formal control system contributes to the management of detector operations

  4. SCOS 2: A distributed architecture for ground system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyte, Karl P.

    The current generation of spacecraft ground control systems in use at the European Space Agency/European Space Operations Centre (ESA/ESOC) is based on the SCOS 1. Such systems have become difficult to manage in both functional and financial terms. The next generation of spacecraft is demanding more flexibility in the use, configuration and distribution of control facilities as well as functional requirements capable of matching those being planned for future missions. SCOS 2 is more than a successor to SCOS 1. Many of the shortcomings of the existing system have been carefully analyzed by user and technical communities and a complete redesign was made. Different technologies were used in many areas including hardware platform, network architecture, user interfaces and implementation techniques, methodologies and language. As far as possible a flexible design approach has been made using popular industry standards to provide vendor independence in both hardware and software areas. This paper describes many of the new approaches made in the architectural design of the SCOS 2.

  5. Model based design introduction: modeling game controllers to microprocessor architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, Patrick; Badawy, Abdel-Hameed

    2017-04-01

    We present an introduction to model based design. Model based design is a visual representation, generally a block diagram, to model and incrementally develop a complex system. Model based design is a commonly used design methodology for digital signal processing, control systems, and embedded systems. Model based design's philosophy is: to solve a problem - a step at a time. The approach can be compared to a series of steps to converge to a solution. A block diagram simulation tool allows a design to be simulated with real world measurement data. For example, if an analog control system is being upgraded to a digital control system, the analog sensor input signals can be recorded. The digital control algorithm can be simulated with the real world sensor data. The output from the simulated digital control system can then be compared to the old analog based control system. Model based design can compared to Agile software develop. The Agile software development goal is to develop working software in incremental steps. Progress is measured in completed and tested code units. Progress is measured in model based design by completed and tested blocks. We present a concept for a video game controller and then use model based design to iterate the design towards a working system. We will also describe a model based design effort to develop an OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture based on the RISC-V.

  6. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouril, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-10-07

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C(2)S(2)M(2) supercomplex were isolated. Characterization by biochemical methods and single particle electron microscopy allowed to relate for the first time the supramolecular organization to the protein content. A projection map of C(2)S(2)M(2) at 12 A resolution was obtained, which allowed determining the location and the orientation of the antenna proteins. Comparison of the supercomplexes obtained from WT and Lhcb-deficient plants reveals the importance of the individual subunits for the supramolecular organization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed and allow redefining previous suggestions on PSII energy transfer, assembly, photoinhibition, state transition and non-photochemical quenching.

  7. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System architecture: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalesio, L.R.; Hill, J.O.; Kraimer, M.; Lewis, S.; Murray, D.; Hunt, S.; Claussen, M.; Watson, W.

    1993-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), has been used at a number of sites for performing data acquisition, supervisory control, closed-loop control, sequential control, and operational optimization. The EPICS architecture was originally developed by a group with diverse backgrounds in physics and industrial control. The current architecture represents one instance of the ''standard model.'' It provides distributed processing and communication from any LAN device to the front end controllers. This paper will present the genealogy, current architecture, performance envelope, current installations, and planned extensions for requirements not met by the current architecture

  8. Backpropagation architecture optimization and an application in nuclear power plant diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.; Bartlett, E.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a Dynamic Node Architecture (DNA) scheme to optimize the architecture of backpropagation Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). This network scheme is used to develop an ANN based diagnostic adviser capable of identifying the operating status of a nuclear power plant. Specifically, a ''root'' network is trained to diagnose if the plant is in a normal operating condition or not. In the event of an abnormal condition, and other ''classifier'' network is trained to recognize the particular transient taking place. these networks are trained using plant instrumentation data gathered during simulations of the various transients and normal operating conditions at the Iowa Electric Light and Power Company's Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC) operator training simulator

  9. Backpropagation architecture optimization and an application in nuclear power plant diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.; Bartlett, E.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a Dynamic Node Architecture (DNA) scheme to optimize the architecture of backpropagation Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). This network scheme is used to develop an ANN based diagnostic adviser capable of identifying the operating status of a nuclear power plant. Specifically, a root network is trained to diagnose if the plant is in a normal operating condition or not. In the event of an abnormal condition, another classifier network is trained to recognize the particular transient taking place. These networks are trained using plant instrumentation data gathered during simulations of the various transients and normal operating conditions at, the Iowa Electric Light and Power Company's Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC) operator training simulator

  10. Evaluation of a Generic Virtual Power Plant Framework Using Service Oriented Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Poulsen, Bjarne; Decker, Morten

    2008-01-01

    interesting properties that can influence the future shape of power markets. The concept holds many promises including cheaper power to the consumer, a more flexible and responsive power production and the support of a more environment- friendly development. In order to realize a software solution supporting...... the generic virtual power plant, an array of different software design principles, patterns and architectures must be applied. Especially Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can aid in implementing the generic virtual power plant. An analysis of the Nordic power market has been carried out in order...... to identify potential issues and barriers, henceforth mentioned as challenges, connected with the introduction of the generic virtual power plant concept. In this paper, three use case scenarios will show how each of these challenges can be overcome by the proposed solution framework. The use case scenarios...

  11. Advanced liquid metal reactor plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, Y.; Wagner, W.; Zizzo, D.; Carroll, D.

    1993-01-01

    The modular Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) power plant is controlled by an advanced state-of-the-art control system designed to facilitate plant operation, optimize availability, and protect plant investment. The control system features a high degree of automatic control and extensive amount of on-line diagnostics and operator aids. It can be built with today's control technology, and has the flexibility of adding new features that benefit plant operation and reduce O ampersand M costs as the technology matures

  12. Study on the utilization of the cognitive architecture EPIC to the task analysis of a nuclear power plant operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Herculano Vieira

    2003-02-01

    This work presents a study of the use of the integrative cognitive architecture EPIC - Executive-Process - Interactive-Control, designed to evaluate the performance of a person performing tasks in parallel in a man-machine interface, as a methodology for Cognitive Task Analysis of a nuclear power plant operator. A comparison of the results obtained by the simulation by EPIC and the results obtained by application of the MHP model to the tasks performed by a shift operator during the execution of the procedure PO-E-3 - Steam Generator Tube Rupture of Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant is done. To subsidize that comparison, an experiment was performed at the Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant Full Scope Simulator in which three operator tasks were executed, its completion time measured and compared with the results of MHP and EPIC modeling. (author)

  13. Scaffold Architecture Controls Insulinoma Clustering, Viability, and Insulin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Britani N.; Palmer, Andre F.; Rilo, Horacio R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, in vitro diagnostic tools have shifted focus toward personalized medicine by incorporating patient cells into traditional test beds. These cell-based platforms commonly utilize two-dimensional substrates that lack the ability to support three-dimensional cell structures seen in vivo. As monolayer cell cultures have previously been shown to function differently than cells in vivo, the results of such in vitro tests may not accurately reflect cell response in vivo. It is therefore of interest to determine the relationships between substrate architecture, cell structure, and cell function in 3D cell-based platforms. To investigate the effect of substrate architecture on insulinoma organization and function, insulinomas were seeded onto 2D gelatin substrates and 3D fibrous gelatin scaffolds with three distinct fiber diameters and fiber densities. Cell viability and clustering was assessed at culture days 3, 5, and 7 with baseline insulin secretion and glucose-stimulated insulin production measured at day 7. Small, closely spaced gelatin fibers promoted the formation of large, rounded insulinoma clusters, whereas monolayer organization and large fibers prevented cell clustering and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin production. Taken together, these data show that scaffold properties can be used to control the organization and function of insulin-producing cells and may be useful as a 3D test bed for diabetes drug development. PMID:24410263

  14. Biologically-Inspired Control Architecture for Musical Performance Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Solis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At Waseda University, since 1990, the authors have been developing anthropomorphic musical performance robots as a means for understanding human control, introducing novel ways of interaction between musical partners and robots, and proposing applications for humanoid robots. In this paper, the design of a biologically-inspired control architecture for both an anthropomorphic flutist robot and a saxophone playing robot are described. As for the flutist robot, the authors have focused on implementing an auditory feedback system to improve the calibration procedure for the robot in order to play all the notes correctly during a performance. In particular, the proposed auditory feedback system is composed of three main modules: an Expressive Music Generator, a Feed Forward Air Pressure Control System and a Pitch Evaluation System. As for the saxophone-playing robot, a pressure-pitch controller (based on the feedback error learning to improve the sound produced by the robot during a musical performance was proposed and implemented. In both cases studied, a set of experiments are described to verify the improvements achieved while considering biologically-inspired control approaches.

  15. Architectures of Remote Monitoring Systems for a Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoo Rark; Lee, Jae Cheol; Kim, Jae Hee

    2006-01-01

    Aina(Artificial Intelligence for Nuclear Applications) have developed remote monitoring systems since the 1990's. We have been interested in the safety of reactor vessel, steam generator, pipes, valves and pumps. We have developed several remote inspection systems and will develop some remote care systems for a nuclear power plant. There were critical problems for building remote monitoring systems for mass data processing and remote user interface techniques in the middle of the 1990's. The network capacity wasn't sufficient to transfer the monitoring data to a remote computer. Various computer operating systems require various remote user interfaces. Java provides convenient and powerful interface facilities and the network transfer speed was increased greatly in the 2000's. Java is a good solution for a remote user interface but it can't work standalone in remote monitoring applications. The restrictions of Java make it impossible to build real time based applications. We use Java and a traditional language to improve this problem. We separate the remote user interface and the monitoring application

  16. Development of a modular integrated control architecture for flexible manipulators. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; Battiston, G.

    1994-01-01

    In April 1994, ORNL and SPAR completed the joint development of a manipulator controls architecture for flexible structure controls under a CRADA between the two organizations. The CRADA project entailed design and development of a new architecture based upon the Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA) previously developed by ORNL. The new architecture, dubbed MICA-II, uses an object-oriented coding philosophy to provide a highly modular and expandable architecture for robotic manipulator control. This architecture can be readily ported to control of many different manipulator systems. The controller also provides a user friendly graphical operator interface and display of many forms of data including system diagnostics. The capabilities of MICA-II were demonstrated during oscillation damping experiments using the Flexible Beam Experimental Test Bed at Hanford

  17. Dipping Strawberry Plants in Fungicides before Planting to Control Anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose crown rot (ACR, caused by Colletotrichum fructicola, is a serious disease of strawberry in Korea. The primary inoculums of ACR were symptomless strawberry plants, plant debris, and other host plants. To effectively control anthracnose in symptomless transplanted strawberries, it is necessary to use diseasefree plants, detect the disease early, and apply a fungicide. Therefore, in 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of pre-plant fungicide dips by using strawberry transplants infected by C. fructicola for the control of anthracnose. Dipping plants in prochloraz-Mn for 10 min before planting was most effective for controlling anthracnose in symptomless strawberry plants and resulted in more than 76% control efficacy. Azoxystrobin showed a control efficacy of over 40%, but plants treated with pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and iminoctadine tris showed high disease severity. The control efficacy of the dip treatment with prochloraz-Mn did not differ with temperature and time. Treatment with prochloraz-Mn for more than an hour caused growth suppression in strawberry plants. Therefore, the development of anthracnose can be effectively reduced by dipping strawberry plants for 10 min in prochloraz-Mn before planting.

  18. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  19. Design Of Feedforward Controllers For Multivariable Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    Controllers based on simple low-order transfer functions. Mathematical criteria derived for design of feedforward controllers for class of multiple-input/multiple-output linear plants. Represented by simple low-order transfer functions, obtained without reconstruction of states of commands and disturbances. Enables plant to track command while remaining unresponsive to disturbance in steady state. Feedback controller added independently to stabilize plant or to make control system less susceptible to variations in parameters of plant.

  20. Fluoropolymer materials and architectures prepared by controlled radical polymerizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2007-01-01

    This review initially summarizes the mechanisms, merits and limitations of the three controlled radical polymerizations: nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) or metal catalyzed living radical polymerization, and reversible addition–fragmentation chain...... transfer (RAFT) polymerization. This is followed by two parts, one dealing with homo- and copolymerizations of fluorinated methacrylates and acrylates, and a second where fluorinated styrenes, alone or in combination with other monomers, are the main issues. In these parts, initiators (including...... properties and functionalities that can be obtained from these novel fluorinated materials and architectures are especially emphasized. Thus, various amphiphilic, biocompatible or low energy materials, fluorinated nanoparticles and nanoporous films/membranes as well as materials for submicron and nanolevel...

  1. Automation of Data Traffic Control on DSM Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    The design of distributed shared memory (DSM) computers liberates users from the duty to distribute data across processors and allows for the incremental development of parallel programs using, for example, OpenMP or Java threads. DSM architecture greatly simplifies the development of parallel programs having good performance on a few processors. However, to achieve a good program scalability on DSM computers requires that the user understand data flow in the application and use various techniques to avoid data traffic congestions. In this paper we discuss a number of such techniques, including data blocking, data placement, data transposition and page size control and evaluate their efficiency on the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks. We also present a tool which automates the detection of constructs causing data congestions in Fortran array oriented codes and advises the user on code transformations for improving data traffic in the application.

  2. Computing Architecture of the ALICE Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Augustinus, A; Moreno, A; Kurepin, A N; De Cataldo, G; Pinazza, O; Rosinský, P; Lechman, M; Jirdén, L S

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE Detector Control System (DCS) is based on a commercial SCADA product, running on a large Windows computer cluster. It communicates with about 1200 network attached devices to assure safe and stable operation of the experiment. In the presentation we focus on the design of the ALICE DCS computer systems. We describe the management of data flow, mechanisms for handling the large data amounts and information exchange with external systems. One of the key operational requirements is an intuitive, error proof and robust user interface allowing for simple operation of the experiment. At the same time the typical operator task, like trending or routine checks of the devices, must be decoupled from the automated operation in order to prevent overload of critical parts of the system. All these requirements must be implemented in an environment with strict security requirements. In the presentation we explain how these demands affected the architecture of the ALICE DCS.

  3. Feedback control architecture and the bacterial chemotaxis network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Hamadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria move towards favourable and away from toxic environments by changing their swimming pattern. This response is regulated by the chemotaxis signalling pathway, which has an important feature: it uses feedback to 'reset' (adapt the bacterial sensing ability, which allows the bacteria to sense a range of background environmental changes. The role of this feedback has been studied extensively in the simple chemotaxis pathway of Escherichia coli. However it has been recently found that the majority of bacteria have multiple chemotaxis homologues of the E. coli proteins, resulting in more complex pathways. In this paper we investigate the configuration and role of feedback in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a bacterium containing multiple homologues of the chemotaxis proteins found in E. coli. Multiple proteins could produce different possible feedback configurations, each having different chemotactic performance qualities and levels of robustness to variations and uncertainties in biological parameters and to intracellular noise. We develop four models corresponding to different feedback configurations. Using a series of carefully designed experiments we discriminate between these models and invalidate three of them. When these models are examined in terms of robustness to noise and parametric uncertainties, we find that the non-invalidated model is superior to the others. Moreover, it has a 'cascade control' feedback architecture which is used extensively in engineering to improve system performance, including robustness. Given that the majority of bacteria are known to have multiple chemotaxis pathways, in this paper we show that some feedback architectures allow them to have better performance than others. In particular, cascade control may be an important feature in achieving robust functionality in more complex signalling pathways and in improving their performance.

  4. Tritium control in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goumondy, J.P.; Miquel, P.

    1977-01-01

    There is a danger that the T which is formed in water reactors will prove detrimental to the environment over the next few years, and studies have been undertaken to develop techniques to contain and process it where possible. In order to retain T, which is present largely in the fuel and on the possible to adapt for use in the conventional design of reprocessing plant. In this process T is maintained in the form of an aqueous solution in the high-active area of the plant. Control is achieved by restricting as far as possible the ingress of non-tritiated water into this area, and by setting up a tritiated water barrier at the first U and Pu extraction stage, stripping the tritium-containing solvent at that point with ordinary water. In this way the T can be extracted in a small volume of water with a view to intermediate storage, disposal at sea additional processing to remove the T from the water. Experiments carried out so far have demonstrated the effectiveness of the T barrier and have shown what equipment would be required for the application of the process in new reprocessing plants. (orig.) [de

  5. Aquaponic Growbed Water Level Control Using Fog Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi Romli, Muhamad; Daud, Shuhaizar; Raof, Rafikha Aliana A.; Awang Ahmad, Zahari; Mahrom, Norfadilla

    2018-05-01

    Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is an advance method of aquaculture which combines species with different nutritional needs to live together. The combination between aquatic live and crops is called aquaponics. Aquatic waste that normally removed by biofilters in normal aquaculture practice will be absorbed by crops in this practice. Aquaponics have few common components and growbed provide the best filtration function. In growbed a siphon act as mechanical structure to control water fill and flush process. Water to the growbed comes from fish tank with multiple flow speeds based on the pump specification and height. Too low speed and too fast flow rate can result in siphon malfunctionality. Pumps with variable speed do exist but it is costly. Majority of the aquaponic practitioner use single speed pump and try to match the pump speed with siphon operational requirement. In order to remove the matching requirement some control need to be introduced. Preliminarily this research will show the concept of fill-and-flush for multiple pumping speeds. The final aim of this paper is to show how water level management can be done to remove the speed dependency. The siphon tried to be controlled remotely since wireless data transmission quite practical in vast operational area. Fog architecture will be used in order to transmit sensor data and control command. This paper able to show the water able to be retented in the growbed within suggested duration by stopping the flow in once predefined level.

  6. IFMIF LLRF control system architecture based on EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, J.; Ibarra, A.; Miguel Angel Patricio; Rivers, M.

    2012-01-01

    The IFMIF-EVEDA (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity) linear accelerator will be a 9 MeV, 125 mA CW (Continuous Wave) deuteron accelerator prototype to validate the technical options of the accelerator design for IFMIF. The primary mission of such facility is to test and verify materials performance when subjected to extensive neutron irradiation of the type encountered in a fusion reactor. The RF (Radio Frequency) power system of IFMIF-EVEDA consists of 18 RF chains working at 175 MHz with three amplification stages each. The LLRF (Low-Level Radio Frequency) controls the amplitude and phase of the signal to be synchronized with the beam and it also controls the resonance frequency of the cavities. The system is based on a commercial cPCI (Compact Peripheral Component Interconnect) FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) board provided by Lyrtech and controlled by a Windows Host PC. For this purpose, it is mandatory to communicate the cPCI FPGA Board with an EPICS Channel Access, building an IOC (Input Output Controller). A new software architecture to design a device support, using AsynPortDriver class and CSS as a GUI (Graphical User Interface), is also presented. (authors)

  7. Control system design considerations in a modern nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, P.; Raiskums, G.; Harber, J.; Tikku, S.

    2010-01-01

    Applying new technologies is a challenge for instrumentation and control (I and C) designers to ensure that the overall principles of defence-in-depth, the independence of safety functions (credited in the safety case), and modern human factors engineering principles are maintained. This paper describes the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-1000) I and C architecture, including the display/control systems and the design approaches employed to ensure that the fundamental premise of independence between safety and process control is not compromised and that the reliability targets for each layer of protection are fulfilled to meet the overall plant safety goals. (author)

  8. RBAC Driven Least Privilege Architecture For Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Julie [Honeywell International Inc., Golden Valley, MN (United States); Markham, Mark [Honeywell International Inc., Golden Valley, MN (United States)

    2014-01-25

    The concept of role based access control (RBAC) within the IT environment has been studied by researchers and was supported by NIST (circa 1992). This earlier work highlighted the benefits of RBAC which include reduced administrative workload and policies which are easier to analyze and apply. The goals of this research were to expand the application of RBAC in the following ways. Apply RBAC to the control systems environment: The typical RBAC model within the IT environment is used to control a user’s access to files. Within the control system environment files are replaced with measurement (e.g., temperature) and control (e.g. valve) points organized as a hierarchy of control assets (e.g. a boiler, compressor, refinery unit). Control points have parameters (e.g., high alarm limit, set point, etc.) associated with them. The RBAC model is extended to support access to points and their parameters based upon roles while at the same time allowing permissions for the points to be defined at the asset level or point level directly. In addition, centralized policy administration with distributed access enforcement mechanisms was developed to support the distributed architecture of distributed control systems and SCADA; Extend the RBAC model to include access control for software and devices: The established RBAC approach is to assign users to roles. This work extends that notion by first breaking the control system down into three layers 1) users, 2) software and 3) devices. An RBAC model is then created for each of these three layers. The result is that RBAC can be used to define machine-to-machine policy enforced via the IP security (IPsec) protocol. This highlights the potential to use RBAC for machine-to-machine connectivity within the internet of things; and Enable dynamic policy based upon the operating mode of the system: The IT environment is generally static with respect to policy. However, large cyber physical systems such as industrial controls have various

  9. Architecture and design of third Qinshan nuclear power plant risk monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Hu, L. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Univ. of Science and Technology of China, No.350 Shushanhu Road, Shushan District, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2012-07-01

    Risk monitor is a real-time analysis tool to determine the point-in-time risk based on actual plant configuration, which is an important application of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment). In this study the status and development trend of risk monitor were investigated and a risk monitor named TQRM (Third Qinshan nuclear power plant Risk Monitor) was developed. The B/S architecture and the two key computing methods pre-solved and resolving PSA model method adopted in TQRM were introduced. The functions and technical features were also presented. Now TQRM has been on-line for more than one year and used in the operation and maintenance of TQNPP. The experience demonstrates that TQRM's results are accurate and real-time, the architecture is stable, and it could be extended and maintained conveniently for any other Risk-Informed Application. (authors)

  10. Use of ABB ADVANT Power for large scale instrumentation and controls replacements in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucak, J.L.; Brown, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the major issues facing plants planning for life extension is the viability and feasibility of modernization of a plant's existing I and C systems including the safety systems and the control room. This paper discusses the ABB approach to the implementation of large scale Instrumentation and Controls (I and C) modernization. ABB applies a segmented architecture approach using the ADVANT Power control system to meet the numerous constraints of a major I and C upgrade program. The segmented architecture and how it supports implementation of a complete I and C upgrade either in one outage or in a series of outages is presented. ADVANT Power contains standardized industrial control equipment that is designed to support 1E applications as well as turbine and non-1E process control. This equipment forms the basis for the architecture proposed for future new nuclear plant sales as well as large scale retrofits. (author)

  11. Operation control device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Osamu.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To render the controlling functions of a central control console more centralized by constituting the operation controls for a nuclear power plant with computer systems having substantially independent functions such as those of plant monitor controls, reactor monitor management and CRT display and decreasing interactions between each of the systems. Constitution: An input/output device for the input of process data for a nuclear power plant and indication data for a plant control console is connected to a plant supervisory and control computer system and a display computer system, the plant supervisory control computer system and a reactor and management computer system are connected with a CRT display control device, a printer and a CRT display input/output device, and the display computer system is connected with the CRT display control device and the CRT display unit on the central control console, whereby process input can be processed and displayed at high speed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing predator abundance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Dean E

    2009-03-01

    As primary producers, plants are known to influence higher trophic interactions by initiating food chains. However, as architects, plants may bypass consumers to directly affect predators with important but underappreciated trophic ramifications. Invasion of western North American grasslands by the perennial forb, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), has fundamentally altered the architecture of native grassland vegetation. Here, I use long-term monitoring, observational studies, and field experiments to document how changes in vegetation architecture have affected native web spider populations and predation rates. Native spiders that use vegetation as web substrates were collectively 38 times more abundant in C. maculosa-invaded grasslands than in uninvaded grasslands. This increase in spider abundance was accompanied by a large shift in web spider community structure, driven primarily by the strong response of Dictyna spiders to C. maculosa invasion. Dictyna densities were 46-74 times higher in C. maculosa-invaded than native grasslands, a pattern that persisted over 6 years of monitoring. C. maculosa also altered Dictyna web building behavior and foraging success. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa were 2.9-4.0 times larger and generated 2.0-2.3 times higher total prey captures than webs on Achillea millefolium, their primary native substrate. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa also captured 4.2 times more large prey items, which are crucial for reproduction. As a result, Dictyna were nearly twice as likely to reproduce on C. maculosa substrates compared to native substrates. The overall outcome of C. maculosa invasion and its transformative effects on vegetation architecture on Dictyna density and web building behavior were to increase Dictyna predation on invertebrate prey >/=89 fold. These results indicate that invasive plants that change the architecture of native vegetation can substantially impact native food webs via nontraditional plant --> predator --> consumer

  13. Engineering Design of ITER Prototype Fast Plant System Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B.; Rodrigues, A. P.; Correia, M.; Batista, A.; Vega, J.; Ruiz, M.; Lopez, J. M.; Rojo, R. Castro; Wallander, A.; Utzel, N.; Neto, A.; Alves, D.; Valcarcel, D.

    2011-08-01

    The ITER control, data access and communication (CODAC) design team identified the need for two types of plant systems. A slow control plant system is based on industrial automation technology with maximum sampling rates below 100 Hz, and a fast control plant system is based on embedded technology with higher sampling rates and more stringent real-time requirements than that required for slow controllers. The latter is applicable to diagnostics and plant systems in closed-control loops whose cycle times are below 1 ms. Fast controllers will be dedicated industrial controllers with the ability to supervise other fast and/or slow controllers, interface to actuators and sensors and, if necessary, high performance networks. Two prototypes of a fast plant system controller specialized for data acquisition and constrained by ITER technological choices are being built using two different form factors. This prototyping activity contributes to the Plant Control Design Handbook effort of standardization, specifically regarding fast controller characteristics. Envisaging a general purpose fast controller design, diagnostic use cases with specific requirements were analyzed and will be presented along with the interface with CODAC and sensors. The requirements and constraints that real-time plasma control imposes on the design were also taken into consideration. Functional specifications and technology neutral architecture, together with its implications on the engineering design, were considered. The detailed engineering design compliant with ITER standards was performed and will be discussed in detail. Emphasis will be given to the integration of the controller in the standard CODAC environment. Requirements for the EPICS IOC providing the interface to the outside world, the prototype decisions on form factor, real-time operating system, and high-performance networks will also be discussed, as well as the requirements for data streaming to CODAC for visualization and

  14. Linguistic control of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, J.J.; Johnson, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A multivariable linguistic controller based on fuzzy set theory is discussed and its application to a pressurized water nuclear power plant control is illustrated by computer simulation. The nonlinear power plant simulation model has nine states, two control inputs, one disturbance input, and two outputs. Although relatively simple, the model captures the essential coupled nonlinear plant dynamics and is convenient to use for control system studies. The use of an adaptive version of the controller is also demonstrated by computer simulation

  15. Design of a real-time open architecture controller for a reconfigurable machine tool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masekamela, I

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and the development of a real-time, open architecture controller that is used for control of reconfigurable manufacturing tools (RMTs) in reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS). The controller that is presented can...

  16. Genetic dissection of maize plant architecture with an ultra-high density bin map based on recombinant inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chaoshu; Zhou, Yu; Hao, Zhuanfang; Wang, Zhenhua; Zeng, Xing; Di, Hong; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Degui; Yong, Hongjun; Zhang, Shihuang; Weng, Jianfeng; Li, Xinhai

    2016-03-03

    Plant architecture attributes, such as plant height, ear height, and internode number, have played an important role in the historical increases in grain yield, lodging resistance, and biomass in maize (Zea mays L.). Analyzing the genetic basis of variation in plant architecture using high density QTL mapping will be of benefit for the breeding of maize for many traits. However, the low density of molecular markers in existing genetic maps has limited the efficiency and accuracy of QTL mapping. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is an improved strategy for addressing a complex genome via next-generation sequencing technology. GBS has been a powerful tool for SNP discovery and high-density genetic map construction. The creation of ultra-high density genetic maps using large populations of advanced recombinant inbred lines (RILs) is an efficient way to identify QTL for complex agronomic traits. A set of 314 RILs derived from inbreds Ye478 and Qi319 were generated and subjected to GBS. A total of 137,699,000 reads with an average of 357,376 reads per individual RIL were generated, which is equivalent to approximately 0.07-fold coverage of the maize B73 RefGen_V3 genome for each individual RIL. A high-density genetic map was constructed using 4183 bin markers (100-Kb intervals with no recombination events). The total genetic distance covered by the linkage map was 1545.65 cM and the average distance between adjacent markers was 0.37 cM with a physical distance of about 0.51 Mb. Our results demonstrated a relatively high degree of collinearity between the genetic map and the B73 reference genome. The quality and accuracy of the bin map for QTL detection was verified by the mapping of a known gene, pericarp color 1 (P1), which controls the color of the cob, with a high LOD value of 80.78 on chromosome 1. Using this high-density bin map, 35 QTL affecting plant architecture, including 14 for plant height, 14 for ear height, and seven for internode number were detected

  17. Implementation of Model View Controller (Mvc) Architecture on Building Web-based Information System

    OpenAIRE

    'Uyun, Shofwatul; Ma'arif, Muhammad Rifqi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the use of MVC architecture in web-based information systemsdevelopment. MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture is a way to decompose the application into threeparts: model, view and controller. Originally applied to the graphical user interaction model of input,processing and output. Expected to use the MVC architecture, applications can be built maintenance of moremodular, rusable, and easy and migrate. We have developed a management system of sch...

  18. IMPLEMENTATION OF MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER (MVC) ARCHITECTURE ON BUILDING WEB-BASED INFORMATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    'Uyun, Shofwatul; Ma'arif, Muhammad Rifqi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the use of MVC architecture in web-based information systemsdevelopment. MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture is a way to decompose the application into threeparts: model, view and controller. Originally applied to the graphical user interaction model of input,processing and output. Expected to use the MVC architecture, applications can be built maintenance of moremodular, rusable, and easy and migrate. We have developed a management system of sch...

  19. A Review of Microgrid Architectures and Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Krishnarajsinh A.; Karkar, Hitesh M.; Trivedi, I. N.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper microgrid architecture and various converters control strategies are reviewed. Microgrid is defined as interconnected network of distributed energy resources, loads and energy storage systems. This emerging concept realizes the potential of distributed generators. AC microgrid interconnects various AC distributed generators like wind turbine and DC distributed generators like PV, fuel cell using inverter. While in DC microgrid output of an AC distributed generator must be converted to DC using rectifiers and DC distributed generator can be directly interconnected. Hybrid microgrid is the solution to avoid this multiple reverse conversions AC-DC-AC and DC-AC-DC that occur in the individual AC-DC microgrid. In hybrid microgrid all AC distributed generators will be connected in AC microgrid and DC distributed generators will be connected in DC microgrid. Interlinking converter is used for power balance in both microgrids, which transfer power from one microgrid to other if any microgrid is overloaded. At the end, review of interlinking converter control strategies is presented.

  20. Open modular architecture controls at GM Powertrain: technology and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailo, Clark P.; Yen, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    General Motors Powertrain Group (GMPTG) has been the leader in implementing open, modular architecture controller (OMAC) technologies in its manufacturing applications since 1986. The interest in OMAC has been greatly expanded for the past two years because of the advancement of personal computer technologies and the publishing of the OMAC whitepaper by the US automotive companies stating the requirements of OMAC technologies in automotive applications. The purpose of this paper is to describe the current OMAC projects and the future direction of implementation at GMPTG. An overview of the OMAC project and the definition of the OMAC concept are described first. The rationale of pursuing open technologies is explained from the perspective of GMPTG in lieu of its agile manufacturing strategy. Examples of existing PC-based control applications are listed to demonstrate the extensive commitment to PC-based technologies that has already been put in place. A migration plan form PC-based to OMAC-based systems with the thorough approach of validation are presented next to convey the direction that GMPTG is taking in implementing OMAC technologies. Leveraged technology development projects are described to illustrate the philosophy and approaches toward the development of OMAC technologies at GMPTG. Finally, certain implementation issues are discussed to emphasize efforts that are still required to have successful implementations of OMAC systems.

  1. Emergency control centers for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Guidance is provided for the development and implementation of emergency control centers for nuclear power plants, including nuclear plant control room, nuclear plant company headquarters, emergency control center, and nuclear plant alternate emergency control center. Requirements and recommendations are presented for the mission, communications, instrumentation and equipment associated with each type of control center. Decisional aids, manning requirements and resources are also given; the decision aids cover both the accident assessment and protective action areas. Both normal and alternate means of communications are considered. Off-site emergency control centers, although not covered in the strict sense by this standard, are considered in an appendix

  2. Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1993-01-01

    A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been...

  3. Stability and performance of propulsion control systems with distributed control architectures and failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belapurkar, Rohit K.

    Future aircraft engine control systems will be based on a distributed architecture, in which, the sensors and actuators will be connected to the Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) through an engine area network. Distributed engine control architecture will allow the implementation of advanced, active control techniques along with achieving weight reduction, improvement in performance and lower life cycle cost. The performance of a distributed engine control system is predominantly dependent on the performance of the communication network. Due to the serial data transmission policy, network-induced time delays and sampling jitter are introduced between the sensor/actuator nodes and the distributed FADEC. Communication network faults and transient node failures may result in data dropouts, which may not only degrade the control system performance but may even destabilize the engine control system. Three different architectures for a turbine engine control system based on a distributed framework are presented. A partially distributed control system for a turbo-shaft engine is designed based on ARINC 825 communication protocol. Stability conditions and control design methodology are developed for the proposed partially distributed turbo-shaft engine control system to guarantee the desired performance under the presence of network-induced time delay and random data loss due to transient sensor/actuator failures. A fault tolerant control design methodology is proposed to benefit from the availability of an additional system bandwidth and from the broadcast feature of the data network. It is shown that a reconfigurable fault tolerant control design can help to reduce the performance degradation in presence of node failures. A T-700 turbo-shaft engine model is used to validate the proposed control methodology based on both single input and multiple-input multiple-output control design techniques.

  4. Designing fault-tolerant real-time computer systems with diversified bus architecture for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Rajendra Prasad; Murali, N.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Fault-tolerant real-time computer (FT-RTC) systems are widely used to perform safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) and safe shutdown in the event of any untoward situation. Design requirements for such systems need high reliability, availability, computational ability for measurement via sensors, control action via actuators, data communication and human interface via keyboard or display. All these attributes of FT-RTC systems are required to be implemented using best known methods such as redundant system design using diversified bus architecture to avoid common cause failure, fail-safe design to avoid unsafe failure and diagnostic features to validate system operation. In this context, the system designer must select efficient as well as highly reliable diversified bus architecture in order to realize fault-tolerant system design. This paper presents a comparative study between CompactPCI bus and Versa Module Eurocard (VME) bus architecture for designing FT-RTC systems with switch over logic system (SOLS) for NPP. (author)

  5. A system architecture for holonic manufacturing planning and control (EtoPlan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wullink, Gerhard; Giebels, M.M.T.; Kals, H.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present the system architecture of a flexible manufacturing planning and control system, named EtoPlan. The concept is based on the holonic control approach of building multiple and temporary hierarchies (holarchies). This paper describes the system architecture for flexible

  6. Can diversity in root architecture explain plant water use efficiency? A modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Stefania; Bodner, Gernot; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-09-24

    Drought stress is a dominant constraint to crop production. Breeding crops with adapted root systems for effective uptake of water represents a novel strategy to increase crop drought resistance. Due to complex interaction between root traits and high diversity of hydrological conditions, modeling provides important information for trait based selection. In this work we use a root architecture model combined with a soil-hydrological model to analyze whether there is a root system ideotype of general adaptation to drought or water uptake efficiency of root systems is a function of specific hydrological conditions. This was done by modeling transpiration of 48 root architectures in 16 drought scenarios with distinct soil textures, rainfall distributions, and initial soil moisture availability. We find that the efficiency in water uptake of root architecture is strictly dependent on the hydrological scenario. Even dense and deep root systems are not superior in water uptake under all hydrological scenarios. Our results demonstrate that mere architectural description is insufficient to find root systems of optimum functionality. We find that in environments with sufficient rainfall before the growing season, root depth represents the key trait for the exploration of stored water, especially in fine soils. Root density, instead, especially near the soil surface, becomes the most relevant trait for exploiting soil moisture when plant water supply is mainly provided by rainfall events during the root system development. We therefore concluded that trait based root breeding has to consider root systems with specific adaptation to the hydrology of the target environment.

  7. Developing a Psychologically Inspired Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Control: The Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Dale Kelley

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the ongoing development of a robotic control architecture that was inspired by computational cognitive architectures from the discipline of cognitive psychology. The robotic control architecture combines symbolic and subsymbolic representations of knowledge into a unified control structure. The architecture is organized as a goal driven, serially executing, production system at the highest symbolic level; and a multiple algorithm, parallel executing, simple collection of algorithms at the lowest subsymbolic level. The goal is to create a system that will progress through the same cognitive developmental milestones as do human infants. Common robotics problems of localization, object recognition, and object permanence are addressed within the specified framework.

  8. Developing a Psychologically Inspired Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Control: The Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Dale Kelley

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the ongoing development of a robotic control architecture that was inspired by computational cognitive architectures from the discipline of cognitive psychology. The robotic control architecture combines symbolic and subsymbolic representations of knowledge into a unified control structure. The architecture is organized as a goal driven, serially executing, production system at the highest symbolic level; and a multiple algorithm, parallel executing, simple collection of algorithms at the lowest subsymbolic level. The goal is to create a system that will progress through the same cognitive developmental milestones as do human infants. Common robotics problems of localization, object recognition, and object permanence are addressed within the specified framework.

  9. How plant architecture affects light absorption and photosynthesis in tomato: towards an ideotype for plant architecture using a functional-structural plant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarlikioti, V.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims - Manipulation of plant structure can strongly affect light distribution in the canopy and photosynthesis. The aim of this paper is to find a plant ideotype for optimization of light absorption and canopy photosynthesis. Using a static functional structural plant model (FSPM), a

  10. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cofrancesco, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    .... This search for natural plant enemies (insects and fungal pathogens) has led researchers to the native ranges of noxious aquatic plants, located throughout the continents of Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia...

  11. Fuzzy logic control of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Liangzhong; Guo Renjun; Ma Changwen

    1996-01-01

    The main advantage of the fuzzy logic control is that the method does not require a detailed mathematical model of the object to be controlled. In this paper, the shortcomings and limitations of the model-based method in nuclear power plant control were presented, the theory of the fuzzy logic control was briefly introduced, and the applications of the fuzzy logic control technology in nuclear power plant controls were surveyed. Finally, the problems to be solved by using the fuzzy logic control in nuclear power plants were discussed

  12. Resilient monitoring systems: architecture, design, and application to boiler/turbine plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Humberto E; Lin, Wen-Chiao; Meerkov, Semyon M; Ravichandran, Maruthi T

    2014-11-01

    Resilient monitoring systems, considered in this paper, are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools. The performance of the overall system is evaluated using a simplified boiler/turbine plant. The measure of resiliency is quantified based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence and shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.

  13. Considerations for control system software verification and validation specific to implementations using distributed processor architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, J.K. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, digital control systems have been implemented on centralized processing systems to function in one of several ways: (1) as a single processor control system; (2) as a supervisor at the top of a hierarchical network of multiple processors; or (3) in a client-server mode. Each of these architectures uses a very different set of communication protocols. The latter two architectures also belong to the category of distributed control systems. Distributed control systems can have a central focus, as in the cases just cited, or be quite decentralized in a loosely coupled, shared responsibility arrangement. This last architecture is analogous to autonomous hosts on a local area network. Each of the architectures identified above will have a different set of architecture-associated issues to be addressed in the verification and validation activities during software development. This paper summarizes results of efforts to identify, describe, contrast, and compare these issues

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Filippo; Cozzi, Paolo; Casella, Laura; Riccardi, Paolo; Vattari, Alessandra; Orasen, Gabriele; Perrini, Rosaria; Tacconi, Gianni; Tondelli, Alessandro; Biselli, Chiara; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spindel, Jennifer; McCouch, Susan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Valé, Giampiero; Piffanelli, Pietro; Greco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions. In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25). In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7) and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011). We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Biscarini

    Full Text Available In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions.In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25. In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7 and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011.We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  16. Perception of tomorrow's nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, O.R.

    1986-01-01

    Major development programs are upgrading today's light water reactor nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms. These programs involve displays, control panel architecture, procedures, staffing, and training, and are supported by analytical efforts to refine the definitions of the dynamics and the functional requirements of NPP operation. These programs demonstrate that the NPP control room is the visible command/control/communications center of the complex man/machine system that operates the plant. These development programs are primarily plant specific, although the owners' groups and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) do provide some standardization. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently completed a project to categorize control room changes and estimate the degree of change. That project, plus related studies, provides the basis for this image of the next generation of NPP control rooms. The next generation of NPP control rooms is envisioned as being dominated by three current trends: (1) application of state-of-the-art computer hardware and software; (2) use of NPP dynamic analyses to provide the basis for the control room man/machine system design; and (3) application of empirical principles of human performance

  17. DC-DC Converter Topology Assessment for Large Scale Distributed Photovoltaic Plant Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agamy, Mohammed S; Harfman-Todorovic, Maja; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan A; Steigerwald, Robert L; Jiang, Yan; Essakiappan, Somasundaram

    2011-07-01

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) plant architectures are emerging as a replacement for the classical central inverter based systems. However, power converters of smaller ratings may have a negative impact on system efficiency, reliability and cost. Therefore, it is necessary to design converters with very high efficiency and simpler topologies in order not to offset the benefits gained by using distributed PV systems. In this paper an evaluation of the selection criteria for dc-dc converters for distributed PV systems is performed; this evaluation includes efficiency, simplicity of design, reliability and cost. Based on this evaluation, recommendations can be made as to which class of converters is best fit for this application.

  18. Analysis of the new architecture proposal for the CMM control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, L.; Saarinen, H.; Aha, L.; Viinikainen, M.; Mattila, J.; Hahto, A.; Siuko, M.; Semeraro, L.

    2011-01-01

    While developing divertor remote handling maintenance systems at the Divertor Test Platform 2 facility, some risks and sensitivity points related to the Cassette Multifunctional Mover control system software were discovered and evaluated. The control system architecture has to simultaneously fulfill the demanding ITER remote handling requirements and to face new requirements being uncovered during the trials. Especially evolving non-functional requirements such as reliability and safety have an effect on the control system architecture as it is getting more mature. An evaluation of the implications from architectural decisions is necessary before implementation efforts, as an architecture left to develop without evaluation may lead to a dead end and therefore soaring development costs. After studying existing architecture analysis methods an analysis method was developed to gain confidence to carry out the proposed changes.

  19. Constellation's Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.

    2007-01-01

    Operations concepts are highly effective for: 1) Developing consensus; 2) Discovering stakeholder needs, goals, objectives; 3) Defining behavior of system components (especially emergent behaviors). An interoperability standard can provide an excellent lever to define the capabilities needed for system evolution. Two categories of architectures are needed in a program of this size are: 1) Generic - Needed for planning, design and construction standards; 2) Specific - Needed for detailed requirement allocations, interface specs. A wide variety of architectural views are needed to address stakeholder concerns, including: 1) Physical; 2) Information (structure, flow, evolution); 3) Processes (design, manufacturing, operations); 4) Performance; 5) Risk.

  20. Genome-wide association study identified genetic variations and candidate genes for plant architecture component traits in Chinese upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junji; Li, Libei; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Caixiang; Gu, Lijiao; Wang, Hantao; Wei, Hengling; Liu, Qibao; Huang, Long; Yu, Shuxun

    2018-06-01

    Thirty significant associations between 22 SNPs and five plant architecture component traits in Chinese upland cotton were identified via GWAS. Four peak SNP loci located on chromosome D03 were simultaneously associated with more plant architecture component traits. A candidate gene, Gh_D03G0922, might be responsible for plant height in upland cotton. A compact plant architecture is increasingly required for mechanized harvesting processes in China. Therefore, cotton plant architecture is an important trait, and its components, such as plant height, fruit branch length and fruit branch angle, affect the suitability of a cultivar for mechanized harvesting. To determine the genetic basis of cotton plant architecture, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using a panel composed of 355 accessions and 93,250 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified using the specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing method. Thirty significant associations between 22 SNPs and five plant architecture component traits were identified via GWAS. Most importantly, four peak SNP loci located on chromosome D03 were simultaneously associated with more plant architecture component traits, and these SNPs were harbored in one linkage disequilibrium block. Furthermore, 21 candidate genes for plant architecture were predicted in a 0.95-Mb region including the four peak SNPs. One of these genes (Gh_D03G0922) was near the significant SNP D03_31584163 (8.40 kb), and its Arabidopsis homologs contain MADS-box domains that might be involved in plant growth and development. qRT-PCR showed that the expression of Gh_D03G0922 was upregulated in the apical buds and young leaves of the short and compact cotton varieties, and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) proved that the silenced plants exhibited increased PH. These results indicate that Gh_D03G0922 is likely the candidate gene for PH in cotton. The genetic variations and candidate genes identified in this study lay a foundation

  1. Development of Universal Controller Architecture for SiC Based Power Electronic Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    SiC Based Power Electronic Building Blocks Award Number Title of Research 30 October 2017 SUBMITTED BY D R. HERBERT L. G INN, Pl DEPT. OF...Naval Research , Philadelphia PA, Aug. 2017. • Ginn, H.L. Bakos J., "Development of Universal Controller Architecture for SiC Based Power Electronic...Controller Implementation for MMC Converters", Workshop on Control Architectures for Modular Power Conversion Systems, Office of Naval Research , Arlington VA

  2. Model-Based Power Plant Master Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Katarina; Thomas, Jean; Funkquist, Jonas

    2010-08-15

    The main goal of the project has been to evaluate the potential of a coordinated master control for a solid fuel power plant in terms of tracking capability, stability and robustness. The control strategy has been model-based predictive control (MPC) and the plant used in the case study has been the Vattenfall power plant Idbaecken in Nykoeping. A dynamic plant model based on nonlinear physical models was used to imitate the true plant in MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations. The basis for this model was already developed in previous Vattenfall internal projects, along with a simulation model of the existing control implementation with traditional PID controllers. The existing PID control is used as a reference performance, and it has been thoroughly studied and tuned in these previous Vattenfall internal projects. A turbine model was developed with characteristics based on the results of steady-state simulations of the plant using the software EBSILON. Using the derived model as a representative for the actual process, an MPC control strategy was developed using linearization and gain-scheduling. The control signal constraints (rate of change) and constraints on outputs were implemented to comply with plant constraints. After tuning the MPC control parameters, a number of simulation scenarios were performed to compare the MPC strategy with the existing PID control structure. The simulation scenarios also included cases highlighting the robustness properties of the MPC strategy. From the study, the main conclusions are: - The proposed Master MPC controller shows excellent set-point tracking performance even though the plant has strong interactions and non-linearity, and the controls and their rate of change are bounded. - The proposed Master MPC controller is robust, stable in the presence of disturbances and parameter variations. Even though the current study only considered a very small number of the possible disturbances and modelling errors, the considered cases are

  3. Plant cell wall architecture. Final report, 1 June 1994--30 October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The authors have successfully finished the DOE-supported project entitled ``Plant cell wall architecture.`` During the funding period (June 1, 1994--October 30, 1996), they have published 6 research papers and 2 review articles. A brief description of these accomplishments is outlined as follows: (1) Improved and extended tissue printing techniques to reveal different surface and wall architectures, and to localized proteins and RNA. (2) Identification of an auxin- and cytokinin-regulated gene from Zinnia which is mainly expressed in cambium. (3) It was found that caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase is involved in an alternative methylation pathway of lignin biosynthesis. (4) It was found that two different O-methyltransferases involved in lignification are differentially regulated in different lignifying tissues during development. They propose a scheme of monolignol biosynthesis combining both methylation pathways. (5) Identification of cysteine and serine proteases which are preferentially expressed during xylogenesis. This is the first report to identify an autolysis-associated cDNA in plants. (6) Characterization of two ribonuclease genes which are induced during xylogenesis and by wounding. (7) Isolation of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase gene and analysis of its expression patterns during lignification.

  4. A Pipeline for 3D Digital Optical Phenotyping Plant Root System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. W.; Shaw, N. M.; Schneider, D. J.; Shaff, J. E.; Larson, B. G.; Craft, E. J.; Liu, Z.; Kochian, L. V.; Piñeros, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a new pipeline for digital optical phenotyping the root system architecture of agricultural crops. The pipeline begins with a 3D root-system imaging apparatus for hydroponically grown crop lines of interest. The apparatus acts as a self-containing dark room, which includes an imaging tank, motorized rotating bearing and digital camera. The pipeline continues with the Plant Root Imaging and Data Acquisition (PRIDA) software, which is responsible for image capturing and storage. Once root images have been captured, image post-processing is performed using the Plant Root Imaging Analysis (PRIA) command-line tool, which extracts root pixels from color images. Following the pre-processing binarization of digital root images, 3D trait characterization is performed using the next-generation RootReader3D software. RootReader3D measures global root system architecture traits, such as total root system volume and length, total number of roots, and maximum rooting depth and width. While designed to work together, the four stages of the phenotyping pipeline are modular and stand-alone, which provides flexibility and adaptability for various research endeavors.

  5. Open system architecture for condition based maintenance applied to a hydroelectric power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, E.J.; Alvares, A.J. [University of Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Mechanical and Mechatronic Dept.], Emails: eamaya@unb.br, alvares@AlvaresTech.com; Gudwin, R.R. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Computer Engineering and Industrial Automation Dept.], E-mail: gudwin@dca.fee.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    The hydroelectric power plant of Balbina is implementing a condition based maintenance system applying an open, modular and scalable integrated architecture to provide comprehensive solutions and support to the end users like operational and maintenance team. The system called SIMPREBAL (Predictive Maintenance System of Balbina) is advocate of open standards, in particular through collaborative research programmers. In the developing is clearly understands the need for both, industry standards and a simple to use software development tool chain, supporting the development of complex condition based maintenance systems with multiple partners. The Open System Architecture for Condition Based Maintenance (OSA-CBM) is a standard that consider seven hierarchic layers that represent a logic transition or performed data flow from the data acquisition layer, through the intermediates layers as signal processing, condition monitor, health assessment, prognostics and decision support, to arrive to the presentation layer. SIMPREBAL is being implementing as an OSA-CBM software framework and tool set that allows the creation of truly integrated, comprehensive maintenance solutions through the internet. This paper identifies specific benefits of the application of the OSA-CBM in comprehensive solutions of condition based maintenance for a hydroelectric power plant. (author)

  6. EPICS based control system for cryogenic plant at VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, Umashankar; Pal, Sandip; Mandal, Anupam; Dey, Ranadhir

    2012-01-01

    Cryogenic Plant of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre consists of two Helium refrigerators (250W and 415W at the rate 4.5K), valve box with sub-cooler and associated sub systems like pure gas storage, helium purifier and impure gas recovery etc. The system also consists of 3.1K liters of liquid Nitrogen (LN 2 ) storage and delivery system. Many of the systems are procured from different suppliers and some are also developed in house. Due to the variety of systems and suppliers the control philosophy, communication protocols and component is also different. So the Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) module has to be such that it can take care of the variance and bring everything into a common control platform. To solve this purpose EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) architecture has been adopted. EPICS is having the advantage of being open source, flexible and unlimited as compared to the commercial SCADA packages. (author)

  7. Savannah River Plant airborne emissions and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.; Benjamin, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) was established to produce special nuclear materials, principally plutonium and tritium, for national defense needs. Major operating facilities include three nuclear reactors, two chemical separations plants, a fuel and target fabrication plant, and a heavy-water rework plant. An extensive environmental surveillance program has been maintained continuously since 1951 (before SRP startup) to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in a 1200-square-mile area centered on the plant, and the radiation exposure of the population resulting from SRP operations. This report provides data on SRP emissions, controls systems, and airborne radioactive releases. The report includes descriptions of current measurement technology. 10 references, 14 figures, 9 tables

  8. Combining Genome-Wide Information with a Functional Structural Plant Model to Simulate 1-Year-Old Apple Tree Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migault, Vincent; Pallas, Benoît; Costes, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    In crops, optimizing target traits in breeding programs can be fostered by selecting appropriate combinations of architectural traits which determine light interception and carbon acquisition. In apple tree, architectural traits were observed to be under genetic control. However, architectural traits also result from many organogenetic and morphological processes interacting with the environment. The present study aimed at combining a FSPM built for apple tree, MAppleT, with genetic determinisms of architectural traits, previously described in a bi-parental population. We focused on parameters related to organogenesis (phyllochron and immediate branching) and morphogenesis processes (internode length and leaf area) during the first year of tree growth. Two independent datasets collected in 2004 and 2007 on 116 genotypes, issued from a 'Starkrimson' × 'Granny Smith' cross, were used. The phyllochron was estimated as a function of thermal time and sylleptic branching was modeled subsequently depending on phyllochron. From a genetic map built with SNPs, marker effects were estimated on four MAppleT parameters with rrBLUP, using 2007 data. These effects were then considered in MAppleT to simulate tree development in the two climatic conditions. The genome wide prediction model gave consistent estimations of parameter values with correlation coefficients between observed values and estimated values from SNP markers ranging from 0.79 to 0.96. However, the accuracy of the prediction model following cross validation schemas was lower. Three integrative traits (the number of leaves, trunk length, and number of sylleptic laterals) were considered for validating MAppleT simulations. In 2007 climatic conditions, simulated values were close to observations, highlighting the correct simulation of genetic variability. However, in 2004 conditions which were not used for model calibration, the simulations differed from observations. This study demonstrates the possibility of

  9. A multi-agent architecture for sharing knowledge and experimental data about waste water treatment plants through the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Yaman, I. R.; Kerckhoffs, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a first prototype of a local multi-agent architecture for the sharing of knowledge and experimental data about waste water treatment plants through the Internet, or more specifically the WWW. Applying a net browser such as nets cape, a user can have access to a CLIPS expert system (advising on waste water cleaning technologies) and experimental data files. The discussed local prototype is part of proposed global agent architecture. (authors)

  10. Optimal control of wind power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbuch, M.; Boer, de W.W.; Bosgra, O.H.; Peeters, S.A.W.M.; Ploeg, J.

    1988-01-01

    The control system design for a wind power plant is investigated. Both theoverall wind farm control and the individual wind turbine control effect thewind farm dynamic performance.For a wind turbine with a synchronous generator and rectifier/invertersystem a multivariable controller is designed.

  11. High-Throughput Phenotyping and QTL Mapping Reveals the Genetic Architecture of Maize Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehai; Huang, Chenglong; Wu, Di; Qiao, Feng; Li, Wenqiang; Duan, Lingfeng; Wang, Ke; Xiao, Yingjie; Chen, Guoxing; Liu, Qian; Xiong, Lizhong; Yang, Wanneng; Yan, Jianbing

    2017-03-01

    With increasing demand for novel traits in crop breeding, the plant research community faces the challenge of quantitatively analyzing the structure and function of large numbers of plants. A clear goal of high-throughput phenotyping is to bridge the gap between genomics and phenomics. In this study, we quantified 106 traits from a maize ( Zea mays ) recombinant inbred line population ( n = 167) across 16 developmental stages using the automatic phenotyping platform. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping with a high-density genetic linkage map, including 2,496 recombinant bins, was used to uncover the genetic basis of these complex agronomic traits, and 988 QTLs have been identified for all investigated traits, including three QTL hotspots. Biomass accumulation and final yield were predicted using a combination of dissected traits in the early growth stage. These results reveal the dynamic genetic architecture of maize plant growth and enhance ideotype-based maize breeding and prediction. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Using a cognitive architecture for general purpose service robot control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigbo, Jordi-Ysard; Pumarola, Albert; Angulo, Cecilio; Tellez, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    A humanoid service robot equipped with a set of simple action skills including navigating, grasping, recognising objects or people, among others, is considered in this paper. By using those skills the robot should complete a voice command expressed in natural language encoding a complex task (defined as the concatenation of a number of those basic skills). As a main feature, no traditional planner has been used to decide skills to be activated, as well as in which sequence. Instead, the SOAR cognitive architecture acts as the reasoner by selecting which action the robot should complete, addressing it towards the goal. Our proposal allows to include new goals for the robot just by adding new skills (without the need to encode new plans). The proposed architecture has been tested on a human-sized humanoid robot, REEM, acting as a general purpose service robot.

  13. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Third Annual Technical Progress report summarizes the period from September 1991 to October 1992. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. His philosophy, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree of automation where a greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. To achieve this goal, a hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions was pursued in this research. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 stem plant. Emphasized in this Third Annual Technical Progress Report is the continuing development of the in-plant intelligent control demonstration for the final project milestone and includes: simulation validation and the initial approach to experiment formulation

  14. A multivariate study of mangrove morphology ( Rhizophora mangle) using both above and below-water plant architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. Allen; Bell, Susan S.

    2005-11-01

    A descriptive study of the architecture of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., habitat of Tampa Bay, FL, was conducted to assess if plant architecture could be used to discriminate overwash from fringing forest type. Seven above-water (e.g., tree height, diameter at breast height, and leaf area) and 10 below-water (e.g., root density, root complexity, and maximum root order) architectural features were measured in eight mangrove stands. A multivariate technique (discriminant analysis) was used to test the ability of different models comprising above-water, below-water, or whole tree architecture to classify forest type. Root architectural features appear to be better than classical forestry measurements at discriminating between fringing and overwash forests but, regardless of the features loaded into the model, misclassification rates were high as forest type was only correctly classified in 66% of the cases. Based upon habitat architecture, the results of this study do not support a sharp distinction between overwash and fringing red mangrove forests in Tampa Bay but rather indicate that the two are architecturally undistinguishable. Therefore, within this northern portion of the geographic range of red mangroves, a more appropriate classification system based upon architecture may be one in which overwash and fringing forest types are combined into a single, "tide dominated" category.

  15. $H_2$ optimal controllers with observer based architecture for continuous-time systems : separation principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi, A.; Sannuti, P.; Stoorvogel, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    For a general H2 optimal control problem, at first all Hz optimal measurement feedback controllers are characterized and parameterized, and then attention is focused on controllers with observer based architecture. Both full order as well as reduced order observer based H2 optimal controllers are

  16. Optimal control systems in hydro power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babunski, Darko L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research done in this work is focused on obtaining the optimal models of hydro turbine including auxiliary equipment, analysis of governors for hydro power plants and analysis and design of optimal control laws that can be easily applicable in real hydro power plants. The methodology of the research and realization of the set goals consist of the following steps: scope of the models of hydro turbine, and their modification using experimental data; verification of analyzed models and comparison of advantages and disadvantages of analyzed models, with proposal of turbine model for design of control low; analysis of proportional-integral-derivative control with fixed parameters and gain scheduling and nonlinear control; analysis of dynamic characteristics of turbine model including control and comparison of parameters of simulated system with experimental data; design of optimal control of hydro power plant considering proposed cost function and verification of optimal control law with load rejection measured data. The hydro power plant models, including model of power grid are simulated in case of island ing and restoration after breakup and load rejection with consideration of real loading and unloading of hydro power plant. Finally, simulations provide optimal values of control parameters, stability boundaries and results easily applicable to real hydro power plants. (author)

  17. The NBS-LRR architectures of plant R-proteins and metazoan NLRs evolved in independent events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Jonathan M; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2017-01-31

    There are intriguing parallels between plants and animals, with respect to the structures of their innate immune receptors, that suggest universal principles of innate immunity. The cytosolic nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance proteins of plants (R-proteins) and the so-called NOD-like receptors of animals (NLRs) share a domain architecture that includes a STAND (signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains) family NTPase followed by a series of LRRs, suggesting inheritance from a common ancestor with that architecture. Focusing on the STAND NTPases of plant R-proteins, animal NLRs, and their homologs that represent the NB-ARC (nucleotide-binding adaptor shared by APAF-1, certain R gene products and CED-4) and NACHT (named for NAIP, CIIA, HET-E, and TEP1) subfamilies of the STAND NTPases, we analyzed the phylogenetic distribution of the NBS-LRR domain architecture, used maximum-likelihood methods to infer a phylogeny of the NTPase domains of R-proteins, and reconstructed the domain structure of the protein containing the common ancestor of the STAND NTPase domain of R-proteins and NLRs. Our analyses reject monophyly of plant R-proteins and NLRs and suggest that the protein containing the last common ancestor of the STAND NTPases of plant R-proteins and animal NLRs (and, by extension, all NB-ARC and NACHT domains) possessed a domain structure that included a STAND NTPase paired with a series of tetratricopeptide repeats. These analyses reject the hypothesis that the domain architecture of R-proteins and NLRs was inherited from a common ancestor and instead suggest the domain architecture evolved at least twice. It remains unclear whether the NBS-LRR architectures were innovations of plants and animals themselves or were acquired by one or both lineages through horizontal gene transfer.

  18. Novel Micro-organisms controlling plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to control of pathogen caused diseases on leaves, fruits and ears in plants, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis by treatment of plant with an isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection

  19. Novel Micro-organisms controlling plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to control of pathogen caused diseases on leaves, fruits and ears in plants, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis by treatment of plant with an isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection

  20. Plant Modeling for Human Supervisory Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of multilevel flow modelling (MFM) and its application for design of displays for the supervisory control of industrial plant. The problem of designing the inforrrzatian content of sacpervisory displays is discussed and plant representations like MFM using levels...

  1. Using three-dimensional plant root architecture in models of shallow-slope stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjon, Frédéric; Barker, David H; Drexhage, Michael; Stokes, Alexia

    2008-05-01

    The contribution of vegetation to shallow-slope stability is of major importance in landslide-prone regions. However, existing slope stability models use only limited plant root architectural parameters. This study aims to provide a chain of tools useful for determining the contribution of tree roots to soil reinforcement. Three-dimensional digitizing in situ was used to obtain accurate root system architecture data for mature Quercus alba in two forest stands. These data were used as input to tools developed, which analyse the spatial position of roots, topology and geometry. The contribution of roots to soil reinforcement was determined by calculating additional soil cohesion using the limit equilibrium model, and the factor of safety (FOS) using an existing slope stability model, Slip4Ex. Existing models may incorrectly estimate the additional soil cohesion provided by roots, as the spatial position of roots crossing the potential slip surface is usually not taken into account. However, most soil reinforcement by roots occurs close to the tree stem and is negligible at a distance >1.0 m from the tree, and therefore global values of FOS for a slope do not take into account local slippage along the slope. Within a forest stand on a landslide-prone slope, soil fixation by roots can be minimal between uniform rows of trees, leading to local soil slippage. Therefore, staggered rows of trees would improve overall slope stability, as trees would arrest the downward movement of soil. The chain of tools consisting of both software (free for non-commercial use) and functions available from the first author will enable a more accurate description and use of root architectural parameters in standard slope stability analyses.

  2. Integrating environmental control for coal plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1986-01-01

    As emission control requirements for power plants have grown more stringent, utilities have added new environmental protection technology. As environmental controls have been added one after another, plant designers have rarely had the opportunity to integrate these components with each other and the balance of the plant. Consequently they often cost more to build and operate and can reduce power plant efficiency and availability. With the aim of lowering the cost of environmental systems, a design approach known as integrated environmental control (IEC) has emerged. This is based on the premise that environmental controls can function most economically if they are designed integrally with other power generation equipment. EPRI has established an IEC progam to develop integrated design strategies and evaluate their net worth to utilities. Various aspects of this program are described. (3 refs.)

  3. Quality control during construction of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartstern, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper traces the background and examines the necessity for a program to control quality during the construction phase of a power plant. It also attempts to point out considerations for making these programs cost effective

  4. An Intelligent Propulsion Control Architecture to Enable More Autonomous Vehicle Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane; Simon, Donald L.; Owen, A. Karl; Rinehart, Aidan W.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Acheson, Michael J.; Hueschen, Richard M.; Spiers, Christopher W.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent propulsion control architecture that coordinates with the flight control to reduce the amount of pilot intervention required to operate the vehicle. Objectives of the architecture include the ability to: automatically recognize the aircraft operating state and flight phase; configure engine control to optimize performance with knowledge of engine condition and capability; enhance aircraft performance by coordinating propulsion control with flight control; and recognize off-nominal propulsion situations and to respond to them autonomously. The hierarchical intelligent propulsion system control can be decomposed into a propulsion system level and an individual engine level. The architecture is designed to be flexible to accommodate evolving requirements, adapt to technology improvements, and maintain safety.

  5. BWR plant advanced central control panel PODIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Neda, T.; Suto, O.; Takamiya, S.

    1983-01-01

    BWR plant central control panels have become more and more enlarged and complicated recently due to the magnification of the scale of a plant and the requirement to reinforce safety. So, it is important to make communication between men and the complicated central control panel smooth. Toshiba has developed an advanced central control panel, named PODIA, which uses many computers and color CRTs, and PODIA is now in the stage of application to practical plants. In this article, the writers first touch upon control functions transition in the central control room, the PODIA position concerning the world-wide trend in this technology phase and the human engineering on the design. Then they present concrete design concepts for the control board and computer system which constitute PODIA

  6. Controller design for interval plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sunni, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    We make use of celebrated Kharitoniv theorem to come up with a design procedure for the stabilization of uncertain systems in the parameters using low order controllers. The proposed design is based on classical design methods. A Non-linear programming (NLP) approach for the design of higher order controllers is also presented. We present our results and give illustrating examples. (author)

  7. Three-Dimensional Architecture and Biogenesis of Membrane Structures Associated with Plant Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive-sense (+ RNA viruses represent the most abundant group of viruses and are dependent on the host cell machinery to replicate. One remarkable feature that occurs after (+ RNA virus entry into cells is the remodeling of host endomembranes, leading to the formation of viral replication factories. Recently, rapid progress in three-dimensional (3D imaging technologies, such as electron tomography (ET and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM, has enabled researchers to visualize the novel membrane structures induced by viruses at high resolution. These 3D imaging technologies provide new mechanistic insights into the viral infection cycle. In this review, we summarize the latest reports on the cellular remodeling that occurs during plant virus infection; in particular, we focus on studies that provide 3D architectural information on viral replication factories. We also outline the mechanisms underlying the formation of these membranous structures and discuss possible future research directions.

  8. Promises in intelligent plant control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The control system is the brain of a power plant. The traditional goal of control systems has been productivity. However, in nuclear power plants the potential for disaster requires safety to be the dominant concern, and the worldwide political climate demands trustworthiness for nuclear power plants. To keep nuclear generation as a viable option for power in the future, trust is the essential critical goal which encompasses all others. In most of today's nuclear plants the control system is a hybrid of analog, digital, and human components that focuses on productivity and operates under the protective umbrella of an independent engineered safety system. Operation of the plant is complex, and frequent challenges to the safety system occur which impact on their trustworthiness. Advances in nuclear reactor design, computer sciences, and control theory, and in related technological areas such as electronics and communications as well as in data storage, retrieval, display, and analysis have opened a promise for control systems with more acceptable human brain-like capabilities to pursue the required goals. This paper elaborates on the promise of futuristic nuclear power plants with intelligent control systems and addresses design requirements and implementation approaches

  9. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 steam plant. Described in this Final (Third Annual) Technical Progress Report is the accomplishment of the project's final milestone, an in-plant intelligent control experiment conducted on April 1, 1993. The development of the experiment included: simulation validation, experiment formulation and final programming, procedure development and approval, and experimental results. Other third year developments summarized in this report are: (1) a theoretical foundation for Reconfigurable Hybrid Supervisory Control, (2) a steam plant diagnostic system, (3) control console design tools and (4) other advanced and intelligent control

  10. The effects of redox controls mediated by glutathione peroxidases on root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaia, Gisele; Queval, Guillaume; Bai, Juan; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Foyer, Christine H

    2014-03-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) fulfil important functions in oxidative signalling and protect against the adverse effects of excessive oxidation. However, there has been no systematic characterization of the functions of the different GPX isoforms in plants. The roles of the different members of the Arabidopsis thaliana GPX gene (AtGPX) family were therefore investigated using gpx1, gpx2, gpx3, gpx4, gpx6, gpx7, and gpx8 T-DNA insertion mutant lines. The shoot phenotypes were largely similar in all genotypes, with small differences from the wild type observed only in the gpx2, gpx3, gpx7, and gpx8 mutants. In contrast, all the mutants showed altered root phenotypes compared with the wild type. The gpx1, gpx4, gpx6, gpx7, and gpx8 mutants had a significantly greater lateral root density (LRD) than the wild type. Conversely, the gpx2 and gpx3 mutants had significantly lower LRD values than the wild type. Auxin increased the LRD in all genotypes, but the effect of auxin was significantly greater in the gpx1, gpx4, and gpx7 mutants than in the wild type. The application of auxin increased GPX4 and GPX7 transcripts, but not GPX1 mRNAs in the roots of wild-type plants. The synthetic strigolactone GR24 and abscisic acid (ABA) decreased LRD to a similar extent in all genotypes, except gpx6, which showed increased sensitivity to ABA. These data not only demonstrate the importance of redox controls mediated by AtGPXs in the control of root architecture but they also show that the plastid-localized GPX1 and GPX7 isoforms are required for the hormone-mediated control of lateral root development.

  11. Instrumentation Standard Architectures for Future High Availability Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Architectures for next-generation modular instrumentation standards should aim to meet a requirement of High Availability, or robustness against system failure. This is particularly important for experiments both large and small mounted on production accelerators and light sources. New standards should be based on architectures that (1) are modular in both hardware and software for ease in repair and upgrade; (2) include inherent redundancy at internal module, module assembly and system levels; (3) include modern high speed serial inter-module communications with robust noise-immune protocols; and (4) include highly intelligent diagnostics and board-management subsystems that can predict impending failure and invoke evasive strategies. The simple design principles lead to fail-soft systems that can be applied to any type of electronics system, from modular instruments to large power supplies to pulsed power modulators to entire accelerator systems. The existing standards in use are briefly reviewed and compared against a new commercial standard which suggests a powerful model for future laboratory standard developments. The past successes of undertaking such projects through inter-laboratory engineering-physics collaborations will be briefly summarized

  12. Biomimetic mineral-organic composite scaffolds with controlled internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjubala, I; Woesz, Alexander; Pilz, Christine; Rumpler, Monika; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Roschger, Paul; Stampfl, Juergen; Fratzl, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Bone and cartilage generation by three-dimensional scaffolds is one of the promising techniques in tissue engineering. One approach is to generate histologically and functionally normal tissue by delivering healthy cells in biocompatible scaffolds. These scaffolds provide the necessary support for cells to proliferate and maintain their differentiated function, and their architecture defines the ultimate shape. Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technology by which a complex 3-dimensional (3D) structure can be produced indirectly from computer aided design (CAD). The present study aims at developing a 3D organic-inorganic composite scaffold with defined internal architecture by a RP method utilizing a 3D printer to produce wax molds. The composite scaffolds consisting of chitosan and hydroxyapatite were prepared using soluble wax molds. The behaviour and response of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells on the scaffolds was studied. During a culture period of two and three weeks, cell proliferation and in-growth were observed by phase contrast light microscopy, histological staining and electron microscopy. The Giemsa and Gömöri staining of the cells cultured on scaffolds showed that the cells proliferated not only on the surface, but also filled the micro pores of the scaffolds and produced extracellular matrix within the pores. The electron micrographs showed that the cells covering the surface of the struts were flattened and grew from the periphery into the middle region of the pores.

  13. Learning sequential control in a Neural Blackboard Architecture for in situ concept reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, Frank; Besold, Tarek R.; Lamb, Luis; Serafini, Luciano; Tabor, Whitney

    2016-01-01

    Simulations are presented and discussed of learning sequential control in a Neural Blackboard Architecture (NBA) for in situ concept-based reasoning. Sequential control is learned in a reservoir network, consisting of columns with neural circuits. This allows the reservoir to control the dynamics of

  14. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.; Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.; Lee, K.Y.; Garcia, H.E.: Chavez, C.M.; Turso, J.A.; BenAbdennour, A.

    1991-01-01

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Second Annual Technical Progress report covers the period from September 1990 to September 1991. It summarizes the second year accomplishments while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. These are two primary goals of this research. The first is to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz, a project consultant during the first year of the project. This philosophy, as presented in the first annual technical progress report, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree automation where greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. A hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions is the focus of our research to achieve this goal. The second goal is to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-II steam plant

  15. Robotic architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtshali, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...

  16. Memory controllers for mixed-time-criticality systems architectures, methodologies and trade-offs

    CERN Document Server

    Goossens, Sven; Akesson, Benny; Goossens, Kees

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the design and performance analysis of SDRAM controllers that cater to both real-time and best-effort applications, i.e. mixed-time-criticality memory controllers. The authors describe the state of the art, and then focus on an architecture template for reconfigurable memory controllers that addresses effectively the quickly evolving set of SDRAM standards, in terms of worst-case timing and power analysis, as well as implementation. A prototype implementation of the controller in SystemC and synthesizable VHDL for an FPGA development board are used as a proof of concept of the architecture template.

  17. Status, Vision, and Challenges of an Intelligent Distributed Engine Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Alireza; Culley, Dennis; Garg, Sanjay; Millar, Richard; Smith, Bert; Wood, Jim; Mahoney, Tim; Quinn, Ronald; Carpenter, Sheldon; Mailander, Bill; hide

    2007-01-01

    A Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) consisting of the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) and industry has been formed to examine the current and future requirements of propulsion engine systems. The scope of this study will include an assessment of the paradigm shift from centralized engine control architecture to an architecture based on distributed control utilizing open system standards. Included will be a description of the work begun in the 1990's, which continues today, followed by the identification of the remaining technical challenges which present barriers to on-engine distributed control.

  18. An integrated command and control architecture concept for unmanned systems in the year 2030

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jamarr J.; Buckley, Omari D.; Cunningham, Dustin; Matthews, Adam; Quincy, Keith E.; Fontenot, Dion G.; Moran, Michael G.; Tham, Gabriel; Wong, Jason; Quah, Raymond; Chia, Tommy; Costica, Yionon; Gho, Delvin; Seet, Henry; Ang, Teo Hong

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. U.S. Forces require an integrated Command and Control Architecture that enables operations of a dynamic mix of manned and unmanned systems. The level of autonomous behavior correlates to: 1) the amount of trust with the reporting vehicles, and 2) the multi-spectral perspective of the observations. The intent to illuminate the architectural issues for force protection in 2030 was based on a multi-phased analytical model of High Value ...

  19. Control system security in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianghai; Huang Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    The digitalization and networking of control systems in nuclear power plants has brought significant improvements in system control, operation and maintenance. However, the highly digitalized control system also introduces additional security vulnerabilities. Moreover, the replacement of conventional proprietary systems with common protocols, software and devices makes these vulnerabilities easy to be exploited. Through the interaction between control systems and the physical world, security issues in control systems impose high risks on health, safety and environment. These security issues may even cause damages of critical infrastructures and threaten national security. The importance of control system security by reviewing several control system security incidents that happened in nuclear power plants was showed in recent years. Several key difficulties in addressing these security issues were described. Finally, existing researches on control system security and propose several promising research directions were reviewed. (authors)

  20. Distributed control and data processing system with a centralized database for a BWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, K.; Neda, T.; Kawamura, A.; Monta, K.; Satoh, K.

    1980-01-01

    Recent digital techniques based on changes in electronics and computer technologies have realized a very wide scale of computer application to BWR Power Plant control and instrumentation. Multifarious computers, from micro to mega, are introduced separately. And to get better control and instrumentation system performance, hierarchical computer complex system architecture has been developed. This paper addresses the hierarchical computer complex system architecture which enables more efficient introduction of computer systems to a Nuclear Power Plant. Distributed control and processing systems, which are the components of the hierarchical computer complex, are described in some detail, and the database for the hierarchical computer complex is also discussed. The hierarchical computer complex system has been developed and is now in the detailed design stage for actual power plant application. (auth)

  1. Advanced Control Architectures for Intelligent MicroGrids, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Josep M.; Chandorkar, Mukul; Lee, Tzung-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of advanced control techniques for microgrids. The paper covers decentralized, distributed, and hierarchical control of grid connected and islanded microgrids. At first, decentralized control techniques for microgrids are reviewed. Then, the recent developments in the...

  2. Distributed behavior-based control architecture for a wall climbing robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadir Ould Khessal; Shamsudin H.M. Amin . nadir.ok@ieee.org

    1999-01-01

    In the past two decades, Behavior-based AI (Artificial Intelligence) has emerged as a new approach in designing mobile robot control architecture. It stresses on the issues of reactivity, concurrency and real-time control. In this paper we propose a new approach in designing robust intelligent controllers for mobile robot platforms. The Behaviour-based paradigm implemented in a multiprocessing firmware architecture will further enhance parallelism present in the subsumption paradigm itself and increased real-timeness. The paper summarises research done to design a four-legged wall climbing robot. The emphasis will be on the control architecture of the robot based on the Behavior -based paradigm. The robot control architecture is made up of two layers, the locomotion layer and the gait controller layer. The two layers are implemented on a Vesta 68332 processor board running the Behaviour-based kernel, The software is developed using the L programming language, introduced by IS Robotics. The Behaviour-based paradigm is outlined and contrasted with the classical Knowledge-based approach. A description of the distributed architecture is presented followed by a presentation of the Behaviour-based agents for the two layers. (author)

  3. Requirements for Scalable Access Control and Security Management Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keromytis, Angelos D; Smith, Jonathan M

    2005-01-01

    Maximizing local autonomy has led to a scalable Internet. Scalability and the capacity for distributed control have unfortunately not extended well to resource access control policies and mechanisms...

  4. Adaptive Distributed Intelligent Control Architecture for Future Propulsion Systems (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behbahani, Alireza R

    2007-01-01

    .... Distributed control is potentially an enabling technology for advanced intelligent propulsion system concepts and is one of the few control approaches that is able to provide improved component...

  5. Nuclear power plant control room operator control and monitoring tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovell, C.R.; Beck, M.G.; Carter, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a research project the purpose of which is to develop the technical bases for regulatory review criteria for use in evaluating the safety implications of human factors associated with the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems, and with advanced instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPP). This report documents the results from Task 8 of that project. The primary objectives of the task was to identify the scope and type of control and monitoring tasks now performed by control-room operators. Another purpose was to address the types of controls and safety systems needed to operate the nuclear plant. The final objective of Task 8 was to identify and categorize the type of information and displays/indicators required to monitor the performance of the control and safety systems. This report also discusses state-of-the-art controls and advanced display devices which will be available for use in control-room retrofits and in control room of future plants. The fundamental types of control and monitoring tasks currently conducted by operators can be divided into four classifications: function monitoring tasks, control manipulation tasks, fault diagnostic tasks, and administrative tasks. There are three general types of controls used in today's NPPs, switches, pushbuttons, and analog controllers. Plant I and C systems include components to achieve a number of safety-related functions: measuring critical plant parameters, controlling critical plant parameters within safety limits, and automatically actuating protective devices if safe limits are exceeded. The types of information monitored by the control-room operators consist of the following parameters: pressure, fluid flow and level, neutron flux, temperature, component status, water chemistry, electrical, and process and area radiation. The basic types of monitoring devices common to nearly all NPP control rooms include: analog meters

  6. Plant-plant interactions influence developmental phase transitions, grain productivity and root system architecture in Arabidopsis via auxin and PFT1/MED25 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Parra, Edith; Pelagio-Flores, Ramón; Raya-González, Javier; Salmerón-Barrera, Guadalupe; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; López-Bucio, José

    2017-09-01

    Transcriptional regulation of gene expression influences plant growth, environmental interactions and plant-plant communication. Here, we report that population density is a key factor for plant productivity and a major root architectural determinant in Arabidopsis thaliana. When grown in soil at varied densities from 1 to 32 plants, high number of individuals decreased stem growth and accelerated senescence, which negatively correlated with total plant biomass and seed production at the completion of the life cycle. Root morphogenesis was also a major trait modulated by plant density, because an increasing number of individuals grown in vitro showed repression of primary root growth, lateral root formation and root hair development while affecting auxin-regulated gene expression and the levels of auxin transporters PIN1 and PIN2. We also found that mutation of the Mediator complex subunit PFT1/MED25 renders plants insensitive to high density-modulated root traits. Our results suggest that plant density is critical for phase transitions, productivity and root system architecture and reveal a role of Mediator in self-plant recognition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Guidance and Control Architecture Design and Demonstration for Low Ballistic Coefficient Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swei, Sean

    2014-01-01

    We propose to develop a robust guidance and control system for the ADEPT (Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology) entry vehicle. A control-centric model of ADEPT will be developed to quantify the performance of candidate guidance and control architectures for both aerocapture and precision landing missions. The evaluation will be based on recent breakthroughs in constrained controllability/reachability analysis of control systems and constrained-based energy-minimum trajectory optimization for guidance development operating in complex environments.

  8. Distributed hierarchical control architecture for integrating smart grid assets during normal and disrupted operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Karan; Fuller, Jason C.; Somani, Abhishek; Pratt, Robert G.; Chassin, David P.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2017-09-12

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for facilitating operation and control of a resource distribution system (such as a power grid). Among the disclosed embodiments is a distributed hierarchical control architecture (DHCA) that enables smart grid assets to effectively contribute to grid operations in a controllable manner, while helping to ensure system stability and equitably rewarding their contribution. Embodiments of the disclosed architecture can help unify the dispatch of these resources to provide both market-based and balancing services.

  9. Space Power Program, Instrumentation and Control System Architecture, Preconceptual Design, for Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JM Ross

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this letter is to forward the Prometheus preconceptual Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system architecture (Enclosure (1)) to NR for information as part of the Prometheus closeout work. The preconceptual 1 and C system architecture was considered a key planning document for development of the I and C system for Project Prometheus. This architecture was intended to set the technical approach for the entire I and C system. It defines interfaces to other spacecraft systems, defines hardware blocks for future development, and provides a basis for accurate cost and schedule estimates. Since the system requirements are not known at this time, it was anticipated that the architecture would evolve as the design of the reactor module was matured

  10. Space Power Program, Instrumentation and Control System Architecture, Pre-conceptual Design, for Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JM Ross

    2005-10-20

    The purpose of this letter is to forward the Prometheus preconceptual Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system architecture (Enclosure (1)) to NR for information as part of the Prometheus closeout work. The preconceptual 1&C system architecture was considered a key planning document for development of the I&C system for Project Prometheus. This architecture was intended to set the technical approach for the entire I&C system. It defines interfaces to other spacecraft systems, defines hardware blocks for future development, and provides a basis for accurate cost and schedule estimates. Since the system requirements are not known at this time, it was anticipated that the architecture would evolve as the design of the reactor module was matured.

  11. Software architecture considerations for ion source control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    General characteristics of distributed control system software tools are examined from the perspective of ion source control system requirements. Emphasis is placed on strategies for building extensible, distributed systems in which the ion source element is one component of a larger system. Vsystem, a commercial software tool kit from Vista Control Systems was utilized extensively in the control system upgrade of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Part of the control system is described and the characteristics of Vsystem are examined and compared with those of EPICS, the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

  12. Plant control using embedded predictive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, S.S.; Gabler, W.E.; Eschbach, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    B and W recently undertook the design of an advanced light water reactor control system. A concept new to nuclear steam system (NSS) control was developed. The concept, which is called the Predictor-Corrector, uses mathematical models of portions of the controlled NSS to calculate, at various levels within the system, demand and control element position signals necessary to satisfy electrical demand. The models give the control system the ability to reduce overcooling and undercooling of the reactor coolant system during transients and upsets. Two types of mathematical models were developed for use in designing and testing the control system. One model was a conventional, comprehensive NSS model that responds to control system outputs and calculates the resultant changes in plant variables that are then used as inputs to the control system. Two other models, embedded in the control system, were less conventional, inverse models. These models accept as inputs plant variables, equipment states, and demand signals and predict plant operating conditions and control element states that will satisfy the demands. This paper reports preliminary results of closed-loop Reactor Coolant (RC) pump trip and normal load reduction testing of the advanced concept. Results of additional transient testing, and of open and closed loop stability analyses will be reported as they are available

  13. A design control structure for architectural firms in a highly complex and uncertain situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijlen, J.T.H.A.M.; Otter, den A.F.H.J.; Pels, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    A large architectural firm in a highly complex and uncertain production situation asked to improve its existing ?production control? system for design projects. To that account a research and design project of nine months at the spot was defined. The production control in the organization was based

  14. Architecture of built-in microcontrollers in the U-70 complex control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, S.I.; Voevodin, V.P.; Inchagov, A.A.; Komarov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The distributed system of built-in microcontrollers (BMS) for functional control of supply sources of magnetooptical elements is created within the frames of works on modernization of the U-70 control complex. The BMS architecture and functional diagram of one of them are presented. The microcontrollers operation algorithm is based on the eventuation principle. The BMS basic parameters are presented [ru

  15. A Control Architecture to Coordinate Distributed Generators and Active Power Filters Coexisting in a Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashempour, Mohammad M.; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control architecture of distributed generators (DGs) inverters and shunt active power filters (APFs) in microgrids to compensate voltage harmonics in a coordinated way. For this, a hierarchical control structure is proposed that includes two control levels. The primary (local......) control consists of power controllers, selective virtual impedance loops and proportional-resonant (PR) voltage/current controllers. The secondary (central) control manages the compensation level of voltage harmonic distortion of sensitive load bus (SLB). Compensation of SLB harmonics by control of DGs...... excessive harmonics or overloading of interface inverters. Effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated through simulation studies....

  16. A control architecture to coordinate distributed generators and active power filters coexisting in a microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashempour, Mohammad M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control architecture of distributed generators (DGs) inverters and shunt active power filters (APFs) in microgrids to compensate voltage harmonics in a coordinated way. For this, a hierarchical control structure is proposed that includes two control levels. The primary (local......) control consists of power controllers, selective virtual impedance loops and proportional-resonant (PR) voltage/current controllers. The secondary (central) control manages the compensation level of voltage harmonic distortion of sensitive load bus (SLB). Compensation of SLB harmonics by control of DGs...... excessive harmonics or overloading of interface inverters. Effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated through simulation studies....

  17. Automated work packages architecture: An initial set of human factors and instrumentation and controls requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The work management process in current fleets of national nuclear power plants is so highly dependent on large technical staffs and quality of work instruction, i.e., paper-based, that this puts nuclear energy at somewhat of a long-term economic disadvantage and increase the possibility of human errors. Technologies like mobile portable devices and computer-based procedures can play a key role in improving the plant work management process, thereby increasing productivity and decreasing cost. Automated work packages are a fundamentally an enabling technology for improving worker productivity and human performance in nuclear power plants work activities because virtually every plant work activity is accomplished using some form of a work package. As part of this year’s research effort, automated work packages architecture is identified and an initial set of requirements identified, that are essential and necessary for implementation of automated work packages in nuclear power plants.

  18. One-Chip Solution to Intelligent Robot Control: Implementing Hexapod Subsumption Architecture Using a Contemporary Microprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Pashenkov

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a six-legged autonomous robot managed by a single controller and a software core modeled on subsumption architecture. We begin by discussing the features and capabilities of IsoPod, a new processor for robotics which has enabled a streamlined implementation of our project. We argue that this processor offers a unique set of hardware and software features, making it a practical development platform for robotics in general and for subsumption-based control architectures in particular. Next, we summarize original ideas on subsumption architecture implementation for a six-legged robot, as presented by its inventor Rodney Brooks in 1980's. A comparison is then made to a more recent example of a hexapod control architecture based on subsumption. The merits of both systems are analyzed and a new subsumption architecture layout is formulated as a response. We conclude with some remarks regarding the development of this project as a hint at new potentials for intelligent robot design, opened up by a recent development in embedded controller market.

  19. Convergence of Domain Architecture, Structure, and Ligand Affinity in Animal and Plant RNA-Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Raquel; Manny, Austin; Kolaczkowski, Oralia; Kolaczkowski, Bryan

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction of ancestral protein sequences using phylogenetic methods is a powerful technique for directly examining the evolution of molecular function. Although ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR) is itself very efficient, downstream functional, and structural studies necessary to characterize when and how changes in molecular function occurred are often costly and time-consuming, currently limiting ASR studies to examining a relatively small number of discrete functional shifts. As a result, we have very little direct information about how molecular function evolves across large protein families. Here we develop an approach combining ASR with structure and function prediction to efficiently examine the evolution of ligand affinity across a large family of double-stranded RNA binding proteins (DRBs) spanning animals and plants. We find that the characteristic domain architecture of DRBs-consisting of 2-3 tandem double-stranded RNA binding motifs (dsrms)-arose independently in early animal and plant lineages. The affinity with which individual dsrms bind double-stranded RNA appears to have increased and decreased often across both animal and plant phylogenies, primarily through convergent structural mechanisms involving RNA-contact residues within the β1-β2 loop and a small region of α2. These studies provide some of the first direct information about how protein function evolves across large gene families and suggest that changes in molecular function may occur often and unassociated with major phylogenetic events, such as gene or domain duplications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Brassinosteroids Regulate OFP1, a DLT Interacting Protein, to Modulate Plant Architecture and Grain Morphology in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhua Xiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs regulate important agronomic traits in rice, including plant height, leaf angle, and grain size. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not fully understood. We previously showed that GSK2, the central negative regulator of BR signaling, targets DLT, the GRAS family protein, to regulate BR responses. Here, we identified Ovate Family Protein 1 (OFP1 as a DLT interacting protein. OFP1 was ubiquitously expressed and the protein was localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of OFP1 led to enlarged leaf angles, reduced plant height, and altered grain shape, largely resembled DLT overexpression plants. Genetic analysis showed that the regulation of plant architecture by OFP1 depends on DLT function. In addition, we found OFP1 was greatly induced by BR treatment, and OsBZR1, the critical transcription factor of BR signaling, was physically associated with the OFP1 promoter. Moreover, we showed that gibberellin synthesis was greatly repressed in OFP1 overexpression plants, suggesting OFP1 participates in the inhibition of plant growth by high BR or elevated BR signaling. Furthermore, we revealed that OFP1 directly interacts with GSK2 kinase, and inhibition of the kinase activity significantly promotes OFP1 protein accumulation in plant. Taken together, we identified OFP1 as an additional regulator of BR responses and revealed how BRs promote OFP1 at both transcription and protein levels to modulate plant architecture and grain morphology in rice.

  1. Conceptual Design on the System Architecture of Intellectual Export Control System(IXCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seung Ho; Yang, Seung Hyo; Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The commodity classification is for identifying strategic commodity, and the export license is for verifying that exports have met the requirement by the national legislation following international obligations (i. e. NSG guidelines) Since 2008, the 'Nuclear Export Promotion Service (NEPS)' System has been used as a total IT system providing various functions for exporters and reviewers. However, reviewers who make the decisions for commodity classification and export license, may have difficulties caused by ambiguity of criteria. For example, it is not sure whether a CVCS (Chemical Volume Control System) of a certain nuclear reactor plant belongs to strategic commodity or not. The NEPS is a useful system helping users save their time, but it cannot provide solutions reducing ambiguity of each classification or license case. To solve these problems and provide more efficient ways to their decisions, various intelligent IT solutions are searched and studied. A functional architecture of IXCS is defined and designed conceptually. This conceptual design will be utilized to make database specification and to find the optimized artificial algorithm for review processes

  2. Epigenetic control of plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María E; Nota, Florencia; Cambiagno, Damián A

    2010-07-01

    In eukaryotic genomes, gene expression and DNA recombination are affected by structural chromatin traits. Chromatin structure is shaped by the activity of enzymes that either introduce covalent modifications in DNA and histone proteins or use energy from ATP to disrupt histone-DNA interactions. The genomic 'marks' that are generated by covalent modifications of histones and DNA, or by the deposition of histone variants, are susceptible to being altered in response to stress. Recent evidence has suggested that proteins generating these epigenetic marks play crucial roles in the defence against pathogens. Histone deacetylases are involved in the activation of jasmonic acid- and ethylene-sensitive defence mechanisms. ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers mediate the constitutive repression of the salicylic acid-dependent pathway, whereas histone methylation at the WRKY70 gene promoter affects the activation of this pathway. Interestingly, bacterial-infected tissues show a net reduction in DNA methylation, which may affect the disease resistance genes responsible for the surveillance against pathogens. As some epigenetic marks can be erased or maintained and transmitted to offspring, epigenetic mechanisms may provide plasticity for the dynamic control of emerging pathogens without the generation of genomic lesions.

  3. Automatic Control of Contextual Interaction Integrated with Affection and Architectural Attentional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Jiang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is still a challenge for robots to interact with complex environments in a smooth and natural manner. The robot should be aware of its surroundings and inner status to make decisions accordingly and appropriately. Contexts benefit the interaction a lot, such as avoiding frequent interruptions (e.g., the explicit inputting requests and thus are essential for interaction. Other challenges, such as shifting attentional focus to a more important stimulus, etc., are also crucial in interaction control. This paper presents a hybrid automatic control approach for interaction, as well as its integration, with these multiple important factors, aiming at performing natural, human-like interactions in robots. In particular, a novel approach of architectural attentional control, based on affection is presented, which attempts to shift the attentional focus in a natural manner. Context-aware computing is combined with interaction to endow the robot with proactive abilities. The long-term interaction control approaches are described. Emotion and personality are introduced into the interaction and their influence mechanism on interaction is explored. We implemented the proposal in an interactive head robot (IHR and the experimental results indicate the effectiveness.

  4. Towards a preliminary design of the ITER plasma control system architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutterer, W.; Rapson, C.J.; Raupp, G.; Snipes, J.; Vries, P. de; Winter, A.; Humphreys, D.A.; Walker, M.; Tommasi, G. de; Cinque, M.; Bremond, S.; Moreau, P.; Nouailletas, R.; Felton, R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • ITER control requirements and use scenarios for initial plasma operation have been analysed. • Basic choices from conceptual design could be confirmed. • Architectural design considers dynamic structure changes. • All PCS components are integrated in an exception handling hierarchy. - Abstract: Design of the ITER plasma control system is proceeding towards its next – preliminary design – stage. During the conceptual design in 2013 an overall assessment of high-level control tasks and their relationships has been conducted. The goal of the preliminary design is to show, that a reasonable implementation of the proposed concepts exists which fulfills the high-level requirements and is suitable for realistic use cases. This verification is conducted with focus on the concrete use cases of early operation and first plasma, since these phases are mandatory for ITER startup. In particular, detailed control requirements and functions for commissioning and first plasma operation including breakdown, burn-through and ramp-up in L-mode, as well as for planned or exceptional shutdown are identified. Control functions related to those operational phases and the underlying control system architecture are modeled. The goal is to check whether the flexibility of the conceptual architectural approach is adequate also in consideration of the more elaborate definitions for control functions and their interactions. In addition, architecture shall already be prepared for extension to H-mode operation and burn-control, even if the related control functions are only roughly defined at the moment. As a consequence, the architectural design is amended where necessary and converted into base components and infrastructure services allowing to deploy control and exception handling algorithms for the concrete first-plasma operation.

  5. Towards a preliminary design of the ITER plasma control system architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutterer, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Treutterer@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Rapson, C.J.; Raupp, G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Snipes, J.; Vries, P. de; Winter, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Humphreys, D.A.; Walker, M. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Tommasi, G. de; Cinque, M. [CREATE/Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Bremond, S.; Moreau, P.; Nouailletas, R. [Association CEA pour la Fusion Contrôlée, CEA Cadarache, 13108 St Paul les Durance (France); Felton, R. [CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • ITER control requirements and use scenarios for initial plasma operation have been analysed. • Basic choices from conceptual design could be confirmed. • Architectural design considers dynamic structure changes. • All PCS components are integrated in an exception handling hierarchy. - Abstract: Design of the ITER plasma control system is proceeding towards its next – preliminary design – stage. During the conceptual design in 2013 an overall assessment of high-level control tasks and their relationships has been conducted. The goal of the preliminary design is to show, that a reasonable implementation of the proposed concepts exists which fulfills the high-level requirements and is suitable for realistic use cases. This verification is conducted with focus on the concrete use cases of early operation and first plasma, since these phases are mandatory for ITER startup. In particular, detailed control requirements and functions for commissioning and first plasma operation including breakdown, burn-through and ramp-up in L-mode, as well as for planned or exceptional shutdown are identified. Control functions related to those operational phases and the underlying control system architecture are modeled. The goal is to check whether the flexibility of the conceptual architectural approach is adequate also in consideration of the more elaborate definitions for control functions and their interactions. In addition, architecture shall already be prepared for extension to H-mode operation and burn-control, even if the related control functions are only roughly defined at the moment. As a consequence, the architectural design is amended where necessary and converted into base components and infrastructure services allowing to deploy control and exception handling algorithms for the concrete first-plasma operation.

  6. Implications of the degree of controllability of controlled plants in the sense of LQR optimal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yaping; Yin, Minghui; Zou, Yun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between the degree of controllability (DOC) of controlled plants and the corresponding quadratic optimal performance index in LQR control is investigated for the electro-hydraulic synchronising servo control systems and wind turbine systems, respectively. It is shown that for these two types of systems, the higher the DOC of a controlled plant is, the better the quadratic optimal performance index is. It implies that in some LQR controller designs, the measure of the DOC of a controlled plant can be used as an index for the optimisation of adjustable plant parameters, by which the plant can be controlled more effectively.

  7. Architecture and performance of the new CESR control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohman, C.R.; Peck, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    The new control system for the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) is based on a multi-port memory which can be accessed by many computers. The computers are either VAXes, which run user programs, or Xbus Processors, which move data to and from the hardware devices which are being monitored or controlled. The control system database is in the multi-port memory, and contains all of the data needed to communicate with various pieces of hardware. 1 fig

  8. The system architecture of the new JET Shape Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, F.; Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M.; Cenedese, A.; Crisanti, F.; Tommasi, G. De; Cullen, P. Mc; Piccolo, F.; Pironti, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the installation of the new JET Shape Controller System [M. Garribba, R. Litunovsky, P. Noll, S. Puppin, The new control scheme for the JET plasma position and current control system, in: Proceedings of the 15th SOFE Conference, Massachusetts, 1993, pp. 33-36; F. Sartori, A. Cenedese, Plasma position and current control management at JET, in: Proceedings of the 42nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Maui, 2003] especially focusing on the addition of the Extreme Shape Controller [G. Ambrosino, et al., A new shape controller for extremely shaped plasmas in JET, Fusion Eng. Des. 66-68 (2003) 797-802]. The activity was performed by the JET Operator in co-operation with the ENEA-CREATE design team, and involved both changes in the hardware and system software of JET and tuning of the proposed Extreme Shape Controller (XSC) design to satisfy the practical requirements of tokamak operation. The application of 10 years experience of controller implementation and commissioning combined with a modern and efficient modelling and design methodology has allowed an unprecedented fast and easy commissioning of the new system

  9. Nuclear reactor kinetics and plant control

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Understanding time-dependent behaviors of nuclear reactors and the methods of their control is essential to the operation and safety of nuclear power plants. This book provides graduate students, researchers, and engineers in nuclear engineering comprehensive information on both the fundamental theory of nuclear reactor kinetics and control and the state-of-the-art practice in actual plants, as well as the idea of how to bridge the two. The first part focuses on understanding fundamental nuclear kinetics. It introduces delayed neutrons, fission chain reactions, point kinetics theory, reactivit

  10. Plant control impact on IFR power plant passive safety response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for optimizing the closed-loop plant control strategy with respect to safety margins sustained in the unprotected upset response of a liquid metal reactor. The optimization is performed subject to the normal requirements for reactor startup, load change and compensation for reactivity changes over the cycle. The method provides a formal approach to the process of exploiting the innate self-regulating property of a metal fueled reactor to make it less dependent on operator action and less vulnerable to automatic control system fault and/or operator error

  11. The development of an open architecture control system for CBN high speed grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, E. Jannone da; Biffi, M.; Oliveira, J. F. G. de

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this project is the development of an open architecture controlling (OAC) system to be applied in the high speed grinding process using CBN tools. Besides other features, the system will allow a new monitoring and controlling strategy, by the adoption of open architecture CNC combined with multi-sensors, a PC and third-party software. The OAC system will be implemented in a high speed CBN grinding machine, which is being developed in a partnership between the University of São Paul...

  12. Drought response in wheat: key genes and regulatory mechanisms controlling root system architecture and transpiration efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manoj; Soolanayakanahally, Raju; Ogawa, Satoshi; Uga, Yusaku; Selvaraj, Michael G.; Kagale, Sateesh

    2017-12-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, salinity and flooding threaten global food security. Crop genetic improvement with increased resilience to abiotic stresses is a critical component of crop breeding strategies. Wheat is an important cereal crop and a staple food source globally. Enhanced drought tolerance in wheat is critical for sustainable food production and global food security. Recent advances in drought tolerance research have uncovered many key genes and transcription regulators governing morpho-physiological traits. Genes controlling root architecture and stomatal development play an important role in soil moisture extraction and its retention, and therefore have been targets of molecular breeding strategies for improving drought tolerance. In this systematic review, we have summarized evidence of beneficial contributions of root and stomatal traits to plant adaptation to drought stress. Specifically, we discuss a few key genes such as DRO1 in rice and ERECTA in Arabidopsis and rice that were identified to be the enhancers of drought tolerance via regulation of root traits and transpiration efficiency. Additionally, we highlight several transcription factor families, such as ERF (ethylene response factors), DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ZFP (zinc finger proteins), WRKY and MYB that were identified to be both positive and negative regulators of drought responses in wheat, rice, maize and/or Arabidopsis. The overall aim of this review was to provide an overview of candidate genes that have been tested as regulators of drought response in plants. The lack of a reference genome sequence for wheat and nontransgenic approaches for manipulation of gene functions in the past had impeded high-resolution interrogation of functional elements, including genes and QTLs, and their application in cultivar improvement. The recent developments in wheat genomics and reverse genetics, including the availability of a gold-standard reference genome

  13. Control Architecture of a 10 DOF Lower Limbs Exoskeleton for Gait Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Koceska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the control architecture of a 10 DOF (Degrees of Freedom lower limbs exoskeleton for the gait rehabilitation of patients with gait dysfunction. The system has 4 double-acting rod pneumatic actuators (two for each leg that control the hip and knee joints. The motion of each cylinder's piston is controlled by two proportional pressure valves, connected to both cylinder chambers. The control strategy has been specifically designed in order to ensure a proper trajectory control for guiding patient's legs along a fixed reference gait pattern. An adaptive fuzzy controller which is capable of compensating for the influence of the dry friction was successfully designed, implemented and tested on an embedded real-time PC/104. In order to verify the proposed control architecture, laboratory experiments without a patient were carried out and the results are reported here and discussed.

  14. The architectural foundations for agent-based shop floor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Bilberg, Arne

    1998-01-01

    simulation and cell controlenabling technologies. In order to continuethis research effortnew concepts and theories for shop floor control are investigated.This paper reviews the multi-agent concept aimed at investigatingits potential use in shop floor control systems. The paper willalso include a survey...

  15. Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Baseline Control Law: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    A model reference dynamic inversion control law has been developed to provide a baseline control law for research into adaptive elements and other advanced flight control law components. This controller has been implemented and tested in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation; the simulation results show excellent handling qualities throughout the limited flight envelope. A simple angular momentum formulation was chosen because it can be included in the stability proofs for many basic adaptive theories, such as model reference adaptive control. Many design choices and implementation details reflect the requirements placed on the system by the nonlinear flight environment and the desire to keep the system as basic as possible to simplify the addition of the adaptive elements. Those design choices are explained, along with their predicted impact on the handling qualities.

  16. The new local control systems for operating gaseous diffusion plant units at Pierrelatte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacroix, C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a local control network for operating gaseous diffusion plant units is presented. The objective of the control system up date was to replace all the information network hardware. The new generation HP1000 calculators and a network architecture were chosen. The validation tests performed in laboratory and in situ, and the management policies towards the personnel during the technical changes are summarized [fr

  17. Distributed control and instrumentation systems for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, G.; L'Archeveque, J.V.R.

    1976-01-01

    The centralized dual computer system philosophy has evolved as the key concept underlying the highly successful application of direct digital control in CANDU power reactors. After more than a decade, this basis philosophy bears re-examination in the light of advances in system concepts--notably distributed architectures. A number of related experimental programs, all aimed at exploring the prospects of applying distributed systems in Canadian nuclear power plants are discussed. It was realized from the outset that the successful application of distributed systems depends on the availability of a highly reliable, high capacity, low cost communications medium. Accordingly, an experimental facility has been established and experiments have been defined to address such problem areas as interprocess communications, distributed data base design and man/machine interfaces. The design of a first application to be installed at the NRU/NRX research reactors is progressing well

  18. Integrated plant automation using programmable logic controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the world of automation the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) has became for control. It now not only replaces the earlier relay logic controls but also has taken over many additional control functions. Initially the PLC was used to replace relay logic, but is ever-increasing range of functions means that it is found in many and more complex applications. As the structure of the PLC is based on the same principles as those employed in computer architecture, it is capable of performance not only relay switching tasks, but also other applications such as counting, calculating, comparing and the processing of analogue signals. Due to the simplicity of entering and modifying the programmed instructions to suit the requirements of the process under control, the PLC is truly a versatile and flexible device that can be employed easily and efficiently to repeatedly control tasks that vary in nature and complexes. A photograph of the Siemens S-5 95U. To illustrate the advantage of using a PLC over a traditional relay logic system, consider a control system with 20 input/output points. This assembly could comprise 60-80 relays, some counter/timers and a great deal of wiring. This assembly would be cumbersome with a power consumption of 30-40VA. A considerable time would be required to design, test and commission the assembly and once it is in full working order any desired modification, even of minor nature, could require major hardware changes. (author)

  19. Agent-based Cyber Control Strategy Design for Resilient Control Systems: Concepts, Architecture and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Rieger; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of automated regulatory control has been around since the middle of the last century through analog means. It has allowed engineers to operate the plant more consistently by focusing on overall operations and settings instead of individual monitoring of local instruments (inside and outside of a control room). A similar approach is proposed for cyber security, where current border-protection designs have been inherited from information technology developments that lack consideration of the high-reliability, high consequence nature of industrial control systems. Instead of an independent development, however, an integrated approach is taken to develop a holistic understanding of performance. This performance takes shape inside a multiagent design, which provides a notional context to model highly decentralized and complex industrial process control systems, the nervous system of critical infrastructure. The resulting strategy will provide a framework for researching solutions to security and unrecognized interdependency concerns with industrial control systems.

  20. A discrete control model of PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    A model of the PLANT system using the discrete control modeling techniques developed by Miller is described. Discrete control models attempt to represent in a mathematical form how a human operator might decompose a complex system into simpler parts and how the control actions and system configuration are coordinated so that acceptable overall system performance is achieved. Basic questions include knowledge representation, information flow, and decision making in complex systems. The structure of the model is a general hierarchical/heterarchical scheme which structurally accounts for coordination and dynamic focus of attention. Mathematically, the discrete control model is defined in terms of a network of finite state systems. Specifically, the discrete control model accounts for how specific control actions are selected from information about the controlled system, the environment, and the context of the situation. The objective is to provide a plausible and empirically testable accounting and, if possible, explanation of control behavior.

  1. Separating VNF and Network Control for Hardware‐Acceleration of SDN/NFV Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Duan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A hardware‐acceleration architecture that separates virtual network functions (VNFs and network control (called HSN is proposed to solve the mismatch between the simple flow steering requirements and strong packet processing abilities of software‐defined networking (SDN forwarding elements (FEs in SDN/network function virtualization (NFV architecture, while improving the efficiency of NFV infrastructure and the performance of network‐intensive functions. HSN makes full use of FEs and accelerates VNFs through two mechanisms: (1 separation of traffic steering and packet processing in the FEs; (2 separation of SDN and NFV control in the FEs. Our HSN prototype, built on NetFPGA‐10G, demonstrates that the processing performance can be greatly improved with only a small modification of the traditional SDN/NFV architecture.

  2. Benchmarking hardware architecture candidates for the NFIRAOS real-time controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm; Kerley, Dan; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-01

    As a part of the trade study for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System, the adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope, we investigated the feasibility of performing real-time control computation using a Linux operating system and Intel Xeon E5 CPUs. We also investigated a Xeon Phi based architecture which allows higher levels of parallelism. This paper summarizes both the CPU based real-time controller architecture and the Xeon Phi based RTC. The Intel Xeon E5 CPU solution meets the requirements and performs the computation for one AO cycle in an average of 767 microseconds. The Xeon Phi solution did not meet the 1200 microsecond time requirement and also suffered from unpredictable execution times. More detailed benchmark results are reported for both architectures.

  3. Controllable 3D architectures of aligned carbon nanotube arrays by multi-step processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoming

    2003-06-01

    An effective way to fabricate large area three-dimensional (3D) aligned CNTs pattern based on pyrolysis of iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) by two-step processes is reported. The controllable generation of different lengths and selective growth of the aligned CNT arrays on metal-patterned (e.g., Ag and Au) substrate are the bases for generating such 3D aligned CNTs architectures. By controlling experimental conditions 3D aligned CNT arrays with different lengths/densities and morphologies/structures as well as multi-layered architectures can be fabricated in large scale by multi-step pyrolysis of FePc. These 3D architectures could have interesting properties and be applied for developing novel nanotube-based devices.

  4. HoMuCS - A methodology and architecture for Holonic Multi-cell Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad

    it in practice. An iterative developmentprocess was used to obtain the empiricalbasis for the research work. This involved development of prototypes aimed at testing the feasibility of the theory and investigating its applicability. The main issue that the prototypes were tested for was their agile performance...... as the hypothesis of the research. Firstly that it is possible to realise holonic systems based on the HMS theory, specifically its reference architecture, and secondly that they are in fact agile. Itpresents the concept of a Holonic Multi-cell Control System system-architecture and corresponding methodology, which...... suggests a solution for realising an agile shop floor control system. The current state of the technological development of the HoMuCS architecture and methodology is described....

  5. LHCb: Fast Readout Control for the upgraded readout architecture of the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity with an upgraded LHCb detector. As a consequence, the various LHCb sub-systems in the readout architecture will be upgraded to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate, and higher readout load. The new architecture, new functionalities, and the first hardware implementation of a new LHCb Readout Control system (commonly referred to as S-TFC) for the upgraded LHCb experiment is here presented. Our attention is focused in describing solutions for the distribution of clock and timing information to control the entire upgraded readout architecture by profiting of a bidirectional optical network and powerful FPGAs, including a real-time mechanism to synchronize the entire system. Solutions and implementations are presented, together with first results on the simulation and the validation of the system.

  6. A flexible software architecture for tokamak discharge control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, J.R.; Penaflor, B.; Walker, M.L.; Moller, J.; Butner, D.

    1995-01-01

    The software structure of the plasma control system in use on the DIII-D tokamak experiment is described. This system implements control functions through software executing in real time on one or more digital computers. The software is organized into a hierarchy that allows new control functions needed to support the DIII-D experimental program to be added easily without affecting previously implemented functions. This also allows the software to be portable in order to create control systems for other applications. The tokamak operator uses an X-windows based interface to specify the time evolution of a tokamak discharge. The interface provides a high level view for the operator that reduces the need for detailed knowledge of the control system operation. There is provision for an asynchronous change to an alternate discharge time evolution in response to an event that is detected in real time. Quality control is enhanced through off-line testing that can make use of software-based tokamak simulators

  7. A framework for a architecture cognitive applied to the safety supervision in the nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, Kelling Cabral; Schirru, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    An architecture cognitive was developed as the start to the elaboration of a system for safety supervision. This architecture, that was made with a class of problem, was based in expert system theory. In this theory the inference motor is of the kind of backward chaining associated with a process of search in profundity and the representation of knowledge is based in rules that are grouped in a kind of grafo structure and include in the context of object orientation. A environment of test for this architecture was built to permit show its operation and in this way to indicate its potential utilization as basis for future nuclear power plant operation support systems. (author)

  8. Software Defined Networking (SDN) controlled all optical switching networks with multi-dimensional switching architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Ji, Yuefeng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hui; Xiong, Qianjin; Qiu, Shaofeng

    2014-08-01

    Ultrahigh throughout capacity requirement is challenging the current optical switching nodes with the fast development of data center networks. Pbit/s level all optical switching networks need to be deployed soon, which will cause the high complexity of node architecture. How to control the future network and node equipment together will become a new problem. An enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN) control architecture is proposed in the paper, which consists of Provider NOX (P-NOX) and Node NOX (N-NOX). With the cooperation of P-NOX and N-NOX, the flexible control of the entire network can be achieved. All optical switching network testbed has been experimentally demonstrated with efficient control of enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN). Pbit/s level all optical switching nodes in the testbed are implemented based on multi-dimensional switching architecture, i.e. multi-level and multi-planar. Due to the space and cost limitation, each optical switching node is only equipped with four input line boxes and four output line boxes respectively. Experimental results are given to verify the performance of our proposed control and switching architecture.

  9. Internal transport control in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing up internal transport schedules in pot plant production is a very complex task. Scheduling internal transport at the operational level and providing control on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis in particular requires a new approach. A hierarchical planning approach based on

  10. Control characteristics of inert gas recovery plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikawa, Hiroji; Kato, Yomei; Kamiya, Kunio

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulator and the control characteristics for a radioactive inert gas recovery plant which uses a cryogenic liquefying process. The simulator was developed to analyze the operational characteristics and is applicable to gas streams which contain nitrogen, argon, oxygen and krypton. The characteristics analysis of the pilot plant was performed after the accuracy of the simulator was checked using data obtained in fundamental experiments. The relationship between the reflux ratio and krypton concentration in the effluent gas was obtained. The decontamination factor is larger than 10 9 when the reflux ratio is more than 2. 0. The control characteristics of the plant were examined by changing its various parameters. These included the amount of gas to be treated, the heater power inside the evaporator and the liquid nitrogen level in the condenser. These characteristics agreed well with the values obtained in the pilot plant. The results show that the krypton concentration in the effluent gas increases when the liquid nitrogen level is decreased. However, in this case, the krypton concentration can be minimized by applying a feed forward control to the evaporator liquid level controller. (author)

  11. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

  12. Digital control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzon, B.

    1984-01-01

    This document presents the latest automatic control structures used in the programmable control systems of 13.00 MW nuclear power plants constructed by Electricite de France. The impact of this technological innovation goes beyond a straightforward design modification; in addition to the new range of processes made possible, it permits far-reaching changes in the working method employed at the design office and in the field. (author)

  13. Architecture of the Neurath Basic Model View Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yermashov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the Neurath Basic Model View Controller (NBMVC appeared during the discussion of the design of domain-specific modeling tools based on the Neurath Modeling Language [Yer06]. The NBMVC is the core of the modeling process within the modeling environment. It reduces complexity out of the design process by providing domain-specific interfaces between the developer and the model. These interfaces help to organize and manipulate the model. The organization includes, for example, a layer with visual components to drop them in and filter them out. The control routines includes, for example, model transformations.

  14. Wind Power Plant Control Optimisation with Incorporation of Wind Turbines and STATCOMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Kryezi, Fitim; Iov, Florin

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses a detailed design and tuning of a wind power plant slope voltage control with reactive power contribution of wind turbines and STATCOMS. First, small-signal models of a single wind turbine and the whole wind power plant are developed, being appropriate for voltage control...... assessment. An exemplary wind power plant located in the United Kingdom and the corresponding grid code requirements are used as a base case. The final design and tuning process of the voltage controller results in a guidance, proposed for this particular control architecture. It provides qualitative...... outcomes regarding the impact of system delays, grid conditions and various operating conditions of the wind power plant, with and without incorporation of STATCOMS....

  15. Design and simulation of a plant control system for a GCFR demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrine, E.A.; Greiner, H.G.

    1980-02-01

    A plant control system is being designed for a 300 MW(e) Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. Plant models and simulations are being developed to generate information necessary to further define control system requirements for subsequent plant design iterations

  16. Design and reliability analysis of DP-3 dynamic positioning control architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Wan, Lei; Jiang, Da-Peng; Xu, Yu-Ru

    2011-12-01

    As the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas proliferate throughout deepwater area, the requirements on the reliability of dynamic positioning system become increasingly stringent. The control objective ensuring safety operation at deep water will not be met by a single controller for dynamic positioning. In order to increase the availability and reliability of dynamic positioning control system, the triple redundancy hardware and software control architectures were designed and developed according to the safe specifications of DP-3 classification notation for dynamically positioned ships and rigs. The hardware redundant configuration takes the form of triple-redundant hot standby configuration including three identical operator stations and three real-time control computers which connect each other through dual networks. The function of motion control and redundancy management of control computers were implemented by software on the real-time operating system VxWorks. The software realization of task loose synchronization, majority voting and fault detection were presented in details. A hierarchical software architecture was planed during the development of software, consisting of application layer, real-time layer and physical layer. The behavior of the DP-3 dynamic positioning control system was modeled by a Markov model to analyze its reliability. The effects of variation in parameters on the reliability measures were investigated. The time domain dynamic simulation was carried out on a deepwater drilling rig to prove the feasibility of the proposed control architecture.

  17. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  18. Architecture and control of a high current ion implanter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, E.H.; Paul, L.F.; Kranik, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The design of an ion implant system for use in production requires that special attention be given to areas of design which normally are not emphasized on research or development type ion implanters. Manually operated, local controls are replaced by remote controls, automatic sequencing, and digital displays. For ease of maintenance and replication the individual components are designed as simply as possible and are contained in modules of separate identities, joined only by the beam line and electrical interconnections. A production environment also imposes requirements for the control of contamination and maintainability of clean room integrity. For that reason the major portion of the hardware is separated from the clean operator area and is housed in a maintenance core area. The controls of a production system should also be such that relatively unskilled technicians are able to operate the system with optimum repeatability and minimum operator intervention. An extensive interlock system is required. Most important, for use in production the ion implant system has to have a relatively high rate of throughput. Since the rate of throughput at a given dose is a function of beam current, pumpdown time and wafer handling capacity, design of components affecting these parameters has been optimized. Details of the system are given. (U.K.)

  19. Service-oriented architecture for the ARGOS instrument control software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, J.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Kulas, M.; Rabien, Sebastian

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Rayleigh Guided ground layer Adaptive optic System, ARGOS, equips the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with a constellation of six rayleigh laser guide stars. By correcting atmospheric turbulence near the ground, the system is designed to increase the image quality of the multi-object spectrograph LUCIFER approximately by a factor of 3 over a field of 4 arc minute diameter. The control software has the critical task of orchestrating several devices, instruments, and high level services, including the already existing adaptive optic system and the telescope control software. All these components are widely distributed over the telescope, adding more complexity to the system design. The approach used by the ARGOS engineers is to write loosely coupled and distributed services under the control of different ownership systems, providing a uniform mechanism to offer, discover, interact and use these distributed capabilities. The control system counts with several finite state machines, vibration and flexure compensation loops, and safety mechanism, such as interlocks, aircraft, and satellite avoidance systems.

  20. State Analysis: A Control Architecture View of Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the state analysis process is shown. The topics include: 1) Issues with growing complexity; 2) Limits of common practice; 3) Exploiting a control point of view; 4) A glimpse at the State Analysis process; 5) Synergy with model-based systems engineering; and 6) Bridging the systems to software gap.

  1. Material control for a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundquist, D.; Bray, G.; Donelson, S.; Glancy, J.; Gozani, T.; Harris, L.; McNamera, R.; Pence, D.; Ringham, M.

    1976-01-01

    Adequate control of special nuclear material (SNM) implies a basic knowledge of the quantities of SNM processed through or contained within a fuels processing facility with sufficient accuracy that diversion of the SNM for deleterious purposes can be detected in a timely manner. This report to the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) describes the primary process streams containing plutonium that are handled routinely within a spent fuel reprocessing plant and conversion facility. As an aid in implementing the objectives of the accountability system in a realistic situation, the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) reprocessing plant now under construction near Barnwell, South Carolina, was chosen as the study model. The AGNS plant processes are discussed in detail emphasizing those portions of the process that contain significant quantities of plutonium. The unit processes within the separations plant, nitrate storage, plutonium product facility and the analytical laboratory are described with regard to the SNM control system currently planned for use in the facilities. A general discussion of laboratory techniques, nondestructive assay and process instrumentation for plutonium process and product material from a reprocessing plant is included. A comprehensive discussion is given of holdup measurements in plutonium recycle facilities. A brief preliminary overview is presented of alternative processing strategies for LWR fuel. An extensive review and summary of modeling efforts for liquid-liquid extraction cycles is included. A comprehensive bibliography of previous modeling efforts is covered

  2. Control system upgrades support better plant economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grosbois, J.; Hepburn, A.; Storey, H.; Basso, R.; Kumar, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper (second in the series, see [1]) provides insight on how nuclear plants can achieve better efficiencies and reduced operations and maintenance (O and M) costs through focused control system upgrades. An understanding of this relationship is necessary to properly assess the economics of plant refurbishment decisions. Traditional economic feasibility assessment methods such as benefit cost analysis (BCA), internal rate of return (IRR), benefit cost ratios (B/C), or payback analysis are often performed without full consideration of project alternatives, quantified benefits, and life cycle costing. Consideration must be given to not only capital cost and project risk, but also to the potential economic benefits of new technology and added functionality offered by plant upgrades. Recent experience shows that if upgrades are focused on priority objectives, and are effectively implemented, they can deliver significant payback over the life of the plant, sometimes orders of magnitude higher than their initial capital cost. The following discussion explores some of the key issues and rationale behind upgrade decisions and their impact on improved plant efficiency and reduced O and M costs. A subsequent paper will explain how the justification for these improvements can be captured in an economic analysis and feasibility study to support strategic decision-making in a plant refurbishment context. (author)

  3. The perceptual control of goal-directed locomotion: a common control architecture for interception and navigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardenon, A; Montagne, G; Laurent, M; Bootsma, R J

    2004-09-01

    Intercepting a moving object while locomoting is a highly complex and demanding ability. Notwithstanding the identification of several informational candidates, the role of perceptual variables in the control process underlying such skills remains an open question. In this study we used a virtual reality set-up for studying locomotor interception of a moving ball. The subject had to walk along a straight path and could freely modify forward velocity, if necessary, in order to intercept-with the head-a ball moving along a straight path that led it to cross the agent's displacement axis. In a series of experiments we manipulated a local (ball size) and a global (focus of expansion) component of the visual flow but also the egocentric orientation of the ball. The experimental observations are well captured by a dynamic model linking the locomotor acceleration to properties of both global flow and egocentric direction. More precisely the changes in locomotor velocity depend on a linear combination of the change in bearing angle and the change in egocentric orientation, allowing the emergence of adaptive behavior under a variety of circumstances. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying the control of different goal-directed locomotion tasks (i.e. steering and interceptive tasks) could share a common architecture.

  4. Energy Management Systems and tertiary regulation in hierarchical control architectures for islanded micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, Eleonora Riva; Di Silvestre, Maria Luisa; Quang, Ninh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the structure of the highest level of a hierarchical control architecture for micro-grids is proposed. Such structure includes two sub-levels: the Energy Management System, EMS, and the tertiary regulation. The first devoted to energy resources allocation in each time slot based...

  5. Federated Access Control in Heterogeneous Intercloud Environment: Basic Models and Architecture Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Lee, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents on-going research to define the basic models and architecture patterns for federated access control in heterogeneous (multi-provider) multi-cloud and inter-cloud environment. The proposed research contributes to the further definition of Intercloud Federation Framework (ICFF)

  6. Flexible software architecture for user-interface and machine control in laboratory automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutunian, E B; Meldrum, D R; Friedman, N A; Moody, S E

    1998-10-01

    We describe a modular, layered software architecture for automated laboratory instruments. The design consists of a sophisticated user interface, a machine controller and multiple individual hardware subsystems, each interacting through a client-server architecture built entirely on top of open Internet standards. In our implementation, the user-interface components are built as Java applets that are downloaded from a server integrated into the machine controller. The user-interface client can thereby provide laboratory personnel with a familiar environment for experiment design through a standard World Wide Web browser. Data management and security are seamlessly integrated at the machine-controller layer using QNX, a real-time operating system. This layer also controls hardware subsystems through a second client-server interface. This architecture has proven flexible and relatively easy to implement and allows users to operate laboratory automation instruments remotely through an Internet connection. The software architecture was implemented and demonstrated on the Acapella, an automated fluid-sample-processing system that is under development at the University of Washington.

  7. Controllable thousand-port low-latency optical packet switch architecture for short link applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Lucente, S.; Nazarathy, J.; Raz, O.; Calabretta, N.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Bienstman, P.; Morthier, G.; Roelkens, G.; et al., xx

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of a low-latency optical packet switch architecture that is controllable while scaling to over thousand ports is investigated in this paper. Optical packet switches with thousand of input/output ports are promising devices to improve the performance of short link applications in

  8. Controlled phase gate for solid-state charge-qubit architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Oi, D.K.L.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a mechanism for realizing a controlled phase gate for solid-state charge qubits. By augmenting the positionally defined qubit with an auxiliary state, and changing the charge distribution in the three-dot system, we are able to effectively switch the Coulombic interaction, effecting an entangling gate. We consider two architectures, and numerically investigate their robustness to gate noise

  9. Local Design Methodologies for a Hierarchic Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-12

    regional (in the sense of knowledge and influence) controllers which are distributed throughout the structure [9,39,54,56,65,68]. Many decentralized...occurs, it is necessary that - gpk = gk > 0 (3.74) I which is true provided Hk > 0 and gt 0 0. These conditions will be met near a strong minimum, but...Astronautics, 19763 Semester spent at Leningrad State University, 1975 PROFESSIONAL SUMMARY Current major area of teaching and research is in the design and

  10. Epigenetic control of effectors in plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eGijzen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens display impressive versatility in adapting to host immune systems. Pathogen effector proteins facilitate disease but can become avirulence (Avr factors when the host acquires discrete recognition capabilities that trigger immunity. The mechanisms that lead to changes to pathogen Avr factors that enable escape from host immunity are diverse, and include epigenetic switches that allow for reuse or recycling of effectors. This perspective outlines possibilities of how epigenetic control of Avr effector gene expression may have arisen and persisted in plant pathogens, and how it presents special problems for diagnosis and detection of specific pathogen strains or pathotypes.

  11. Combined cycle plant controls retrofit case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, D.; Pieszchala, T.

    1991-01-01

    The Comanche Power Station, Public Service of Oklahoma's combined cycle generating facility, underwent a controls and operator panel retrofit at the end of 1988. The plant consists of two gas turbines, two heat recovery boilers and a steam turbine along with three generators. This paper examines the extent to which the original goals and specifications were met. Costs, operating principles and modifications since the original installation are discussed. Operating procedures are compared with the original system. The future of the plant is discussed and the impact on the power system grid is analyzed

  12. Angra nuclear plant - environmental control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Cruz, E.S. da

    1989-01-01

    The pre-operational studies, that were elaborated before the beginning of Angra I Power Plant operation, are described in particular the environmental radiological safety area till the fuel loading in the core reactor. Several aspects are included, as socio-economic survey, seismological analysis, Meteorological Program, marine biology, water cooling system, exposure measures of natural radiation, marine sediments characterization in the effluent dispersion area and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. The main environmental programs developed for the operational phase of the Angra I Plant are also presented, citing some considerations about the Meteorological Program, Marine Biology Control Program, Temperature and Chlorine Control in Piraquara de Fora Bay, Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program, Sanitary Effluent Control Program and Radiological Emergency Program. (C.G.C.). 2 refs

  13. CFD modelling and wind tunnel validation of airflow through plant canopies using 3D canopy architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endalew, A. Melese; Hertog, M.; Delele, M.A.; Baetens, K.; Persoons, T.; Baelmans, M.; Ramon, H.; Nicolai, B.M.; Verboven, P.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of pesticide application to agricultural fields and the resulting environmental contamination highly depend on atmospheric airflow. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of airflow within plant canopies using 3D canopy architecture was developed to understand the effect of the canopy to airflow. The model average air velocity was validated using experimental results in a wind tunnel with two artificial model trees of 24 cm height. Mean air velocities and their root mean square (RMS) values were measured on a vertical plane upstream and downstream sides of the trees in the tunnel using 2D hotwire anemometer after imposing a uniform air velocity of 10 m s -1 at the inlet. 3D virtual canopy geometries of the artificial trees were modelled and introduced into a computational fluid domain whereby airflow through the trees was simulated using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and k-ε turbulence model. There was good agreement of the average longitudinal velocity, U between the measurements and the simulation results with relative errors less than 2% for upstream and 8% for downstream sides of the trees. The accuracy of the model prediction for turbulence kinetic energy k and turbulence intensity I was acceptable within the tree height when using a roughness length (y 0 = 0.02 mm) for the surface roughness of the tree branches and by applying a source model in a porous sub-domain created around the trees. The approach was applied for full scale orchard trees in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and was compared with previous approaches and works. The simulation in the ABL was made using two groups of full scale orchard trees; short (h = 3 m) with wider branching and long (h = 4 m) with narrow branching. This comparison showed good qualitative agreements on the vertical profiles of U with small local differences as expected due to the spatial disparities in tree architecture. This work was able to show airflow within and above the

  14. Data acquisition, storage and control architecture for the SuperNova Acceleration Probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosser, Alan; Fermilab; Cardoso, Guilherme; Chramowicz, John; Marriner, John; Rivera, Ryan; Turqueti, Marcos; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) instrument is being designed to collect image and spectroscopic data for the study of dark energy in the universe. In this paper, we describe a distributed architecture for the data acquisition system which interfaces to visible light and infrared imaging detectors. The architecture includes the use of NAND flash memory for the storage of exposures in a file system. Also described is an FPGA-based lossless data compression algorithm with a configurable pre-scaler based on a novel square root data compression method to improve compression performance. The required interactions of the distributed elements with an instrument control unit will be described as well

  15. AziSA: An architecture for underground measurement and control networks - 2nd CSIR Biennial Conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stewart, R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available products from various manufacturers. SOLUTION The architecture that has been developed at the CSIR is called AziSA, an isiZulu word meaning ‘to inform’. The AziSA architecture AziSA is a specification for an open measurement and control network... for in-mine communications even if the link with the outside world is disrupted. This requirement for robustness implies that processing in the system must be distributed and not totally dependent on central coordination. Decisions should be made...

  16. Nuclear reactor plants and control systems therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Boer, G.A.; de Hex, M.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor plant is described comprising at least two hydraulically separated but thermally interconnected heat conveying circuits, of which one is the reactor circuit filled with a non-water medium and the other one is the water-steam-circuit equipped with a steam generator, a feed water conduit controlled by a valve and a steam turbine, and a control system mainly influenced by the pressure drop caused in said feed water conduit and its control valve and having a value of at least 10 bars at full load

  17. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this First Annual Technical Progress report summarizes the first year tasks while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. One major addendum report, authored by M.A. Schultz, describes the ultimate goals and projected structure of an automatic distributed control system for EBR-2. The remaining tasks of the project develop specific implementations of various components required to demonstrate the intelligent distributed control concept

  18. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F. [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  19. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  20. A metamorphic controller for plant control system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Klopot

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems in the design of industrial control systems is the selection and parameterization of the control algorithm. In practice, the most common solution is the PI (proportional-integral controller, which is simple to implement, but is not always the best control strategy. The use of more advanced controllers may result in a better efficiency of the control system. However, the implementation of advanced control algorithms is more time-consuming and requires specialized knowledge from control engineers. To overcome these problems and to support control engineers at the controller design stage, the paper describes a tool, i.e., a metamorphic controller with extended functionality, for selection and implementation of the most suitable control algorithm. In comparison to existing solutions, the main advantage of the metamorphic controller is its possibility of changing the control algorithm. In turn, the candidate algorithms can be tested through simulations and the total time needed to perform all simulations can be less than a few minutes, which is less than or comparable to the design time in the concurrent design approach. Moreover, the use of well-known tuning procedures, makes the system easy to understand and operate even by inexperienced control engineers. The application was implemented in the real industrial programmable logic controller (PLC and tested with linear and nonlinear virtual plants. The obtained simulation results confirm that the change of the control algorithm allows the control objectives to be achieved at lower costs and in less time.

  1. Multi-core System Architecture for Safety-critical Control Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang

    and size, and high power consumption. Increasing the frequency of a processor is becoming painful now due to the explosive power consumption. Furthermore, components integrated into a single-core processor have to be certified to the highest SIL, due to that no isolation is provided in a traditional single...... certification cost. Meanwhile, hardware platforms with improved processing power are required to execute the applications of larger size. To tackle the two issues mentioned above, the state of the art approaches are using more Electronic Control Units (ECU) in a federated architecture or increasing......-core processor. A promising alternative to improve processing power and provide isolation is to adopt a multi-core architecture with on-chip isolation. In general, a specific multi-core architecture can facilitate the development and certification of safety-related systems, due to its physical isolation between...

  2. 10 Management Controller for Time and Space Partitioning Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaize, Jerome; Deredempt, Marie-Helene; Galizzi, Julien

    2015-09-01

    The Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) has been industrialized in aeronautical domain to enable the independent qualification of different application softwares from different suppliers on the same generic computer, this latter computer being a single terminal in a deterministic network. This concept allowed to distribute efficiently and transparently the different applications across the network, sizing accurately the HW equipments to embed on the aircraft, through the configuration of the virtual computers and the virtual network. , This concept has been studied for space domain and requirements issued [D04],[D05]. Experiments in the space domain have been done, for the computer level, through ESA and CNES initiatives [D02] [D03]. One possible IMA implementation may use Time and Space Partitioning (TSP) technology. Studies on Time and Space Partitioning [D02] for controlling resources access such as CPU and memories and studies on hardware/software interface standardization [D01] showed that for space domain technologies where I/O components (or IP) do not cover advanced features such as buffering, descriptors or virtualization, CPU overhead in terms of performances is mainly due to shared interface management in the execution platform, and to the high frequency of I/O accesses, these latter leading to an important number of context switches. This paper will present a solution to reduce this execution overhead with an open, modular and configurable controller.

  3. Software architecture for control and data acquisition of linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groen, P.W.C.; Beveren, V. van; Broekema, A.; Busch, P.J.; Genuit, J.W.; Kaas, G.; Poelman, A.J.; Scholten, J.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An architecture based on a modular design. ► The design offers flexibility and extendability. ► The design covers the overall software architecture. ► It also covers its (sub)systems’ internal structure. -- Abstract: The FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research has completed the construction phase of Magnum-PSI, a magnetized, steady-state, large area, high-flux linear plasma beam generator to study plasma surface interactions under ITER divertor conditions. Magnum-PSI consists of several hardware subsystems, and a variety of diagnostic systems. The COntrol, Data Acquisition and Communication (CODAC) system integrates these subsystems and provides a complete interface for the Magnum-PSI users. Integrating it all, from the lowest hardware level of sensors and actuators, via the level of networked PLCs and computer systems, up to functions and classes in programming languages, demands a sound and modular software architecture, which is extendable and scalable for future changes. This paper describes this architecture, and the modular design of the software subsystems. The design is implemented in the CODAC system at the level of services and subsystems (the overall software architecture), as well as internally in the software subsystems

  4. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio - Generation 2 Security Architecture Lab Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannicca, Dennis C.; McKim, James H.; Stewart, David H.; Thadhani, Suresh K.; Young, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, in cooperation with Rockwell Collins, is working to develop a prototype Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) radio platform as part of NASA Integrated Systems Research Program's (ISRP) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. A primary focus of the project is to work with the FAA and industry standards bodies to build and demonstrate a safe, secure, and efficient CNPC architecture that can be used by industry to evaluate the feasibility of deploying a system using these technologies in an operational capacity. GRC has been working in conjunction with these groups to assess threats, identify security requirements, and to develop a system of standards-based security controls that can be applied to the current GRC prototype CNPC architecture as a demonstration platform. The security controls were integrated into a lab test bed mock-up of the Mobile IPv6 architecture currently being used for NASA flight testing, and a series of network tests were conducted to evaluate the security overhead of the controls compared to the baseline CNPC link without any security. The aim of testing was to evaluate the performance impact of the additional security control overhead when added to the Mobile IPv6 architecture in various modes of operation. The statistics collected included packet captures at points along the path to gauge packet size as the sample data traversed the CNPC network, round trip latency, jitter, and throughput. The effort involved a series of tests of the baseline link, a link with Robust Header Compression (ROHC) and without security controls, a link with security controls and without ROHC, and finally a link with both ROHC and security controls enabled. The effort demonstrated that ROHC is both desirable and necessary to offset the additional expected overhead of applying security controls to the CNPC link.

  5. Progress in XRCS-Survey plant instrumentation and control design for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Sanjeev; Jha, Shivakant; Simrock, Stefan; Barnsley, Robin; Martin, Vincent; Mishra, Sapna; Patil, Prabhakant; Patel, Shreyas; Kumar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An identification of the major process functions system compliant to Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH) has been made for XRCS-Survey plant I&C. • I&C Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) and Operation Procedure (OP) have been drafted using Enterprise architect (EA). • I&C architecture, interface with ITER networks and Plants, configuration of cubicles are discussed towards nine design review deliverables. - Abstract: A real time, plasma impurity survey system based on X-ray Crystal Spectroscopy (XRCS) has been designed for ITER and will be made available in the set of first plasma diagnostics for measuring impurity ion concentrations and their in-flux. For the purpose of developing a component level design of XRCS-Survey plant I&C system that is compliant to the rules and guidelines defined in the Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH), firstly an identification of the major process functions has been made. The preliminary plant I&C Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) and Operation Procedure (OP) have been drafted using a system engineering tool, Enterprise Architect (EA). Conceptual I&C architecture, interface with the ITER networks and other Plants have been discussed along with the basic configuration of I&C cubicles aiming towards nine I&C deliverables for the design review.

  6. Progress in XRCS-Survey plant instrumentation and control design for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeev.varshney@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, 382 428 (India); Jha, Shivakant [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, 382 428 (India); Simrock, Stefan; Barnsley, Robin; Martin, Vincent [ITER-Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul-Lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Mishra, Sapna [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, 382 428 (India); Patil, Prabhakant [ITER-Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul-Lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Patel, Shreyas; Kumar, Vinay [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, 382 428 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An identification of the major process functions system compliant to Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH) has been made for XRCS-Survey plant I&C. • I&C Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) and Operation Procedure (OP) have been drafted using Enterprise architect (EA). • I&C architecture, interface with ITER networks and Plants, configuration of cubicles are discussed towards nine design review deliverables. - Abstract: A real time, plasma impurity survey system based on X-ray Crystal Spectroscopy (XRCS) has been designed for ITER and will be made available in the set of first plasma diagnostics for measuring impurity ion concentrations and their in-flux. For the purpose of developing a component level design of XRCS-Survey plant I&C system that is compliant to the rules and guidelines defined in the Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH), firstly an identification of the major process functions has been made. The preliminary plant I&C Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) and Operation Procedure (OP) have been drafted using a system engineering tool, Enterprise Architect (EA). Conceptual I&C architecture, interface with the ITER networks and other Plants have been discussed along with the basic configuration of I&C cubicles aiming towards nine I&C deliverables for the design review.

  7. Customizable software architectures in the accelerator control system environment

    CERN Document Server

    Mejuev, I; Kadokura, E

    2001-01-01

    Tailoring is further evolution of an application after deployment in order to adapt it to requirements that were not accounted for in the original design. End-user customization has been extensively researched in applied computer science from HCI and software engineering perspectives. Customization allows coping with flexibility requirements, decreasing maintenance and development costs of software products. In general, dynamic or diverse software requirements constitute the need for implementing end-user customization in computer systems. In accelerator physics research the factor of dynamic requirements is especially important, due to frequent software and hardware modifications resulting in correspondingly high upgrade and maintenance costs. We introduce the results of feasibility study on implementing end-user tailorability in the software for accelerator control system, considering the design and implementation of a distributed monitoring application for the 12 GeV KEK Proton Synchrotron as an example. T...

  8. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of nuclear power plant control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The meeting was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna and was attended by 21 national delegates and observers from 18 countries. The present volume contains: (1) report on the meeting of the IWG-NPPCI, Vienna, 8-10 May 1989, (2) report of the scientific secretary on the major activities of IAEA during 1987-89 in the NPPCI area, (3) terms of reference International Working Group on NPPCI and (4) reports of the national representatives to the International Working Group on NPPCI. The paper and discussions with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economical aspects of the introduction of modern control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers presented by members of the International Working Group. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. 3D Plant Cell Architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae Using Focused Ion Beam–Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Focused ion beam–scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM combines the ability to sequentially mill the sample surface and obtain SEM images that can be used to create 3D renderings with micron-level resolution. We have applied FIB-SEM to study Arabidopsis cell architecture. The goal was to determine the efficacy of this technique in plant tissue and cellular studies and to demonstrate its usefulness in studying cell and organelle architecture and distribution. Methods: Seed aleurone, leaf mesophyll, stem cortex, root cortex, and petal lamina from Arabidopsis were fixed and embedded for electron microscopy using protocols developed for animal tissues and modified for use with plant cells. Each sample was sectioned using the FIB and imaged with SEM. These serial images were assembled to produce 3D renderings of each cell type. Results: Organelles such as nuclei and chloroplasts were easily identifiable, and other structures such as endoplasmic reticula, lipid bodies, and starch grains were distinguishable in each tissue. Discussion: The application of FIB-SEM produced 3D renderings of five plant cell types and offered unique views of their shapes and internal content. These results demonstrate the usefulness of FIB-SEM for organelle distribution and cell architecture studies.

  10. Nuclear fuel control in fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yoshitatsu

    1976-01-01

    The basic control problems of measuring uranium and of the environment inside and outside nuclear fuel fabrication plants are reviewed, excluding criticality prevention in case of submergence. The occurrence of loss scraps in fabrication and scrap-recycling, the measuring error, the uranium going cut of the system, the confirmation of the presence of lost uranium and the requirement of the measurement control for safeguard make the measurement control very complicated. The establishment of MBA (material balance area) and ICA (item control area) can make clearer the control of inventories, the control of loss scraps and the control of measuring points. Besides the above basic points, the following points are to be taken into account: 1) the method of confirmation of inventories, 2) the introduction of reliable NDT instruments for the rapid check system for enrichment and amount of uranium, 3) the introduction of real time system, and 4) the clarification of MUF analysis and its application to the reliability check of measurement control system. The environment control includes the controls of the uranium concentration in factory atmosphere, the surface contamination, the space dose rate, the uranium concentration in air and water discharged from factories, and the uranium in liquid wastes. The future problems are the practical restudy of measurement control under NPT, the definite plan of burglary protection and the realization of the disposal of solid wastes. (Iwakiri, K.)

  11. Control architecture for an adaptive electronically steerable flash lidar and associated instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Lyle; Craner, Jeremy; Harris, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    An Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar (ESFL), developed by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation, allows realtime adaptive control of configuration and data-collection strategy based on recent or concurrent observations and changing situations. This paper reviews, at a high level, some of the algorithms and control architecture built into ESFL. Using ESFL as an example, it also discusses the merits and utility such adaptable instruments in Earth-system studies.

  12. A Trusted Autonomic Architecture to Safeguard Cyber-Physical Control Leaf Nodes and Protect Process Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Chiluvuri, Nayana Teja

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems are networked through IT infrastructure and susceptible to malware. Threats targeting process control are much more safety-critical than traditional computing systems since they jeopardize the integrity of physical infrastructure. Existing defence mechanisms address security at the network nodes but do not protect the physical infrastructure if network integrity is compromised. An interface guardian architecture is implemented on cyber-physical control leaf nodes to mai...

  13. A universal bilateral manual controller utilizing a unique parallel architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevill, P.J.; Lovett, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1987, the Advanced Technology Division of the US Department of Energy has sponsored a team composed of four universities and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to pursue research leading to the development and deployment of an advanced robotic system. The tasks to be performed by this system will be those tasks that are hazardous to humans, that generate significant occupational radiation exposure, and those which can be performed more rapidly and more accurately by an automated system. An essential component of the program plan is the annual technology demonstration performed at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The scenario selected for the 1989 technology demonstration involved the cleanup of a spill of a simulated hazardous material. The demonstration utilized the seven-degrees-of-freedom CESARm manipulator, which is mounted aboard the HERMIES III transporter. The transporter traveled to the site of the simulated spill through an obstacle-strewn environment both under direct human control and autonomously, navigating by reference to the computer-stored world model. After arriving at the site of the spill, the vision system scanned and located the spill, thus determining its position in local and global coordinate frames. This information was used to generate a manipulator sweep pattern that resulted in the removal of the spilled material by a vacuum device

  14. Tailorable software architectures in the accelerator control system environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejuev, Igor; Kumagai, Akira; Kadokura, Eiichi

    2001-01-01

    Tailoring is further evolution of an application after deployment in order to adapt it to requirements that were not accounted for in the original design. End-user tailorability has been extensively researched in applied computer science from HCl and software engineering perspectives. Tailorability allows coping with flexibility requirements, decreasing maintenance and development costs of software products. In general, dynamic or diverse software requirements constitute the need for implementing end-user tailorability in computer systems. In accelerator physics research the factor of dynamic requirements is especially important, due to frequent software and hardware modifications resulting in correspondingly high upgrade and maintenance costs. In this work we introduce the results of feasibility study on implementing end-user tailorability in the software for accelerator control system, considering the design and implementation of distributed monitoring application for 12 GeV KEK Proton Synchrotron as an example. The software prototypes used in this work are based on a generic tailoring platform (VEDICI), which allows decoupling of tailoring interfaces and runtime components. While representing a reusable application-independent framework, VEDICI can be potentially applied for tailoring of arbitrary compositional Web-based applications

  15. OsPIN5b modulates rice (Oryza sativa) plant architecture and yield by changing auxin homeostasis, transport and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangwen; Coneva, Viktoriya; Casaretto, José A; Ying, Shan; Mahmood, Kashif; Liu, Fang; Nambara, Eiji; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    Plant architecture attributes such as tillering, plant height and panicle size are important agronomic traits that determine rice (Oryza sativa) productivity. Here, we report that altered auxin content, transport and distribution affect these traits, and hence rice yield. Overexpression of the auxin efflux carrier-like gene OsPIN5b causes pleiotropic effects, mainly reducing plant height, leaf and tiller number, shoot and root biomass, seed-setting rate, panicle length and yield parameters. Conversely, reduced expression of OsPIN5b results in higher tiller number, more vigorous root system, longer panicles and increased yield. We show that OsPIN5b is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) -localized protein that participates in auxin homeostasis, transport and distribution in vivo. This work describes an example of an auxin-related gene where modulating its expression can simultaneously improve plant architecture and yield potential in rice, and reveals an important effect of hormonal signaling on these traits. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. GiA Roots: software for the high throughput analysis of plant root system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Characterizing root system architecture (RSA) is essential to understanding the development and function of vascular plants. Identifying RSA-associated genes also represents an underexplored opportunity for crop improvement. Software tools are needed to accelerate the pace at which quantitative traits of RSA are estimated from images of root networks. Results We have developed GiA Roots (General Image Analysis of Roots), a semi-automated software tool designed specifically for the high-throughput analysis of root system images. GiA Roots includes user-assisted algorithms to distinguish root from background and a fully automated pipeline that extracts dozens of root system phenotypes. Quantitative information on each phenotype, along with intermediate steps for full reproducibility, is returned to the end-user for downstream analysis. GiA Roots has a GUI front end and a command-line interface for interweaving the software into large-scale workflows. GiA Roots can also be extended to estimate novel phenotypes specified by the end-user. Conclusions We demonstrate the use of GiA Roots on a set of 2393 images of rice roots representing 12 genotypes from the species Oryza sativa. We validate trait measurements against prior analyses of this image set that demonstrated that RSA traits are likely heritable and associated with genotypic differences. Moreover, we demonstrate that GiA Roots is extensible and an end-user can add functionality so that GiA Roots can estimate novel RSA traits. In summary, we show that the software can function as an efficient tool as part of a workflow to move from large numbers of root images to downstream analysis. PMID:22834569

  17. Plant parasite control and soil fauna diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Patrick; Blouin, Manuel; Boyer, Johnny; Cadet, Patrice; Laffray, Daniel; Pham-Thi, Anh-Thu; Reversat, Georges; Settle, William; Zuily, Yasmine

    2004-07-01

    The use of pesticides to control plant parasites and diseases has generated serious problems of public health and environmental quality, leading to the promotion of alternative Integrated Pest Management strategies that tend to rely more on natural processes and the active participation of farmers as observers and experimenters in their own fields. We present three case studies that point at different options provided by locally available populations of soil organisms, the maintenance of diverse populations of pests or increased resistance of plants to pest attacks by their interactions with earthworms and other useful soil organisms. These examples demonstrate the diversity of options offered by the non-planned agro-ecosystem diversity in pest control and the need to identify management options that maintain this biodiversity.

  18. Developing a real-time emulation of multiresolutional control architectures for complex, discrete-event systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.J.; Macro, J.G.; Brook, A.L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    This paper first discusses an object-oriented, control architecture and then applies the architecture to produce a real-time software emulator for the Rapid Acquisition of Manufactured Parts (RAMP) flexible manufacturing system (FMS). In specifying the control architecture, the coordinated object is first defined as the primary modeling element. These coordinated objects are then integrated into a Recursive, Object-Oriented Coordination Hierarchy. A new simulation methodology, the Hierarchical Object-Oriented Programmable Logic Simulator, is then employed to model the interactions among the coordinated objects. The final step in implementing the emulator is to distribute the models of the coordinated objects over a network of computers and to synchronize their operation to a real-time clock. The paper then introduces the Hierarchical Subsystem Controller as an intelligent controller for the coordinated object. The proposed approach to intelligent control is then compared to the concept of multiresolutional semiosis that has been developed by Dr. Alex Meystel. Finally, the plans for implementing an intelligent controller for the RAMP FMS are discussed.

  19. Multi-agent based distributed control architecture for microgrid energy management and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basir Khan, M. Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new multi-agent based distributed control architecture for energy management. • Multi-agent coordination based on non-cooperative game theory. • A microgrid model comprised of renewable energy generation systems. • Performance comparison of distributed with conventional centralized control. - Abstract: Most energy management systems are based on a centralized controller that is difficult to satisfy criteria such as fault tolerance and adaptability. Therefore, a new multi-agent based distributed energy management system architecture is proposed in this paper. The distributed generation system is composed of several distributed energy resources and a group of loads. A multi-agent system based decentralized control architecture was developed in order to provide control for the complex energy management of the distributed generation system. Then, non-cooperative game theory was used for the multi-agent coordination in the system. The distributed generation system was assessed by simulation under renewable resource fluctuations, seasonal load demand and grid disturbances. The simulation results show that the implementation of the new energy management system proved to provide more robust and high performance controls than conventional centralized energy management systems.

  20. Radiation control system of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapisovsky, V.; Kosa, M.; Melichar, Z.; Moravek, J.; Jancik, O.

    1977-01-01

    The SYRAK system is being developed for in-service radiation control of the V-1 nuclear power plant. Its basic components are an EC 1010 computer, a CAMAC system and communication means. The in-service release of radionuclides is measured by fuel can failure detection, by monitoring rare gases in the coolant, by gamma spectrometric coolant monitoring and by iodine isotopes monitoring in stack disposal. (O.K.)

  1. Protein Export According to Schedule: Architecture, Assembly, and Regulation of Type III Secretion Systems from Plant- and Animal-Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Flagellar and translocation-associated type III secretion (T3S) systems are present in most Gram-negative plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria and are often essential for bacterial motility or pathogenicity. The architectures of the complex membrane-spanning secretion apparatuses of both systems are similar, but they are associated with different extracellular appendages, including the flagellar hook and filament or the needle/pilus structures of translocation-associated T3S systems. The needle/pilus is connected to a bacterial translocon that is inserted into the host plasma membrane and mediates the transkingdom transport of bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. During the last 3 to 5 years, significant progress has been made in the characterization of membrane-associated core components and extracellular structures of T3S systems. Furthermore, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators that control T3S gene expression and substrate specificity have been described. Given the architecture of the T3S system, it is assumed that extracellular components of the secretion apparatus are secreted prior to effector proteins, suggesting that there is a hierarchy in T3S. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of T3S system components and associated control proteins from both plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria. PMID:22688814

  2. Evolution of Parallel Spindles Like genes in plants and highlight of unique domain architecture#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consiglio Federica M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidy has long been recognized as playing an important role in plant evolution. In flowering plants, the major route of polyploidization is suggested to be sexual through gametes with somatic chromosome number (2n. Parallel Spindle1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPS1 was recently demonstrated to control spindle orientation in the 2nd division of meiosis and, when mutated, to induce 2n pollen. Interestingly, AtPS1 encodes a protein with a FHA domain and PINc domain putatively involved in RNA decay (i.e. Nonsense Mediated mRNA Decay. In potato, 2n pollen depending on parallel spindles was described long time ago but the responsible gene has never been isolated. The knowledge derived from AtPS1 as well as the availability of genome sequences makes it possible to isolate potato PSLike (PSL and to highlight the evolution of PSL family in plants. Results Our work leading to the first characterization of PSLs in potato showed a greater PSL complexity in this species respect to Arabidopsis thaliana. Indeed, a genomic PSL locus and seven cDNAs affected by alternative splicing have been cloned. In addition, the occurrence of at least two other PSL loci in potato was suggested by the sequence comparison of alternatively spliced transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis on 20 Viridaeplantae showed the wide distribution of PSLs throughout the species and the occurrence of multiple copies only in potato and soybean. The analysis of PSLFHA and PSLPINc domains evidenced that, in terms of secondary structure, a major degree of variability occurred in PINc domain respect to FHA. In terms of specific active sites, both domains showed diversification among plant species that could be related to a functional diversification among PSL genes. In addition, some specific active sites were strongly conserved among plants as supported by sequence alignment and by evidence of negative selection evaluated as difference between non-synonymous and

  3. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant, cooperative control of heterogeneous mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  4. The implementation of common object request broker architecture (CORBA) for controlling robot arm via web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Mahamad Zuhdi Amin; Mohd Yazid Idris; Wan Mohd Nasir Wan Kadir

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the employment of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) technology in the implementation of our distributed Arm Robot Controller (ARC). CORBA is an industrial standard architecture based on distributed abstract object model, which is developed by Object Management Group (OMG). The architecture consists of five components i.e. Object Request Broker (ORB), Interface Definition Language (IDL), Dynamic Invocation Interface (DII), Interface Repositories (IR) and Object adapter (OA). CORBA objects are different from typical programming objects in three ways i.e. they can be executed on any platform, located anywhere on the network and written in any language that supports IDL mapping. In the implementation of the system, 5 degree of freedom (DOF) arm robot RCS 6.0 and Java as a programming mapping to the CORBA IDL. By implementing this architecture, the objects in the server machine can be distributed over the network in order to run the controller. the ultimate goal for our ARC system is to demonstrate concurrent execution of multiple arm robots through multiple instantiations of distributed object components. (Author)

  5. Controlled procurement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, I.S.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for establishing a controlled materials management system that facilitates materials procurement at nuclear power plants. This method is based on the determination of informational data requirements, appropriate input and approvals, and extent of administrative controls. Implementation of the techniques described herein will ensure that the accuracy of important procurement information is not compromised by unauthorized initial input or changes and/or failure to maintain the information. Needed material can thus be ordered through the materials management system with a high degree of confidence that the correct items are ordered, with minimal internal lead time and minimum delays during the receiving process

  6. Advances in quantum control of three-level superconducting circuit architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falci, G.; Paladino, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania (Italy); CNR-IMM UOS Universita (MATIS), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy); Di Stefano, P.G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania (Italy); Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast(United Kingdom); Ridolfo, A.; D' Arrigo, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania (Italy); Paraoanu, G.S. [Low Temperature Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science (Finland)

    2017-06-15

    Advanced control in Lambda (Λ) scheme of a solid state architecture of artificial atoms and quantized modes would allow the translation to the solid-state realm of a whole class of phenomena from quantum optics, thus exploiting new physics emerging in larger integrated quantum networks and for stronger couplings. However control solid-state devices has constraints coming from selection rules, due to symmetries which on the other hand yield protection from decoherence, and from design issues, for instance that coupling to microwave cavities is not directly switchable. We present two new schemes for the Λ-STIRAP control problem with the constraint of one or two classical driving fields being always-on. We show how these protocols are converted to apply to circuit-QED architectures. We finally illustrate an application to coherent spectroscopy of the so called ultrastrong atom-cavity coupling regime. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Reliable control system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tetsuo; Miyazaki, Shiro

    1980-01-01

    The System 1100 for nuclear power plants is the measuring and control system which utilizes the features of the System 1100 for electric power market in addition to the results of nuclear instrumentation with EBS-ZN series, and it has the following features. The maintenance and inspection in operation are easy. The construction of control loops is made flexibly by the combination of modules. The construction of multi-variable control system using mainly feed forward control is easy. Such functions as the automatic switching of control modes can be included. The switching of manual and automatic operations is easy, and if some trouble occurred in a module, the manual operation can be made. The aseismatic ability is improved by rigid structure cubicles. Nonflammable materials are used for wires, multi-core cables, paints and printed boards. The anti-noise characteristics are improved, and the reliability is high. The policy of developing the System 1100 for nuclear power plants, the type approval tests on modules and units and the type approval test on the system are described. The items of the system type approval test were standard performance test, earthquake test, noise isolation test, temperature and humidity test, and drift test. The aseismatic cubicle showed good endurance in its vibration test. (Kako, I.)

  8. Solar field control for desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, Lidia [Convenio Universidad de Almeria, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes s/n, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Berenguel, Manuel [Universidad de Almeria, Dpto. Lenguajes y Computacion, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Yebra, Luis; Alarcon-Padilla, Diego C. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes s/n, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper presents the development and application of a feedback linearization control strategy for a solar collector field supplying process heat to a multi-effect seawater distillation plant. Since one objective is to use as much as possible the solar resource, control techniques can be used to produce the maximum heat process in the solar field. The main purpose of the controller presented in this paper is to manipulate the water flow rate to maintain an outlet-inlet temperature gradient in the collectors, thereby ensuring continuous process heating, or in other words, continuous production of fresh water in spite of disturbances. The dynamic behaviour of this solar field was approximated by a simplified lumped-parameters nonlinear model based on differential equations, validated with real data and used in the feedback linearization control design. Experimental results in the seawater desalination plant at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain) show good agreement of the model and real data despite the approximations included. Moreover, by using feedback linearization control it is possible to track a constant gradient temperature reference in the solar field with good results. (author)

  9. Control System Architectures, Technologies and Concepts for Near Term and Future Human Exploration of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Richard; Overland, David

    2004-01-01

    Technologies that facilitate the design and control of complex, hybrid, and resource-constrained systems are examined. This paper focuses on design methodologies, and system architectures, not on specific control methods that may be applied to life support subsystems. Honeywell and Boeing have estimated that 60-80Y0 of the effort in developing complex control systems is software development, and only 20-40% is control system development. It has also been shown that large software projects have failure rates of as high as 50-65%. Concepts discussed include the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and design patterns with the goal of creating a self-improving, self-documenting system design process. Successful architectures for control must not only facilitate hardware to software integration, but must also reconcile continuously changing software with much less frequently changing hardware. These architectures rely on software modules or components to facilitate change. Architecting such systems for change leverages the interfaces between these modules or components.

  10. Combining a Multi-Agent System and Communication Middleware for Smart Home Control: A Universal Control Platform Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Song; Zhang, Qi; Zheng, Rong; Huang, Bi-Qin; Song, Yi-Lin; Chen, Xin-Chu

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the smart home field has gained wide attention for its broad application prospects. However, families using smart home systems must usually adopt various heterogeneous smart devices, including sensors and devices, which makes it more difficult to manage and control their home system. How to design a unified control platform to deal with the collaborative control problem of heterogeneous smart devices is one of the greatest challenges in the current smart home field. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a universal smart home control platform architecture (IAPhome) based on a multi-agent system and communication middleware, which shows significant adaptability and advantages in many aspects, including heterogeneous devices connectivity, collaborative control, human-computer interaction and user self-management. The communication middleware is an important foundation to design and implement this architecture which makes it possible to integrate heterogeneous smart devices in a flexible way. A concrete method of applying the multi-agent software technique to solve the integrated control problem of the smart home system is also presented. The proposed platform architecture has been tested in a real smart home environment, and the results indicate that the effectiveness of our approach for solving the collaborative control problem of different smart devices. PMID:28926957

  11. Combining a Multi-Agent System and Communication Middleware for Smart Home Control: A Universal Control Platform Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Song; Zhang, Qi; Zheng, Rong; Huang, Bi-Qin; Song, Yi-Lin; Chen, Xin-Chu

    2017-09-16

    In recent years, the smart home field has gained wide attention for its broad application prospects. However, families using smart home systems must usually adopt various heterogeneous smart devices, including sensors and devices, which makes it more difficult to manage and control their home system. How to design a unified control platform to deal with the collaborative control problem of heterogeneous smart devices is one of the greatest challenges in the current smart home field. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a universal smart home control platform architecture (IAPhome) based on a multi-agent system and communication middleware, which shows significant adaptability and advantages in many aspects, including heterogeneous devices connectivity, collaborative control, human-computer interaction and user self-management. The communication middleware is an important foundation to design and implement this architecture which makes it possible to integrate heterogeneous smart devices in a flexible way. A concrete method of applying the multi-agent software technique to solve the integrated control problem of the smart home system is also presented. The proposed platform architecture has been tested in a real smart home environment, and the results indicate that the effectiveness of our approach for solving the collaborative control problem of different smart devices.

  12. Combining a Multi-Agent System and Communication Middleware for Smart Home Control: A Universal Control Platform Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the smart home field has gained wide attention for its broad application prospects. However, families using smart home systems must usually adopt various heterogeneous smart devices, including sensors and devices, which makes it more difficult to manage and control their home system. How to design a unified control platform to deal with the collaborative control problem of heterogeneous smart devices is one of the greatest challenges in the current smart home field. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a universal smart home control platform architecture (IAPhome based on a multi-agent system and communication middleware, which shows significant adaptability and advantages in many aspects, including heterogeneous devices connectivity, collaborative control, human-computer interaction and user self-management. The communication middleware is an important foundation to design and implement this architecture which makes it possible to integrate heterogeneous smart devices in a flexible way. A concrete method of applying the multi-agent software technique to solve the integrated control problem of the smart home system is also presented. The proposed platform architecture has been tested in a real smart home environment, and the results indicate that the effectiveness of our approach for solving the collaborative control problem of different smart devices.

  13. Constructing an I and C Upgrade Architecture for Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yong Suk; Hur, Seop; Kim, Dong Hoon; Sung, Chan Ho; Kang, Hyun Tai; Lee, Jae Ki; Cho, Chang Hwan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents three architectures of the KSNP I and C upgrade. The architectures are constructed with an adoption of PLCs and DCS technology and 3-phase upgrade strategy. The 3-phase upgrade strategy is established to ensure the safety of the upgrade. Based on the architecture, the cabinet configuration is being constructed. From the configuration, it is expected to figure out how to optimize the layout of the cabinets. It is required to study the performance and safety design requirements of the upgrade further

  14. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basher, H.

    2003-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors

  15. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  16. Drought Response in Wheat: Key Genes and Regulatory Mechanisms Controlling Root System Architecture and Transpiration Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kulkarni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as, drought, heat, salinity, and flooding threaten global food security. Crop genetic improvement with increased resilience to abiotic stresses is a critical component of crop breeding strategies. Wheat is an important cereal crop and a staple food source globally. Enhanced drought tolerance in wheat is critical for sustainable food production and global food security. Recent advances in drought tolerance research have uncovered many key genes and transcription regulators governing morpho-physiological traits. Genes controlling root architecture and stomatal development play an important role in soil moisture extraction and its retention, and therefore have been targets of molecular breeding strategies for improving drought tolerance. In this systematic review, we have summarized evidence of beneficial contributions of root and stomatal traits to plant adaptation to drought stress. Specifically, we discuss a few key genes such as, DRO1 in rice and ERECTA in Arabidopsis and rice that were identified to be the enhancers of drought tolerance via regulation of root traits and transpiration efficiency. Additionally, we highlight several transcription factor families, such as, ERF (ethylene response factors, DREB (dehydration responsive element binding, ZFP (zinc finger proteins, WRKY, and MYB that were identified to be both positive and negative regulators of drought responses in wheat, rice, maize, and/or Arabidopsis. The overall aim of this review is to provide an overview of candidate genes that have been identified as regulators of drought response in plants. The lack of a reference genome sequence for wheat and non-transgenic approaches for manipulation of gene functions in wheat in the past had impeded high-resolution interrogation of functional elements, including genes and QTLs, and their application in cultivar improvement. The recent developments in wheat genomics and reverse genetics, including the availability of a

  17. A modular control architecture for real-time synchronous and asynchronous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.L.; Jones, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a control architecture for real-time control of complex robotic systems. The Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA), which is actually two complementary control systems, recognizes and exploits the differences between asynchronous and synchronous control. The asynchronous control system simulates shared memory on a heterogeneous network. For control information, a portable event-scheme is used. This scheme provides consistent interprocess coordination among multiple tasks on a number of distributed systems. The machines in the network can vary with respect to their native operating systems and the intemal representation of numbers they use. The synchronous control system is needed for tight real-time control of complex electromechanical systems such as robot manipulators, and the system uses multiple processors at a specified rate. Both the synchronous and asynchronous portions of MICA have been developed to be extremely modular. MICA presents a simple programming model to code developers and also considers the needs of system integrators and maintainers. MICA has been used successfully in a complex robotics project involving a mobile 7-degree-of-freedom manipulator in a heterogeneous network with a body of software totaling over 100,000 lines of code. MICA has also been used in another robotics system, controlling a commercial long-reach manipulator

  18. Optimal estimation and control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purviance, J.E.; Tylee, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    Optimal estimation and control theories offer the potential for more precise control and diagnosis of nuclear power plants. The important element of these theories is that a mathematical plant model is used in conjunction with the actual plant data to optimize some performance criteria. These criteria involve important plant variables and incorporate a sense of the desired plant performance. Several applications of optimal estimation and control to nuclear systems are discussed

  19. Proportional Load Sharing and Stability of DC Microgrid with Distributed Architecture Using SM Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rashad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DC microgrids look attractive in distribution systems due to their high reliability, high efficiency, and easy integration with renewable energy sources. The key objectives of the DC microgrid include proportional load sharing and precise voltage regulation. Droop controllers are based on decentralized control architectures which are not effective in achieving these objectives simultaneously due to the voltage error and load power variation. A centralized controller can achieve these objectives using a high speed communication link. However, it loses reliability due to the single point failure. Additionally, these controllers are realized through proportional integral (PI controllers which cannot ensure load sharing and stability in all operating conditions. To address limitations, a distributed architecture using sliding mode (SM controller utilizing low bandwidth communication is proposed for DC microgrids in this paper. The main advantages are high reliability, load power sharing, and precise voltage regulation. Further, the SM controller shows high robustness, fast dynamic response, and good stability for large load variations. To analyze the stability and dynamic performance, a system model is developed and its transversality, reachability, and equivalent control conditions are verified. Furthermore, the dynamic behavior of the modeled system is investigated for underdamped and critically damped responses. Detailed simulations are carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  20. Chromatin architecture: A new dimension in the dynamic control of gene expression

    KAUST Repository

    Ramirez Prado, Juan Sebastian; Rodriguez-Granados, Natalia Yaneth; Ariel, Federico; Raynaud, Cé cile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2016-01-01

    As the most recent evidence of eukaryotic cell complexity, genome architecture has astounded the scientific community and prompted a variety of technical and cognitive challenges. Several technologies have emerged and evidenced the integration of chromatin packaging and topology, epigenetic processes, and transcription for the pertinent regulation of gene expression. In the present addendum we present and discuss some of our recent research, directed toward the holistic comprehension of the processes by which plants respond to environmental and developmental stimuli. We propose that the study of genome topology and genomic interactions is essential for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind a phenotype. Even though our knowledge and understanding of genome architecture and hierarchy has improved substantially in the last few years -in Arabidopsis and other eukaryotes -, there is still a long way ahead in this relatively new field of study. For this, it is necessary to take advantage of the high resolution of the emerging available techniques, and perform integrative approaches with which it will be possible to depict the role of chromatin architecture in the regulation of transcription and ultimately, physiological processes.

  1. Chromatin architecture: A new dimension in the dynamic control of gene expression

    KAUST Repository

    Ramirez Prado, Juan Sebastian

    2016-09-10

    As the most recent evidence of eukaryotic cell complexity, genome architecture has astounded the scientific community and prompted a variety of technical and cognitive challenges. Several technologies have emerged and evidenced the integration of chromatin packaging and topology, epigenetic processes, and transcription for the pertinent regulation of gene expression. In the present addendum we present and discuss some of our recent research, directed toward the holistic comprehension of the processes by which plants respond to environmental and developmental stimuli. We propose that the study of genome topology and genomic interactions is essential for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind a phenotype. Even though our knowledge and understanding of genome architecture and hierarchy has improved substantially in the last few years -in Arabidopsis and other eukaryotes -, there is still a long way ahead in this relatively new field of study. For this, it is necessary to take advantage of the high resolution of the emerging available techniques, and perform integrative approaches with which it will be possible to depict the role of chromatin architecture in the regulation of transcription and ultimately, physiological processes.

  2. On the importance of controlling film architecture in detecting prostate specific antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Juliana Santos; Miyazaki, Celina Massumi; Shimizu, Flavio Makoto; Volpati, Diogo; Mejía-Salazar, J. R.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; Ferreira, Marystela

    2018-03-01

    Immunosensors made with nanostructured films are promising for detecting cancer biomarkers, even at early stages of the disease, but this requires control of film architecture to preserve the biological activity of immobilized antibodies. In this study, we used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to detect Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) with immunosensors produced with layer-by-layer (LbL) films containing anti-PSA antibodies in two distinct film architectures. The antibodies were either adsorbed from solutions in which they were free, or from solutions where they were incorporated into liposomes of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl glycerol (DPPG). Incorporation into DPPG liposomes was confirmed with surface plasmon resonance experiments, while the importance of electrostatic interactions on the electrical response was highlighted using the Finite Difference Time-Domain Method (FDTD). The sensitivity of both architectures was sufficient to detect the threshold value to diagnose prostate cancer (ca. 4 ng mL-1). In contrast to expectation, the sensor with the antibodies incorporated into DPPG liposomes had lower sensitivity, though the range of concentrations amenable to detection increased, according to the fitting of the EIS data using the Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption model. The performance of the two film architectures was compared qualitatively by plotting the data with a multidimensional projection technique, which constitutes a generic approach for optimizing immunosensors and other types of sensors.

  3. Transition in Gas Turbine Control System Architecture: Modular, Distributed, and Embedded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Controls systems are an increasingly important component of turbine-engine system technology. However, as engines become more capable, the control system itself becomes ever more constrained by the inherent environmental conditions of the engine; a relationship forced by the continued reliance on commercial electronics technology. A revolutionary change in the architecture of turbine-engine control systems will change this paradigm and result in fully distributed engine control systems. Initially, the revolution will begin with the physical decoupling of the control law processor from the hostile engine environment using a digital communications network and engine-mounted high temperature electronics requiring little or no thermal control. The vision for the evolution of distributed control capability from this initial implementation to fully distributed and embedded control is described in a roadmap and implementation plan. The development of this plan is the result of discussions with government and industry stakeholders

  4. A Flight Control System Architecture for the NASA AirSTAR Flight Test Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    A flight control system architecture for the NASA AirSTAR infrastructure has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. The AirSTAR flight control system provides a flexible framework that enables NASA Aviation Safety Program research objectives, and includes the ability to rapidly integrate and test research control laws, emulate component or sensor failures, inject automated control surface perturbations, and provide a baseline control law for comparison to research control laws and to increase operational efficiency. The current baseline control law uses an angle of attack command augmentation system for the pitch axis and simple stability augmentation for the roll and yaw axes.

  5. Control Architecture for Intentional Island Operation in Distribution Network with High Penetration of Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu

    , the feasibility of the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to ICA is studied, in order to improve the computation efficiency for ISR calculation. Finally, the integration of ICA into Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA), the ICA implementation, and the development of ICA are discussed....... to utilize them for maintaining the security of the power supply under the emergency situations, has been of great interest for study. One proposal is the intentional island operation. This PhD project is intended to develop a control architecture for the island operation in distribution system with high...... amount of DGs. As part of the NextGen project, this project focuses on the system modeling and simulation regarding the control architecture and recommends the development of a communication and information exchange system based on IEC 61850. This thesis starts with the background of this PhD project...

  6. Control of root system architecture by DEEPER ROOTING 1 increases rice yield under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uga, Yusaku; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Rane, Jagadish; Ishitani, Manabu; Hara, Naho; Kitomi, Yuka; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Ono, Kazuko; Kanno, Noriko; Inoue, Haruhiko; Takehisa, Hinako; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Kazutoshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    The genetic improvement of drought resistance is essential for stable and adequate crop production in drought-prone areas. Here we demonstrate that alteration of root system architecture improves drought avoidance through the cloning and characterization of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1), a rice quantitative trait locus controlling root growth angle. DRO1 is negatively regulated by auxin and is involved in cell elongation in the root tip that causes asymmetric root growth and downward bending of the root in response to gravity. Higher expression of DRO1 increases the root growth angle, whereby roots grow in a more downward direction. Introducing DRO1 into a shallow-rooting rice cultivar by backcrossing enabled the resulting line to avoid drought by increasing deep rooting, which maintained high yield performance under drought conditions relative to the recipient cultivar. Our experiments suggest that control of root system architecture will contribute to drought avoidance in crops.

  7. Emerging opportunities in enterprise integration with open architecture computer numerical controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Christopher A.

    1997-01-01

    The shift to open-architecture machine tool computer numerical controls is providing new opportunities for metal working oriented manufacturers to streamline the entire 'art to part' process. Production cycle times, accuracy, consistency, predictability and process reliability are just some of the factors that can be improved, leading to better manufactured product at lower costs. Open architecture controllers are allowing manufacturers to apply general purpose software and hardware tools increase where previous approaches relied on proprietary and unique hardware and software. This includes DNC, SCADA, CAD, and CAM, where the increasing use of general purpose components is leading to lower cost system that are also more reliable and robust than the past proprietary approaches. In addition, a number of new opportunities exist, which in the past were likely impractical due to cost or performance constraints.

  8. Parametric Approach to Assessing Performance of High-Lift Device Active Flow Control Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Active Flow Control is at present an area of considerable research, with multiple potential aircraft applications. While the majority of research has focused on the performance of the actuators themselves, a system-level perspective is necessary to assess the viability of proposed solutions. This paper demonstrates such an approach, in which major system components are sized based on system flow and redundancy considerations, with the impacts linked directly to the mission performance of the aircraft. Considering the case of a large twin-aisle aircraft, four distinct active flow control architectures that facilitate the simplification of the high-lift mechanism are investigated using the demonstrated approach. The analysis indicates a very strong influence of system total mass flow requirement on architecture performance, both for a typical mission and also over the entire payload-range envelope of the aircraft.

  9. L-py: an L-system simulation framework for modeling plant architecture development based on a dynamic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Frédéric; Pradal, Christophe; Cokelaer, Thomas; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The study of plant development requires increasingly powerful modeling tools to help understand and simulate the growth and functioning of plants. In the last decade, the formalism of L-systems has emerged as a major paradigm for modeling plant development. Previous implementations of this formalism were made based on static languages, i.e., languages that require explicit definition of variable types before using them. These languages are often efficient but involve quite a lot of syntactic overhead, thus restricting the flexibility of use for modelers. In this work, we present an adaptation of L-systems to the Python language, a popular and powerful open-license dynamic language. We show that the use of dynamic language properties makes it possible to enhance the development of plant growth models: (i) by keeping a simple syntax while allowing for high-level programming constructs, (ii) by making code execution easy and avoiding compilation overhead, (iii) by allowing a high-level of model reusability and the building of complex modular models, and (iv) by providing powerful solutions to integrate MTG data-structures (that are a common way to represent plants at several scales) into L-systems and thus enabling to use a wide spectrum of computer tools based on MTGs developed for plant architecture. We then illustrate the use of L-Py in real applications to build complex models or to teach plant modeling in the classroom.

  10. Control oriented concentrating solar power (CSP) plant model and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qi

    Solar receivers in concentrating solar thermal power plants (CSP) undergo over 10,000 start-ups and shutdowns, and over 25,000 rapid rate of change in temperature on receivers due to cloud transients resulting in performance degradation and material fatigue in their expected lifetime of over 30 years. The research proposes to develop a three-level controller that uses multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control technology to minimize the effect of these disturbances, improve plant performance, and extend plant life. The controller can be readily installed on any vendor supplied state-of-the-art control hardware. We propose a three-level controller architecture using multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control for CSP plants that can be implemented on existing plants to improve performance, reliability, and extend the life of the plant. This architecture optimizes the performance on multiple time scalesreactive level (regulation to temperature set points), tactical level (adaptation of temperature set points), and strategic level (trading off fatigue life due to thermal cycling and current production). This controller unique to CSP plants operating at temperatures greater than 550 °C, will make CSPs competitive with conventional power plants and contribute significantly towards the Sunshot goal of 0.06/kWh(e), while responding with agility to both market dynamics and changes in solar irradiance such as due to passing clouds. Moreover, our development of control software with performance guarantees will avoid early stage failures and permit smooth grid integration of the CSP power plants. The proposed controller can be implemented with existing control hardware infrastructure with little or no additional equipment. In the thesis, we demonstrate a dynamics model of CSP, of which different components are modelled with different time scales. We also show a real time control strategy of CSP control oriented model in steady state. Furthermore, we shown different controllers

  11. Control software architecture and operating modes of the Model M-2 maintenance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterlee, P.E. Jr.; Martin, H.L.; Herndon, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    The Model M-2 maintenance system is the first completely digitally controlled servomanipulator. The M-2 system allows dexterous operations to be performed remotely using bilateral force-reflecting master/slave techniques, and its integrated operator interface takes advantage of touch-screen-driven menus to allow selection of all possible operating modes. The control system hardware for this system has been described previously. This paper describes the architecture of the overall control system. The system's various modes of operation are identified, the software implementation of each is described, system diagnostic routines are described, and highlights of the computer-augmented operator interface are discussed. 3 references, 5 figures.

  12. The Architecture of the CMS Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Magrans de Abril, Marc; Hammer, Josef; Hartl, Christian; Xie, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of the Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring system for the CMS experiment is presented. This system has been installed and commissioned on the trigger online computers and is currently used for data taking at the LHC. This is a medium-size distributed system that runs over 40 PCs and 200 processes that control about 4000 electronic boards. It has been designed to handle the trigger configuration and monitoring during data taking as well as all communications with the main run control of CMS. Furthermore its design has foreseen the provision of the software infrastructure for detailed testing of the trigger system during beam down time.

  13. A Heterogeneous Multi-core Architecture with a Hardware Kernel for Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang; Guan, Wei; Sierszecki, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Rapid industrialisation has resulted in a demand for improved embedded control systems with features such as predictability, high processing performance and low power consumption. Software kernel implementation on a single processor is becoming more difficult to satisfy those constraints....... This paper presents a multi-core architecture incorporating a hardware kernel on FPGAs, intended for high performance applications in control engineering domain. First, the hardware kernel is investigated on the basis of a component-based real-time kernel HARTEX (Hard Real-Time Executive for Control Systems...

  14. Control software architecture and operating modes of the Model M-2 maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satterlee, P.E. Jr.; Martin, H.L.; Herndon, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    The Model M-2 maintenance system is the first completely digitally controlled servomanipulator. The M-2 system allows dexterous operations to be performed remotely using bilateral force-reflecting master/slave techniques, and its integrated operator interface takes advantage of touch-screen-driven menus to allow selection of all possible operating modes. The control system hardware for this system has been described previously. This paper describes the architecture of the overall control system. The system's various modes of operation are identified, the software implementation of each is described, system diagnostic routines are described, and highlights of the computer-augmented operator interface are discussed. 3 references, 5 figures

  15. High-Throughput Phenotyping and QTL Mapping Reveals the Genetic Architecture of Maize Plant Growth1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chenglong; Wu, Di; Qiao, Feng; Li, Wenqiang; Duan, Lingfeng; Wang, Ke; Xiao, Yingjie; Chen, Guoxing; Liu, Qian; Yang, Wanneng

    2017-01-01

    With increasing demand for novel traits in crop breeding, the plant research community faces the challenge of quantitatively analyzing the structure and function of large numbers of plants. A clear goal of high-throughput phenotyping is to bridge the gap between genomics and phenomics. In this study, we quantified 106 traits from a maize (Zea mays) recombinant inbred line population (n = 167) across 16 developmental stages using the automatic phenotyping platform. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping with a high-density genetic linkage map, including 2,496 recombinant bins, was used to uncover the genetic basis of these complex agronomic traits, and 988 QTLs have been identified for all investigated traits, including three QTL hotspots. Biomass accumulation and final yield were predicted using a combination of dissected traits in the early growth stage. These results reveal the dynamic genetic architecture of maize plant growth and enhance ideotype-based maize breeding and prediction. PMID:28153923

  16. Allogenic controls on the fluvial architecture and fossil preservation of the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Carina E.; Limarino, Carlos O.; Alcober, Oscar A.

    2017-12-01

    The Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation in NW Argentina was deposited in a fluvial system during the synrift filling of the extensional Ischigualasto-Villa Unión Basin. The expansive exposures of the fluvial architecture and paleosols provide a framework to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental evolution of this basin during the Upper Triassic using continental sequence stratigraphy. The Ischigualasto Formation deposition can be divided into seven sequential sedimentary stages: the 1) Bypass stage; 2) Confined low-accommodation stage; 3) Confined high accommodation stage; 4) Unstable-accommodation stage; 5) Unconfined high-accommodation stage; 6) Unconfined low-accommodation stage; and finally, 7) Unconfined high-accommodation stage. The sedimentary evolution of the Ischigualasto Formation was driven by different allogenic controls such as rises and falls in lake levels, local tectonism, subsidence, volcanism, and climate, which also produced modifications of the equilibrium profile of the fluvial systems. All of these factors result in different accommodations in central and flank areas of the basin, which led to different architectural configurations of channels and floodplains. Allogenic processes affected not only the sequence stratigraphy of the basin but also the vertebrate and plant taphocenosis. Therefore, the sequence stratigraphy can be used not only as a predictive tool related to fossil occurrence but also to understand the taphonomic history of the basin at each temporal interval.

  17. The plant cytoskeleton controls regulatory volume increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Qiao, Fei; Ismail, Ahmed; Chang, Xiaoli; Nick, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The ability to adjust cell volume is required for the adaptation to osmotic stress. Plant protoplasts can swell within seconds in response to hypoosmotic shock suggesting that membrane material is released from internal stores. Since the stability of plant membranes depends on submembraneous actin, we asked, whether this regulatory volume control depends on the cytoskeleton. As system we used two cell lines from grapevine which differ in their osmotic tolerance and observed that the cytoskeleton responded differently in these two cell lines. To quantify the ability for regulatory volume control, we used hydraulic conductivity (Lp) as readout and demonstrated a role of the cytoskeleton in protoplast swelling. Chelation of calcium, inhibition of calcium channels, or manipulation of membrane fluidity, did not significantly alter Lp, whereas direct manipulation of the cytoskeleton via specific chemical reagents, or indirectly, through the bacterial elicitor Harpin or activation of phospholipase D, was effective. By optochemical engineering of actin using a caged form of the phytohormone auxin we can break the symmetry of actin organisation resulting in a localised deformation of cell shape indicative of a locally increased Lp. We interpret our findings in terms of a model, where the submembraneous cytoskeleton controls the release of intracellular membrane stores during regulatory volume change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Information presentation in power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, A.

    1984-11-01

    The objective of this study is to support operators' work especially in the control rooms of power plant. The exemplified process is a pressurized water (nuclear) reactor (PWR). The man-process interface is an information system that covers information refining, information presentation, information system handling, and process control. THe emphasis in this study is on the organization and presentation of information and on the alert function that is part of the information system. Another goal is to design the alert function so as to radically reduce the number of alarms during plant shutdown, e.g. during the refuelling or maintenance period and during a disturbance. Further, the experimental validation of CFMS (Critical Function Monitoring System), developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. in the U.S.A. is described briefly. The validation was made at the Loviisa training simulator in the autumn of 1982. CFMS is a safety-related functional alarm system. The functional decomposition of information has turned out to be successful and it is helpful in designing displays. Preliminary criteria for designing displays, the structure of the information presentation system and the illustration of main interactions are presented. General practical ideas on designing the alert function seem very promising. Preliminary results of the CFMS validation are presented. Further, some ideas are presented on how to carry out the analysis and how to make such validations in the future. A new idea for the evaluation of core safety is presented, based on control theory concepts

  19. The architecture of the CMS Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System using UML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrans de Abril, Marc; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Lazaridis, Christos; Da Rocha Melo, Jose L; Hammer, Josef; Hartl, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring software system is presented. This system has been installed and commissioned on the trigger online computers and is currently used for data taking. It has been designed to handle the trigger configuration and monitoring during data taking as well as all communications with the main run control of CMS. Furthermore its design has foreseen the provision of the software infrastructure for detailed testing of the trigger system during beam down time. This is a medium-size distributed system that runs over 40 PCs and 200 processes that control about 4000 electronic boards. The architecture of this system is described using the industry-standard Universal Modeling Language (UML). This way the relationships between the different subcomponents of the system become clear and all software upgrades and modifications are simplified. The described architecture has allowed for frequent upgrades that were necessary during the commissioning phase of CMS when the trigger system evolved constantly. As a secondary objective, the paper provides a UML usage example and tries to encourage the standardization of the software documentation of large projects across the LHC and High Energy Physics community.

  20. The architecture of the CMS Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System using UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrans de Abril, Marc; Da Rocha Melo, Jose L.; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Hammer, Josef; Hartl, Christian; Lazaridis, Christos

    2011-12-01

    The architecture of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring software system is presented. This system has been installed and commissioned on the trigger online computers and is currently used for data taking. It has been designed to handle the trigger configuration and monitoring during data taking as well as all communications with the main run control of CMS. Furthermore its design has foreseen the provision of the software infrastructure for detailed testing of the trigger system during beam down time. This is a medium-size distributed system that runs over 40 PCs and 200 processes that control about 4000 electronic boards. The architecture of this system is described using the industry-standard Universal Modeling Language (UML). This way the relationships between the different subcomponents of the system become clear and all software upgrades and modifications are simplified. The described architecture has allowed for frequent upgrades that were necessary during the commissioning phase of CMS when the trigger system evolved constantly. As a secondary objective, the paper provides a UML usage example and tries to encourage the standardization of the software documentation of large projects across the LHC and High Energy Physics community.

  1. Process and technological options for odorous emissions control in wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernuschi, S.; Torretta, V.

    1996-01-01

    The emissions of odorous substances together with noise and issues related to proper architectural design within the existing territorial context, have certainly to be considered one of the most significant environmental effects determined by wastewater treatment plants particularly in the most frequent case of their localization in dense urban areas. Following a brief introduction on the chemical properties of odorous compounds and the corresponding methods for representing their concentration levels in air, present work reports on the main qualitative and quantitative characteristics of odorous emissions originating from single unit operations of typical wastewater treatment plants and on the technological and process options available for their control

  2. Optimization control of LNG regasification plant using Model Predictive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, A.; Adicandra, F. F.

    2018-03-01

    Optimization of liquified natural gas (LNG) regasification plant is important to minimize costs, especially operational costs. Therefore, it is important to choose optimum LNG regasification plant design and maintaining the optimum operating conditions through the implementation of model predictive control (MPC). Optimal tuning parameter for MPC such as P (prediction horizon), M (control of the horizon) and T (sampling time) are achieved by using fine-tuning method. The optimal criterion for design is the minimum amount of energy used and for control is integral of square error (ISE). As a result, the optimum design is scheme 2 which is developed by Devold with an energy savings of 40%. To maintain the optimum conditions, required MPC with P, M and T as follows: tank storage pressure: 90, 2, 1; product pressure: 95, 2, 1; temperature vaporizer: 65, 2, 2; and temperature heater: 35, 6, 5, with ISE value at set point tracking respectively 0.99, 1792.78, 34.89 and 7.54, or improvement of control performance respectively 4.6%, 63.5%, 3.1% and 58.2% compared to PI controller performance. The energy savings that MPC controllers can make when there is a disturbance in temperature rise 1°C of sea water is 0.02 MW.

  3. Synthesis of fixed-architecture, robust H 2 and H ∞ controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Jr. Emmanuel G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and compares the synthesis of fixed-architecture controllers that guarantee either robust H 2 or H ∞ performance. The synthesis is accomplished by solving a Riccati equation feasibility problem resulting from mixed structured singular value theory with Popov multipliers. Whereas the algorithm for robust H 2 performance had been previously implemented, a major contribution described in this paper is the implementation of the much more complex algorithm for robust H ∞ performance. Both robust H 2 and H ∞ , controllers are designed for a benchmark problem and a comparison is made between the resulting controllers and control algorithms. It is found that the numerical algorithm for robust H ∞ performance is much more computationally intensive than that for robust H 2 performance. Both controllers are found to have smaller bandwidth, lower control authority and to be less conservative than controllers obtained using complex structured singular value synthesis

  4. Synthesis of fixed-architecture, robust H2 and H∞ controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel G. Collins

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and compares the synthesis of fixed-architecture controllers that guarantee either robust H2 or H∞ performance. The synthesis is accomplished by solving a Riccati equation feasibility problem resulting from mixed structured singular value theory with Popov multipliers. Whereas the algorithm for robust H2 performance had been previously implemented, a major contribution described in this paper is the implementation of the much more complex algorithm for robust H∞ performance. Both robust H2 and H∞, controllers are designed for a benchmark problem and a comparison is made between the resulting controllers and control algorithms. It is found that the numerical algorithm for robust H∞ performance is much more computationally intensive than that for robust H2 performance. Both controllers are found to have smaller bandwidth, lower control authority and to be less conservative than controllers obtained using complex structured singular value synthesis.

  5. Dynamics and control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, M.; Mavko, B.; Aleksic, U.; Stritar, A.; Adrinek, R.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model of the power plant with a pressurized water reactor has been prepared and tested. The model is intended for a schematic simulator based on a digital computer. The results of the simulation run for various normal transients are in good agreement with literature data. Equipment for computer control of the experimental reactor TRIGA has been completed. The equipment includes two microcomputers and associated interface circuits. Presently, only data logging is performed. The analyses of random signals on the TRIGA reactor have been continued. Measurements of neutron flux, fuel temperature and cooling water duct have been performed

  6. Cascade plant control by timer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiguchi, Takashi; Inoue, Kotaro; Kawai, Toshio; Senoo, Makoto.

    1970-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of controlling uranium flow rate through a cascaded centrifuge plant for the purpose of enriching uranium 235. Such a cascade includes multiple gas separation stage each of which consists of a plurality of centrifuges. The product gas usually includes a large amount of He gas, and a cold trap is used to eliminate the He from UF 6 . The cold trap is operated periodically in such a way that the mixed gas of He and UF 6 is cooled to solidify only UF 6 and then warmed to obtain UF 6 by gasification. In order to operate the plant continuously, parallel multiple cold traps are operated alternatively. The operating conditions in such a complex cascade system are difficult to alter by conventional control methods. The present invention provides a rapid method of controlling the system when a certain percentage of the centrifuges in one stage malfunction. The control system consists of timers which are provided one for each cold trap to control the operational period of the trap. For example, if 20% of the centrifuges in a particular stage malfunction, the timer period of the cold traps attached to the normally operating centrifuge within the stage is maintained, and the period of all the other centrifuges are changed to 10/8 times that of the initial value. In this way the flow volume through all centrifuges except that in the particular stage is reduced to 80% of the initial value and the operation of the system can be continued with reduced efficiency. (Masui, R.)

  7. Emission Control Technologies for Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihalani, S. A.; Mishra, Y.; Juremalani, J.

    2018-03-01

    Coal thermal power plants are one of the primary sources of artificial air emissions, particularly in a country like India. Ministry of Environment and Forests has proposed draft regulation for emission standards in coal-fired power plants. This includes significant reduction in sulphur-dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and mercury emissions. The first step is to evaluate the technologies which represent the best selection for each power plant based on its configuration, fuel properties, performance requirements, and other site-specific factors. This paper will describe various technology options including: Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA), Circulating Dry Scrubber (CDS), Limestone-based Wet FGD, Low NOX burners, Selective Non Catalytic Reduction, Electrostatic Precipitator, Bag House Dust Collector, all of which have been evaluated and installed extensively to reduce SO2, NOx, PM and other emissions. Each control technology has its advantages and disadvantages. For each of the technologies considered, major features, potential operating and maintenance cost impacts, as well as key factors that contribute to the selection of one technology over another are discussed here.

  8. System architecture of Detector Control and safety for the ATLAS Inner Detector Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrere, D.; Kersten, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the current ATLAS Upgrade plan a new Inner Detector (ID) based upon silicon sensor technology is being considered. The operational monitoring and control of the ID will be very demanding. The Detector Control System (DCS) is a common tool that is essential for the operational safety of a system. Even at this early stage the DCS system architecture has to be defined such that it is well integrated and optimized for its later implementation and use. For example the DCS diagnostics for the front-end (FE) chips is a serious option being considered that needs an early requirement and specification definition. In addition one of the main constraints is the service reuse between the service patch panels of the ATLAS ID and the counting room that limits the number of electrical lines to be reused. Conceptual differences in terms of readout architecture and layout have been identified between the strip and the pixel detector that lead to two distinct architectures. Nevertheless, the limitation of available electrical lines going to the counting room as well as the low material budget requirements inside the ID volume are two major constraints that lead the ID to consider an on-detector radiation hard integrated circuitry for the slow control. At this stage of the project, the definitions of the logical actions and protocol for the ADCs of such a chip are still being specified. In addition the experience gained from the current ID will be essential for the guidance of tuning the future DCS architecture in the coming years.

  9. Optimal control of evaporator and washer plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Tests with radioactive tracers were used for experimental analysis of a multiple-effect evaporator plant. The residence time distribution of the liquor in each evaporator was described by one or two perfect mixers with time delay and by-pass flow terms. The theoretical model of a single evaporator unit was set up on the basis of its instantaneous heat and mass balances and such models were fitted to the test data. The results were interpreted in terms of physical structures of the evaporators. Further model parameters were evaluated by conventional step tests and by measurements of process variables at one or more steady states. Computer simulation and comparison with the experimental results showed that the model produces a satisfactory response to solids concentration input and could be extended to cover the steam feed and liquor flow inputs. An optimal feedforward control algorithm was developed for a two unit, co-current evaporator plant. The control criterion comprised the deviations of the final solids content of liquor and the consumption of fresh steam, from their optimal steady-state values. In order to apply the algorithm, the model of the solids in liquor was reduced to two nonlinear differential equations. (author)

  10. Software architecture for a multi-purpose real-time control unit for research purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, S.; Jung, R.; Jalba, K.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    A new, freely programmable, scalable control system for academic research purposes was developed. The intention was, to have a control unit capable of handling multiple PT1000 temperature sensors at reasonable accuracy and temperature range, as well as digital input signals and providing powerful output signals. To take full advantage of the system, control-loops are run in real time. The whole eight bit system with very limited memory runs independently of a personal computer. The two on board RS232 connectors allow to connect further units or to connect other equipment, as required in real time. This paper describes the software architecture for the third prototype that now provides stable measurements and an improvement in accuracy compared to the previous designs. As test case a thermal solar system to produce hot tap water and assist heating in a single-family house was implemented. The solar fluid pump was power-controlled and several temperatures at different points in the hydraulic system were measured and used in the control algorithms. The software architecture proved suitable to test several different control strategies and their corresponding algorithms for the thermal solar system.

  11. Control of Architecture in Rhombic Dodecahedral Pt–Ni Nanoframe Electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becknell, Nigel [Department; Materials; Son, Yoonkook [Department; Kim, Dohyung [Department; Li, Dongguo [Materials; Yu, Yi [Department; Niu, Zhiqiang [Department; Lei, Teng [Department; Sneed, Brian T. [Center; More, Karren L. [Center; Markovic, Nenad M. [Materials; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R. [Materials; Yang, Peidong [Department; Materials; Department; Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute, Berkeley, California 94720, United States

    2017-08-08

    Platinum-based alloys are known to demonstrate advanced properties in electrochemical reactions that are relevant for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and electrolyzers. Further development of Pt alloy electrocatalysts relies on the design of architectures with highly active surfaces and optimized utilization of the expensive elpment, Pt. Here, we show that the three-dimensional Pt anisotropy of Pt-Ni rhombic dodecahedra can be tuned by controlling the ratio between Pt and Ni precursors such that either a completely hollow nanoframe or a new architecture, the excavated nanoframe, can be obtained. The excavated nanoframe showed similar to 10 times higher specific and similar to 6 times higher mass activity for the oxygen reduction reaction than Pt/C, and twice the mass activity of the hollow nanoframe. The high activity is attributed to enhanced Ni content in the near-surface region and the extended two-dimensional sheet structure within the nanoframe that minimizes the number of buried Pt sites.

  12. Comparative assessment of instrumentation and control (I and C) system architectures for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Rah Man; Heo, Gyun Young; Son, Han Seong; Kim, Young Ki; Park, Jae Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Application of digital I and C has increased in nuclear industry since last two decades but lack of experience, innovative and naive nature of technology and insufficient failure information raised questions on its use. The issues has been highlighted due to the use of digital I and C which were not relevant to analog. These are the potential weakness of digital systems for Common Cause Failure, threat to system security and reliability due to inter channel communication, need for highly integrated control room and difficulty to assess the digital I and C reliability. In the existing scenario, HANARO and JRTR have hybrid I and C systems (digital plus analog) whereas OPAL is fully digitalized. In order to authenticate the choice of fully digital I and C architecture for research reactor, it is required to perform assessment from risk point of view, cyber security as well other issues. The architecture assessment method and restrictions are discussed in the next part of article

  13. Intelligent autonomy for unmanned marine vehicles robotic control architecture based on service-oriented agents

    CERN Document Server

    Insaurralde, Carlos C

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an Intelligent Control Architecture (ICA) to enable multiple collaborating marine vehicles to autonomously carry out underwater intervention missions. The presented ICA is generic in nature but aimed at a case study where a marine surface craft and an underwater vehicle are required to work cooperatively. It is shown that they are capable of cooperating autonomously towards the execution of complex activities since they have different but complementary capabilities. The ICA implementation is verified in simulation, and validated in trials by means of a team of autonomous marine robots. This book also presents architectural details and evaluation scenarios of the ICA, results of simulations and trials from different maritime operations, and future research directions.

  14. Automation and Control Learning Environment with Mixed Reality Remote Experiments Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico M. Schaf

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to the use of remotely web-based experiments to improve the learning process of automation and control systems theory courses. An architecture combining virtual learning environments, remote experiments, students guide and experiments analysis is proposed based on a wide state of art study. The validation of the architecture uses state of art technologies and new simple developed programs to implement the case studies presented. All implementations presented use an internet accessible virtual learning environment providing educational resources, guides and learning material to create a distance learning course associated with the remote mixed reality experiment. This work is part of the RExNet consortium, supported by the European Alfa project.

  15. Network based control point for UPnP QoS architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Wessing, Henrik; Rossello Busquet, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Enabling coexistence of non-UPnP Devices in an UPnP QoS Architecture is an important issue that might have a major impact on the deployment and usability of UPnP in future home networks. The work presented here shows potential issues of placing non-UPnP Device in the network managed by UPnP QoS. We...... address this issue by extensions to the UPnP QoS Architecture that can prevent non-UPnP Devices from degrading the overall QoS level. The obtained results show that deploying Network Based Control Point service with efficient traffic classifier, improves significantly the end-to-end packet delay...

  16. Comparative assessment of instrumentation and control (I and C) system architectures for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Rah Man; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Han Seong [Joongbu Univ., Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ki; Park, Jae Kwan [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Application of digital I and C has increased in nuclear industry since last two decades but lack of experience, innovative and naive nature of technology and insufficient failure information raised questions on its use. The issues has been highlighted due to the use of digital I and C which were not relevant to analog. These are the potential weakness of digital systems for Common Cause Failure, threat to system security and reliability due to inter channel communication, need for highly integrated control room and difficulty to assess the digital I and C reliability. In the existing scenario, HANARO and JRTR have hybrid I and C systems (digital plus analog) whereas OPAL is fully digitalized. In order to authenticate the choice of fully digital I and C architecture for research reactor, it is required to perform assessment from risk point of view, cyber security as well other issues. The architecture assessment method and restrictions are discussed in the next part of article.

  17. On the proposal of an intelligent support system with a cognitive architecture based on contextual modules for the operators of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Herculano Vieira; Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Schirru, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The operators' actions in a control room of a nuclear power plant are controlled by production rules in the emergency procedures of the operation manual. For each accident, there is a specific group of safety tasks composed of a set of specified actions. In this work we propose an intelligent support system based on a cognitive architecture composed of contextual modules, instead of functional modules. This approach consists on the determination of a task space, where we can define subspaces. In the subspaces where the set of values of the parameters is familiar, at least one of the rules in the procedural memory has its conditions completely satisfied. In this context, the proposed support system will be guided by an expert system, with a procedural memory composed of IF - THEN rules, that contains the input conditions with strict values of the parameters in the IF part, and a corresponding safety task in the THEN part. When the operator is in a situation in which the set of values of those variables falls in a non-familiar context, none of the rules in the procedural memory will have its conditions completely satisfied. In this context, it will be, then, utilized the connectionist part of the architecture, a fuzzy neural network (with radial activation functions), to classify the set of parameters and to choose a set of safety tasks applicable to the situation. The fuzzy logic provides an inference mechanism under uncertainty, while the neural network offers advantages of learning, adaptation, failure tolerance, parallelism and generalization. (author)

  18. High productivity of wheat intercropped with maize is associated with plant architectural responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, J.; Werf, van der W.; Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Evers, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed cultivation of crops often results in increased production per unit land area, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Plants in intercrops grow differently from plants in single crops; however, no study has shown the association between plant plastic responses and the yield

  19. Occupational dose control in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorsson, C.; Lochard, J.; Benedittini, M.; Baum, J.; Khan, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Reduction in occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is desirable not only in the interest of the health and safety of plant personnel, but also because it enhances the safety and reliability of the plants. This report summarises the current trends of doses to workers at nuclear power plants and the achievements and developments regarding methods for their reduction

  20. Design and Tuning of Wind Power Plant Voltage Controller with Embedded Application of Wind Turbines and STATCOMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Kryezi, Fitim; Iov, Florin

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses a detailed design and tuning of a wind power plant voltage control with reactive power contribution of wind turbines and static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs). First, small-signal models of a single wind turbine and STATCOM are derived by using the state-space approach....... A complete phasor model of the entire wind power plant is constructed, being appropriate for voltage control assessment. An exemplary wind power plant located in the United Kingdom and the corresponding grid code requirements are used as a base case. The final design and tuning process of the voltage...... controller results in a guidance, proposed for this particular control architecture. It provides qualitative outcomes regarding the parametrisation of each individual control loop and how to adjust the voltage controller depending on different grid stiffnesses of the wind power plant connection...

  1. Feedwater control system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuyama, Hideo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable switching operation for feedwater systems in a short time and with no fluctuations in the reactor water level by increasing or decreasing the flow rate in the feedwater systems during automatic operation by the amount of the fluctuations in the flow rate in the feedwater system during manual operation. Constitution: In a BWR type nuclear power plant having a plurality of feedwater systems to a nuclear reactor, a feedwater control system is constituted with a reactor water level controller, a M/A switcher for switching either of automatic flow rate demand signals or manual flow rate set signals from the reactor level controller to apply flow rate demand signals for each of the feedwater systems, a calculation device for calculating the flow rate set signals in the feedwater systems during manual operation and an adder for subtracting the flow rate set signals in the manual feedwater system calculated in the calculating device from the automatic flow rate demand signals for the feedwater systems during automatic operation. This enables rapid switching for the feedwater systems with no fluctuations in the reactor water level by increasing or decreasing the flow rate in the feedwater systems during automatic operation by the amount of fluctuations in the flow rate in the feedwater systems during manual operation and compensating the effects in upon manual and automatic switching by the M/A switcher. (Seki, T.)

  2. Instrumentation control system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Koi; Tai, Ichiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of instrumentation control system in a nuclear power plant by using an optical fiber cable as a transmission path between a multiplexer and a central control room to thereby eliminate noises resulted from electromagnetic inductions or the likes. Constitution: Signals from neutron detectors are sent by way of ceramic-insulated cables to pre-amplifiers disposed outside of the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor, converted into voltage pulse signals and then sent by way of coaxial cables to a multiplexer. The multiplexer receives a plurality of voltage pulse signals corresponding to the neutron detectors respectively, converts them into a time-shared electric signal train and sends it to an optical pulse transmitter. The transmitter converts the supplied signals into an optical pulse signal train corresponding to the electric signal train from the multiplexer and sends it by way of an optical fiber cable to an optical pulse receiver disposed in a central control room. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Plant status control - with an operational focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    In the Nuclear industry, we have done a very good job of designing, developing, constructing, and improving our nuclear facilities. We have, however, often been inconsistent in documenting the details of our facilities, clearly addressing the rules around facility operation, and controlling and tracking the temporary, or permanent changes to our facilities. The reality is, that once we build a facility, we then must operate the facility, for it to be viable. Further we must operate it safely and efficiently for the facility to produce its product, and be acceptable to the public. Unfortunately, when we design and build these large, complicated facilities, we cannot project all the nuances of facility operation, although we can recognize this potential gap, and prepare for it. In order to allow for the complexities of the real world, we must provide the individuals who are tasked with operating our nuclear facilities, with the tools and processes to deal with 'all the nuances' of facility operation. This discussion will focus on the concepts behind a key process for ensuring that we meet our design and operating needs for our facilities, as well as recognizing and dealing with the potential gaps. The key process is 'Plant Status Control', and the discussion will have a primary focus on the needs of the end users, that being the individuals that have the immediate and current accountability for control and safety of the facility, the equipment, the staff, and ultimately the public, that being our Operations staff, and the Shift Manager. (author)

  4. New technology in nuclear power plant instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The primary topic of this book is what can be done to improve nuclear power plant operation safety and the economic benefits that can be gained with the utilization of advance instrumentation and control technology. Other topics discussed are the industry's reluctance to accept new designs determining cost effective improvements, and difficulties in meeting regulatory standards with new technology control. The subjects will be useful when considering the area of instrumentation and control for enhancing plant operation and safety. Contents: Advanced Instrumention, Plant Control and Monitoring, Plant Diagnostics and Failure Detection, Human Factors Considerations in Instrumentation and Control, NRC and Industry Perspective on Advanced Instrumentation and Control

  5. Regulatory control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to support IAEA training courses and workshops in the field of regulatory control of nuclear power plants as well as to support the regulatory bodies of Member States in their own training activities. The target group is the professional staff members of nuclear safety regulatory bodies supervising nuclear power plants and having duties and responsibilities in the following regulatory fields: regulatory framework; regulatory organization; regulatory guidance; licensing and licensing documents; assessment of safety; and regulatory inspection and enforcement. Important topics such as regulatory competence and quality of regulatory work as well as emergency preparedness and public communication are also covered. The book also presents the key issues of nuclear safety such as 'defence-in-depth' and safety culture and explains how these should be taken into account in regulatory work, e.g. during safety assessment and regulatory inspection. The book also reflects how nuclear safety has been developed during the years on the basis of operating experience feedback and results of safety research by giving topical examples. The examples cover development of operating procedures and accident management to cope with complicated incidents and severe accidents to stress the importance of regulatory role in nuclear safety research. The main target group is new staff members of regulatory bodies, but the book also offers good examples for more experienced inspectors to be used as comparison and discussion basis in internal workshops organized by the regulatory bodies for refreshing and continuing training. The book was originally compiled on the basis of presentations provided during the two regulatory control training courses in 1997 and 1998. The textbook was reviewed at the beginning of the years 2000 and 2002 by IAEA staff members and consistency with the latest revisions of safety standards have been ensured. The textbook was completed in the

  6. Precision control of biogas plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.; Nielsen, Anders M.; Ward, A.J.

    2009-10-15

    The objective of the project has been to improve design and process stability in biogas plants. The results can be divided within the following main categories: 1) Pre-treatment, serial coupling of digesters and post digestion 2) Process inhibition 3) Process control Ad 1) This work has shown that extreme thermophilic pre-treatment of cattle manure and pig manure mixed with silage has a considerable effect on methane yield in a subsequent methanogenic reactor. Ad 2) The effect of ammonia inhibition was studied in a series of continuously stirred tank reactors co-digesting pig manure (40%) with the addition of solid fractions (60%) and increasing concentrations of ammonia caused by addition of NH{sub 4}Cl pulses. Ad 3) Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict liquid phase volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in three experiments treating three different materials: pig slurry with maize silage, chicken manure and cattle slurry.

  7. Improvement on reliability of control system in power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, S.; Mizumoto, T.; Hirose, Y.; Kashiwai, J.; Takami, I.; Shono, M.; Roji, Y.; Kizaki, S.

    1985-01-01

    Studies made of Japanese PWR operating experiences have revealed that failures in the control system are the primary causes of unscheduled shutdowns. An attempt has, therefore, been made to improve the reliability of the control system in order to raise the plant reliability. The following are the procedures applied to solve the issue; study of operating experiences, fault tree analysis and failure mode and effects analysis. Improvement measures are developed for the control system whose failure threatens to cause the plant trip during the plant life. These systems are the main feedwater control system, rod control system, pressurizer control system and main steam control system in the primary control system. As a result, the plant unavailability is expected to be reduced significantly by applying the improvements. The improvements are applied to the plants under construction and the operating plants in co-operation with utilities and vendors. (author)

  8. Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students' Plant-based Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensaff, Hannah; Homer, Matt; Sahota, Pinki; Braybrook, Debbie; Coan, Susan; McLeod, Helen

    2015-06-02

    With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study's purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents' food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad) the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students' food choice (218,796 transactions) enabled students' (980 students) selections to be examined. Students' food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks); intervention (six weeks); and post-intervention (three weeks). Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2%) χ(2)(2) = 68.1, p food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study's results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents' daily food choices.

  9. Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students’ Plant-based Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Ensaff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study’s purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents’ food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students’ food choice (218,796 transactions enabled students’ (980 students selections to be examined. Students’ food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks; intervention (six weeks; and post-intervention (three weeks. Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2% χ2(2 = 68.1, p < 0.001. Logistic regression modelling also revealed the independent effect of the intervention, with students 2.5 times as likely (p < 0.001 to select the designated food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study’s results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents’ daily food choices.

  10. A PRIVACY MANAGEMENT ARCHITECTURE FOR PATIENT-CONTROLLED PERSONAL HEALTH RECORD SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. NURUL HUDA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Patient-controlled personal health record systems can help make health care safer, cheaper, and more convenient by facilitating patients to 1 grant any care provider access to their complete personal health records anytime from anywhere, 2 avoid repeated tests and 3 control their privacy transparently. In this paper, we present the architecture of our Privacy-aware Patient-controlled Personal Health Record (P3HR system through which a patient can view her integrated health history, and share her health information transparently with others (e.g., healthcare providers. Access to the health information of a particular patient is completely controlled by that patient. We also carry out intuitive security and privacy analysis of the P3HR system architecture considering different types of security attacks. Finally, we describe a prototype implementation of the P3HR system that we developed reflecting the special view of Japanese society. The most important advantage of P3HR system over other existing systems is that most likely P3HR system provides complete privacy protection without losing data accuracy. Unlike traditional partially anonymous health records (e.g., using k-anonymity or l-diversity, the health records in P3HR are closer to complete anonymity, and yet preserve data accuracy. Our approach makes it very unlikely that patients could be identified by an attacker from their anonymous health records in the P3HR system.

  11. Analysis of control and management plane for hybrid fiber radio architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Pham, Tien Thang; Soler, José

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the existing Radio over Fiber (RoF) architectures and focuses on the control and management plane of the Remote Antenna Unit (RAU). Broadband wireless standards, such as WiMAX and LTE, incorporate optical technologies following the distributed base station concept. The control...... and management of the RAU becomes a critical task, since it can facilitate allocation of resources, configuration and upgrade of the remote unit and constant monitoring of its performance. In the case of baseband over fiber, two protocols (OBSAI and CPRI) introduce a well-defined control and management plane....... In the case of intermediate/radio frequency over fiber, this paper presents a simple approach, which can provide configurability and real-time monitoring of the RAU over the same optical link. This is realized by multiplexing high frequency user data with baseband frequency control data at the Central Office...

  12. Tricon hardware controller implementation of CANDU nuclear power plant shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the implementation of logic functions associated with the shutdown systems of CANDU nuclear power plants. The experimental aspects of this work include development of control program embedded in shutdown systems of CANDU based NPPs. A physical test environment is designed to simulate the measurements of in-core flux detector (ICFD) and ion chamber (I/C) signals. The programmable logic used in this experimentation provides Triple Modular Redundant (TMR) architecture as well as a voting mechanism used upon execution of control program on each independent channel. (author)

  13. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM-pre-treated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Dale, Bruce E.; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinct biomass types belonging to four different subgroups (i.e. monocot grasses, woody dicots, herbaceous dicots, and softwoods) were subjected to various regimes of AFEX™ (ammonia fiber expansion) pre-treatment [AFEX is a trademark of MBI, Lansing (http://www.mbi.org]. This approach allowed detailed analysis of close to 200 cell wall glycan epitopes and their relative extractability using a high-throughput platform. In general, irrespective of the phylogenetic origin, AFEX™ pre-treatment appeared to cause loosening and improved accessibility of various xylan epitope subclasses in most plant biomass materials studied. For most biomass types analysed, such loosening was also evident for other major non-cellulosic components including subclasses of pectin and xyloglucan epitopes. The studies also demonstrate that AFEX™ pre-treatment significantly reduced cell wall recalcitrance among diverse phylogenies (except softwoods) by inducing structural modifications to polysaccharides that were not detectable by conventional gross composition analyses. It was found that monitoring changes in cell wall glycan compositions and their relative extractability for untreated and pre-treated plant biomass can provide an improved understanding of variations in structure and composition of plant cell walls and delineate the role(s) of matrix polysaccharides in cell wall recalcitrance. PMID:25911738

  14. Performance test of nutrient control equipment for hydroponic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nurhaidar; Kuala, S. I.; Tribowo, R. I.; Anggara, C. E. W.; Susanti, N. D.

    2017-11-01

    Automatic control equipment has been made for the nutrient content in irrigation water for hydroponic plants. Automatic control equipment with CCT53200E conductivity controller to nutrient content in irrigation water for hydroponic plants, can be used to control the amount of TDS of nutrient solution in the range of TDS numbers that can be set according to the range of TDS requirements for the growth of hydroponically cultivated crops. This equipment can minimize the work time of hydroponic crop cultivators. The equipment measurement range is set between 1260 ppm up to 1610 ppm for spinach plants. Caisim plants were included in this experiment along with spinach plants with a spinach plants TDS range. The average of TDS device is 1450 ppm, while manual (conventional) is 1610 ppm. Nutrient solution in TDS controller has pH 5,5 and temperature 29,2 °C, while manual is pH 5,6 and temperature 31,3 °C. Manually treatment to hydroponic plant crop, yields in an average of 39.6 grams/plant, greater than the yield of spinach plants with TDS control equipment, which is in an average of 24.6 grams / plant. The yield of caisim plants by manual treatment is in an average of 32.3 grams/crop, less than caisim crop yields with TDS control equipment, which is in an average of 49.4 grams/plant.

  15. Reply to Miglietta et al.: Maximal transpiration controlled by plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.J. de; Lammertsma, E.I.; Wagner-Cremer, F.; Dilcher, D.L.; Wassen, M.J.; Dekker, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    We thank Miglietta et al. for their interest in our study. Their first and main point arises from the idea that plant transpiration (T) is driven by atmospheric demand, giving plants limited control over the water they lose...

  16. Phytoplasmal infection derails genetically preprogrammed meristem fate and alters plant architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Wei; Davis, Robert Edward; Nuss, Donald L.; Zhao, Yan

    2013-01-01

    In higher plants, the destiny of apical meristems (stem cells) is specific organogenesis, which determines the pattern of plant growth, and therefore morphotype and fertility. We found that bacterial infection can derail the meristems from their genetically preprogrammed destiny, altering plant morphogenesis. We identified four abnormal growth patterns, symptoms, in tomato infected with a cell wall-less bacterium, and found that each symptom corresponds to a distinct phase in meristem fate de...

  17. An Autonomous Sensor System Architecture for Active Flow and Noise Control Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, William M, Jr.; Culliton, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-channel sensor fusion represents a powerful technique to simply and efficiently extract information from complex phenomena. While the technique has traditionally been used for military target tracking and situational awareness, a study has been successfully completed that demonstrates that sensor fusion can be applied equally well to aerodynamic applications. A prototype autonomous hardware processor was successfully designed and used to detect in real-time the two-dimensional flow reattachment location generated by a simple separated-flow wind tunnel model. The success of this demonstration illustrates the feasibility of using autonomous sensor processing architectures to enhance flow control feedback signal generation.

  18. A Software Architecture for Control of Value Production in Federated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay S. Bayne

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Federated enterprises are defined as interactive commercial entities that produce products and consume resources through a network of open, free-market transactions. Value production in such entities is defined as the real-time computation of enterprise value propositions. These computations are increasingly taking place in a grid-connected space – a space that must provide for secure, real-time, reliable end-to-end transactions governed by formal trading protocols. We present the concept of a value production unit (VPU as a key element of federated trading systems, and a software architecture for automation and control of federations of such VPUs.

  19. Ectopic Expression of GsSRK in Medicago sativa Reveals Its Involvement in Plant Architecture and Salt Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhe; Qian, Xue; Chen, Chao; Cheng, Shufei; Jia, Bowei; Zhu, Yanming; Sun, Xiaoli

    2018-01-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLK) play fundamental roles in plant growth and stress responses. Compared with other RLKs, little information is provided concerning the S-locus LecRLK subfamily, which is characterized by an extracellular G-type lectin domain and an S-locus-glycop domain. Until now, the function of the G-type lectin domain is still unknown. In a previous research, we identified a Glycine soja S-locus LecRLK gene GsSRK , which conferred increased salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis . In this study, to investigate the role of the G-type lectin domain and to breed transgenic alfalfa with superior salt stress tolerance, we transformed the full-length GsSRK ( GsSRK-f ) and a truncated version of GsSRK ( GsSRK-t ) deleting the G-type lectin domain into alfalfa. Our results showed that overexpression of GsSRK-t , but not GsSRK-f , resulted in changes of plant architecture, as evidenced by more branches but shorter shoots of GsSRK-t transgenic alfalfa, indicating a potential role of the extracellular G-type lectin domain in regulating plant architecture. Furthermore, we also found that transgenic alfalfa overexpressing either GsSRK-f or GsSRK-t showed increased salt stress tolerance, and GsSRK-t transgenic alfalfa displayed better growth (more branches and higher fresh weight) than GsSRK-f lines under salt stress. In addition, our results suggested that both GsSRK-f and GsSRK-t were involved in ion homeostasis, ROS scavenging, and osmotic regulation. Under salt stress, the Na + content in the transgenic lines was significantly lower, while the K + content was slightly higher than that in WT. Moreover, the transgenic lines displayed reduced ion leakage and MDA content, but increased SOD activity and proline content than WT. Notably, no obvious difference in these physiological indices was observed between GsSRK-f and GsSRK-t transgenic lines, implying that deletion of the GsSRK G-type lectin domain does not affect its physiological function in salt

  20. Macrofouling control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekis, E.W. Jr.; Keoplin-Gall, S.M.; McCarthy, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Macrofouling of cooling-water systems is one of the more significant and costly problems encountered in the nuclear power industry. Both marine and freshwater macroinvertebrates can be responsible for losses in plant availability because of plugged intakes and heat transfer equipment. There is a greater diversity of macrofouling organisms in marine waters than in fresh waters. Marine macrofouling organisms include barnacles, mollusks, bryozoans, and hydroids. Barnacles are crustaceans with feathery appendages, which allow them to attach to a variety of surfaces. They are a major cause of severe macrofouling because they can remain attached even after death. The major freshwater macrofouling organisms include the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea) and the newest freshwater macrofouler, the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The introduction of the Zebra Mussel into the Great Lakes has created economic and ecological problems that will not easily be solved. The threat of intercontinental dispersal of the Zebra Mussel in America is serious. Research programs have been initiated around the country to develop control methods for this macrofouling problem. The various control methodologies can be classified in the following categories: biological, chemical, physical, and mechanical. Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of Actibrom against mature Zebra Mussels

  1. Control of power plants and power systems. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canales-Ruiz, R.

    1996-01-01

    The 88 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the International Federation of Automatic Control Symposium held in Mexico in 1995. The broad areas which they cover are: self tuning control; power plant operations; dynamic stability; fuzzy logic applications; power plants modelling; artificial intelligence applications; power plants simulation; voltage control; control of hydro electric units; state estimation; fault diagnosis and monitoring systems; system expansion and operation planning; security assessment; economic dispatch and optimal load flow; adaptive control; distribution; transient stability and preventive control; modelling and control of nuclear plant; knowledge data bases for automatic learning methods applied to power system dynamic security assessment; control of combined cycle units; power control centres. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers relating to nuclear power plants. (UK)

  2. Uprooting force balance for pioneer woody plants: A quantification of the relative contribution of above- and below-ground plant architecture to uprooting susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater-Reyes, S.; Wilcox, A. C.; Lightbody, A.; Skorko, K.; Stella, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Cottonwood (Populus), willow (Salix), and tamarisk (Tamarix) populate riparian areas in many dryland regions, and their recruitment depends heavily on hydrogeomorphic conditions. The survival of pioneer woody seedlings depends in part on the establishment of root systems capable of anchoring plants in subsequent floods, and this root system development in turn influences the cohesion that plants provide to bars. The factors influencing the anchoring ability and resistance to scour of woody seedlings include plant frontal area and flexibility, root structure, and water table elevation. This study aims to quantify the factors comprising the force balance to uproot woody seedlings and saplings in two field sites characterized by different hydrologic conditions. The Bill Williams River (AZ) is an impounded river with elevated water table elevations produced by dam-released base flows. The Bitterroot River (MT) is an unimpounded river with a snowmelt hydrograph and seasonal fluctuations in river and water table elevation. We simulate uprooting from flooding events by saturating substrates and applying force near the base of the plant in a lateral, downstream direction until uprooting occurs, for a range of plant sizes but with a focus on small (plants, with cottonwood and tamarisk seedlings showing greater variability than willow. In contrast, root length and stem diameter are only weakly correlated with pull-out force. By combining pull test results with measurements of geomorphic and groundwater conditions, this study provides insights into the relative contribution of a plant's above-ground and below-ground architecture to uprooting potential and into the feedbacks between vegetation and morphodynamics on river bars.

  3. Enhanced Engine Performance During Emergency Operation Using a Model-Based Engine Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and application of model-based engine control (MBEC) for use during emergency operation of the aircraft. The MBEC methodology is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) and features an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to estimate unmeasured engine parameters, which can then be used for control. During an emergency scenario, normally-conservative engine operating limits may be relaxed to increase the performance of the engine and overall survivability of the aircraft; this comes at the cost of additional risk of an engine failure. The MBEC architecture offers the advantage of estimating key engine parameters that are not directly measureable. Estimating the unknown parameters allows for tighter control over these parameters, and on the level of risk the engine will operate at. This will allow the engine to achieve better performance than possible when operating to more conservative limits on a related, measurable parameter.

  4. Adaptive Monitoring and Control Architectures for Power Distribution Grids over Heterogeneous ICT Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Hägerling, Christian; Kurtz, Fabian M.

    2014-01-01

    The expected growth in distributed generation will significantly affect the operation and control of today’s distribution grids. Being confronted with short time power variations of distributed generations, the assurance of a reliable service (grid stability, avoidance of energy losses) and the q......The expected growth in distributed generation will significantly affect the operation and control of today’s distribution grids. Being confronted with short time power variations of distributed generations, the assurance of a reliable service (grid stability, avoidance of energy losses...... to the reliability due to the stochastic behaviour found in such networks. Therefore, key concepts are presented in this paper targeting the support of proper smart grid control in these network environments. An overview on the required Information and Communication Technology (ICT) architecture and its...

  5. Actin based processes that could determine the cytoplasmic architecture of plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der H.S.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Actin polymerisation can generate forces that are necessary for cell movement, such as the propulsion of a class of bacteria, including Listeria, and the protrusion of migrating animal cells. Force generation by the actin cytoskeleton in plant cells has not been studied. One process in plant cells

  6. Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing predator abundance and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson

    2009-01-01

    As primary producers, plants are known to influence higher trophic interactions by initiating food chains. However, as architects, plants may bypass consumers to directly affect predators with important but underappreciated trophic ramifications. Invasion of western North American grasslands by the perennial forb, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa...

  7. Remote observing from the bottom up: the architecture of the WIYN telescope control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Jeffrey W.

    1995-06-01

    Remote observing has many definitions, ranging from unattended batch-mode use through simple remote logins to fully faithful off-site observing centers indistinguishable from the on- site telescope control room. There are problems with each of these ideas: batch mode operation, for example, precludes remote interactive target acquisition and remote access to targets of opportunity. Simple remote login suffers from network problems such as full-duplex character latency; shipping screens instead of the underlying data can cause bandwidth problems and interferes with analyzing or archiving data. Brute-force reproduction of the control room requires expensive fiber or satellite connections. The WIYN Telescope control system was designed to be inexpensive to build and inexpensive to maintain. We emphasized the use of standard tools, portable implementations, and network friendliness. These techniques and features are precisely those that underlie a powerful remote observing capability. The WIYN Telescope control system therefore supports remote observing from the very lowest levels, and does so effectively and inexpensively using a carefully planned architecture, standard software and network tools, and innovative methods to ship large digital images over low bandwidth connections such as phone lines. Even before the construction was complete, these techniques proved their value by allowing remote access for the purposes of eavesdropping, troubleshooting, and servo tuning. This paper presents a block diagram and detailed descriptions of the WIYN Telescope control system architecture. Each aspect of the control system is discussed with respect to its contribution to the overall goal of remote observing, including multi-user access, bandwidth conservation, interoperability, and portability.

  8. Power control of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Mendes, J.E. de

    1986-01-01

    The systems for the power control of the Nuclear Power Plant Angra 2 have a high degree of automation so that few operator actions are required during power operation. The power control strategy and the operation principles of the control systems, here presented, make possible a great flexibility of the Plant operation. (Author) [pt

  9. Plant control system upgrades in the context of industry trends towards plant life-extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grosbois, J.; Basso, R.; Hepburn, A.; Kumar, V.

    2002-01-01

    Domestic CANDU nuclear plants were brought online between 1972 and 1986. Over the next decade, most of these stations will be nearing the end of their designed operating life. Effort has traditionally been placed on ensuring that the existing installed plant control system equipment could operate reliably until the end of this design life. Until recently, little attention has been given to plant control system upgrades or replacements to meet the expected requirement for 30+ years of additional plant operation following potential plant refurbishments. Industry developments are changing this thinking. The combination of expected increases in electricity demand (and prices), and the many recent successful turnaround stories of U.S. nuclear power plants has resulted in new interest in plant life improvement and plant life extension programs. Plant control system upgrade decisions are now being driven by the need to replace or upgrade these systems to support plant life extension. This article is the first of several that investigate aspects of plant control system upgrades or replacement, specifically in the context of the CANDU station digital control computers (DCCs). It sets the context for the discussion in the subsequent articles by providing a brief review of industry trends favouring plant refurbishment, by outlining the basic issues of aging and obsolescence of control system equipment, by establishing the need for upgrades and replacements, and by introducing some of the basic challenges to be addressed by the industry as it moves forward. (author)

  10. Fault-tolerant architecture: Evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Kisner, R.A.

    1992-08-01

    The design and reliability of four fault-tolerant architectures that may be used in nuclear power plant control systems were evaluated. Two architectures are variations of triple-modular-redundant (TMR) systems, and two are variations of dual redundant systems. The evaluation includes a review of methods of implementing fault-tolerant control, the importance of automatic recovery from failures, methods of self-testing diagnostics, block diagrams of typical fault-tolerant controllers, review of fault-tolerant controllers operating in nuclear power plants, and fault tree reliability analyses of fault-tolerant systems

  11. Intelligent control system for nuclear power plant mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, A.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Crochon, E.; Vacherand, F.

    1991-01-01

    In order to fully optimize the efficiency of the perception and navigation components available on a mobile robot, the upper level of a mobile robot control requires intelligence support to unload the work of the teleoperator. This knowledge-based system has to manage a priori data such as the map of the workspace, the mission, the characteristics of sensors and robot, but also, the current environment state and the running mission. It has to issue a plan to drive the sensors to focus on relevant objects or to scan the environment and to select the best algorithms depending on the current situation. The environment workspace is a nuclear power plant building. The teleoperated robot is a mobile wheeled or legged vehicle that moves inside the different floors of the building. There are three types of mission: radio-activity survey, inspection and intervention. To perform these goals the robot must avoid obstacles, pass through doors, possibly climb stairs and recognize valves and pipes. The perception control system has to provide the operator with a synthetic view of the surroundings. It manages background tasks such as obstacle detection and free space map building, and specific tasks such as beacon recognition for odometry relocalization and valve detection for maintenance. To do this, the system solves perception resources conflicts, taking into account the current states of the sensors and the current conditions such as lightness or darkness, cluttered scenes, sensor failure. A perception plan is issued from the mission goals, planned path, relocalization requirements and available perception resources. Basically, the knowledge-based system is implemented on a blackboard architecture which includes two parts: a top-down planning part and a bottom-up perception part. The results of the perception are continuously sent to the operator who can trigger new perception actions. (author)

  12. A Heterogeneous Multi-core Architecture with a Hardware Kernel for Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang; Guan, Wei; Sierszecki, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Rapid industrialisation has resulted in a demand for improved embedded control systems with features such as predictability, high processing performance and low power consumption. Software kernel implementation on a single processor is becoming more difficult to satisfy those constraints. This pa......Rapid industrialisation has resulted in a demand for improved embedded control systems with features such as predictability, high processing performance and low power consumption. Software kernel implementation on a single processor is becoming more difficult to satisfy those constraints......). Second, a heterogeneous multi-core architecture is investigated, focusing on its performance in relation to hard real-time constraints and predictable behavior. Third, the hardware implementation of HARTEX is designated to support the heterogeneous multi-core architecture. This hardware kernel has...... several advantages over a similar kernel implemented in software: higher-speed processing capability, parallel computation, and separation between the kernel itself and the applications being run. A microbenchmark has been used to compare the hardware kernel with the software kernel, and compare...

  13. Nuclear power plant status diagnostics using a neural network with dynamic node architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is part of an ongoing project at Iowa State University to develop ANN based fault diagnostic systems to detect and classify operational transients at nuclear power plants. The project envisages the deployment of such an advisor at Iowa Electric Light and Power Company's Duane Arnold Energy Center nuclear power plant located at Palo, IA. This advisor is expected to make status diagnosis in real time, thus providing the operators with more time for corrective measures

  14. Computerized control and management at the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinka, J.; Korec, J.

    1992-01-01

    The proposed automation of the nuclear power plant control system includes a division of the control system into three hierarchic levels, supplemented with an additional level. These comprise the automated system of control of technological processes, the all-plant control of the power-generating process, the control of backup activities and of technical and economic activities, and top managerial control. The efficiency of the nuclear power plant operation, i.e. attainment of the maximum electricity output with minimum costs while securing the required safety, is the principal criterion in the design of the data model. Listed are tasks that would lend themselves to automation within the automated system of nuclear power plant control, and the basic scheme of their automation as follows from an analysis performed at the Temelin nuclear power plant. (Z.S). 2 figs., 2 refs

  15. Screen-based process control in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, W.; Arnoldt, C.; Hessler, C.

    1993-01-01

    Requirements, development and conceptual design of a screen-based control room for nuclear power plants are outlined. The control room consists of three or four equally equipped operator workstations comprising screens for process information and manual process control. A plant overview will assist the coordination among the operators. A safety classified backup system (safety control area) is provided to cover postulated failures of the control means. Some aspects of ergonomical validation and of future development trends are discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Architecture and performance of neural networks for efficient A/C control in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed A.; Ben-Nakhi, Abdullatif E.

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of using neural networks (NNs) for optimizing air conditioning (AC) setback scheduling in public buildings was investigated. The main focus is on optimizing the network architecture in order to achieve best performance. To save energy, the temperature inside public buildings is allowed to rise after business hours by setting back the thermostat. The objective is to predict the time of the end of thermostat setback (EoS) such that the design temperature inside the building is restored in time for the start of business hours. State of the art building simulation software, ESP-r, was used to generate a database that covered the years 1995-1999. The software was used to calculate the EoS for two office buildings using the climate records in Kuwait. The EoS data for 1995 and 1996 were used for training and testing the NNs. The robustness of the trained NN was tested by applying them to a 'production' data set (1997-1999), which the networks have never 'seen' before. For each of the six different NN architectures evaluated, parametric studies were performed to determine the network parameters that best predict the EoS. External hourly temperature readings were used as network inputs, and the thermostat end of setback (EoS) is the output. The NN predictions were improved by developing a neural control scheme (NC). This scheme is based on using the temperature readings as they become available. For each NN architecture considered, six NNs were designed and trained for this purpose. The performance of the NN analysis was evaluated using a statistical indicator (the coefficient of multiple determination) and by statistical analysis of the error patterns, including ANOVA (analysis of variance). The results show that the NC, when used with a properly designed NN, is a powerful instrument for optimizing AC setback scheduling based only on external temperature records

  17. Understanding how the complex molecular architecture of mannan-degrading hydrolases contributes to plant cell wall degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Rogowski, Artur; Zhao, Lei; Hahn, Michael G; Avci, Utku; Knox, J Paul; Gilbert, Harry J

    2014-01-24

    Microbial degradation of plant cell walls is a central component of the carbon cycle and is of increasing importance in environmentally significant industries. Plant cell wall-degrading enzymes have a complex molecular architecture consisting of catalytic modules and, frequently, multiple non-catalytic carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). It is currently unclear whether the specificities of the CBMs or the topology of the catalytic modules are the primary drivers for the specificity of these enzymes against plant cell walls. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between CBM specificity and their capacity to enhance the activity of GH5 and GH26 mannanases and CE2 esterases against intact plant cell walls. The data show that cellulose and mannan binding CBMs have the greatest impact on the removal of mannan from tobacco and Physcomitrella cell walls, respectively. Although the action of the GH5 mannanase was independent of the context of mannan in tobacco cell walls, a significant proportion of the polysaccharide was inaccessible to the GH26 enzyme. The recalcitrant mannan, however, was fully accessible to the GH26 mannanase appended to a cellulose binding CBM. Although CE2 esterases display similar specificities against acetylated substrates in vitro, only CjCE2C was active against acetylated mannan in Physcomitrella. Appending a mannan binding CBM27 to CjCE2C potentiated its activity against Physcomitrella walls, whereas a xylan binding CBM reduced the capacity of esterases to deacetylate xylan in tobacco walls. This work provides insight into the biological significance for the complex array of hydrolytic enzymes expressed by plant cell wall-degrading microorganisms.

  18. A Decentralized Control Architecture applied to DC Nanogrid Clusters for Rural Electrification in Developing Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasir, Mashood; Jin, Zheming; Khan, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    resources with the community. An adaptive I-V droop method is used which relies on local measurements of SOC and DC bus voltage for the coordinated power sharing among the contributing nanogrids. PV generation capability of individual nanogrids is synchronized with the grid stability conditions through......DC microgrids built through bottom-up approach are becoming very popular for swarm electrification due to their scalability and resource sharing capabilities. However, they typically require sophisticated control techniques involving communication among the distributed resources for stable...... and coordinated operation. In this work, we present a communication-less strategy for the decentralized control of a PV/battery-based highly distributed DC microgrid. The architecture consists of clusters of nanogrids (households), where each nanogrid can work independently along with provisions of sharing...

  19. Hierarchical tailoring of strut architecture to control permeability of additive manufactured titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Jones, D; Yue, S; Lee, P D; Jones, J R; Sutcliffe, C J; Jones, E

    2013-10-01

    Porous titanium implants are a common choice for bone augmentation. Implants for spinal fusion and repair of non-union fractures must encourage blood flow after implantation so that there is sufficient cell migration, nutrient and growth factor transport to stimulate bone ingrowth. Additive manufacturing techniques allow a large number of pore network designs. This study investigates how the design factors offered by selective laser melting technique can be used to alter the implant architecture on multiple length scales to control and even tailor the flow. Permeability is a convenient parameter that characterises flow, correlating to structure openness (interconnectivity and pore window size), tortuosity and hence flow shear rates. Using experimentally validated computational simulations, we demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to tailor implant properties by controlling surface roughness at a microstructual level (microns), and by altering the strut ordering and density at a mesoscopic level (millimetre). Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tracing a key player in the regulation of plant architecture: the columnar growth habit of apple trees (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Romina; Krost, Clemens

    2013-07-01

    Plant architecture is regulated by a complex interplay of some key players (often transcription factors), phytohormones and other signaling molecules such as microRNAs. The columnar growth habit of apple trees is a unique form of plant architecture characterized by thick and upright stems showing a compaction of internodes and carrying short fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. The molecular basis for columnar growth is a single dominant allele of the gene Columnar, whose identity, function and gene product are unknown. As a result of marker analyses, this gene has recently been fine-mapped to chromosome 10 at 18.51-19.09 Mb [according to the annotation of the apple genome by Velasco (2010)], a region containing a cluster of quantitative trait loci associated with plant architecture, but no homologs to the well-known key regulators of plant architecture. Columnar apple trees have a higher auxin/cytokinin ratio and lower levels of gibberellins and abscisic acid than normal apple trees. Transcriptome analyses corroborate these results and additionally show differences in cell membrane and cell wall function. It can be expected that within the next year or two, an integration of these different research methodologies will reveal the identity of the Columnar gene. Besides enabling breeders to efficiently create new apple (and maybe related pear, peach, cherry, etc.) cultivars which combine desirable characteristics of commercial cultivars with the advantageous columnar growth habit using gene technology, this will also provide new insights into an elevated level of plant growth regulation.

  1. Plant Control Concept for the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Kim, S. O.

    2010-12-01

    A power plant is designed for incorporation into a utility's grid system and follows the load demand through the steam generator, intermediate heat exchanger(IHX), from the nuclear core. During the load-following transients, various plant parameters must be controlled to protect the reactor core and other components in the plant. The purpose of this report is to review design considerations to establish SFR plant control and to design plant control concepts. The governing equations and solution procedure of the computer code to calculate plant temperature conditions during the part-load operation was reviewed and 4 types of plant operation concepts were designed, and the results of the calculations were compared

  2. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John C.; And Others

    This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

  3. Challenges in the Development and Evolution of Secure Open Architecture Command and Control Systems (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    widgets for an OA system Design-time architecture: Browser, email, widget, DB, OS Go ogle Instance architecture: Chrome, Gmail, Google...provides functionally similar components or applications compatible with an OA system design Firefox Browser, WP, calendar Opera Instance...architecture: Firefox , AbiWord, Evolution, Fedora GPL Ab1Word Google Docs Instance ardlitecture: Fire fox, OR Google cal., Google Docs, Fedora

  4. Improvement on main control room for Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumiya, Masayuki

    1996-01-01

    The main control room which is the information center of nuclear power plant has been continuously improved utilizing the state of the art ergonomics, a high performance computer, computer graphic technologies, etc. For the latest Japanese Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant, the CRT monitoring system is applied as the major information source for facilitating operators' plant monitoring tasks. For an operating plant, enhancement of monitoring and logging functions has been made adopting a high performance computer

  5. Modular Plug’n’Play Control Architectures for Three-phase Inverters in UPS Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chi; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a control strategy for the parallel operation of three-phase inverters in a modular online uninterruptable power supply (UPS) system is proposed. The UPS system is composed of a number for DC/ACs with LC filter connected to the same AC critical bus and an AC/DC that forms the DC bus...... the AC critical bus voltage. Detailed control architecture, regarding individual layer and recovery layer, are presented in this paper. Also an experimental setup was built to validate the proposed control approach under several scenarios-case study........ The proposed control is designated in two layers, individual layer and recovery layer. In individual layer, virtual impedance concept is employed in order to achieve active power sharing while individual reactive power is calculated to modify output voltage phases to achieve reactive power sharing among...... different modules. Recovery layer is mainly responsible for guaranteeing synchronization capability with the utility and voltage recovery. With the proposed control, improved voltage transient performance can be achieved and also DC/AC modules are allowed to be plugged in and out flexibly while controlling...

  6. Model-Based Engine Control Architecture with an Extended Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for model-based engine control (MBEC). Previously proposed MBEC architectures feature an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to produce estimates of both unmeasured engine parameters and estimates for the health of the engine. The success of this approach relies on the accuracy of the linear model and the ability of the optimal tuner to update its tuner estimates based on only a few sensors. Advances in computer processing are making it possible to replace the piece-wise linear model, developed off-line, with an on-board nonlinear model running in real-time. This will reduce the estimation errors associated with the linearization process, and is typically referred to as an extended Kalman filter. The nonlinear extended Kalman filter approach is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (C-MAPSS40k) and compared to the previously proposed MBEC architecture. The results show that the EKF reduces the estimation error, especially during transient operation.

  7. A SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Protein Controls Cytokinin Production through the Regulation of Chromatin Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Jé gu, Teddy; Domenichini, Sé verine; Blein, Thomas; Ariel, Federico; Christ, Auré lie; Kim, SoonKap; Crespi, Martin; Boutet-Mercey, Sté phanie; Mouille, Gré gory; Bourge, Mickaë l; Hirt, Heribert; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cé cile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin architecture determines transcriptional accessibility to DNA and consequently gene expression levels in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Recently, chromatin remodelers such as SWI/SNF complexes have been recognized as key regulators of chromatin architecture. To gain insight into the function of these complexes during root development, we have analyzed Arabidopsis knock-down lines for one sub-unit of SWI/SNF complexes: BAF60. Here, we show that BAF60 is a positive regulator of root development and cell cycle progression in the root meristem via its ability to down-regulate cytokinin production. By opposing both the deposition of active histone marks and the formation of a chromatin regulatory loop, BAF60 negatively regulates two crucial target genes for cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT3 and IPT7) and one cell cycle inhibitor (KRP7). Our results demonstrate that SWI/SNF complexes containing BAF60 are key factors governing the equilibrium between formation and dissociation of a chromatin loop controlling phytohormone production and cell cycle progression.

  8. Applying Service-Oriented Architecture to Archiving Data in Control and Monitoring Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogiec, J. M. [Fermilab; Trombly-Freytag, K. [Fermilab

    2017-01-01

    Current trends in the architecture of software systems focus our attention on building systems using a set of loosely coupled components, each providing a specific functionality known as service. It is not much different in control and monitoring systems, where a functionally distinct sub-system can be identified and independently designed, implemented, deployed and maintained. One functionality that renders itself perfectly to becoming a service is archiving the history of the system state. The design of such a service and our experience of using it are the topic of this article. The service is built with responsibility segregation in mind, therefore, it provides for reducing data processing on the data viewer side and separation of data access and modification operations. The service architecture and the details concerning its data store design are discussed. An implementation of a service client capable of archiving EPICS process variables (PV) and LabVIEW shared variables is presented. Data access tools, including a browser-based data viewer and a mobile viewer, are also presented.

  9. A SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Protein Controls Cytokinin Production through the Regulation of Chromatin Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Jégu, Teddy

    2015-10-12

    Chromatin architecture determines transcriptional accessibility to DNA and consequently gene expression levels in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Recently, chromatin remodelers such as SWI/SNF complexes have been recognized as key regulators of chromatin architecture. To gain insight into the function of these complexes during root development, we have analyzed Arabidopsis knock-down lines for one sub-unit of SWI/SNF complexes: BAF60. Here, we show that BAF60 is a positive regulator of root development and cell cycle progression in the root meristem via its ability to down-regulate cytokinin production. By opposing both the deposition of active histone marks and the formation of a chromatin regulatory loop, BAF60 negatively regulates two crucial target genes for cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT3 and IPT7) and one cell cycle inhibitor (KRP7). Our results demonstrate that SWI/SNF complexes containing BAF60 are key factors governing the equilibrium between formation and dissociation of a chromatin loop controlling phytohormone production and cell cycle progression.

  10. Recent progress in SG level control in French PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, A.; Petetrot, J.F.; Vivier, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    Controlling the steam generator (SG) level is of major importance in a large PWR plant. This has led to extensive work on SG computer models. This paper presents results of the comparison between calculations and tests on the first four-loop plant in France. Four-loop plants started up after 1985 will be equipped with digital instead of analog controllers. A new SG level control has been designed and then optimised using the validated SG model. A prototype of this new system has been successfully tested on a three-loop plant. 4 refs

  11. Retrofit of safety and control systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiper, J.T.; Fassett, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The modularity, compactness, compatibility, and licensability of the microcontrol system make it a cost-effective approach to obtain the benefits of digital control technology in the retrofit of nuclear power plants. Retrofit of individual loops or complete systems can be scheduled to meet the operational needs of the plant. The existing racks, panels, and cable systems can be utilized to the maximum extent to minimize the installed cost. Future expansion to total plant control or plant management is supported by the network communication module or gateway. The microcontrol module provides benefits now in improved operation, and future benefits in planned, controlled upgrading

  12. Architectural study of the design and operation of advanced force feedback manual controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert; Kim, Whee-Kuk

    1990-01-01

    A teleoperator system consists of a manual controller, control hardware/software, and a remote manipulator. It was employed in either hazardous or unstructured, and/or remote environments. In teleoperation, the main-in-the-loop is the central concept that brings human intelligence to the teleoperator system. When teleoperation involves contact with an uncertain environment, providing the feeling of telepresence to the human operator is one of desired characteristics of the teleoperator system. Unfortunately, most available manual controllers in bilateral or force-reflecting teleoperator systems can be characterized by their bulky size, high costs, or lack of smoothness and transparency, and elementary architectures. To investigate other alternatives, a force-reflecting, 3 degree of freedom (dof) spherical manual controller is designed, analyzed, and implemented as a test bed demonstration in this research effort. To achieve an improved level of design to meet criteria such as compactness, portability, and a somewhat enhanced force-reflecting capability, the demonstration manual controller employs high gear-ratio reducers. To reduce the effects of the inertia and friction on the system, various force control strategies are applied and their performance investigated. The spherical manual controller uses a parallel geometry to minimize inertial and gravitational effects on its primary task of transparent information transfer. As an alternative to the spherical 3-dof manual controller, a new conceptual (or parallel) spherical 3-dof module is introduced with a full kinematic analysis. Also, the resulting kinematic properties are compared to those of other typical spherical 3-dof systems. The conceptual design of a parallel 6-dof manual controller and its kinematic analysis is presented. This 6-dof manual controller is similar to the Stewart Platform with the actuators located on the base to minimize the dynamic effects. Finally, a combination of the new 3-dof and 6-dof

  13. Distributed control system for CANDU 9 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harber, J.E.; Kattan, M.K.; Macbeth, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Canadian designed CANDU pressurized heavy water nuclear reactors have been world leaders in electrical power generation. The CANDU 9 project is AECL's next reactor design. The CANDU 9 plant monitoring, annunciation, and control functions are implemented in two evolutionary systems; the distributed control system (DCS) and the plant display system (PDS). The CDS implements most of the plant control functions in a single hardware platform. The DCS communicates with the PDS to provide the main operator interface and annunciation capabilities of the previous control computer designs along with human interface enhancements required in a modern control system. (author)

  14. Application of digital control in Japanese PWR Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, S.; Kondo, Y.; Teranishi, S.; Matsumiya, M.; Takashima, M.; Nagai, T.

    1986-01-01

    More reliable and flexible control system to improve the plant availability and operability is constantly demanded. In order to answer the demands, digital control systems are being applied to Japanese PWR plants. Microprocessor-based digital control systems are widely used in other industries and show good performance. The digital control system has been already applied to the chemical and volume control system and the radioactive waste disposal system in the operating plants. These systems have been working as expected and demonstrating good performances. The digital control system for the reactor control system, which is the main control system of the PWR plants, is being developed. The design of the system has been already finished and the verification/validation process is now in progress

  15. Choosing Actuators for Automatic Control Systems of Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, A. I., E-mail: gor@tornado.nsk.ru [JSC “Tornado Modular Systems” (Russian Federation); Serdyukov, O. V. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation and Electrometry (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Two types of actuators for automatic control systems of thermal power plants are analyzed: (i) pulse-controlled actuator and (ii) analog-controlled actuator with positioning function. The actuators are compared in terms of control circuit, control accuracy, reliability, and cost.

  16. Backfitting of the nuclear plant V1 power control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpeta, C.; Rubek, J.; Stirsky, P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper deals with some aspects of implementation of modifications into the Czechoslovak nuclear plant V1 control system as called for on the basis of experience gained during the first period of the plant operation. Brief description of the plant power control system and its main functions is given. Some deficiencies in the system performance during abnormal conditions are outlined and measures taken to overcome them are presented. (author)

  17. Development of Rotational Smart Lighting Control System for Plant Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Won-Sub Lee; Sung-Gaun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Rotational Smart Lighting Control System can supply the quantity of lighting which is required to run plants by rotating few LED and Fluorescent instead of that are used in the existing plant factories.The initial installation of the existing plants factory is expensive, so in order to solve the problem with smart lighting control system was developed. The beam required intensity for the growth of crops, Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density(PPFD)is calculated; and the numbe...

  18. Process plant equipment operation, control, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Michael D; Onyewuenyi, Oliver A

    2012-01-01

    "Process Plant Equipment Book is another great publication from Wiley as a reference book for final year students as well as those who will work or are working in chemical production plants and refinery…" -Associate Prof. Dr. Ramli Mat, Deputy Dean (Academic), Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia "…give[s] readers access to both fundamental information on process plant equipment and to practical ideas, best practices and experiences of highly successful engineers from around the world… The book is illustrated throughout with numerous black & white p

  19. Automated detection and control of volunteer potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of manual labor are needed to control volunteer potato plants in arable fields. Due to the high costs, this leads to incomplete control of these weed plants, and they spread diseases like Phytophthora infestans to other fields. This results in higher environmental loads by curative

  20. An Advanced Electrospinning Method of Fabricating Nanofibrous Patterned Architectures with Controlled Deposition and Desired Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasel, Sheikh Md

    We introduce a versatile advanced method of electrospinning for fabricating various kinds of nanofibrous patterns along with desired alignment, controlled amount of deposition and locally variable density into the architectures. In this method, we employed multiple electrodes whose potentials have been altered in milliseconds with the help of microprocessor based control system. Therefore, key success of this method was that the electrical field as well as charge carrying fibers could be switched shortly from one electrode's location to another, as a result, electrospun fibers could be deposited on the designated areas with desired alignment. A wide range of nanofibrous patterned architectures were constructed using proper arrangement of multiple electrodes. By controlling the concurrent activation time of two adjacent electrodes, we demonstrated that amount of fibers going into the pattern can be adjusted and desired alignment in electrospun fibers can be obtained. We also revealed that the deposition density of electrospun fibers in different areas of patterned architectures can be varied. We showed that by controlling the deposition time between two adjacent electrodes, a number of functionally graded patterns can be generated with uniaxial alignment. We also demonstrated that this handy method was capable of producing random, aligned, and multidirectional nanofibrous mats by engaging a number of electrodes and switching them in desired patterns. A comprehensive study using finite element method was carried out to understand the effects of electrical field. Simulation results revealed that electrical field strength alters shortly based on electrode control switch patterns. Nanofibrous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds and its composite reinforced with wollastonite and wood flour were fabricated using rotating drum electrospinning technique. Morphological, mechanical, and thermal, properties were characterized on PVA/wollastonite and PVA/wood flour nanocomposites