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Sample records for controls cytoskeleton assembly

  1. Dimensionality controls cytoskeleton assembly and metabolism of fibroblast cells in response to rigidity and shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Ochsner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Various physical parameters, including substrate rigidity, size of adhesive islands and micro-and nano-topographies, have been shown to differentially regulate cell fate in two-dimensional (2-D cell cultures. Cells anchored in a three-dimensional (3-D microenvironment show significantly altered phenotypes, from altered cell adhesions, to cell migration and differentiation. Yet, no systematic analysis has been performed that studied how the integrated cellular responses to the physical characteristics of the environment are regulated by dimensionality (2-D versus 3-D.Arrays of 5 or 10 microm deep microwells were fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. The actin cytoskeleton was compared for single primary fibroblasts adhering either to microfabricated adhesive islands (2-D or trapped in microwells (3-D of controlled size, shape, and wall rigidity. On rigid substrates (Young's Modulus = 1 MPa, cytoskeleton assembly within single fibroblast cells occurred in 3-D microwells of circular, rectangular, square, and triangular shapes with 2-D projected surface areas (microwell bottom surface area and total surface areas of adhesion (microwell bottom plus wall surface area that inhibited stress fiber assembly in 2-D. In contrast, cells did not assemble a detectable actin cytoskeleton in soft 3-D microwells (20 kPa, regardless of their shapes, but did so on flat, 2-D substrates. The dependency on environmental dimensionality was also reflected by cell viability and metabolism as probed by mitochondrial activities. Both were upregulated in 3-D cultured cells versus cells on 2-D patterns when surface area of adhesion and rigidity were held constant.These data indicate that cell shape and rigidity are not orthogonal parameters directing cell fate. The sensory toolbox of cells integrates mechanical (rigidity and topographical (shape and dimensionality information differently when cell adhesions are confined to 2-D or occur in a 3-D space.

  2. Self-assembling enzymes and the origins of the cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Rachael; Gitai, Zemer

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial cytoskeleton is composed of a complex and diverse group of proteins that self-assemble into linear filaments. These filaments support and organize cellular architecture and provide a dynamic network controlling transport and localization within the cell. Here, we review recent discoveries related to a newly appreciated class of self-assembling proteins that expand our view of the bacterial cytoskeleton and provide potential explanations for its evolutionary origins. Specifically, several types of metabolic enzymes can form structures similar to established cytoskeletal filaments and, in some cases, these structures have been repurposed for structural uses independent of their normal role. The behaviors of these enzymes suggest that some modern cytoskeletal proteins may have evolved from dual-role proteins with catalytic and structural functions. PMID:22014508

  3. The plant cytoskeleton controls regulatory volume increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Qiao, Fei; Ismail, Ahmed; Chang, Xiaoli; Nick, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The ability to adjust cell volume is required for the adaptation to osmotic stress. Plant protoplasts can swell within seconds in response to hypoosmotic shock suggesting that membrane material is released from internal stores. Since the stability of plant membranes depends on submembraneous actin, we asked, whether this regulatory volume control depends on the cytoskeleton. As system we used two cell lines from grapevine which differ in their osmotic tolerance and observed that the cytoskeleton responded differently in these two cell lines. To quantify the ability for regulatory volume control, we used hydraulic conductivity (Lp) as readout and demonstrated a role of the cytoskeleton in protoplast swelling. Chelation of calcium, inhibition of calcium channels, or manipulation of membrane fluidity, did not significantly alter Lp, whereas direct manipulation of the cytoskeleton via specific chemical reagents, or indirectly, through the bacterial elicitor Harpin or activation of phospholipase D, was effective. By optochemical engineering of actin using a caged form of the phytohormone auxin we can break the symmetry of actin organisation resulting in a localised deformation of cell shape indicative of a locally increased Lp. We interpret our findings in terms of a model, where the submembraneous cytoskeleton controls the release of intracellular membrane stores during regulatory volume change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. GTPase activity, structure, and mechanical properties of filaments assembled from bacterial cytoskeleton protein MreB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esue, Osigwe; Wirtz, Denis; Tseng, Yiider

    2006-02-01

    MreB, a major component of the recently discovered bacterial cytoskeleton, displays a structure homologous to its eukaryotic counterpart actin. Here, we study the assembly and mechanical properties of Thermotoga maritima MreB in the presence of different nucleotides in vitro. We found that GTP, not ADP or GDP, can mediate MreB assembly into filamentous structures as effectively as ATP. Upon MreB assembly, both GTP and ATP release the gamma phosphate at similar rates. Therefore, MreB is an equally effective ATPase and GTPase. Electron microscopy and quantitative rheology suggest that the morphologies and micromechanical properties of filamentous ATP-MreB and GTP-MreB are similar. In contrast, mammalian actin assembly is favored in the presence of ATP over GTP. These results indicate that, despite high structural homology of their monomers, T. maritima MreB and actin filaments display different assembly, morphology, micromechanics, and nucleotide-binding specificity. Furthermore, the biophysical properties of T. maritima MreB filaments, including high rigidity and propensity to form bundles, suggest a mechanism by which MreB helical structure may be involved in imposing a cylindrical architecture on rod-shaped bacterial cells.

  5. Nuclear reactor control assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an assembly for providing global power control in a nuclear reactor having the core split into two halves. It comprises a disk assembly formed from at least two disks each machined with an identical surface hole pattern such that rotation of one disk relative to the other causes the hole pattern to open or close, the disk assembly being positioned substantially at the longitudinal center of and coaxial with the core halves; and means for rotating at least one of the disks relative to the other

  6. Gfi1b controls integrin signaling-dependent cytoskeleton dynamics and organization in megakaryocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, Hugues; Shooshtarizadeh, Peiman; Vadnais, Charles; Vassen, Lothar; Pastore, Yves D; Möröy, Tarik

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in GFI1B are associated with inherited bleeding disorders called GFI1B -related thrombocytopenias. We show here that mice with a megakaryocyte-specific Gfi1b deletion exhibit a macrothrombocytopenic phenotype along a megakaryocytic dysplasia reminiscent of GFI1B -related thrombocytopenia. GFI1B deficiency increases megakaryocyte proliferation and affects their ploidy, but also abrogates their responsiveness towards integrin signaling and their ability to spread and reorganize their cytoskeleton. Gfi1b -null megakaryocytes are also unable to form proplatelets, a process independent of integrin signaling. GFI1B-deficient megakaryocytes exhibit aberrant expression of several components of both the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, with a dramatic reduction of α-tubulin. Inhibition of FAK or ROCK, both important for actin cytoskeleton organization and integrin signaling, only partially restored their response to integrin ligands, but the inhibition of PAK, a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, completely rescued the responsiveness of Gfi1b -null megakaryocytes to ligands, but not their ability to form proplatelets. We conclude that Gfi1b controls major functions of megakaryocytes such as integrin-dependent cytoskeleton organization, spreading and migration through the regulation of PAK activity whereas the proplatelet formation defect in GFI1B-deficient megakaryocytes is due, at least partially, to an insufficient α-tubulin content. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  7. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  8. Distinct cytoskeleton populations and extensive crosstalk control Ciona notochord tubulogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Deng, Wei; Jiang, Di

    2011-04-01

    Cell elongation is a fundamental process that allows cells and tissues to adopt new shapes and functions. During notochord tubulogenesis in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, a dramatic elongation of individual cells takes place that lengthens the notochord and, consequently, the entire embryo. We find a novel dynamic actin- and non-muscle myosin II-containing constriction midway along the anteroposterior aspect of each notochord cell during this process. Both actin polymerization and myosin II activity are required for the constriction and cell elongation. Discontinuous localization of myosin II in the constriction indicates that the actomyosin network produces local contractions along the circumference. This reveals basal constriction by the actomyosin network as a novel mechanism for cell elongation. Following elongation, the notochord cells undergo a mesenchymal-epithelial transition and form two apical domains at opposite ends. Extracellular lumens then form at the apical surfaces. We show that cortical actin and Ciona ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) are essential for lumen formation and that a polarized network of microtubules, which contributes to lumen development, forms in an actin-dependent manner at the apical cortex. Later in notochord tubulogenesis, when notochord cells initiate a bi-directional crawling movement on the notochordal sheath, the microtubule network rotates 90° and becomes organized as parallel bundles extending towards the leading edges of tractive lamellipodia. This process is required for the correct organization of actin-based protrusions and subsequent lumen coalescence. In summary, we establish the contribution of the actomyosin and microtubule networks to notochord tubulogenesis and reveal extensive crosstalk and regulation between these two cytoskeleton components.

  9. The calcium feedback loop and T cell activation: how cytoskeleton networks control intracellular calcium flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Noah; Reicher, Barak; Barda-Saad, Mira

    2014-02-01

    During T cell activation, the engagement of a T cell with an antigen-presenting cell (APC) results in rapid cytoskeletal rearrangements and a dramatic increase of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentration, downstream to T cell antigen receptor (TCR) ligation. These events facilitate the organization of an immunological synapse (IS), which supports the redistribution of receptors, signaling molecules and organelles towards the T cell-APC interface to induce downstream signaling events, ultimately supporting T cell effector functions. Thus, Ca(2+) signaling and cytoskeleton rearrangements are essential for T cell activation and T cell-dependent immune response. Rapid release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, e.g. the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggers the opening of Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels, residing in the plasma membrane. These channels facilitate a sustained influx of extracellular Ca(2+) across the plasma membrane in a process termed store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). Because CRAC channels are themselves inhibited by Ca(2+) ions, additional factors are suggested to enable the sustained Ca(2+) influx required for T cell function. Among these factors, we focus here on the contribution of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. The TCR-mediated increase in intracellular Ca(2+) evokes a rapid cytoskeleton-dependent polarization, which involves actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) reorientation. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of Ca(2+) flux and cytoskeletal rearrangements, and further describe the way by which the cytoskeletal networks feedback to Ca(2+) signaling by controlling the spatial and temporal distribution of Ca(2+) sources and sinks, modulating TCR-dependent Ca(2+) signals, which are required for an appropriate T cell response. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Reciprocal influences between cell cytoskeleton and membrane channels, receptors and transporters

  10. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  11. Organization of cytoskeleton controls the changes in cytosolic calcium of cold-shocked Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazars, C; Thion, L; Thuleau, P; Graziana, A; Knight, M R; Moreau, M; Ranjeva, R

    1997-11-01

    Using Nicotiana plumbaginifolia constitutively expressing the recombinant bioluminescent calcium indicator, aequorin, it has been previously demonstrated that plant cells react to cold-shock by an immediate rise in cytosolic calcium. Such an opportune system has been exploited to address the regulatory pathway involved in the calcium response. For this purpose, we have used protoplasts derived from N. plumbaginifolia leaves that behave as the whole plant but with a better reproducibility. By both immunodetecting cytoskeletal components on membrane ghosts and measuring the relative change in cytosolic calcium, we demonstrate that the organization of the cytoskeleton has profound influences on the calcium response. The disruption of the microtubule meshwork by various active drugs, such as colchicin, oryzalin and vinblastin, leads to an important increase in the cytosolic calcium (up to 400 nM) in cold-shocked protoplasts over control. beta-Lumicolchicin, an inactive analogue of colchicin, is ineffective either on cytoplasmic calcium increase or on microtubule organization. A microfilament disrupting drug, cytochalasin D, exerts a slight stimulatory effect, whereas the simultaneous disruption of microtubule and microfilament meshworks results in a dramatic increase in the calcium response to cold-shock. The results described in the present paper illustrate the role of the intracellular organization and, more specifically, the role of cytoskeleton in controlling the intensity of calcium response to an extracellular stimulus.

  12. Control rod guide tube assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly including sleeves telescoped over end portions of control rod guide tubes which bear against internal shoulders of the sleeves. Upper ends of the sleeves protrude beyond a control rod guide tube spider and are locked in place by means of a resilient cellular lattice or lock that is seated in mating grooves in the outer surfaces of the sleeves. A grapple is provided for disengaging the entire lock structure spider and associated washers, springs and a grill from the end of the fuel assembly in order to enable these components to be removed and subsequently replaced on the fuel assembly after inspection and repair. (UK)

  13. Control rod assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akio.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable reliable insertion and drops of control rods, as well as insure a sufficient flow rate of coolants flowing through the control rods for attaining satisfactory cooling thereof to enable relexation of thermal stress resulted to rectifying mechanisms or the likes. Constitution: To the outer circumference of a control rod contained vertically movably within a control rod guide tube, resistive members are retractably provided in such a way as to project to close the gap between outer circumference of the control rod and the inner surface of the control rod guide tube upon engagement of a gripper of control rod drives, and retract upon release of the engagement of the gripper. Thus, since the resistive members project to provide a greater resistance to the coolants flowing between them and the control rod guide tube in the normal operation where the gripper is engaged to drive the control rod by the control rod drives, a major part of the coolant flowing into the control rod guide tube flows into the control rod. This enables to cool the control rod effectively and make the temperature distribution uniform for the coolant flowing from the upper end of the control rod guide tube to thereby attain the relaxation of the thermal stress resulted in the rectifying mechanisms or the likes. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. Control rod guide tube assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fuel assembly is described as consisting of a sleeve that engages one end of a control rod guide tube essentially fixing the guide tube to one of the fuel assembly end structures. The end of the sleeve protrudes above the surface of the end fitting. The outer surface of the sleeve has a peripheral groove that engages the resilient sides of a cellular grid or lattice shaped lock. This lock fixes the sleeve in position between the various elements that comprise the end fitting, thereby eliminating a profusion of costly and potentially troublesome nuts, threaded studs and the like that are frequently employed in the fuel assemblies that are presently in use

  15. Reconstitutable control rod spider assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallenberger, J.M.; Ferian, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    A reconstitutable control rod/spider assembly includes a hollow connecting finger of the spider having a pair of opposing flat segments formed on the interior thereof and engaging a pair of opposing flat sectors formed on the exterior of a stem extending form the upper end of control rod. The stem also has an externally-threaded portion engaging a nut and a pilot aligning portion for the nut. The nut has a radially flexible and expandable thread-defining element captured in its bore. The segments and sectors allow the rod to be removed and reattached after turning through 180 0 to allow more even wear on the rod. (author)

  16. High aspect ratio silicon nanowires control fibroblast adhesion and cytoskeleton organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Laura; Murello, Anna; Cassese, Damiano; Ban, Jelena; Dal Zilio, Simone; Lazzarino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are essential to the survival and proliferation of most cells, and are responsible for triggering a wide range of biochemical pathways. More recently, the biomechanical role of those interactions was highlighted, showing, for instance, that adhesion forces are essential for cytoskeleton organization. Silicon nanowires (Si NWs) with their small size, high aspect ratio and anisotropic mechanical response represent a useful model to investigate the forces involved in the adhesion processes and their role in cellular development. In this work we explored and quantified, by single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), the interaction of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a flexible forest of Si NWs. We observed that the cell adhesion forces are comparable to those found on collagen and bare glass coverslip, analogously the membrane tether extraction forces are similar to that on collagen but stronger than that on bare flat glass. Cell survival did not depend significantly on the substrate, although a reduced proliferation after 36 h was observed. On the contrary both cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization revealed striking differences. The cell morphology on Si-NW was characterized by a large number of filopodia and a significant decrease of the cell mobility. The cytoskeleton organization was characterized by the absence of actin fibers, which were instead dominant on collagen and flat glass support. Such findings suggest that the mechanical properties of disordered Si NWs, and in particular their strong asymmetry, play a major role in the adhesion, morphology and cytoskeleton organization processes. Indeed, while adhesion measurements by SCFS provide out-of-plane forces values consistent with those measured on conventional substrates, weaker in-plane forces hinder proper cytoskeleton organization and migration processes.

  17. Shock buffer for nuclear control assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1977-01-01

    A shock buffer is provided for the gradual deceleration of a rapidly descending control element assembly in a nuclear reactor. The interactive buffer components are associated respectively with the movable control element assembly and part of the upper guide structure independent of and spaced from the fuel assemblies of the reactor

  18. Taking control: reorganization of the host cytoskeleton by Chlamydia [version 1; referees: 5 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Wesolowski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Both actin and microtubules are major cytoskeletal elements in eukaryotic cells that participate in many cellular processes, including cell division and motility, vesicle and organelle movement, and the maintenance of cell shape. Inside its host cell, the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis manipulates the cytoskeleton to promote its survival and enhance its pathogenicity. In particular, Chlamydia induces the drastic rearrangement of both actin and microtubules, which is vital for its entry, inclusion structure and development, and host cell exit. As significant progress in Chlamydia genetics has greatly enhanced our understanding of how this pathogen co-opts the host cytoskeleton, we will discuss the machinery used by Chlamydia to coordinate the reorganization of actin and microtubules.

  19. Snubber assembly for a control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    A snubber cartridge assembly is mounted to the nozzle of a control rod drive mechanism to insure that the snubber assembly will be located within the liquid filled section of a nuclear reactor vessel whenever the control rod drive is assembled thereto. The snubber assembly includes a piston mounted proximate to the control rod connecting end of the control rod drive leadscrew to allow the piston to travel within the liquid filled snubber cartridge and controllably exhaust liquid therefrom during a ''scram'' condition. The snubber cartridge provides three separate areas of increasing resistance to piston travel to insure a speedy but safe ''scram'' of the control rod into the reactor

  20. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity. (topical review)

  1. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-07-15

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity.

  2. Actin-interacting protein 1 controls assembly and permeability of intestinal epithelial apical junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Susana; Baranwal, Somesh; Ivanov, Andrei I

    2015-05-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) are crucial regulators of the integrity and restitution of the intestinal epithelial barrier. The structure and function of epithelial junctions depend on their association with the cortical actin cytoskeleton that, in polarized epithelial cells, is represented by a prominent perijunctional actomyosin belt. The assembly and stability of the perijunctional cytoskeleton is controlled by constant turnover (disassembly and reassembly) of actin filaments. Actin-interacting protein (Aip) 1 is an emerging regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, playing a critical role in filament disassembly. In this study, we examined the roles of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of AJs and TJs in human intestinal epithelium. Aip1 was enriched at apical junctions in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells and normal mouse colonic mucosa. Knockdown of Aip1 by RNA interference increased the paracellular permeability of epithelial cell monolayers, decreased recruitment of AJ/TJ proteins to steady-state intercellular contacts, and attenuated junctional reassembly in a calcium-switch model. The observed defects of AJ/TJ structure and functions were accompanied by abnormal organization and dynamics of the perijunctional F-actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of Aip1 impaired the apico-basal polarity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and inhibited formation of polarized epithelial cysts in 3-D Matrigel. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated role of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of intestinal epithelial junctions and early steps of epithelial morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Snubber assembly for a control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A snubber cartridge assembly is described which is mounted to the nozzle of a control rod drive mechanism to insure that it will be located within the liquid filled section of a nuclear reactor vessel whenever the control rod drive is assembled thereto. The snubber assembly includes a piston-mounted proximate to the control rod connecting end of the control rod drive leadscrew to allow the piston to travel within the liquid filled snubber cartridge and controllable exhaust the liquid during a 'scram' condition. The snubber cartridge provides three separate areas of increasing resistance to piston travel to insure a speedy but safe 'scram' of the control rod into the reactor

  4. DNA controlled assembly of liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stefan; Jakobsen, Ulla; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2009-01-01

    DNA-encoding of solid nanoparticles requires surfacechemistry, which is often tedious and not generally applicable. In the present study non-covalently attached DNA are used to assemble soft nanoparticles (liposomes) in solution. This process displays remarkably sharp thermal transitions from...... assembled to disassembled state for which reason this method allows easy and fast detection of polynucleotides (e.g. DNA or RNA), including single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as insertions and deletions....

  5. Shock buffer for nuclear control element assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1977-01-01

    A shock buffer for a control element assembly in a nuclear reactor is described, comprising a piston and a cylinder. The piston is affixed to and extends upward from the control rod guide structure; the cylinder is supported by the upper portion of the control element assembly and is vertically oriented with open end downward for receiving the piston. Coolant liquid normally has free access to the cylinder. The piston displaces liquid from the cylinder when inserted, thereby decelerating the control element assembly near its lower extent of travel. (LL)

  6. Imaging Cytoskeleton Components by Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitkina, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a complex of detergent-insoluble components of the cytoplasm playing critical roles in cell motility, shape generation, and mechanical properties of a cell. Fibrillar polymers-actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments-are major constituents of the cytoskeleton, which constantly change their organization during cellular activities. The actin cytoskeleton is especially polymorphic, as actin filaments can form multiple higher order assemblies performing different functions. Structural information about cytoskeleton organization is critical for understanding its functions and mechanisms underlying various forms of cellular activity. Because of the nanometer-scale thickness of cytoskeletal fibers, electron microscopy (EM) is a key tool to determine the structure of the cytoskeleton. This article describes application of rotary shadowing (or metal replica) EM for visualization of the cytoskeleton. The procedure is applicable to thin cultured cells growing on glass coverslips and consists of detergent extraction of cells to expose their cytoskeleton, chemical fixation to provide stability, ethanol dehydration and critical point drying to preserve three-dimensionality, rotary shadowing with platinum to create contrast, and carbon coating to stabilize replicas. This technique provides easily interpretable three-dimensional images, in which individual cytoskeletal fibers are clearly resolved, and individual proteins can be identified by immunogold labeling. More importantly, replica EM is easily compatible with live cell imaging, so that one can correlate the dynamics of a cell or its components, e.g., expressed fluorescent proteins, with high resolution structural organization of the cytoskeleton in the same cell.

  7. Quality and reliability control on assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1976-01-01

    Taking as an example electronic assemblies in printed circuit board engineering, quality control during manufacture is dealt with. After giving a survey of four phases of quality and reliability control, some specific methods of quality control are dealt with by means of a flowchart, and by some examples the necessity and the success of these measures are shown. (RW) [de

  8. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steve B.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  9. CADM1 controls actin cytoskeleton assembly and regulates extracellular matrix adhesion in human mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P Moiseeva

    Full Text Available CADM1 is a major receptor for the adhesion of mast cells (MCs to fibroblasts, human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs and neurons. It also regulates E-cadherin and alpha6beta4 integrin in other cell types. Here we investigated a role for CADM1 in MC adhesion to both cells and extracellular matrix (ECM. Downregulation of CADM1 in the human MC line HMC-1 resulted not only in reduced adhesion to HASMCs, but also reduced adhesion to their ECM. Time-course studies in the presence of EDTA to inhibit integrins demonstrated that CADM1 provided fast initial adhesion to HASMCs and assisted with slower adhesion to ECM. CADM1 downregulation, but not antibody-dependent CADM1 inhibition, reduced MC adhesion to ECM, suggesting indirect regulation of ECM adhesion. To investigate potential mechanisms, phosphotyrosine signalling and polymerisation of actin filaments, essential for integrin-mediated adhesion, were examined. Modulation of CADM1 expression positively correlated with surface KIT levels and polymerisation of cortical F-actin in HMC-1 cells. It also influenced phosphotyrosine signalling and KIT tyrosine autophosphorylation. CADM1 accounted for 46% of surface KIT levels and 31% of F-actin in HMC-1 cells. CADM1 downregulation resulted in elongation of cortical actin filaments in both HMC-1 cells and human lung MCs and increased cell rigidity of HMC-1 cells. Collectively these data suggest that CADM1 is a key adhesion receptor, which regulates MC net adhesion, both directly through CADM1-dependent adhesion, and indirectly through the regulation of other adhesion receptors. The latter is likely to occur via docking of KIT and polymerisation of cortical F-actin. Here we propose a stepwise model of adhesion with CADM1 as a driving force for net MC adhesion.

  10. Radiological characterization of spent control rod assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Pratt, S.L.; Haggard, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    This document represents the final report of an ongoing study to provide radiological characterizations, classifications, and assessments in support of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations. This report describes the results of non-destructive and laboratory radionuclide measurements, as well as waste classification assessments, of BWR and PWR spent control rod assemblies. The radionuclide inventories of these spent control rods were determined by three separate methodologies, including (1) direct assay techniques, (2) calculational techniques, and (3) by sampling and laboratory radiochemical analyses. For the BWR control rod blade (CRB) and PWR burnable poison rod assembly (BPRA), 60 Co and 63 Ni, present in the stainless steel cladding, were the most abundant neutron activation products. The most abundant radionuclide in the PWR rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) was 108m Ag (130 yr halflife) produced in the Ag-In-Cd alloy used as the neutron poison. This radionuclide will be the dominant contributor to the gamma dose rate for many hundreds of years. The results of the direct assay methods agree very well (±10%) with the sampling/radiochemical measurements. The results of the calculational methods agreed fairly well with the empirical measurements for the BPRA, but often varied by a factor of 5 to 10 for the CRB and the RCCA assemblies. If concentration averaging and encapsulation, as allowed by 10CFR61.55, is performed, then each of the entire control assemblies would be classified as Class C low-level radioactive waste

  11. An approximation for kanban controlled assembly systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topan, E.; Avsar, Z.M.

    2011-01-01

    An approximation is proposed to evaluate the steady-state performance of kanban controlled two-stage assembly systems. The development of the approximation is as follows. The considered continuous-time Markov chain is aggregated keeping the model exact, and this aggregate model is approximated

  12. Cytoskeleton and Cytoskeleton-Bound RNA Visualization in Frog and Insect Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Bilinski, Szczepan; Kubiak, Jacek Z

    2016-01-01

    The majority of oocyte functions involves and depends on the cytoskeletal elements, which include microtubules and actin and cytokeratin filaments. Various structures and molecules are temporarily or permanently bound to the cytoskeletal elements and their functions rely on cytoskeleton integrity and its timely assembly. Thus the accurate visualization of cytoskeleton is often crucial for studies and analyses of oocyte structure and functions. Here we describe several reliable methods for microtubule and/or microfilaments preservation and visualization in Xenopus oocyte extracts, and in situ in live and fixed insect and frog (Xenopus) oocytes. In addition, we describe visualization of cytoskeleton-bound RNAs using molecular beacons in live Xenopus oocytes.

  13. Missing Links in Antibody Assembly Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Anelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fidelity of the humoral immune response requires that quiescent B lymphocytes display membrane bound immunoglobulin M (IgM on B lymphocytes surface as part of the B cell receptor, whose function is to recognize an antigen. At the same time B lymphocytes should not secrete IgM until recognition of the antigen has occurred. The heavy chains of the secretory IgM have a C-terminal tail with a cysteine instead of a membrane anchor, which serves to covalently link the IgM subunits by disulfide bonds to form “pentamers” or “hexamers.” By virtue of the same cysteine, unassembled secretory IgM subunits are recognized and retained (via mixed disulfide bonds by members of the protein disulfide isomerase family, in particular ERp44. This so-called “thiol-mediated retention” bars assembly intermediates from prematurely leaving the cell and thereby exerts quality control on the humoral immune response. In this essay we discuss recent findings on how ERp44 governs such assembly control in a pH-dependent manner, shuttling between the cisGolgi and endoplasmic reticulum, and finally on how pERp1/MZB1, possibly as a co-chaperone of GRP94, may help to overrule the thiol-mediated retention in the activated B cell to give way to antibody secretion.

  14. Assembly and control of large microtubule complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Kirill; Ishihara, Keisuke; Mitchison, Timothy

    Motility, division, and other cellular processes require rapid assembly and disassembly of microtubule structures. We report a new mechanism for the formation of asters, radial microtubule complexes found in very large cells. The standard model of aster growth assumes elongation of a fixed number of microtubules originating from the centrosomes. However, aster morphology in this model does not scale with cell size, and we found evidence for microtubule nucleation away from centrosomes. By combining polymerization dynamics and auto-catalytic nucleation of microtubules, we developed a new biophysical model of aster growth. The model predicts an explosive transition from an aster with a steady-state radius to one that expands as a travelling wave. At the transition, microtubule density increases continuously, but aster growth rate discontinuously jumps to a nonzero value. We tested our model with biochemical perturbations in egg extract and confirmed main theoretical predictions including the jump in the growth rate. Our results show that asters can grow even though individual microtubules are short and unstable. The dynamic balance between microtubule collapse and nucleation could be a general framework for the assembly and control of large microtubule complexes. NIH GM39565; Simons Foundation 409704; Honjo International 486 Scholarship Foundation.

  15. System and method for controlling a combustor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2013-03-05

    A system and method for controlling a combustor assembly are disclosed. The system includes a combustor assembly. The combustor assembly includes a combustor and a fuel nozzle assembly. The combustor includes a casing. The fuel nozzle assembly is positioned at least partially within the casing and includes a fuel nozzle. The fuel nozzle assembly further defines a head end. The system further includes a viewing device configured for capturing an image of at least a portion of the head end, and a processor communicatively coupled to the viewing device, the processor configured to compare the image to a standard image for the head end.

  16. The effect of 60Co-irradiation on platelet cytoskeleton and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Qingqi; Li Chengzhu

    1987-01-01

    Changes in rat platelet cytoskeleton and platelet function by 60 Co-irradiation were investigated. When platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was stimulated with ADP, PRP aggregation rates on the 3rd, 6th and 9th day after irradiation were 135%, 96% and 0% of the controls respectively. Although control rat PRP responded to collagen stimulation well, PRP from treated rats had lost the aggregation ability induced by collagen. When same amounts of platelets from the control and the treated rats were extracted with 1% triton X-100-EGTA buffer and the cytoskeleton pellet analysed by SDS-PAGE, it was found that the amount and components of the rat platelet cytoskeleton especially actin and myosin on the 3rd day after irradiation were greatly increased. Those from rat platelets on the 6th day after irradiation showed no difference from the controls, but was significantly decreased on the 9th day after irradiation. Based on these results, the authors concluded that the platelets from rats on the 3rd day after irradiation were in an active state. Exhaustion of granule contents or impairment of collagen receptors might render platelets unable to respond to collagen. Decreased platelet function on the 9th day after irradiation was due to a failure of assembly of its cytoskeleton

  17. The sarcomeric cytoskeleton: from molecules to motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautel, Mathias; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Highly ordered organisation of striated muscle is the prerequisite for the fast and unidirectional development of force and motion during heart and skeletal muscle contraction. A group of proteins, summarised as the sarcomeric cytoskeleton, is essential for the ordered assembly of actin and myosin filaments into sarcomeres, by combining architectural, mechanical and signalling functions. This review discusses recent cell biological, biophysical and structural insight into the regulated assembly of sarcomeric cytoskeleton proteins and their roles in dissipating mechanical forces in order to maintain sarcomere integrity during passive extension and active contraction. α-Actinin crosslinks in the Z-disk show a pivot-and-rod structure that anchors both titin and actin filaments. In contrast, the myosin crosslinks formed by myomesin in the M-band are of a ball-and-spring type and may be crucial in providing stable yet elastic connections during active contractions, especially eccentric exercise. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Intrinsic, Functional, and Structural Properties of β-Thymosins and β-Thymosin/WH2 Domains in the Regulation and Coordination of Actin Self-Assembly Dynamics and Cytoskeleton Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, L

    2016-01-01

    β-Thymosins are a family of heat-stable multifunctional polypeptides that are expressed as small proteins of about 5kDa (~45 amino acids) almost exclusively in multicellular animals. They were first isolated from the thymus. As full-length or truncated polypeptides, they appear to stimulate a broad range of extracellular activities in various signaling pathways, including tissue repair and regeneration, inflammation, cell migration, and immune defense. However, their cell surface receptors and structural mechanisms of regulations in these multiple pathways remain still poorly understood. Besides their extracellular activities, they belong to a larger family of small, intrinsically disordered actin-binding domains called WH2/β-thymosin domains that have been identified in more than 1800 multidomain proteins found in different taxonomic domains of life and involved in various actin-based motile processes including cell morphogenesis, motility, adhesions, tissue development, intracellular trafficking, or pathogen infections. This review briefly surveys the main recent findings to understand how these small, intrinsically disordered but functional domains can interact with many unrelated partners and can thus integrate and coordinate various intracellular activities in actin self-assembly dynamics and cell signaling pathways linked to their cytoskeleton remodeling. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilibin, K.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor having a reactor core and a reactor coolant flowing therethrough, a temperature responsive, self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly, comprising: an upper drive line terminating at its lower end with a substantially cylindrical wall member having inner and outer surfaces; a lower drive line having a lower end adapted to be attached to a neutron absorber; a ring movable disposed about the outer surface of the wall member of the upper drive line; thermal actuation means adapted to be in heat exchange relationship with coolant in an associated reactor core and in contact with the ring, and balls located within the openings in the upper drive line. When reactor coolant approaches a predetermined design temperature the actuation means moves the ring sufficiently so that the balls move radially out from the recess and into the space formed by the second portion of the ring thereby removing the vertical support for the lower drive line such that the lower drive line moves downwardly and inserts an associated neutron absorber into an associated reactor core resulting in automatic reduction of reactor power

  20. Spatial constraints and the organization of the cytoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ga^rlea, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    The shape of animal cells is in controlled by a network of filamentous polymers called the cytoskeleton. The two main components of the cytoskeleton are actin filaments and microtubules. These polymers continuously reorganize in order to performed their diverse cellular functions. For example, in

  1. Spatial organisation of cell expansion by the cytoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.

    2002-01-01

    The shape of plants is determined by the sum of cell division and cell growth. The cytoskeleton plays an important role in both processes. This thesis presents research that pinpoints how the cytoskeleton controls plant cell growth. Root hairs of the model plant Arabidopsis have been used as a model

  2. Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.

  3. Nuclear pore complex tethers to the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Martin W

    2017-08-01

    The nuclear envelope is tethered to the cytoskeleton. The best known attachments of all elements of the cytoskeleton are via the so-called LINC complex. However, the nuclear pore complexes, which mediate the transport of soluble and membrane bound molecules, are also linked to the microtubule network, primarily via motor proteins (dynein and kinesins) which are linked, most importantly, to the cytoplasmic filament protein of the nuclear pore complex, Nup358, by the adaptor BicD2. The evidence for such linkages and possible roles in nuclear migration, cell cycle control, nuclear transport and cell architecture are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Status of control assembly materials in Indian water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, V.G.; Kulkarni, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    India's present operating water cooled power reactors comprise boiling water reactors of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) and pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) at Kota (RAPS), Kalpakkam (MAPS), Narora (NAPS) and Kakrapara (KAPS). Boiling water reactors of TAPS use boron carbide control blades for control of power as well as for shut down (scram). PHWRs use boron steel and cobalt absorber rods for power control and Cd sandwiched shut off rods (primary shut down system) and liquid poison rods (secondary shut down system) for shut down. In TAPS, Gadolinium rods (burnable poison rods) are also incorporated in fuel assembly for flux flattening. Boron carbide control blades and Gadolinium rods for TAPS, cobalt absorber rods and shut down assemblies for PHWRs are fabricated indigenously. Considerable development work was carried out for evolving material specifications, component and assembly drawings, and fabrication processes. Details of various control and shut off assemblies being fabricated currently are highlighted in the paper. (author)

  5. Renovating process for Pressurized Water Reactor control rod assemblies and corresponding control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, S.; Ple, P.

    1989-01-01

    In the first PWRs the control rods are moving by the intermediary of electromagnetic mechanisms where the power fed to the electromagnets is selected by a hard wired logic circuit connected to the controldesh by another logic control. For renovating the control rod assemblies each power assembly is replaced by an electronic assembly containing an ordinator and power supply interfaces [fr

  6. Directed Assembly of Janus Cylinders by Controlling the Solvent Polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongmin; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Yeom, Su-Jin; Eom, Naye; Kang, Kyoung-Ku; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2017-08-01

    This study demonstrates the possibility of controlling the directed self-assembly of microsized Janus cylinders by changing the solvent polarity of the assembly media. Experimental results are analyzed and theoretical calculations of the free energy of adhesion (ΔG ad ) are performed to elucidate the underlying basic principles and investigate the effects of the solvent on the self-assembled structures. This approach will pave a predictive route for controlling the structures of assembly depending on the solvent polarity. In particular, we find that a binary solvent system with precisely controlled polarity induces directional assembly of the microsized Janus cylinders. Thus, the formation of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) assembled clusters can be reliably tuned by controlling the numbers of constituent Janus cylinders in a binary solvent system. Finally, this approach is expanded to stepwise assembly, which forms unique microstructures via secondary growth of primary seed clusters formed by the Janus cylinders. We envision that this investigation is highly promising for the construction of desired superstructures using a wide variety of polymeric Janus microparticles with chemical and physical multicompartments.

  7. Reactor core and control rod assembly in FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Koji; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Itooka, Satoshi.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel assemblies and control rod assemblies are attached respectively to reactor core support plates each in a cantilever fashion. Intermediate spacer pads are disposed to the lateral side of a wrapper tube just above the fuel rod region. Intermediate space pads are disposed to the lateral side of a control rod guide tube just above a fuel rod region. The thickness of the intermediate spacer pad for the control rod assembly is made smaller than the thickness of the intermediate spacer pad for the fuel assembly. This can prevent contact between intermediate spacer pads of the control guide tube and the fuel assembly even if the temperature of coolants is elevated to thermally expand the intermediate spacer pad, by which the radial displacement amount of the reactor core region along the direction of the height of the control guide tube is reduced substantially to zero. Accordingly, contribution of the control rod assembly to the radial expansion reactivity can be reduced to zero or negative level, by which the effect of the negative radial expansion reactivity of the reactor is increased to improve the safety upon thermal transient stage, for example, loss of coolant flow rate accident. (I.N.)

  8. Light-Controlled Swarming and Assembly of Colloidal Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Swarms and assemblies are ubiquitous in nature and they can perform complex collective behaviors and cooperative functions that they cannot accomplish individually. In response to light, some colloidal particles (CPs, including light active and passive CPs, can mimic their counterparts in nature and organize into complex structures that exhibit collective functions with remote controllability and high temporospatial precision. In this review, we firstly analyze the structural characteristics of swarms and assemblies of CPs and point out that light-controlled swarming and assembly of CPs are generally achieved by constructing light-responsive interactions between CPs. Then, we summarize in detail the recent advances in light-controlled swarming and assembly of CPs based on the interactions arisen from optical forces, photochemical reactions, photothermal effects, and photoisomerizations, as well as their potential applications. In the end, we also envision some challenges and future prospects of light-controlled swarming and assembly of CPs. With the increasing innovations in mechanisms and control strategies with easy operation, low cost, and arbitrary applicability, light-controlled swarming and assembly of CPs may be employed to manufacture programmable materials and reconfigurable robots for cooperative grasping, collective cargo transportation, and micro- and nanoengineering.

  9. Compactable control element assembly for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupen, C.F.G.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a compactable control element assembly for a nuclear reactor in which the absorber pins of the assembly are compacted during downward movement of the pin and are returned to their uncompacted state when downward movement is stopped. The control element assembly comprises a support member longitudinally movable within a control assembly duct and a plurality of absorber pins supported laterally outward of the support member and within the duct by pairs of support arms. The absorber pins are pivotably mounted to the support arms and the support arms in turn are supported from the support member for upward pivotable movement in a longitudinal plane. As the support member is moved downward, the support arms pivot upwardly and the absorber pins move upwardly and inwardly towards the support member. When the support member is stopped the absorber pins return to their uncompacted position

  10. Controlling water evaporation through self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Kevin; Liebi, Marianne; Heimdal, Jimmy; Pham, Quoc Dat; Sparr, Emma

    2016-09-13

    Water evaporation concerns all land-living organisms, as ambient air is dryer than their corresponding equilibrium humidity. Contrarily to plants, mammals are covered with a skin that not only hinders evaporation but also maintains its rate at a nearly constant value, independently of air humidity. Here, we show that simple amphiphiles/water systems reproduce this behavior, which suggests a common underlying mechanism originating from responding self-assembly structures. The composition and structure gradients arising from the evaporation process were characterized using optical microscopy, infrared microscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. We observed a thin and dry outer phase that responds to changes in air humidity by increasing its thickness as the air becomes dryer, which decreases its permeability to water, thus counterbalancing the increase in the evaporation driving force. This thin and dry outer phase therefore shields the systems from humidity variations. Such a feedback loop achieves a homeostatic regulation of water evaporation.

  11. Calculation of drop course of control rod assembly in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaojia; Mao Fei; Min Peng; Lin Shaoxuan

    2013-01-01

    The validation of control rod drop performance is an important part of safety analysis of nuclear power plant. Development of computer code for calculating control rod drop course will be useful for validating and improving the design of control rod drive line. Based on structural features of the drive line, the driving force on moving assembly was analyzed and decomposed, the transient value of each component of the driving force was calculated by choosing either theoretical method or numerical method, and the simulation code for calculating rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) drop course by time step increase was achieved. The analysis results of control rod assembly drop course calculated by theoretical model and numerical method were validated by comparing with RCCA drop test data of Qinshan Phase Ⅱ 600 MW PWR. It is shown that the developed RCCA drop course calculation code is suitable for RCCA in PWR and can correctly simulate the drop course and the stress of RCCA. (authors)

  12. Inlet for fuel assembly having finger control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, A.; Suvanto, A.; Tornblom, L.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor with vertically arranged fuel assemblies positioned on supporting members and with control rods displaceably arranged in guide tubes between the fuel rods inside the fuel assemblies is described. The supporting plate is provided with a transverse end piece with throttling means for the liquid flow which passes from below up through the supporting member and past the fuel rods in the fuel assembly. The inlets for the guide tubes for the control rods are located below the end piece and the throttling means. In this way a higher pressure prevails at the inlet to the guide tubes than above the end piece, so that a stronger flow of coolant is produced through guide tubes than through the fuel assembly. (U.S.)

  13. Performance of FFTF reference fuel and control assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.D.; Weber, E.T.

    1984-11-01

    This paper describes the performance of the reference fuel and control assemblies used in FFTF through the first four cycles of irradiation (446 equivalent full power days, EFPD). These assemblies performed flawlessly through the rigors of the Startup Testing Program, STP, (beginning in late 1979) with its cyclic operation and continued to do so throughout Cycles 1, 2, 3 and 4, the latter ending in April 1984

  14. LWR control assembly designs: A historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennard, M.W.; Harbottle, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Control rod designs and materials have evolved in response to performance problems in both PWRs and BWRs. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) due to absorber swelling has primarily affected BWR control rods with B 4 C absorbers, but has also occurred in PWRs with Ag-In-Cd absorbers. The primary problems for some designs of PWR control rods have been wear of the rodlets against upper internal components and swelling with tip wear and cracking. Competition amongst vendors for supplying control rod reloads has also resulted in design improvements. This paper provides an historical review of PWR and BWR control rod designs, their problems and remedies. (author)

  15. Design requirement on KALIMER control rod assembly duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W.; Kang, H. Y.; Nam, C.; Kim, J. O.; Kim, Y. J.

    1998-03-01

    This document establishes the design guidelines which are needs for designing the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER as design requirements. it describes control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER and its requirements that includes functional requirements, performance requirements, interfacing systems, design limits and strength requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements. The control rod system consists of three parts, which are drive mechanism, drive-line, and absorber bundle. This report deals with the absorber bundle and its outer duct only because the others are beyond the scope of fuel system design. The guidelines for design requirements intend to be used for an improved design of the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER. (author). 19 refs

  16. Design requirement on KALIMER control rod assembly duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, W.; Kang, H. Y.; Nam, C.; Kim, J. O.; Kim, Y. J

    1998-03-01

    This document establishes the design guidelines which are needs for designing the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER as design requirements. it describes control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER and its requirements that includes functional requirements, performance requirements, interfacing systems, design limits and strength requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements. The control rod system consists of three parts, which are drive mechanism, drive-line, and absorber bundle. This report deals with the absorber bundle and its outer duct only because the others are beyond the scope of fuel system design. The guidelines for design requirements intend to be used for an improved design of the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER. (author). 19 refs.

  17. Two applications of airtightness control techniques on big assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Devallan, C; Marcellin, J

    1973-01-01

    Deals with two airtightness control techniques respectively applied on intersecting storage rings (ISR) at CERN in Geneva and on a liquid methane storage tank. These two big assemblies called for two different control techniques which use helium and ammonia respectively as tracer gas. Existing practical leakage detection techniques to meet industrial needs are discussed at the end of the article. (2 refs).

  18. PLC based control system for RAM assembly test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.S.; Kumar, Vinaya; Chandra, Umesh

    1994-01-01

    The flexibility, expandability, ease of programming and diagnostic features makes the programmable logic controller (PLC) suitable for a variety of control applications in engineering system test facilities. A PLC based control system for RAM assembly test facility (RATF) and for testing the related hydraulic components is being developed and installed at BARC. This paper describes the approach taken for meeting the control requirements and illustrates the PLC software that has been developed. (author). 1 fig

  19. Rho proteins − the key regulators of cytoskeleton in the progression of mitosis and cytokinesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Klimaszewska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Rho proteins are members of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases. They are thought to be crucial regulators of multiple signal transduction pathways that influence a wide range of cellular functions, including migration, membrane trafficking, adhesion, polarity and cell shape changes. Thanks to their ability to control the assembly and organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, Rho GTPases are known to regulate mitosis and cytokinesis progression. These proteins are required for formation and rigidity of the cortex during mitotic cell rounding, mitotic spindle formation and attachment of the spindle microtubules to the kinetochore. In addition, during cytokinesis, they are involved in promoting division plane determination, contractile ring and cleavage furrow formation and abscission. They are also known as regulators of cell cycle progression at the G1/S and G2/M transition. Thus, the signal transduction pathways in which Rho proteins participate, appear to connect dynamics of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to cell cycle progression. We review the current state of knowledge concerning the molecular mechanisms by which Rho GTPase signaling regulates remodeling of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in order to control cell division progression.

  20. Controlled self assembly of collagen nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Massimiliano; Palmieri, Valentina; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Arcovito, Giuseppe; Greco, Emanuela; Quintiliani, Gianluca; Fraziano, Maurizio; De Spirito, Marco

    2011-11-01

    In recent years carrier-mediated drug delivery has emerged as a powerful methodology for the treatment of various pathologies. The therapeutic index of traditional and novel drugs is enhanced via the increase of specificity due to targeting of drugs to a particular tissue, cell or intracellular compartment, the control over release kinetics, the protection of the active agent, or a combination of the above. Collagen is an important biomaterial in medical applications and ideal as protein-based drug delivery platform due to its special characteristics, such as biocompatibility, low toxicity, biodegradability, and weak antigenicity. While some many attempts have been made, further work is needed to produce fully biocompatible collagen hydrogels of desired size and able to release drugs on a specific target. In this article we propose a novel method to obtain spherical particles made of polymerized collagen surrounded by DMPC liposomes. The liposomes allow to control both the particles dimension and the gelling environment during the collagen polymerization. Furthermore, an optical based method to visualize and quantify each step of the proposed protocol is detailed and discussed.

  1. Enigma interacts with adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains to control insulin-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling and glucose transporter 4 translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Grémeaux, Thierry; Gual, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organization in fibroblastic cells. Because actin rearrangement is important for insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (Glut 4) translocation, we studied the potential involvement of Enigma in insulin-induced glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Enigma m...

  2. Atomic force microscopy observation of lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiomyocyte cytoskeleton reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqun; Chen, Tangting; Zhou, Xiang; Huang, Qiaobing; Jin, Chunhua

    2013-08-01

    We applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intracellular cytoskeleton reorganization in primary cardiomyocytes from neonatal mouse. The nonionic detergent Triton X-100 was used to remove the membrane, soluble proteins, and organelles from the cell. The remaining cytoskeleton can then be directly visualized by AFM. Using three-dimensional technique of AFM, we were able to quantify the changes of cytoskeleton by the "density" and total "volume" of the cytoskeleton fibers. Compared to the control group, the density of cytoskeleton was remarkably decreased and the volume of cytoskeleton was significantly increased after LPS treatment, which suggests that LPS may induce the cytoskeleton reorganization and change the cardiomyocyte morphology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Palytoxins and cytoskeleton: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzao, M Carmen; Ares, Isabel R; Cagide, Eva; Espiña, Begoña; Vilariño, Natalia; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2011-03-01

    Cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure essential for a wide variety of normal cellular processes, including the maintenance of cell shape and morphology, volume regulation, membrane dynamics and signal transduction. Cytoskeleton is organized into microtubules, actin meshwork and intermediate filaments. Actin has been identified as a major target for destruction during apoptosis and is also important under pathological conditions such as cancers. Several natural compounds actively modulate actin organization by specific signaling cascades being useful tools to study cytoskeleton dynamics. Palytoxin is a large bioactive compound, first isolated from zoanthids, with a complex structure and different analogs such as ostreocin-D or ovatoxin-a. This toxin has been identified as a potent tumor promoter and cytotoxic molecule, which leads to actin filament distortion and triggers cell death or apoptosis. In this review we report the findings on the involvement of palytoxin and analogues modulating the actin cytoskeleton within different cellular models. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Controlling the amplification of chirality in hydrogen-bonded assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateos timoneda, Miguel; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Reinhoudt, David

    2005-01-01

    The amplification of chirality (a high enantiomeric or diastereomeric excess induced by a small initial amount of chiral bias) on hydrogen-bonded assemblies has been studied using “sergeants-and-soldiers” experiments under thermodynamically controlled conditions. Here it is shown that different

  5. Integrated Quality Control of Precision Assemblies using Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro

    coor-dinate measuring machines (CMMs) when working with complex and fragile parts. This Ph.D. project at DTU Mechanical Engineering concerns the applicability of CT for quality control of precision assem-blies. Investigations to quantify the accuracy of CT measurements, reference artefacts to correct...

  6. Mechanotransduction through Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Donald

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the molecular mechanism by which cells recognize and respond to physical forces in their local environment. The project was based on the working hypothesis that cells sense mechanical stresses, such as those due to gravity, through their cell surface adhesion receptors (e.g., integrins) and that they respond as a result of structural arrangements with their internal cytoskeleton (CSK) which are orchestrated through use of tensegrity architecture. In this project, we carried out studies to define the architectural and molecular basis of cellular mechanotransduction. Our major goal was to define the molecular pathway that mediates mechanical force transfer between integrins and the CSK and to determine how mechanical deformation of integrin-CSK linkages is transduced into a biochemical response. Elucidation of the mechanism by which cells sense mechanical stresses through integrins and translate them into a biochemical response should help us to understand the molecular basis of the cellular response to gravity as well as many other forms of mechanosensation and tissue regulation. The specific aims of this proposal were: 1. To define the molecular basis of mechanical coupling between integrins, vinculin, and the actin CSK; 2. To develop a computer simulation of how mechanical stresses alter CSK structure and test this model in living cells; 3. To determine how mechanical deformation of integrin-CSK linkages is transduced into a biochemical response.

  7. Power peak in vicinity of WWER-440 control assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents information concerning the WWER-440 local power peaking problem induced by a control assembly and corresponding investigation possibilities on the light-water zero-power reactor LR-O at the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. Brief description of the disposable CA model, experimental arrangement and conditions on the LR-O reactor, preparation of the relevant measurements in the WWER-440 type cores with CA model, as well as some preliminary results of the fission density distribution obtained in a core without boron and with fuel assemblies having profiled enrichment are mentioned too (Author)

  8. Bacterial cytoskeleton and implications for new antibiotic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Xie, Longxiang; Luo, Hongping; Xie, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally eukaryotes exclusive cytoskeleton has been found in bacteria and other prokaryotes. FtsZ, MreB and CreS are bacterial counterpart of eukaryotic tubulin, actin filaments and intermediate filaments, respectively. FtsZ can assemble to a Z-ring at the cell division site, regulate bacterial cell division; MreB can form helical structure, and involve in maintaining cell shape, regulating chromosome segregation; CreS, found in Caulobacter crescentus (C. crescentus), can form curve or helical filaments in intracellular membrane. CreS is crucial for cell morphology maintenance. There are also some prokaryotic unique cytoskeleton components playing crucial roles in cell division, chromosome segregation and cell morphology. The cytoskeleton components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), together with their dynamics during exposure to antibiotics are summarized in this article to provide insights into the unique organization of this formidable pathogen and druggable targets for new antibiotics.

  9. Controlled assembly of jammed colloidal shells on fluid droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Abkarian, Manouk; Stone, Howard A.

    2005-07-01

    Assembly of colloidal particles on fluid interfaces is a promising technique for synthesizing two-dimensional microcrystalline materials useful in fields as diverse as biomedicine, materials science, mineral flotation and food processing. Current approaches rely on bulk emulsification methods, require further chemical and thermal treatments, and are restrictive with respect to the materials used. The development of methods that exploit the great potential of interfacial assembly for producing tailored materials have been hampered by the lack of understanding of the assembly process. Here we report a microfluidic method that allows direct visualization and understanding of the dynamics of colloidal crystal growth on curved interfaces. The crystals are periodically ejected to form stable jammed shells, which we refer to as colloidal armour. We propose that the energetic barriers to interfacial crystal growth and organization can be overcome by targeted delivery of colloidal particles through hydrodynamic flows. Our method allows an unprecedented degree of control over armour composition, size and stability.

  10. Reconstitutable control assembly having removable control rods with detachable split upper end plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Knott, R.P.; Sparrow, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes, in a reconstitutable control assembly for use with a nuclear fuel assembly, the control assembly including a spider structure and at least one control rod, an attachment joint for detachable fastening the control rod to the spider structure. The attachment joint comprising: a hollow connecting finger on the spider structure; and an elongated detachable split upper end plug on the control rod having a pair of separate upper and lower plug portions, the upper plug portion having integrally-connected tandemly- arranged upper, middle and lower sections. The lower plug portion having integrally-connected tandemly-arranged upper, middle and lower segments

  11. Multi-sensor control for precise assembly of optical components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform an optical assembly accurately, a multi-sensor control strategy is developed which includes an attitude measurement system, a vision system, a loss measurement system and a force sensor. A 3-DOF attitude measuring method using linear variable differential transformers (LVDT is designed to adjust the relation of position and attitude between the spherical mirror and the resonator. A micro vision feedback system is set up to extract the light beam and the diaphragm, which can achieve the coarse positioning of the spherical mirror in the optical assembly process. A rapid self-correlation method is presented to analyze the spectrum signal for the fine positioning. In order to prevent the damage of the optical components and realize sealing of the resonator, a hybrid force-position control is constructed to control the contact force of the optical components. The experimental results show that the proposed multi-sensor control strategy succeeds in accomplishing the precise assembly of the optical components, which consists of parallel adjustment, macro coarse adjustment, macro approach, micro fine adjustment, micro approach and optical contact. Therefore, the results validate the multi-sensor control strategy.

  12. The cytoskeleton and gravitropism in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the gravitropic response of plants have continued to elude plant biologists despite more than a century of research. Lately there has been increased attention on the role of the cytoskeleton in plant gravitropism, but several controversies and major gaps in our understanding of cytoskeletal involvement in gravitropism remain. A major question in the study of plant gravitropism is how the cytoskeleton mediates early sensing and signal transduction events in plants. Much has been made of the actin cytoskeleton as the cellular structure that sedimenting amyloplasts impinge upon to trigger the downstream signaling events leading to the bending response. There is also strong molecular and biochemical evidence that the transport of auxin, an important player in gravitropism, is regulated by actin. Organizational changes in microtubules during the growth response phase of gravitropism have also been well documented, but the significance of such reorientations in controlling differential cellular growth is unclear. Studies employing pharmacological approaches to dissect cytoskeletal involvement in gravitropism have led to conflicting results and therefore need to be interpreted with caution. Despite the current controversies, the revolutionary advances in molecular, biochemical, and cell biological techniques have opened up several possibilities for further research into this difficult area. The myriad proteins associated with the plant cytoskeleton that are being rapidly characterized provide a rich assortment of candidate regulators that could be targets of the gravity signal transduction chain. Cytoskeletal and ion imaging in real time combined with mutant analysis promises to provide a fresh start into this controversial area of research.

  13. Core-control assembly with a fixed fuel support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challberg, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    A core-control assembly is described comprising: a control rod having a plurality of blades; a control-rod guide tube for guiding vertical motion of said control rod; a fuel support for supporting fuel bundles separated by said blades, said fuel support having an aperture conforming to a cross section of said control rod through said blades for preventing rotational movement of said control rod to a decoupling orientation when said control rod is between a maximum power position and a minimum power position, said minimum power position being above said maximum power position, said fuel support being supported by said control-rod guide tube; control-rod drive means for controlling vertical motion of said control rod, said control-rod drive means providing for vertical motion between said maximum power position and said minimum power position, said control-rod drive means providing for vertical movement to a decoupling position, said decoupling position being no lower than said minimum power position, said decoupling position being at a level sufficient to permit said control rod to rotate to a decoupling orientation relative to said fuel support; and coupling means for coupling said control rod to said control rod drive means, said coupling means being releasable by rotational movement of said control rod to said decoupling orientation relative to said control-rod drive means

  14. Controlling Photoconductivity in PBI Films by Supramolecular Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Emily R; Archibald, Lewis J; Nolan, Michael C; Schweins, Ralf; Zwijnenburg, Martijn A; Sproules, Stephen; Adams, Dave J

    2018-03-15

    Perylene bisimides (PBIs) self-assemble in solution. The solubility of the PBIs is commonly changed through the choice of substituents at the imide positions. It is generally assumed this substitution does not affect the electronic properties of the PBI, and that the properties of the self-assembled aggregate are essentially that of the isolated molecule. However, substituents do affect the self-assembly, resulting in potentially different packing in the formed aggregates. Here, we show that the photoconductivity of films formed from a library of substituted PBIs varies strongly with the substituent and demonstrate that this is due to the different ways in which they pack. Our results open the possibility for tuning the optoelectronic properties of self-assembled PBIs by controlling the aggregate structure through careful choice of substituent, as demonstrated by us here optimising the photoconductivity of PBI films in this way. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Thermal hydraulic performance of naturally aspirated control rod housing assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, G.T.; Randolph, H.W.; Paik, I.K.; Foti, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Savannah River Site reactors are comprised of heat generating fuel/target assemblies, control rods which regulate reactor power, and heavy water which acts as the coolant and as a moderator. The fuel/target assemblies are cooled by the downflow of heavy water while the control rods are cooled via upflow. Five control rods are grouped with two safety rods in seven-channel assemblies called septifoils. Under normal operating conditions, the reactor power level, radial shape flux and axial power flux are regulated by the positioning of the control rods. The control rods are solid rods of a lithium-aluminum alloy with an thin aluminum outer sheath. Lithium is a good absorber of neutrons and, thus control rod temperatures rise with reactor power. At conditions of sufficiently high reactor power and degraded coolant flow, the control rods could heat sufficiently to cause a metallurigical failure of the sheath leading to molten material coming in contact with water and the possibility of a steam explosion. An accident has been postulated as part of the analysis involving the safety upgrade of Savannah River Site reactors in which the housing is not seated on the pin. Coolant from the upflow pin would not be directed into the housing but, into the moderator space surrounding the housing. Only naturally aspirated cooling due to buoyancy effects would be available to cool the control rods and the coolant mass flow rate would drop significantly from its nominal value. In this study, the mechanisms and limits of cooling heated rods housed in an unseated septifoil are addressed. Experiments were conducted on a shortened, prototypic housing with electrically heated rods to gain an understanding of the phenomena governing the cooling in such a case and develop data which can be used to evaluate predictive models. These experiments are described, their results discussed, and the predictions of current models is presented

  16. Simulating control rod and fuel assembly motion using moving meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: gilbertdw1@gmail.com; Roman, J.E. [Departamento de Sistemas Informaticos y Computacion, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Garland, Wm. J. [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Poehlman, W.F.S. [Department of Computing and Software, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    A prerequisite for designing a transient simulation experiment which includes the motion of control and fuel assemblies is the careful verification of a steady state model which computes k{sub eff} versus assembly insertion distance. Previous studies in nuclear engineering have usually approached the problem of the motion of control rods with the use of nonlinear nodal models. Nodal methods employ special approximations for the leading and trailing cells of the moving assemblies to avoid the rod cusping problem which results from the naive volume weighted cell cross-section approximation. A prototype framework called the MOOSE has been developed for modeling moving components in the presence of diffusion phenomena. A linear finite difference model is constructed, solutions for which are computed by SLEPc, a high performance parallel eigenvalue solver. Design techniques for the implementation of a patched non-conformal mesh which links groups of sub-meshes that can move relative to one another are presented. The generation of matrices which represent moving meshes which conserve neutron current at their boundaries, and the performance of the framework when applied to model reactivity insertion experiments is also discussed.

  17. Tritium system test assembly control system cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutz, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    The principal objectives of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), which includes the development, demonstration and interfacing of technologies related to the deuterium--tritium fuel cycle for fusion reactor systems, are concisely stated. The various integrated subsystems comprising TSTA and their functions are discussed. Each of the four major subdivisions of TSTA, including the main process system, the environmental and safety systems, supporting systems and the physical plant are briefly discussed. An overview of the Master Data Acquisition and Control System, which will control all functional operation of TSTA, is provided

  18. Assembly of Liposomes Controlled by Triple Helix Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stefan; Jakobsen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of DNA to the surface of different solid nanoparticles (e.g. gold- and silica nanoparticles) is well established and a number of DNA-modified solid nanoparticle systems have been applied to thermal denaturation analysis of oligonucleotides. We report herein the non-covalent immobilizat...... analysis (NTA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show independently from ultraviolet spectroscopy experiments the formation of liposome aggregates.......-covalent immobilization of oligonucleotides on the surface of soft nanoparticles (e.g. liposomes) and the subsequent controlled assembly by DNA triple helix formation. The non-covalent approach avoids tedious surface chemistry and necessary purification procedures and can simplify and extend the available methodology...... sequences (G or C-rich) to explore the applicability of the method for different triple helical assembly modes. We demonstrate advantages and limitations of the approach and proof the reversible and reproducible formation of liposome aggregates during thermal denaturation cycles. Nanoparticle tracking...

  19. The Cytoskeleton-Autophagy Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, David J; Dominguez, Roberto

    2017-04-24

    Actin cytoskeleton dynamics play vital roles in most forms of intracellular trafficking by promoting the biogenesis and transport of vesicular cargoes. Mounting evidence indicates that actin dynamics and membrane-cytoskeleton scaffolds also have essential roles in macroautophagy, the process by which cellular waste is isolated inside specialized vesicles called autophagosomes for recycling and degradation. Branched actin polymerization is necessary for the biogenesis of autophagosomes from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Actomyosin-based transport is then used to feed the growing phagophore with pre-selected cargoes and debris derived from different membranous organelles inside the cell. Finally, mature autophagosomes detach from the ER membrane by an as yet unknown mechanism, undergo intracellular transport and then fuse with lysosomes, endosomes and multivesicular bodies through mechanisms that involve actin- and microtubule-mediated motility, cytoskeleton-membrane scaffolds and signaling proteins. In this review, we highlight the considerable progress made recently towards understanding the diverse roles of the cytoskeleton in autophagy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Multigeometry Nanoparticle Engineering via Kinetic Control through Multistep assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingchao; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Fuwu; Mays, Jimmy; Wooley, Karen; Pochan, Darrin

    2014-03-01

    Organization of block copolymers into complicated multicompartment (MCM) and multigeometry (MGM) nanostructures is of increasing interest. Multistep, co-assembly methods resulting in kinetic control processing was used to produce complex nanoparticles that are not obtained via other assembly methods. Vesicle-cylinder, separate vesicle and cylinder, disk-cylinder, and mixed vesicle nanoparticles were constructed by binary blends of distinct diblock copolymers. Initially, the vesicle former polyacrylic acid-polyisoprene and cylinder former polyacrylic acid-polystyrene which share the same hydrophilic domain but immiscible hydrophobic domain were blended in THF. Secondly, dimaine molecules are added to associate with the common hydrophilic PAA. Importantly, and lastly, by tuning the kinetic addition rate of selective, miscible solvent water, the unlike hydrophobic blocks are kinetically trapped into one particle and eventually nanophase separate to form multiple compartments and multigeometries. The effective bottom-up multistep assembly strategies can be applied in other binary/ternary blends, in which new vesicle-sphere, disk-disk and cylinder-cylinder MCM/MGM nanoparticles were programed. We are grateful for the financial support from the National Science Funding DMR-0906815 (D.J.P. and K.L.W.) and NIST METROLOGY POCHAN 2012.

  1. Controlled short-linkage assembly of functional nano-objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Shilpi; Kamra, Tripta [Division of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); ENI AB, Malmö (Sweden); Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Uddin, Khan Mohammad Ahsan [Division of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Snezhkova, Olesia [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Jayawardena, H. Surangi N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Ave., Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Yan, Mingdi [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Ave., Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Department of Chemistry, KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 30, S-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Montelius, Lars [ENI AB, Malmö (Sweden); Schnadt, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.schnadt@sljus.lu.se [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Ye, Lei, E-mail: lei.ye@tbiokem.lth.se [Division of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fast photoconjugation of nanoparticles on surface. • Non-destructive feature guarantees intact function of nanoparticles. • Direct contact between nano-objects allows efficient photon and electron transfer. • Possibility of generating patterned nanoparticle assemblies on surface. • Open new opportunities for assembling chemical sensors. - Abstract: In this work, we report a method that allows the deterministic, photo-controlled covalent assembly of nanoparticles directly on surface. As a model system, we study the conjugation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles on a glass surface and confirm that the immobilized nanoparticles maintain their molecular recognition functionality. The glass slide was first modified with perfluorophenylazide and then used to bind MIP nanoparticles under UV irradiation. After each step the surface was analyzed by water contact angle measurement, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and/or synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MIP nanoparticles immobilized on the glass surface remained stable and maintained specific binding for the template molecule, propranolol. The method developed in this work allows MIP nanoparticles to be directly coupled to a flat surface, offering a straightforward means to construct robust chemical sensors. Using the reported photo conjugation method, it is possible to generate patterned assembly of nanoparticles using a photomask. Since perfluorophenylazide-based photochemistry works with all kinds of organic material, the method developed in this work is expected to enable immobilization of not only MIPs but also other kinds of organic and inorganic–organic core–shell particles for various applications involving photon or electron transfer.

  2. Controlled short-linkage assembly of functional nano-objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Shilpi; Kamra, Tripta; Uddin, Khan Mohammad Ahsan; Snezhkova, Olesia; Jayawardena, H. Surangi N.; Yan, Mingdi; Montelius, Lars; Schnadt, Joachim; Ye, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fast photoconjugation of nanoparticles on surface. • Non-destructive feature guarantees intact function of nanoparticles. • Direct contact between nano-objects allows efficient photon and electron transfer. • Possibility of generating patterned nanoparticle assemblies on surface. • Open new opportunities for assembling chemical sensors. - Abstract: In this work, we report a method that allows the deterministic, photo-controlled covalent assembly of nanoparticles directly on surface. As a model system, we study the conjugation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles on a glass surface and confirm that the immobilized nanoparticles maintain their molecular recognition functionality. The glass slide was first modified with perfluorophenylazide and then used to bind MIP nanoparticles under UV irradiation. After each step the surface was analyzed by water contact angle measurement, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and/or synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MIP nanoparticles immobilized on the glass surface remained stable and maintained specific binding for the template molecule, propranolol. The method developed in this work allows MIP nanoparticles to be directly coupled to a flat surface, offering a straightforward means to construct robust chemical sensors. Using the reported photo conjugation method, it is possible to generate patterned assembly of nanoparticles using a photomask. Since perfluorophenylazide-based photochemistry works with all kinds of organic material, the method developed in this work is expected to enable immobilization of not only MIPs but also other kinds of organic and inorganic–organic core–shell particles for various applications involving photon or electron transfer

  3. Control assembly ejection accident analysis for WWER-440 (Armenian NPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bznuni, S.; Malakyan, Ts.; Amirjanyan, A.; Ghasabyan, L.

    2007-01-01

    Control Assembly ejection in WWER-440 initiated by the loss of integrity of the Control Assemblies drive housing has been analyzed. This event causes a very rapid reactivity insertion to the core and small break LOCA which potentially could lead to rapid power increase and redistribution of heat release in the core resulting in a fuel, cladding and coolant temperature rise; primary pressure increase, radiological consequences due to loss of primary coolant and potential loss of cladding integrity and fuel disintegration (if applicable). Methodology of the analysis is based on conservative assumptions as well as on deterministic approach for selection of functioning logic of systems and equipment's to maximize reactor core power and minimize power decreasing reactivity feedback. Computational analyses were performed by 3D kinetics PARCS-RELAP coupled code. WWER-440 fuel cross-section libraries, diffusion coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated by HELOS code. In this paper analysis of accident for Hot Full Power was presented. Results of analysis show that ANPP WWER-440 reactor design meets acceptance criteria prescribed for RIA type design based accidents (Authors)

  4. Optically controlled three-dimensional assembly of microfabricated building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Kelemen, Lorand; Palima, Darwin

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a system for constructing reconfigurable microstructures using multiple, real-time configurable counterpropagating-beam traps. We optically assemble geometrically complementary microstructures with complex three-dimensional (3D) topologies produced by two-photon polymerization....... This demonstrates utilization of controllable 3D optical traps for building hierarchical structures from microfabricated building blocks. Optical microassembly with translational and tip-tilt control in 3D achieved by dynamic multiple CB traps can potentially facilitate the construction of functional microdevices...... and may also lead to the future realization of optically actuated micromachines. Fabricating morphologically complex microstructures and then optically manipulating these archetypal building blocks can also be used to construct reconfigurable microenvironments that can aid in understanding cellular...

  5. Identification of dynamic changes in proteins associated with the cellular cytoskeleton after exposure to okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opsahl, Jill A; Ljostveit, Sonja; Solstad, Therese

    2013-01-01

    be combined with control cells before the isolation of lipid rafts. Protein phosphorylation events and translocations induced by okadaic acid were identified by mass spectrometry. Okadaic acid was shown to regulate the phosphorylation status and location of proteins associated with the actin cytoskeleton...... of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and cell detachment....

  6. Cytoskeleton in mast cell signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Pavel; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dráberová, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, May (2012), s. 130 ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/10/1701; GA ČR GPP302/11/P709; GA ČR GAP302/12/1673 Grant - others:ECST(XE) Action BM1007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cytoskeleton * mast cell activation * signal transduction Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. Reconstitutable control assembly having removable control rods with detachable split upper end plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Knott, R.P.; Sparrow, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes, for use in facilitating replacement of a neutron absorber control rod on a control assembly spider structure, an end plug. It comprises a pair of separate upper and lower plug portions; the upper section of the upper plug portion being configured for rigid attachment; the middle section of the upper plug portion having angularly displaced flat surfaces formed on the exterior

  8. Physical controls on directed virus assembly at nanoscale chemical templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, C L; Chung, S; Chatterji, A; Lin, T; Johnson, J E; Hok, S; Perkins, J; De Yoreo, J

    2006-01-01

    Viruses are attractive building blocks for nanoscale heterostructures, but little is understood about the physical principles governing their directed assembly. In-situ force microscopy was used to investigate organization of Cowpea Mosaic Virus engineered to bind specifically and reversibly at nanoscale chemical templates with sub-30nm features. Morphological evolution and assembly kinetics were measured as virus flux and inter-viral potential were varied. The resulting morphologies were similar to those of atomic-scale epitaxial systems, but the underlying thermodynamics was analogous to that of colloidal systems in confined geometries. The 1D templates biased the location of initial cluster formation, introduced asymmetric sticking probabilities, and drove 1D and 2D condensation at subcritical volume fractions. The growth kinetics followed a t 1/2 law controlled by the slow diffusion of viruses. The lateral expansion of virus clusters that initially form on the 1D templates following introduction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) into the solution suggests a significant role for weak interaction

  9. Self-Controlling Rig for Jaw Crusher Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Jadhav; Anup Pawar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the work is to develop a method for easy assembly of the bearing in the housing by standardized way. The assembly of bearing should take place on the atomized set up. Based on this method a assembly setup was constructed which enables to assembly of the shaft with bearing of different models of jaw crusher. First tests were done with manual alignment and it shows that with proper alignment shaft assembly is very easy operation and also safe. Results of those tests show that the dev...

  10. Force-controlled robotic assembly processes of rigid and flexible objects methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghalyan, Ibrahim Fahad Jasim

    2016-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive and integrated approaches for rigid and flexible object assembly. It presents comparison studies with the available force-guided robotic processes and covers contact-state modeling, scheme control strategies, and position searching algorithms. Further, it includes experimental validations for different assembly situations, including those for the assembly of industrial parts taken from the automotive industry. .

  11. Cytoskeleton in Mast Cell Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dráber, Pavel; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dráberová, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Mast cell activation mediated by the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) is a key event in allergic response and inflammation. Other receptors on mast cells, as c-Kit for stem cell factor and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) synergistically enhance the FcεRI-mediated release of inflammatory mediators. Activation of various signaling pathways in mast cells results in changes in cell morphology, adhesion to substrate, exocytosis, and migration. Reorganization of cytoskeleton is pivotal in all these processes. Cytoskeletal proteins also play an important role in initial stages of FcεRI and other surface receptors induced triggering. Highly dynamic microtubules formed by αβ-tubulin dimers as well as microfilaments build up from polymerized actin are affected in activated cells by kinases/phosphatases, Rho GTPases and changes in concentration of cytosolic Ca2+. Also important are nucleation proteins; the γ-tubulin complexes in case of microtubules or Arp 2/3 complex with its nucleation promoting factors and formins in case of microfilaments. The dynamic nature of microtubules and microfilaments in activated cells depends on many associated/regulatory proteins. Changes in rigidity of activated mast cells reflect changes in intermediate filaments build up from vimentin. This review offers a critical appraisal of current knowledge on the role of cytoskeleton in mast cells signaling. PMID:22654883

  12. Enigma interacts with adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains to control insulin-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling and glucose transporter 4 translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrès, Romain; Grémeaux, Thierry; Gual, Philippe; Gonzalez, Teresa; Gugenheim, Jean; Tran, Albert; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tanti, Jean-François

    2006-11-01

    APS (adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains) initiates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway involved in insulin-stimulated glucose transport. We recently identified Enigma, a PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein, as a partner of APS and showed that APS-Enigma complex plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organization in fibroblastic cells. Because actin rearrangement is important for insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (Glut 4) translocation, we studied the potential involvement of Enigma in insulin-induced glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Enigma mRNA was expressed in differentiated adipocytes and APS and Enigma were colocalized with cortical actin. Expression of an APS mutant unable to bind Enigma increased the insulin-induced Glut 4 translocation to the plasma membrane. By contrast, overexpression of Enigma inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport and Glut 4 translocation without alterations in proximal insulin signaling. This inhibitory effect was prevented with the deletion of the LIM domains of Enigma. Using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy of green fluorescent protein-actin, we demonstrated that the overexpression of Enigma altered insulin-induced actin rearrangements, whereas the expression of Enigma without its LIM domains was without effect. A physiological link between increased expression of Enigma and an alteration in insulin-induced glucose uptake was suggested by the increase in Enigma mRNA expression in adipose tissue of diabetic obese patients. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the interaction between APS and Enigma is involved in insulin-induced Glut 4 translocation by regulating cortical actin remodeling and raise the possibility that modification of APS/Enigma ratio could participate in the alteration of insulin-induced glucose uptake in adipose tissue.

  13. Control of trichome branching by Chromatin Assembly Factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig Lars

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin dynamics and stability are both required to control normal development of multicellular organisms. Chromatin assembly factor CAF-1 is a histone chaperone that facilitates chromatin formation and the maintenance of specific chromatin states. In plants and animals CAF-1 is essential for normal development, but it is poorly understood which developmental pathways require CAF-1 function. Results Mutations in all three CAF-1 subunits affect Arabidopsis trichome morphology and lack of CAF-1 function results in formation of trichomes with supernumerary branches. This phenotype can be partially alleviated by external sucrose. In contrast, other aspects of the CAF-1 mutant phenotype, such as defective meristem function and organ formation, are aggravated by external sucrose. Double mutant analyses revealed epistatic interactions between CAF-1 mutants and stichel, but non-epistatic interactions between CAF-1 mutants and glabra3 and kaktus. In addition, mutations in CAF-1 could partly suppress the strong overbranching and polyploidization phenotype of kaktus mutants. Conclusion CAF-1 is required for cell differentiation and regulates trichome development together with STICHEL in an endoreduplication-independent pathway. This function of CAF-1 can be partially substituted by application of exogenous sucrose. Finally, CAF-1 is also needed for the high degree of endoreduplication in kaktus mutants and thus for the realization of kaktus' extreme overbranching phenotype.

  14. The prehistory of the cytoskeleton concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Fabio; Coen, Matteo; Gabbiani, Giulio

    2014-08-01

    Here we discuss how the concept and the name of cytoskeleton were generated and started to evolve over the last two centuries into what is presently a basic topic of modern biology. We also attempt to describe some facets of the emergence of cytoskeleton component characterization in which our laboratory was in part involved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Radial brake assembly for a control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekmati, A.; Gibo, E.Y.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a brake assembly for a control rod drive for selectively preventing travel of a control rod in a nuclear reactor vessel. It comprises a shaft having a longitudinal centerline axis; means for selectively rotating the shaft in a first direction and in a second direction, opposite to the first direction; a stationary housing having a central aperture receiving the shaft; a frame fixedly joined to the housing and having a guide hole; a rotor disc fixedly connected to the shaft for rotation therewith and having at least one rotor tooth extending radially outwardly from a perimeter thereof, the rotor tooth having a locking surface and an inclined surface extending therefrom in a circumferential direction; a brake member disposed adjacent to the rotor disc perimeter and including a base, at least one braking tooth having a locking surface extending therefrom in a circumferential direction, and a plunger extending radially outwardly from the base and slidably joined to the frame through the guide hole; the rotor tooth and the braking tooth being complementary to each other; and means for selectively positioning the brake member in a deployed position abutting the rotor disc perimeter for allowing the braking tooth locking surface to contact the rotor tooth locking surface for preventing rotation of the shaft in the first direction, and in a retracted position spaced radially away from the rotor disc for allowing the rotor disc and the shaft to rotate without restraint from the brake member, the positioning means including a tubular solenoid fixedly joined to the frame and having a central bore disposed around the brake member plunger and effective for sliding the brake member plunger relative to the frame for positioning the brake member in the deployed and retracted positions

  16. Morphology and Pattern Control of Diphenylalanine Self-Assembly via Evaporative Dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiarui; Qin, Shuyu; Wu, Xinglong; Chu, And Paul K

    2016-01-26

    Self-assembled peptide nanostructures have unique physical and biological properties and promising applications in electrical devices and functional molecular recognition. Although solution-based peptide molecules can self-assemble into different morphologies, it is challenging to control the self-assembly process. Herein, controllable self-assembly of diphenylalanine (FF) in an evaporative dewetting solution is reported. The fluid mechanical dimensionless numbers, namely Rayleigh, Marangoni, and capillary numbers, are introduced to control the interaction between the solution and FF molecules in the self-assembly process. The difference in the film thickness reflects the effects of Rayleigh and Marangoni convection, and the water vapor flow rate reveals the role of viscous fingering in the emergence of aligned FF flakes. By employing dewetting, various FF self-assembled patterns, like concentric and spokelike, and morphologies, like strips and hexagonal tubes/rods, can be produced, and there are no significant lattice structural changes in the FF nanostructures.

  17. A Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 Isoform Controls Myosin II-Mediated Cell Migration and Matrix Assembly by Trapping ROCK II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wait, Robin; Couchman, John R.; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2012-01-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) is known as a regulator of neuronal polarity and differentiation through microtubule assembly and trafficking. Here, we show that CRMP-2 is ubiquitously expressed and a splice variant (CRMP-2L), which is expressed mainly in epithelial cells among nonneuronal cells, regulates myosin II-mediated cellular functions, including cell migration. While the CRMP-2 short form (CRMP-2S) is recognized as a substrate of the Rho-GTP downstream kinase ROCK in neuronal cells, a CRMP-2 complex containing 2L not only bound the catalytic domain of ROCK II through two binding domains but also trapped and inhibited the kinase. CRMP-2L protein levels profoundly affected haptotactic migration and the actin-myosin cytoskeleton of carcinoma cells as well as nontransformed epithelial cell migration in a ROCK activity-dependent manner. Moreover, the ectopic expression of CRMP-2L but not -2S inhibited fibronectin matrix assembly in fibroblasts. Underlying these responses, CRMP-2L regulated the kinase activity of ROCK II but not ROCK I, independent of GTP-RhoA levels. This study provides a new insight into CRMP-2 as a controller of myosin II-mediated cellular functions through the inhibition of ROCK II in nonneuronal cells. PMID:22431514

  18. Transient Analysis of a Gas-cooled Fast Reactor for Single Control Assembly Withdrawal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hangbok

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Multiplier Module (EMZ) system response has been evaluated for control assembly withdrawal transients. Currently the EM2 core is equipped with six cylindrical drum-type control assemblies in the reflector zone for excess reactivity control and power maneuvering during the operating core life. This study investigates the system response to the control assembly withdrawal accident with various rotational speeds and reactivity worth to determine feasible control assembly design requirements from the physics viewpoint. The simulations have been conducted for single control assembly withdrawal transients without scram by a gas-cooled reactor plant simulator, which is based on a simplified plant nodal model, including the point reactor kinetics, single channel core thermal-fluid model, and a turbo-machinery performance model. Simulations were conducted for the middle-of- cycle core, when the excess reactivity of the core is the highest. Control assembly withdrawal times were varied from 1 (runaway) to 180 sec and reactivity worth was varied from 100 to 400 pcm. For a single control assembly withdrawal, the simulation has shown that the peak fuel temperature is expected to be ~1820°C when the assembly worth is 200 pcm and the runaway time is 1 sec per 180 degree rotation. The peak temperature could be reduced to ~1780°C if the assembly is rotated out in a moderate speed such as 1 degree/sec. These peak temperatures give a thermal margin of 22 to 24% to the melting point of uranium carbide fuel. The results also indicate that the current design with a single control assembly worth of 314 pcm may need adjustments in the future design. (author)

  19. Controlling Self-Assembly in Al(110) Homoepitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Yogesh; Fichthorn, Kristen

    2010-03-01

    Homoepitaxial growth on Al(110) exhibits nanoscale self-assembly into huts with well-defined (100) and (111) facets [1]. Although some of the diffusion mechanisms underlying this kinetic self-assembly were identified and incorporated into a two-dimensional model [2], we used density-functional theory (DFT) to identify many other mechanisms that are needed to describe the three-dimensional assembly seen experimentally [3]. We developed a three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model of Al(110) homoepitaxy. The inputs to the model were obtained from DFT [3,4]. Our model is in agreement with experimentally observed trends for this system. We used KMC to predict self-assembly under various growth conditions. To achieve precise placement of Al nanohuts, we simulated thermal-field-directed assembly [5]. Our results indicate that this technique can be used to create uniform arrays of nanostructures. [1] F. Buatier de Mongeot, W. Zhu, A. Molle, R. Buzio, C. Boragno, U. Valbusa, E. Wang, and Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016102 (2003). [2] W. Zhu, F. Buatier de Mongeot, U. Valbusa, E. G. Wang, and Z. Y. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 106102 (2004). [3] Y. Tiwary and K. A. Fichthorn, submitted to Phys. Rev. B. [4] Y. Tiwary and K. A. Fichthorn, Phys. Rev. B 78, 205418 (2008). [5] C. Zhang and R. Kalyanaraman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4827 (2003).

  20. Dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton mediates receptor cross talk: An emerging concept in tuning receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Pieta K.; Batista, Facundo D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the actin cytoskeleton in the control of receptor signaling. This may be of particular importance in the context of immune receptors, such as the B cell receptor, where dysregulated signaling can result in autoimmunity and malignancy. Here, we discuss the role of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling receptor compartmentalization, dynamics, and clustering as a means to regulate receptor signaling through controlling the interactions with protein partners. We propose that the actin cytoskeleton is a point of integration for receptor cross talk through modulation of protein dynamics and clustering. We discuss the implication of this cross talk via the cytoskeleton for both ligand-induced and low-level constitutive (tonic) signaling necessary for immune cell survival. PMID:26833785

  1. The Evolving Complexity of the Podocyte Cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Christoph; Huber, Tobias B

    2017-11-01

    Podocytes exhibit a unique cytoskeletal architecture that is fundamentally linked to their function in maintaining the kidney filtration barrier. The cytoskeleton regulates podocyte shape, structure, stability, slit diaphragm insertion, adhesion, plasticity, and dynamic response to environmental stimuli. Genetic mutations demonstrate that even slight impairment of the podocyte cytoskeletal apparatus results in proteinuria and glomerular disease. Moreover, mechanisms underpinning all acquired glomerular pathologies converge on disruption of the cytoskeleton, suggesting that this subcellular structure could be targeted for therapeutic purposes. This review summarizes our current understanding of the function of the cytoskeleton in podocytes and the associated implications for pathophysiology. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. αII Spectrin Forms a Periodic Cytoskeleton at the Axon Initial Segment and Is Required for Nervous System Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Claire Yu-Mei; Zhang, Chuansheng; Ho, Tammy Szu-Yu; Oses-Prieto, Juan; Burlingame, Alma L; Lalonde, Joshua; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Leterrier, Christophe; Rasband, Matthew N

    2017-11-22

    Spectrins form a submembranous cytoskeleton proposed to confer strength and flexibility to neurons and to participate in ion channel clustering at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. Neuronal spectrin cytoskeletons consist of diverse β subunits and αII spectrin. Although αII spectrin is found in neurons in both axonal and somatodendritic domains, using proteomics, biochemistry, and superresolution microscopy, we show that αII and βIV spectrin interact and form a periodic AIS cytoskeleton. To determine the role of spectrins in the nervous system, we generated Sptan1 f/f mice for deletion of CNS αII spectrin. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that loss of αII spectrin causes profound reductions in all β spectrins. αII spectrin-deficient mice die before 1 month of age and have disrupted AIS and many other neurological impairments including seizures, disrupted cortical lamination, and widespread neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the importance of the spectrin cytoskeleton both at the AIS and throughout the nervous system. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spectrin cytoskeletons play diverse roles in neurons, including assembly of excitable domains such as the axon initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. However, the molecular composition and structure of these cytoskeletons remain poorly understood. Here, we show that αII spectrin partners with βIV spectrin to form a periodic cytoskeleton at the AIS. Using a new αII spectrin conditional knock-out mouse, we show that αII spectrin is required for AIS assembly, neuronal excitability, cortical lamination, and to protect against neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the broad importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for nervous system function and development and have important implications for nervous system injuries and diseases because disruption of the spectrin cytoskeleton is a common molecular pathology. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3711311-12$15.00/0.

  3. Rigid Biopolymer Nanocrystal Systems for Controlling Multicomponent Nanoparticle Assembly and Orientation in Thin Film Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jennifer [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-10-31

    We have discovered techniques to synthesize well-defined DN conjugated nanostructures that are stable in a wide variety of conditions needed for DNA mediated assembly. Starting from this, we have shown that DNA can be used to control the assembly and integration of semiconductor nanocrystals into thin film devices that show photovoltaic effects.

  4. Controlled capillary assembly of magnetic Janus Particles at fluid-fluid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Q.; Davies, G.B.; Harting, J.D.R.

    2016-01-01

    Capillary interactions can be used to direct assembly of particles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces. Precisely controlling the magnitude and direction of capillary interactions to assemble particles into favoured structures for materials science purposes is desirable but challenging. In this

  5. Progress of research on cytoskeleton and neural cell migration obstacle induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Jun; Wu Cuiping; Wang Mingming

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic changes of the microtubules and microfilaments provide the main force that drives the normal migration. Biological effects in tissues and cells induced by ionizing radiation are closely correlated with the changes happening to the cytoskeleton. It is that the ionizing radiation can induce the depolymeration of microfilaments and the assembly obstacles of microtubules, and make neural cell incapable of entering the model of migration or abnormally migrate. The effects of relevant changes of the cytoskeleton induced by irradiation on neural cell migration were discussed in this paper. (authors)

  6. Chirality of the cytoskeleton in the origins of cellular asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of two important components of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells, actin microfilaments and microtubules (MTs) results in polar filaments of one chirality. As is true for bacterial flagella, in actin microfilaments, screw direction is important for assembly processes and motility. For MTs, polar orientation within the cell is paramount. The alignment of these elements in the cell cytoplasm gives rise to emergent properties, including the potential for cell differentiation and specialization. Complex MTs with a characteristic chirality are found in basal bodies and centrioles; this chirality is preserved in cilia. In motile cilia, it is reflected in the direction of the effective stroke. The positioning of the basal body or cilia on the cell surface depends on polarity proteins. In evolution, survival depends on global polarity information relayed to the cell in part by orientation of the MT and actin filament cytoskeletons and the chirality of the basal body to determine left and right coordinates within a defined anterior–posterior cell and tissue axis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821520

  7. A growing family: the expanding universe of the bacterial cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerson-Mahar, Michael; Gitai, Zemer

    2012-01-01

    Cytoskeletal proteins are important mediators of cellular organization in both eukaryotes and bacteria. In the past, cytoskeletal studies have largely focused on three major cytoskeletal families, namely the eukaryotic actin, tubulin, and intermediate filament (IF) proteins and their bacterial homologs MreB, FtsZ, and crescentin. However, mounting evidence suggests that these proteins represent only the tip of the iceberg, as the cellular cytoskeletal network is far more complex. In bacteria, each of MreB, FtsZ, and crescentin represents only one member of large families of diverse homologs. There are also newly identified bacterial cytoskeletal proteins with no eukaryotic homologs, such as WACA proteins and bactofilins. Furthermore, there are universally conserved proteins, such as the metabolic enzyme CtpS, that assemble into filamentous structures that can be repurposed for structural cytoskeletal functions. Recent studies have also identified an increasing number of eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins that are unrelated to actin, tubulin, and IFs, such that expanding our understanding of cytoskeletal proteins is advancing the understanding of the cell biology of all organisms. Here, we summarize the recent explosion in the identification of new members of the bacterial cytoskeleton and describe a hypothesis for the evolution of the cytoskeleton from self-assembling enzymes. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Supervisory Control Technique For An Assembly Workstation As A Dynamic Discrete Event System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina CERNEGA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control problem statement in the framework of supervisory control technique for the assembly workstations. A desired behaviour of an assembly workstation is analysed. The behaviour of such a workstation is cyclic and some linguistic properties are established. In this paper, it is proposed an algorithm for the computation of the supremal controllable language of the closed system desired language. Copyright © 2001 IFAC.

  9. Guest Controlled Nonmonotonic Deep Cavity Cavitand Assembly State Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Du; Barnett, J Wesley; Gibb, Bruce C; Ashbaugh, Henry S

    2017-11-30

    Octa-acid (OA) and tetra-endo-methyl octa-acid (TEMOA) are water-soluble, deep-cavity cavitands with nanometer-sized nonpolar pockets that readily bind complementary guests, such as n-alkanes. Experimentally, OA exhibits a progression of 1:1 to 2:2 to 2:1 host/guest complexes (X:Y where X is the number of hosts and Y is the number of guests) with increasing alkane chain length from methane to tetradecane. Differing from OA only by the addition of four methyl groups ringing the portal of the pocket, TEMOA exhibits a nonmonotonic progression of assembly states from 1:1 to 2:2 to 1:1 to 2:1 with increasing guest length. Here we present a systematic molecular simulation study to parse the molecular and thermodynamic determinants that distinguish the succession of assembly stoichiometries observed for these similar hosts. Potentials of mean force between hosts and guests, determined via umbrella sampling, are used to characterize association free energies. These free energies are subsequently used in a reaction network model to predict the equilibrium distributions of assemblies. Our models accurately reproduce the experimentally observed trends, showing that TEMOA's endo-methyl units constrict the opening of the binding pocket, limiting the conformations available to bound guests and disrupting the balance between monomeric complexes and dimeric capsules. The success of our simulations demonstrate their utility at interpreting the impact of even simple chemical modifications on supramolecular assembly and highlight their potential to aid bottom-up design.

  10. Method of assembling and disassembling a control component structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.T.; Schluderberg, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A technique is provided for engaging and disengaging burnable poison rods from the spider in a fuel assembly. The cap on the end of each of the burnable poison rods is provided with a shank that is received in the respective bore formed in the spider. A frangible flange secures the shank and rod to the spider. Pressing the shank in the direction of the bore axis ruptures the frangible flange to release the rod from the spider

  11. Fluid moderator control system fuel assembly seal connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, L.; Tower, S.N.; Klassen, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fuel assemblies having one or more flow channels therethrough, a core support plate having one or more flow channels therethrough, and seal connectors for sealingly connecting the one or more flow channels in the core support plate with the one or more flow channels in the fuel assemblies. The seal connectors each comprises a first portion and second portion each comprising an elongated member having a flow channel therethrough and being in substantial axial alignment with each other and being separated by a space therebetween, means for sealingly connecting the first portion o one or the one or more flow channels in the fuel assemblies, means for sealingly connecting the second portion to the first portion and for allowing relative motion between the portions, means for limiting the relative motion of the first and second portion in directions toward and away from each other, means for reconnectingly connecting and resealingly sealing the second portion to one of the one or more flow channels in the core support plate. It comprises a slip fit connection whereby the remote end of the second portion fits within whereby the remote end of the second portion fits within an opening in the core support plate which is in flow communication with the one or more flow channels in the core support plate and further comprises a ball and cones seal in series with axially spaced ring seals

  12. Disruption of Spectrin-Like Cytoskeleton in Differentiating Keratinocytes by PKCδ Activation Is Associated with Phosphorylated Adducin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kong-Nan; Masci, Paul P.; Lavin, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    Spectrin is a central component of the cytoskeletal protein network in a variety of erythroid and non-erythroid cells. In keratinocytes, this protein has been shown to be pericytoplasmic and plasma membrane associated, but its characteristics and function have not been established in these cells. Here we demonstrate that spectrin increases dramatically in amount and is assembled into the cytoskeleton during differentiation in mouse and human keratinocytes. The spectrin-like cytoskeleton was predominantly organized in the granular and cornified layers of the epidermis and disrupted by actin filament inhibitors, but not by anti-mitotic drugs. When the cytoskeleton was disrupted PKCδ was activated by phosphorylation on Thr505. Specific inhibition of PKCδ(Thr505) activation with rottlerin prevented disruption of the spectrin-like cytoskeleton and the associated morphological changes that accompany differentiation. Rottlerin also inhibited specific phosphorylation of the PKCδ substrate adducin, a cytoskeletal protein. Furthermore, knock-down of endogenous adducin affected not only expression of adducin, but also spectrin and PKCδ, and severely disrupted organization of the spectrin-like cytoskeleton and cytoskeletal distribution of both adducin and PKCδ. These results demonstrate that organization of a spectrin-like cytoskeleton is associated with keratinocytes differentiation, and disruption of this cytoskeleton is mediated by either PKCδ(Thr505) phosphorylation associated with phosphorylated adducin or due to reduction of endogenous adducin, which normally connects and stabilizes the spectrin-actin complex. PMID:22163289

  13. Infection and Transport of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Neurons: Role of the Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neuroinvasive human pathogen that has the ability to infect and replicate within epithelial cells and neurons and establish a life-long latent infection in sensory neurons. HSV-1 depends on the host cellular cytoskeleton for entry, replication, and exit. Therefore, HSV-1 has adapted mechanisms to promote its survival by exploiting the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons to direct its active transport, infection, and spread between neurons and epithelial cells during primary and recurrent infections. This review will focus on the currently known mechanisms utilized by HSV-1 to harness the neuronal cytoskeleton, molecular motors, and the secretory and exocytic pathways for efficient virus entry, axonal transport, replication, assembly, and exit from the distinct functional compartments (cell body and axon) of the highly polarized sensory neurons. PMID:29473915

  14. Further development of the Dynamic Control Assemblies Worth Measurement Method for Advanced Reactivity Computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petenyi, V.; Strmensky, C.; Jagrik, J.; Minarcin, M.; Sarvaic, I.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic control assemblies worth measurement technique is a quick method for validation of predicted control assemblies worth. The dynamic control assemblies worth measurement utilize space-time corrections for the measured out of core ionization chamber readings calculated by DYN 3D computer code. The space-time correction arising from the prompt neutron density redistribution in the measured ionization chamber reading can be directly applied in the advanced reactivity computer. The second correction concerning the difference of spatial distribution of delayed neutrons can be calculated by simulation the measurement procedure by dynamic version of the DYN 3D code. In the paper some results of dynamic control assemblies worth measurement applied for NPP Mochovce are presented (Authors)

  15. WWER-440 control assembly local power peaking investigation on LR-0 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents information concerning the local power peaking problem induced by the WWER-440 control assembly and the investigation possibilities on the light water, zero power reactor LR-0 at the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Rez plc. A brief description is given about the disposable control assembly model, experimental arrangement and conditions on the LR-0 reactor with regard to the earlier performed investigations as well as to the relevant measurements to be realized in the near future.(abstract)

  16. Axon Initial Segment Cytoskeleton: Architecture, Development, and Role in Neuron Polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitkina, Tatyana M.

    2016-01-01

    The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized structure in neurons that resides in between axonal and somatodendritic domains. The localization of the AIS in neurons is ideal for its two major functions: it serves as the site of action potential firing and helps to maintain neuron polarity. It has become increasingly clear that the AIS cytoskeleton is fundamental to AIS functions. In this review, we discuss current understanding of the AIS cytoskeleton with particular interest in its unique architecture and role in maintenance of neuron polarity. The AIS cytoskeleton is divided into two parts, submembrane and cytoplasmic, based on localization, function, and molecular composition. Recent studies using electron and subdiffraction fluorescence microscopy indicate that submembrane cytoskeletal components (ankyrin G, βIV-spectrin, and actin filaments) form a sophisticated network in the AIS that is conceptually similar to the polygonal/triangular network of erythrocytes, with some important differences. Components of the AIS cytoplasmic cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin filaments, and neurofilaments) reside deeper within the AIS shaft and display structural features distinct from other neuronal domains. We discuss how the AIS submembrane and cytoplasmic cytoskeletons contribute to different aspects of AIS polarity function and highlight recent advances in understanding their AIS cytoskeletal assembly and stability. PMID:27493806

  17. The role of apical cell-cell junctions and associated cytoskeleton in mechanotransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluysmans, Sophie; Vasileva, Ekaterina; Spadaro, Domenica; Shah, Jimit; Rouaud, Florian; Citi, Sandra

    2017-04-01

    Tissues of multicellular organisms are characterised by several types of specialised cell-cell junctions. In vertebrate epithelia and endothelia, tight and adherens junctions (AJ) play critical roles in barrier and adhesion functions, and are connected to the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The interaction between junctions and the cytoskeleton is crucial for tissue development and physiology, and is involved in the molecular mechanisms governing cell shape, motility, growth and signalling. The machineries which functionally connect tight and AJ to the cytoskeleton comprise proteins which either bind directly to cytoskeletal filaments, or function as adaptors for regulators of the assembly and function of the cytoskeleton. In the last two decades, specific cytoskeleton-associated junctional molecules have been implicated in mechanotransduction, revealing the existence of multimolecular complexes that can sense mechanical cues and translate them into adaptation to tensile forces and biochemical signals. Here, we summarise the current knowledge about the machineries that link tight and AJ to actin filaments and microtubules, and the molecular basis for mechanotransduction at epithelial and endothelial AJ. © 2017 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Control of extracellular matrix assembly by syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klass, C M; Couchman, J R; Woods, A

    2000-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and organization is maintained by transmembrane signaling and integrins play major roles. We now show that a second transmembrane component, syndecan-2 heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is pivotal in matrix assembly. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were stably...... to rearrange laminin or fibronectin substrates into fibrils and to bind exogenous fibronectin. Transfection of activated alphaIIbalphaLdeltabeta3 integrin into alpha(5)-deficient CHO B2 cells resulted in reestablishment of the previously lost fibronectin matrix. However, cotransfection of this cell line with S...

  19. Control component structure and its removal from fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.T.; Schluderberg, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides methods and apparatus for securing and removing burnable poison rods to the spider in a fuel assembly. A pin is secured to one of the transverse ends of a burnable poison rod. The pin is seated in a bore that is formed in the spider arm appropriate to the rod under consideration. The burnable poison rod is separated from the spider arm by applying a force in a direction that is coincident with the longitudinal axis of the rod and its associated pin. The force is of sufficient magnitude to press the pin out of the spider arm

  20. EMMPRIN regulates cytoskeleton reorganization and cell adhesion in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haining; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Beibei; Collazo, Joanne; Gal, Jozsef; Shi, Ping; Liu, Li; Ström, Anna-Lena; Lu, Xiaoning; McCann, Richard O; Toborek, Michal; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Proteins on cell surface play important roles during cancer progression and metastasis via their ability to mediate cell-to-cell interactions and navigate the communication between cells and the microenvironment. In this study a targeted proteomic analysis was conducted to identify the differential expression of cell surface proteins in human benign (BPH-1) versus malignant (LNCaP and PC-3) prostate epithelial cells. We identified EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) as a key candidate and shRNA functional approaches were subsequently applied to determine the role of EMMPRIN in prostate cancer cell adhesion, migration, invasion as well as cytoskeleton organization. EMMPRIN was found to be highly expressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells compared to BPH-1 cells, consistent with a correlation between elevated EMMPRIN and metastasis found in other tumors. No significant changes in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, or apoptosis were detected in EMMPRIN knockdown cells compared to the scramble controls. Furthermore, EMMPRIN silencing markedly decreased the ability of PC-3 cells to form filopodia, a critical feature of invasive behavior, while it increased expression of cell-cell adhesion and gap junction proteins. Our results suggest that EMMPRIN regulates cell adhesion, invasion, and cytoskeleton reorganization in prostate cancer cells. This study identifies a new function for EMMPRIN as a contributor to prostate cancer cell-cell communication and cytoskeleton changes towards metastatic spread, and suggests its potential value as a marker of prostate cancer progression to metastasis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Spectrin cytoskeleton regulates the Hippo signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Georgina C; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Khanal, Ichha; Ribeiro, Paulo S; Tapon, Nic; Thompson, Barry J

    2015-04-01

    The Spectrin cytoskeleton is known to be polarised in epithelial cells, yet its role remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the Spectrin cytoskeleton controls Hippo signalling. In the developing Drosophila wing and eye, loss of apical Spectrins (alpha/beta-heavy dimers) produces tissue overgrowth and mis-regulation of Hippo target genes, similar to loss of Crumbs (Crb) or the FERM-domain protein Expanded (Ex). Apical beta-heavy Spectrin binds to Ex and co-localises with it at the apical membrane to antagonise Yki activity. Interestingly, in both the ovarian follicular epithelium and intestinal epithelium of Drosophila, apical Spectrins and Crb are dispensable for repression of Yki, while basolateral Spectrins (alpha/beta dimers) are essential. Finally, the Spectrin cytoskeleton is required to regulate the localisation of the Hippo pathway effector YAP in response to cell density human epithelial cells. Our findings identify both apical and basolateral Spectrins as regulators of Hippo signalling and suggest Spectrins as potential mechanosensors. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  2. Controlled doping by self-assembled dendrimer-like macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haigang; Guan, Bin; Sun, Yingri; Zhu, Yiping; Dan, Yaping

    2017-02-01

    Doping via self-assembled macromolecules might offer a solution for developing single atom electronics by precisely placing individual dopants at arbitrary location to meet the requirement for circuit design. Here we synthesize dendrimer-like polyglycerol macromolecules with each carrying one phosphorus atom in the core. The macromolecules are immobilized by the coupling reagent onto silicon surfaces that are pre-modified with a monolayer of undecylenic acid. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are employed to characterize the synthesized macromolecules and the modified silicon surfaces, respectively. After rapid thermal annealing, the phosphorus atoms carried by the macromolecules diffuse into the silicon substrate, forming dopants at a concentration of 1017 cm-3. Low-temperature Hall effect measurements reveal that the ionization process is rather complicated. Unlike the widely reported simple ionization of phosphorus dopants, nitrogen and carbon are also involved in the electronic activities in the monolayer doped silicon.

  3. Balancing the intermolecular forces in peptide amphiphiles for controlling self-assembly transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, C J; Wallace, A J; Ok, S; Manos, A A; Nicholl, M J; Ghosh, A; Tweedle, M F; Goldberger, J E

    2017-06-21

    While the influence of alkyl chain length and headgroup size on self-assembly behaviour has been well-established for simple surfactants, the rational control over the pH- and concentration-dependent self-assembly behaviour in stimuli responsive peptides remains an elusive goal. Here, we show that different amphiphilic peptides can have similar self-assembly phase diagrams, providing the relative strengths of the attractive and repulsive forces are balanced. Using palmitoyl-YYAAEEEEK(DO3A:Gd)-NH 2 and palmitoyl-YAAEEEEK(DO3A:Gd)-NH 2 as controls, we show that reducing hydrophobic attractive forces through fewer methylene groups in the alkyl chain will lead to a similar self-assembly phase diagram as increasing the electrostatic repulsive forces via the addition of a glutamic acid residue. These changes allow creation of self-assembled MRI vehicles with slightly different micelle and nanofiber diameters but with minimal changes in the spin-lattice T 1 relaxivity. These findings reveal a powerful strategy to design self-assembled vehicles with different sizes but with similar self-assembly profiles.

  4. Cytoplasmic Actin: Purification and Single Molecule Assembly Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott D.; Zuchero, J. Bradley; Mullins, R. Dyche

    2014-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is essential to all eukaryotic cells. In addition to playing important structural roles, assembly of actin into filaments powers diverse cellular processes, including cell motility, cytokinesis, and endocytosis. Actin polymerization is tightly regulated by its numerous cofactors, which control spatial and temporal assembly of actin as well as the physical properties of these filaments. Development of an in vitro model of actin polymerization from purified components has allowed for great advances in determining the effects of these proteins on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we describe how to use the pyrene actin assembly assay to determine the effect of a protein on the kinetics of actin assembly, either directly or as mediated by proteins such as nucleation or capping factors. Secondly, we show how fluorescently labeled phalloidin can be used to visualize the filaments that are created in vitro to give insight into how proteins regulate actin filament structure. Finally, we describe a method for visualizing dynamic assembly and disassembly of single actin filaments and fluorescently labeled actin binding proteins using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. PMID:23868587

  5. Achieving 3-D Nanoparticle Assembly in Nanocomposite Thin Films via Kinetic Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jingyu; Xiao, Yihan; Xu, Ting [UCB

    2017-02-20

    Nanocomposite thin films containing well-ordered nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are ideal candidates for the fabrication of metamaterials. Achieving 3-D assembly of NPs in nanocomposite thin films is thermodynamically challenging as the particle size gets similar to that of a single polymer chain. The entropic penalties of polymeric matrix upon NP incorporation leads to NP aggregation on the film surface or within the defects in the film. Controlling the kinetic pathways of assembly process provides an alternative path forward by arresting the system in nonequilibrium states. Here, we report the thin film 3-D hierarchical assembly of 20 nm NPs in supramolecules with a 30 nm periodicity. By mediating the NP diffusion kinetics in the supramolecular matrix, surface aggregation of NPs was suppressed and NPs coassemble with supramolecules to form new 3-D morphologies in thin films. The present studies opened a viable route to achieve designer functional composite thin films via kinetic control.

  6. A Carbon Dioxide Bubble-Induced Vortex Triggers Co-Assembly of Nanotubes with Controlled Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Laicheng; Xu, Na; Ouyang, Zhenjie

    2017-07-03

    It is challenging to prepare co-organized nanotube systems with controlled nanoscale chirality in an aqueous liquid flow field. Such systems are responsive to a bubbled external gas. A liquid vortex induced by bubbling carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas was used to stimulate the formation of nanotubes with controlled chirality; two kinds of achiral cationic building blocks were co-assembled in aqueous solution. CO 2 -triggered nanotube formation occurs by formation of metastable intermediate structures (short helical ribbons and short tubules) and by transition from short tubules to long tubules in response to chirality matching self-assembly. Interestingly, the chirality sign of these assemblies can be selected for by the circulation direction of the CO 2 bubble-induced vortex during the co-assembly process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Stoichiometry-Controlled Inversion of Supramolecular Chirality in Nanostructures Co-assembled with Bipyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Feng, Chuan-Liang

    2018-02-01

    To control supramolecular chirality of the co-assembled nanostructures, one of the remaining issues is how stoichiometry of the different molecules involved in co-assembly influence chiral transformation. Through co-assembly of achiral 1,4-bis(pyrid-4-yl)benzene and chiral phenylalanine-glycine derivative hydrogelators, stoichiometry is found to be an effective tool for controlling supramolecular chirality inversion processes. This inversion is mainly mediated by a delicate balance between intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions and π-π stacking of the two components, which may subtly change the stacking of the molecules, in turn, the self-assembled nanostructures. This study exemplifies a simplistic way to invert the handedness of chiral nanostructures and provide fundamental understanding of the inherent principles of supramolecular chirality. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Tower Shielding Reactor II design and operation report. Vol. 3. Assembling and testing of the control mechanism assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.R.; Holland, L.B.

    1979-09-01

    The mechanisms that are operated to control the reactivity of the Tower Shielding Reactor II(TSR-II) are mounted on a Control Mechanism Housing (CMH) that is centered inside the reactor core. The information required to procure, fabricate, inspect, and assemble a CMH is contained in the ORNL engineering drawings listed in the appropriate sections. The components are fabricated and inspected from these drawings in accordance with a Quality Assurance Plan and a Manufacturing Plan. The material in this report describes the acceptance and performance tests of CMH subassemblies used ty the Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) staff but it can also be used by personnel fabricating the components. This information which was developed and used before the advent of the formalized QA Program and Manufacturing Plans evolved during the fabrication and testing of the first five CMHs

  9. An αII Spectrin-Based Cytoskeleton Protects Large-Diameter Myelinated Axons from Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Claire Yu-Mei; Zhang, Chuansheng; Zollinger, Daniel R; Leterrier, Christophe; Rasband, Matthew N

    2017-11-22

    Axons must withstand mechanical forces, including tension, torsion, and compression. Spectrins and actin form a periodic cytoskeleton proposed to protect axons against these forces. However, because spectrins also participate in assembly of axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier, it is difficult to uncouple their roles in maintaining axon integrity from their functions at AIS and nodes. To overcome this problem and to determine the importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for axon integrity, we generated mice with αII spectrin-deficient peripheral sensory neurons. The axons of these neurons are very long and exposed to the mechanical forces associated with limb movement; most lack an AIS, and some are unmyelinated and have no nodes. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that, in myelinated axons, αII spectrin forms a periodic cytoskeleton with βIV and βII spectrin at nodes of Ranvier and paranodes, respectively, but that loss of αII spectrin disrupts this organization. Avil-cre;Sptan1 f/f mice have reduced numbers of nodes, disrupted paranodal junctions, and mislocalized Kv1 K + channels. We show that the density of nodal βIV spectrin is constant among axons, but the density of nodal αII spectrin increases with axon diameter. Remarkably, Avil-cre;Sptan1 f/f mice have intact nociception and small-diameter axons, but severe ataxia due to preferential degeneration of large-diameter myelinated axons. Our results suggest that nodal αII spectrin helps resist the mechanical forces experienced by large-diameter axons, and that αII spectrin-dependent cytoskeletons are also required for assembly of nodes of Ranvier. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A periodic axonal cytoskeleton consisting of actin and spectrin has been proposed to help axons resist the mechanical forces to which they are exposed (e.g., compression, torsion, and stretch). However, until now, no vertebrate animal model has tested the requirement of the spectrin cytoskeleton in

  10. Towards Robust Predictive Fault–Tolerant Control for a Battery Assembly System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seybold Lothar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modeling and fault-tolerant control of a real battery assembly system which is under implementation at the RAFI GmbH company (one of the leading electronic manufacturing service providers in Germany. To model and control the battery assembly system, a unified max-plus algebra and model predictive control framework is introduced. Subsequently, the control strategy is enhanced with fault-tolerance features that increase the overall performance of the production system being considered. In particular, it enables tolerating (up to some degree mobile robot, processing and transportation faults. The paper discusses also robustness issues, which are inevitable in real production systems. As a result, a novel robust predictive fault-tolerant strategy is developed that is applied to the battery assembly system. The last part of the paper shows illustrative examples, which clearly exhibit the performance of the proposed approach.

  11. Coupling of cytoskeleton functions for fibroblast locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Lenn, M; Rees, D A

    1985-01-01

    caused visible protrusions in projected positions at the leading edge. We conclude that fibroblast locomotion may be driven coordinately by a common set of motility mechanisms and that this coordination may be lost as a result of physical or pharmacological disturbance. Taking our evidence with results...... from other Laboratories, we propose the following cytoskeleton functions. (i) Protrusive activity, probably based on solation--gelation cycles of the actin based cytoskeleton and membrane recycling which provides cellular and membrane components for streaming through the cell body to the leading edge...

  12. Post irradiation examination of control rod assembly of FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandaraj, V.; Raghu, N.; Venkiteswaran, C.N.; Visweswaran, P.; Vijayakumar, Ran; Jayaraj, V.V.; Padmaprabu, P.; Saravanan, T.; Philip, John; Muralidharan, N.G.; Joseph, Jojo; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.

    2010-01-01

    Six control rods with boron carbide pellets are used in FBTR for shutdown and control of reactor power. One control rod after being subjected to a fluence level of 7.2 x 10 22 n/cm 2 was received for post irradiation examination (PIE) to assess its irradiation behavior and to investigate the incident of dropping of control rod. Examinations carried out include precise dimensional measurements to investigate the possibility of interference between the control rod and outer sheath, Neutron radiography and x-radiograph to assess the integrity of the boron carbide pellets and other internals, density measurements to assess the swelling behaviour of boron carbide pellets and metallographic examinations to study the cracking behaviour and microstructural changes in the pellet and the clad. Depletion of B 10 in the pellet was studied using time of flight mass spectrometry. The paper highlights the examinations and results of the PIE carried out. (author)

  13. Interactions within the yeast t-SNARE Sso1p that control SNARE complex assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, M; Chen, X; Cocina, A E; Schultz, S M; Hughson, F M

    2000-10-01

    In the eukaryotic secretory and endocytic pathways, transport vesicles shuttle cargo among intracellular organelles and to and from the plasma membrane. Cargo delivery entails fusion of the transport vesicle with its target, a process thought to be mediated by membrane bridging SNARE protein complexes. Temporal and spatial control of intracellular trafficking depends in part on regulating the assembly of these complexes. In vitro, SNARE assembly is inhibited by the closed conformation adopted by the syntaxin family of SNAREs. To visualize this closed conformation directly, the X-ray crystal structure of a yeast syntaxin, Sso1p, has been determined and refined to 2.1 A resolution. Mutants designed to destabilize the closed conformation exhibit accelerated rates of SNARE assembly. Our results provide insight into the mechanism of SNARE assembly and its intramolecular and intermolecular regulation.

  14. Calculation of the local power peaking near WWER-440 control assemblies with Hf plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, Gy.; Hordosy, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Maraszy, Cs.; Temesvari, E.

    2003-01-01

    The original coupler design of the WWER-440 assemblies had the following well known deficiency: The relatively large amount of water in the coupler between the absorber and fuel port of the control assembly can cause undesirably sharp power peaking in the fuel rods next to the coupler. The power peaking can be especially high after control rod withdrawal when the coupler reached low burnup level region of the adjacent assembly. The modernized coupler design overcomes the original problem by applying a thin Hf plate in the critical region. The very complicated structure of the coupler requires the verification of the core design methods by high precision 3D Monte Carlo calculations. The paper presents an MCNP reference calculation on the control rod coupler benchmark with Hf absorber plates. The benchmark solution with the KARATE-440 code system is also presented. The need for treating the Hf burnout in the reflector region is investigated (Authors)

  15. Controlled assembly of multi-segment nanowires by histidine-tagged peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Aijun A; Lee, Joun; Jenikova, Gabriela; Mulchandani, Ashok; Myung, Nosang V; Chen, Wilfred [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2006-07-28

    A facile technique was demonstrated for the controlled assembly and alignment of multi-segment nanowires using bioengineered polypeptides. An elastin-like-polypeptide (ELP)-based biopolymer consisting of a hexahistine cluster at each end (His{sub 6}-ELP-His{sub 6}) was generated and purified by taking advantage of the reversible phase transition property of ELP. The affinity between the His{sub 6} domain of biopolymers and the nickel segment of multi-segment nickel/gold/nickel nanowires was exploited for the directed assembly of nanowires onto peptide-functionalized electrode surfaces. The presence of the ferromagnetic nickel segments on the nanowires allowed the control of directionality by an external magnetic field. Using this method, the directed assembly and positioning of multi-segment nanowires across two microfabricated nickel electrodes in a controlled manner was accomplished with the expected ohmic contact.

  16. Design parameters for voltage-controllable directed assembly of single nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Benjamin F; Bhaskaran, Harish; Abelmann, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Techniques to reliably pick-and-place single nanoparticles into functional assemblies are required to incorporate exotic nanoparticles into standard electronic circuits. In this paper we explore the use of electric fields to drive and direct the assembly process, which has the advantage of being able to control the nano-assembly process at the single nanoparticle level. To achieve this, we design an electrostatic gating system, thus enabling a voltage-controllable nanoparticle picking technique. Simulating this system with the nonlinear Poisson–Boltzmann equation, we can successfully characterize the parameters required for single particle placement, the key being single particle selectivity, in effect designing a system that can achieve this controllably. We then present the optimum design parameters required for successful single nanoparticle placement at ambient temperature, an important requirement for nanomanufacturing processes. (paper)

  17. SnapShot: The Bacterial Cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gero; Szewczak-Harris, Andrzej; Löwe, Jan

    2016-07-14

    Most bacteria and archaea contain filamentous proteins and filament systems that are collectively known as the bacterial cytoskeleton, though not all of them are cytoskeletal, affect cell shape, or maintain intracellular organization. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The axonal cytoskeleton : from organization to function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kevenaar, Josta T; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    The axon is the single long fiber that extends from the neuron and transmits electrical signals away from the cell body. The neuronal cytoskeleton, composed of microtubules (MTs), actin filaments and neurofilaments, is not only required for axon formation and axonal transport but also provides the

  19. The Cytoskeleton: Mechanical, Physical, and Biological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This workshop, entitled "The Cytoskeleton: Mechanical, Physical, and Biological Interactions," was sponsored by the Center for Advanced Studies in the Space Life Sciences at the Marine Biological Laboratory. This Center was established through a cooperative agreement between the MBL and the Life Sciences Division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. To achieve these goals, the Center sponsors a series of workshops on various topics in the life sciences. Elements of the cytoskeleton have been implicated in the effects of gravity on the growth of plants fungi. An intriguing finding in this regard is the report indicating that an integrin-like protein may be the gravireceptor in the internodal cells of Chara. Involvement of the cytoskeleton in cellular graviperception of the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes has also been reported. Although the responses of mammalian cells to gravity are not well documented, it has been proposed that integrins can act as mechanochemical transducers in mammalian cells. Little is known about the integrated mechanical and physical properties of cytoplasm, this workshop would be the best place to begin developing interdisciplinary approaches to the effects of mechanical stresses on cells and their most likely responsive cytoplasmic elements- the fibrous proteins comprising the cytoskeleton.

  20. Decant pump assembly and controls qualification testing - test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehr, T.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-02

    This report summarizes the results of the qualification testing of the supernate decant pump and controls system to be used for in-tank sludge washing in aging waste tank AZ-101. The test was successful and all components are qualified for installation and use in the tank.

  1. study on trace contaminants control assembly for sealed environment chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, L. P.; Wang, J.; Liu, L. K.; Liu, H.

    The biological and Physicochemical P C life support technologies are all important parts to establish a human Closed Ecological Life Support System CELSS for long-duration mission The latter has the advantages of lower power consumption lower mass and higher efficiency therefore researchers often incorporate the use of biological systems with P C life support technologies to continuously recycle air water and part of the solid waste stream generated such as the Russian BLSS and the NASA-sponsored Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP In short these tests were very successful in integrating biological and P C life support technologies for long-duration life support Therefore we should use a combination of integrated biological with P C life support technologies in a human CELSS Human construction materials plants animals and soils release much trace toxic gases in a CELSS and they will inhibit plant growth and badly affect human health when their concentrations rise over their threshold levels The effect of biological trace contaminant control technologies is slower especially for a human sealed chamber because human produce much more methane and other contaminants A regenerative Trace Contaminant Control Subsystem TCCS with P C technology is a more important part in this case to control quickly the airborne contaminants levels and assure human in good condition in a sealed chamber This paper describes a trace contaminant control test facility incorporated a 8 m3 sealed environment chamber a regenerative TCCS with P C

  2. Control and interpretation of criticality experiments on metallic assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with the principle of criticality experiment control with approach machines; to follow the reactivity evolution, one uses the classical method of the inverses of counting rates, then one shows how it is possible to extrapolate the approach curves that have been obtained [fr

  3. Defect- and dopant-controlled carbon nanotubes fabricated by self-assembly of graphene nanoribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cun Zhang and Shaohua Chen

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations showed that a basal carbon nanotube can activate and guide the fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on its internal surface by self-assembly of edge-unpassivated graphene nanoribbons with defects. Furthermore, the distribution of defects on self-assembled CNTs is controllable. The system temperature and defect fraction are two main factors that influence the success of self-assembly. Due to possible joint flaws formed at the boundaries under a relatively high constant temperature, a technique based on increasing the temperature is adopted. Self-assembly is always successful for graphene nanoribbons with relatively small defect fractions, while it will fail in cases with relatively large ones. Similar to the self-assembly of graphene nanoribbons with defects, graphene nanoribbons with different types of dopants can also be self-assembled into carbon nanotubes. The finding provides a possible fabrication technique not only for carbon nanotubes with metallic or semi-con- ductive properties but also for carbon nanotubes with electromagnetic induction characteristics.

  4. Sensor potency of the moonlighting enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton: the cytoskeleton as a metabolic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence for the interaction of metabolic enzymes with the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. The significance of these interactions is far from clear. Presentation of the hypothesis In the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis presented here, the cytoskeleton senses and integrates the general metabolic activity of the cell. This activity depends on the binding to the cytoskeleton of enzymes and, depending on the nature of the enzyme, this binding may occur if the enzyme is either active or inactive but not both. This enzyme-binding is further proposed to stabilize microtubules and microfilaments and to alter rates of GTP and ATP hydrolysis and their levels. Testing the hypothesis Evidence consistent with the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis is presented in the case of glycolysis. Several testable predictions are made. There should be a relationship between post-translational modifications of tubulin and of actin and their interaction with metabolic enzymes. Different conditions of cytoskeletal dynamics and enzyme-cytoskeleton binding should reveal significant differences in local and perhaps global levels and ratios of ATP and GTP. The different functions of moonlighting enzymes should depend on cytoskeletal binding. Implications of the hypothesis The physical and chemical effects arising from metabolic sensing by the cytoskeleton would have major consequences on cell shape, dynamics and cell cycle progression. The hypothesis provides a framework that helps the significance of the enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton be determined. PMID:23398642

  5. Control rod cluster with removable rods for nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denizou, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    For each removable control rod, the open end section of the sleeve has a certain length of reduced diameter with openings in its wall. The top end of the rod is joined to an extension tube that surrounds the shaft over part of its lenght. This extension tube fits over the reduced part of the sleeve when the shaft is screwed into the bore of the sleeve. Rotation of the rod in the sleeve is prevented by deforming the extension tube locally in the openings of the end part of the sleeve. The rod is dismantled by exerting a torque on it using a gripping area near the end of the rod [fr

  6. Overview of the Muscle Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Christine A.; Gomez, Christopher G.; Novak, Stefanie M.; Mi-Mi, Lei; Gregorio, Carol C.

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac and skeletal striated muscles are intricately designed machines responsible for muscle contraction. Coordination of the basic contractile unit, the sarcomere, and the complex cytoskeletal networks are critical for contractile activity. The sarcomere is comprised of precisely organized individual filament systems that include thin (actin), thick (myosin), titin, and nebulin. Connecting the sarcomere to other organelles (e.g., mitochondria and nucleus) and serving as the scaffold to maintain cellular integrity are the intermediate filaments. The costamere, on the other hand, tethers the sarcomere to the cell membrane. Unique structures like the intercalated disc in cardiac muscle and the myotendinous junction in skeletal muscle help synchronize and transmit force. Intense investigation has been done on many of the proteins that make up these cytoskeletal assemblies. Yet the details of their function and how they interconnect have just started to be elucidated. A vast number of human myopathies are contributed to mutations in muscle proteins; thus understanding their basic function provides a mechanistic understanding of muscle disorders. In this review, we highlight the components of striated muscle with respect to their interactions, signaling pathways, functions, and connections to disease. PMID:28640448

  7. Plasma membrane--cortical cytoskeleton interactions: a cell biology approach with biophysical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapus, András; Janmey, Paul

    2013-07-01

    From a biophysical standpoint, the interface between the cell membrane and the cytoskeleton is an intriguing site where a "two-dimensional fluid" interacts with an exceedingly complex three-dimensional protein meshwork. The membrane is a key regulator of the cytoskeleton, which not only provides docking sites for cytoskeletal elements through transmembrane proteins, lipid binding-based, and electrostatic interactions, but also serves as the source of the signaling events and molecules that control cytoskeletal organization and remolding. Conversely, the cytoskeleton is a key determinant of the biophysical and biochemical properties of the membrane, including its shape, tension, movement, composition, as well as the mobility, partitioning, and recycling of its constituents. From a cell biological standpoint, the membrane-cytoskeleton interplay underlies--as a central executor and/or regulator--a multitude of complex processes including chemical and mechanical signal transduction, motility/migration, endo-/exo-/phagocytosis, and other forms of membrane traffic, cell-cell, and cell-matrix adhesion. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the tight structural and functional coupling between the membrane and the cytoskeleton. As biophysical approaches, both theoretical and experimental, proved to be instrumental for our understanding of the membrane/cytoskeleton interplay, this review will "oscillate" between the cell biological phenomena and the corresponding biophysical principles and considerations. After describing the types of connections between the membrane and the cytoskeleton, we will focus on a few key physical parameters and processes (force generation, curvature, tension, and surface charge) and will discuss how these contribute to a variety of fundamental cell biological functions. © 2013 American Physiological Society.

  8. Light-activated control of protein channel assembly mediated by membrane mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David M.; Findlay, Heather E.; Ces, Oscar; Templer, Richard H.; Booth, Paula J.

    2016-12-01

    Photochemical processes provide versatile triggers of chemical reactions. Here, we use a photoactivated lipid switch to modulate the folding and assembly of a protein channel within a model biological membrane. In contrast to the information rich field of water-soluble protein folding, there is only a limited understanding of the assembly of proteins that are integral to biological membranes. It is however possible to exploit the foreboding hydrophobic lipid environment and control membrane protein folding via lipid bilayer mechanics. Mechanical properties such as lipid chain lateral pressure influence the insertion and folding of proteins in membranes, with different stages of folding having contrasting sensitivities to the bilayer properties. Studies to date have relied on altering bilayer properties through lipid compositional changes made at equilibrium, and thus can only be made before or after folding. We show that light-activation of photoisomerisable di-(5-[[4-(4-butylphenyl)azo]phenoxy]pentyl)phosphate (4-Azo-5P) lipids influences the folding and assembly of the pentameric bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscL. The use of a photochemical reaction enables the bilayer properties to be altered during folding, which is unprecedented. This mechanical manipulation during folding, allows for optimisation of different stages of the component insertion, folding and assembly steps within the same lipid system. The photochemical approach offers the potential to control channel assembly when generating synthetic devices that exploit the mechanosensitive protein as a nanovalve.

  9. World health assembly to consider global treaty on tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Tras su aprobación por 171 Estados Miembros de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS el 1 de marzo de 2003, un tratado que marca un hito en la historia de la salud pública y que se encamina a controlar el abastecimiento y el consumo de tabaco será presentado ante la Asamblea Mundial de la Salud (AMS, que contemplará su adopción en la reunión que tendrá inicio el 19 de mayo de 2003 en Ginebra, Suiza. La AMS es la máxima autoridad decisoria de la OMS y su principal cometido es determinar las políticas de dicha Organización. El tratado propuesto, que se conoce por Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT, abarca asuntos tales como la gravación del tabaco; la prevención y el tratamiento del hábito de fumar; el comercio ilícito, la publicidad, el patrocinio y la promoción de los producto del tabaco, y la rotulación de los paquetes y cajetillas. Si la Asamblea Mundial de la Salud adopta el CMCT, el tratado se abrirá a la firma de los Estados Miembros de la OMS. Después de que sea ratificado por 40 países, el tratado entrará en vigor en los países que lo hayan aprobado. Aunque desde 1970 ha habido casi 20 resoluciones de la Asamblea Mundial de la Salud encaminadas a apoyar iniciativas para el control del tabaco, la diferencia entre dichas resoluciones y el presente tratado radica en que el cumplimiento de las provisiones de este último tendrá fuerza jurídica para las distintas partes cuando el convenio entre en vigor. Los únicos tres países que se opusieron abiertamente al proyecto de texto aprobado el 1 de marzo de 2003 fueron Alemania, Cuba y Estados Unidos de América. Funcionarios del Gobierno estadounidense han señalado que tratarán de lograr que se enmiende la redacción del texto del tratado en la Asamblea Mundial de la Salud en mayo.

  10. Quantitatively Probing the Means of Controlling Nanoparticle Assembly on Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patete, J.m.; Wong, S.; Peng, X.; Serafin, J.M.

    2011-05-17

    As a means of developing a simple, cost-effective, and reliable method for probing nanoparticle behavior, we have used atomic force microscopy to gain a quantitative 3D visual representation of the deposition patterns of citrate-capped Au nanoparticles on a substrate as a function of (a) sample preparation, (b) the choice of substrate, (c) the dispersion solvent, and (d) the number of loading steps. Specifically, we have found that all four parameters can be independently controlled and manipulated in order to alter the resulting pattern and quantity of as-deposited nanoparticles. From these data, the sample preparation technique appears to influence deposition patterns most broadly, and the dispersion solvent is the most convenient parameter to use in tuning the quantity of nanoparticles deposited onto the surface under spin-coating conditions. Indeed, we have quantitatively measured the effect of surface coverage for both mica and silicon substrates under preparation techniques associated with (i) evaporation under ambient air, (ii) heat treatment, and (iii) spin-coating preparation conditions. In addition, we have observed a decrease in nanoparticle adhesion to a substrate when the ethylene glycol content of the colloidal dispersion solvent is increased, which had the effect of decreasing interparticle-substrate interactions. Finally, we have shown that substrates prepared by these diverse techniques have potential applicability in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Quantitatively Probing the Means of Controlling Nanoparticle Assembly on Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patete, J.M.; Wong, S.; Peng, X.; Serafin, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    As a means of developing a simple, cost-effective, and reliable method for probing nanoparticle behavior, we have used atomic force microscopy to gain a quantitative 3D visual representation of the deposition patterns of citrate-capped Au nanoparticles on a substrate as a function of (a) sample preparation, (b) the choice of substrate, (c) the dispersion solvent, and (d) the number of loading steps. Specifically, we have found that all four parameters can be independently controlled and manipulated in order to alter the resulting pattern and quantity of as-deposited nanoparticles. From these data, the sample preparation technique appears to influence deposition patterns most broadly, and the dispersion solvent is the most convenient parameter to use in tuning the quantity of nanoparticles deposited onto the surface under spin-coating conditions. Indeed, we have quantitatively measured the effect of surface coverage for both mica and silicon substrates under preparation techniques associated with (i) evaporation under ambient air, (ii) heat treatment, and (iii) spin-coating preparation conditions. In addition, we have observed a decrease in nanoparticle adhesion to a substrate when the ethylene glycol content of the colloidal dispersion solvent is increased, which had the effect of decreasing interparticle-substrate interactions. Finally, we have shown that substrates prepared by these diverse techniques have potential applicability in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Controlled Assembly of Fibronectin Nanofibrils Triggered by Random Copolymer Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnatsakanyan, Hayk; Rico, Patricia; Grigoriou, Eleni; Candelas, Aarón Maturana; Rodrigo-Navarro, Aleixandre; Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel; Sabater i Serra, Roser

    2015-08-19

    Fibronectin fibrillogenesis is the physiological process by which cells elaborate a fibrous FN matrix. Poly(ethyl acrylate), PEA, has been described to induce a similar process upon simple adsorption of fibronectin (FN) from a protein solution-in the absence of cells-leading to the so-called material-driven fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Poly(methyl acrylate), PMA, is a polymer with very similar chemistry to PEA, on which FN is adsorbed, keeping the globular conformation of the protein in solution. We have used radical polymerization to synthesize copolymers with controlled EA/MA ratio, seeking to modulate the degree of FN fibrillogenesis. The physicochemical properties of the system were studied using dynamic-mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and water contact angle. Both the degree of FN fibrillogenesis and the availability of the integrin binding region of FN directly depend on the percentage of EA in the copolymer, whereas the same total amount of FN was adsorbed regardless the EA/MA ratio. Cell morphology adhesion and differentiation of murine C2C12 were shown to depend on the degree of FN fibrillogenesis previously attained on the material surface. Myogenic differentiation was enhanced on the copolymers with higher EA content, i.e. more interconnected FN fibrils.

  13. "Controlling ourselves, by ourselves": risk assemblages on Malaysia's assembly lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the Malaysian government has identified factories as high risk for HIV and AIDS. Signaling epidemiological concerns over the rising rates of HIV among factory workers, a significant proportion of whom are women, the label also appeared to reconstitute stereotypes of factory women as dangerously sexual and of factories as immoral spaces. Drawing on ethnographic research in the export processing zones of Penang, Malaysia in the mid-1990s, I examine the meanings and experiences of HIV risk among factory women themselves. Data were analyzed using discourse and grounded theory methods, the former to identify women's multiple modes of rationalizing HIV risks, and the latter to theorize the sources and significance of women's HIV risk assemblages. The heuristic of assemblages as localized knowledge spaces helped to show that biomedical and socioreligious risk lexica operated not as fixed epistemological categories but as situational resources in women's risk scripts. Overall, women desired multiple risk knowledges to help them "control themselves by themselves," a project of reflexive self-shaping mediated by the diverse and discordant discourses of gender, ethnicity, and modernity in Malaysia that shaped how HIV risks were engendered and experienced.

  14. Height control of self-assembled quantum dots by strain engineering during capping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossi, D.; Smereka, P.; Keizer, J.G.; Ulloa, J.M.; Koenraad, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Strain engineering during the capping of III-V quantum dots has been explored as a means to control the height of strained self-assembled quantum dots. Results of Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are confronted with cross-sectional Scanning Tunnel Microscopy (STM) measurements performed on InAs

  15. A pH-Regulated Quality Control Cycle for Surveillance of Secretory Protein Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavassori, Stefano; Cortini, Margherita; Masui, Shoji; Sannino, Sara; Anelli, Tiziana; Caserta, Imma R.; Fagioli, Claudio; Mossuto, Maria F.; Fornili, Arianna; van Anken, Eelco; Degano, Massimo; Inaba, Kenji; Sitia, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Summary To warrant the quality of the secretory proteome, stringent control systems operate at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi interface, preventing the release of nonnative products. Incompletely assembled oligomeric proteins that are deemed correctly folded must rely on additional quality control mechanisms dedicated to proper assembly. Here we unveil how ERp44 cycles between cisGolgi and ER in a pH-regulated manner, patrolling assembly of disulfide-linked oligomers such as IgM and adiponectin. At neutral, ER-equivalent pH, the ERp44 carboxy-terminal tail occludes the substrate-binding site. At the lower pH of the cisGolgi, conformational rearrangements of this peptide, likely involving protonation of ERp44’s active cysteine, simultaneously unmask the substrate binding site and −RDEL motif, allowing capture of orphan secretory protein subunits and ER retrieval via KDEL receptors. The ERp44 assembly control cycle couples secretion fidelity and efficiency downstream of the calnexin/calreticulin and BiP-dependent quality control cycles. PMID:23685074

  16. Wave propagation visualization in an experimental model for a control rod drive mechanism assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Ryul; Jeong, Hyomi; Kong, Churl-Won

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We fabricate a full-scale mock-up of the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) assembly in the upper reactor head of the nuclear power plant. → An ultrasonic propagation imaging method using a scanning laser ultrasonic generator is proposed to visualize and simulate ultrasonic wave propagation around the CRDM assembly. → The ultrasonic source location and frequency are simulated by changing the sensor location and the band pass-filtering zone. → The ultrasonic propagation patterns before and after cracks in the weld and nozzle of the CRDM assembly are analyzed. - Abstract: Nondestructive inspection techniques such as ultrasonic testing, eddy current testing, and visual testing are being developed to detect primary water stress corrosion cracks in control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) assemblies of nuclear power plants. A unit CRDM assembly consists of a reactor upper head including cladding, a penetration nozzle, and J-groove dissimilar metal welds with buttering. In this study, we fabricated a full-scale CRDM assembly mock-up. An ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI) method using a scanning laser ultrasonic generator is proposed to visualize and simulate ultrasonic wave propagation around the thick and complex CRDM assembly. First, the proposed laser UPI system was validated for a simple aluminium plate by comparing the ultrasonic wave propagation movie (UWPM) obtained using the system with numerical simulation results reported in the literature. Lamb wave mode identification and damage detectability, depending on the ultrasonic frequency, were also included in the UWPM analysis. A CRDM assembly mock-up was fabricated in full-size and its vertical cross section was scanned using the laser UPI system to investigate the propagation characteristics of the longitudinal and Rayleigh waves in the complex structure. The ultrasonic source location and frequency were easily simulated by changing the sensor location and the band pass filtering zone

  17. Controllable assembly of silver nanoparticles induced by femtosecond laser direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huan; Liu, Sen; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Wang, Jian-Nan; Wang, Lei; Xia, Hong; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo; Ding, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We report controllable assembly of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for patterning of silver microstructures. The assembly is induced by femtosecond laser direct writing (FsLDW). A tightly focused femtosecond laser beam is capable of trapping and driving Ag NPs to form desired micropatterns with a high resolution of ∼190 nm. Taking advantage of the ‘direct writing’ feature, three microelectrodes have been integrated with a microfluidic chip; two silver-based microdevices including a microheater and a catalytic reactor have been fabricated inside a microfluidic channel for chip functionalization. The FsLDW-induced programmable assembly of Ag NPs may open up a new way to the designable patterning of silver microstructures toward flexible fabrication and integration of functional devices. (focus issue paper)

  18. Colloidal polymers with controlled sequence and branching constructed from magnetic field assembled nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannwarth, Markus B; Utech, Stefanie; Ebert, Sandro; Weitz, David A; Crespy, Daniel; Landfester, Katharina

    2015-03-24

    The assembly of nanoparticles into polymer-like architectures is challenging and usually requires highly defined colloidal building blocks. Here, we show that the broad size-distribution of a simple dispersion of magnetic nanocolloids can be exploited to obtain various polymer-like architectures. The particles are assembled under an external magnetic field and permanently linked by thermal sintering. The remarkable variety of polymer-analogue architectures that arises from this simple process ranges from statistical and block copolymer-like sequencing to branched chains and networks. This library of architectures can be realized by controlling the sequencing of the particles and the junction points via a size-dependent self-assembly of the single building blocks.

  19. Electrical Programming of Soft Matter: Using Temporally Varying Electrical Inputs To Spatially Control Self Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Jitao; Correa, Santiago O; Shang, Wu; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Bentley, William E; Shen, Jana; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Raub, Christopher B; Shi, Xiao-Wen; Payne, Gregory F

    2018-02-12

    The growing importance of hydrogels in translational medicine has stimulated the development of top-down fabrication methods, yet often these methods lack the capabilities to generate the complex matrix architectures observed in biology. Here we show that temporally varying electrical signals can cue a self-assembling polysaccharide to controllably form a hydrogel with complex internal patterns. Evidence from theory and experiment indicate that internal structure emerges through a subtle interplay between the electrical current that triggers self-assembly and the electrical potential (or electric field) that recruits and appears to orient the polysaccharide chains at the growing gel front. These studies demonstrate that short sequences (minutes) of low-power (∼1 V) electrical inputs can provide the program to guide self-assembly that yields hydrogels with stable, complex, and spatially varying structure and properties.

  20. Control assembly materials for water reactors: Experience, performance and perspectives. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The safe, reliable and economic operation of water cooled nuclear power reactors depends to a large extent upon the reliable operation of control assemblies for the regulation and shutdown of the reactors. These consist of neutron absorbing materials clad in stainless steel or zirconium based alloys, guide tubes and guide cards, and other structural components. Current designs have worked extremely well in normal conditions, but less than ideal behaviour limits the lifetimes of control materials, imposing an economic penalty which acts as a strong incentive to produce improved materials and designs that are more reliable. Neutron absorbing materials currently in use include the ceramic boron carbide, the high melting point metal hafnium and the low melting point complex alloy Ag-In-Cd. Other promising neutron absorbing materials, such as dysprosium titanate, are being evaluated in the Russian Federation. These control materials exhibit widely differing mechanical, physical and chemical properties, which must be understood in order to be able to predict the behaviour of control rod assemblies. Identification of existing failure mechanisms, end of life criteria and the implications of the gradual introduction of extended burnup, mixed oxide (MOX) fuels and more complex fuel cycles constitutes the first step in a search for improved materials and designs. In the early part of this decade, it was recognized by the International Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT) that international conferences, symposia and published reviews on the materials science aspects of control assemblies were few and far between. Consequently, the IWGFPT recommended that the IAEA should rectify this situation with a series of Technical Committee meetings (TCMs) devoted entirely to the materials aspects of reactor control assemblies. The first was held in 1993 and in the intervening five years considerable progress has been made. In bringing together experts in the

  1. Control assembly materials for water reactors: Experience, performance and perspectives. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    The safe, reliable and economic operation of water cooled nuclear power reactors depends to a large extent upon the reliable operation of control assemblies for the regulation and shutdown of the reactors. These consist of neutron absorbing materials clad in stainless steel or zirconium based alloys, guide tubes and guide cards, and other structural components. Current designs have worked extremely well in normal conditions, but less than ideal behaviour limits the lifetimes of control materials, imposing an economic penalty which acts as a strong incentive to produce improved materials and designs that are more reliable. Neutron absorbing materials currently in use include the ceramic boron carbide, the high melting point metal hafnium and the low melting point complex alloy Ag-In-Cd. Other promising neutron absorbing materials, such as dysprosium titanate, are being evaluated in the Russian Federation. These control materials exhibit widely differing mechanical, physical and chemical properties, which must be understood in order to be able to predict the behaviour of control rod assemblies. Identification of existing failure mechanisms, end of life criteria and the implications of the gradual introduction of extended burnup, mixed oxide (MOX) fuels and more complex fuel cycles constitutes the first step in a search for improved materials and designs. In the early part of this decade, it was recognized by the International Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT) that international conferences, symposia and published reviews on the materials science aspects of control assemblies were few and far between. Consequently, the IWGFPT recommended that the IAEA should rectify this situation with a series of Technical Committee meetings (TCMs) devoted entirely to the materials aspects of reactor control assemblies. The first was held in 1993 and in the intervening five years considerable progress has been made. In bringing together experts in the

  2. CLASP2 Links Reelin to the Cytoskeleton during Neocortical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Gregory M; Tyler, William A; Omuro, Kerilyn C; Kambouris, John; Tyminski, Camila; Henry, Shawna; Haydar, Tarik F; Beffert, Uwe; Ho, Angela

    2017-03-22

    The Reelin signaling pathway plays a crucial role in regulating neocortical development. However, little is known about how Reelin controls the cytoskeleton during neuronal migration. Here, we identify CLASP2 as a key cytoskeletal effector in the Reelin signaling pathway. We demonstrate that CLASP2 has distinct roles during neocortical development regulating neuron production and controlling neuron migration, polarity, and morphogenesis. We found downregulation of CLASP2 in migrating neurons leads to mislocalized cells in deeper cortical layers, abnormal positioning of the centrosome-Golgi complex, and aberrant length/orientation of the leading process. We discovered that Reelin regulates several phosphorylation sites within the positively charged serine/arginine-rich region that constitute consensus GSK3β phosphorylation motifs of CLASP2. Furthermore, phosphorylation of CLASP2 regulates its interaction with the Reelin adaptor Dab1 and this association is required for CLASP2 effects on neurite extension and motility. Together, our data reveal that CLASP2 is an essential Reelin effector orchestrating cytoskeleton dynamics during brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial Cytoskeleton Organization Supports Targeted Intracellular Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Anne E.; Rieger, Heiko

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of intracellular cargo transport from specific source to target locations is strongly dependent upon molecular motor-assisted motion along the cytoskeleton. Radial transport along microtubules and lateral transport along the filaments of the actin cortex underneath the cell membrane are characteristic for cells with a centrosome. The interplay between the specific cytoskeleton organization and the motor performance realizes a spatially inhomogeneous intermittent search strategy. In order to analyze the efficiency of such intracellular search strategies we formulate a random velocity model with intermittent arrest states. We evaluate efficiency in terms of mean first passage times for three different, frequently encountered intracellular transport tasks: i) the narrow escape problem, which emerges during cargo transport to a synapse or other specific region of the cell membrane, ii) the reaction problem, which considers the binding time of two particles within the cell, and iii) the reaction-escape problem, which arises when cargo must be released at a synapse only after pairing with another particle. Our results indicate that cells are able to realize efficient search strategies for various intracellular transport tasks economically through a spatial cytoskeleton organization that involves only a narrow actin cortex rather than a cell body filled with randomly oriented actin filaments.

  4. Neuronal cytoskeleton in synaptic plasticity and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Weeks, Phillip R; Fournier, Alyson E

    2014-04-01

    During development, dynamic changes in the axonal growth cone and dendrite are necessary for exploratory movements underlying initial axo-dendritic contact and ultimately the formation of a functional synapse. In the adult central nervous system, an impressive degree of plasticity is retained through morphological and molecular rearrangements in the pre- and post-synaptic compartments that underlie the strengthening or weakening of synaptic pathways. Plasticity is regulated by the interplay of permissive and inhibitory extracellular cues, which signal through receptors at the synapse to regulate the closure of critical periods of developmental plasticity as well as by acute changes in plasticity in response to experience and activity in the adult. The molecular underpinnings of synaptic plasticity are actively studied and it is clear that the cytoskeleton is a key substrate for many cues that affect plasticity. Many of the cues that restrict synaptic plasticity exhibit residual activity in the injured adult CNS and restrict regenerative growth by targeting the cytoskeleton. Here, we review some of the latest insights into how cytoskeletal remodeling affects neuronal plasticity and discuss how the cytoskeleton is being targeted in an effort to promote plasticity and repair following traumatic injury in the central nervous system. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. DNA cytoskeleton for stabilizing artificial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Chikako; Fujiwara, Kei; Morita, Masamune; Kawamata, Ibuki; Kawagishi, Yui; Sakai, Atsushi; Murayama, Yoshihiro; Nomura, Shin-Ichiro M; Murata, Satoshi; Takinoue, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Miho

    2017-07-11

    Cell-sized liposomes and droplets coated with lipid layers have been used as platforms for understanding live cells, constructing artificial cells, and implementing functional biomedical tools such as biosensing platforms and drug delivery systems. However, these systems are very fragile, which results from the absence of cytoskeletons in these systems. Here, we construct an artificial cytoskeleton using DNA nanostructures. The designed DNA oligomers form a Y-shaped nanostructure and connect to each other with their complementary sticky ends to form networks. To undercoat lipid membranes with this DNA network, we used cationic lipids that attract negatively charged DNA. By encapsulating the DNA into the droplets, we successfully created a DNA shell underneath the membrane. The DNA shells increased interfacial tension, elastic modulus, and shear modulus of the droplet surface, consequently stabilizing the lipid droplets. Such drastic changes in stability were detected only when the DNA shell was in the gel phase. Furthermore, we demonstrate that liposomes with the DNA gel shell are substantially tolerant against outer osmotic shock. These results clearly show the DNA gel shell is a stabilizer of the lipid membrane akin to the cytoskeleton in live cells.

  6. Experience feedback of operational events of the control rod assembly and its drive mechanism in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hong; Xiao Zhi; Tao Shusheng; Zheng Lixin; Chen Zhaolin

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen operational events of the control rod assembly and its drive mechanism are collected from 1992 to 2012 important nuclear operational events and feedback in referred nuclear power plants. After investigated and classified, several important issues, such as the impact of control rod swell and fuel assembly distortion, control rod drive mechanism leakage, and the control system reliability of control rod, are emphatically analyzed. Some suggestions of experience feedback are proposed. (authors)

  7. Numerical Analysis on the Free Fall Motion of the Control Rod Assembly for the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se-Hong; Choi, Choengryul; Son, Sung-Man [ELSOLTEC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Yong; Yoon, Kyung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    On receiving the scram signal, the control rod assemblies are released to fall into the reactor core by its weight. Thus drop time and falling velocity of the control rod assembly must be estimated for the safety evaluation. However, because of its complex shape, it is difficult to estimate the drop time by theoretical method. In this study, numerical analysis has been carried out in order to estimate drop time and falling velocity of the control rod assembly to provide the underlying data for the design optimization. Numerical analysis has been carried out to estimate the drop time and falling velocity of the control rod assembly for sodium-cooled fast reactor. Before performing the numerical analysis for the control rod assembly, sphere dropping experiment has been carried out for verification of the CFD methodology. The result of the numerical analysis for the method verification is almost same as the result of the experiment. Falling velocity and drag force increase rapidly in the beginning. And then it goes to the stable state. When the piston head of the control rod assembly is inserted into the damper, the drag force increases instantaneously and the falling velocity decreases quickly. The falling velocity is reduced about 14 % by damper. The total drop time of the control rod assembly is about 1.47s. In the next study, the experiment for the control rod assembly will be carried out, and its result is going to be compared with the CFD analysis result.

  8. Integrity Evaluation of Control Rod Assembly for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor due to Drop Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Seung; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Chan Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The CA (Control Assembly) of an SFR has a CRA(Control Rod Assembly) with an inner duct and control rod. During an emergency situation, the CRA falls into the duct of the CA for a rapid shut-down. The drop time and impact velocity of the CRA are important parameters with respect to the reactivity insertion time and the structural integrity of the CRA. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior and integrity of the CRA owing to a drop impact. The impact analysis of the CRA under normal/abnormal drop conditions was carried out using the commercial FEM code LS-DYNA. Results of the drop impact analysis demonstrated that the CRA maintained structural integrity, and could be safely inserted into the flow hole of the damper under abnormal conditions.

  9. Integrity Evaluation of Control Rod Assembly for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor due to Drop Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Seung; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Chan Bock

    2017-01-01

    The CA (Control Assembly) of an SFR has a CRA(Control Rod Assembly) with an inner duct and control rod. During an emergency situation, the CRA falls into the duct of the CA for a rapid shut-down. The drop time and impact velocity of the CRA are important parameters with respect to the reactivity insertion time and the structural integrity of the CRA. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior and integrity of the CRA owing to a drop impact. The impact analysis of the CRA under normal/abnormal drop conditions was carried out using the commercial FEM code LS-DYNA. Results of the drop impact analysis demonstrated that the CRA maintained structural integrity, and could be safely inserted into the flow hole of the damper under abnormal conditions.

  10. Quality control of FWC during assembly and commissioning in SST-1 Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hitesh; Santra, Prosenjit; Parekh, Tejas; Biswas, Prabal; Jayswal, Snehal; Chauhan, Pradeep; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Thankey, Prashant; Ramesh, Gattu; Prakash, Arun; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Raval, D. C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    First Wall Components (FWC) of SST-1 tokamak, which are in the immediate vicinity of plasma, comprises of limiters, divertors, baffles, passive stabilizers designed to operate long duration (∼1000 s) discharges of elongated plasma. All FWC consist of copper alloy heat sink modules with SS cooling tubes brazed onto it, graphite tiles acting as armour material facing the plasma, and are mounted to the vacuum vessels with suitable Inconel support structures at inter-connected ring & port locations. The FWC are very recently assembled and commissioned successfully inside the vacuum vessel of SST-1 undergoing a rigorous quality control and checks at every stage of the assembly process. This paper will present the quality control aspects and checks of FWC from commencement of assembly procedure, namely material test reports, leak testing of high temperature baked components, assembled dimensional tolerances, leak testing of all welded joints, graphite tile tightening torques, electrical continuity and electrical isolation of passive stabilizers from vacuum vessel, baking and cooling hydraulic connections inside vacuum vessel.

  11. Quality control of FWC during assembly/commissioning on SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Hiteshkumar; Santra, Prosenjit; Jaiswal, Snehal

    2015-01-01

    First Wall components (FWC) of SST-1 tokamak, which are in the immediate vicinity of plasma comprises of limiters, divertors, baffles, passive stabilizers are designed to operate long duration (1000 s) discharges of elongated plasma. All FWC consists of a copper alloy heat sink modules with SS cooling tubes brazed onto it, graphite tiles acting as armour material facing the plasma, and are mounted to the vacuum vessels with suitable Inconel support structures at ring and port locations. The FWC are very recently assembled and commissioned successfully inside the vacuum vessel of SST-1 under going a rigorous quality control and checks at every stage of the assembly process. This paper will present the quality control and checks of FWC from commencement of assembly procedure, namely material test reports, leak testing of high temperature baked components, assembled dimensional tolerances, leak testing of all welded joints, graphite tile tightening torques, electrical continuity of passive stabilizers, and electrical isolation of passive stabilizers from vacuum vessel, baking and cooling hydraulic connections inside vacuum vessel. (author)

  12. Programming Cells for Dynamic Assembly of Inorganic Nano-Objects with Spatiotemporal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Pu, Jiahua; An, Bolin; Li, Yingfeng; Shang, Yuequn; Ning, Zhijun; Liu, Yi; Ba, Fang; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhong, Chao

    2018-04-01

    Programming living cells to organize inorganic nano-objects (NOs) in a spatiotemporally precise fashion would advance new techniques for creating ordered ensembles of NOs and new bio-abiotic hybrid materials with emerging functionalities. Bacterial cells often grow in cellular communities called biofilms. Here, a strategy is reported for programming dynamic biofilm formation for the synchronized assembly of discrete NOs or hetero-nanostructures on diverse interfaces in a dynamic, scalable, and hierarchical fashion. By engineering Escherichia coli to sense blue light and respond by producing biofilm curli fibers, biofilm formation is spatially controlled and the patterned NOs' assembly is simultaneously achieved. Diverse and complex fluorescent quantum dot patterns with a minimum patterning resolution of 100 µm are demonstrated. By temporally controlling the sequential addition of NOs into the culture, multilayered heterostructured thin films are fabricated through autonomous layer-by-layer assembly. It is demonstrated that biologically dynamic self-assembly can be used to advance a new repertoire of nanotechnologies and materials with increasing complexity that would be otherwise challenging to produce. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The role of cladding material for performance of LWR control assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewes, P.; Roppelt, A.

    2000-01-01

    The lifetime of control assemblies in LWRs can be limited presently by mechanical failure of the absorber cladding. The major cause of failure is mechanical interaction of the absorber with the cladding due to irradiation induced dimensional changes such as absorber swelling and cladding creep, resulting in cracking of the clad. Such failures occurred in both BWRs and PWRs. Experience and in-reactor tests revealed that cracking can be avoided principally by two ways: First, if strain rates and hence, stresses in the cladding are kept low (well below the yield strength), significant strains can be tolerated. This is the case for the cladding of PWR control assemblies with slowly swelling Ag-In-Cd absorber. Recent examinations of highly exposed PWR control assemblies confirmed the design correlation up to the presently used strain limit. Second, in such cases where strongly swelling absorber material like boron carbide is still preferred, materials which are resistant against irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) can be used. The influence of material composition and condition on IASCC was studied in-reactor using tubular samples of various stainless steels and Ni-base alloys stressed by swelling mandrels. In several programme steps high purity materials with special features had been identified as resistant to IASCC. Another process of cladding damage which may occur in PWRs is wear caused by friction of the control rods in the surrounding guide structure. For replacement control assemblies this problem is solved by coating of the cladding. There exists meanwhile excellent experience of up to 18 operation cycles with coated claddings. (author)

  14. Local pulsatile contractions are an intrinsic property of the myosin 2A motor in the cortical cytoskeleton of adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Michelle A; Billington, Neil; Wang, Aibing; Adelstein, Robert S; Sellers, James R; Fischer, Robert S; Waterman, Clare M

    2017-01-15

    The role of nonmuscle myosin 2 (NM2) pulsatile dynamics in generating contractile forces required for developmental morphogenesis has been characterized, but whether these pulsatile contractions are an intrinsic property of all actomyosin networks is not known. Here we used live-cell fluorescence imaging to show that transient, local assembly of NM2A "pulses" occurs in the cortical cytoskeleton of single adherent cells of mesenchymal, epithelial, and sarcoma origin, independent of developmental signaling cues and cell-cell or cell-ECM interactions. We show that pulses in the cortical cytoskeleton require Rho-associated kinase- or myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity, increases in cytosolic calcium, and NM2 ATPase activity. Surprisingly, we find that cortical cytoskeleton pulses specifically require the head domain of NM2A, as they do not occur with either NM2B or a 2B-head-2A-tail chimera. Our results thus suggest that pulsatile contractions in the cortical cytoskeleton are an intrinsic property of the NM2A motor that may mediate its role in homeostatic maintenance of tension in the cortical cytoskeleton of adherent cells. © 2017 Baird et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. Lithographic stress control for the self-assembly of polymer MEMS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S-W; Sameoto, D; Parameswaran, M; Mahanfar, A

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel self-assembly mechanism to produce an assortment of predetermined three-dimensional micromechanical structures in polymer MEMS technology using lithographically defined areas of stress and mechanical reinforcement within a single structural material. This self-assembly technology is based on the tensile stress that arises during the cross-linking of the negative tone, epoxy-based photoresist SU-8. Two different thicknesses of SU-8 are used in a single compliant structure. The first SU-8 layer forms the main structural element and the second SU-8 layer determines the aspects of self-assembly. The second SU-8 layer thickness acts to both to create a stress differential within the structure as well as define the direction in which the induced stress will cause the structure to deform. In this manner, both the magnitude and direction of self-assembled structures can be controlled using a single lithographic step. Although this technique uses a single structural material, the basic concept may be adapted for other processes, with different material choices, for a wide variety of applications

  16. Orientation-controlled parallel assembly at the air–water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwang Soon; Hoo, Ji Hao; Baskaran, Rajashree; Böhringer, Karl F

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study with statistical analysis of a high-yield, orientation-specific fluidic self-assembly process on a preprogrammed template. We demonstrate self-assembly of thin (less than few hundred microns in thickness) parts, which is vital for many applications in miniaturized platforms but problematic for today's pick-and-place robots. The assembly proceeds row-by-row as the substrate is pulled up through an air–water interface. Experiments and analysis are presented with an emphasis on the combined effect of controlled surface waves and magnetic force. For various gap values between a magnet and Ni-patterned parts, magnetic force distributions are generated using Monte Carlo simulation and employed to predict assembly yield. An analysis of these distributions shows that a gradual decline in yield following the probability density function can be expected with degrading conditions. The experimentally determined critical magnetic force is in good agreement with a derived value from a model of competing forces acting on a part. A general set of design guidelines is also presented from the developed model and experimental data. (paper)

  17. Cytoskeleton Molecular Motors: Structures and Their Functions in Neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingpin; Hu, Xiaohui; Wei, Zhiyi; Tam, Kin Yip

    2016-01-01

    Cells make use of molecular motors to transport small molecules, macromolecules and cellular organelles to target region to execute biological functions, which is utmost important for polarized cells, such as neurons. In particular, cytoskeleton motors play fundamental roles in neuron polarization, extension, shape and neurotransmission. Cytoskeleton motors comprise of myosin, kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. F-actin filaments act as myosin track, while kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein move on microtubules. Cytoskeleton motors work together to build a highly polarized and regulated system in neuronal cells via different molecular mechanisms and functional regulations. This review discusses the structures and working mechanisms of the cytoskeleton motors in neurons.

  18. Side-chain-controlled self-assembly of polystyrene-polypeptide miktoarm star copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Junnila, Susanna

    2012-03-27

    We show how the self-assembly of miktoarm star copolymers can be controlled by modifying the side chains of their polypeptide arms, using A 2B and A 2B 2 type polymer/polypeptide hybrids (macromolecular chimeras). Initially synthesized PS 2PBLL and PS 2PBLL 2 (PS, polystyrene; PBLL, poly(ε-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine) ) miktoarms were first deprotected to PS 2PLLHCl and PS 2PLLHCl 2 miktoarms (PLLHCl, poly(l-lysine hydrochloride)) and then complexed ionically with sodium dodecyl sulfonate (DS) to give the supramolecular complexes PS 2PLL(DS) and PS 2(PLL(DS)) 2. The solid-state self-assemblies of these six miktoarm systems were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS). The side chains of the polypeptide arms were observed to have a large effect on the solubility, polypeptide conformation, and self-assembly of the miktoarms. Three main categories were observed: (i) lamellar self-assemblies at the block copolymer length scale with packed layers of α-helices in PS 2PBLL and PS 2PBLL 2; (ii) charge-clustered polypeptide micelles with less-defined conformations in a nonordered lattice within a PS matrix in PS 2PLLHCl and PS 2PLLHCl 2; (iii) lamellar polypeptide-surfactant self-assemblies with β-sheet conformation in PS 2PLL(DS) and PS 2(PLL(DS)) 2 which dominate over the formation of block copolymer scale structures. Differences between the 3- and 4-arm systems illustrate how packing frustration between the coil-like PS arms and rigid polypeptide conformations can be relieved by the right number of arms, leading to differences in the extent of order. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Sequential bottom-up assembly of mechanically stabilized synthetic cells by microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marian; Frohnmayer, Johannes Patrick; Benk, Lucia Theresa; Haller, Barbara; Janiesch, Jan-Willi; Heitkamp, Thomas; Börsch, Michael; Lira, Rafael B.; Dimova, Rumiana; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Baret, Jean-Christophe; Vidakovic-Koch, Tanja; Sundmacher, Kai; Platzman, Ilia; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2018-01-01

    Compartments for the spatially and temporally controlled assembly of biological processes are essential towards cellular life. Synthetic mimics of cellular compartments based on lipid-based protocells lack the mechanical and chemical stability to allow their manipulation into a complex and fully functional synthetic cell. Here, we present a high-throughput microfluidic method to generate stable, defined sized liposomes termed `droplet-stabilized giant unilamellar vesicles (dsGUVs)’. The enhanced stability of dsGUVs enables the sequential loading of these compartments with biomolecules, namely purified transmembrane and cytoskeleton proteins by microfluidic pico-injection technology. This constitutes an experimental demonstration of a successful bottom-up assembly of a compartment with contents that would not self-assemble to full functionality when simply mixed together. Following assembly, the stabilizing oil phase and droplet shells are removed to release functional self-supporting protocells to an aqueous phase, enabling them to interact with physiologically relevant matrices.

  20. Kinetic Assembly of Near-IR Active Gold Nanoclusters using Weakly Adsorbing Polymers to Control Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Jasmine M.; Murthy, Avinash K.; Ingram, Davis R.; Nguyen, Robin; Sokolov, Konstantin V.; Johnston, Keith P.

    2013-01-01

    Clusters of metal nanoparticles with an overall size less than 100 nm and high metal loadings for strong optical functionality, are of interest in various fields including microelectronics, sensors, optoelectronics and biomedical imaging and therapeutics. Herein we assemble ~5 nm gold particles into clusters with controlled size, as small as 30 nm and up to 100 nm, which contain only small amounts of polymeric stabilizers. The assembly is kinetically controlled with weakly adsorbing polymers, PLA(2K)-b-PEG(10K)-b-PLA(2K) or PEG (MW = 3350), by manipulating electrostatic, van der Waals (VDW), steric, and depletion forces. The cluster size and optical properties are tuned as a function of particle volume fractions and polymer/gold ratios to modulate the interparticle interactions. The close spacing between the constituent gold nanoparticles and high gold loadings (80–85% w/w gold) produce a strong absorbance cross section of ~9×10−15 m2 in the NIR at 700 nm. This morphology results from VDW and depletion attractive interactions that exclude the weakly adsorbed polymeric stabilizer from the cluster interior. The generality of this kinetic assembly platform is demonstrated for gold nanoparticles with a range of surface charges from highly negative to neutral, with the two different polymers. PMID:20361735

  1. Phytosterol-based oleogels self-assembled with monoglyceride for controlled volatile release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan-Xia; Chen, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2018-01-01

    Oleogels have recently emerged as a subject of growing interest among industrial and academic researchers as an alternative to saturated/trans-fat and delivery of functional ingredients. Phytosterols, comprising plant-derived natural steroid compounds, are preferred for oleogel production because they are both natural and healthy. In the present study, phytosterol-based oleogels self-assembled with monoglyceride were studied with respect to tuning volatile release. Microscopy images of the bicomponent oleogels of β-sitosterol and monoglyceride showed the formation of a new three-dimensional network of entangled crystals and a controllable microstructure. Our analysis from differential scanning calorimetry and small angle X-ray scattering results suggests the self-assembly of β-sitosterol and monoglyceride via intermolecular hydrogen bonds into spherulitic microstructures. The results showed that the release rate (v 0 ), maximum headspace concentrations (C max ) and partition coefficients (k a/o ) for oleogels showed a significantly controlled release and were tunable via the microstructure of phytosterol-based oleogels under both dynamic and static conditions. In addition, the solid-like oleogels had interesting thixotropic and thermoresponsive behaviors, probably as a result of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The self-assembly of phytosterol-based oleogels with monoglyceride was attributed to intermolecular hydrogen and is demonstrated to be a promising tunable and functional strategy for delivering flavor compounds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Cerium chloride stimulated controlled conversion of B-to-Z DNA in self-assembled nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanjadeo, Madhabi M.; Nayak, Ashok K.; Subudhi, Umakanta

    2017-01-01

    DNA adopts different conformation not only because of novel base pairs but also while interacting with inorganic or organic compounds. Self-assembled branched DNA (bDNA) structures or DNA origami that change conformation in response to environmental cues hold great promises in sensing and actuation at the nanoscale. Recently, the B-Z transition in DNA is being explored to design various nanomechanical devices. In this communication we have demonstrated that Cerium chloride binds to the phosphate backbone of self-assembled bDNA structure and induce B-to-Z transition at physiological concentration. The mechanism of controlled conversion from right-handed to left-handed has been assayed by various dye binding studies using CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. Three different bDNA structures have been identified to display B-Z transition. This approach provides a rapid and reversible means to change bDNA conformation, which can be used for dynamic and progressive control at the nanoscale. - Highlights: • Cerium-induced B-to-Z DNA transition in self-assembled nanostructures. • Lower melting temperature of Z-DNA than B-DNA confirmed by CD spectroscopy. • Binding mechanism of cerium chloride is explained using fluorescence spectroscopy. • Right-handed to left-handed DNA conformation is also noticed in modified bDNA structure.

  3. Controllable self-assembly of sodium caseinate with a zwitterionic vitamin-derived bolaamphiphile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Hui; Sun, Yu-Long; Yang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Zhong-Xiu

    2013-11-06

    The control of self-assembly of sodium caseinate (SC) including the formation of mixed layers, microspheres, or nanoparticles is highly relevant to the microstructure of food and the design of promising drug delivery systems. In this paper, we designed a structure-switchable zwitterionic bolaamphiphile, 1,12-diaminododecanediorotate (DDO), from orotic acid, which has special binding sites and can guide the self-assembly of SC. Complexation between SC and DDO was investigated using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and fluorescence spectra measurements. Monomeric DDO was bound to the negatively charged sites on the SC micelle and made the structure of SC more compact with decreased electrostatic repulsion between the head groups. Vesicular DDO led to reassociation of vesicles with enlarged size via preferable hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, the aggregation between SC and DDO was found to be temperature-dependent and reversible. This research provides an effective way to control the reversible self-assembly of SC by the zwitterionic vitamin-derived bolaamphiphile.

  4. Photo-Crosslinking Induced Geometric Restriction Controls the Self-Assembly of Diphenylalanine Based Peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tie Zuo-Xiu; Qin Meng; Zou Da-Wei; Cao Yi; Wang Wei

    2011-01-01

    The diphenylalanine (FF) motif has been widely used in the design of peptides that are capable of forming various ordered structures, such as nanotubes, nanospheres and hydrogels. In these assemblies, FF based peptides adopt an antiparallel structure and are stabilized by π — π stacking among the phenyl groups. Here we show that assembly of FF-based peptides can be controlled by their geometric restrictions. Using tripeptide FFY (L-Phe-L-Phe-L-Tyr) as an example, we demonstrate that photo-crosslinking of C-terminal tyrosine can impose a geometric restriction to the formation of an antiparallel structure, leading to a structural change of the assemblies from nanosphere to amorphous. This finding is confirmed using far-UV circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Based on such a mechanism, we are able to control the gel-sol transition of Fmoc-FFY using the geometric restriction induced by photo-crosslinking of C-terminal tyrosine groups. We believe that geometric restriction should be considered as an important factor in the design of peptide-based materials. It can also be implemented as a useful strategy for the construction of environment-responsive 'smart' materials. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  5. Photo-crosslinking induced geometric restriction controls the self-assembly of diphenylalanine based peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tie Zuoxiu; Qin Meng; Zou Dawei; Cao Yi; Wang Wei

    2011-01-01

    The diphenylalanine (FF) motif has been widely used in the design of peptides that are capable of forming various ordered structures, such as nanotubes, nanospheres and hydrogels. In these assemblies, FF based peptides adopt an antiparallel structure and are stabilized by π-π stacking among the phenyl groups. Here we show that assembly of FF-based peptides can be controlled by their geometric restrictions. Using tripeptide FFY (L-Phe-L-Phe-L-Tyr) as an example, we demonstrate that photo-crosslinking of C-terminal tyrosine can impose a geometric restriction to the formation of an antiparallel structure, leading to a structural change of the assemblies from nanosphere to amorphous. This finding is confirmed using far-UV circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Based on such a mechanism, we are able to control the gel-sol transition of Fmoc-FFY using the geometric restriction induced by photo-crosslinking of C-terminal tyrosine groups. We believe that geometric restriction should be considered as an important factor in the design of peptide-based materials. It can also be implemented as a useful strategy for the construction of environment-responsive 'smart' materials. (authors)

  6. Hematite Thin Films with Various Nanoscopic Morphologies Through Control of Self-Assembly Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingling; Kim, Yong-Tae; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2015-05-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) thin films with various nanostructures were synthesized through self-assembly between iron oxide hydroxide particles, generated by hydrolysis and condensation of Fe(NO3)3 · 6H2O, and a Pluronic triblock copolymer (F127, (EO)106(PO)70(EO)106, EO = ethylene oxide, PO = propylene oxide), followed by calcination. The self-assembly structure can be tuned by introducing water in a controlled manner through the control of the humidity level in the surrounding of the as-cast films during aging stage. For the given Fe(NO3)3 · 6H2O:F127 ratio, there appear to be three different thermodynamically stable self-assembly structures depending on the water content in the film material, which correspond to mesoporous, spherical micellar, and rod-like micellar structures after removal of F127. Coupled with the thermodynamic driving forces, the kinetics of the irreversible reactions of coalescence of iron oxide hydroxide particles into larger ones induce diverse nanostructures of the resultant films. The length scale of so-obtained nanostructures ranges from 6 nm to a few hundred nanometers. In addition to water content, the effects of other experimental parameters such as aging temperature, spin rate during spin coating, type of substrate, and type of iron reagent were investigated.

  7. Controllable Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Zwitterionic PBI Towards Tunable Surface Wettability of the Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong; Lü, Baozhong; Cheng, Wenyu; Wu, Zhen; Wei, Jie; Yin, Meizhen

    2017-05-04

    Amphiphilic molecules have received wide attention as they possess both hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties, and can form diverse nanostructures in selective solvents. Herein, we report an asymmetric amphiphilic zwitterionic perylene bisimide (AZP) with an octyl chain and a zwitterionic group on the opposite imide positions of perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride. The controllable nanostructures of AZP with tunable hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface have been investigated through solvent-dependent amphiphilic self-assembly as confirmed by SEM, TEM, and contact angle measurements. The planar perylene core of AZP contributes to strong π-π stacking, while the amphiphilic balance of asymmetric AZP adjusts the self-assembly property. Additionally, due to intermolecular π-π stacking and solvent-solute interactions, AZP could self-assemble into hydrophilic microtubes in a polar solvent (acetone) and hydrophobic nanofibers in an apolar solvent (hexane). This facile method provides a new pathway for controlling the surface properties based on an asymmetric amphiphilic zwitterionic perylene bisimide. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Experimental investigation of control absorber blade effects in a modern 10x10 BWR assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatuff, F.; Grimm, P.; Murphy, M.; Luethi, A.; Seiler, R.; Joneja, O.; Meister, A.; Geemert, R. van; Brogli, R.; Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Williams, T. [EGL Laufenburg (Switzerland); Helmersson, S. [Westinghouse Atom (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    The accurate estimation of reactor physics parameters related to the presence of cruciform absorber blades. In Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) is important for safety assessment, and for achieving a flexible operation during the cycle. Characteristics which are affected strongly include the power distribution for controlled core regions and its impact on linear heat generation rate margins, as well as the build-up of plutonium, and its influence on core excess reactivity and the reactivity worth of the shutdown system. PSI and the Swiss Nuclear Utilities (UAK) are conducting an experimental reactor physics programme related to modern Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies, as employed in the Swiss nuclear power plants: the so-called. LWR-PROTEUS Phase I project. A significant part of this project has been devoted to the characterization of highly heterogeneous BWR fuel elements in the presence of absorber blades. The paper presents typical results for the performance of modern lattice codes in the estimation of controlled assembly reaction rate distributions, the sensitivity to the geometrical and material characterization, and a preliminary comparison of reflected-test-zone calculations with experimental reaction rate distributions measured in a Westinghouse SVEA-96+ assembly under full-density water moderation conditions in the presence of Westinghouse boron-carbide absorber blades. (author)

  9. Experimental investigation of control absorber blade effects in a modern 10x10 BWR assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatuff, F.; Grimm, P.; Murphy, M.; Luethi, A.; Seiler, R.; Joneja, O.; Meister, A.; Geemert, R. van; Brogli, R.; Chawla, R.; Williams, T.; Helmersson, S.

    2001-01-01

    The accurate estimation of reactor physics parameters related to the presence of cruciform absorber blades. In Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) is important for safety assessment, and for achieving a flexible operation during the cycle. Characteristics which are affected strongly include the power distribution for controlled core regions and its impact on linear heat generation rate margins, as well as the build-up of plutonium, and its influence on core excess reactivity and the reactivity worth of the shutdown system. PSI and the Swiss Nuclear Utilities (UAK) are conducting an experimental reactor physics programme related to modern Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies, as employed in the Swiss nuclear power plants: the so-called. LWR-PROTEUS Phase I project. A significant part of this project has been devoted to the characterization of highly heterogeneous BWR fuel elements in the presence of absorber blades. The paper presents typical results for the performance of modern lattice codes in the estimation of controlled assembly reaction rate distributions, the sensitivity to the geometrical and material characterization, and a preliminary comparison of reflected-test-zone calculations with experimental reaction rate distributions measured in a Westinghouse SVEA-96+ assembly under full-density water moderation conditions in the presence of Westinghouse boron-carbide absorber blades. (author)

  10. Controlled AFM manipulation of small nanoparticles and assembly of hybrid nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suenne; Shafiei, Farbod; Ratchford, Daniel; Li Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate controlled manipulation of semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles (NPs) with 5-15 nm diameters and assemble these NPs into hybrid structures. The manipulation is accomplished under ambient environment using a commercial atomic force microscope (AFM). There are particular difficulties associated with manipulating NPs this small. In addition to spatial drift, the shape of an asymmetric AFM tip has to be taken into account in order to understand the intended and actual manipulation results. Furthermore, small NPs often attach to the tip via electrostatic interaction and modify the effective tip shape. We suggest a method for detaching the NPs by performing a pseudo-manipulation step. Finally, we show by example the ability to assemble these small NPs into prototypical hybrid nanostructures with well-defined composition and geometry.

  11. Proteomic characterization of the subpellicular cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de León, Carmen T; Díaz Martín, Rubén Darío; Mendoza Hernández, Guillermo; González Pozos, Sirenia; Ambrosio, Javier R; Mondragón Flores, Ricardo

    2014-12-05

    Toxoplasma, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in animals and humans, has a subpellicular cytoskeleton that is involved in motility, cell shape and invasion. Knowledge of components of the cytoskeleton is necessary to understand the invasion mechanisms as well as for the identification of possible therapeutic targets. To date, most cytoskeletal components of Toxoplasma remain unidentified due mainly to the lack of reproducible methods for their isolation. Based on the successful isolation of the cytoskeleton, it was possible to report for the first time, the proteomic characterization of the subpellicular cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma formed by 95 cytoskeletal proteins through proteomic analysis by tandem mass spectrometry of one dimension SDS PAGE. By bioinformatic analysis of the data, proteins were classified as: 18 conventional cytoskeletal proteins; 10 inner membrane complex proteins, including 7 with alveolin repeats; 5 new proteins with alveolin like repeats; 37 proteins associated with other organelles and 25 novel proteins of unknown function. One of the alveolin like proteins not previously described in Toxoplasma named TgArticulin was partially characterized with a specific monoclonal antibody. Presence of TgArticulin was exclusively associated with the cytoskeleton fraction with a cortical distribution. Functions for the several molecules identified are proposed. This manuscript describes, for the first time, the proteome of the subpellicular cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma gondii. The importance of this study is related to the role of the cytoskeleton in the highly invasive capability of a parasite that causes abortion, blindness, and death by encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. Proteomic characterization of the cytoskeleton of T. gondii tachyzoites was possible by the development of a successful procedure for the isolation of the subpellicular cytoskeleton. Knowledge of the composition of the cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma is fundamental for the

  12. Construction of a controllable β-carotene biosynthetic pathway by decentralized assembly strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenping; Liu, Min; Lv, Xiaomei; Lu, Wenqiang; Gu, Jiali; Yu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important platform organism for the synthesis of a great number of natural products. However, the assembly of controllable and genetically stable heterogeneous biosynthetic pathways in S. cerevisiae still remains a significant challenge. Here, we present a strategy for reconstructing controllable multi-gene pathways by employing the GAL regulatory system. A set of marker recyclable integrative plasmids (pMRI) was designed for decentralized assembly of pathways. As proof-of-principle, a controllable β-carotene biosynthesis pathway (∼16 kb) was reconstructed and optimized by repeatedly using GAL10-GAL1 bidirectional promoters with high efficiency (80-100%). By controling the switch time of the pathway, production of 11 mg/g DCW of total carotenoids (72.57 mg/L) and 7.41 mg/g DCW of β-carotene was achieved in shake-flask culture. In addition, the engineered yeast strain exhibited high genetic stability after 20 generations of subculture. The results demonstrated a controllable and genetically stable biosynthetic pathway capable of increasing the yield of target products. Furthermore, the strategy presented in this study could be extended to construct other pathways in S. cerevisisae. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Development and characterization of the control assembly system for the large 2400 MWth Generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, G.; Rimpault, G.; Morin, F.; Bosq, J.C.; Coddington, P.; Mikityuk, K.; Chawla, R.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is related to the design and neutronic characterization of the principal control assembly system for the reference large (2400 MWth) Generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR), which makes use of ceramic-ceramic (CERCER) plate-type fuel-elements with (U-Pu) carbide fuel contained within a SiC inert matrix. For the neutronic calculations, the deterministic code system ERANOS-2.0 has been used, in association with a full core model including a European fast reactor (EFR)-type pattern for the control assemblies as a starting point. More specifically, the core contains a total of 33 control (control system device: CSD) and safety (diverse safety device: DSD) assemblies implemented in three banks. In the design of the new control assembly system, particular attention was given to the heat generation within the assemblies, so that both neutronic and thermal-hydraulic constraints could be appropriately accounted for. The thermal-hydraulic calculations have been performed with the code COPERNIC, significant coolant mass flow rates being found necessary to maintain acceptable cladding temperatures of the absorber pins. Complementary to the design study, neutronic investigations have been performed to assess the impact of the control assemblies in the GFR core in greater detail (rod interactions, shift of the flux, peaking factors, etc.). Thus, considerable shadowing effects have been observed between the first bank and the safety bank, as also between individual assemblies within the first bank. Large anti-shadowing effects also occur, the most prominent being that between the two CSD banks, where the total assembly worth is almost doubled in comparison to the sum of the individual values. Additional investigations have been performed and, in this context, it has been found that computation of the first-order eigenvalue and the eigenvalue separation is a robust tool to anticipate control assembly interactions in a large fast-spectrum core. One interesting

  14. Drop performance test of conceptually designed control rod assembly for prototype generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Kyu; Lee, Jae Han; Kim, Hoe Woong; KIm, Sung Kyun; Kim, Jong Bum [Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor NSSS Design Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The control rod assembly controls reactor power by adjusting its position during normal operation and shuts down chain reactions by its free drop under scram conditions. Therefore, the drop performance of the control rod assembly is important for the safety of a nuclear reactor. In this study, the drop performance of the conceptually designed control rod assembly for the prototype generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor that is being developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a next-generation nuclear reactor was experimentally investigated. For the performance test, the test facility and test procedure were established first, and several free drop performance tests of the control rod assembly under different flow rate conditions were then carried out. Moreover, performance tests under several types and magnitudes of seismic loading conditions were also conducted to investigate the effects of seismic loading on the drop performance of the control rod assembly. The drop time of the conceptually designed control rod assembly for 0% of the tentatively designed flow rate was measured to be 1.527 seconds, and this agrees well with the analytically calculated drop time. It was also observed that the effect of seismic loading on the drop time was not significant.

  15. Focal adhesion kinase is required for actin polymerization and remodeling of the cytoskeleton during sperm capacitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa-Espitia, Ana L.; Hernández-Rendón, Eva R.; Baltiérrez-Hoyos, Rafael; Muñoz-Gotera, Rafaela J.; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Jiménez, Irma; González-Márquez, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several focal adhesion proteins are known to cooperate with integrins to link the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton; as a result, many intracellular signaling pathways are activated and several focal adhesion complexes are formed. However, how these proteins function in mammalian spermatozoa remains unknown. We confirm the presence of focal adhesion proteins in guinea pig spermatozoa, and we explore their role during capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and their relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. Our results suggest the presence of a focal adhesion complex formed by β1-integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, vinculin, talin, and α-actinin in the acrosomal region. Inhibition of FAK during capacitation affected the protein tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation that occurs within the first few minutes of capacitation, which caused the acrosome reaction to become increasingly Ca2+ dependent and inhibited the polymerization of actin. The integration of vinculin and talin into the complex, and the activation of FAK and paxillin during capacitation, suggests that the complex assembles at this time. We identify that vinculin and α-actinin increase their interaction with F-actin while it remodels during capacitation, and that during capacitation focal adhesion complexes are structured. FAK contributes to acrosome integrity, likely by regulating the polymerization and the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27402964

  16. Computer simulation of cytoskeleton-induced blebbing in lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangler, E. J.; Harvey, C. W.; Revalee, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    for large values of the ratio between the areas of the bilayer and the cytoskeleton. We also found that blebbing can be induced when the cytoskeleton is subject to a localized ablation or a uniform compression. The results obtained are qualitatively in agreement with the experimental evidence and the model...

  17. A spatiotemporal characterization method for the dynamic cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhussein, Ghada; Shanti, Aya; Farhat, Ilyas A H; Timraz, Sara B H; Alwahab, Noaf S A; Pearson, Yanthe E; Martin, Matthew N; Christoforou, Nicolas; Teo, Jeremy C M

    2016-05-01

    The significant gap between quantitative and qualitative understanding of cytoskeletal function is a pressing problem; microscopy and labeling techniques have improved qualitative investigations of localized cytoskeleton behavior, whereas quantitative analyses of whole cell cytoskeleton networks remain challenging. Here we present a method that accurately quantifies cytoskeleton dynamics. Our approach digitally subdivides cytoskeleton images using interrogation windows, within which box-counting is used to infer a fractal dimension (Df ) to characterize spatial arrangement, and gray value intensity (GVI) to determine actin density. A partitioning algorithm further obtains cytoskeleton characteristics from the perinuclear, cytosolic, and periphery cellular regions. We validated our measurement approach on Cytochalasin-treated cells using transgenically modified dermal fibroblast cells expressing fluorescent actin cytoskeletons. This method differentiates between normal and chemically disrupted actin networks, and quantifies rates of cytoskeletal degradation. Furthermore, GVI distributions were found to be inversely proportional to Df , having several biophysical implications for cytoskeleton formation/degradation. We additionally demonstrated detection sensitivity of differences in Df and GVI for cells seeded on substrates with varying degrees of stiffness, and coated with different attachment proteins. This general approach can be further implemented to gain insights on dynamic growth, disruption, and structure of the cytoskeleton (and other complex biological morphology) due to biological, chemical, or physical stimuli. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mechanism of aftered cytoskeleton organization in influenza virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizanova, O.; Ciampor, F.; Zavodska, E.; Matis, J.; Stancek, D.; Krivjanska, M.

    1989-01-01

    The autophosphorylation was followed of cytoskeleton (CS) isolated from control chick embryo cell membranes (CS-C) and from these membranes after influenza virus adsorption (CS-V) under conditions allowing to determine the activity of a single type proteinkinase. The Ca 2+ dependent calmodulin (CaM) kinase used different substrates from CS-V than did the c'AMP dependent proteinkinase. The catalytic subunit (c-subunit) of the c'AMP dependent proteinkinase added from outside phosphorylated the same polypeptides than the endogeneous c'AMP dependent proteinkinase, the further being more active than the latter. The purified influenza virus incorporated 32 P in the presence of the c-subunit only. Incubation of influenza virus with the c-subunit caused morphological changes visible by electron microscopy. The pleomorphy of the particles as well as their electron transmissibility were enhanced in the result of structural alterations and rarefaction of surface spikes of the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. The contractibility of CS isolated from normal CEC and of the CS from CEC by 15 min postinfection (p.i.) was determined according to the actomyosin ATPase activity. The ATPase activity of the cytoskeleton in the presence of the Ca 2+ /CaM and that in the presence of c'AMP were used as controls. The virus as well as the Ca 2+ /CaM increased the ATPase activity. EGTA had no effect but did not interfere with virus stimulation, while c'AMP blocked the virus-induced enhancement of the ATPase activity. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab., 36 refs

  19. Predistortion control device and method, assembly including a predistortion control device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkeler, Andre B.J.

    2003-01-01

    A predistortion control device (1). The device has a first predistortion control input connectable to a power amplifier output (21); a second predistortion control input (11) connectable to a signal contact of a predistortion device; and a predistortion control output (12) connectable to a control

  20. Temperature response of the neuronal cytoskeleton mapped via atomic force and fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spedden, Elise; Staii, Cristian; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal cells change their growth properties in response to external physical stimuli such as variations in external temperature, stiffness of the growth substrate, or topographical guidance cues. Detailed knowledge of the mechanisms that control these biomechanical responses is necessary for understanding the basic principles that underlie neuronal growth and regeneration. Here, we present elasticity maps of living cortical neurons (embryonic rat) as a function of temperature, and correlate these maps to the locations of internal structural components of the cytoskeleton. Neurons display a significant increase in the average elastic modulus upon a decrease in ambient temperature from 37 to 25 °C. We demonstrate that the dominant mechanism by which the elasticity of the neurons changes in response to temperature is the stiffening of the actin components of the cytoskeleton induced by myosin II. We also report a reversible shift in the location and composition of the high-stiffness areas of the neuron cytoskeleton with temperature. At 37 °C the areas of the cell displaying high elastic modulus overlap with the tubulin-dense regions, while at 25 °C these high-stiffness areas correspond to the actin-dense regions of the cytoskeleton. These results demonstrate the importance of considering temperature effects when investigating cytoskeletal dynamics in cells. (paper)

  1. Intelligent controller of a flexible hybrid robot machine for ITER assembly and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-saedi, Mazin I.; Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Studying flexible multibody dynamic of hybrid parallel robot. • Investigating fuzzy-PD controller to control a hybrid flexible hydraulically driven robot. • Investigating ANFIS-PD controller to control a hybrid flexible robot. Compare to traditional PID this method gives better performance. • Using the equilibrium of reaction forces between the parallel and serial parts of hybrid robot to control the serial part hydraulically driven. - Abstract: The assembly and maintenance of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) vacuum vessel (VV) is highly challenging since the tasks performed by the robot involve welding, material handling, and machine cutting from inside the VV. To fulfill the tasks in ITER application, this paper presents a hybrid redundant manipulator with four DOFs provided by serial kinematic axes and six DOFs by parallel mechanism. Thus, in machining, to achieve greater end-effector trajectory tracking accuracy for surface quality, a robust control of the actuators for the flexible link has to be deduced. In this paper, the intelligent control of a hydraulically driven parallel robot part based on the dynamic model and two control schemes have been investigated: (1) fuzzy-PID self tuning controller composed of the conventional PID control and with fuzzy logic; (2) adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system-PID (ANFIS-PID) self tuning of the gains of the PID controller, which are implemented independently to control each hydraulic cylinder of the parallel robot based on rod position predictions. The obtained results of the fuzzy-PID and ANFIS-PID self tuning controller can reduce more tracking errors than the conventional PID controller. Subsequently, the serial component of the hybrid robot can be analyzed using the equilibrium of reaction forces at the universal joint connections of the hexa-element. To achieve precise positional control of the end effector for maximum precision machining, the hydraulic cylinder should

  2. Intelligent controller of a flexible hybrid robot machine for ITER assembly and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-saedi, Mazin I., E-mail: mazin.al-saedi@lut.fi; Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Studying flexible multibody dynamic of hybrid parallel robot. • Investigating fuzzy-PD controller to control a hybrid flexible hydraulically driven robot. • Investigating ANFIS-PD controller to control a hybrid flexible robot. Compare to traditional PID this method gives better performance. • Using the equilibrium of reaction forces between the parallel and serial parts of hybrid robot to control the serial part hydraulically driven. - Abstract: The assembly and maintenance of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) vacuum vessel (VV) is highly challenging since the tasks performed by the robot involve welding, material handling, and machine cutting from inside the VV. To fulfill the tasks in ITER application, this paper presents a hybrid redundant manipulator with four DOFs provided by serial kinematic axes and six DOFs by parallel mechanism. Thus, in machining, to achieve greater end-effector trajectory tracking accuracy for surface quality, a robust control of the actuators for the flexible link has to be deduced. In this paper, the intelligent control of a hydraulically driven parallel robot part based on the dynamic model and two control schemes have been investigated: (1) fuzzy-PID self tuning controller composed of the conventional PID control and with fuzzy logic; (2) adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system-PID (ANFIS-PID) self tuning of the gains of the PID controller, which are implemented independently to control each hydraulic cylinder of the parallel robot based on rod position predictions. The obtained results of the fuzzy-PID and ANFIS-PID self tuning controller can reduce more tracking errors than the conventional PID controller. Subsequently, the serial component of the hybrid robot can be analyzed using the equilibrium of reaction forces at the universal joint connections of the hexa-element. To achieve precise positional control of the end effector for maximum precision machining, the hydraulic cylinder should

  3. Controlling material birefringence in sapphire via self-assembled, sub-wavelength defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Astha; Sharma, Geeta; Ranjan, Neeraj; Mittholiya, Kshitij; Bhatnagar, Anuj; Singh, B. P.; Mathur, Deepak; Vasa, Parinda

    2018-02-01

    Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light. Generally, this is an intrinsic optical property of a material and cannot be altered. Here, we report a novel technique—direct laser writing—that enables us to control the natural, material birefringence of sapphire over a broad range of wavelengths. The broadband form birefringence originating from self-assembled, periodic array of sub-wavelength (˜ 50-200 nm) defects created by laser writing, can enhance, suppress or maintain the material birefringence of sapphire without affecting its transparency range in visible or its surface quality.

  4. Self-assembled nanoparticles of glycol chitosan – Ergocalciferol succinate conjugate, for controlled release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinones, Javier Perez; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager; Kjems, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Glycol chitosan was linked to vitamin D2 hemisuccinate (ergocalciferol hemisuccinate) for controlled release through water-soluble carbodiimide activation. The resulting conjugate formed self-assembled nanoparticles in aqueous solution with particle size of 279 nm and ergocalciferol hemisuccinate...... content of 8.4% (w/w). Almost spherical 50–90 nm nanoparticles were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy upon drying. Drug linking to glycol chitosan was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and proton NMR. Particles were also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and wide...

  5. Controlling charge injection in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, I. H.; Kress, J. D.; Martin, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Barashkov, N. N.; Ferraris, J. P.

    1997-12-01

    We demonstrate control and improvement of charge injection in organic electronic devices by utilizing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to manipulate the Schottky energy barrier between a metal electrode and the organic electronic material. Hole injection from Cu electrodes into the electroluminescent conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy,5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] was varied by using two conjugated-thiol based SAMs. The chemically modified electrodes were incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/polymer Schottky energy barriers and current-voltage characteristics were measured. Decreasing (increasing) the Schottky energy barrier improves (degrades) charge injection into the polymer.

  6. Micro-vision servo control of a multi-axis alignment system for optical fiber assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weihai; Yu, Fei; Qu, Jianliang; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Jianbin

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a novel optical fiber assembly system featuring a multi-axis alignment function based on micro-vision feedback control. It consists of an active parallel alignment mechanism, a passive compensation mechanism, a micro-gripper and a micro-vision servo control system. The active parallel alignment part is a parallelogram-based design with remote-center-of-motion (RCM) function to achieve precise rotation without fatal lateral motion. The passive mechanism, with five degrees of freedom (5-DOF), is used to implement passive compensation for multi-axis errors. A specially designed 1-DOF micro-gripper mounted onto the active parallel alignment platform is adopted to grasp and rotate the optical fiber. A micro-vision system equipped with two charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras is introduced to observe the small field of view and obtain multi-axis errors for servo feedback control. The two CCD cameras are installed in an orthogonal arrangement—thus the errors can be easily measured via the captured images. Meanwhile, a series of tracking and measurement algorithms based on specific features of the target objects are developed. Details of the force and displacement sensor information acquisition in the assembly experiment are also provided. An experiment demonstrates the validity of the proposed visual algorithm by achieving the task of eliminating errors and inserting an optical fiber to the U-groove accurately. (paper)

  7. CRAB-II: a computer program to predict hydraulics and scram dynamics of LMFBR control assemblies and its validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Baker, L.A.; Willis, J.M.; Engel, F.C.; Nee, D.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method, the computer code CRAB-II, which calculates the hydraulics and scram dynamics of LMFBR control assemblies of the rod bundle type and its validation against prototypic data obtained for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) primary control assemblies. The physical-mathematical model of the code is presented, followed by a description of the testing of prototypic CRBR control assemblies in water and sodium to characterize, respectively, their hydraulic and scram dynamics behavior. Comparison of code predictions against the experimental data are presened in detail; excellent agreement was found. Also reported are experimental data and empirical correlations for the friction factor of the absorber bundle in the entire flow range (laminar to turbulent) which represent an extension of the state-of-the-art, since only fuel and blanket assemblies friction factor correlations were previously reported in the open literature

  8. Cytoskeleton dynamics: Fluctuations within the network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursac, Predrag; Fabry, Ben; Trepat, Xavier; Lenormand, Guillaume; Butler, James P.; Wang, Ning; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; An, Steven S.

    2007-01-01

    Out-of-equilibrium systems, such as the dynamics of a living cytoskeleton (CSK), are inherently noisy with fluctuations arising from the stochastic nature of the underlying biochemical and molecular events. Recently, such fluctuations within the cell were characterized by observing spontaneous nano-scale motions of an RGD-coated microbead bound to the cell surface [Bursac et al., Nat. Mater. 4 (2005) 557-561]. While these reported anomalous bead motions represent a molecular level reorganization (remodeling) of microstructures in contact with the bead, a precise nature of these cytoskeletal constituents and forces that drive their remodeling dynamics are largely unclear. Here, we focused upon spontaneous motions of an RGD-coated bead and, in particular, assessed to what extent these motions are attributable to (i) bulk cell movement (cell crawling), (ii) dynamics of focal adhesions, (iii) dynamics of lipid membrane, and/or (iv) dynamics of the underlying actin CSK driven by myosin motors

  9. Cytoskeleton-amyloplast interactions in sweet clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guikema, J. A.; Hilaire, E.; Odom, W. R.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of organelles within columella cells of sweet clover was examined by transmission electron microscopy following growth under static or clinorotating conditions. A developmentally conditioned polarity was observed, with a proximal location of the nucleus and a distal accumulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. This polarity was insensitive to clinorotation. In contrast, clinorotation altered the location of amyloplasts. Application of cytoskeletal poisons (colchicine, cytochalasin D, taxol, and phalloidin), especially during clinorotation, had interesting effects on the maintenance of columella cell polarity, with a profound effect on the extent, location, and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum. The site of cytoskeletal interactions with sedimenting amyloplasts is thought to be the amyloplast envelope. An envelope fraction, having over 17 polypeptides, was isolated using immobilized antibody technology, and will provide a means of assessing the role of specific peptides in cytoskeleton/amyloplast interactions.

  10. The small G-protein MglA connects to the MreB actin cytoskeleton at bacterial focal adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuner-Lange, Anke; Macia, Eric; Guzzo, Mathilde; Hot, Edina; Faure, Laura M; Jakobczak, Beata; Espinosa, Leon; Alcor, Damien; Ducret, Adrien; Keilberg, Daniela; Castaing, Jean Philippe; Lacas Gervais, Sandra; Franco, Michel; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Mignot, Tâm

    2015-07-20

    In Myxococcus xanthus the gliding motility machinery is assembled at the leading cell pole to form focal adhesions, translocated rearward to propel the cell, and disassembled at the lagging pole. We show that MglA, a Ras-like small G-protein, is an integral part of this machinery. In this function, MglA stimulates the assembly of the motility complex by directly connecting it to the MreB actin cytoskeleton. Because the nucleotide state of MglA is regulated spatially and MglA only binds MreB in the guanosine triphosphate-bound form, the motility complexes are assembled at the leading pole and dispersed at the lagging pole where the guanosine triphosphatase activating protein MglB disrupts the MglA-MreB interaction. Thus, MglA acts as a nucleotide-dependent molecular switch to regulate the motility machinery spatially. The function of MreB in motility is independent of its function in peptidoglycan synthesis, representing a coopted function. Our findings highlight a new function for the MreB cytoskeleton and suggest that G-protein-cytoskeleton interactions are a universally conserved feature. © 2015 Treuner-Lange et al.

  11. Dynamic gradients of an intermediate filament-like cytoskeleton are recruited by a polarity landmark during apical growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchino, Katsuya; Bagchi, Sonchita; Cantlay, Stuart; Sandblad, Linda; Wu, Di; Bergman, Jessica; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood; Flärdh, Klas; Ausmees, Nora

    2013-05-21

    Intermediate filament (IF)-like cytoskeleton emerges as a versatile tool for cellular organization in all kingdoms of life, underscoring the importance of mechanistically understanding its diverse manifestations. We showed previously that, in Streptomyces (a bacterium with a mycelial lifestyle similar to that of filamentous fungi, including extreme cell and growth polarity), the IF protein FilP confers rigidity to the hyphae by an unknown mechanism. Here, we provide a possible explanation for the IF-like function of FilP by demonstrating its ability to self-assemble into a cis-interconnected regular network in vitro and its localization into structures consistent with a cytoskeletal network in vivo. Furthermore, we reveal that a spatially restricted interaction between FilP and DivIVA, the main component of the Streptomyces polarisome complex, leads to formation of apical gradients of FilP in hyphae undergoing active tip extension. We propose that the coupling between the mechanism driving polar growth and the assembly of an IF cytoskeleton provides each new hypha with an additional stress-bearing structure at its tip, where the nascent cell wall is inevitably more flexible and compliant while it is being assembled and matured. Our data suggest that recruitment of cytoskeleton around a cell polarity landmark is a broadly conserved strategy in tip-growing cells.

  12. The effect on cross sections for Quad Cities by introducing control rod history in the assembly program LEWARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonboel, E.

    1989-08-01

    This paper shows the effect on the 2-group neutron cross sections for the BWR reactor Quad Cities by introducing control rod ''history'' in the assembly program LEWARD. Control rod ''history'' is a concept which accounts for the movement of control rods during operation. (author)

  13. Design and evaluation of Actichip, a thematic microarray for the study of the actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jean; Mehlen, André; Vetter, Guillaume; Yatskou, Mikalai; Muller, Arnaud; Chalmel, Frédéric; Poch, Olivier; Friederich, Evelyne; Vallar, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Background The actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in supporting and regulating numerous cellular processes. Mutations or alterations in the expression levels affecting the actin cytoskeleton system or related regulatory mechanisms are often associated with complex diseases such as cancer. Understanding how qualitative or quantitative changes in expression of the set of actin cytoskeleton genes are integrated to control actin dynamics and organisation is currently a challenge and should provide insights in identifying potential targets for drug discovery. Here we report the development of a dedicated microarray, the Actichip, containing 60-mer oligonucleotide probes for 327 genes selected for transcriptome analysis of the human actin cytoskeleton. Results Genomic data and sequence analysis features were retrieved from GenBank and stored in an integrative database called Actinome. From these data, probes were designed using a home-made program (CADO4MI) allowing sequence refinement and improved probe specificity by combining the complementary information recovered from the UniGene and RefSeq databases. Actichip performance was analysed by hybridisation with RNAs extracted from epithelial MCF-7 cells and human skeletal muscle. Using thoroughly standardised procedures, we obtained microarray images with excellent quality resulting in high data reproducibility. Actichip displayed a large dynamic range extending over three logs with a limit of sensitivity between one and ten copies of transcript per cell. The array allowed accurate detection of small changes in gene expression and reliable classification of samples based on the expression profiles of tissue-specific genes. When compared to two other oligonucleotide microarray platforms, Actichip showed similar sensitivity and concordant expression ratios. Moreover, Actichip was able to discriminate the highly similar actin isoforms whereas the two other platforms did not. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that

  14. Controlled interface between carbon fiber and epoxy by molecular self-assembly method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jinmei; Huang Yudong; Liu Li; Cao Hailin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new treatment method based on molecular self-assembly on carbon fiber surface was proposed for obtaining a controlled interface between carbon fiber and epoxy matrix in composite system. To form the controlled interfacial region, the surfaces of carbon fibers were first metallized by electroless Ag plating, then were reacted with a series of thiols (different chain lengths and terminally functional groups) to form self-assembly monolayers (SAMs), which further reacted with epoxy resin to generate a strong adhesion interface. The morphology, structure and composition of untreated and treated carbon fiber surface were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy (SERS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. SERS study showed that thiols chemisorbed on Ag/carbon fiber in the form of thiolate species via the strong S-Ag coordinative bond. XPS study further confirmed the chemisorption by an S 2p 3/2 component observed at 162.2 eV. The binding energy was characteristic of silver thiolate. The interfacial shear strength of the carbon fiber/epoxy microcomposites was evaluated by the microbond technique. The results showed that there was a direct effect of the interfacial parameters changes such as chain lengths and surface functional groups on the fiber/matrix adhesion

  15. Analysis of subcritical control rod worth measurements in assembly BZB/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, H.

    1981-07-01

    A series of subcritical absorber array measurements was performed in version three of the BIZET assembly BZB in order to check the ability of standard reactor computational codes used by the BIZET participants in predicting control rod worths in large fast reactors. Assembly BZB/3 was a two-zone core with a diameter of about 2.5 m and a core height of 0.89 m, fuelled with plutonium. Fifteen control rod positions and twelve secondary shutdown rod positions were simulated in the core. The measurements comprised the insertion of single absorbers as well as various groups of absorbers and were based on the modified source multiplication method. The KfK analysis was confined to the calculation of eigenvalues for different absorber arrays, also with a view to a comparison with the results of a former BZA evaluation with calculation-to-experiment values of up to C/E ∼ 1.10. The C/E-values found for BZB/3 ranged from 1.02 to 1.10 and did not show a systematic variation at different radial positions or different degrees of absorber asymmetry

  16. Controlled synthesis of pompon-like self-assemblies of Pd nanoparticles under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Xia; Zhao Yanxi; Huang Tao; Liu Hanfan; Liew, Kong Yong

    2009-01-01

    Pd nanoparticles with uniform, self-assembled pompon-like nanostructure were synthesized by thermal decomposition of palladium acetate under microwave irradiation with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) as a solvent in the presence of a little amount of ethylene glycol (EG) and KOH without using any special stabilizers. The as-synthesized Pd nano-pompons were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The results show that the as-prepared Pd nano-pompons with the average diameters in the range of 28-81 nm were self-assemblies organized by hundreds of smaller primary nanoparticles with an average dimension of about 2.4 nm. The sizes of Pd nano-pompons can be well controlled by adjusting the concentration of palladium acetate. A little amount of EG and KOH also plays an important role in controlling the size, uniformity and dispersion of Pd nano-pompons. The Pd nano-pompons can be easily supported on γ-Al 2 O 3 and their catalytic activity was examined preliminarily.

  17. Prediction of drop time and impact velocity of rod cluster control assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kee Sung; Yim, Jeong Sik; Kim, Il Kon; Kim, Kyu Tae

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the drop modelling of rod cluster control assembly(RCCA) and the prediction of drop time and impact velocity of RCCA at scram event. On the scram, RCCA, dropping into the guide thimble of fuel assembly by the gravity, is subject to retarding forces such as hydraulic resistance, mechanical friction and buoyancy. Considering these retarding forces RCCA dynamic equation is derived and computerized it to solve the equation in conjunction with fluid equation which is coupled with the motion of the RCCA. Because the equation is nonlinear, coupled with fluid equations, the program is written in FORTRAN using numerical method in order to calculate the drop distance and velocity with time increment. To verify the program, its results are compared with those of other fuel vendors. Predicting identical tendency as other fuel vendors and the deviation is insignificant in values this program is expected to be used for predicting the drop time and impact velocity of RCCA when the parameters affecting the control rod drop time and impact velocity changes are occurred

  18. Trace Contaminant Control During the International Space Station's On-Orbit Assembly and Outfitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Achieving acceptable cabin air quality must balance competing elements during spacecraft design, assembly, ground processing, and flight operations. Among the elements that contribute to the trace chemical contaminant load and, therefore, the cabin air quality aboard crewed spacecraft are the vehicle configuration, crew size and activities, mission duration and objectives, materials selection, and vehicle manufacturing and preflight ground processing methods. Trace chemical contaminants produced from pervasive sources such as equipment offgassing, human metabolism, and cleaning fluids during preflight ground processing present challenges to maintaining acceptable cabin air quality. To address these challenges, both passive and active contamination control techniques are used during a spacecraft's design, manufacturing, preflight preparation, and operational phases. Passive contamination control methods seek to minimize the equipment offgassing load by selecting materials, manufacturing processes, preflight preparation processes, and in-flight operations that have low chemical offgassing characteristics. Passive methods can be employed across the spacecraft's entire life cycle from conceptual design through flight operations. However, because the passive contamination control techniques cannot fully eliminate the contaminant load, active contamination control equipment must be deployed aboard the spacecraft to purify and revitalize the cabin atmosphere during in-flight operations. Verifying that the passive contamination control techniques have successfully maintained the total trace contaminant load within the active contamination control equipment's capabilities occurs late in the preflight preparation stages. This verification consists of subjecting the spacecraft to an offgassing test to determine the trace contaminant load. This load is then assessed versus the active contamination control equipment's capabilities via trace contaminant control (TCC) engineering

  19. Process and quality control in manufacturing of nuclear fuel assemblies of LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, M.; Hoff, A.; Reimann, P.

    2000-01-01

    Manufacturing of nuclear fuel assemblies requires a multitude of different process and quality methods to assure and maintain a high quality level. In recent years methods have been applied which prevent deviations rather than detect deviant products. This paper gives an example on how to control a complex manufacturing process by using a small number of key parameters and second, it demonstrates the importance of graphical data evaluation and presentation methods. In the past many product and product characteristics were inspected m comparison with specification limits only. However, todays methods allow the early identification of trends, increase of variation, shifts disturbances etc. before the product characteristics exceed the specification limits. These methods are process control charts, x-y-plots, boxplots, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), process capability numbers and others. This paper demonstrates the beneficial use of some of the methods by presenting selected examples applied at Advanced Nuclear Fuels GmbH (ANF). (author)

  20. Assembly and Quality Control of the LHC Cryostats at CERN Motivations, Means, Results and Lessons Learnt

    CERN Document Server

    Poncet, A; Parma, V; Strubin, P; Tock, JP; Tommasini, D

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the project management decided to perform at CERN the final assembly of the LHC superconducting magnets with cryostat parts and cold masses produced by European Industry in large series. This industrial-like production has required a very significant investment in tooling, production facilities, engineering and quality control efforts, in contractual partnership with a consortium of firms. This unusual endeavour of a limited lifetime represented more than 850,000 working hours spanning over five years, the work being done on a result-oriented basis by the contractor. This paper presents the reasons for having conducted this project at CERN, summarizes the work breakdown structure, the production means and methods, the infrastructure specially developed, the tooling, logistics and quality control aspects of the work performed and the results achieved, in analytical form. Finally, the lessons learnt are outlined.

  1. Structural integrity of rod cluster control assembly of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant -1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, A.; Zafar, F.; Murtaza, G.

    2008-01-01

    This study has been made in an attempt to verify the structural integrity of Rod Cluster Control Assembly (RCCA) of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant-1(CHASNUPP-1) using ANSYS computer code. The CHASNUPP-1 (PWR type, 300 MWe capacity, unit 1) was built by China at Chashma (District Mianwali), Pakistan. The plant is successfully operating since 2000. The rod cluster control assemblies (RCCA) are used to control fast reactivity changes in PWR type reactors during the normal operation and accident conditions. To fulfill this function the RCCA is stepped upwards or downwards by control rod drive mechanism (CRDM). The stepping action produces a large amount of acceleration. The load produced during stepping is normally considered as limiting one. In this work we have considered the experimental results of a test conducted in China. The test was performed to measure the acceleration produced in upward and downward stepping by CRDM on RCCA, at room temperatures, both in air and static water. The test results showed acceleration (g, m/s 2 ) values, 10.8 - 51.0 and 46.4 - 78.0, in air and static water environments, respectively. Making the analysis on conservative side we selected the highest value of acceleration, 78 g, for our study. To ensure the structural strength, a finite element model of CHASNUPP-1 RCCA has been developed simulating the loading conditions prevailing during reactor operation. This model has been analyzed using the Finite Element Code. The Maximum Stress intensity obtained through this analysis, 186 MPa, is less than the yield stress of RCCA material (∼SS 321), 205 MPa, thus fulfills its structural integrity criteria. (authors)

  2. Cytosolic chaperones mediate quality control of higher-order septin assembly in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Courtney R; Weems, Andrew D; Brewer, Jennifer M; Thorner, Jeremy; McMurray, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Septin hetero-oligomers polymerize into cytoskeletal filaments with essential functions in many eukaryotic cell types. Mutations within the oligomerization interface that encompasses the GTP-binding pocket of a septin (its "G interface") cause thermoinstability of yeast septin hetero-oligomer assembly, and human disease. When coexpressed with its wild-type counterpart, a G interface mutant is excluded from septin filaments, even at moderate temperatures. We show that this quality control mechanism is specific to G interface mutants, operates during de novo septin hetero-oligomer assembly, and requires specific cytosolic chaperones. Chaperone overexpression lowers the temperature permissive for proliferation of cells expressing a G interface mutant as the sole source of a given septin. Mutations that perturb the septin G interface retard release from these chaperones, imposing a kinetic delay on the availability of nascent septin molecules for higher-order assembly. Un-expectedly, the disaggregase Hsp104 contributes to this delay in a manner that does not require its "unfoldase" activity, indicating a latent "holdase" activity toward mutant septins. These findings provide new roles for chaperone-mediated kinetic partitioning of non-native proteins and may help explain the etiology of septin-linked human diseases. © 2015 Johnson et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Stoichiometric control of multiple different tectons in coordination-driven self-assembly: preparation of fused metallacyclic polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junseong; Ghosh, Koushik; Stang, Peter J

    2009-09-02

    We present a general strategy for the synthesis of stable, multicomponent fused polygon complexes in which coordination-driven self-assembly allows for single supramolecular species to be formed from multicomponent self-assembly and the shape of the obtained polygons can be controlled simply by changing the ratio of individual components. The compounds have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  4. Fluid-Mediated Stochastic Self-Assembly at Centimetric and Sub-Millimetric Scales: Design, Modeling, and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Haghighat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic self-assembly provides promising means for building micro-/nano-structures with a variety of properties and functionalities. Numerous studies have been conducted on the control and modeling of the process in engineered self-assembling systems constituted of modules with varied capabilities ranging from completely reactive nano-/micro-particles to intelligent miniaturized robots. Depending on the capabilities of the constituting modules, different approaches have been utilized for controlling and modeling these systems. In the quest of a unifying control and modeling framework and within the broader perspective of investigating how stochastic control strategies can be adapted from the centimeter-scale down to the (sub-millimeter-scale, as well as from mechatronic to MEMS-based technology, this work presents the outcomes of our research on self-assembly during the past few years. As the first step, we leverage an experimental platform to study self-assembly of water-floating passive modules at the centimeter scale. A dedicated computational framework is developed for real-time tracking, modeling and control of the formation of specific structures. Using a similar approach, we then demonstrate controlled self-assembly of microparticles into clusters of a preset dimension in a microfluidic chamber, where the control loop is closed again through real-time tracking customized for a much faster system dynamics. Finally, with the aim of distributing the intelligence and realizing programmable self-assembly, we present a novel experimental system for fluid-mediated programmable stochastic self-assembly of active modules at the centimeter scale. The system is built around the water-floating 3-cm-sized Lily robots specifically designed to be operative in large swarms and allows for exploring the whole range of fully-centralized to fully-distributed control strategies. The outcomes of our research efforts extend the state-of-the-art methodologies

  5. Kinetic control of block copolymer self-assembly into multicompartment and novel geometry nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingchao; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Ke; Wooley, Karen; Mays, Jimmy; Percec, Virgil; Pochan, Darrin

    2012-02-01

    Micelles with the segregation of hydrophobic blocks trapped in the same nanoparticle core have been produced through co-self-assembly of two block copolymers in THF/water dilute solution. The dissolution of two block copolymer sharing the same polyacrylic acid PAA blocks in THF undergoes consequent aggregation and phase separation through either slow water titration or quick water addition that triggers the micellar formation. The combination and comparison of the two water addition kinetic pathways are the keys of forming multicompartment structures at high water content. Importantly, the addition of organic diamine provides for acid-base complexation with the PAA side chains which, in turn, plays the key role of trapping unlike hydrophobic blocks from different block copolymers into one nanoparticle core. The kinetic control of solution assembly can be applied to other molecular systems such as dendrimers as well as other block copolymer molecules. Transmission electron microscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, light scattering have been applied to characterize the micelle structures.

  6. A numerical and experimental investigation of the thermal control performance of a spaceborne compressor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Ung; Lee, Min-Kyu; Shin, Somin; Hong, Joo-Sung

    2011-09-01

    Spaceborne pulse tube type cryocoolers are widely used for providing cryogenic temperatures for sensitive infrared, gamma-ray and X-ray detectors. Thermal control for the compressor of the cryocooler is one of the important technologies for the cooling performance, mission life time, and jitter stability of the cooler. The thermal design of the compressor assembly proposed in this study is basically composed of a heat pipe, a radiator, and a heater. In the present work, a method for heat pipe implementation is proposed and investigated to ensure the jitter stability of the compressor under the condition that one heat pipe is not working. An optimal design of the radiator that uses ribs for effective use by minimizing the temperature gradient on the radiator and reducing its weight is introduced. The effectiveness of the thermal design of the compressor assembly is demonstrated by on-orbit thermal analysis using the correlated thermal model obtained from the thermal balance test that is performed under a space simulating environment.

  7. Controlled release of astaxanthin from nanoporous silicified-phospholipids assembled boron nitride complex for cosmetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Sun; Sung, Dae Kyung; Kim, Sung Hyun; Choi, Won Il; Hwang, Ee Tag; Choi, Doo Jin; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2017-12-01

    Nanoporous silicified-phospholipids assembled boron nitride (nSPLs@BN) powder was prepared and demonstrated for use in controlled release of anti-oxidant astaxanthin (AX) as a cosmetic application. The nanoporous silicified phospholipids (nSPLs) were obtained by the silicification with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) of the hydrophilic region of phospholipid bilayers. This process involved the co-assembly of chemically active phospholipid bilayers within the porous silica matrix. In addition, nSPLs@BN was characterized using several analytical techniques and tested to assess their efficiency as drug delivery systems. We calculated the maximum release amounts as a function of time and various pH. The release rate of AX from the nSPLs@BN for the initial 24 h was 10.7 μmol/(h mg) at pH 7.4. Furthermore, we determined the antioxidant activity (KD) for the released AX with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) radical and the result was 34.6%.

  8. Controlling Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, I.H.; Rubin, S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Kress, J.D.; Martin, R.L.; Smith, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Barashkov, N.N.; Ferraris, J.P. [The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States)

    1996-11-01

    We demonstrate tuning of Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices by utilizing chemically tailored electrodes. The Schottky energy barrier of Ag on poly[2-methoxy], 5-(2{prime}-ethyl-hexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene was tuned over a range of more than 1 eV by using self-assembled monolayers (SAM{close_quote}s) to attach oriented dipole layers to the Ag prior to device fabrication. Kelvin probe measurements were used to determine the effect of the SAM{close_quote}s on the Ag surface potential. {ital Ab} {ital initio} Hartree-Fock calculations of the molecular dipole moments successfully describe the surface potential changes. The chemically tailored electrodes were then incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/organic Schottky energy barriers were measured using an electroabsorption technique. These results demonstrate the use of self-assembled monolayers to control metal/organic interfacial electronic properties. They establish a physical principle for manipulating the relative energy levels between two materials and demonstrate an approach to improve metal/organic contacts in organic electronic devices. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Controlling Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, I.H.; Rubin, S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Kress, J.D.; Martin, R.L.; Smith, D.L.; Barashkov, N.N.; Ferraris, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate tuning of Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices by utilizing chemically tailored electrodes. The Schottky energy barrier of Ag on poly[2-methoxy], 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene was tuned over a range of more than 1 eV by using self-assembled monolayers (SAM close-quote s) to attach oriented dipole layers to the Ag prior to device fabrication. Kelvin probe measurements were used to determine the effect of the SAM close-quote s on the Ag surface potential. Ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations of the molecular dipole moments successfully describe the surface potential changes. The chemically tailored electrodes were then incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/organic Schottky energy barriers were measured using an electroabsorption technique. These results demonstrate the use of self-assembled monolayers to control metal/organic interfacial electronic properties. They establish a physical principle for manipulating the relative energy levels between two materials and demonstrate an approach to improve metal/organic contacts in organic electronic devices. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Controlling Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, I. H.; Rubin, S.; Zawodzinski, T. A.; Kress, J. D.; Martin, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Barashkov, N. N.; Ferraris, J. P.

    1996-11-01

    We demonstrate tuning of Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices by utilizing chemically tailored electrodes. The Schottky energy barrier of Ag on poly[2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene was tuned over a range of more than 1 eV by using self-assembled monolayers (SAM's) to attach oriented dipole layers to the Ag prior to device fabrication. Kelvin probe measurements were used to determine the effect of the SAM's on the Ag surface potential. Ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations of the molecular dipole moments successfully describe the surface potential changes. The chemically tailored electrodes were then incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/organic Schottky energy barriers were measured using an electroabsorption technique. These results demonstrate the use of self-assembled monolayers to control metal/organic interfacial electronic properties. They establish a physical principle for manipulating the relative energy levels between two materials and demonstrate an approach to improve metal/organic contacts in organic electronic devices.

  11. The co-chaperones Fkbp4/5 control Argonaute2 expression and facilitate RISC assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Natalia J; Chang, Hao-Ming; Borrajo, Jacob de Riba; Gregory, Richard I

    2013-11-01

    Argonaute2 (Ago2) protein and associated microRNAs (miRNAs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) for target messenger RNA cleavage and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Although Ago2 is essential for RISC activity, the mechanism of RISC assembly is not well understood, and factors controlling Ago2 protein expression are largely unknown. A role for the Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone complex in loading small RNA duplexes into the RISC has been demonstrated in cell extracts, and unloaded Ago2 is unstable and degraded by the lysosome in mammalian cells. Here we identify the co-chaperones Fkbp4 and Fkbp5 as Ago2-associated proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells. Pharmacological inhibition of this interaction using FK506 or siRNA-mediated Fkbp4/5 depletion leads to decreased Ago2 protein levels. We find FK506 treatment inhibits, whereas Fkbp4/5 overexpression promotes, miRNA-mediated stabilization of Ago2 expression. Simultaneous treatment with a lysosome inhibitor revealed the accumulation of unloaded Ago2 complexes in FK506-treated cells. We find that, consistent with unloaded miRNAs being unstable, FK506 treatment also affects miRNA abundance, particularly nascent miRNAs. Our results support a role for Fkbp4/5 in RISC assembly.

  12. A modification design and adjusting test for instruments and control system of critical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Manrong; Li Guangjian

    1996-12-01

    A more reliable and safe control system and it's instruments for HFETRCA (high flux engineering test reactor critical assembly) have been built. In the system high performance CMOS unit was used, which has high integration, strong anti-interference and high trigger threshold. In the design of control rod driving circuit, the speed negative feedback principle was applied that results in more stable rotating rate of motors of transmission mechanism and more flexibility of adjusting rod speed. In order to improve reactor safety in accident, additional control circuit is equipped, by which not only control rods with electromagnet will rapidly drop but also other control rods will insert at the speed of 2∼6 times faster than the normal inserting speed. The key technique in the adjustment and new method of anti-interference are also introduced. After more than 40 times physical experiments with (4 x 4 - 4) fuel element in HFETRC, it is proved that the design and adjustment of the system is successful and they can be used as a reference to others. (3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  13. p53 regulates cytoskeleton remodeling to suppress tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Keigo; Ebata, Takahiro; Guo, Alvin Kunyao; Tobiume, Kei; Wolf, Steven John; Kawauchi, Keiko

    2015-11-01

    Cancer cells possess unique characteristics such as invasiveness, the ability to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and an inherent stemness. Cell morphology is altered during these processes and this is highly dependent on actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is, therefore, important for determination of cell fate. Mutations within the TP53 (tumor suppressor p53) gene leading to loss or gain of function (GOF) of the protein are often observed in aggressive cancer cells. Here, we highlight the roles of p53 and its GOF mutants in cancer cell invasion from the perspective of the actin cytoskeleton; in particular its reorganization and regulation by cell adhesion molecules such as integrins and cadherins. We emphasize the multiple functions of p53 in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton remodeling in response to the extracellular microenvironment, and oncogene activation. Such an approach provides a new perspective in the consideration of novel targets for anti-cancer therapy.

  14. The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterrier, Christophe; Dubey, Pankaj; Roy, Subhojit

    2017-12-01

    The corporeal beauty of the neuronal cytoskeleton has captured the imagination of generations of scientists. One of the easiest cellular structures to visualize by light microscopy, its existence has been known for well over 100 years, yet we have only recently begun to fully appreciate its intricacy and diversity. Recent studies combining new probes with super-resolution microscopy and live imaging have revealed surprising details about the axonal cytoskeleton and, in particular, have discovered previously unknown actin-based structures. Along with traditional electron microscopy, these newer techniques offer a nanoscale view of the axonal cytoskeleton, which is important for our understanding of neuronal form and function, and lay the foundation for future studies. In this Review, we summarize existing concepts in the field and highlight contemporary discoveries that have fundamentally altered our perception of the axonal cytoskeleton.

  15. Some auxiliary technology equipment for ATLAS hadron calorimeter module and submodule manipulations and the quality control of the assembled module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.; Lebedev, A.; Lomakin, Yu.; Romanov, V.; Rusakovich, N.; Shchelchkov, A.; Sisakyan, A.; Sorokina, Yu.; Topilin, N.; Kul'chitskij, Yu.

    1997-01-01

    Describing of the auxiliary technology equipment for the submodule and module manipulations is presented. The results of the 0-module beam incoming control are given. The variations of the assembled module control measurements are described. The description of the construction for the 0-module transportation is presented

  16. MICAL, the Flavoenzyme Participating in Cytoskeleton Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Zucchini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available MICAL (from the Molecule Interacting with CasL indicates a family of recently discovered cytosolic, multidomain proteins, which uniquely couple an N-terminal FAD-containing monooxygenase-like domain to typical calponine homology, LIM and coiled-coil protein-interaction modules. Genetic and cell biology approaches have demonstrated an essential role of the catalytic activity of the monooxygenase-like domain in transducing the signal initiated by semaphorins interaction with their plexin receptors, which results in local actin cytoskeleton disassembly as part of fundamental processes that include differentiation, migration and cell-cell contacts in neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. This review focuses on the structure-function relations of the MICAL monooxygenase-like domain as they are emerging from the available in vitro studies on mouse, human and Drosophila MICAL forms that demonstrated a NADPH-dependent actin depolymerizing activity of MICAL. With Drosophila MICAL forms, actin depolymerization was demonstrated to be associated to conversion of Met44 to methionine sulfone through a postulated hydroxylating reaction. Arguments supporting the concept that MICAL effect on F-actin may be reversible will be discussed.

  17. Tensegrity and mechanoregulation: from skeleton to cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. S.; Ingber, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate how mechanical stresses that are applied to the whole organism are transmitted to individual cells and transduced into a biochemical response. DESIGN: In this article, we describe fundamental design principles that are used to stabilize the musculoskeletal system at many different size scales and show that these design features are embodied in one particular form of architecture that is known as tensegrity. RESULTS: Tensegrity structures are characterized by use of continuous tension and local compression; architecture, prestress (internal stress prior to application of external force), and triangulation play the most critical roles in terms of determining their mechanical stability. In living organisms, use of a hierarchy of tensegrity networks both optimizes structural efficiency and provides a mechanism to mechanically couple the parts with the whole: mechanical stresses applied at the macroscale result in structural rearrangements at the cell and molecular level. CONCLUSION: Due to use of tensegrity architecture, mechanical stress is concentrated and focused on signal transducing molecules that physically associate with cell surface molecules that anchor cells to extracellular matrix, such as integrins, and with load-bearing elements within the internal cytoskeleton and nucleus. Mechanochemical transduction may then proceed through local stress-dependent changes in molecular mechanics, thermodynamics, and kinetics within the cell. In this manner, the entire cellular response to stress may be orchestrated and tuned by altering the prestress in the cell, just as changing muscular tone can alter mechanical stability and structural coordination throughout the whole musculoskeletal system.

  18. Dendritic Actin Cytoskeleton: Structure, Functions, and Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Konietzny

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Actin is a versatile and ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein that plays a major role in both the establishment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity. For a long time, the most prominent roles that were attributed to actin in neurons were the movement of growth cones, polarized cargo sorting at the axon initial segment, and the dynamic plasticity of dendritic spines, since those compartments contain large accumulations of actin filaments (F-actin that can be readily visualized using electron- and fluorescence microscopy. With the development of super-resolution microscopy in the past few years, previously unknown structures of the actin cytoskeleton have been uncovered: a periodic lattice consisting of actin and spectrin seems to pervade not only the whole axon, but also dendrites and even the necks of dendritic spines. Apart from that striking feature, patches of F-actin and deep actin filament bundles have been described along the lengths of neurites. So far, research has been focused on the specific roles of actin in the axon, while it is becoming more and more apparent that in the dendrite, actin is not only confined to dendritic spines, but serves many additional and important functions. In this review, we focus on recent developments regarding the role of actin in dendrite morphology, the regulation of actin dynamics by internal and external factors, and the role of F-actin in dendritic protein trafficking.

  19. Graphics and control of the guide tube assembly reinforcement manipulators at Sizewell 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, C.

    1996-01-01

    A method was devised to reinforce the lower lug welds of the Guide Tube Assemblies (GTA's) at Sizewell 'A'. A six degree of freedom manipulator was designed to place a clamp around the lugs and tighten it. The manipulator was fitted with the three fixed cameras but required another surveillance manipulator positioned in an adjacent standpipe to provide additional views. The need to prepare two standpipes limited the rate at which reinforcements could be made. Therefore an articulated two arm camera manipulator, which could be used on the existing manipulator mast was designed and built. The two manipulators were driven from separate desks and were controlled by the same supervisory computer linked to online graphics. The camera arm joints were driven on preplanned routes using a single joystick because of the complex moves and tight spaces involved. A large number of GTA sites have now been reinforced including a dropped GTA which had to be raised to carry out clamping. (Author)

  20. Controlling charge injection in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, I.H.; Kress, J.D.; Martin, R.L.; Smith, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Barashkov, N.N.; Ferraris, J.P. [The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States)

    1997-12-01

    We demonstrate control and improvement of charge injection in organic electronic devices by utilizing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to manipulate the Schottky energy barrier between a metal electrode and the organic electronic material. Hole injection from Cu electrodes into the electroluminescent conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy,5-(2{sup {prime}}-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] was varied by using two conjugated-thiol based SAMs. The chemically modified electrodes were incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/polymer Schottky energy barriers and current{endash}voltage characteristics were measured. Decreasing (increasing) the Schottky energy barrier improves (degrades) charge injection into the polymer. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. NHR dynamic analysis of control rod and fuel assembly of test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiachun; Cai Laizhong

    2001-01-01

    The basic purpose is to analyze the dynamic response of the structure, with the seismic excitation, which is the important components of 200 MW Heating Reactor, including the control rod, fuel assembly, zirconium alloy boxes and the relevant parts. The author presents the simplification and building of the model. By comparing the effects under different constraint conditions, the final analyzed model is determined after the preliminary analysis. Then the model is calculated to obtain the frequencies of the model, the analysis of the response spectrum and the time series data under some seismic excitations. From the outcome what is received above, the influence of the basic frequency is discussed. And the displacement and acceleration responses of different sample points are obtained and analyzed to predict the safety of the reactor

  2. Constructing Asymmetric Polyion Complex Vesicles via Template Assembling Strategy: Formulation Control and Tunable Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for constructing polyion complex vesicles (PICsomes with asymmetric structure is described. Poly(methylacrylic acid-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide modified gold nanoparticles (PMAA-b-PNIPAm-@-Au NPs were prepared and then assembled with poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly[1-methyl-3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine] (PEG-b-PMMPImB via polyion complex of PMMA and PMMPImB. After removing the Au NPs template, asymmetric PICsomes composed of a PNIPAm inner-shell, PIC wall, and PEG outer-corona were obtained. These PICsomes have low protein absorption and thermally tunable permeability, provided by the PEG outer-corona and the PNIPAm inner-shell, respectively. Moreover, PICsome size can be tailored by using templates of predetermined sizes. This novel strategy for constructing asymmetric PICsomes with well-defined properties and controllable size is valuable for applications such as drug delivery, catalysis and monitoring of chemical reactions, and biomimetics.

  3. Macro-assembler technique for generating control words for a micro-programmed processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesny, D.D.; Wray, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    To produce microcode for an experimental system, such as FASTBUS interfaces, with wide control words and many micro-fields, one needs a micro-assembler which (1) allows wide flexibility in defining defaults for microcode fields, (2) does a significant amount of error checking to prevent multiple or inconsistant definitions of fields, (3) allows macro expansions which define several microcode words for frequently used sequences, and (4) is easily modified as hardware definitions are refined. Using MACRO-11 on DEC PDP-11 computers, a library of macros has been created, which can be used to generate the 80-bit microcode words needed for a Unibus to FASTBUS micro-programmed interface and which meets the above requirements. The same technique could easily be used to develop libraries appropriate for other microcoded devices

  4. Movers and shakers: cell cytoskeleton in cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, C M; McCarroll, J A; Kavallaris, M

    2014-12-01

    Metastasis is responsible for the greatest number of cancer deaths. Metastatic disease, or the movement of cancer cells from one site to another, is a complex process requiring dramatic remodelling of the cell cytoskeleton. The various components of the cytoskeleton, actin (microfilaments), microtubules (MTs) and intermediate filaments, are highly integrated and their functions are well orchestrated in normal cells. In contrast, mutations and abnormal expression of cytoskeletal and cytoskeletal-associated proteins play an important role in the ability of cancer cells to resist chemotherapy and metastasize. Studies on the role of actin and its interacting partners have highlighted key signalling pathways, such as the Rho GTPases, and downstream effector proteins that, through the cytoskeleton, mediate tumour cell migration, invasion and metastasis. An emerging role for MTs in tumour cell metastasis is being unravelled and there is increasing interest in the crosstalk between key MT interacting proteins and the actin cytoskeleton, which may provide novel treatment avenues for metastatic disease. Improved understanding of how the cytoskeleton and its interacting partners influence tumour cell migration and metastasis has led to the development of novel therapeutics against aggressive and metastatic disease. This article is part of a themed section on Cytoskeleton, Extracellular Matrix, Cell Migration, Wound Healing and Related Topics. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-24. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Cell Pleomorphism and Cytoskeleton Disorganization in Human Liver Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chiung-Chi; Lai, Yen-Chang Clark; Lai, Yih-Shyong; Chao, Wei-Ting; Tseng, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, You-Yin; Liu, Yi-Hsiang

    Nucleoskeleton maintains the framework of a cell nucleus that is required for a variety of nuclear functions. However, the nature of nucleoskeleton structure has not been yet clearly elucidated due to microscopy visualization limitations. Plectin, a nuclear pore-permeable component of cytoskeleton, exhibits a role of cross-linking between cytoplasmic intermediate filaments and nuclear lamins. Presumably, plectin is also a part of nucleoskeleton. Previously, we demonstrated that pleomorphism of hepatoma cells is the consequence of cytoskeletal changes mediated by plectin deficiency. In this study, we applied a variety of technologies to detect the cytoskeletons in liver cells. The images of confocal microscopy did not show the existence of plectin, intermediate filaments, microfilaments and microtubules in hepatic nuclei. However, in the isolated nuclear preparation, immunohistochemical staining revealed positive results for plectin and cytoskeletal proteins that may contribute to the contamination derived from cytoplasmic residues. Therefore, confocal microscopy provides a simple and effective technology to observe the framework of nucleoskeleton. Accordingly, we verified that cytoskeletons are not found in hepatic cell nuclei. Furthermore, the siRNA-mediated knockdown of plectin in liver cells leads to collapsed cytoskeleton, cell transformation and pleomorphic nuclei. Plectin and cytoskeletons were not detected in the nuclei of liver cells compared to the results of confocal microscopy. Despite the absence of nuclear plectin and cytoskeletal filaments, the evidence provided support that nuclear pleomorphism of cancer cells is correlated with the cytoplasmic disorganization of cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on cytoskeleton of human peripheral blood monocytes with whole mount cell electron microscopy in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaomei; Guo Yuhua; Yin Zhiwei

    1992-01-01

    Whole mount cell electron microscopy was used in combination with selective extraction to prepare cytoskeletal framework. Cytoskeleton prepared by Triton X-100 treatment of human peripheral blood monocytes appeared on electron microscopy as a highly organized and interconnected three-dimensional matrix of different fibrous elements. By three-dimensional visualization of Triton X-100 resistant cytoskeletons it was demonstrated that different doses of 60 Co γ-rays caused distinctive and reproducible alterations of the cytoskeleton of intact human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro. The alterations were similar to those caused by cytochalasin B and by colchicine. From these observations and other workers'studies, it is presumed that 60 Co γ-ray irradiation may inhibit cytoplasmic microtubule and microfilament assembling

  7. Enhancing Three-dimensional Movement Control System for Assemblies of Machine-Building Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, O. N.; Andreeva, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Aspects of enhancing three-dimensional movement control system are given in the paper. Such system is to be used while controlling assemblies of machine-building facilities, which is a relevant issue. The base of the system known is three-dimensional movement control device with optical principle of action. The device consists of multi point light emitter and light receiver matrix. The processing of signals is enhanced to increase accuracy of measurements by switching from discrete to analog signals. Light receiver matrix is divided into four areas, and the output value of each light emitter in each matrix area is proportional to its luminance level. Thus, determing output electric signal value of each light emitter in corresponding area leads to determing position of multipoint light emitter and position of object tracked. This is done by using Case-based reasoning method, the precedent in which is described as integral signal value of each matrix area, coordinates of light receivers, which luminance level is high, and decision to be made in this situation.

  8. A multiple objective test assembly approach for exposure control problems in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo J.H.M. Eggen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexposure and underexposure of items in the bank are serious problems in operational computerized adaptive testing (CAT systems. These exposure problems might result in item compromise, or point at a waste of investments. The exposure control problem can be viewed as a test assembly problem with multiple objectives. Information in the test has to be maximized, item compromise has to be minimized, and pool usage has to be optimized. In this paper, a multiple objectives method is developed to deal with both types of exposure problems. In this method, exposure control parameters based on observed exposure rates are implemented as weights for the information in the item selection procedure. The method does not need time consuming simulation studies, and it can be implemented conditional on ability level. The method is compared with Sympson Hetter method for exposure control, with the Progressive method and with alphastratified testing. The results show that the method is successful in dealing with both kinds of exposure problems.

  9. Transient expression of green fluorescent protein in parasitic dodder as a tool for studying of cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaštier Peter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dodder (Cuscuta species cause severe agricultural damage in many countries throughout the world. To establish strategies for control of its growth and spreading it is important to study its life cycle and survival strategies. For these efforts genetic modification would represent a powerful tool. Here we report on Agrobacteriummediated transformation of dodder using green fluorescent protein (GFP fused to actin-binding protein as a vital marker. Since the shoot of germinating C. europaea contains a functional apical meristem and grows quickly comparing to the root-like structure, the shoot apex was used here as explant. The transgene expression was only transient, nevertheless it enabled to detect allocation of actin filaments and studying the cytoskeleton organization in dodder shoot apex. Transient expression of GFP appears to be a suitable method for studying Cuscuta development through cytoskeleton organisation that is presently largely unexplored.

  10. Patterned self-assembled monolayers for nanoscale lithography and the control of catalytically produced electroosmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Shyamala

    This thesis explores two applications of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) (a) for developing novel molecular assembly based nanolithography techniques and (b) for tailoring zeta-potential of surfaces towards achieving directional control of catalytically induced fluid flow. The first half of the thesis develops the process of molecular ruler lithography using sacrificial host structures. This is a novel hybrid nanolithography technique which combines chemical self-assembly with conventional fabrication methods for improving the resolution of existing lithography tools to sub-50 nm. Previous work related to molecular ruler lithography have shown the use of thiol-SAMs, placed one on top of the other like a molecular resist, for scaling down feature sizes. In this thesis various engineering solutions for improving the reproducibility, yield, nanoscale roughness and overall manufacturability of the process are introduced. This is achieved by introducing a sacrificial inert layer underneath the gold parent structure. This bilayer sacrificial host allows for preferential, easy and quick removal of the parent structures, isolates the parent metal from the underlying substrate and improves reproducibility of the lift-off process. Also it opens avenues for fabrication of high aspect ratio features. Also molecular layer vapor deposition method is developed for building the multilayer molecular resist via vapor phase to reduce contaminations and yield issues associated with solution phase deposition. The smallest isolated metal features produced using this process were 40 nm in width. The second half of the thesis describes application of thiol-SAMs to tailor surface properties of gold, specifically the surface charge or zeta potential. Previous work has demonstrated that the direction of movement of fluid in the vicinity of a catalytically active bimetallic junction placed in a solution of dilute hydrogen peroxide depends on the charge of the gold surface. SAMs with

  11. The fidelity of synaptonemal complex assembly is regulated by a signaling mechanism that controls early meiotic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nicola; Ferrandiz, Nuria; Barroso, Consuelo; Tognetti, Silvia; Lightfoot, James; Telecan, Oana; Encheva, Vesela; Faull, Peter; Hanni, Simon; Furger, Andre; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Speck, Christian; Martinez-Perez, Enrique

    2014-11-24

    Proper chromosome segregation during meiosis requires the assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC) between homologous chromosomes. However, the SC structure itself is indifferent to homology, and poorly understood mechanisms that depend on conserved HORMA-domain proteins prevent ectopic SC assembly. Although HORMA-domain proteins are thought to regulate SC assembly as intrinsic components of meiotic chromosomes, here we uncover a key role for nuclear soluble HORMA-domain protein HTP-1 in the quality control of SC assembly. We show that a mutant form of HTP-1 impaired in chromosome loading provides functionality of an HTP-1-dependent checkpoint that delays exit from homology search-competent stages until all homolog pairs are linked by the SC. Bypassing of this regulatory mechanism results in premature meiotic progression and licensing of homology-independent SC assembly. These findings identify nuclear soluble HTP-1 as a regulator of early meiotic progression, suggesting parallels with the mode of action of Mad2 in the spindle assembly checkpoint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis. Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.

  13. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system. PMID:27649180

  14. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-09-14

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.

  15. The Cytoskeleton and Force Response Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Philip Goodwin

    2003-01-01

    The long term aim of this project was to define the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to the physical forces experienced at 1g and missing in microgravity. Identification and characterization of the elements of the cells force response mechanism could provide pathways and molecules to serve as targets for pharmacological intervention to mitigate the pathologic effects of microgravity. Mechanical forces experienced by the organism can be transmitted to cells through molecules that allow cells to bind to the extracellular matrix and through other types of molecules which bind cells to each other. These molecules are coupled in large complexes of proteins to structural elements such as the actin cytoskeleton that give the cell the ability to sense, resist and respond to force. Application of small forces to tissue culture cells causes local elevation of intracellular calcium through stretch activated ion channels, increased tyrosine phosphorylation and a restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton. Using collagen coated iron oxide beads and strong magnets, we can apply different levels of force to cells in culture. We have found that force application causes the cells to polymerize actin at the site of mechanical deformation and unexpectedly, to depolymerize actin across the rest of the cell. Observations of GFP- actin expressing cells demonstrate that actin accumulates at the site of deformation within the first five minutes of force application and is maintained for many tens of minutes after force is removed. Consistent with the reinforcement of the cytoskeletal structures underlying the integrin-bead interaction, force also alters the motion of bound magnetic beads. This effect is seen following the removal of the magnetic field, and is only partially ablated by actin disruption with cytochalsin B. While actin is polymerizing locally at the site of force application, force also stimulates a global reduction in actin filament content within the cells. We have

  16. Rod cluster control assemblies and rod cluster control guide tubes: wear and drop time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbinden, M.

    1997-01-01

    The wear of RCCAs and of RCC guide tubes is due to two quite different mechanisms and the remedies to apply for each case might lead to contradictory solutions: - the impact/sliding wear for the seldom moving RCCAs, namely the shutdown RCCAs, under flow-induced vibrations, - the axial sliding wear for the control rods subjected to the stepping movements ordered by the acting load. In this case the hydraulic sticking forces are those which produce an evolution of the surface states that may increase the drop time. The introduction, an historical survey of the encountered difficulties, is followed by short description of the components and then the paper presents contributions of EDF in the R and D field, which take place in two successive multi-annual projects. Lastly, some information is given about the recent evolutions and new problems as well for impact/sliding wear as for drop time under normal or seismic conditions. (author)

  17. Structured flowcharts for control logic specification in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, C.W.; Claborn, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) contains several subsystems employing sophisticated chemical and physical processes to purify, transport, and capture the isotopes of hydrogen. The ultimate responsibility for the correct and safe operation of these subsystems lies with their designers. However, the logic is implemented in a computer system with program control. A means to insure unambiguous specification of the control logic in a form understandable to both the non-programming designers and the software staff was required. The computer programs are written in RATFOR, a language providing clear control structures and powerful symbol definition facilities. However, the actual code was considered unsatisfactory as a means of primary specification by the non-programming designers. On the other hand, simple English language descriptions of the desired behavior were not precise enough to insure correctness. Experimentation with traditional flowcharts proved that they were more difficult to follow than the RATFOR code. On the other hand, the use of structured flowcharts derived from those introduced by Nassi and Shneidermanl have proven to be very powerful. Using simple geometric forms for the basic control structures such as loops and conditional tests, and by using expansion rather than connection as the means of reducing any flowchart to a single page, a specification that is both understandable and precise has been obtained. A computer code automates the production and modification of these flowcharts. Combining these flowcharts with primitive subroutines which hide most of the details of control implementation has provided an effective medium for algorithm specification and validation. Examples of the flowcharts and the language used to specify them will be given

  18. ADAM12 induces actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix reorganization during early adipocyte differentiation by regulating beta1 integrin function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Nobuko; Sundberg, Christina; Kveiborg, Marie

    2003-01-01

    -100 from cells overexpressing ADAM12 than from control cells. Collectively, these results show that surface expression of ADAM12 impairs the function of beta1 integrins and, consequently, alters the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. These events may be necessary...

  19. Binary breath figures for straightforward and controllable self-assembly of microspherical caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianliang; Xu, Bingang; Tao, Xiaoming; Li, Lei

    2016-05-11

    The intense interest surrounding asymmetrical microparticles originates from their unique anisotropic properties and promising applications. In this work, direct self-assembly of polymeric microspherical caps without the assistance of any additives has been achieved by using low-surface-tension methanol (MeOH) and high-surface-tension water as binary breath figures (BFs). With the evaporation of polystyrene (PS) solution containing low-boiling-point solvent in the binary vapors, the formed MeOH BFs could quickly diffuse into solution, while water BFs tended to remain at the solution surface. This led to the formation of a gradient nonsolvent layer at the vapor/solution interface, which induced the formation of nuclei and guided further asymmetrical growth of polymer particles. After the spontaneous removal of MeOH, water and residual solvent by evaporation, polymeric microspherical caps were left on the substrate. Through controlling the proportion of water introduced by adjusting the ratios of MeOH and water, polymeric microspherical caps with a range of controllable shapes (divided at different positions of a sphere) were successfully obtained. The formation mechanism was explained based on the difference of vapor pressure, surface tension and miscibility between the employed solvents and nonsolvents. A solvent possessing a high vapor pressure, low surface tension and good miscibility with MeOH contributed to the formation of microspherical caps. This flexible, green and straightforward technique is a nondestructive strategy, and avoids complicated work on design, preparation and removal of hard templates and additives.

  20. The controllable assembly of nanorods, nanowires and microwires of a perylenediimide molecule with photoswitching property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ying, E-mail: yingma@imr.ac.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168 (China); Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science (China); An, Boxing; Wang, Meng; Shi, Fangxiao; Wang, Qing; Gu, Yaxin; Niu, Wanyang; Fan, Zhaorong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168 (China); Shang, Yanli [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang, Dan; Zhao, Cong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168 (China)

    2015-07-15

    By using an electron donor–acceptor molecule that consists of a perylenediimide (PDI) core bonded with two ferrocene (Fc) units, well-defined nanorods, nanowires and microwires of PDI-Fc were formed through simply adjusting the initial concentration of PDI-Fc in dichloromethane or CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Moreover, the two-ended devices based on individual microwire were fabricated. Highly reproducible and sensitive photo response characteristics were demonstrated in the microwire through controlling the white light on and off with different light intensities. The assembly strategy via complementary donors and acceptors is of significance for constructing photoconductive systems and developing novel functional devices. - Graphical abstract: The two-ended devices based on individual microwire were fabricated. Highly reproducible and sensitive photo response characteristics were observed by controlling the white light on and off with different light intensities. - Highlights: • An electron donor–acceptor molecule (PDI-Fc) was synthesized. • Well-defined nanorods, nanowires and microwires of PDI-Fc were formed. • The two-ended devices based on individual microwire were fabricated. • Highly reproducible and sensitive photo response characteristics were observed.

  1. Prokaryotic cells: structural organisation of the cytoskeleton and organelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley de Souza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For many years, prokaryotic cells were distinguished from eukaryotic cells based on the simplicity of their cytoplasm, in which the presence of organelles and cytoskeletal structures had not been discovered. Based on current knowledge, this review describes the complex components of the prokaryotic cell cytoskeleton, including (i tubulin homologues composed of FtsZ, BtuA, BtuB and several associated proteins, which play a fundamental role in cell division, (ii actin-like homologues, such as MreB and Mb1, which are involved in controlling cell width and cell length, and (iii intermediate filament homologues, including crescentin and CfpA, which localise on the concave side of a bacterium and along its inner curvature and associate with its membrane. Some prokaryotes exhibit specialised membrane-bound organelles in the cytoplasm, such as magnetosomes and acidocalcisomes, as well as protein complexes, such as carboxysomes. This review also examines recent data on the presence of nanotubes, which are structures that are well characterised in mammalian cells that allow direct contact and communication between cells.

  2. Prolactin promotes breast cancer cell migration through actin cytoskeleton remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Ludovico da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of prolactin on breast cancer development and progression is debated. Breast cancer progression largely depends on cell movement and on the ability to remodel the actin cytoskeleton. In this process, actin-binding proteins are requested to achieve fibrillar actin de-polymerization and relocation at the cell membrane. Kinases such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK are later required to form actin/vinculin-enriched structures called focal adhesion complexes, which mediate firm adhesion to the extracellular matrix. These controllers are regulated by c-Src, which forms multiprotein signaling complexes with membrane receptors and is regulated by a number of hormones, including prolactin. We here show that breast cancer cells exposed to prolactin display an elevated c-Src expression and phosphorylation. In parallel, increased moesin and FAK expression and phosphorylation are found. These molecular changes are associated to relocation to the plasma membrane of cytoskeletal actin fibers and to increased horizontal cell movement. In conclusion, prolactin regulates actin remodeling and enhances breast cancer cell movement. This finding broadens the understanding of prolactin actions on breast cancer cells, highlighting new pathways that may be relevant to on breast cancer progression.

  3. Design parameters for voltage-controllable directed assembly of single nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porter, Benjamin F.; Abelmann, Leon; Bhaskaran, Harish

    2013-01-01

    Techniques to reliably pick-and-place single nanoparticles into functional assemblies are required to incorporate exotic nanoparticles into standard electronic circuits. In this paper we explore the use of electric fields to drive and direct the assembly process, which has the advantage of being

  4. Control of structural isomerism in noncovalent hydrogen-bonded assemblies using peripheral chiral information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.J.; Jolliffe, K.A.; Hulst, A.J.R.L.; Timmerman, P.; Reinhoudt, David

    2000-01-01

    The results of a systematic study of the structural isomerism in more than 30 noncovalent hydrogen-bonded assemblies are described. These dynamic assemblies, composed of three calix[4]arene dimelamines and six barbiturates/cyanurates, can be present in three isomeric forms with either D3, C3h, or Cs

  5. Investigation of parameters controlling the dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotubes on microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimaki, Maria; Bøggild, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes were assembled onto microelectrodes by dielectrophoresis. The dependence of the obtained networks on several assembly parameters such as bias voltage, field application time, frequency, electrode geometry and the nanotube solvent were investigated both s...

  6. Strong supramolecular control over protein self-assembly using a polyamine decorated β-cyclodextrin as synthetic recognition element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Milroy, L.G.; Neirynck, P.; Brunsveld, L.

    2011-01-01

    The supramolecular host molecule heptakis-[6-deoxy-6-(2-aminoethylsulfanyl)]-ß-cyclodextrin provides strong control over protein self-assembly in synthetic supramolecular protein constructs. Mono-functionalization of this modified ß-cyclodextrin with a cysteine residue allows for site-selective

  7. A comparative study of the effect of oxidative stress on the cytoskeleton in human cortical neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allani, Pramod K.; Sum, Tak; Bhansali, Suraj G.; Mukherjee, Suman K.; Sonee, Manisha

    2004-01-01

    Cytoskeleton disruption is a process by which oxidative stress disrupts cellular function. This study compares and contrasts the effect of oxidative stress on the three major cytoskeleton filaments, microfilaments (MFs), microtubule (MT), and vimentin in human cortical neuronal cell line (HCN2). HCN2 cells were treated with 100 μM tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), a free radical generating neurotoxin for 1, 3, or 6 h. Cell viability studies demonstrated significant cell death although the morphology studies showed that there was a substantial loss in neurites of neurons treated with t-BuOOH for 6 h. Because the cytoskeleton plays a role in neurite outgrowth, the effect of oxidative stress on the cytoskeletal was studied. In neurons subjected to oxidative stress for 30 min or 1 h, there were no major changes in microfilament distribution though there was altered distribution of microtubule and vimentin filaments as compared to controls. However, loss and disruption of all the three cytoskeletal filaments was observed at later times (3 and 6 h), which was confirmed by Western Blot analysis. Further studies were done to measure the gene expression levels of actin, tubulin, and vimentin. Results indicated that the overall loss of the cytoskeletal proteins in neurons treated with free radical generating toxin might not be a direct result of the downregulation of the cytoskeletal genes. This study shows that free radical generation in human neurons leads to the disruption of the cytoskeleton, though there may be a difference in the susceptibility to oxidative stress among the individual components of the cytoskeletal filaments

  8. Transcriptomics and proteomics show that selenium affects inflammation, cytoskeleton, and cancer pathways in human rectal biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méplan, Catherine; Johnson, Ian T; Polley, Abigael C J; Cockell, Simon; Bradburn, David M; Commane, Daniel M; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P; Mulholland, Francis; Zupanic, Anze; Mathers, John C; Hesketh, John

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies highlight the potential role of dietary selenium (Se) in colorectal cancer prevention. Our goal was to elucidate whether expression of factors crucial for colorectal homoeostasis is affected by physiologic differences in Se status. Using transcriptomics and proteomics followed by pathway analysis, we identified pathways affected by Se status in rectal biopsies from 22 healthy adults, including 11 controls with optimal status (mean plasma Se = 1.43 μM) and 11 subjects with suboptimal status (mean plasma Se = 0.86 μM). We observed that 254 genes and 26 proteins implicated in cancer (80%), immune function and inflammatory response (40%), cell growth and proliferation (70%), cellular movement, and cell death (50%) were differentially expressed between the 2 groups. Expression of 69 genes, including selenoproteins W1 and K, which are genes involved in cytoskeleton remodelling and transcription factor NFκB signaling, correlated significantly with Se status. Integrating proteomics and transcriptomics datasets revealed reduced inflammatory and immune responses and cytoskeleton remodelling in the suboptimal Se status group. This is the first study combining omics technologies to describe the impact of differences in Se status on colorectal expression patterns, revealing that suboptimal Se status could alter inflammatory signaling and cytoskeleton in human rectal mucosa and so influence cancer risk.-Méplan, C., Johnson, I. T., Polley, A. C. J., Cockell, S., Bradburn, D. M., Commane, D. M., Arasaradnam, R. P., Mulholland, F., Zupanic, A., Mathers, J. C., Hesketh, J. Transcriptomics and proteomics show that selenium affects inflammation, cytoskeleton, and cancer pathways in human rectal biopsies. © The Author(s).

  9. Cell shape can mediate the spatial organization of the bacterial cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyuan; Wingreen, Ned

    2013-03-01

    The bacterial cytoskeleton guides the synthesis of cell wall and thus regulates cell shape. Since spatial patterning of the bacterial cytoskeleton is critical to the proper control of cell shape, it is important to ask how the cytoskeleton spatially self-organizes in the first place. In this work, we develop a quantitative model to account for the various spatial patterns adopted by bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, especially the orientation and length of cytoskeletal filaments such as FtsZ and MreB in rod-shaped cells. We show that the combined mechanical energy of membrane bending, membrane pinning, and filament bending of a membrane-attached cytoskeletal filament can be sufficient to prescribe orientation, e.g. circumferential for FtsZ or helical for MreB, with the accuracy of orientation increasing with the length of the cytoskeletal filament. Moreover, the mechanical energy can compete with the chemical energy of cytoskeletal polymerization to regulate filament length. Notably, we predict a conformational transition with increasing polymer length from smoothly curved to end-bent polymers. Finally, the mechanical energy also results in a mutual attraction among polymers on the same membrane, which could facilitate tight polymer spacing or bundling. The predictions of the model can be verified through genetic, microscopic, and microfluidic approaches.

  10. Stability of the cytoskeleton of matured buffalo oocytes pretreated with cytochalasin B prior to vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Xu, H Y; Xie, L; Lu, Y Q; Yang, X G; Lu, S S; Lu, K H

    2016-06-01

    Stabilizing the cytoskeleton system during vitrification can improve the post-thaw survival and development of vitrified oocytes. The cytoskeleton stabilizer cytochalasin B (CB) has been used in cryopreservation to improve the developmental competence of vitrified oocytes. To assess the effect of pretreating matured buffalo oocytes with CB before vitrification, we applied 0, 4, 8, or 12 μg/mL CB for 30 min. The optimum concentration of CB treatment (8 μg/mL for 30 min) was then used to evaluate the distribution of microtubules and microfilaments, the expression of the cytoskeleton proteins actin and tubulin, and the developmental potential of matured oocytes that were vitrified-warmed by the Cryotop method. Western blotting demonstrated that vitrification significantly decreased tubulin expression, but that the decrease was attenuated for oocytes pretreated with 8 μg/mL CB before vitrification. After warming and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, oocytes that were pretreated with 8 μg/mL CB before vitrification yielded significantly higher 8-cell and blastocyst rates than those that were vitrified without CB pretreatment. The values for the vitrified groups in all experiments were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the control groups. In conclusion, pretreatment with 8 μg/mL CB for 30 min significantly improves the cytoskeletal structure, expression of tubulin, and development capacity of vitrified matured buffalo oocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The microtubule cytoskeleton does not integrate auxin transport and gravitropism in maize roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Blancaflor, E. B.; Lee, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Cholodny-Went hypothesis of gravitropism suggests that the graviresponse is controlled by the distribution of auxin. However, the mechanism of auxin transport during the graviresponse of roots is still unresolved. To determine whether the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is participating in auxin transport, the cytoskeleton was examined and the movement of 3H-IAA measured in intact and excised taxol, oryzalin, and naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-treated roots of Zea mays cv. Merit. Taxol and oryzalin did not inhibit the graviresponse of roots but the auxin transport inhibitor NPA greatly inhibited both auxin transport and graviresponse. NPA had no effect on MT organization in vertical roots, but caused MT reorientation in horizontally placed roots. Regardless of treatment, the organization of MTs in intact roots differed from that in root segments. The MT inhibitors, taxol and oryzalin had opposite effects on the MTs, namely, depolymerization (oryzalin) and stabilization and thickening (taxol), but both treatments caused swelling of the roots. The data indicate that the MT cytoskeleton does not directly interfere with auxin transport or auxin-mediated growth responses in maize roots.

  12. Understanding cytoskeleton regulators in glioblastoma multiforme for therapy design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumi S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Samaneh Masoumi,1,*, Aditya Harisankar,2,* Aileen Gracias,3 Fabian Bachinger,1 Temesgen Fufa,1,4 Gayathri Chandrasekar,5 Frank Gaunitz,4 Julian Walfridsson,2 Satish S Kitambi1 1Department of Microbiology Tumor and Cell Biology, 2Center for Hematology and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Medicine, 3Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; 4Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany; 5Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The cellular cytoskeleton forms the primary basis through which a cell governs the changes in size, shape, migration, proliferation, and forms the primary means through which the cells respond to their environment. Indeed, cell and tissue morphologies are used routinely not only to grade tumors but also in various high-content screening methods with an aim to identify new small molecules with therapeutic potential. This study examines the expression of various cytoskeleton regulators in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. GBM is a very aggressive disease with a low life expectancy even after chemo- and radiotherapy. Cancer cells of GBM are notorious for their invasiveness, ability to develop resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy, and to form secondary site tumors. This study aims to gain insight into cytoskeleton regulators in GBM cells and to understand the effect of various oncology drugs, including temozolomide, on cytoskeleton regulators. We compare the expression of various cytoskeleton regulators in GBM-derived tumor and normal tissue, CD133-postive and -negative cells from GBM and neural cells, and GBM stem-like and differentiated cells. In addition, the correlation between the expression of cytoskeleton regulators with the clinical outcome was examined to identify genes associated with longer patient survival. This was followed by a small molecule screening with US Food and Drug

  13. Mechanics of membrane-cytoskeleton attachment in Paramecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, C.; Jerber, J.; Fisch, C.; Simoes-Betbeder, M.; Dupuis-Williams, P.; Nassoy, P.; Sykes, C.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we assess the role of the protein MKS1 (Meckel syndrome type 1) in the cortical membrane mechanics of the ciliated protist Paramecium. This protein is known to be crucial in the process of cilium formation, and we investigate its putative role in membrane-cytoskeleton attachment. Therefore, we compare cells where the gene coding for MKS1 is silenced to wild-type cells. We found that scanning electron microscopy observation of the cell surface reveals a cup-like structure in wild-type cells that is lost in silenced cells. Since this structure is based on the underlying cytoskeleton, one hypothesis to explain this observation is a disruption of membrane attachment to the cytoskeleton in the absence of MKS1 that should affect plasma membrane mechanics. We test this by probing the mechanics of wild-type and silenced cells by micropipette aspiration. Strikingly, we observe that, at the same aspiration pressure, the membrane of silenced cells is easily aspirated by the micropipette whereas that of wild-type cells enters only at a moderate velocity, an effect that suggests a detachment of the membrane from the underlying cytoskeleton in silenced cells. We quantify this detachment by measuring the deformation of the cell cortex and the rate of cell membrane entry in the micropipette. This study offers a new perspective for the characterization of membrane-cytoskeleton attachment in protists and paves the way for a better understanding of the role of membrane-cortex attachment in cilium formation.

  14. Actin cytoskeleton modulates calcium signaling during maturation of starfish oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyozuka, Keiichiro; Chun, Jong T; Puppo, Agostina; Gragnaniello, Gianni; Garante, Ezio; Santella, Luigia

    2008-08-15

    Before successful fertilization can occur, oocytes must undergo meiotic maturation. In starfish, this can be achieved in vitro by applying 1-methyladenine (1-MA). The immediate response to 1-MA is the fast Ca2+ release in the cell cortex. Here, we show that this Ca2+ wave always initiates in the vegetal hemisphere and propagates through the cortex, which is the space immediately under the plasma membrane. We have observed that alteration of the cortical actin cytoskeleton by latrunculin-A and jasplakinolide can potently affect the Ca2+ waves triggered by 1-MA. This indicates that the cortical actin cytoskeleton modulates Ca2+ release during meiotic maturation. The Ca2+ wave was inhibited by the classical antagonists of the InsP(3)-linked Ca2+ signaling pathway, U73122 and heparin. To our surprise, however, these two inhibitors induced remarkable actin hyper-polymerization in the cell cortex, suggesting that their inhibitory effect on Ca2+ release may be attributed to the perturbation of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. In post-meiotic eggs, U73122 and jasplakinolide blocked the elevation of the vitelline layer by uncaged InsP(3), despite the massive release of Ca2+, implying that exocytosis of the cortical granules requires not only a Ca2+ rise, but also regulation of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Our results suggest that the cortical actin cytoskeleton of starfish oocytes plays critical roles both in generating Ca2+ signals and in regulating cortical granule exocytosis.

  15. Mechanics of membrane–cytoskeleton attachment in Paramecium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, C; Nassoy, P; Sykes, C; Jerber, J; Fisch, C; Dupuis-Williams, P; Simoes-Betbeder, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we assess the role of the protein MKS1 (Meckel syndrome type 1) in the cortical membrane mechanics of the ciliated protist Paramecium. This protein is known to be crucial in the process of cilium formation, and we investigate its putative role in membrane–cytoskeleton attachment. Therefore, we compare cells where the gene coding for MKS1 is silenced to wild-type cells. We found that scanning electron microscopy observation of the cell surface reveals a cup-like structure in wild-type cells that is lost in silenced cells. Since this structure is based on the underlying cytoskeleton, one hypothesis to explain this observation is a disruption of membrane attachment to the cytoskeleton in the absence of MKS1 that should affect plasma membrane mechanics. We test this by probing the mechanics of wild-type and silenced cells by micropipette aspiration. Strikingly, we observe that, at the same aspiration pressure, the membrane of silenced cells is easily aspirated by the micropipette whereas that of wild-type cells enters only at a moderate velocity, an effect that suggests a detachment of the membrane from the underlying cytoskeleton in silenced cells. We quantify this detachment by measuring the deformation of the cell cortex and the rate of cell membrane entry in the micropipette. This study offers a new perspective for the characterization of membrane–cytoskeleton attachment in protists and paves the way for a better understanding of the role of membrane–cortex attachment in cilium formation. (paper)

  16. Control over Structure and Function of Peptide Amphiphile Supramolecular Assemblies through Molecular Design and Energy Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantakitti, Faifan

    a controlled local release of the soluble growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) was realized from the particle's core composed of cross-linked alginate. The alginate-core and PA-shell microparticles were found to allow independent tuning of the bioactivity of a PA and a release of the growth factor for specific signaling to cells. Using microcarriers which encapsulated BMP-4 and coated with RGDS PA nanofibers, it was shown that a control over spatial distribution, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of premyoblastic cells on the surface of microcarriers can be effectively achieved. Finally, in drastic contrast to the traditional approach to material development based on altering molecular structure, chapter 4 presents the energy landscapes in which supramolecular assemblies of unique architecture exist in different thermodynamic wells. Experimental results and calculations revealed that the energy landscapes are rooted in competing interactions between PA monomers, namely beta-sheet hydrogen bonds and repulsion among charged groups. Switching off or on the repulsive electrostatic interactions by changing the ionic strength promoted or suppressed the dominant ?-sheet hydrogen bonding interactions respectively. However, the dominant forces can prevail if the assemblies are above a certain size and thereby can exist in a kinetically trapped state. Preparative pathways involving dilution, annealing, and addition of salt were investigated in which the structures belonging to different energy states could be accessed and demonstrated that these energy landscapes involving competitive interactions was applicable not only to PA systems but also to a non-peptide supramolecular system based on pi-orbital overlaps as the dominant attraction among molecules and electrostatic repulsion. In chapter 5, structure and biological function relationships of long or short PA nanofibers are reported, and such fibers were prepared from identical monomers based on

  17. Gold nanoparticle assemblies of controllable size obtained by hydroxylamine reduction at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tódor, István Sz.; Szabó, László; Marişca, Oana T.; Chiş, Vasile; Leopold, Nicolae

    2014-12-01

    Colloidal nanoparticle assemblies (NPAs) were obtained in a one-step procedure, by reduction of HAuCl4 by hydroxylamine hydrochloride, at room temperature, without the use of any additional nucleating agent. By changing the order of the reactants, NPAs with mean size of 20 and 120 nm were obtained. Because of their size and irregular popcorn like shape, the larger size NPAs show absorption in the NIR spectral region. The building blocks of the resulted nanoassemblies are spherical nanoparticles with diameters of 4-8 and 10-30 nm, respectively. Moreover, by stabilizing the colloid with bovine serum albumin at different time moments after synthesis, NPAs of controlled size between 20 and 120 nm, could be obtained. The NPAs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM and SEM electron microscopies. In addition, the possibility of using the here proposed NPAs as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was assessed and found to provide a higher enhancement compared to conventional citrate-reduced nanoparticles.

  18. Gold nanoparticle assemblies of controllable size obtained by hydroxylamine reduction at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tódor, István Sz.; Szabó, László; Marişca, Oana T.; Chiş, Vasile; Leopold, Nicolae, E-mail: nicolae.leopold@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics (Romania)

    2014-12-15

    Colloidal nanoparticle assemblies (NPAs) were obtained in a one-step procedure, by reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} by hydroxylamine hydrochloride, at room temperature, without the use of any additional nucleating agent. By changing the order of the reactants, NPAs with mean size of ∼20 and ∼120 nm were obtained. Because of their size and irregular popcorn like shape, the larger size NPAs show absorption in the NIR spectral region. The building blocks of the resulted nanoassemblies are spherical nanoparticles with diameters of 4–8 and 10–30 nm, respectively. Moreover, by stabilizing the colloid with bovine serum albumin at different time moments after synthesis, NPAs of controlled size between 20 and 120 nm, could be obtained. The NPAs were characterized using UV–Vis spectroscopy, TEM and SEM electron microscopies. In addition, the possibility of using the here proposed NPAs as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was assessed and found to provide a higher enhancement compared to conventional citrate-reduced nanoparticles.

  19. Controlled intracellular self-assembly of gadolinium nanoparticles as smart molecular MR contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chun-Yan; Shen, Ying-Ying; Wang, Jian-Dong; Li, Li; Liang, Gao-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Herein we developed a new "smart" Gd-based MR contrast agent (i.e., 1) which is susceptive to furin, a protease overexpressed in tumor. Under the action of furin, 1 condenses to form dimers (1-Ds) and the latter self-assemble into gadolinium nanparticles (Gd-NPs). Relaxivity of 1-D is more than 2 folds of those of 1 and magnevist at 1.5 T, and 1.4 folds of that of 1 at 3 T. Intracellular condensation of 1 in furin-overexpressed MDA-MB-468 cells was proven with direct two-photon laser microscopy (TPLM) fluorescence imaging of the cells incubated with the europium analog of 1 (i.e., 2). Intracellular Gd-NPs of 1 were uncovered and characterized for the first time. MRI of MDA-MB-468 tumors showed that 1 has enhanced MR contrast within the tumors than that of its scrambled control 1-Scr.

  20. Controlled molecular self-assembly of complex three-dimensional structures in soft materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changjin; Quinn, David; Suresh, Subra; Hsia, K Jimmy

    2018-01-02

    Many applications in tissue engineering, flexible electronics, and soft robotics call for approaches that are capable of producing complex 3D architectures in soft materials. Here we present a method using molecular self-assembly to generate hydrogel-based 3D architectures that resembles the appealing features of the bottom-up process in morphogenesis of living tissues. Our strategy effectively utilizes the three essential components dictating living tissue morphogenesis to produce complex 3D architectures: modulation of local chemistry, material transport, and mechanics, which can be engineered by controlling the local distribution of polymerization inhibitor (i.e., oxygen), diffusion of monomers/cross-linkers through the porous structures of cross-linked polymer network, and mechanical constraints, respectively. We show that oxygen plays a role in hydrogel polymerization which is mechanistically similar to the role of growth factors in tissue growth, and the continued growth of hydrogel enabled by diffusion of monomers/cross-linkers into the porous hydrogel similar to the mechanisms of tissue growth enabled by material transport. The capability and versatility of our strategy are demonstrated through biomimetics of tissue morphogenesis for both plants and animals, and its application to generate other complex 3D architectures. Our technique opens avenues to studying many growth phenomena found in nature and generating complex 3D structures to benefit diverse applications. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  1. Axon initial segment cytoskeleton comprises a multiprotein submembranous coat containing sparse actin filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven L.; Korobova, Farida

    2014-01-01

    The axon initial segment (AIS) of differentiated neurons regulates action potential initiation and axon–dendritic polarity. The latter function depends on actin dynamics, but actin structure and functions at the AIS remain unclear. Using platinum replica electron microscopy (PREM), we have characterized the architecture of the AIS cytoskeleton in mature and developing hippocampal neurons. The AIS cytoskeleton assembly begins with bundling of microtubules and culminates in formation of a dense, fibrillar–globular coat over microtubule bundles. Immunogold PREM revealed that the coat contains a network of known AIS proteins, including ankyrin G, spectrin βIV, neurofascin, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, voltage-gated sodium channels, and actin filaments. Contrary to existing models, we find neither polarized actin arrays, nor dense actin meshworks in the AIS. Instead, the AIS contains two populations of sparse actin filaments: short, stable filaments and slightly longer dynamic filaments. We propose that stable actin filaments play a structural role for formation of the AIS diffusion barrier, whereas dynamic actin may promote AIS coat remodeling. PMID:24711503

  2. Epiplasmins and epiplasm in paramecium: the building of a submembraneous cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubusson-Fleury, Anne; Bricheux, Geneviève; Damaj, Raghida; Lemullois, Michel; Coffe, Gérard; Donnadieu, Florence; Koll, France; Viguès, Bernard; Bouchard, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    In ciliates, basal bodies and associated appendages are bound to a submembrane cytoskeleton. In Paramecium, this cytoskeleton takes the form of a thin dense layer, the epiplasm, segmented into regular territories, the units where basal bodies are inserted. Epiplasmins, the main component of the epiplasm, constitute a large family of 51 proteins distributed in 5 phylogenetic groups, each characterized by a specific molecular design. By GFP-tagging, we analyzed their differential localisation and role in epiplasm building and demonstrated that: 1) The epiplasmins display a low turnover, in agreement with the maintenance of an epiplasm layer throughout the cell cycle; 2) Regionalisation of proteins from different groups allows us to define rim, core, ring and basal body epiplasmins in the interphase cell; 3) Their dynamics allows definition of early and late epiplasmins, detected early versus late in the duplication process of the units. Epiplasmins from each group exhibit a specific combination of properties. Core and rim epiplasmins are required to build a unit; ring and basal body epiplasmins seem more dispensable, suggesting that they are not required for basal body docking. We propose a model of epiplasm unit assembly highlighting its implication in structural heredity in agreement with the evolutionary history of epiplasmins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Cortical microtubule nucleation can organise the cytoskeleton of Drosophila oocytes to define the anteroposterior axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuc Trong, Philipp; Doerflinger, Hélène; Dunkel, Jörn; St Johnston, Daniel; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2015-01-01

    Many cells contain non-centrosomal arrays of microtubules (MTs), but the assembly, organisation and function of these arrays are poorly understood. We present the first theoretical model for the non-centrosomal MT cytoskeleton in Drosophila oocytes, in which bicoid and oskar mRNAs become localised to establish the anterior-posterior body axis. Constrained by experimental measurements, the model shows that a simple gradient of cortical MT nucleation is sufficient to reproduce the observed MT distribution, cytoplasmic flow patterns and localisation of oskar and naive bicoid mRNAs. Our simulations exclude a major role for cytoplasmic flows in localisation and reveal an organisation of the MT cytoskeleton that is more ordered than previously thought. Furthermore, modulating cortical MT nucleation induces a bifurcation in cytoskeletal organisation that accounts for the phenotypes of polarity mutants. Thus, our three-dimensional model explains many features of the MT network and highlights the importance of differential cortical MT nucleation for axis formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06088.001 PMID:26406117

  4. Inositol induces mesenchymal-epithelial reversion in breast cancer cells through cytoskeleton rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, Simona; Fabrizi, Gianmarco; Masiello, Maria Grazia; Proietti, Sara; Palombo, Alessandro; Minini, Mirko; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh H; Ricci, Giulia; Catizone, Angela; Cucina, Alessandra; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2016-07-01

    Inositol displays multi-targeted effects on many biochemical pathways involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). As Akt activation is inhibited by inositol, we investigated if such effect could hamper EMT in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In cancer cells treated with pharmacological doses of inositol E-cadherin was increased, β-catenin was redistributed behind cell membrane, and metalloproteinase-9 was significantly reduced, while motility and invading capacity were severely inhibited. Those changes were associated with a significant down-regulation of PI3K/Akt activity, leading to a decrease in downstream signaling effectors: NF-kB, COX-2, and SNAI1. Inositol-mediated inhibition of PS1 leads to lowered Notch 1 release, thus contributing in decreasing SNAI1 levels. Overall, these data indicated that inositol inhibits the principal molecular pathway supporting EMT. Similar results were obtained in ZR-75, a highly metastatic breast cancer line. These findings are coupled with significant changes on cytoskeleton. Inositol slowed-down vimentin expression in cells placed behind the wound-healing edge and stabilized cortical F-actin. Moreover, lamellipodia and filopodia, two specific membrane extensions enabling cell migration and invasiveness, were no longer detectable after inositol addiction. Additionally, fascin and cofilin, two mandatory required components for F-actin assembling within cell protrusions, were highly reduced. These data suggest that inositol may induce an EMT reversion in breast cancer cells, suppressing motility and invasiveness through cytoskeleton modifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CFD Analysis of Hot Spot Fuel Temperature in the Control Fuel Block Assembly of a VHTR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Tak, Nam Il; Noh, Jae Man

    2010-01-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) dedicated for efficient hydrogen production requires core outlet temperatures of more than 950 .deg. C. As the outlet temperature increases, the thermal margin of the core decreases, which highlights the need for a detailed analysis to reduce its uncertainty. Tak et al. performed CFD analysis for a 1/12 fuel assembly model and compared the result with a simple unit-cell model in order to emphasize the need of a detailed CFD analysis for the prediction of hot spot fuel temperatures. Their CFD model, however, was focused on the standard fuel assembly but not on the control fuel assembly in which a considerable amount of bypass flow is expected to occur through the control rod passages. In this study, a CFD model for the control fuel block assembly is developed and applied for the hot spot analyses of PMR200 core. Not only the bypass flow but also the cross flow is considered in the analyses

  6. Water ordering controls the dynamic equilibrium of micelle-fibre formation in self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Sanket A; Solomon, Lee A; Kamath, Ganesh; Fry, H Christopher; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S

    2016-08-24

    Understanding the role of water in governing the kinetics of the self-assembly processes of amphiphilic peptides remains elusive. Here, we use a multistage atomistic-coarse-grained approach, complemented by circular dichroism/infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering experiments to highlight the dual nature of water in driving the self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles (PAs). We show computationally that water cage formation and breakage near the hydrophobic groups control the fusion dynamics and aggregation of PAs in the micellar stage. Simulations also suggest that enhanced structural ordering of vicinal water near the hydrophilic amino acids shifts the equilibrium towards the fibre phase and stimulates structure and order during the PA assembly into nanofibres. Experiments validate our simulation findings; the measured infrared O-H bond stretching frequency is reminiscent of an ice-like bond which suggests that the solvated water becomes increasingly ordered with time in the assembled peptide network, thus shedding light on the role of water in a self-assembly process.

  7. Plant actin cytoskeleton re-modeling by plant parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Janice de Almeida; Rodiuc, Natalia; Smertenko, Andrei; Abad, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    The cytoskeleton is an important component of the plant's defense mechanism against the attack of pathogenic organisms. Plants however, are defenseless against parasitic root-knot and cyst nematodes and respond to the invasion by the development of a special feeding site that supplies the parasite with nutrients required for the completion of its life cycle. Recent studies of nematode invasion under treatment with cytoskeletal drugs and in mutant plants where normal functions of the cytoskeleton have been affected, demonstrate the importance of the cytoskeleton in the establishment of a feeding site and successful nematode reproduction. It appears that in the case of microfilaments, nematodes hijack the intracellular machinery that regulates actin dynamics and modulate the organization and properties of the actin filament network. Intervening with this process reduces the nematode infection efficiency and inhibits its life cycle. This discovery uncovers a new pathway that can be exploited for the protection of plants against nematodes.

  8. Platinum replica electron microscopy: Imaging the cytoskeleton globally and locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitkina, Tatyana M

    2017-05-01

    Structural studies reveal how smaller components of a system work together as a whole. However, combining high resolution of details with full coverage of the whole is challenging. In cell biology, light microscopy can image many cells in their entirety, but at a lower resolution, whereas electron microscopy affords very high resolution, but usually at the expense of the sample size and coverage. Structural analyses of the cytoskeleton are especially demanding, because cytoskeletal networks are unresolvable by light microscopy due to their density and intricacy, whereas their proper preservation is a challenge for electron microscopy. Platinum replica electron microscopy can uniquely bridge the gap between the "comfort zones" of light and electron microscopy by allowing high resolution imaging of the cytoskeleton throughout the entire cell and in many cells in the population. This review describes the principles and applications of platinum replica electron microscopy for studies of the cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear Import of β-Dystroglycan Is Facilitated by Ezrin-Mediated Cytoskeleton Reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Limeta, Alejandra; Wagstaff, Kylie M.; Ortega, Arturo; Crouch, Dorothy H.; Jans, David A.; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2014-01-01

    The β-dystroglycan (β-DG) protein has the ability to target to multiple sites in eukaryotic cells, being a member of diverse protein assemblies including the transmembranal dystrophin-associated complex, and a nuclear envelope-localised complex that contains emerin and lamins A/C and B1. We noted that the importin α2/β1-recognised nuclear localization signal (NLS) of β-DG is also a binding site for the cytoskeletal-interacting protein ezrin, and set out to determine whether ezrin binding might modulate β-DG nuclear translocation for the first time. Unexpectedly, we found that ezrin enhances rather than inhibits β-DG nuclear translocation in C2C12 myoblasts. Both overexpression of a phosphomimetic activated ezrin variant (Ez-T567D) and activation of endogenous ezrin through stimulation of the Rho pathway resulted in both formation of actin-rich surface protrusions and significantly increased nuclear translocation of β-DG as shown by quantitative microscopy and subcellular fractionation/Western analysis. In contrast, overexpression of a nonphosphorylatable inactive ezrin variant (Ez-T567A) or inhibition of Rho signaling, decreased nuclear translocation of β-DG concomitant with a lack of cell surface protrusions. Further, a role for the actin cytoskeleton in ezrin enhancement of β-DG nuclear translocation was implicated by the observation that an ezrin variant lacking its actin-binding domain failed to enhance nuclear translocation of β-DG, while disruption of the actin cytoskeleton led to a reduction in β-DG nuclear localization. Finally, we show that ezrin-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization enhances nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic but not the transmembranal fraction of β-DG. This is the first study showing that cytoskeleton reorganization can modulate nuclear translocation of β-DG, with the implication that β-DG can respond to cytoskeleton-driven changes in cell morphology by translocating from the cytoplasm to the nucleus to orchestrate

  10. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Bassler, E.A.; Huckestein, E.A.; Salton, R.B.; Tower, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel assembly adapted for use with a pressurized water nuclear reactor having capabilities for fluid moderator spectral shift control is described comprising: parallel arranged elongated nuclear fuel elements; means for providing for axial support of the fuel elements and for arranging the fuel elements in a spaced array; thimbles interspersed among the fuel elements adapted for insertion of a rod control cluster therewithin; means for structurally joining the fuel elements and the guide thimbles; fluid moderator control means for providing a volume of low neutron absorbing fluid within the fuel assembly and for removing a substantially equivalent volume of reactor coolant water therefrom, a first flow manifold at one end of the fuel assembly sealingly connected to a first end of the moderator control tubes whereby the first ends are commonly flow connected; and a second flow manifold, having an inlet passage and an outlet passage therein, sealingly connected to a second end of the moderator control tubes at a second end of the fuel assembly

  11. Independent control of matrix adhesiveness and stiffness within a 3D self-assembling peptide hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrebe, Nathaniel J; Reinhardt, James W; Tram, Nguyen K; Debski, Anna C; Agarwal, Gunjan; Reilly, Matthew A; Gooch, Keith J

    2018-04-01

    A cell's insoluble microenvironment has increasingly been shown to exert influence on its function. In particular, matrix stiffness and adhesiveness strongly impact behaviors such as cell spreading and differentiation, but materials that allow for independent control of these parameters within a fibrous, stromal-like microenvironment are very limited. In the current work, we devise a self-assembling peptide (SAP) system that facilitates user-friendly control of matrix stiffness and RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) concentration within a hydrogel possessing a microarchitecture similar to stromal extracellular matrix. In this system, the RGD-modified SAP sequence KFE-RGD and the scrambled sequence KFE-RDG can be directly swapped for one another to change RGD concentration at a given matrix stiffness and total peptide concentration. Stiffness is controlled by altering total peptide concentration, and the unmodified base peptide KFE-8 can be included to further increase this stiffness range due to its higher modulus. With this tunable system, we demonstrate that human mesenchymal stem cell morphology and differentiation are influenced by both gel stiffness and the presence of functional cell binding sites in 3D culture. Specifically, cells 24 hours after encapsulation were only able to spread out in stiffer matrices containing KFE-RGD. Upon addition of soluble adipogenic factors, soft gels facilitated the greatest adipogenesis as determined by the presence of lipid vacuoles and PPARγ-2 expression, while increasing KFE-RGD concentration at a given stiffness had a negative effect on adipogenesis. This three-component hydrogel system thus allows for systematic investigation of matrix stiffness and RGD concentration on cell behavior within a fibrous, three-dimensional matrix. Physical cues from a cell's surrounding environment-such as the density of cell binding sites and the stiffness of the surrounding material-are increasingly being recognized as key regulators of cell function

  12. Controlled interfacial assembly of 2D curved colloidal crystals and jammed shells

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Abkarian, Manouk; Stone, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    Assembly of colloidal particles on fluid interfaces is a promising technique for synthesizing two-dimensional micro-crystalline materials useful in fields as diverse as biomedicine1, materials science2, mineral flotation3 and food processing4. Current approaches rely on bulk emulsification methods, require further chemical and thermal treatments, and are restrictive with respect to the materials employed5-9. The development of methods that exploit the great potential of interfacial assembly f...

  13. Bioinspired heterostructured bead-on-string fibers via controlling the wet-assembly of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Song, Cheng; Zhang, Miaoxin; Zheng, Yongmei

    2014-09-21

    A kind of bioinspired heterostructured bead-on-string fiber (BHBF), composed of poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) hydrolyzed nanoparticles, was prepared via integrating a wet-assembly system, including PMMA electrospinning, fog of nanoparticles and water coalescence at multi-stages. The wet-assembly of BHBF was regulated by the difference in surface energy and Laplace pressure. Especially, BHBF is characteristic of a hydrophilic rough bead for excellent water collection ability.

  14. The mechanosensor of mesenchymal stem cells: mechanosensitive channel or cytoskeleton?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, E; Chen, Chider; Zhang, Yi

    2016-09-20

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells. MSCs and their potential for use in regenerative medicine have been investigated extensively. Recently, the mechanisms by which MSCs detect mechanical stimuli have been described in detail. As in other cell types, both mechanosensitive channels, such as transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), and the cytoskeleton, including actin and actomyosin, have been implicated in mechanosensation in MSCs. This review will focus on discussing the precise role of TRPM7 and the cytoskeleton in mechanosensation in MSCs.

  15. Regulation from within: the cytoskeleton in transmembrane signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaqaman, Khuloud; Grinstein, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that the plasma membrane is highly dynamic and organized in a complex manner. The cortical cytoskeleton is proving to be a particularly important regulator of plasmalemmal organization, modulating the mobility of proteins and lipids in the membrane, facilitating their segregation and influencing their clustering. This organization plays a critical role in receptor-mediated signaling, especially in the case of immunoreceptors, which require lateral clustering for their activation. Based on recent developments, we discuss the structures and mechanisms whereby the cortical cytoskeleton regulates membrane dynamics and organization, and how the non-uniform distribution of immunoreceptors and their self-association may affect activation and signaling. PMID:22917551

  16. Dynamic Self-Assembly of Homogenous Microcyclic Structures Controlled by a Silver-Coated Nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Lin, Yao; Ying, Yi-Lun; Liu, Xiao-Yuan; Shi, Xin; Hu, Yong-Xu; Long, Yi-Tao; Tian, He

    2017-07-01

    The self-assembly of nanoparticles is a challenging process for organizing precise structures with complicated and ingenious structures. In the past decades, a simple, high-efficiency, and reproducible self-assembly method from nanoscale to microscale has been pursued because of the promising and extensive application prospects in bioanalysis, catalysis, photonics, and energy storage. However, microscale self-assembly still faces big challenges including improving the stability and homogeneity as well as pursuing new assembly methods and templates for the uniform self-assembly. To address these obstacles, here, a novel silver-coated nanopore is developed which serves as a template for electrochemically generating microcyclic structures of gold nanoparticles at micrometers with highly homogenous size and remarkable reproducibility. Nanopore-induced microcyclic structures are further applied to visualize the diffusion profile of ionic flux. Based on this novel strategy, a nanopore could potentially facilitate the delivery of assembled structures for many practical applications including drug delivery, cellular detection, catalysis, and plasmonic sensing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Valve assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandling, M.

    1981-01-01

    An improved valve assembly, used for controlling the flow of radioactive slurry, is described. Radioactive contamination of the air during removal or replacement of the valve is prevented by sucking air from the atmosphere through a portion of the structure above the valve housing. (U.K.)

  18. The Role of Molecular Microtubule Motors and the Microtubule Cytoskeleton in Stress Granule Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Bartoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are cytoplasmic foci that appear in cells exposed to stress-induced translational inhibition. SGs function as a triage center, where mRNAs are sorted for storage, degradation, and translation reinitiation. The underlying mechanisms of SGs dynamics are still being characterized, although many key players have been identified. The main components of SGs are stalled 48S preinitiation complexes. To date, many other proteins have also been found to localize in SGs and are hypothesized to function in SG dynamics. Most recently, the microtubule cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins have been demonstrated to function in SG dynamics. In this paper, we will discuss current literature examining the function of microtubules and the molecular microtubule motors in SG assembly, coalescence, movement, composition, organization, and disassembly.

  19. Development testing of high temperature bearings for SP-100 control drive assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcher, Alfred W.; Kjaer-Olsen, Christian G.; Martinez, Carlos; Ogawa, Stanley Y.; Springer, Dwight R.; Yaspo, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Initial phases of two distinct SP-100 control drive assembly bearing test programs were successfully completed at elevated temperature in vacuum. The first was for the reflector drive line spherical self-aligning bearings. Each bearing consisted of a carbon-graphite ball mounted on an aluminum oxide-coated Ta-10%W shaft, captured by an aluminum oxide-coated Ta-10%W socket. One set of these bearings was exposed to temperatures up to 1180K (1665°F) at 1.33×10-6 Pa (1×10-8 torr) and subjected to 38000 cycles of motion. Friction coefficients were found to be between 0.11 and 0.25 over the full range of operation. Overall performance of the bearings was excellent, with only slight wear observed. The second test program was for the safety rod slider bearing. Zirconium carbide coated Nb-1%Zr bearings pads were stroked inside a molybdenum tube at temperatures up to 1422 K (2100°F) at ˜1.33×10-6 Pa with a normal load of 1.02 Kg between each sliding surface. Coefficients of sliding friction were found to increase from 0.90 at 293 K to 1.20 at 1422 K prior to high temperature dwells. Results were consistent over the range of stroke velocities; 5.1 to 51 mm (0.2 to 2.0 inches) per second. Following dwells of 92, 72, and 110 hours at 1422 K, static friction coefficients as high as 5.4 were observed prior to initiation of sliding, after which sliding friction coefficients of ˜1.6 were seen. Breakaway forces were well within the actuator design limits.

  20. Hyperosmotic stress regulates the distribution and stability of myocardin-related transcription factor, a key modulator of the cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ly, Donald L.; Waheed, Faiza; Lodyga, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Hyperosmotic stress initiates several adaptive responses, including the remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Besides maintaining structural integrity, the cytoskeleton has emerged as an important regulator of gene transcription. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), an actin-regulated coactiv......Hyperosmotic stress initiates several adaptive responses, including the remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Besides maintaining structural integrity, the cytoskeleton has emerged as an important regulator of gene transcription. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), an actin......-regulated coactivator of serum response factor, is a major link between the actin skeleton and transcriptional control. We therefore investigated whether MRTF is regulated by hyperosmotic stress. Here we show that hypertonicity induces robust, rapid, and transient translocation of MRTF from the cytosol to the nucleus...... in kidney tubular cells. We found that the hyperosmolarity-triggered MRTF translocation is mediated by the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROK) pathway. Moreover, the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEF-H1 is activated by hyperosmotic stress, and it is a key contributor to the ensuing RhoA activation and MRTF...

  1. RPTP-alpha acts as a transducer of mechanical force on alphav/beta3-integrin-cytoskeleton linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wichert, Gotz; Jiang, Guoying; Kostic, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Cell motility on ECM critically depends on the cellular response to force from the matrix. We find that force-dependent reinforcement of alphav/beta3-integrin-mediated cell-matrix connections requires the receptor-like tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha). RPTPalpha colocalizes with alphav...... of alphav/beta3-integrin-cytoskeleton connections during the initial phase of ECM contact. These observations indicate that Src family kinases have distinct functions during adhesion site assembly, and that RPTPalpha is an early component in force-dependent signal transduction pathways leading...

  2. Development of a computer program for drop time and impact velocity of the rod cluster control assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.-S.; Yim, J.-S.; Kim, I.-K.; Kim, K.-T.

    1993-01-01

    In PWR the rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) for shutdown is released upon the action of the control drive mechanism and falls down through the guide thimble by its weight. Drop time and impact velocity of the RCCA are two key parameters with respect to reactivity insertion time and the mechanical integrity of fuel assembly. Therefore, the precise control of the drop time and impact velocity is prerequisite to modifying the existing design features of the RCCA and guide thimble or newly designing them. During its falling down into the core, the RCCA is retarded by various forces acting on it such as flow resistance and friction caused by the RCCA movement, buoyancy mechanical friction caused by contacting inner surface of the guide thimble, etc. However, complicated coupling of the various forces makes it difficult to derive an analytical dynamic equation for the drop time and impact velocity. This paper deals with the development of a computer program containing an analytical dynamic equation applicable to the Korean Fuel Assembly (KOFA) loaded in the Korean nuclear power plants. The computer program is benchmarked with an available single control rod drop tests. Since the predicted values are in good agreements with the test results, the computer program developed in this paper can be employed to modify the existing design features of the RCCA and guide thimble and to develop their new design features for advanced nuclear reactors. (author)

  3. Usb1 controls U6 snRNP assembly through evolutionarily divergent cyclic phosphodiesterase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didychuk, Allison L; Montemayor, Eric J; Carrocci, Tucker J; DeLaitsch, Andrew T; Lucarelli, Stefani E; Westler, William M; Brow, David A; Hoskins, Aaron A; Butcher, Samuel E

    2017-09-08

    U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) biogenesis is essential for spliceosome assembly, but not well understood. Here, we report structures of the U6 RNA processing enzyme Usb1 from yeast and a substrate analog bound complex from humans. Unlike the human ortholog, we show that yeast Usb1 has cyclic phosphodiesterase activity that leaves a terminal 3' phosphate which prevents overprocessing. Usb1 processing of U6 RNA dramatically alters its affinity for cognate RNA-binding proteins. We reconstitute the post-transcriptional assembly of yeast U6 snRNP in vitro, which occurs through a complex series of handoffs involving 10 proteins (Lhp1, Prp24, Usb1 and Lsm2-8) and anti-cooperative interactions between Prp24 and Lhp1. We propose a model for U6 snRNP assembly that explains how evolutionarily divergent and seemingly antagonistic proteins cooperate to protect and chaperone the nascent snRNA during its journey to the spliceosome.The mechanism of U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) biogenesis is not well understood. Here the authors characterize the enzymatic activities and structures of yeast and human U6 RNA processing enzyme Usb1, reconstitute post-transcriptional assembly of yeast U6 snRNP in vitro, and propose a model for U6 snRNP assembly.

  4. Cdk1-Cyclin B1-mediated Phosphorylation of Tumor-associated Microtubule-associated Protein/Cytoskeleton-associated Protein 2 in Mitosis*

    OpenAIRE

    Uk Hong, Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hyo-Sil; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2009-01-01

    During mitosis, establishment of structurally and functionally sound bipolar spindles is necessary for maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2), is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose level is frequently up-regulated in various malignancies. Previous reports have suggested that TMAP is a potential regulator of mitotic spindle assembly and dynamics and that it is re...

  5. Shaping meiotic chromosomes with SUMO: a feedback loop controls the assembly of the synaptonemal complex in budding yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Tsubouchi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The synaptonemal complex (SC is a meiosis-specific chromosomal structure in which homologous chromosomes are intimately linked through arrays of specialized proteins called transverse filaments (TF. Widely conserved in eukaryote meiosis, the SC forms during prophase I and is essential for accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes at meiosis I. However, the basic mechanism overlooking formation and regulation of the SC has been poorly understood. By using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we recently showed that SC formation is controlled through the attachment of multiple molecules of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO to a regulator of TF assembly. Intriguingly, this SUMOylation is activated by TF, implicating the involvement of a positive feedback loop in the control of SC assembly. We discuss the implication of this finding and possible involvement of a similar mechanism in regulating other processes.

  6. The roles of the actin cytoskeleton in fear memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael eLamprecht

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation and storage of fear memory is needed to adapt behavior and avoid danger during subsequent fearful events. However, fear memory may also play a significant role in stress and anxiety disorders. When fear becomes disproportionate to that necessary to cope with a given stimulus, or begins to occur in inappropriate situations, a fear or anxiety disorder exists. Thus, the study of cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning fear memory may shed light on the formation of memory and on anxiety and stress related disorders. Evidence indicates that fear learning leads to changes in neuronal synaptic transmission and morphology in brain areas underlying fear memory formation including the amygdala and hippocampus. The actin cytoskeleton has been shown to participate in these key neuronal processes. Recent findings show that the actin cytoskeleton is needed for fear memory formation and extinction. Moreover, the actin cytoskeleton is involved in synaptic plasticity and in neuronal morphogenesis in brain areas that mediate fear memory. The actin cytoskeleton may therefore mediate between synaptic transmission during fear learning and long-term cellular alterations mandatory for fear memory formation.

  7. Micropatterned Azopolymer Surfaces Modulate Cell Mechanics and Cytoskeleton Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Carmela; Ventre, Maurizio; Cavalli, Silvia; Radmacher, Manfred; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-09-30

    Physical and chemical characteristics of materials are important regulators of cell behavior. In particular, cell elasticity is a fundamental parameter that reflects the state of a cell. Surface topography finely modulates cell fate and function via adhesion mediated signaling and cytoskeleton generated forces. However, how topographies alter cell mechanics is still unclear. In this work we have analyzed the mechanical properties of peripheral and nuclear regions of NIH-3T3 cells on azopolymer substrates with different topographic patterns. Micrometer scale patterns in the form of parallel ridges or square lattices of surface elevations were encoded on light responsive azopolymer films by means of contactless optical methods. Cell mechanics was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cells and consequently the cell cytoskeleton were oriented along the linear patterns affecting cytoskeletal structures, e.g., formation of actin stress fibers. Our data demonstrate that topographic substrate patterns are recognized by cells and mechanical information is transferred by the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, cytoskeleton generated forces deform the nucleus, changing its morphology that appears to be related to different mechanical properties in the nuclear region.

  8. Multiple roles for the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Milberg, Oleg; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Regulated exocytosis is the main mechanism utilized by specialized secretory cells to deliver molecules to the cell surface by virtue of membranous containers (i.e. secretory vesicles). The process involves a series of highly coordinated and sequential steps, which include the biogenesis of the vesicles, their delivery to the cell periphery, their fusion with the plasma membrane and the release of their content into the extracellular space. Each of these steps is regulated by the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the involvement of actin and its associated molecules during each of the exocytic steps in vertebrates, and suggest that the overall role of the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis is linked to the architecture and the physiology of the secretory cells under examination. Specifically, in neurons, neuroendocrine, endocrine, and hematopoietic cells, which contain small secretory vesicles that undergo rapid exocytosis (on the order of milliseconds), the actin cytoskeleton plays a role in pre-fusion events, where it acts primarily as a functional barrier and facilitates docking. In exocrine and other secretory cells, which contain large secretory vesicles that undergo slow exocytosis (seconds to minutes), the actin cytoskeleton plays a role in post-fusion events, where it regulates the dynamics of the fusion pore, facilitates the integration of the vesicles into the plasma membrane, provides structural support, and promotes the expulsion of large cargo molecules. PMID:22986507

  9. Interconnection between actin cytoskeleton and plant defense signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Martin; Matoušková, J.; Burketová, Lenka; Valentová, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11 (2014) ISSN 1559-2316 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1654 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Actin * Cytoskeleton * Pathogen Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25482795

  10. Modular jet impingement assemblies with passive and active flow control for electronics cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Feng; Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Joshi, Shailesh

    2016-09-13

    Power electronics modules having modular jet impingement assembly utilized to cool heat generating devices are disclosed. The modular jet impingement assemblies include a modular manifold having a distribution recess, one or more angled inlet connection tubes positioned at an inlet end of the modular manifold that fluidly couple the inlet tube to the distribution recess and one or more outlet connection tubes positioned at an outlet end of the modular manifold that fluidly coupling the outlet tube to the distribution recess. The modular jet impingement assemblies include a manifold insert removably positioned within the distribution recess and include one or more inlet branch channels each including an impinging slot and one or more outlet branch channels each including a collecting slot. Further a heat transfer plate coupled to the modular manifold, the heat transfer plate comprising an impingement surface including an array of fins that extend toward the manifold insert.

  11. Controlled dielectrophoretic nanowire self-assembly using atomic layer deposition and suspended microfabricated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, Alicia I; Brown, Joseph J; Bright, Victor M; Bertness, Kris A

    2012-01-01

    Effects of design and materials on the dielectrophoretic self-assembly of individual gallium nitride nanowires (GaN NWs) onto microfabricated electrodes have been experimentally investigated. The use of TiO 2 surface coating generated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) improves dielectrophoretic assembly yield of individual GaN nanowires on microfabricated structures by as much as 67%. With a titanium dioxide coating, individual nanowires were placed across suspended electrode pairs in 46% of tests (147 out of 320 total), versus 28% of tests (88 out of 320 total tests) that used uncoated GaN NWs. An additional result from these tests was that suspending the electrodes 2.75 μm above the substrate corresponded with up to 15.8% improvement in overall assembly yield over that of electrodes fabricated directly on the substrate. (paper)

  12. Interaction of epidermal growth factor receptors with the cytoskeleton is related to receptor clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belzen, N.; Spaargaren, M.; Verkleij, A. J.; Boonstra, J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently it has been established that cytoskeleton-associated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors are predominantly of the high-affinity class and that EGF induces a recruitment of low-affinity receptors to the cytoskeleton. The nature of this EGF-induced receptor-cytoskeleton interaction,

  13. IGF-1 modulates gene expression of proteins involved in inflammation, cytoskeleton, and liver architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Diaz, V J; Castilla-Cortazar, I; Martín-Estal, I; García-Magariño, M; Aguirre, G A; Puche, J E; de la Garza, R G; Morales, L A; Muñoz, U

    2017-05-01

    Even though the liver synthesizes most of circulating IGF-1, it lacks its receptor under physiological conditions. However, according to previous studies, a damaged liver expresses the receptor. For this reason, herein, we examine hepatic histology and expression of genes encoding proteins of the cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix, and cell-cell molecules and inflammation-related proteins. A partial IGF-1 deficiency murine model was used to investigate IGF-1's effects on liver by comparing wild-type controls, heterozygous igf1 +/- , and heterozygous mice treated with IGF-1 for 10 days. Histology, microarray for mRNA gene expression, RT-qPCR, and lipid peroxidation were assessed. Microarray analyses revealed significant underexpression of igf1 in heterozygous mice compared to control mice, restoring normal liver expression after treatment, which then normalized its circulating levels. IGF-1 receptor mRNA was overexpressed in Hz mice liver, while treated mice displayed a similar expression to that of the controls. Heterozygous mice showed overexpression of several genes encoding proteins related to inflammatory and acute-phase proteins and underexpression or overexpression of genes which coded for extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton, and cell junction components. Histology revealed an altered hepatic architecture. In addition, liver oxidative damage was found increased in the heterozygous group. The mere IGF-1 partial deficiency is associated with relevant alterations of the hepatic architecture and expression of genes involved in cytoskeleton, hepatocyte polarity, cell junctions, and extracellular matrix proteins. Moreover, it induces hepatic expression of the IGF-1 receptor and elevated acute-phase and inflammation mediators, which all resulted in liver oxidative damage.

  14. Control rod effects on reaction rate distributions in tight pitched PuO2-UO2 fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Choong-Sup; Okumura, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Yukio

    1991-11-01

    Investigations were made for the heterogeneity effects caused by insertion or withdrawal of a B 4 C control rod on fine structure of reaction rates distributions in a tight pitched PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel assembly. Analysis was carried out by using the VIM and SRAC codes with the libraries based on JENDL-2 for the hexagonal fuel assembly basically corresponding to the PROTEUS-LWHCR experimental core. The reaction rates are affected more remarkably by the withdrawal of the control rod rather than its insertion. The changes of the reaction rates were decomposed into three terms of spectrum shifts, the changes of effective cross sections with fine groups, and their higher order components. From the analysis, it is concluded that most changes of reaction rates are caused by spectral shifts. The SRAC code with fine group constants can predict the distribution of reaction rates and their ratios with the accuracy of about 5 % except for the values related to Pu-242 capture rate, as compared with the VIM results. To increase the accuracy, it is necessary to generate the effective cross sections of the fuel near control rods with consideration of the heterogeneities in the fuel assembly. (author)

  15. Development of Mathematical Model and Analysis Code for Estimating Drop Behavior of the Control Rod Assembly in the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se-Hong; Kang, SeungHoon; Choi, Choengryul; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Cheon, Jin Sik

    2016-01-01

    On receiving the scram signal, the control rod assemblies are released to fall into the reactor core by its weight. Thus drop time and falling velocity of the control rod assembly must be estimated for the safety evaluation. There are three typical ways to estimate the drop behavior of the control rod assembly in scram action: Experimental, numerical and theoretical methods. But experimental and numerical(CFD) method require a lot of cost and time. Thus, these methods are difficult to apply to the initial design process. In this study, mathematical model and theoretical analysis code have been developed in order to estimate drop behavior of the control rod assembly to provide the underlying data for the design optimization. Mathematical model and theoretical analysis code have been developed in order to estimate drop behavior of the control rod assembly to provide the underlying data for the design optimization. A simplified control rod assembly model is considered to minimize the uncertainty in the development process. And the hydraulic circuit analysis technique is adopted to evaluate the internal/external flow distribution of the control rod assembly. Finally, the theoretical analysis code(named as HEXCON) has been developed based on the mathematical model. To verify the reliability of the developed code, CFD analysis has been conducted. And a calculation using the developed analysis code was carried out under the same condition, and both results were compared

  16. Sustained and controlled release of lipophilic drugs from a self-assembling amphiphilic peptide hydrogel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briuglia, Maria-Lucia; Urquhart, Andrew; Lamprou, Dimitrios A.

    2014-01-01

    and one hydrophobic that are positioned in such a well-ordered fashion allowing precise assembly into a predetermined organization. A "smart" architecture in nanostructures can represent a good opportunity to use RADA16 as a carrier system for hydrophobic drugs solving problems of drugs delivery...

  17. The System of Automatic Control of Complexity Work Evaluation in Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo HLAVATÝ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is about a task of creating of an automated system for the evaluation of the complexity and the prediction of labour input of fitting and assembly operations, which used for manufacturing of machine-building item.

  18. Side-chain-controlled self-assembly of polystyrene-polypeptide miktoarm star copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Junnila, Susanna; Houbenov, Nikolay; Karatzas, A.; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Hirao, Akira; Iatrou, Hermis; Ikkala, Olli T.

    2012-01-01

    polypeptide-surfactant self-assemblies with β-sheet conformation in PS 2PLL(DS) and PS 2(PLL(DS)) 2 which dominate over the formation of block copolymer scale structures. Differences between the 3- and 4-arm systems illustrate how packing frustration between

  19. Key aromatic/hydrophobic amino acids controlling a cross-amyloid peptide interaction versus amyloid self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakou, Maria; Hille, Kathleen; Kracklauer, Michael; Spanopoulou, Anna; Frost, Christina V; Malideli, Eleni; Yan, Li-Mei; Caporale, Andrea; Zacharias, Martin; Kapurniotu, Aphrodite

    2017-09-01

    The interaction of the intrinsically disordered polypeptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), which is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with the Alzheimer's disease amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide modulates their self-assembly into amyloid fibrils and may link the pathogeneses of these two cell-degenerative diseases. However, the molecular determinants of this interaction remain elusive. Using a systematic alanine scan approach, fluorescence spectroscopy, and other biophysical methods, including heterocomplex pulldown assays, far-UV CD spectroscopy, the thioflavin T binding assay, transmission EM, and molecular dynamics simulations, here we identified single aromatic/hydrophobic residues within the amyloid core IAPP region as hot spots or key residues of its cross-interaction with Aβ40(42) peptide. Importantly, we also find that none of these residues in isolation plays a key role in IAPP self-assembly, whereas simultaneous substitution of four aromatic/hydrophobic residues with Ala dramatically impairs both IAPP self-assembly and hetero-assembly with Aβ40(42). Furthermore, our experiments yielded several novel IAPP analogs, whose sequences are highly similar to that of IAPP but have distinct amyloid self- or cross-interaction potentials. The identified similarities and major differences controlling IAPP cross-peptide interaction with Aβ40(42) versus its amyloid self-assembly offer a molecular basis for understanding the underlying mechanisms. We propose that these insights will aid in designing intervention strategies and novel IAPP analogs for the management of type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, or other diseases related to IAPP dysfunction or cross-amyloid interactions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Telerobotic control of a dextrous manipulator using master and six-DOF hand-controllers for space assembly and servicing tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Two studies were conducted evaluating methods of controlling a telerobot; bilateral force reflecting master controllers and proportional rate six degrees of freedom (DOF) hand controllers. The first study compared the controllers on performance of single manipulator arm tasks, a peg-in-the-hole task, and simulated satellite orbital replacement unit changeout. The second study, a Space Station truss assembly task, required simultaneous operation of both manipulator arms (all 12 DOFs) and complex multiaxis slave arm movements. Task times were significantly longer and fewer errors were committed with the hand controllers. The hand controllers were also rated significantly higher in cognitive and manual control workload on the two-arm task. The master controllers were rated significantly higher in physical workload. There were no significant differences in ratings of manipulator control quality.

  1. Proteomic approaches to understanding the role of the cytoskeleton in host-defense mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulovic, Marko; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a cellular scaffolding system whose functions include maintenance of cellular shape, enabling cellular migration, division, intracellular transport, signaling and membrane organization. In addition, in immune cells, the cytoskeleton is essential for phagocytosis. Following the advances in proteomics technology over the past two decades, cytoskeleton proteome analysis in resting and activated immune cells has emerged as a possible powerful approach to expand our understanding of cytoskeletal composition and function. However, so far there have only been a handful of studies of the cytoskeleton proteome in immune cells. This article considers promising proteomics strategies that could augment our understanding of the role of the cytoskeleton in host-defense mechanisms. PMID:21329431

  2. Controlling the melting transition of semi-crystalline self-assembled block copolymer aggregates : Controlling release rates of ibuprofen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaghan, O.R.; Bomans, P.H.H.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Holder, S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Bicontinuous nanospheres and multi-lamellar micelles were self-assembled from poly[ethylene oxide]-block-(poly[octadecyl methacrylate]-random-poly[docosyl methacrylate]), (PEO-b-[PODMA-co-PDSMA]) where PEO is the hydrophilic block (25 wt%) and PODMA/PDSMA is the semi-crystalline hydrophobic block

  3. Time lapse microscopy of temperature control during self-assembly of 3D DNA crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Fiona W.; Jong, Michael Alexander; Tan, Andre; Tseng, Robert; Park, Eunice; Ohayon, Yoel P.; Sha, Ruojie; Mao, Chengde; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2017-10-01

    DNA nanostructures are created by exploiting the high fidelity base-pairing interactions of double-stranded branched DNA molecules. These structures present a convenient medium for the self-assembly of macroscopic 3D crystals. In some self-assemblies in this system, crystals can be formed by lowering the temperature, and they can be dissolved by raising it. The ability to monitor the formation and melting of these crystals yields information that can be used to monitor crystal formation and growth. Here, we describe the development of an inexpensive tool that enables direct observation of the crystal growth process as a function of both time and temperature. Using the hanging-drop crystallization of the well-characterized 2-turn DNA tensegrity triangle motif for our model system, its response to temperature has been characterized visually.

  4. Controlling the stereochemistry and regularity of butanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Jiawei; Ouyang, Runhai; Jensen, Palle Skovhus

    2014-01-01

    The rich stereochemistry of the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of four butanethiols on Au(111) is described, the SAMs containing up to 12 individual C, S, or Au chiral centers per surface unit cell. This is facilitated by synthesis of enantiomerically pure 2-butanethiol (the smallest unsubstitu......The rich stereochemistry of the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of four butanethiols on Au(111) is described, the SAMs containing up to 12 individual C, S, or Au chiral centers per surface unit cell. This is facilitated by synthesis of enantiomerically pure 2-butanethiol (the smallest...... when R is achiral, while adatom binding leads to rectangular plane groups that suppress long-range expression of chirality. Binding as RS• also inhibits the pitting intrinsically associated with adatom binding, desirably producing more regularly structured SAMs....

  5. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigoya, Hironori; Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To render the axial distribution relatively flat. Constitution: First nuclear element comprises a fuel can made of zircalloy i.e., the metal with less neutron absorption, which is filled with a plurality of UO 2 pellets and sealed by using a lower end plug, a plenum spring and an upper end plug by means of welding. Second fuel element is formed by substituting a part of the UO 2 pellets with a water tube which is sealed with water and has a space for allowing the heat expansion. The nuclear fuel assembly is constituted by using the first and second fuel elements together. In such a structure, since water reflects neutrons and decrease their leakage to increase the temperature, reactivity is added at the upper portion of the fuel assembly to thereby flatten the axial power distribution. Accordingly, stable operation is possible only by means of deep control rods while requiring no shallow control rods. (Sekiya, K.)

  6. Controlled Synthesis of Nanowire Assemblies by Ion-Track Template Electrodeposition

    OpenAIRE

    Rauber, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The development of methods that allow the organization of nanostructures into integrated arrangements is crucial to realizing applications based on nanowires. Although various such methods exist, the direct synthesis of complex nanowire structures is one of the most suitable approaches for translating a large quantity of nanostructures into micro-/macroscale dimensions. In particular, three-dimensional (3-D) nanowire assemblies with a high integration level and adjustable connecti...

  7. A comparison of spent fuel assembly control instruments: The Cadarache PYTHON and the Los Alamos Fork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignan, G.; Capsie, J.; Romeyer-Dherbey, J.

    1991-01-01

    Devices to monitor spent fuel assemblies while stored under water with nondestructive assay methods, have been developed in France and in the United States. Both devices are designed to verify operator's declared values of exposures and cooling-time but the applications and thus the designs of the systems differ. A study, whose results are presented in this paper, has been conducted to compare the features and the performances of the two instruments. 4 refs., 9 figs

  8. Profilin-Dependent Nucleation and Assembly of Actin Filaments Controls Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lingyan; Blanchoin, Laurent; Staiger, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Actin filaments in plant cells are incredibly dynamic; they undergo incessant remodeling and assembly or disassembly within seconds. These dynamic events are choreographed by a plethora of actin-binding proteins, but the exact mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we dissect the contribution of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PROFILIN1 (PRF1), a conserved actin monomer-binding protein, to actin organization and single filament dynamics during axial cell expansion of living epidermal cells. We found that reduced PRF1 levels enhanced cell and organ growth. Surprisingly, we observed that the overall frequency of nucleation events in prf1 mutants was dramatically decreased and that a subpopulation of actin filaments that assemble at high rates was reduced. To test whether profilin cooperates with plant formin proteins to execute actin nucleation and rapid filament elongation in cells, we used a pharmacological approach. Here, we used Small Molecule Inhibitor of Formin FH2 (SMIFH2), after validating its mode of action on a plant formin in vitro, and observed a reduced nucleation frequency of actin filaments in live cells. Treatment of wild-type epidermal cells with SMIFH2 mimicked the phenotype of prf1 mutants, and the nucleation frequency in prf1-2 mutant was completely insensitive to these treatments. Our data provide compelling evidence that PRF1 coordinates the stochastic dynamic properties of actin filaments by modulating formin-mediated actin nucleation and assembly during plant cell expansion. PMID:26574597

  9. Replicating centromeric chromatin: Spatial and temporal control of CENP-A assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechemia-Arbely, Yael; Fachinetti, Daniele; Cleveland, Don W.

    2012-01-01

    The centromere is the fundamental unit for insuring chromosome inheritance. This complex region has a distinct type of chromatin in which histone H3 is replaced by a structurally different homologue identified in humans as CENP-A. In metazoans, specific DNA sequences are neither required nor sufficient for centromere identity. Rather, an epigenetic mark comprised of CENP-A containing chromatin is thought to be the major determinant of centromere identity. In this view, CENP-A deposition and chromatin assembly are fundamental processes for the maintenance of centromeric identity across mitotic and meiotic divisions. Several lines of evidence support CENP-A deposition in metazoans occurring at only one time in the cell cycle. Such cell cycle-dependent loading of CENP-A is found in divergent species from human to fission yeast, albeit with differences in the cell cycle point at which CENP-A is assembled. Cell cycle dependent CENP-A deposition requires multiple assembly factors for its deposition and maintenance. This review discusses the regulation of new CENP-A deposition and its relevance to centromere identity and inheritance.

  10. High-frequency microrheology reveals cytoskeleton dynamics in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigato, Annafrancesca; Miyagi, Atsushi; Scheuring, Simon; Rico, Felix

    2017-08-01

    Living cells are viscoelastic materials, dominated by an elastic response on timescales longer than a millisecond. On shorter timescales, the dynamics of individual cytoskeleton filaments are expected to emerge, but active microrheology measurements on cells accessing this regime are scarce. Here, we develop high-frequency microrheology experiments to probe the viscoelastic response of living cells from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. We report the viscoelasticity of different cell types under cytoskeletal drug treatments. On previously inaccessible short timescales, cells exhibit rich viscoelastic responses that depend on the state of the cytoskeleton. Benign and malignant cancer cells revealed remarkably different scaling laws at high frequencies, providing a unique mechanical fingerprint. Microrheology over a wide dynamic range--up to the frequency characterizing the molecular components--provides a mechanistic understanding of cell mechanics.

  11. Mechanotransduction across the cell surface and through the cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Butler, J. P.; Ingber, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanical stresses were applied directly to cell surface receptors with a magnetic twisting device. The extracellular matrix receptor, integrin beta 1, induced focal adhesion formation and supported a force-dependent stiffening response, whereas nonadhesion receptors did not. The cytoskeletal stiffness (ratio of stress to strain) increased in direct proportion to the applied stress and required intact microtubules and intermediate filaments as well as microfilaments. Tensegrity models that incorporate mechanically interdependent struts and strings that reorient globally in response to a localized stress mimicked this response. These results suggest that integrins act as mechanoreceptors and transmit mechanical signals to the cytoskeleton. Mechanotransduction, in turn, may be mediated simultaneously at multiple locations inside the cell through force-induced rearrangements within a tensionally integrated cytoskeleton.

  12. Direct Cytoskeleton Forces Cause Membrane Softening in Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Ruddi; López-Montero, Iván; Mell, Michael; Egea, Gustavo; Gov, Nir S.; Monroy, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes are flexible cells specialized in the systemic transport of oxygen in vertebrates. This physiological function is connected to their outstanding ability to deform in passing through narrow capillaries. In recent years, there has been an influx of experimental evidence of enhanced cell-shape fluctuations related to metabolically driven activity of the erythroid membrane skeleton. However, no direct observation of the active cytoskeleton forces has yet been reported to our knowledge. Here, we show experimental evidence of the presence of temporally correlated forces superposed over the thermal fluctuations of the erythrocyte membrane. These forces are ATP-dependent and drive enhanced flickering motions in human erythrocytes. Theoretical analyses provide support for a direct force exerted on the membrane by the cytoskeleton nodes as pulses of well-defined average duration. In addition, such metabolically regulated active forces cause global membrane softening, a mechanical attribute related to the functional erythroid deformability. PMID:26083919

  13. Vinculin promotes cell spreading by mechanically coupling integrins to the cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzell, R. M.; Goldmann, W. H.; Wang, N.; Parasharama, N.; Ingber, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Mouse F9 embryonic carcinoma 5.51 cells that lack the cytoskeletal protein vinculin spread poorly on extracellular matrix compared with wild-type F9 cells or two vinculin-transfected clones (5.51Vin3 and Vin4; Samuels et al., 1993, J. Cell Biol. 121, 909-921). In the present study, we used this model system to determine how the presence of vinculin promotes cytoskeletal alterations and associated changes in cell shape. Microscopic analysis of cell spreading at early times, revealed that 5.51 cells retained the ability to form filopodia; however, they could not form lamellipodia, assemble stress fibers, or efficiently spread over the culture substrate. Detergent (Triton X-100) studies revealed that these major differences in cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization did not result from differences in levels of total polymerized or cross-linked actin. Biochemical studies showed that 5.51 cells, in addition to lacking vinculin, exhibited slightly reduced levels of alpha-actinin and paxillin in their detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton. The absence of vinculin correlated with a decrease in the mechanical stiffness of the integrin-cytoskeleton linkage, as measured using cell magnetometry. Furthermore, when vinculin was replaced by transfection in 5.51Vin3 and 5.51Vin4 cells, the levels of cytoskeletal-associated alpha-actinin and paxillin, the efficiency of transmembrane mechanical coupling, and the formation of actin stress fibers were all restored to near wild-type levels. These findings suggest that vinculin may promote cell spreading by stabilizing focal adhesions and transferring mechanical stresses that drive cytoskeletal remodeling, rather than by altering the total level of actin polymerization or cross-linking.

  14. A Role for the Cytoskeleton in Heart Looping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersti K. Linask

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 10 years, key genes involved in specification of left-right laterality pathways in the embryo have been defined. The read-out for misexpression of laterality genes is usually the direction of heart looping. The question of how dextral looping direction occurred mechanistically and how the heart tube bends remains unknown. It is becoming clear from our experiments and those of others that left-right differences in cell proliferation in the second heart field (anterior heart field drives the dextral direction. Evidence is accumulating that the cytoskeleton is at the center of laterality, and the bending and rotational forces associated with heart looping. If laterality pathways are modulated upstream, the cytoskeleton, including nonmuscle myosin II (NMHC-II, is altered downstream within the cardiomyocytes, leading to looping abnormalities. The cytoskeleton is associated with important mechanosensing and signaling pathways in cell biology and development. The initiation of blood flow during the looping period and the inherent stresses associated with increasing volumes of blood flowing into the heart may help to potentiate the process. In recent years, the steps involved in this central and complex process of heart development that is the basis of numerous congenital heart defects are being unraveled.

  15. All-Round Manipulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina Stella, Alberto; Turville, Stuart

    2018-02-05

    While significant progress has been made in terms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy, treatment does not represent a cure and remains inaccessible to many people living with HIV. Continued mechanistic research into the viral life cycle and its intersection with many aspects of cellular biology are not only fundamental in the continued fight against HIV, but also provide many key observations of the workings of our immune system. Decades of HIV research have testified to the integral role of the actin cytoskeleton in both establishing and spreading the infection. Here, we review how the virus uses different strategies to manipulate cellular actin networks and increase the efficiency of various stages of its life cycle. While some HIV proteins seem able to bind to actin filaments directly, subversion of the cytoskeleton occurs indirectly by exploiting the power of actin regulatory proteins, which are corrupted at multiple levels. Furthermore, this manipulation is not restricted to a discrete class of proteins, but rather extends throughout all layers of the cytoskeleton. We discuss prominent examples of actin regulators that are exploited, neutralized or hijacked by the virus, and address how their coordinated deregulation can lead to changes in cellular behavior that promote viral spreading.

  16. Divergent regulation of the sarcomere and the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schevzov, Galina; Fath, Thomas; Vrhovski, Bernadette; Vlahovich, Nicole; Rajan, Sudarsan; Hook, Jeff; Joya, Josephine E; Lemckert, Frances; Puttur, Franz; Lin, Jim J-C; Hardeman, Edna C; Wieczorek, David F; O'Neill, Geraldine M; Gunning, Peter W

    2008-01-04

    The existence of a feedback mechanism regulating the precise amounts of muscle structural proteins, such as actin and the actin-associated protein tropomyosin (Tm), in the sarcomeres of striated muscles is well established. However, the regulation of nonmuscle or cytoskeletal actin and Tms in nonmuscle cell structures has not been elucidated. Unlike the thin filaments of striated muscles, the actin cytoskeleton in nonmuscle cells is intrinsically dynamic. Given the differing requirements for the structural integrity of the actin thin filaments of the sarcomere compared with the requirement for dynamicity of the actin cytoskeleton in nonmuscle cells, we postulated that different regulatory mechanisms govern the expression of sarcomeric versus cytoskeletal Tms, as key regulators of the properties of the actin cytoskeleton. Comprehensive analyses of tissues from transgenic and knock-out mouse lines that overexpress the cytoskeletal Tms, Tm3 and Tm5NM1, and a comparison with sarcomeric Tms provide evidence for this. Moreover, we show that overexpression of a cytoskeletal Tm drives the amount of filamentous actin.

  17. Thematic Minireview Series: The State of the Cytoskeleton in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert S; Fowler, Velia M

    2015-07-10

    The study of cytoskeletal polymers has been an active area of research for more than 70 years. However, despite decades of pioneering work by some of the brightest scientists in biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology, many central questions regarding the polymers themselves are only now starting to be answered. For example, although it has long been appreciated that the actin cytoskeleton provides contractility and couples biochemical responses with mechanical stresses in cells, only recently have we begun to understand how the actin polymer itself responds to mechanical loads. Likewise, although it has long been appreciated that the microtubule cytoskeleton can be post-translationally modified, only recently have the enzymes responsible for these modifications been characterized, so that we can now begin to understand how these modifications alter the polymerization and regulation of microtubule structures. Even the septins in eukaryotes and the cytoskeletal polymers of prokaryotes have yielded new insights due to recent advances in microscopy techniques. In this thematic series of minireviews, these topics are covered by some of the very same scientists who generated these recent insights, thereby providing us with an overview of the State of the Cytoskeleton in 2015. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. CRMPs colocalize and interact with cytoskeleton in hippocampal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuhao; Zhao, Bo; Ji, Zhisheng; Zhang, Guowei; Zhang, Jifeng; Li, Sumei; Guo, Guoqing; Lin, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    CRMP family proteins (CRMPs) are widely expressed in the developing neurons, mediating a variety of fundamental functions such as growth cone guidance, neuronal polarity and axon elongation. However, whether all the CRMP proteins interact with cytoskeleton remains unknown. In this study, we found that in cultured hippocampal neurons, CRMPs mainly colocalized with tubulin and actin network in neurites. In growth cones, CRMPs colocalized with tubulinmainly in the central (C-) domain and transition zone (T-zone), less in the peripheral (P-) domain and colocalized with actin in all the C-domain, T-zone and P-domain. The correlation efficiency of CRMPs between actin was significantly higher than that between tubulin, especially in growth cones. We successfully constructed GST-CRMPs plasmids, expressed and purified the GST-CRMP proteins. By GST-pulldown assay, all the CRMP family proteins were found to beinteracted with cytoskeleton proteins. Taken together, we revealed that CRMPs were colocalized with cytoskeleton in hippocampal neurons, especially in growth cones. CRMPs can interact with both tubulin and actin, thus mediating neuronal development. PMID:26885211

  19. Cytoskeleton and nuclear lamina affection in recessive osteogenesis imperfecta: A functional proteomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Assunta; Besio, Roberta; Carnemolla, Chiara; Landi, Claudia; Armini, Alessandro; Aglan, Mona; Otaify, Ghada; Temtamy, Samia A; Forlino, Antonella; Bini, Luca; Bianchi, Laura

    2017-09-07

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a collagen-related disorder associated to dominant, recessive or X-linked transmission, mainly caused by mutations in type I collagen genes or in genes involved in type I collagen metabolism. Among the recessive forms, OI types VII, VIII, and IX are due to mutations in CRTAP, P3H1, and PPIB genes, respectively. They code for the three components of the endoplasmic reticulum complex that catalyzes 3-hydroxylation of type I collagen α1Pro986. Under-hydroxylation of this residue leads to collagen structural abnormalities and results in moderate to lethal OI phenotype, despite the exact molecular mechanisms are still not completely clear. To shed light on these recessive forms, primary fibroblasts from OI patients with mutations in CRTAP (n=3), P3H1 (n=3), PPIB (n=1) genes and from controls (n=4) were investigated by a functional proteomic approach. Cytoskeleton and nucleoskeleton asset, protein fate, and metabolism were delineated as mainly affected. While western blot experiments confirmed altered expression of lamin A/C and cofilin-1, immunofluorescence analysis using antibody against lamin A/C and phalloidin showed an aberrant organization of nucleus and cytoskeleton. This is the first report describing an altered organization of intracellular structural proteins in recessive OI and pointing them as possible novel target for OI treatment. OI is a prototype for skeletal dysplasias. It is a highly heterogeneous collagen-related disorder with dominant, recessive and X-linked transmission. There is no definitive cure for this disease, thus a better understanding of the molecular basis of its pathophysiology is expected to contribute in identifying potential targets to develop new treatments. Based on this concept, we performed a functional proteomic study to delineate affected molecular pathways in primary fibroblasts from recessive OI patients, carrying mutations in CRTAP (OI type VII), P3H1 (OI type VIII), and PPIB (OI type IX) genes

  20. Controlled modification of octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer by CO2 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, Nicolas; Bardeau, Jean-Francois; Bulou, Alain; Poncin-Epaillard, Fabienne

    2006-01-01

    CO 2 -plasma is used to introduce functional groups on the uppermost surface of an alkoxy silane self-assembled monolayer (Sam). The structural and chemical modifications of the material surface were monitored by X-ray reflectometry, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Optimization of the plasma parameters is performed in order to achieve a maximum functionalization and to prevent degradation of the SAM. Finally, the ability of grafting organic compounds onto the plasma modified SAMS was demonstrated by the formation of an alkoxysilane bilayer

  1. Controlled in situ growth of tunable plasmonic self-assembled nanoparticle arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verre, R; Fleischer, K; McGilp, J F; Fox, D; Behan, G; Zhang, H; Shvets, I V

    2012-01-01

    Self-assembled silver nanoparticle (NP) arrays were produced by deposition at glancing angles on transparent stepped Al 2 O 3 templates. The evolution of the plasmonic resonances has been monitored using reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) during growth. It is demonstrated that the morphology of the array can be tailored by changing the template structure, resulting in a large tunability of the optical resonances. In order to extract detailed information on the origin of the measured dichroic response of the system, a model based on dipolar interactions has been developed and the effect of tarnishing and morphological dispersion addressed. (paper)

  2. Self-Assembly of Large-Scale Shape-Controlled DNA Nano-Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-16

    for single-molecule imaging. Nano Lett. 11, 657-660 (2011). 46. Dang, X. N. et at. Virus -templated self-assembled single-walled carbon nanotubes for...email: alik(a)rics.bwh.harvard edu). NATURE C0,M.MUN! CAT !0N5 14:2275 I DOI: 10.1038/ncomm53275 | wwwnature.com/naturecommunications 1 @ 2013 Macmillan...prevent non-specific binding between hydrogel and microtube, the inside surface of microtube was treated with a corona treater (BD-20AC from Electro

  3. Cytoskeleton in gravisensing and signal transductionof lower plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, M.

    Characean rhizoids and protonemata are favourable cell types for studying tip growth and gravisensing. Both processes are highly dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. The multiple functions and different arrangements of actin in both cell types are regulated by the concerted action of actin-binding proteins. Monomer- binding profilin is distributed evenly throughout the cytoplasm and is likely to be involved in the regulation of the polymerization state of actin. Actin-severing ADF, spectrin- and actinin-like epitopes concentrate in a central prominent spot in the apex of both cell types, where they colocalize with a dense, spherical actin array and a unique aggregation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the structural center of the tip - growth organizing Spitzenkörper. The ER aggregate disintegrates and immuno- localization of the actin-binding proteins fails when tip growth is arrested; the epitopes reappear when tip growth resumes. Actin filaments form a meshwork of axially oriented filaments in the subapical zone and focus in this central apical area which seems to represent their apical polymerization site. The rapid turn-over and rearrangement of actin might be under control of ADF and profilin. Spectrin- and actinin-like proteins are candidates for establishing the actin-mediated anchoring and maintaining of the ER aggregate. They could also provide a mechanism for recruiting specific membrane proteins that create the particular physiological environment for gravity-oriented tip growth. The positioning and sedimentation of statoliths in the subapical region (crucial for gravisensing) is highly coordinated by actomyosin. Non-invasive infrared laser micromanipulation techniques, centri- fugation and experiments in microgravity revealed that reorientation of the growth direction was initiated when at least 2-3 statoliths were directed to specific areas of the plasma membrane by actomyosin and gravitational forces. The statolith-sensitive area is confined to the

  4. Control of morphology, cytoskeleton and migration by syndecan-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longley, R L; Woods, A; Fleetwood, A

    1999-01-01

    Syndecan-4 is a widely expressed transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan which localizes to focal adhesions. Previous studies showed that the syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain can associate with and potentiate the activity of protein kinase C, which is required for focal adhesion formation. To exa...

  5. [The effect of heat stress on the cytoskeleton and cell cycle of human umbilical vein endothelial cell in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhiguo; Shao, Yu; Geng, Yan; Chen, Jinghe; Su, Lei

    2015-08-01

    To study the effect of heat stress on the cytoskeleton and cell cycle of human umbilical vein endothelial cell ( HUVEC ) in vitro. HUVEC was cultured in vitro in 5%CO(2) medium at 37 centigrade ( control group ) or 43 centigrade ( heat stress group ) for 1 hour. Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 staining was used to determine the effect of heat stress on the cytoskeleton. The cells in heat stress group were subsequently cultured at 37 centigradein 5%CO(2) medium after heat stress for 1 hour, and cell cycle of HUVEC was determined at 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours with flow cytometry. Under light microscopy normal cytoskeleton was observed in control group, but thicker and shorter cytoskeleton was found after a rise of temperature, and stress fibers were found in heat stress group. The DNA content of HUVEC at all time points in G0/G1 stage was 38.07%-55.19% after heat stress. The DNA content in control group was 48.57%, and it was 54.06%, 55.19%, 48.23%, 38.07%, and 41.03% at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 hours in G0/G1 stage in heat stress group. DNA content in S phase was 35.33%-48.18%. The DNA content in control group was 44.62%, and it was 35.33%, 39.50%, 42.50%, 48.18%, and 47.99% at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 hours in S stage in heat stress group. DNA content in G2/M phase was 5.31%-13.75%. The DNA content in control group was 6.81, and it was 10.61%, 5.31%, 9.27%,13.75%, and 10.98% at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 hours in G2/M stage in heat stress group. It was demonstrated that compared with control group, the DNA content in G0/G1 stage was significantly increased when the HUVEC were separated from heat stress within 6 hours, and it recovered at a similar level as control group at 12 hours. Heat stress can change the cytoskeleton of HUVEC, and cause stagnation at G0/G1 stage in cell cycle.

  6. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi; Hirano, Yasushi.

    1998-01-01

    A one-half or more of entire fuel rods in a fuel assembly comprises MOX fuel rods containing less than 1wt% of burnable poisons, and at least a portion of the burnable poisons comprises gadolinium. Then, surplus reactivity at an initial stage of operation cycle is controlled to eliminate burnable poisons remained unburnt at a final stage, as well as increase thermal reactivity. In addition, the content of fission plutonium is determined to greater than the content of uranium 235, and fuel rods at corner portions are made not to incorporate burnable poisons. Fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed at positions in adjacent with fuel rods facing to a water rod at one or two directions. Local power at radial center of the fuel assembly is increased to flatten the distortion of radial power distribution. (N.H.)

  7. Dinitroaniline herbicide resistance and the microtubule cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony; Hussey

    1999-03-01

    Dinitroaniline herbicides have been used for pre-emergence weed control for the past 25 years in cotton, soybean, wheat and oilseed crops. Considering their long persistence and extensive use, resistance to dinitroanilines is fairly rare. However, the most widespread dinitroaniline-resistant weeds, the highly resistant (R) and the intermediate (I) biotypes of the invasive goosegrass Eleusine indica, are now infesting more than 1000 cotton fields in the southern states of the USA. The molecular basis of this resistance has been identified, and found to be a point mutation in a major microtubule cytoskeletal protein, alpha-tubulin. These studies have served both to explain the establishment of resistance and to reveal fundamental properties of tubulin gene expression and microtubule structure.

  8. Regulation of the Postsynaptic Compartment of Excitatory Synapses by the Actin Cytoskeleton in Health and Its Disruption in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Stefen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of synaptic function at excitatory synapses is one of the earliest pathological changes seen in wide range of neurological diseases. The proper control of the segregation of neurotransmitter receptors at these synapses is directly correlated with the intact regulation of the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. In this review, we are discussing key factors that regulate the structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the major cytoskeletal building block that supports the postsynaptic compartment. Special attention is given to the complex interplay of actin-associated proteins that are found in the synaptic specialization. We then discuss our current understanding of how disruption of these cytoskeletal elements may contribute to the pathological events observed in the nervous system under disease conditions with a particular focus on Alzheimer’s disease pathology.

  9. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in Helicobacter pylori-induced migration and invasive growth of gastric epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rieder Gabriele

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dynamic rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is a significant hallmark of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infected gastric epithelial cells leading to cell migration and invasive growth. Considering the cellular mechanisms, the type IV secretion system (T4SS and the effector protein cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA of H. pylori are well-studied initiators of distinct signal transduction pathways in host cells targeting kinases, adaptor proteins, GTPases, actin binding and other proteins involved in the regulation of the actin lattice. In this review, we summarize recent findings of how H. pylori functionally interacts with the complex signaling network that controls the actin cytoskeleton of motile and invasive gastric epithelial cells.

  10. Expert system for assisting the repair operations on the control racks of the control rods assembly in a 900 MW PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, B.; Doutre, J.L.; Franco, A.

    1990-01-01

    The expert system presented was developed for assisting the repair operations on the control equipment of the control rod assembly in a PWR type reactor. The expert system allows the representation of expert knowledge and diagnostic reasoning. The objective of the expert system is to achieve the most precise diagnostic and localizing of the breakdown elements, by processing the data acquired during breakdown. The development steps, the structure and the applications of the expert system are summarized. The expert system operates in an IBM PC equipped with a AMAIA 8 Mo card. A time schedule of 18 months is predicted [fr

  11. MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction regulates the actin cytoskeleton through the downregulation of WAVE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-L; Ueno, M; Liu, D; Masuya, D; Nakano, J; Yokomise, H; Nakagawa, T; Miyake, M

    2006-10-19

    Motility-related protein-1 (MRP-1/CD9) is involved in cell motility. We studied the change in the actin cytoskeleton, and the expression of actin-related protein (Arp) 2 and Arp3 and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family according to MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction into HT1080 cells. The frequency of cells with lamellipodia was significantly lower in MRP-1/CD9-transfected HT1080 cells than in control HT1080 cells (PMRP-1/CD9 gene transduction affected the subcellular localization of Arp2 and Arp3 proteins. Furthermore, MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction induced a downregulation of WAVE2 expression (PMRP-1/CD9 monoclonal antibody inhibited downregulation of WAVE2 in MRP-1/CD9-transfected HT1080 cells (PMRP-1/CD9 gene transduction. Furthermore, downregulation of WAVE2 by transfection of WAVE2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) mimicked the morphological effects of MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction and suppressed cell motility. However, transfection of each siRNA for Wnt1, Wnt2b1 or Wnt5a did not affect WAVE2 expression. Transfection of WAVE2-specific siRNA also did not affect expressions of these Wnts. These results indicate that MRP-1/CD9 regulates the actin cytoskeleton by downregulating of the WAVE2, through the Wnt-independent signal pathway.

  12. Changed Expression of Cytoskeleton Proteins During Lung Injury in a Mouse Model of Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ferrer-Navarro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Infections by Streptococcus pneumoniae are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, often causing community-acquired pneumonia, otitis media and also bacteremia and meningitis. Studies on S. pneumoniae are mainly focused on its virulence or capacity to evade the host immune system, but little is known about the injury caused in lungs during a pneumococcal infection. Herein we investigated this issue comparing the proteome profile of lungs from S. pneumoniae-infected mice with control mice by means of difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE technology. In order to obtain reliable results three biological replicas were used, and four technical replicas were carried out in each biological replica. Proteomic comparison was performed at two time points: 24 and 48 h post infection. A total of 91 proteins were identified with different abundance. We found important changes in the protein profiles during pneumococcal infection mainly associated with regulation of vesicle-mediated transport, wound healing, and cytoskeleton organization. In conclusion, the results obtained show that the cytoskeleton of the host cell is modified in S. pneumoniae infection.

  13. Multiscale evaluation of cellular adhesion alteration and cytoskeleton remodeling by magnetic bead twisting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabey, Daniel; Pelle, Gabriel; André Dias, Sofia; Bottier, Mathieu; Nguyen, Ngoc-Minh; Filoche, Marcel; Louis, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    Cellular adhesion forces depend on local biological conditions meaning that adhesion characterization must be performed while preserving cellular integrity. We presently postulate that magnetic bead twisting provides an appropriate stress, i.e., basically a clamp, for assessment in living cells of both cellular adhesion and mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. A global dissociation rate obeying a Bell-type model was used to determine the natural dissociation rate ([Formula: see text]) and a reference stress ([Formula: see text]). These adhesion parameters were determined in parallel to the mechanical properties for a variety of biological conditions in which either adhesion or cytoskeleton was selectively weakened or strengthened by changing successively ligand concentration, actin polymerization level (by treating with cytochalasin D), level of exerted stress (by increasing magnetic torque), and cell environment (by using rigid and soft 3D matrices). On the whole, this multiscale evaluation of the cellular and molecular responses to a controlled stress reveals an evolution which is consistent with stochastic multiple bond theories and with literature results obtained with other molecular techniques. Present results confirm the validity of the proposed bead-twisting approach for its capability to probe cellular and molecular responses in a variety of biological conditions.

  14. AMP-activated protein kinase induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Lisa; Carpentier, Sarah; Platek, Anna; Hussain, Nusrat; Gueuning, Marie-Agnes; Vertommen, Didier; Ozkan, Yurda; Sid, Brice; Hue, Louis; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Rider, Mark H.; Horman, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of cellular and systemic energy balance, is now recognized to control cell division, cell polarity and cell migration, all of which depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report the effects of A769662, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on cytoskeletal organization and signalling in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We show that AMPK activation induced shortening or radiation of stress fibers, uncoupling from paxillin and predominance of cortical F-actin. In parallel, Rho-kinase downstream targets, namely myosin regulatory light chain and cofilin, were phosphorylated. These effects resembled the morphological changes in MDCK cells exposed to hyperosmotic shock, which led to Ca 2+ -dependent AMPK activation via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β(CaMKKβ), a known upstream kinase of AMPK. Indeed, hypertonicity-induced AMPK activation was markedly reduced by the STO-609 CaMKKβ inhibitor, as was the increase in MLC and cofilin phosphorylation. We suggest that AMPK links osmotic stress to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  15. Sun-mediated mechanical LINC between nucleus and cytoskeleton regulates βcatenin nuclear access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzer, Gunes; Bas, Guniz; Sen, Buer; Xie, Zhihui; Birks, Scott; Olcum, Melis; McGrath, Cody; Styner, Maya; Rubin, Janet

    2018-06-06

    βcatenin acts as a primary intracellular signal transducer for mechanical and Wnt signaling pathways to control cell function and fate. Regulation of βcatenin in the cytoplasm has been well studied but βcatenin nuclear trafficking and function remains unclear. In a previous study we showed that, in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), mechanical blockade of adipogenesis relied on inhibition of βcatenin destruction complex element GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β) to increase nuclear βcatenin as well as the function of Linker of Cytoskeleton and Nucleoskeleton (LINC) complexes, suggesting that these two mechanisms may be linked. Here we show that shortly after inactivation of GSK3β due to either low intensity vibration (LIV), substrate strain or pharmacologic inhibition, βcatenin associates with the nucleoskeleton, defined as the insoluble nuclear fraction that provides structure to the integrated nuclear envelope, nuclear lamina and chromatin. Co-depleting LINC elements Sun-1 and Sun-2 interfered with both nucleoskeletal association and nuclear entry of βcatenin, resulting in decreased nuclear βcatenin levels. Our findings reveal that the insoluble structural nucleoskeleton actively participates in βcatenin dynamics. As the cytoskeleton transmits applied mechanical force to the nuclear surface to influence the nucleoskeleton and its LINC mediated interaction, our results suggest a pathway by which LINC mediated connectivity may play a role in signaling pathways that depend on nuclear access of βcatenin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Maintenance of asymmetric cellular localization of an auxin transport protein through interaction with the actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (that is, from the shoot apex toward the base) and is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. The focus of this article is to summarize the experiments that have examined how the asymmetric distribution of this protein complex is controlled and the significance of this polar distribution. Experimental evidence suggests that asymmetries in the auxin efflux carrier may be established through localized secretion of Golgi vesicles, whereas an attachment of a subunit of the efflux carrier to the actin cytoskeleton may maintain this localization. In addition, the idea that this localization of the efflux carrier may control both the polarity of auxin movement and more globally regulate developmental polarity is explored. Finally, evidence indicating that the gravity vector controls auxin transport polarity is summarized and possible mechanisms for the environmentally induced changes in auxin transport polarity are discussed.

  17. Control of dynamical self-assembly of strongly Brownian nanoparticles through convective forces induced by ultrafast laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilday, Serim; Akguc, Gursoy B.; Tokel, Onur; Makey, Ghaith; Yavuz, Ozgun; Yavuz, Koray; Pavlov, Ihor; Ilday, F. Omer; Gulseren, Oguz

    We report a new dynamical self-assembly mechanism, where judicious use of convective and strong Brownian forces enables effective patterning of colloidal nanoparticles that are almost two orders of magnitude smaller than the laser beam. Optical trapping or tweezing effects are not involved, but the laser is used to create steep thermal gradients through multi-photon absorption, and thereby guide the colloids through convective forces. Convective forces can be thought as a positive feedback mechanism that helps to form and reinforce pattern, while Brownian motion act as a competing negative feedback mechanism to limit the growth of the pattern, as well as to increase the possibilities of bifurcation into different patterns, analogous to the competition observed in reaction-diffusion systems. By steering stochastic processes through these forces, we are able to gain control over the emergent pattern such as to form-deform-reform of a pattern, to change its shape and transport it spatially within seconds. This enables us to dynamically initiate and control large patterns comprised of hundreds of colloids. Further, by not relying on any specific chemical, optical or magnetic interaction, this new method is, in principle, completely independent of the material type being assembled.

  18. Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Arkadiusz; Skowronski, Lukasz; Trzcinski, Marek; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the influence of presence of Ni and Ge wetting layers as well as annealing on the permittivity of Ag films with thicknesses of 20, 35 and 65 nm. Most of the research on thin silver films deals with very small (wetting and capping material, post-process annealing). Our study, based on atomic force microscopy, ellipsometric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, shows that utilizing a wetting layer is comparable to increasing the thickness of the silver film. Both operations decrease the roughness-to-thickness ratio, thus decreasing the scattering losses and both narrow the Lorentz-shaped interband transition peak. However, while increasing silver thickness increases absorption on the free carriers, the use of wetting layers influences the self-assembled internal structure of silver films in such a way, that the free carrier absorption decreases. Wetting layers also introduce additional contributions from effects like segregation or diffusion, which evolve in time and due to annealing.

  19. Controlled self-assembly of multiferroic core-shell nanoparticles exhibiting strong magneto-electric effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi; Hamilton, Sean L.; Lehto, Piper R.; Srinivasan, Gopalan, E-mail: srinivas@oakland.edu [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States); Popov, Maksym [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States); Radiophysics Department, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Chavez, Ferman A. [Chemistry Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States)

    2014-02-03

    Ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composites show strain mediated coupling between the magnetic and electric sub-systems due to magnetostriction and piezoelectric effects associated with the ferroic phases. We have synthesized core-shell multiferroic nano-composites by functionalizing 10–100 nm barium titanate and nickel ferrite nanoparticles with complementary coupling groups and allowing them to self-assemble in the presence of a catalyst. The core-shell structure was confirmed by electron microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Evidence for strong strain mediated magneto-electric coupling was obtained by static magnetic field induced variations in the permittivity over 16–18 GHz and polarization and by electric field induced by low-frequency ac magnetic fields.

  20. Directional cell movements downstream of Gbx2 and Otx2 control the assembly of sensory placodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Steventon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranial placodes contribute to sensory structures including the inner ear, the lens and olfactory epithelium and the neurons of the cranial sensory ganglia. At neurula stages, placode precursors are interspersed in the ectoderm surrounding the anterior neural plate before segregating into distinct placodes by as yet unknown mechanisms. Here, we perform live imaging to follow placode progenitors as they aggregate to form the lens and otic placodes. We find that while placode progenitors move with the same speed as their non-placodal neighbours, they exhibit increased persistence and directionality and these properties are required to assemble morphological placodes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these factors are components of the transcriptional networks that coordinate placode cell behaviour including their directional movements. Together with previous work, our results support a dual role for Otx and Gbx transcription factors in both the early patterning of the neural plate border and the later segregation of its derivatives into distinct placodes.

  1. High Performance Platinum Group Metal Free Membrane Electrode Assemblies through Control of Interfacial Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton Energy Systems, Wallingford, CT (United States); Capuano, Christopher [Proton Energy Systems, Wallingford, CT (United States); Atanassov, Plamen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mukerjee, Sanjeev [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Hickner, Michael [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-11-29

    The quantitative goal of this project was to produce a high-performance anion exchange membrane water electrolyzer (AEM-WE) completely free of platinum group metals (PGMs), which could operate for at least 500 hours with less than 50 microV/hour degradation, at 500 mA/cm2. To achieve this goal, work focused on the optimization of electrocatalyst conductivity, with dispersion and utilization in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) improved through refinement of deposition techniques. Critical factors were also explored with significant work undertaken by Northeastern University to further understand catalyst-membrane-ionomer interfaces and how they differ from liquid electrolyte. Water management and optimal cell operational parameters were established through the design, fabrication, and test of a new test station at Proton specific for AEM evaluation. Additionally, AEM material stability and robustness at high potentials and gas evolution conditions were advanced at Penn State.

  2. Electrochemically controlled self-assembled monolayers characterized with molecular and sub-molecular resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Welinder, Anna Christina; Chi, Qijin

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled organization of functional molecules on solid surfaces has developed into a powerful and sophisticated tool for surface chemistry and nanotechnology. A number of reviews on the topic have been available since the mid 1990s. This perspective article aims to focus on recent development...... structures and the experimental operating conditions. This is followed by discussion of two major high-resolution experimental methods, scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and single-crystal electrochemistry. In Section 3, we briefly address choice of supporting electrolytes and substrate surfaces......, we give examples of what can be offered by theoretical computations for the detailed understanding of the SAM electronic structures revealed by STM images. A brief summary of the current applications of SAMs in wiring metalloproteins, design and fabrication of sensors, and single-molecule electronics...

  3. Controlled self-assembly of PbS nanoparticles into macrostar-like hierarchical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guowei; Li, Changsheng; Tang, Hua; Cao, Kesheng; Chen, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The aggregation and rotation of nanoparticles to adopt parallel orientations in three dimensions was indirectly illustrated by TEM and HRTEM images. Highlights: → Macrostar-like PbS hierarchical structures was successfully synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method and mesostars were assembled from the PbS nanocube building blocks with edge lengths of about 100 nm. → Ostwald-ripening-assisted oriented attachment is believed to play a key role in the growth behavior of novel 3D structures. → Optical properties indicating few defects on the surface of the PbS structure and exhibit large blue-shifts compared to bulk PbS. -- Abstract: The synthesis of macrostar-like PbS hierarchical structures by a simple hydrothermal method at 180 o C for 24 h is proven successful with the assistance of a new surfactant called tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB). The as-obtained product is characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. The presence of TBAB and NaF plays an important role in the formation of PbS macrostructures. Ostwald-ripening-assisted oriented attachment is believed to play a key role in the growth behavior of novel 3D structures. As such, a possible self-assembly mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of the said structures. The present study aims to introduce new insights into understanding the formation process of such unique hierarchical superstructures.

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Sei; Ando, Ryohei; Mitsutake, Toru.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly suitable to a BWR-type reactor and improved especially with the nuclear characteristic, heat performance, hydraulic performance, dismantling or assembling performance and economical property. A part of poison rods are formed as a large-diameter/multi-region poison rods having a larger diameter than a fuel rod. A large number of fuel rods are disposed surrounding a large diameter water rod and a group of the large-diameter/multi-region poison rods in adjacent with the water rod. The large-diameter water rod has a burnable poison at the tube wall portion. At least a portion of the large-diameter poison rods has a coolant circulation portion allowing coolants to circulate therethrough. Since the large-diameter poison rods are disposed at a position of high neutron fluxes, a large neutron multiplication factor suppression effect can be provided, thereby enabling to reduce the number of burnable poison rods relative to fuels. As a result, power peaking in the fuel assembly is moderated and a greater amount of plutonium can be loaded. In addition the flow of cooling water which tends to gather around the large diameter water rod can be controlled to improve cooling performance of fuels. (N.H.)

  5. Precise Steric Control over 2D versus 3D Self-Assembly of Antimony(III) Alkoxide Cages through Strong Secondary Bonding Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaven, Shiva; Yu, Jingze; Yasin, Jason; Unruh, Daniel K; Cozzolino, Anthony F

    2017-07-17

    Antimony(III) alkoxide cages were designed as building blocks for predictable supramolecular self-assembly. Supramolecular synthons featuring two Sb···O secondary bonding interactions (SBIs), each SBI stronger than 30 kJ/mol, were used to drive the formation of the supramolecular architectures. Judicious choice of pendant groups provided predictable control over the formation of self-assembled 3D columnar helices, which crystallized with hollow morphologies, or a self-assembled 2D bilayer. The Sb-O stretching frequency provides a spectroscopic signature of Sb···O SBI formation.

  6. Density-controllable nonvolatile memory devices having metal nanocrystals through chemical synthesis and assembled by spin-coating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangli; Chen Yubin; Shi Yi; Pu Lin; Pan Lijia; Zhang Rong; Zheng Youdou

    2010-01-01

    A novel two-step method is employed, for the first time, to fabricate nonvolatile memory devices that have metal nanocrystals. First, size-averaged Au nanocrystals are synthesized chemically; second, they are assembled into memory devices by a spin-coating technique at room temperature. This attractive approach makes it possible to tailor the diameter and control the density of nanocrystals individually. In addition, processes at room temperature prevent Au diffusion, which is a main concern for the application of metal nanocrystal-based memory. The experimental results, both the morphology characterization and the electrical measurements, reveal that there is an optimum density of nanocrystal monolayer to balance between long data retention and a large hysteresis memory window. At the same time, density-controllable devices could also feed the preferential emphasis on either memory window or retention time. All these facts confirm the advantages and novelty of our two-step method. (semiconductor devices)

  7. The Detector Control System of the ATLAS SemiCondutor Tracker during Macro-Assembly and Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Abdesselam, A; Basiladze, S; Bates, R L; Bell, P; Bingefors, N; Böhm, J; Brenner, R; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Clark, A; Codispoti, G; Colijn, A P; D'Auria, S; Dorholt, O; Doherty, F; Ferrari, P; Ferrère, D; Górnicki, E; Koperny, S; Lefèvre, R; Lindquist, L-E; Malecki, P; Mikulec, B; Mohn, B; Pater, J; Pernegger, H; Phillips, P; Robichaud-Véronneau, A; Robinson, D; Roe, S; Sandaker, H; Sfyrla, A; Stanecka, E; Stastny, J; Viehhauser, G; Vossebeld, J; Wells, P

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is one of the largest existing semiconductor detectors. It is situated between the Pixel detector and the Transition Radiation Tracker at one of the four interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). During 2006-2007 the detector was lowered into the ATLAS cavern and installed in its final position. For the assembly, integration and commissioning phase, a complete Detector Control System (DCS) was developed to ensure the safe operation of the tracker. This included control of the individual powering of the silicon modules, a bi-phase cooling system and various types of sensors monitoring the SCT environment and the surrounding test enclosure. The DCS software architecture, performance and operational experience will be presented in the view of a validation of the DCS for the final SCT installation and operation phase.

  8. Development of super-synchronization speed control assembly for 2500 kW double-fed motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huajun; Xuan Weimin; Peng Jianfei; Hu Haotian; Wang Shujing; Kang Li; Xu Lirong; Huang Zhaorong; Wang Xiaoping; Du Cang; Liu Ling

    2007-01-01

    The super-synchronization speed control assemblies for the two 2500 kW induction motors have been developed successfully in order to meet the need for toroidal field increasing in HL-2A tokamak. Based on the a.c./a.c. cycloconverter, the speed of each 2500 kW motor has been regulated by means of vector control technology for double-fed motor. The highest rotate speed of the two 80 MVA generator sets have been increased from 1488 rpm rated speed to 1650 rpm and the released energy of each generator set in one pulse discharge can reach 500 MJ. Therefore the toroidal field system is able to reach 2.8T for experiment. (authors)

  9. Assembly of an Oxalate Decarboxylase Produced under σK Control into the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Teresa; Steil, Leif; Martins, Lígia O.; Völker, Uwe; Henriques, Adriano O.

    2004-01-01

    Over 30 polypeptides are synthesized at various times during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, and they are assembled at the surface of the developing spore to form a multilayer protein structure called the coat. The coat consists of three main layers, an amorphous undercoat close to the underlying spore cortex peptidoglycan, a lamellar inner layer, and an electron-dense striated outer layer. The product of the B. subtilis oxdD gene was previously shown to have oxalate decarboxylase activity when it was produced in Escherichia coli and to be a spore constituent. In this study, we found that OxdD specifically associates with the spore coat structure, and in this paper we describe regulation of its synthesis and assembly. We found that transcription of oxdD is induced during sporulation as a monocistronic unit under the control of σK and is negatively regulated by GerE. We also found that localization of a functional OxdD-green fluorescent protein (GFP) at the surface of the developing spore depends on the SafA morphogenetic protein, which localizes at the interface between the spore cortex and coat layers. OxdD-GFP localizes around the developing spore in a cotE mutant, which does not assemble the spore outer coat layer, but it does not persist in spores produced by the mutant. Together, the data suggest that OxdD-GFP is targeted to the interior layers of the coat. Additionally, we found that expression of a multicopy allele of oxdD resulted in production of spores with increased levels of OxdD that were able to degrade oxalate but were sensitive to lysozyme. PMID:14973022

  10. Automatic micropart assembly of 3-Dimensional structure by vision based control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lidai; Kim, Seung Min

    2008-01-01

    We propose a vision control strategy to perform automatic microassembly tasks in three-dimension (3-D) and develop relevant control software: specifically, using a 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) robotic workstation to control a passive microgripper to automatically grasp a designated micropart from the chip, pivot the micropart, and then move the micropart to be vertically inserted into a designated slot on the chip. In the proposed control strategy, the whole microassembly task is divided into two subtasks, micro-grasping and micro-joining, in sequence. To guarantee the success of microassembly and manipulation accuracy, two different two-stage feedback motion strategies, the pattern matching and auto-focus method are employed, with the use of vision-based control system and the vision control software developed. Experiments conducted demonstrate the efficiency and validity of the proposed control strategy

  11. Automatic micropart assembly of 3-Dimensional structure by vision based control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lidai [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Kim, Seung Min [Korean Intellectual Property Office, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    We propose a vision control strategy to perform automatic microassembly tasks in three-dimension (3-D) and develop relevant control software: specifically, using a 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) robotic workstation to control a passive microgripper to automatically grasp a designated micropart from the chip, pivot the micropart, and then move the micropart to be vertically inserted into a designated slot on the chip. In the proposed control strategy, the whole microassembly task is divided into two subtasks, micro-grasping and micro-joining, in sequence. To guarantee the success of microassembly and manipulation accuracy, two different two-stage feedback motion strategies, the pattern matching and auto-focus method are employed, with the use of vision-based control system and the vision control software developed. Experiments conducted demonstrate the efficiency and validity of the proposed control strategy

  12. Membrane Microdomains and Cytoskeleton Organization Shape and Regulate the IL-7 Receptor Signalosome in Human CD4 T-cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarit, Blanche; Bugault, Florence; Pillet, Anne-Hélène; Lavergne, Vincent; Bochet, Pascal; Garin, Nathalie; Schwarz, Ulf; Thèze, Jacques; Rose, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-7 is the main homeostatic regulator of CD4 T-lymphocytes (helper) at both central and peripheral levels. Upon activation by IL-7, several signaling pathways, mainly JAK/STAT, PI3K/Akt and MAPK, induce the expression of genes involved in T-cell differentiation, activation, and proliferation. We have analyzed the early events of CD4 T-cell activation by IL-7. We have shown that IL-7 in the first few min induces the formation of cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains that compartmentalize its activated receptor and initiate its anchoring to the cytoskeleton, supporting the formation of the signaling complex, the signalosome, on the IL-7 receptor cytoplasmic domains. Here we describe by stimulated emission depletion microscopy the key roles played by membrane microdomains and cytoskeleton transient organization in the IL-7-regulated JAK/STAT signaling pathway. We image phospho-STAT5 and cytoskeleton components along IL-7 activation kinetics using appropriate inhibitors. We show that lipid raft inhibitors delay and reduce IL-7-induced JAK1 and JAK3 phosphorylation. Drug-induced disassembly of the cytoskeleton inhibits phospho-STAT5 formation, transport, and translocation into the nucleus that controls the transcription of genes involved in T-cell activation and proliferation. We fit together the results of these quantitative analyses and propose the following mechanism. Activated IL-7 receptors embedded in membrane microdomains induce actin-microfilament meshwork formation, anchoring microtubules that grow radially from rafted receptors to the nuclear membrane. STAT5 phosphorylated by signalosomes are loaded on kinesins and glide along the microtubules across the cytoplasm to reach the nucleus 2 min after IL-7 stimulation. Radial microtubules disappear 15 min later, while transversal microtubules, independent of phospho-STAT5 transport, begin to bud from the microtubule organization center. PMID:23329834

  13. Morphodynamics of the Actin-Rich Cytoskeleton in Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is the anaerobic protozoan parasite responsible for human amoebiasis, the third most deadly parasitic disease worldwide. This highly motile eukaryotic cell invades human tissues and constitutes an excellent experimental model of cell motility and cell shape deformation. The absence of extranuclear microtubules in Entamoeba histolytica means that the actin-rich cytoskeleton takes on a crucial role in not only amoebic motility but also other processes sustaining pathogenesis, such as the phagocytosis of human cells and the parasite's resistance of host immune responses. Actin is highly conserved among eukaryotes, although diverse isoforms exist in almost all organisms studied to date. However, E. histolytica has a single actin protein, the structure of which differs significantly from those of its human homologs. Here, we studied the expression, structure and dynamics of actin in E. histolytica. We used molecular and cellular approaches to evaluate actin gene expression during intestinal invasion by E. histolytica trophozoites. Based on a three-dimensional structural bioinformatics analysis, we characterized protein domains differences between amoebic actin and human actin. Fine-tuned molecular dynamics simulations enabled us to examine protein motion and refine the three-dimensional structures of both actins, including elements potentially accounting for differences changes in the affinity properties of amoebic actin and deoxyribonuclease I. The dynamic, multifunctional nature of the amoebic cytoskeleton prompted us to examine the pleiotropic forms of actin structures within live E. histolytica cells; we observed the cortical cytoskeleton, stress fibers, “dot-like” structures, adhesion plates, and macropinosomes. In line with these data, a proteomics study of actin-binding proteins highlighted the Arp2/3 protein complex as a crucial element for the development of macropinosomes and adhesion plaques.

  14. Enhanced gravitropism of roots with a disrupted cap actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guichuan; Mohamalawari, Deepti R.; Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2003-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has been proposed to be a major player in plant gravitropism. However, understanding the role of actin in this process is far from complete. To address this problem, we conducted an analysis of the effect of Latrunculin B (Lat B), a potent actin-disrupting drug, on root gravitropism using various parameters that included detailed curvature kinetics, estimation of gravitropic sensitivity, and monitoring of curvature development after extended clinorotation. Lat B treatment resulted in a promotion of root curvature after a 90 degrees reorientation in three plant species tested. More significantly, the sensitivity of maize (Zea mays) roots to gravity was enhanced after actin disruption, as determined from a comparison of presentation time of Lat B-treated versus untreated roots. A short 10-min gravistimulus followed by extended rotation on a 1-rpm clinostat resulted in extensive gravitropic responses, manifested as curvature that often exceeded 90 degrees. Application of Lat B to the cap or elongation zone of maize roots resulted in the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, which was confined to the area of localized Lat B application. Only roots with Lat B applied to the cap displayed the strong curvature responses after extended clinorotation. Our study demonstrates that disrupting the actin cytoskeleton in the cap leads to the persistence of a signal established by a previous gravistimulus. Therefore, actin could function in root gravitropism by providing a mechanism to regulate the proliferation of a gravitropic signal originating from the cap to allow the root to attain its correct orientation or set point angle.

  15. Self-assembled hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for controlled release of agrochemicals and diosgenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Javier Pérez; Brüggemann, Oliver; Covas, Carlos Peniche; Ossipov, Dmitri A

    2017-10-01

    Commercial sodium hyaluronate (HA) and synthetic hydrazide-modified HA were functionalized with diosgenin and two agrochemicals (brassinosteroids DI31 and S7) with degree of substitution ranging from 5.6 to 13.1%. The HA-steroid conjugates were studied with FTIR, 1 H NMR and differential scanning calorimetry. Dynamic light scattering revealed self-assembly of the HA-steroid conjugates into stable negatively charged nanoparticles of around 159nm-441nm in water, which after drying appeared as 140nm-370nm spherically shaped nanoparticles according to transmission electron microscopy. These nanoparticles exhibited almost constant release rates of steroids for the first 8h, demonstrating sustained steroids delivery for 72h in acidic medium. The nanoparticles formed from HA-steroid conjugates were not cytotoxic to human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC), while the HA- brassinosteroid nanoparticles showed in vitro agrochemical activity that was superior to the activity observed for the parent brassinosteroids DI31 and S7 at 10 -5 to 10 -7 mgmL -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Control of box C/D snoRNP assembly by N6-methylation of adenine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Ashraf, Saira; Wang, Jia; Lilley, David Mj

    2017-09-01

    N 6 -methyladenine is the most widespread mRNA modification. A subset of human box C/D snoRNA species have target GAC sequences that lead to formation of N 6 -methyladenine at a key trans Hoogsteen-sugar A·G base pair, of which half are methylated in vivo The GAC target is conserved only in those that are methylated. Methylation prevents binding of the 15.5-kDa protein and the induced folding of the RNA Thus, the assembly of the box C/D snoRNP could in principle be regulated by RNA methylation at its critical first stage. Crystallography reveals that N 6 -methylation of adenine prevents the formation of trans Hoogsteen-sugar A·G base pairs, explaining why the box C/D RNA cannot adopt its kinked conformation. More generally, our data indicate that sheared A·G base pairs (but not Watson-Crick base pairs) are more susceptible to disruption by N 6 mA methylation and are therefore possible regulatory sites. The human signal recognition particle RNA and many related Alu retrotransposon RNA species are also methylated at N6 of an adenine that forms a sheared base pair with guanine and mediates a key tertiary interaction. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  17. Controlling non-conformities propagation in manufacturing. Case study in an electromechanical assembly plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Fiegenwald , Valérie; Bassetto , Samuel; Tollenaere , Michel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this paper is to control the propagation of non-conformities. The control methods implemented to ensure the quality performance of a production system present weaknesses, inherent to their constitution, which can let non-conformities propagate along the value stream. This propagation cannot be avoided, but it can be mastered. This paper presents a method to master non-conformities propagation in a production system by building the associated control char...

  18. Application of constraint satisfaction algorithms for conditioning and packing activated control rod assemblies in MOSAIK"R-casks. Application of constraint satisfaction algorithms for conditioning and packaging 160 control rod assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the decommissioning of numerous nuclear power plants in Germany, techniques to reduce the number of costly waste casks or containers are sought after. The large bandwidth of limits (dose rate, mass, individual nuclide activities, chemical composition...) the waste packages have to comply with for both interim storage facilities and the repository Konrad render the manual planning of packaging concepts prohibitive. However, in the past, the planning for packaging has been performed in this way, albeit on the basis of several facilitating assumptions. Surprisingly, to the best of our knowledge, the automated computer-assisted generation of packaging plans for radioactive waste has not been demonstrated previously. In this talk we demonstrate how the conditioning and packing of 160 control rod assemblies was optimised using constraint satisfaction algorithms. These algorithms can be executed by a computer in a few minutes, thus considerably accelerating the generation of packaging plans, while optimising the utilisation of the waste casks and containers with respect to mass, activity, dose rate, etc. This automated and computer-assisted procedure took into account complex logistical boundary conditions present during decommissioning, such as space requirements, the sequence of the waste and the (lack of) availability of suitable waste casks. In addition, packaging concepts based on several scenarios (cask availability, space requirements,...) were easily and automatically generated once the packaging rules had been coded. We demonstrate the successful application of these algorithms to a real packaging campaign of control rod assemblies of a boiling water reactor, for which excellent results were achieved. We also present an outlook of a much larger scale project, in which the logistics and storage of radioactive waste packages is mathematically optimised. Finally, we give prospects on these techniques to others, similar logistical problems currently

  19. Root cytoskeleton: its role in perception of and response to gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluska, F.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    We have critically evaluated the possible functions of the plant cytoskeleton in root gravisensing and graviresponse and discussed the evidence that microtubules (MTs) and actin microfilaments (MFs) do not control differential cell growth during bending of roots. On the other hand, MF and MT networks are envisaged to participate in gravisensing because of the mechanical properties of the cytoskeletal structures that interconnect plant cell organelles with the plasma membrane. In restrained gravisensing, forces are suggested to be transmitted to membranes because large-scale gravity-dependent repositioning of organelles is effectively prevented due to the cytoskeleton-mediated anchorage of their envelopes at the plasma membrane. From the cytoskeletal point of view, we can also envisage an unrestrained gravity sensing when cytoskeletal tethers are not strong enough to preserve the tight control over distribution of organelles and the latter, if heavy enough, are allowed to sediment towards the physical bottom of cells. This situation obviously occurs in root cap statocytes because these uniquely organized cells are depleted of prominent actin MF bundles, endoplasmic MT arrays, and ER elements in their internal cytoplasm. Nevertheless, indirect evidence clearly indicates that sedimented root cap statoliths are enmeshed within fine but dynamic MF networks and that their behaviour is obviously under, at least partial, cytoskeletal control. The actomyosin-enriched domain among and around amyloplasts is proposed to increase the perception of gravity due to the grouping effect of sedimenting statoliths. Cytoskeletal links between myosin-rich statoliths, and cell peripheries well equipped with dense cortical MTs, membrane-associated cytoskeleton, as well as with ER elements, would allow efficient restrained gravisensing only at the statocyte cell cortex. As a consequence of cytoskeletal depletion in the internal statocyte cytoplasm and bulk sedimentation of large

  20. Dynamic multiprotein assemblies shape the spatial structure of cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Jang, Hyunbum

    2014-01-01

    Cell signaling underlies critical cellular decisions. Coordination, efficiency as well as fail-safe mechanisms are key elements. How the cell ensures that these hallmarks are at play are important questions. Cell signaling is often viewed as taking place through discrete and cross-talking pathways; oftentimes these are modularized to emphasize distinct functions. While simple, convenient and clear, such models largely neglect the spatial structure of cell signaling; they also convey inter-modular (or inter-protein) spatial separation that may not exist. Here our thesis is that cell signaling is shaped by a network of multiprotein assemblies. While pre-organized, the assemblies and network are loose and dynamic. They contain transiently-associated multiprotein complexes which are often mediated by scaffolding proteins. They are also typically anchored in the membrane, and their continuum may span the cell. IQGAP1 scaffolding protein which binds proteins including Raf, calmodulin, Mek, Erk, actin, and tens more, with actin shaping B-cell (and likely other) membrane-anchored nanoclusters and allosterically polymerizing in dynamic cytoskeleton formation, and Raf anchoring in the membrane along with Ras, provides a striking example. The multivalent network of dynamic proteins and lipids, with specific interactions forming and breaking, can be viewed as endowing gel-like properties. Collectively, this reasons that efficient, productive and reliable cell signaling takes place primarily through transient, preorganized and cooperative protein-protein interactions spanning the cell rather than stochastic, diffusion-controlled processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mismatch discrimination of lipidated DNA and LNA-probes (LiNAs) in hybridization-controlled liposome assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ulla; Vogel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Assays for mismatch discrimination and detection of single nucleotide variations by hybridization-controlled assembly of liposomes, which do not require tedious surface chemistry, are versatile for both DNA and RNA targets. We report herein a comprehensive study on different DNA and LNA (locked...... assay in the context of mismatch discrimination and SNP detection are presented. The advantages of membrane-anchored LiNA-probes compared to chemically attached probes on solid nanoparticles (e.g. gold nanoparticles) are described. Key functionalities such as non-covalent attachment of LiNA probes...... without the need for long spacers and the inherent mobility of membrane-anchored probes in lipid-bilayer membranes will be described for several different probe designs....

  2. Model-Based Control of a Continuous Coating Line for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Electrode Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Devaraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most expensive component of a fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA, which consists of an ionomer membrane coated with catalyst material. Best-performing MEAs are currently fabricated by depositing and drying liquid catalyst ink on the membrane; however, this process is limited to individual preparation by hand due to the membrane’s rapid water absorption that leads to shape deformation and coating defects. A continuous coating line can reduce the cost and time needed to fabricate the MEA, incentivizing the commercialization and widespread adoption of fuel cells. A pilot-scale membrane coating line was designed for such a task and is described in this paper. Accurate process control is necessary to prevent manufacturing defects from occurring in the coating line. A linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG controller was developed based on a physics-based model of the coating process to optimally control the temperature and humidity of the drying zones. The process controller was implemented in the pilot-scale coating line proving effective in preventing defects.

  3. Neuroprotective Effects against POCD by Photobiomodulation: Evidence from Assembly/Disassembly of the Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann D. Liebert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD is a decline in memory following anaesthesia and surgery in elderly patients. While often reversible, it consumes medical resources, compromises patient well-being, and possibly accelerates progression into Alzheimer's disease. Anesthetics have been implicated in POCD, as has neuroinflammation, as indicated by cytokine inflammatory markers. Photobiomodulation (PBM is an effective treatment for a number of conditions, including inflammation. PBM also has a direct effect on microtubule disassembly in neurons with the formation of small, reversible varicosities, which cause neural blockade and alleviation of pain symptoms. This mimics endogenously formed varicosities that are neuroprotective against damage, toxins, and the formation of larger, destructive varicosities and focal swellings. It is proposed that PBM may be effective as a preconditioning treatment against POCD; similar to the PBM treatment, protective and abscopal effects that have been demonstrated in experimental models of macular degeneration, neurological, and cardiac conditions.

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirukawa, Koji; Sakurada, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly for a BWR type reactor, water rods or water crosses are disposed between fuel rods, and a value with a spring is disposed at the top of the coolant flow channel thereof, which opens a discharge port when pressure is increased to greater than a predetermined value. Further, a control element for the amount of coolant flow rate is inserted retractable to a control element guide tube formed at the lower portion of the water rod or the water cross. When the amount of control elements inserted to the control element guide tube is small and the inflown coolant flow rate is great, the void coefficient at the inside of the water rod is less than 5%. On the other hand, when the control elements are inserted, the flow resistance is increased, so that the void coefficient in the water rod is greater than 80%. When the pressure in the water rod is increased, the valve with the spring is raised to escape water or steams. Then, since the variation range of the change of the void coefficient can be controlled reliably by the amount of the control elements inserted, and nuclear fuel materials can be utilized effectively. (N.H.)

  5. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataumi, Kazutoshi; Tajiri, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor, a pellet to be loaded comprises an external layer of fissile materials containing burnable poisons and an internal layer of fissile materials not containing burnable poison. For example, there is provided a dual type pellet comprising an external layer made of UO 2 incorporated with Gd 2 O 3 at a predetermined concentration as the burnable poisons and an internal layer made of UO 2 not containing Gd 2 O 3 . The amount of the burnable poisons required for predetermined places is controlled by the thickness of the ring of the external layer. This can dissipate an unnecessary poisoning effect at the final stage of the combustion cycle. Further, since only one or a few kinds of powder mixture of the burnable poisons and the fissile materials is necessary, production and product control can be facilitated. (I.N.)

  6. THE EXPROPRIATION OF CONTROL ORGANS OF FEDERAL ASSEMBLY - PARLIAMENT OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliy Anatolyevich Nisnevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the expropriation by the ruling elite of the control bodies in the Russian Parliament in favor of the President by way of political nepotism. The expropriation of the Audit Chamber was conducted by assignment at the legislative level to the President of the exclusive right to suggest candidates to the positions of the Chairman, Deputy Chairman and all auditors of the Audit Chamber with their subsequent formal approval by the Houses of the Parliament. The Institute of the Ombudsman for Human Rights was expropriated by non-alternative suggestion of a candidate to this position by the President with subsequent formal approval of the President-supported candidate by the State Duma. The paper studies the federal laws related to Parliamentary investigation and Parliamentary control that, in fact, only imitate the control function of the Parliament.

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhorev, Yu.V.; Biryukov, G.I.; Kirilyuk, N.A.; Lobanov, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel assembly is proposed for nuclear reactors allowing remote replacement of control rod bundles or their shifting from one assembly to another, i.e., their multipurpose use. This leads to a significant increase in fuel assembly usability. In the fuel assembly the control rod bundle is placed in guide tube channels to which baffles are attached for fuel element spacing. The remote handling of control rods is provided by a hollow cylinder with openings in its lower bottom through which the control rods pass. All control rods in a bundle are mounted to a cross beam which in turn is mounted in the cylinder and is designed for grasping the whole rod bundle by a remotely controlled telescopic mechanism in bundle replacement or shifting. (Z.M.)

  8. The effects of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on the cytoskeleton of mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaomei; Guo Yuhua; Yin Zhiwei; Mao Zijun

    1990-03-01

    The whole mount cell electron microscopy in combination with selective extraction method for preparing cytoskeletal framework was applied. Cy toskeleton prepared by Triton X-100 treatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes appeared in electron microscopy as a highly organized and interconnected three-dimensional matrix of different fibrous elements. Since such cytoskeletons are open membrane-free system, individual fibrous organizations can be identified by specific antibodies. An indirect immunogold procedure using monoclonal anti-tubulin or anti-actin antibodies was applied to visualize tubulin-or actin-containing structures. The three-dimensional visualization of Triton X-100 resistant cytoskeletons had been used to demonstrate that different doses of 60 Co γ-ray caused a distinctive and reproducible alterations of the cytoskeletons of intact mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro. The results showed that there were some similar alterations with those caused by cytochalasin B and by colchicine. From these observations and other workers' studies, it's likely that 60 Co γ-ray irradiation may inhibit cytoplasmic microtubule and microfilament assembling

  9. Probing cytoplasmic organization and the actin cytoskeleton of plant cells with optical tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Honing, van der H.S.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    In interphase plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is essential for intracellular transport and organization. To fully understand how the actin cytoskeleton functions as the structural basis for cytoplasmic organization, both molecular and physical aspects of the actin organization have to be

  10. Ultra-Portable Smartphone Controlled Integrated Digital Microfluidic System in a 3D-Printed Modular Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yafia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Portable sensors and biomedical devices are influenced by the recent advances in microfluidics technologies, compact fabrication techniques, improved detection limits and enhanced analysis capabilities. This paper reports the development of an integrated ultraportable, low-cost, and modular digital microfluidic (DMF system and its successful integration with a smartphone used as a high-level controller and post processing station. Low power and cost effective electronic circuits are designed to generate the high voltages required for DMF operations in both open and closed configurations (from 100 to 800 V. The smartphone in turn commands a microcontroller that manipulate the voltage signals required for droplet actuation in the DMF chip and communicates wirelessly with the microcontroller via Bluetooth module. Moreover, the smartphone acts as a detection and image analysis station with an attached microscopic lens. The holder assembly is fabricated using three-dimensional (3D printing technology to facilitate rapid prototyping. The holder features a modular design that enables convenient attachment/detachment of a variety of DMF chips to/from an electrical busbar. The electrical circuits, controller and communication system are designed to minimize the power consumption in order to run the device on small lithium ion batteries. Successful controlled DMF operations and a basic colorimetric assay using the smartphone are demonstrated.

  11. Ethanol exposure disrupts extraembryonic microtubule cytoskeleton and embryonic blastomere cell adhesion, producing epiboly and gastrulation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnalee Sarmah

    2013-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD occurs when pregnant mothers consume alcohol, causing embryonic ethanol exposure and characteristic birth defects that include craniofacial, neural and cardiac defects. Gastrulation is a particularly sensitive developmental stage for teratogen exposure, and zebrafish is an outstanding model to study gastrulation and FASD. Epiboly (spreading blastomere cells over the yolk cell, prechordal plate migration and convergence/extension cell movements are sensitive to early ethanol exposure. Here, experiments are presented that characterize mechanisms of ethanol toxicity on epiboly and gastrulation. Epiboly mechanisms include blastomere radial intercalation cell movements and yolk cell microtubule cytoskeleton pulling the embryo to the vegetal pole. Both of these processes were disrupted by ethanol exposure. Ethanol effects on cell migration also indicated that cell adhesion was affected, which was confirmed by cell aggregation assays. E-cadherin cell adhesion molecule expression was not affected by ethanol exposure, but E-cadherin distribution, which controls epiboly and gastrulation, was changed. E-cadherin was redistributed into cytoplasmic aggregates in blastomeres and dramatically redistributed in the extraembryonic yolk cell. Gene expression microarray analysis was used to identify potential causative factors for early development defects, and expression of the cell adhesion molecule protocadherin-18a (pcdh18a, which controls epiboly, was significantly reduced in ethanol exposed embryos. Injecting pcdh18a synthetic mRNA in ethanol treated embryos partially rescued epiboly cell movements, including enveloping layer cell shape changes. Together, data show that epiboly and gastrulation defects induced by ethanol are multifactorial, and include yolk cell (extraembryonic tissue microtubule cytoskeleton disruption and blastomere adhesion defects, in part caused by reduced pcdh18a expression.

  12. Controlled synthesis of 2D Au nanostructure assembly with the assistance of sulfonated polyaniline nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Junhua; Wang Zhijuan; Zhang Qixian; Han, Dongxue; Zhang Yuanjian; Shen Yanfei; Niu Li

    2006-01-01

    A wet chemical approach is used successfully to produce nanostructured Au material by the reduction of sulfonated polyaniline (SPANI) nanotubes. The Au nanostructures obtained are composed of single crystal Au nanoplates, which are aggregated layer-by-layer into stacks or edge-on-face into clusters at various conditions. The Au nanoplate diameter and thickness can be conveniently controlled in the range of 100 nm to 2 μm and 10 to 30 nm, respectively, with no accompanying single Au nanoparticles being observed. The formation of the Au nanostructures was controlled by the degradation of SPANI. The gradually and slowly released segments of SPANI served as the reductant during the growth of the 2D Au nanostructures

  13. Synthesis and self-assembly of well-defined block copolypeptides via controlled NCA polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Deming, TJ

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes advances in the synthesis of well-defined polypeptides and block copolypeptides. Traditional methods used to polymerize α-amino acid-N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) are described, and limitations in the utility of these systems for the preparation of polypeptides are discussed. Improved initiators and methods that allow polypeptide synthesis with good control over chain length, chain length distribution, and chain-end functionality are also discussed. Using these methods, b...

  14. A new theoretical approach to analyze complex processes in cytoskeleton proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2014-03-20

    Cytoskeleton proteins are filament structures that support a large number of important biological processes. These dynamic biopolymers exist in nonequilibrium conditions stimulated by hydrolysis chemical reactions in their monomers. Current theoretical methods provide a comprehensive picture of biochemical and biophysical processes in cytoskeleton proteins. However, the description is only qualitative under biologically relevant conditions because utilized theoretical mean-field models neglect correlations. We develop a new theoretical method to describe dynamic processes in cytoskeleton proteins that takes into account spatial correlations in the chemical composition of these biopolymers. Our approach is based on analysis of probabilities of different clusters of subunits. It allows us to obtain exact analytical expressions for a variety of dynamic properties of cytoskeleton filaments. By comparing theoretical predictions with Monte Carlo computer simulations, it is shown that our method provides a fully quantitative description of complex dynamic phenomena in cytoskeleton proteins under all conditions.

  15. Origin and evolution of the self-organizing cytoskeleton in the network of eukaryotic organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jékely, Gáspár

    2014-09-02

    The eukaryotic cytoskeleton evolved from prokaryotic cytomotive filaments. Prokaryotic filament systems show bewildering structural and dynamic complexity and, in many aspects, prefigure the self-organizing properties of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Here, the dynamic properties of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytoskeleton are compared, and how these relate to function and evolution of organellar networks is discussed. The evolution of new aspects of filament dynamics in eukaryotes, including severing and branching, and the advent of molecular motors converted the eukaryotic cytoskeleton into a self-organizing "active gel," the dynamics of which can only be described with computational models. Advances in modeling and comparative genomics hold promise of a better understanding of the evolution of the self-organizing cytoskeleton in early eukaryotes, and its role in the evolution of novel eukaryotic functions, such as amoeboid motility, mitosis, and ciliary swimming. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kunitoshi; Azekura, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    In a reactor core of a heavy water moderated light water cooled pressure tube type reactor, no sufficient effects have been obtained for the transfer width to a negative side of void reactivity change in a region of a great void coefficient. Then, a moderation region divided into upper and lower two regions is disposed at the central portion of a fuel assembly. Coolants flown into the lower region can be discharged to the cooling region from an opening disposed at the upper end portion of the lower region. Light water flows from the lower region of the moderator region to the cooling region of the reactor core upper portion, to lower the void coefficient. As a result, the reactivity performance at low void coefficient, i.e., a void reaction rate is transferred to the negative side. Thus, this flattens the power distribution in the fuel assembly, increases the thermal margin and enables rapid operaiton and control of the reactor core, as well as contributes to the increase of fuel burnup ratio and reduction of the fuel cycle cost. (N.H.)

  17. Controlled assembly of organic whispering-gallery-mode microlasers as highly sensitive chemical vapor sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Miaomiao; Wei, Cong; Lin, Xianqing; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Fengqin; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2017-03-09

    We demonstrate the fabrication of organic high Q active whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators from π-conjugated polymer by a controlled emulsion-solvent-evaporation method, which can simultaneously provide optical gain and act as an effective resonant cavity. By measuring the shift of their lasing modes on exposure to organic vapor, we successfully monitored the slight concentration variation in the chemical gas. These microlaser sensors demonstrated high detection sensitivity and good signal repeatability under continuous chemical gas treatments. The results offer an effective strategy to design miniaturized optical sensors.

  18. Chemically controlled interfacial nanoparticle assembly into nanoporous gold films for electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mikkel U. -B.; Seselj, Nedjeljko; Engelbrekt, Christian

    2018-01-01

    at the liquid/air interface starting from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in an aqueous solution, providing silver-free gold films. Chloroauric acid is reduced to AuNP building blocks by 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, which also acts as a protecting agent and pH buffer. By adding potassium chloride before Au......, they can be controlled by varying the temperature, chloride concentration, ionic strength, and protonation of the buffer. cNPGF formation is attributed to the destabilization of AuNPs at the air–liquid interface. The developed method generates electrochemically stable cNPGFs up to 20 cm2 in size...

  19. The costa of trichomonads: A complex macromolecular cytoskeleton structure made of uncommon proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Rosa, Ivone; Caruso, Marjolly Brigido; de Oliveira Santos, Eidy; Gonzaga, Luiz; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; de Souza, Wanderley; Benchimol, Marlene

    2017-06-01

    The costa is a prominent striated fibre that is found in protozoa of the Trichomonadidae family that present an undulating membrane. It is composed primarily of proteins that have not yet been explored. In this study, we used cell fractionation to obtain a highly enriched costa fraction whose structure and composition was further analysed by electron microscopy and mass spectrometry. Electron microscopy of negatively stained samples revealed that the costa, which is a periodic structure with alternating electron-dense and electron-lucent bands, displays three distinct regions, named the head, neck and body. Fourier transform analysis showed that the electron-lucent bands present sub-bands with a regular pattern. An analysis of the costa fraction via one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed the identification of 54 hypothetical proteins. Fourteen of those proteins were considered to be major components of the fraction. The costa of T. foetus is a complex and organised cytoskeleton structure made of a large number of proteins which is assembled into filamentous structures. Some of these proteins exhibit uncharacterised domains and no function related according to gene ontology, suggesting that the costa structure may be formed by a new class of proteins that differ from those previously described in other organisms. Seven of these proteins contain prefoldin domains displaying coiled-coil regions. This propriety is shared with proteins of the striated fibres of other protozoan as well as in intermediate filaments. Our observations suggest the presence of a new class of the cytoskeleton filaments in T. foetus. We believe that our data could auxiliate in determining the specific locations of these proteins in the distinct regions that compose the costa, as well as to define the functional roles of each component. Therefore, our study will help in the better understanding of the

  20. Software protocol design: Communication and control in a multi-task robot machine for ITER vacuum vessel assembly and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki; Yang, Guangyou; Wang, Yongbo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A high-level protocol is proposed for the data inter-transmission. • The protocol design is task-oriented for the robot control in the software system. • The protocol functions as a role of middleware in the software. • The protocol running stand-alone as an independent process in the software provides greater security. • Providing a reference design protocol for the multi-task robot machine in the industry. - Abstract: A specific communication and control protocol for software design of a multi-task robot machine is proposed. In order to fulfill the requirements on the complicated multi machining functions and the high performance motion control, the software design of robot is divided into two main parts accordingly, which consists of the user-oriented HMI part and robot control-oriented real-time control system. The two parts of software are deployed in the different hardware for the consideration of run-time performance, which forms a client–server-control architecture. Therefore a high-level task-oriented protocol is designed for the data inter-communication between the HMI part and the control system part, in which all the transmitting data related to a machining task is divided into three categories: trajectory-oriented data, task control-oriented data and status monitoring-oriented data. The protocol consists of three sub-protocols accordingly – a trajectory protocol, task control protocol and status protocol – which are deployed over the Ethernet and run as independent processes in both the client and server computers. The protocols are able to manage the vast amounts of data streaming due to the multi machining functions in a more efficient way. Since the protocol is functioning in the software as a role of middleware, and providing the data interface standards for the developing groups of two parts of software, it also permits greater focus of both software parts developers on their own requirements-oriented design. By

  1. Software protocol design: Communication and control in a multi-task robot machine for ITER vacuum vessel assembly and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming, E-mail: ming.li@lut.fi [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Yang, Guangyou [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang, Yongbo [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A high-level protocol is proposed for the data inter-transmission. • The protocol design is task-oriented for the robot control in the software system. • The protocol functions as a role of middleware in the software. • The protocol running stand-alone as an independent process in the software provides greater security. • Providing a reference design protocol for the multi-task robot machine in the industry. - Abstract: A specific communication and control protocol for software design of a multi-task robot machine is proposed. In order to fulfill the requirements on the complicated multi machining functions and the high performance motion control, the software design of robot is divided into two main parts accordingly, which consists of the user-oriented HMI part and robot control-oriented real-time control system. The two parts of software are deployed in the different hardware for the consideration of run-time performance, which forms a client–server-control architecture. Therefore a high-level task-oriented protocol is designed for the data inter-communication between the HMI part and the control system part, in which all the transmitting data related to a machining task is divided into three categories: trajectory-oriented data, task control-oriented data and status monitoring-oriented data. The protocol consists of three sub-protocols accordingly – a trajectory protocol, task control protocol and status protocol – which are deployed over the Ethernet and run as independent processes in both the client and server computers. The protocols are able to manage the vast amounts of data streaming due to the multi machining functions in a more efficient way. Since the protocol is functioning in the software as a role of middleware, and providing the data interface standards for the developing groups of two parts of software, it also permits greater focus of both software parts developers on their own requirements-oriented design. By

  2. Microstructure, vertical strain control and tunable functionalities in self-assembled, vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Aiping; Bi, Zhenxing; Jia, Quanxi; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) oxide thin films have recently stimulated a significant amount of research interest owing to their novel architecture, vertical interfacial strain control and tunable material functionalities. In this work, the growth mechanisms of VAN thin films have been investigated by varying the composite material system, the ratio of the two constituent phases, and the thin film growth conditions including deposition temperature and oxygen pressure as well as growth rate. It has been shown that thermodynamic parameters, elastic and interfacial energies and the multiple phase ratio play dominant roles in the resulting microstructure. In addition, vertical interfacial strain has been observed in BiFeO 3 (BFO)- and La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO)-based VAN thin film systems; the vertical strain could be tuned by the growth parameters and selection of a suitable secondary phase. The tunability of physical properties such as dielectric loss in BFO:Sm 2 O 3 VAN and low-field magnetoresistance in LSMO-based VAN systems has been demonstrated. The enhancement and tunability of those physical properties have been attributed to the unique VAN architecture and vertical strain control. These results suggest that VAN architecture with novel microstructure and unique vertical strain tuning could provide a general route for tailoring and manipulating the functionalities of oxide thin films

  3. SOFIA's secondary mirror assembly: in-flight performance and control approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinacher, Andreas; Lammen, Yannick; Roeser, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.5m infrared telescope built into a Boeing 747 SP. In 2014 SOFIA reached its Full Operational Capability milestone and nowadays takes off about three times a week to observe the infrared sky from altitudes above most of the atmosphere's water vapor content. An actively controlled 352mm SiC secondary mirror is used for infrared chopping with peak-to-peak amplitudes of up to 10 arcmin and chop frequencies of up to 20Hz and also as actuator for fast pointing corrections. The Swiss-made Secondary Mirror Mechanism (SMM) is a complex, highly integrated and compact flexure based mechanism that has been performing with remarkable reliability during recent years. Above mentioned capabilities are provided by the Tilt Chopper Mechanism (TCM) which is one of the two stages of the SMM. In addition the SMM is also used to establish a collimated telescope and to adjust the telescope focus depending on the structure's temperature which ranges from about 40°C at takeoff in Palmdale, CA to about -40°C in the stratosphere. This is achieved with the Focus Center Mechanism (FCM) which is the base stage of the SMM on which the TCM is situated. Initially the TCM was affected by strong vibrations at about 300 Hz which led to unacceptable image smearing. After some adjustments to the PID-type controller it was finally decided to develop a completely new control algorithm in state space. This pole placement controller matches the closed loop system poles to those of a Bessel filter with a corner frequency of 120 Hz for optimal square wave behavior. To reduce noise present on the position and current sensors and to estimate the velocity a static gain Kalman Filter was designed and implemented. A system inherent delay is incorporated in the Kalman filter design and measures were applied to counteract the actuators' hysteresis. For better performance over the full operational temperature range and to represent an amplitude

  4. Bacteriophage Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A. Aksyuk

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage assembly have been elucidated by a variety of methods. Differences and similarities of assembly processes in several different groups of bacteriophages are discussed in this review. The general principles of phage assembly are applicable to many macromolecular complexes.

  5. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of gaseous fission products released from fuel assemblies stored in an fbr type reactor. Constitution; A cap provided with means capable of storing gas is adapted to amount to the assembly handling head, for example, by way of threading in a storage rack of spent fuel assemblies consisting of a bottom plate, a top plate and an assembly support mechanism. By previously eliminating the gas inside of the assembly and the cap in the storage rack, gaseous fission products upon loading, if released from fuel rods during storage, are stored in the cap and do not scatter in the storage rack. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  7. The cytoskeleton of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskum, G; Craig, S W; Decker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1980-06-01

    Treatment of isolated rat hepatocptes with low concentrations of digitonin increases the permeability of the plsma membrane to cytosolic proteins without causing release of organelles such as mitochondria into the surrounding medium. Electron microscopy showed that treatment of the cells with increasing concentations of digitonin results in a progressive loss in the continuity of the plasma membrane, while most other aspects of cellular morphology remain normal. Depletion of background staining material from the cytosol by digitonin treatment of the cells greatly enhances the visualization of the cytoskeleton. The use of this technique, together with immunofluorescent light microscopy, has verified the presence of an actin-containing filamentous network at the hepatocyte cortex as well as intermediate filaments distributed throughout the cell. Digitonin is thus useful both for selectively permeabilizing the plasma membrane and for intensifying the appearance of intracellular structures such as microfilaments that are normally difficult to observe in cells such as hepatocytes.

  8. Topology and Shape Control for Assemblies of Block Copolymer Blends in Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We study binary blends of asymmetric diblock copolymers (AB/AC) in selective solvents with a mesoscale model. We investigate the morphological transitions induced by the concentration of the AC block copolymer and the difference in molecular weight between the AB and AC copolymers, when segments B and C exhibit hydrogen-bonding interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work modeling mixtures of block copolymers with large differences in molecular weight. The coassembly mechanism localizes the AC molecules at the interface of A and B domains and induces the swelling of the B-rich domains. The coil size of the large molecular weight block copolymer depends only on the concentration of the short block copolymer (AC or AB), regardless of the B–C interactions. However, the B–C interactions control the morphological transitions that occur in these blends.

  9. Containment of Angra 2 - control and correction of form derivative during the assembling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, B.J.A.; Leaes, J.

    1990-01-01

    The erection of the containment of Angra 2 has been concluded in JUN, 89. It is a 56m diameter shperical steel vessel, involves the primary circuit and has the purpose to isolate this from the environment. At its construction, besides the aspects of quality of the material and welds, its geometrical shape is relevant. This taking into account that at locations with abrupt changes of the shape may arise stress disturbances and buckling problems. Besides, an adequate shape is a primary condition to have a smooth development of the erection. In a general way, the shape deviations are limited to a value in the range of 50mm, which compared with the 56m diameter of the containment gives an idea about the precautions to be taken during erection. It will be presented the parameters and methods of shape control during erection, the detected shape deviations, the methods applied to correct excessive deviations and the results of complementary stress analysis. (author) [pt

  10. Topology and Shape Control for Assemblies of Block Copolymer Blends in Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas

    2015-10-27

    We study binary blends of asymmetric diblock copolymers (AB/AC) in selective solvents with a mesoscale model. We investigate the morphological transitions induced by the concentration of the AC block copolymer and the difference in molecular weight between the AB and AC copolymers, when segments B and C exhibit hydrogen-bonding interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work modeling mixtures of block copolymers with large differences in molecular weight. The coassembly mechanism localizes the AC molecules at the interface of A and B domains and induces the swelling of the B-rich domains. The coil size of the large molecular weight block copolymer depends only on the concentration of the short block copolymer (AC or AB), regardless of the B–C interactions. However, the B–C interactions control the morphological transitions that occur in these blends.

  11. Coordination of membrane and actin cytoskeleton dynamics during filopodia protrusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsong Yang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Leading edge protrusion of migrating cells involves tightly coordinated changes in the plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton. It remains unclear whether polymerizing actin filaments push and deform the membrane, or membrane deformation occurs independently and is subsequently stabilized by actin filaments. To address this question, we employed an ability of the membrane-binding I-BAR domain of IRSp53 to uncouple the membrane and actin dynamics and to induce filopodia in expressing cells. Using time-lapse imaging and electron microscopy of IRSp53-I-BAR-expressing B16F1 melanoma cells, we demonstrate that cells are not able to protrude or maintain durable long extensions without actin filaments in their interior, but I-BAR-dependent membrane deformation can create a small and transient space at filopodial tips that is subsequently filled with actin filaments. Moreover, the expressed I-BAR domain forms a submembranous coat that may structurally support these transient actin-free protrusions until they are further stabilized by the actin cytoskeleton. Actin filaments in the I-BAR-induced filopodia, in contrast to normal filopodia, do not have a uniform length, are less abundant, poorly bundled, and display erratic dynamics. Such unconventional structural organization and dynamics of actin in I-BAR-induced filopodia suggests that a typical bundle of parallel actin filaments is not necessary for generation and mechanical support of the highly asymmetric filopodial geometry. Together, our data suggest that actin filaments may not directly drive the protrusion, but only stabilize the space generated by the membrane deformation; yet, such stabilization is necessary for efficient protrusion.

  12. Synthesis and controlled self-assembly of UV-responsive gold nanoparticles in block copolymer templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong-Po; Wang, Xinyu; Lin, Ying; Watkins, James J

    2014-11-06

    We demonstrate the facile synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) functionalized by UV-responsive block copolymer ligands, poly(styrene)-b-poly(o-nitrobenzene acrylate)-SH (PS-b-PNBA-SH), followed by their targeted distribution within a lamellae-forming poly(styrene)-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer. The multilayer, micelle-like structure of the GNPs consists of a gold core, an inner PNBA layer, and an outer PS layer. The UV-sensitive PNBA segment can be deprotected into a layer containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) when exposed to UV light at 365 nm, which enables the simple and precise tuning of GNP surface properties from hydrophobic to amphiphilic. The GNPs bearing ligands of different chemical compositions were successfully and selectively incorporated into the PS-b-P2VP block copolymer, and UV light showed a profound influence on the spatial distributions of GNPs. Prior to UV exposure, GNPs partition along the interfaces of PS and P2VP domains, while the UV-treated GNPs are incorporated into P2VP domains as a result of hydrogen bond interactions between PAA on the gold surface and P2VP domains. This provides an easy way of controlling the arrangement of nanoparticles in polymer matrices by tailoring the nanoparticle surface using UV light.

  13. Temporally controlled growth factor delivery from a self-assembling peptide hydrogel and electrospun nanofibre composite scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Kiara F; Wang, Yi; Maclean, Francesca L; Parish, Clare L; Williams, Richard J; Nisbet, David R

    2017-09-21

    Tissue-specific self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogels designed based on biologically relevant peptide sequences have great potential in regenerative medicine. These materials spontaneously form 3D networks of physically assembled nanofibres utilising non-covalent interactions. The nanofibrous structure of SAPs is often compared to that of electrospun scaffolds. These electrospun nanofibers are produced as sheets that can be engineered from a variety of polymers that can be chemically modified to incorporate many molecules including drugs and growth factors. However, their macroscale morphology limits them to wrapping and bandaging applications. Here, for the first time, we combine the benefits of these systems to describe a two-component composite scaffold from these biomaterials, with the design goal of providing a hydrogel scaffold that presents 3D structures, and also has temporal control over drug delivery. Short fibres, cut from electrospun scaffolds, were mixed with our tissue-specific SAP hydrogel to provide a range of nanofibre sizes found in the extracellular matrix (10-300 nm in diameter). The composite material maintained the shear-thinning and void-filling properties of SAP hydrogels that have previously been shown to be effective for minimally invasive material injection, cell delivery and subsequent in vivo integration. Both scaffold components were separately loaded with growth factors, important signaling molecules in tissue regeneration whose rapid degradation limits their clinical efficacy. The two biomaterials provided sequential growth factor delivery profiles: the SAP hydrogel provided a burst release, with the release rate decreasing over 12 hours, while the electrospun nanofibres provided a more constant, sustained delivery. Importantly, this second release commenced 6 days later. The design rules established here to provide temporally distinct release profiles can enable researchers to target specific stages in regeneration, such as the

  14. Development and assembly of equipment for non destructive assay system control using nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jose Altino Tupinamba

    2006-01-01

    Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is applied to machines and components quality tests. These elements would not have a good performance if they were conceived without concern about the mechanical project quality, used materials, manufacture processes and inspection and maintenance methodology. There are constant developments in high level of technology with the objective of guaranteeing the components quality and the good functioning of these machines, in the mechanics, naval, aeronautical, petrochemical and steel industry, energy and nuclear generation as well. The globalization in the industry lines is a fact, leading to an increase in the multinational projects and products. The following questions arise: how to assure the high quality of components and processes? How to optimize the test methods to assure that the materials do not have defects affecting the performance of the components? The answers to the questions above are found in the application of NDA. The complex materials analysis (inhomogeneous) using NDA requires a detailed study of the sensors response signal. In this work, a measure and control system of non destructive processes was developed, using a radioactive source with a defined energy in function of the material to be analyzed. This system involves: (a) Interface of input/output (I/O) (the Hardware) and (b) graphical Interface (Software). In the non destructive analysis, it is made the comparison of the signal proceeding from the sensor with a signal preset (Set Point) or analogical signal of reference (Base Line), which is adjusted in the I/O Interface. Analyzed the signal, the system will make the decision: (a) to reject or (b) to accept the analyzed material. The I/O Interface is implemented by electronic equipment with a MCS51. The purpose of this interface is to supply conditions to exchange information, using serial RS232, between the sensor and the microcomputer. The graphical Interface (software) is written in visual C++ language (author)

  15. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lingling, E-mail: liulingling2012@163.com; Luo, Qing, E-mail: qing.luo@cqu.edu.cn; Sun, Jinghui, E-mail: sunjhemail@163.com; Song, Guanbin, E-mail: song@cqu.edu.cn

    2016-10-15

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  16. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Song, Guanbin

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  17. Ocean Acidification Affects the Cytoskeleton, Lysozymes, and Nitric Oxide of Hemocytes: A Possible Explanation for the Hampered Phagocytosis in Blood Clams, Tegillarca granosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenhao; Rong, Jiahuan; Zha, Shanjie; Yan, Maocang; Fang, Jun; Liu, Guangxu

    2018-01-01

    An enormous amount of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been dissolved into the ocean, leading to a lower pH and changes in the chemical properties of seawater, which has been termed ocean acidification (OA). The impacts of p CO 2 -driven acidification on immunity have been revealed recently in various marine organisms. However, the mechanism causing the reduction in phagocytosis still remains unclear. Therefore, the impacts of p CO 2 -driven OA at present and near-future levels (pH values of 8.1, 7.8, and 7.4) on the rate of phagocytosis, the abundance of cytoskeleton components, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), and the concentration and activity of lysozymes (LZM) of hemocytes were investigated in a commercial bivalve species, the blood clam ( Tegillarca granosa ). In addition, the effects of OA on the expression of genes regulating actin skeleton and nitric oxide synthesis 2 ( NOS2 ) were also analyzed. The results obtained showed that the phagocytic rate, cytoskeleton component abundance, concentration and activity of LZM of hemocytes were all significantly reduced after a 2-week exposure to the future OA scenario of a pH of 7.4. On the contrary, a remarkable increase in the concentration of NO compared to that of the control was detected in clams exposed to OA. Furthermore, the expression of genes regulating the actin cytoskeleton and NOS were significantly up-regulated after OA exposure. Though the mechanism causing phagocytosis seemed to be complicated based on the results obtained in the present study and those reported previously, our results suggested that OA may reduce the phagocytosis of hemocytes by (1) decreasing the abundance of cytoskeleton components and therefore hampering the cytoskeleton-mediated process of engulfment, (2) reducing the concentration and activity of LZM and therefore constraining the degradation of the engulfed pathogen through an oxygen-independent pathway, and (3) inducing the production of NO, which may negatively

  18. A Water-Soluble Cyclotriveratrylene-Based Supra-amphiphile: Synthesis, pH-Responsive Self-Assembly in Water, and Its Application in Controlled Drug Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Danyu; Li, Yang; Jie, Kecheng; Shi, Bingbing; Yao, Yong

    2016-06-17

    A new water-soluble cyclotriveratrylene (WCTV) was designed and synthesized, and benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride (G) was chosen as the guest molecule to construct a supra-amphiphile by the host-guest interaction between WCTV and G in water, which is pH responsive. The supra-amphiphiles self-assembled into vesicles in water. When the pH of the solution was below 7.0, the supra-amphiphile disassociated, and the vesicles collapsed. Then, the pH-responsive self-assembly system was utilized for controlled drug release.

  19. The cytoskeleton as a novel therapeutic target for old neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eira, Jessica; Silva, Catarina Santos; Sousa, Mónica Mendes; Liz, Márcia Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Cytoskeleton defects, including alterations in microtubule stability, in axonal transport as well as in actin dynamics, have been characterized in several unrelated neurodegenerative conditions. These observations suggest that defects of cytoskeleton organization may be a common feature contributing to neurodegeneration. In line with this hypothesis, drugs targeting the cytoskeleton are currently being tested in animal models and in human clinical trials, showing promising effects. Drugs that modulate microtubule stability, inhibitors of posttranslational modifications of cytoskeletal components, specifically compounds affecting the levels of tubulin acetylation, and compounds targeting signaling molecules which regulate cytoskeleton dynamics, constitute the mostly addressed therapeutic interventions aiming at preventing cytoskeleton damage in neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we will discuss in a critical perspective the current knowledge on cytoskeleton damage pathways as well as therapeutic strategies designed to revert cytoskeleton-related defects mainly focusing on the following neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Morphology control of polymer: Fullerene solar cells by nanoparticle self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenluan

    During the past two decades, research in the field of polymer based solar cells has attracted great effort due to their simple processing, mechanical flexibility and potential low cost. A standard polymer solar cell is based on the concept of a bulk-heterojunction composed of a conducting polymer as the electron donor and a fullerene derivative as the electron acceptor. Since the exciton lifetime is limited, this places extra emphasis on control of the morphology to obtain improved device performance. In this thesis, detailed characterization and novel morphological design of polymer solar cells was studied, in addition, preliminary efforts to transfer laboratory scale methods to industrialized device fabrication was made. Magnetic contrast neutron reflectivity was used to study the vertical concentration distribution of fullerene nanoparticles within poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2- b]thiophene (pBTTT) thin film. Due to the wide space between the side chains of polymer, these fullerene nanoparticles intercalate between them creating a stable co-crystal structure. Therefore, a high volume fraction of fullerene was needed to obtain optimal device performance as phase separated conductive pathways are required and resulted in a homogeneous fullerene concentration profile through the film. Small angle neutron scattering was used to find there is amorphous fullerene even at lower concentration since it was previously believed that all fullerene formed a co-crystal. These fullerene molecules evolve into approximately 15 nm sized agglomerates at higher concentrations to improve electron transport. Unfortunately, thermal annealing gives these agglomerates mobility to form micrometer sized crystals and reduce the device performance. In standard poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCMBM) solar cells, a higher concentration of PCBM at the cathode interface is desired due to the band alignment structure. This was

  1. X-rays effects on cytoskeleton mechanics of healthy and tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzetta, Valeria; De Menna, Marta; Musella, Ida; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; Quarto, Maria; Netti, Paolo A; Fusco, Sabato

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in the cytoskeleton structure are frequently found in several diseases and particularly in cancer cells. It is also through the alterations of the cytoskeleton structure that cancer cells acquire most of their common features such as uncontrolled cell proliferation, cell death evasion, and the gaining of migratory and invasive characteristics. Although radiation therapies currently represent one of the most effective treatments for patients, the effects of X-irradiation on the cytoskeleton architecture are still poorly understood. In this case we investigated the effects, over time of two different doses of X-ray irradiation, on cell cytoskeletons of BALB/c3T3 and Sv40-transformed BALB/c 3T3 cells (SVT2). Biophysical parameters - focal adhesion size, actin bundles organization, and cell mechanical properties - were measured before and after irradiations (1 and 2 Gy) at 24 and 72 h, comparing the cytoskeleton properties of normal and transformed cells. The differences, before and after X-irradiation, were revealed in terms of cell morphology and deformability. Finally, such parameters were correlated to the alterations of cytoskeleton dynamics by evaluating cell adhesion at the level of focal adhesion and cytoskeleton mechanics. X-irradiation modifies the structure and the activity of cell cytoskeleton in a dose-dependent manner. For transformed cells, radiation sensitively increased cell adhesion, as indicated by paxillin-rich focal adhesion, flat morphology, a well-organized actin cytoskeleton, and intracellular mechanics. On the other hand, for normal fibroblasts IR had negligible effects on cytoskeletal and adhesive protein organization. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Controlled assembly of high-order nanoarray metal structures on bulk copper surface by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wanwan; Yang, Jianjun

    2017-07-01

    We report a new one-step maskless method to fabricate high-order nanoarray metal structures comprising periodic grooves and particle chains on a single-crystal Cu surface using femtosecond laser pulses at the central wavelength of 400 nm. Remarkably, when a circularly polarized infrared femtosecond laser pulse (spectrally centered at 800 nm) pre-irradiates the sample surface, the geometric dimensions of the composite structure can be well controlled. With increasing the energy fluence of the infrared laser pulse, both the groove width and particle diameter are observed to reduce, while the measured spacing-to-diameter ratio of the nanoparticles tends to present an increasing tendency. A physical scenario is proposed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms: as the infrared femtosecond laser pulse pre-irradiates the target, the copper surface is triggered to display anomalous transient physical properties, on which the subsequently incident Gaussian blue laser pulse is spatially modulated into fringe-like energy depositions via the excitation of ultrafast surface plasmon. During the following relaxation processes, the periodically heated thin-layer regions can be transferred into the metastable liquid rivulets and then they break up into nanodroplet arrays owing to the modified Rayleigh-like instability. This investigation indicates a simple integrated approach for active designing and large-scale assembly of complexed functional nanostructures on bulk materials.

  3. Size- and shape-controlled synthesis of hexagonal bipyramidal crystals and hollow self-assembled Al-MOF spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Sarawade, Pradip; Tan, Hua; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    We report an efficient protocol for the synthesis of monodisperse crystals of an aluminum (Al)-based metal organic framework (MOF) while obtaining excellent control over the size and shape solely by tuning of the reaction parameters without the use of a template or structure-directing agent. The size of the hexagonal crystals of the Al-MOF can be selectively varied from 100 nm to 2000 nm by simply changing the reaction time and temperature via its nucleation-growth mechanism. We also report a self-assembly phenomenon, observed for the first time in case of Al-MOF, whereby hollow spheres of Al-MOF were formed by the spontaneous organization of triangular sheet building blocks. These MOFs showed broad hysteresis loops during the CO2 capture, indicating that the adsorbed CO2 is not immediately desorbed upon decreasing the external pressure and is instead confined within the framework, which allows for the capture and subsequent selective trapping of CO2 from gaseous mixtures. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Regulatory coiled-coil domains promote head-to-head assemblies of AAA+ chaperones essential for tunable activity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroni, Marta; Franke, Kamila B; Maurer, Michael; Jäger, Jasmin; Hantke, Ingo; Gloge, Felix; Linder, Daniela; Gremer, Sebastian; Turgay, Kürşad; Bukau, Bernd; Mogk, Axel

    2017-11-22

    Ring-forming AAA+ chaperones exert ATP-fueled substrate unfolding by threading through a central pore. This activity is potentially harmful requiring mechanisms for tight repression and substrate-specific activation. The AAA+ chaperone ClpC with the peptidase ClpP forms a bacterial protease essential to virulence and stress resistance. The adaptor MecA activates ClpC by targeting substrates and stimulating ClpC ATPase activity. We show how ClpC is repressed in its ground state by determining ClpC cryo-EM structures with and without MecA. ClpC forms large two-helical assemblies that associate via head-to-head contacts between coiled-coil middle domains (MDs). MecA converts this resting state to an active planar ring structure by binding to MD interaction sites. Loss of ClpC repression in MD mutants causes constitutive activation and severe cellular toxicity. These findings unravel an unexpected regulatory concept executed by coiled-coil MDs to tightly control AAA+ chaperone activity.

  5. Metal ion-assisted self-assembly of complexes for controlled and sustained release of minocycline for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhiling; Wang, Zhicheng; Nong, Jia; Nix, Camilla A; Zhong, Yinghui; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the development of novel drug delivery complexes self-assembled by divalent metal ion-assisted coacervation for controlled and sustained release of a hydrophilic small drug molecule minocycline hydrochloride (MH). MH is a multifaceted agent that has demonstrated therapeutic effects in infection, inflammation, tumor, as well as cardiovascular, renal, and neurological disorders due to its anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties. However, the inability to translate the high doses used in experimental animals to tolerable doses in human patients limits its clinical application. Localized delivery can potentially expose the diseased tissue to high concentrations of MH that systemic delivery cannot achieve, while minimizing the side effects from systemic exposure. The strong metal ion binding-assisted interaction enabled high drug entrapment and loading efficiency, and stable long term release for more than 71 d. Released MH demonstrated potent anti-biofilm, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. Furthermore, MH release from the complexes is pH-sensitive as the chelation between minocycline and metal ions decreases with pH, allowing ‘smart’ drug release in response to the severity of pathology-induced tissue acidosis. This novel metal ion binding-mediated drug delivery mechanism can potentially be applied to other drugs that have high binding affinity for metal ions and may lead to the development of new delivery systems for a variety of drugs. (paper)

  6. Constructing of DNA vectors with controlled nanosize and single dispersion by block copolymer coating gold nanoparticles as template assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junbo, E-mail: Lijunbo@haust.edu.cn [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics (China); Wu, Wenlan [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Medicine (China); Gao, Jiayu; Liang, Ju; Zhou, Huiyun; Liang, Lijuan [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics (China)

    2017-03-15

    Synthesized vectors with nanoscale size and stable colloid dispersion are highly desirable for improving gene delivery efficiency. Here, a core-shell template particle was constructed with polyethylene glycol-b-poly1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine) (PEG-b-PAMPImB) coating gold nanoparticles (PEG-b-PAMPImB-@-Au NPs) for loading DNA and delivering in vitro. Data from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggest that these nanoplexes, by forming an electrostatic complex with DNA at the inner PAMPImB shell, offer steric protection for the outer PEG corona leading to single dispersion and small size. Notably, higher colloid stability and lower cytotoxicity were achieved with these nanoplexes when compared with PAMPImB monolayer-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and intracellular trafficking TEM further indicate that the nanoplexes can translocate across the cell membrane and partly enter the nucleus for high efficient expression. Thus, template assembly represents a promising approach to control the size and colloid stability of gene vectors and ensure safety and efficiency of DNA delivery.

  7. Size- and shape-controlled synthesis of hexagonal bipyramidal crystals and hollow self-assembled Al-MOF spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Sarawade, Pradip

    2013-11-25

    We report an efficient protocol for the synthesis of monodisperse crystals of an aluminum (Al)-based metal organic framework (MOF) while obtaining excellent control over the size and shape solely by tuning of the reaction parameters without the use of a template or structure-directing agent. The size of the hexagonal crystals of the Al-MOF can be selectively varied from 100 nm to 2000 nm by simply changing the reaction time and temperature via its nucleation-growth mechanism. We also report a self-assembly phenomenon, observed for the first time in case of Al-MOF, whereby hollow spheres of Al-MOF were formed by the spontaneous organization of triangular sheet building blocks. These MOFs showed broad hysteresis loops during the CO2 capture, indicating that the adsorbed CO2 is not immediately desorbed upon decreasing the external pressure and is instead confined within the framework, which allows for the capture and subsequent selective trapping of CO2 from gaseous mixtures. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Fuel cell integral bundle assembly including ceramic open end seal and vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafred, Paolo R [Murrysville, PA; Gillett, James E [Greensburg, PA

    2012-04-24

    A plurality of integral bundle assemblies contain a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion containing a base support, the base supports a dense, ceramic air exhaust manifold having four supporting legs, the manifold is below and connects to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the open end of the fuel cells rest upon and within a separate combination ceramic seal and bundle support contained in a ceramic support casting, where at least one flexible cushion ceramic band seal located between the recuperator and fuel cells protects and controls horizontal thermal expansion, and where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all of the weight of the generator.

  9. Constructing of DNA vectors with controlled nanosize and single dispersion by block copolymer coating gold nanoparticles as template assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junbo; Wu, Wenlan; Gao, Jiayu; Liang, Ju; Zhou, Huiyun; Liang, Lijuan

    2017-03-01

    Synthesized vectors with nanoscale size and stable colloid dispersion are highly desirable for improving gene delivery efficiency. Here, a core-shell template particle was constructed with polyethylene glycol- b-poly1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine) (PEG- b-PAMPImB) coating gold nanoparticles (PEG- b-PAMPImB-@-Au NPs) for loading DNA and delivering in vitro. Data from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggest that these nanoplexes, by forming an electrostatic complex with DNA at the inner PAMPImB shell, offer steric protection for the outer PEG corona leading to single dispersion and small size. Notably, higher colloid stability and lower cytotoxicity were achieved with these nanoplexes when compared with PAMPImB monolayer-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and intracellular trafficking TEM further indicate that the nanoplexes can translocate across the cell membrane and partly enter the nucleus for high efficient expression. Thus, template assembly represents a promising approach to control the size and colloid stability of gene vectors and ensure safety and efficiency of DNA delivery.

  10. High-speed assembly language (80386/80387) programming for laser spectra scan control and data acquisition providing improved resolution water vapor spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An assembly language program using the Intel 80386 CPU and 80387 math co-processor chips was written to increase the speed of data gathering and processing, and provide control of a scanning CW ring dye laser system. This laser system is used in high resolution (better than 0.001 cm-1) water vapor spectroscopy experiments. Laser beam power is sensed at the input and output of white cells and the output of a Fabry-Perot. The assembly language subroutine is called from Basic, acquires the data and performs various calculations at rates greater than 150 faster than could be performed by the higher level language. The width of output control pulses generated in assembly language are 3 to 4 microsecs as compared to 2 to 3.7 millisecs for those generated in Basic (about 500 to 1000 times faster). Included are a block diagram and brief description of the spectroscopy experiment, a flow diagram of the Basic and assembly language programs, listing of the programs, scope photographs of the computer generated 5-volt pulses used for control and timing analysis, and representative water spectrum curves obtained using these programs.

  11. Modulation of Intracellular Quantum Dot to Fluorescent Protein Förster Resonance Energy Transfer via Customized Ligands and Spatial Control of Donor–Acceptor Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren D. Field

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how to controllably modulate the efficiency of energy transfer in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based assemblies is critical to their implementation as sensing modalities. This is particularly true for sensing assemblies that are to be used as the basis for real time intracellular sensing of intracellular processes and events. We use a quantum dot (QD donor -mCherry acceptor platform that is engineered to self-assemble in situ wherein the protein acceptor is expressed via transient transfection and the QD donor is microinjected into the cell. QD-protein assembly is driven by metal-affinity interactions where a terminal polyhistidine tag on the protein binds to the QD surface. Using this system, we show the ability to modulate the efficiency of the donor–acceptor energy transfer process by controllably altering either the ligand coating on the QD surface or the precise location where the QD-protein assembly process occurs. Intracellularly, a short, zwitterionic ligand mediates more efficient FRET relative to longer ligand species that are based on the solubilizing polymer, poly(ethylene glycol. We further show that a greater FRET efficiency is achieved when the QD-protein assembly occurs free in the cytosol compared to when the mCherry acceptor is expressed tethered to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. In the latter case, the lower FRET efficiency is likely attributable to a lower expression level of the mCherry acceptor at the membrane combined with steric hindrance. Our work points to some of the design considerations that one must be mindful of when developing FRET-based sensing schemes for use in intracellular sensing.

  12. Subversion of the cytoskeleton by intracellular bacteria: lessons from Listeria, Salmonella, and Vibrio

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Santos, Marcela; Orth, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Summary Entry into host cells and intracellular persistence by invasive bacteria are tightly coupled to the ability of the bacterium to disrupt the eukaryotic cytoskeletal machinery. Herein we review the main strategies used by three intracellular pathogens to harness key modulators of the cytoskeleton. Two of these bacteria, namely Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, exhibit quite distinct intracellular lifestyles, and therefore, provide a comprehensive panel for the understanding of the intricate bacteria-cytoskeleton interplay during infections. The emerging intracellular pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus is depicted as a developing model for the uncovering of novel mechanisms used to hijack the cytoskeleton. PMID:25440316

  13. Effects of X irradiation on the cytoskeleton of rat alveolar macrophages in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladyman, S.J.; Townsend, K.M.S.; Edwards, C.

    1984-01-01

    The three-dimensional visualization of Triton X-100 resistant cytoskeletons has been used to demonstrate that an absorbed dose of 120 Gy from X rays causes a distinctive and reproducible alteration of the cytoskeleton of intact rat alveolar macrophages in vitro. The alteration has also been shown to be rapidly and completely ''repaired'' and to be apparently similar to alterations caused by colchicine but dissimilar to those caused by cytochalasin B. From these observations and those of other workers who have studied the irradiation of extracted microtubular proteins in vitro, the authors think it likely that microtubules rather than microfilaments are the radiosensitive component of the macrophage cytoskeleton

  14. Segmentation and morphometric analysis of cells from fluorescence microscopy images of cytoskeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujihara, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Masanori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Wada, Shigeo

    2013-01-01

    We developed a method to reconstruct cell geometry from confocal fluorescence microscopy images of the cytoskeleton. In the method, region growing was implemented twice. First, it was applied to the extracellular regions to differentiate them from intracellular noncytoskeletal regions, which both appear black in fluorescence microscopy imagery, and then to cell regions for cell identification. Analysis of morphological parameters revealed significant changes in cell shape associated with cytoskeleton disruption, which offered insight into the mechanical role of the cytoskeleton in maintaining cell shape. The proposed segmentation method is promising for investigations on cell morphological changes with respect to internal cytoskeletal structures.

  15. Controlled-release and preserved bioactivity of proteins from (self-assembled core-shell double-walled microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan W

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Weien Yuan1,2, Zhenguo Liu11Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In order to address preserved protein bioactivities and protein sustained-release problems, a method for preparing double-walled microspheres with a core (protein-loaded nanoparticles with a polymer-suspended granule system-formed core and a second shell (a polymer-formed shell for controlled drug release and preserved protein bioactivities has been developed using (solid-in-oil phase-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (S/O/Oh/W phases. The method, based on our previous microsphere preparation method (solid-in-oil phase-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (S/O/Oh/W, employs different concentric poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide, poly(D,L-lactide, and protein-loaded nanoparticles to produce a suspended liquid which then self-assembles to form shell-core microspheres in the hydrophilic oil phase, which are then solidified in the water phase. Variations in the preparation parameters allowed complete encapsulation by the shell phase, including the efficient formation of a poly(D,L-lactide shell encapsulating a protein-loaded nanoparticle-based poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide core. This method produces core-shell double-walled microspheres that show controlled protein release and preserved protein bioactivities for 60 days. Based upon these results, we concluded that the core-shell double-walled microspheres might be applied for tissue engineering and therapy for chronic diseases, etc.Keywords: protein delivery, protein stability, core-shell microspheres, dextran nanoparticles

  16. A symmetry-controlled and face-driven approach for the assembly of cerium-based molecular polyhedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lin, Zhihua; He, Cheng; Zhao, Liang; Duan, Chunying

    2010-12-14

    A well-defined Ce-based molecular tetrahedron and a cube-like architecture were achieved via self-assembly by incorporating NOO tridentate chelators into the rationally designed ligands with C(3) or C(2v) symmetries, respectively.

  17. Impact of Pore–Walls Ligand Assembly on the Biodegradation of Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles for Controlled Drug Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Omar, Haneen; Moosa, Basem; Alamoudi, Kholod; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; El Tall, Omar; Vu, Binh; Tamanoi, Fuyu; AlMalik, Abdulaziz; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2018-01-01

    -assembly of the organic linkers provides a crystal-like pore wall. However, unlike metal coordination, specific geometries cannot be predicted because of the competitive and dynamic nature of noncovalent interactions. Herein, we study the influence of competing

  18. Modulating the forces between self-assembling molecules to control the shape of vesicles and the mechanics and alignment of nanofiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Megan Ann

    One of the great challenges in supramolecular chemistry is the design of molecules that can self-assemble into functional aggregates with well-defined three-dimensional structures and bulk material properties. Since the self-assembly of nanostructures is greatly influenced by both the nature of the self-assembling components and the environmental conditions in which the components assemble, this work explores how changes in the molecular design and the environment affect the properties of self-assembled structures. We first explore how to control the mechanical properties of self-assembled fibrillar networks by changing environmental conditions. We report here on how changing pH, screening ions, and solution temperature affect the gelation, stiffness, and response to deformation of peptide amphiphile gels. Although the morphology of PA gels formed by charge neutralization and salt-mediated charge screening are similar by electron microscopy, rheological measurements indicate that the calcium-mediated ionic bridges in CaCl2-PA gels form stronger intra- and inter-fiber crosslinks than the hydrogen bonds formed by the protonated carboxylic acid residues in HCl-PA gels. In contrast, the structure of PA gels changes drastically when the PA solution is annealed prior to gel formation. Annealed PA solutions are birefringent and can form viscoelastic strings of aligned nanofibers when manually dragged across a thin film of CaCl2. These aligned arrays of PA nanofibers hold great promise in controlling the orientation of cells in three-dimensions. Separately, we applied the principles of molecular design to create buckled membrane nanostructures that mimic the shape of viruses. When oppositely charged amphiphilic molecules are mixed they can form vesicles with a periodic two-dimensional ionic lattice that opposes the membrane's natural curvature and can result in vesicle buckling. Our results demonstrate that a large +3 to -1 charge imbalance between the cationic and anionic

  19. Complete disintegration of the microtubular cytoskeleton precedes its auxin-mediated reconstruction in postmitotic maize root cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluska, F.; Barlow, P. W.; Volkmann, D.

    1996-01-01

    The inhibitory action of 0.1 microM auxin (IAA) on maize root growth was closely associated with a rapid and complete disintegration of the microtubular (MT) cytoskeleton, as visualized by indirect immunofluorescence of tubulin, throughout the growth region. After 30 min of this treatment, only fluorescent spots were present in root cells, accumulating either around nuclei or along cell walls. Six h later, in addition to some background fluorescence, dense but partially oriented oblique or longitudinal arrays of cortical MTs (CMTs) were found in most growing cells of the root apex. After 24 h of treatment, maize roots had adapted to the auxin, as inferred from the slowly recovering elongation rate and from the reassembly of a dense and well-ordered MT cytoskeleton which showed only slight deviations from that of the control root cells. Taxol pretreatment (100 microM, 24 h) prevented not only the rapid auxin-mediated disintegration of the MT cytoskeleton but also a reorientation of the CMT arrays, from transversal to longitudinal. The only tissue to show MTs in their cells throughout the auxin treatment was the epidermis. Significant resistance of transverse CMT arrays in these cells towards auxin was confirmed using a higher auxin concentration (100 microM, 24 h). The latter auxin dose also revealed inter-tissue-specific responses to auxin: outer cortical cell files reoriented their CMTs from the transversal to longitudinal orientation, whereas inner cortical cell files lost their MTs. This high auxin-mediated response, associated with the swelling of root apices, was abolished with the pretreatment of maize root with taxol.

  20. The actin-like MreB cytoskeleton organizes viral DNA replication in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Espín, Daniel; Daniel, Richard; Kawai, Yoshikazu; Carballido-López, Rut; Castilla-Llorente, Virginia; Errington, Jeff; Meijer, Wilfried J J; Salas, Margarita

    2009-08-11

    Little is known about the organization or proteins involved in membrane-associated replication of prokaryotic genomes. Here we show that the actin-like MreB cytoskeleton of the distantly related bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis is required for efficient viral DNA replication. Detailed analyses of B. subtilis phage ϕ29 showed that the MreB cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in organizing phage DNA replication at the membrane. Thus, phage double-stranded DNA and components of the ϕ29 replication machinery localize in peripheral helix-like structures in a cytoskeleton-dependent way. Importantly, we show that MreB interacts directly with the ϕ29 membrane-protein p16.7, responsible for attaching viral DNA at the cell membrane. Altogether, the results reveal another function for the MreB cytoskeleton and describe a mechanism by which viral DNA replication is organized at the bacterial membrane.

  1. Carbon nanotubes gathered onto silica particles lose their biomimetic properties with the cytoskeleton becoming biocompatible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Domínguez E

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elena González-Domínguez,1,* Nerea Iturrioz-Rodríguez,2,* Esperanza Padín-González,2 Juan Villegas,2 Lorena García-Hevia,2 Moisés Pérez-Lorenzo,1 Wolfgang J Parak,3 Miguel A Correa-Duarte,1,* Mónica L Fanarraga2,* 1Department of Physical Chemistry, Biomedical Research Center (CINBIO, Southern Galicia Institute of Health Research (IISSG, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health (CIBERSAM, Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Spain; 2Nanomedicine Group, Universidad de Cantabria-IDIVAL, Santander, Spain; 3Department of Physics, Philipps Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are likely to transform the therapeutic and diagnostic fields in biomedicine during the coming years. However, the fragmented vision of their side effects and toxicity in humans has proscribed their use as nanomedicines. Most studies agree that biocompatibility depends on the state of aggregation/dispersion of CNTs under physiological conditions, but conclusions are confusing so far. This study designs an experimental setup to investigate the cytotoxic effect of individualized multiwalled CNTs compared to that of identical nanotubes assembled on submicrometric structures. Our results demonstrate how CNT cytotoxicity is directly dependent on the nanotube dispersion at a given dosage. When CNTs are gathered onto silica templates, they do not interfere with cell proliferation or survival becoming highly compatible. These results support the hypothesis that CNT cytotoxicity is due to the biomimetics of these nanomaterials with the intracellular nanofilaments. These findings provide major clues for the development of innocuous CNT-containing nanodevices and nanomedicines. Keywords: MWCNTs, biomimetics, cytoskeleton, microtubules, apoptosis, migration, proliferation

  2. The Emerging Role of the Cytoskeleton in Chromosome Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Spichal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomes underlie a dynamic organization that fulfills functional roles in processes like transcription, DNA repair, nuclear envelope stability, and cell division. Chromosome dynamics depend on chromosome structure and cannot freely diffuse. Furthermore, chromosomes interact closely with their surrounding nuclear environment, which further constrains chromosome dynamics. Recently, several studies enlighten that cytoskeletal proteins regulate dynamic chromosome organization. Cytoskeletal polymers that include actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments can connect to the nuclear envelope via Linker of the Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC complexes and transfer forces onto chromosomes inside the nucleus. Monomers of these cytoplasmic polymers and related proteins can also enter the nucleus and play different roles in the interior of the nucleus than they do in the cytoplasm. Nuclear cytoskeletal proteins can act as chromatin remodelers alone or in complexes with other nuclear proteins. They can also act as transcription factors. Many of these mechanisms have been conserved during evolution, indicating that the cytoskeletal regulation of chromosome dynamics is an essential process. In this review, we discuss the different influences of cytoskeletal proteins on chromosome dynamics by focusing on the well-studied model organism budding yeast.

  3. Effects of Silver and Other Metals on the Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Gary W.

    1997-01-01

    Directly or indirectly, trace concentrations of silver ion (Ag(+)) stabilize microtubules (Conrad, A.H., et al. Cell Motil. & Cytoskel. 27:117-132), as does taxol (Conrad, A.H., et al. J. Exp. Zool. 262:154-165), an effect with major consequences for cellular shape changes and development. Polymerization of microtubules is gravity-sensitive (Tabony and Job, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:6948-6952), so trace amounts of Ag(+) may alter cellular ability to respond to gravity. If Ag electrolysis is used to purify water on NASA space vehicles, plants and animals/astronauts will be exposed continuously to Ag(+), a regimen with unknown cellular and developmental consequences. Fertilized eggs of the marine mudsnail, Ilyanassa obsoleta, are the cells in which the effects of A(+) on microtubules were discovered. They distribute visible cytoplasmic contents according to gravity and contain cytoplasmic morphogenetic determinants for heart development. The objectives are to determine if the effects of Ag(+), AU(3+), (of biosensor relevance), or Gd(3+) (inhibitor of some stretch-activated ion channels) on the cytoskeleton (in the presence and absence of mechanical loading) will affect cellular responses to gravity.

  4. Fluorescence Imaging of the Cytoskeleton in Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachok, Julia; Paez-Garcia, Ana; Yoo, Cheol-Min; Palanichelvam, Karuppaiah; Blancaflor, Elison B

    2016-01-01

    During the past two decades the use of live cytoskeletal probes has increased dramatically due to the introduction of the green fluorescent protein. However, to make full use of these live cell reporters it is necessary to implement simple methods to maintain plant specimens in optimal growing conditions during imaging. To image the cytoskeleton in living Arabidopsis roots, we rely on a system involving coverslips coated with nutrient supplemented agar where the seeds are directly germinated. This coverslip system can be conveniently transferred to the stage of a confocal microscope with minimal disturbance to the growth of the seedling. For roots with a larger diameter such as Medicago truncatula, seeds are first germinated in moist paper, grown vertically in between plastic trays, and roots mounted on glass slides for confocal imaging. Parallel with our live cell imaging approaches, we routinely process fixed plant material via indirect immunofluorescence. For these methods we typically use non-embedded vibratome-sectioned and whole mount permeabilized root tissue. The clearly defined developmental regions of the root provide us with an elegant system to further understand the cytoskeletal basis of plant development.

  5. Combined effect of cortical cytoskeleton and transmembrane proteins on domain formation in biomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Md. Kabir Uddin; Stone, Kyle A.; Kumar, P. B. Sunil; Laradji, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find that microphase separation can be achieved by the protein confinement by the cytoskeleton. Our results have relevance to the finite size of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. PMID:25106608

  6. Antiepileptic teratogen valproic acid (VPA) modulates organisation and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmod, P S; Skladchikova, G; Kawa, A

    1999-01-01

    for the VPA mediated inhibition of motility. In addition it is shown that the actomyosin cytoskeleton of VPA-treated cells was capable of contraction upon exposure to ATP, indicating that the reduced motility of VPA-treated cells was not caused by an inhibition of actomyosin contraction. On the other hand...... state. These findings indicate that VPA affects cell morphology and motility through interference with the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton....

  7. Time-dependent association between platelet-bound fibrinogen and the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerschke, E.I.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies indicated a correlation between the formation of EDTA-resistant (irreversible) platelet-fibrinogen interactions and platelet cytoskeleton formation. The present study explored the direct association of membrane-bound fibrinogen with the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton of aspirin-treated, gel-filtered platelets, activated but not aggregated with 20 mumol/L adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or 150 mU/mL human thrombin (THR) when bound fibrinogen had become resistant to dissociation by EDTA. Conversion of exogenous 125I-fibrinogen to fibrin was prevented by adding Gly-Pro-Arg and neutralizing THR with hirudin before initiating binding studies. After 60 minutes at 22 degrees C, the cytoskeleton of ADP-treated platelets contained 20% +/- 12% (mean +/- SD, n = 14) of membrane-bound 125I-fibrinogen, representing 10% to 50% of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding. The THR-activated cytoskeleton contained 45% +/- 15% of platelet bound fibrinogen, comprising 80% to 100% of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding. 125I-fibrinogen was not recovered with platelet cytoskeletons if binding was inhibited by the RGDS peptide, excess unlabeled fibrinogen, or disruption of the glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complex by EDTA-treatment. Both development of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding and fibrinogen association with the cytoskeleton were time dependent and reached maxima 45 to 60 minutes after fibrinogen binding to stimulated platelets. Although a larger cytoskeleton formed after platelet stimulation with thrombin as compared with ADP, no change in cytoskeleton composition was noted with development of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding

  8. Palmitic acid-labeled lipids selectively incorporated into platelet cytoskeleton during aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packham, M.A.; Guccione, M.A.; Bryant, N.L.; Livne, A.

    1990-01-01

    Previous experiments showed that during the early stages (20-30 seconds) of aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 2 microM) or thrombin (0.1 U/mL) of rabbit or human platelets prelabeled with [3H]palmitic acid, labeled lipid became associated with the cytoskeleton isolated after lysis with 1% Triton X-100, 5 mM EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)]-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid. The association appeared to be related to the number of sites of contact and was independent of the release of granule contents. We have now investigated the nature of the labeled lipids by thin-layer and column chromatography and found differences between the distribution of the label in intact platelets (both stimulated and unstimulated) and the isolated cytoskeletons. In both species, and with either ADP or thrombin as aggregating agent, 70-85% of the label in both intact platelets and in the cytoskeletons was in phospholipids. The distribution of label among the phospholipids in the cytoskeletons was similar to that in intact platelets except that the percentage of label in phosphatidylcholine was significantly higher in the cytoskeletons of human platelets than in the intact platelets, and the percentage of label in phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylinositol was significantly lower in the cytoskeletons of rabbit platelets and thrombin-aggregated human platelets than in intact platelets. The cytoskeletons contained a lower percentage of label in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and cholesterol ester than the intact platelets. Contrary to a report in the literature, we found no evidence for the incorporation of diacylglycerol and palmitic acid into the cytoskeleton

  9. Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Navarro-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology.

  10. Transcription factor CREB is involved in CaSR-mediated cytoskeleton gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuaishuai; Ren, Yu; Wang, Ping; Li, Yanyuan; Wang, Xue; Zhuang, Haihui; Fang, Rong; Wang, Yuduo; Liu, Ningsheng; Hehir, Michael; Zhou, Jeff X

    2015-03-01

    Our previous studies illustrated that a steady increase of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was important for maintaining microtubules (MTs) rearrangement in apoptotic cells. However, little is known about the effect of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR)-mediated increase in [Ca2+]i on cytoskeleton gene expression. We examined the impact of taxol or CaSR agonist/antagonist on the regulation of [Ca2+]i concentration, cytoskeleton arrangement, phosphorylated CREB and cytoskeleton gene expressions in HeLa cells with dominant negative plasmid of CREB (PM). This study demonstrated that Gdcl3 (a specific CaSR agonist) evoked a rapid increase of [Ca2+]i, formed a rigid bundle of MTs which surrounded the nucleus and decreased the cytoskeleton gene expressions in HeLa cells. These effects were rescued by addition of NPS2390 (a specific CaSR antagonist). Moreover, CaSR activity affected cytoskeleton gene expression through transcription factor CREB. Histoscores of pCREB immunoreactivity in tissues of cervical adenocarcinoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were markedly increased compared with non malignant tissue. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that CaSR-mediated increase in [Ca2+]i probably modulate cytoskeleton organization and gene expression via transcription factor. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The nesprin-cytoskeleton interface probed directly on single nuclei is a mechanically rich system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikov, Daniel A; Brady, Sonia K; Ko, Ung Hyun; Shin, Jennifer H; de Pereda, Jose M; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Sung, Hak-Joon; Lang, Matthew J

    2017-09-03

    The cytoskeleton provides structure and plays an important role in cellular function such as migration, resisting compression forces, and transport. The cytoskeleton also reacts to physical cues such as fluid shear stress or extracellular matrix remodeling by reorganizing filament associations, most commonly focal adhesions and cell-cell cadherin junctions. These mechanical stimuli can result in genome-level changes, and the physical connection of the cytoskeleton to the nucleus provides an optimal conduit for signal transduction by interfacing with nuclear envelope proteins, called nesprins, within the LINC (linker of the nucleus to the cytoskeleton) complex. Using single-molecule on single nuclei assays, we report that the interactions between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton, thought to be nesprin-cytoskeleton interactions, are highly sensitive to force magnitude and direction depending on whether cells are historically interfaced with the matrix or with cell aggregates. Application of ∼10-30 pN forces to these nesprin linkages yielded structural transitions, with a base transition size of 5-6 nm, which are speculated to be associated with partial unfoldings of the spectrin domains of the nesprins and/or structural changes of histones within the nucleus.

  12. Image-based model of the spectrin cytoskeleton for red blood cell simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Thomas G; Leo-Macias, Alejandra; Stokes, David L; Peskin, Charles S

    2017-10-01

    We simulate deformable red blood cells in the microcirculation using the immersed boundary method with a cytoskeletal model that incorporates structural details revealed by tomographic images. The elasticity of red blood cells is known to be supplied by both their lipid bilayer membranes, which resist bending and local changes in area, and their cytoskeletons, which resist in-plane shear. The cytoskeleton consists of spectrin tetramers that are tethered to the lipid bilayer by ankyrin and by actin-based junctional complexes. We model the cytoskeleton as a random geometric graph, with nodes corresponding to junctional complexes and with edges corresponding to spectrin tetramers such that the edge lengths are given by the end-to-end distances between nodes. The statistical properties of this graph are based on distributions gathered from three-dimensional tomographic images of the cytoskeleton by a segmentation algorithm. We show that the elastic response of our model cytoskeleton, in which the spectrin polymers are treated as entropic springs, is in good agreement with the experimentally measured shear modulus. By simulating red blood cells in flow with the immersed boundary method, we compare this discrete cytoskeletal model to an existing continuum model and predict the extent to which dynamic spectrin network connectivity can protect against failure in the case of a red cell subjected to an applied strain. The methods presented here could form the basis of disease- and patient-specific computational studies of hereditary diseases affecting the red cell cytoskeleton.

  13. Three-Dimensional Calcium Alginate Hydrogel Assembly via TiOPc-Based Light-Induced Controllable Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D hydrogel microstructures would greatly contribute to tissue assembly in vitro, and has been widely applied in tissue engineering and drug screening. Recent technological advances in the assembly of functional hydrogel microstructures such as microfluidic, 3D bioprinting, and micromold-based 3D hydrogel fabrication methods have enabled the formation of 3D tissue constructs. However, they still lack flexibility and high efficiency, which restrict their application in 3D tissue constructs. Alternatively, we report a feasible method for the fabrication and reconstruction of customized 3D hydrogel blocks. Arbitrary hydrogel microstructures were fabricated in situ via flexible and rapid light-addressable electrodeposition. To demonstrate the versatility of this method, the higher-order assembly of 3D hydrogel blocks was investigated using a constant direct current (DC voltage (6 V applied between two electrodes for 20–120 s. In addition to the plane-based two-dimensional (2D assembly, hierarchical structures—including multi-layer 3D hydrogel structures and vessel-shaped structures—could be assembled using the proposed method. Overall, we developed a platform that enables researchers to construct complex 3D hydrogel microstructures efficiently and simply, which has the potential to facilitate research on drug screening and 3D tissue constructs.

  14. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, Koji; Ueda, Makoto

    1989-01-01

    In a fuel assembly used for a light water cooled reactor such as a BWR type reactor, a water rod is divided axially into an upper outer tube and a lower outer tube by means of a plug disposed from the lower end of a water rod to a position 1/4 - 1/2 of the entire length for the water rod. Inlet apertures and exit apertures for moderators are respectively perforated for the divided outer tube and upper and lower portions. Further, an upper inner tube with less neutron irradiation growing amount than the outer tube is perforated on the plug in the outer tube, while a lower inner tube with greater neutron irradiation growing amount than the outer tube is suspended from the lower surface of the plug in the outer tube. Then, the opening area for the exit apertures disposed to the upper outer tube and the lower outer tube is controlled depending on the difference of the neutron irradiation growing amount between the upper inner tube and the upper outer tube, and the difference of the neutron irradiation growing amount between the lower inner tube and the lower outer tube. This enables effective spectral shift operation and improve the fuel economy. (T.M.)

  15. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Bessho, Yasunori; Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Tatsuo

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor in which a water rod of a large diameter is disposed at the central portion, the cross sectional area perpendicular to the axial direction comprises a region a of a fuel rod group facing to a wide gap water region to which a control rod is inserted, a region b of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the wide gap water region other than the region a, a region d of a fuel rod group facing to a narrow gap water region and a region c of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the narrow gap water region other than the region d. When comparing an amount of fission products contained in the four regions relative to that in the entire regions and average enrichment degrees of fuel rods for the four regions, the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group of the region a is minimized, and the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group in the region b is maximized. Then, reactor shut down margin during cold operation can be improved while flattening the power in the cross section perpendicular to the axial direction. (N.H.)

  16. Direct current linear measurement sub-assembly data and test methods. Nuclear electronic equipment for control and monitoring panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The M.C.H./M.E.N.T.3 document is concerned with sub-assemblies intended for measuring on a linear scale the neutron fluence rate or radiation dose rate when connected with nuclear detectors working in current. The symbols used are described. Some definitions and a bibliography are given. The main characteristics of direct current linear measurement sub-assemblies are then described together with corresponding test methods. This type of instrument indicates on a linear scale the level of a direct current applied to its input. The document reviews linear sub-assemblies for general purpose applications, difference amplifiers for monitoring, and averaging amplifiers. The document is intended for electronics manufacturers, designers, persons participating in acceptance trials and plant operators [fr

  17. Septipyridines as conformationally controlled substitutes for inaccessible bis(terpyridine-derived oligopyridines in two-dimensional self-assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Caterbow

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The position of the peripheral nitrogen atoms in bis(terpyridine-derived oligopyridines (BTPs has a strong impact on their self-assembly behavior at the liquid/HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite interface. The intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions in these peripheral pyridine units show specific 2D structures for each BTP isomer. From nine possible constitutional isomers only four have been described in the literature. The synthesis and self-assembling behavior of an additional isomer is presented here, but the remaining four members of the series are synthetically inaccessible. The self-assembling properties of three of the missing four BTP isomers can be mimicked by making use of the energetically preferred N–C–C–N transoid conformation between 2,2'-bipyridine subunits in a new class of so-called septipyridines. The structures are investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM and a combination of force-field and first-principles electronic structure calculations.

  18. Development of the control assembly pattern and dynamic analysis of the Generation IV large gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardin, G.

    2009-07-15

    During the past ten years, different independent factors, such as the rapidly increasing worldwide demand in energy, societal concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, and the high and volatile prices for fossil fuels, have contributed to the renewed interest in nuclear technology. In this context, the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) launched the initiative to collaborate on the research and development efforts needed for the next generation of nuclear reactors. A particular goal set for Generation IV systems is closure of the nuclear fuel cycle; they are expected to offer a better utilization of natural resources, as also a minimization of long-lived radioactive wastes. Among the systems selected by the GIF, the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is a highly innovative system with advanced fuel geometry and materials. The principal aim of the present research is to develop and qualify the control assembly (CA) pattern and corresponding CA implementation scheme for the 2400 MWth reference GFR design. The work has been carried out in three successive phases: (1) validation of the neutronics tools, (2) the CA pattern development and related static analysis, and (3) dynamic core behaviour studies for hypothetical CA driven transients. The deterministic code system ERANOS and its associated nuclear data libraries for fast reactors were developed and validated for sodium-cooled reactors. In order to validate ERANOS for GFR applications, a systematic reanalysis of the GFR-relevant integral data generated at PSI during the GCFR-PROTEUS experimental program of the 1970’s was undertaken. The reference PROTEUS test lattice has been analyzed with ERANOS-2.0 and its associated, adjusted nuclear data library ERALIB1. Benchmark calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, allowing one to both check the deterministic results and to analyze the sensitivity to different modern data libraries. For the main reaction rate ratios, the new analysis of the GCFR

  19. Development of the control assembly pattern and dynamic analysis of the Generation IV large gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, G.

    2009-07-01

    During the past ten years, different independent factors, such as the rapidly increasing worldwide demand in energy, societal concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, and the high and volatile prices for fossil fuels, have contributed to the renewed interest in nuclear technology. In this context, the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) launched the initiative to collaborate on the research and development efforts needed for the next generation of nuclear reactors. A particular goal set for Generation IV systems is closure of the nuclear fuel cycle; they are expected to offer a better utilization of natural resources, as also a minimization of long-lived radioactive wastes. Among the systems selected by the GIF, the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is a highly innovative system with advanced fuel geometry and materials. The principal aim of the present research is to develop and qualify the control assembly (CA) pattern and corresponding CA implementation scheme for the 2400 MWth reference GFR design. The work has been carried out in three successive phases: (1) validation of the neutronics tools, (2) the CA pattern development and related static analysis, and (3) dynamic core behaviour studies for hypothetical CA driven transients. The deterministic code system ERANOS and its associated nuclear data libraries for fast reactors were developed and validated for sodium-cooled reactors. In order to validate ERANOS for GFR applications, a systematic reanalysis of the GFR-relevant integral data generated at PSI during the GCFR-PROTEUS experimental program of the 1970’s was undertaken. The reference PROTEUS test lattice has been analyzed with ERANOS-2.0 and its associated, adjusted nuclear data library ERALIB1. Benchmark calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, allowing one to both check the deterministic results and to analyze the sensitivity to different modern data libraries. For the main reaction rate ratios, the new analysis of the GCFR

  20. Development of the control assembly pattern and dynamic analysis of the generation IV large gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, G.

    2009-01-01

    Among the systems selected by the GIF, the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is a highly innovative system with advanced fuel geometry and materials. It is in the context of the large, 2400 MWth reference GFR design that the present doctoral research has been conducted, the principal aim having been to develop and qualify the control assembly (CA) pattern and corresponding CA implementation scheme for this system. The work has been carried out in three successive and complementary phases: (1) validation of the neutronics tools, (2) the CA pattern development and related static analysis, and (3) dynamic core behavior studies for hypothetical CA driven transients. During the first phase of the thesis, the reference PROTEUS test lattice from these experiments has been analyzed with ERANOS-2.0 and its associated, adjusted nuclear data library ERALIB1. Additionally, benchmark calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, allowing one to both check the deterministic results and to analyze the sensitivity to different modern data libraries. It has been found that, for the main reaction rate ratios, the new analysis of the GCFR-PROTEUS reference lattice generally yields good agreement - within 1σ measurement uncertainty - with experimental values and with the Monte Carlo simulations. As shown by the analysis, the predictions were in somewhat better agreement in the case of the adjusted ERALIB1 library. The applicability of ERANOS-2.0/ERALIB1 as the reference neutronics tool for the GFR analysis could thus be demonstrated. Furthermore, neutronics aspects related to the novel features of the GFR, for which new experimental investigations are needed, were highlighted. In the second phase of the research, the CA pattern was developed for the GFR, based on iterative neutronics and thermal-hydraulics calculations, 2D and 3D neutronics models for the reactor core having first been set up using the reference ERANOS-2.0/ERALIB1 computational scheme. For the thermal

  1. Influence of chitosan-chitin nanofiber composites on cytoskeleton structure and the proliferation of rat bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiroshka, Victoria V; Petrova, Valentina A; Chernyakov, Daniil D; Bozhkova, Yulia O; Kiroshka, Katerina V; Baklagina, Yulia G; Romanov, Dmitry P; Kremnev, Roman V; Skorik, Yury A

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan scaffolds have gained much attention in various tissue engineering applications, but the effect of their microstructure on cell-material spatial interactions remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of chitosan-based matrices doping with chitin nano-whiskers (CNW) on adhesion, spreading, cytoskeleton structure, and proliferation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The behavior of BMSCs during culture on chitosan-CNW films was determined by the molecular mass, hydrophobicity, porosity, crosslinking degree, protonation degree and molecular structure of the composite chitosan-CNW films. The shape, spreading area, cytoskeleton structure, and proliferation of BMSCs on chitosan matrices with a crystalline structure and high porosity were similar to that observed for BMSCs cultured on polystyrene tissue culture plates. The amorphous polymer structure and high swelling led to a decrease in the spreading area and cell proliferation. Thus, we can control the behavior of cells in culture (adhesion, spreading, and proliferation) by changing the physico-chemical properties of the chitosan-CNW films.

  2. The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and directed cell migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Magdalena; Reis, Katarina [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Heldin, Johan [Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala SE-751 22 Uppsala (Sweden); Kreuger, Johan [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Aspenström, Pontus, E-mail: pontus.aspenstrom@ki.se [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    RhoD belongs to the Rho GTPases, a protein family responsible for the regulation and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, and, consequently, many cellular processes like cell migration, cell division and vesicle trafficking. Here, we demonstrate that the actin cytoskeleton is dynamically regulated by increased or decreased protein levels of RhoD. Ectopic expression of RhoD has previously been shown to give an intertwined weave of actin filaments. We show that this RhoD-dependent effect is detected in several cell types and results in a less dynamic actin filament system. In contrast, RhoD depletion leads to increased actin filament-containing structures, such as cortical actin, stress fibers and edge ruffles. Moreover, vital cellular functions such as cell migration and proliferation are defective when RhoD is silenced. Taken together, we present data suggesting that RhoD is an important component in the control of actin dynamics and directed cell migration. - Highlights: • Increased RhoD expression leads to loss of actin structures, e.g. stress fibers and gives rise to decreased actin dynamics. • RhoD knockdown induces various actin-containing structures such as edge ruffles, stress fibers and cortical actin, in a cell-type specific manner. • RhoD induces specific actin rearrangements depending on its subcellular localization. • RhoD knockdown has effects on cellular processes, such as directed cell migration and proliferation.

  3. TrkB-T1 regulates the RhoA signaling and actin cytoskeleton in glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohira, Koji; Homma, Koichi J.; Hirai, Hirohisa; Nakamura, Shun; Hayashi, Motoharu

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the truncated TrkB receptor, T1, has been reported to be involved in the control of cell morphology via the regulation of Rho proteins, through which T1 binds Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (Rho GDI) 1 and dissociates it in a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent manner. However, it is unclear whether T1 signaling regulates the downstream of Rho signaling and the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we investigated this question using C6 rat glioma cells, which express T1 endogenously. Rho GDI1 was dissociated from T1 in a BDNF-dependent manner, which also causes decreases in the activities of Rho-signaling molecules such as RhoA, Rho-associated kinase, p21-activated kinase, and extracellular-signal regulated kinase1/2. Moreover, BDNF treatment resulted in the disappearance of stress fibers in the cells treated with lysophosphatidic acid, an activator of RhoA, and in morphological changes in cells. Furthermore, a competitive assay with cyan fluorescent protein fusion proteins of T1-specific sequences reduced the effects of BDNF. These results suggest that T1 regulates the Rho-signaling pathways and the actin cytoskeleton

  4. The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and directed cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, Magdalena; Reis, Katarina; Heldin, Johan; Kreuger, Johan; Aspenström, Pontus

    2017-01-01

    RhoD belongs to the Rho GTPases, a protein family responsible for the regulation and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, and, consequently, many cellular processes like cell migration, cell division and vesicle trafficking. Here, we demonstrate that the actin cytoskeleton is dynamically regulated by increased or decreased protein levels of RhoD. Ectopic expression of RhoD has previously been shown to give an intertwined weave of actin filaments. We show that this RhoD-dependent effect is detected in several cell types and results in a less dynamic actin filament system. In contrast, RhoD depletion leads to increased actin filament-containing structures, such as cortical actin, stress fibers and edge ruffles. Moreover, vital cellular functions such as cell migration and proliferation are defective when RhoD is silenced. Taken together, we present data suggesting that RhoD is an important component in the control of actin dynamics and directed cell migration. - Highlights: • Increased RhoD expression leads to loss of actin structures, e.g. stress fibers and gives rise to decreased actin dynamics. • RhoD knockdown induces various actin-containing structures such as edge ruffles, stress fibers and cortical actin, in a cell-type specific manner. • RhoD induces specific actin rearrangements depending on its subcellular localization. • RhoD knockdown has effects on cellular processes, such as directed cell migration and proliferation.

  5. Assembly of MreB filaments on liposome membranes: a synthetic biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yusuke T; Nakadai, Tomoyoshi; Shin, Jonghyeon; Uryu, Kunihiro; Noireaux, Vincent; Libchaber, Albert

    2012-02-17

    The physical interaction between the cytoskeleton and the cell membrane is essential in defining the morphology of living organisms. In this study, we use a synthetic approach to polymerize bacterial MreB filaments inside phospholipid vesicles. When the proteins MreB and MreC are expressed inside the liposomes, the MreB cytoskeleton structure develops at the inner membrane. Furthermore, when purified MreB is used inside the liposomes, MreB filaments form a 4-10 μm rigid bundle structure and deform the lipid vesicles in physical contact with the vesicle inner membrane. These results indicate that the fibrillation of MreB filaments can take place either in close proximity of deformable lipid membrane or in the presence of associated protein. Our finding might be relevant for the self-assembly of cytoskeleton filaments toward the construction of artificial cell systems.

  6. Surface self-assembled hybrid nanocomposites with electroactive nanoparticles and enzymes confined in a polymer matrix for controlled electrocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional network of highly branched poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) is designed and synthesized on gold electrode surfaces. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) (DTSP) on a gold electrode was first prepared, which is confirmed by the reductive desorption of ...

  7. Influence of Pulsed Electric Fields and Mitochondria-Cytoskeleton Interactions on Cell Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ishan; Perry, Justin B; Allen, Mitchell E; Brown, David A; von Spakovsky, Michael R; Verbridge, Scott S

    2018-06-19

    Pulsed electric fields with microsecond pulse width (μsPEFs) are used clinically; namely, irreversible electroporation/Nanoknife is used for soft tissue tumor ablation. The μsPEF pulse parameters used in irreversible electroporation (0.5-1 kV/cm, 80-100 pulses, ∼100 μs each, 1 Hz frequency) may cause an internal field to develop within the cell because of the disruption of the outer cell membrane and subsequent penetration of the electric field. An internal field may disrupt voltage-sensitive mitochondria, although the research literature has been relatively unclear regarding whether such disruptions occur with μsPEFs. This investigation reports the influence of clinically used μsPEF parameters on mitochondrial respiration in live cells. Using a high-throughput Agilent Seahorse machine, it was observed that μsPEF exposure comprising 80 pulses with amplitudes of 600 or 700 V/cm did not alter mitochondrial respiration in 4T1 cells measured after overnight postexposure recovery. To record alterations in mitochondrial function immediately after μsPEF exposure, high-resolution respirometry was used to measure the electron transport chain state via responses to glutamate-malate and ADP and mitochondrial membrane potential via response to carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. In addition to measuring immediate mitochondrial responses to μsPEF exposure, measurements were also made on cells permeabilized using digitonin and those with compromised cytoskeleton due to actin depolymerization via treatment with the drug latrunculin B. The former treatment was used as a control to tease out the effects of plasma membrane permeabilization, whereas the latter was used to investigate indirect effects on the mitochondria that may occur if μsPEFs impact the cytoskeleton on which the mitochondria are anchored. Based on the results, it was concluded that within the pulse parameters tested, μsPEFs alone do not hinder mitochondrial physiology but can be used

  8. A fluidic device for the controlled formation and real-time monitoring of soft membranes self-assembled at liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Meinhardt, Arturo; Botto, Lorenzo; Mata, Alvaro

    2018-02-13

    Membrane materials formed at the interface between two liquids have found applications in a large variety of technologies, from sensors to drug-delivery and catalysis. However, studying the formation of these membranes in real-time presents considerable challenges, owing to the difficulty of prescribing the location and instant of formation of the membrane, the difficulty of observing time-dependent membrane shape and thickness, and the poor reproducibility of results obtained using conventional mixing procedures. Here we report a fluidic device that facilitates characterisation of the time-dependent thickness, morphology and mass transport properties of materials self-assembled at fluid-fluid interfaces. In the proposed device the membrane forms from the controlled coalescence of two liquid menisci in a linear open channel. The linear geometry and controlled mixing of the solutions facilitate real-time visualisation, manipulation and improve reproducibility. Because of its small dimensions, the device can be used in conjunction with standard microscopy methods and reduces the required volumes of potentially expensive reagents. As an example application to tissue engineering, we use the device to characterise interfacial membranes formed by supra-molecular self-assembly of peptide-amphiphiles with either an elastin-like-protein or hyaluronic acid. The device can be adapted to study self-assembling membranes for applications that extend beyond bioengineering.

  9. Morphology-controlled SWCNT/polymeric microsphere arrays by a wet chemical self-assembly technique and their application for sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xingjiu; Li Yue; Im, Hyung-Soon; Yarimaga, Oktay; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Jang, Doon-Yoon; Cho, Sung-Oh; Cai Weiping; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale morphology-controlled SWCNT/polymeric microsphere arrays can be obtained by a wet chemical self-assembly technique. The loading of SWCNTs, the length of SWCNTs, and the size and nature of polymeric microspheres can easily be controlled. Similar results can also be reached using this method for MWCNTs. In both types of CNTs, they form an interesting interactive 'net' structure on spheres and sphere joints. The SWCNT/PS-modified Au electrode was used for detection of uric acid by cyclic voltammetry and single-potential time-based techniques. The preliminary results show that the modified electrode presents good sensitivity and stability to uric acid

  10. Metal ion controlled self-assembly of a chemically reengineered protein drug studied by small-angle X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesper, Nygaard; Munch, Henrik K.; Thulstrup, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    . A small-angle X-ray scattering analysis of the bipyridine-modified insulin system confirmed an organization into a novel well-ordered structure based on insulin trimers, as induced by the addition of Fe(II). In contrast, unmodified monomeric insulin formed larger and more randomly structured assemblies......Precise control of the oligomeric state of proteins is of central importance for biological function and for the properties of biopharmaceutical drugs. Here, the self-assembly of 2,2′-bipyridine conjugated monomeric insulin analogues, induced through coordination to divalent metal ions, was studied....... This protein drug system was designed to form non-native homo-oligomers through selective coordination of two divalent metal ions, Fe(II) and Zn(II), respectively. The insulin type chosen for this study is a variant designed for a reduced tendency toward native dimer formation at physiological concentrations...

  11. A collapsin response mediator protein 2 isoform controls myosin II-mediated cell migration and matrix assembly by trapping ROCK II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wait, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) is known as a regulator of neuronal polarity and differentiation through microtubule assembly and trafficking. Here, we show that CRMP-2 is ubiquitously expressed and a splice variant (CRMP-2L), which is expressed mainly in epithelial cells among...... nonneuronal cells, regulates myosin II-mediated cellular functions, including cell migration. While the CRMP-2 short form (CRMP-2S) is recognized as a substrate of the Rho-GTP downstream kinase ROCK in neuronal cells, a CRMP-2 complex containing 2L not only bound the catalytic domain of ROCK II through two......-2L but not -2S inhibited fibronectin matrix assembly in fibroblasts. Underlying these responses, CRMP-2L regulated the kinase activity of ROCK II but not ROCK I, independent of GTP-RhoA levels. This study provides a new insight into CRMP-2 as a controller of myosin II-mediated cellular functions...

  12. ANDROGENS REGULATE T47D CELLS MOTILITY AND INVASION THROUGH ACTIN CYTOSKELETON REMODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Montt-Guevara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between androgens and breast cancer is controversial. Androgens have complex effects on breast cancer progression and metastasis. Moreover, androgens receptor (AR is expressed in approximately 70% to 90% of invasive breast carcinomas, which has prognostic relevance in basal-like cancers and in triple negative breast cancers. Recent studies have associated the actin-binding proteins of the Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM family with metastasis in endocrine-sensitive cancers. We studied on T47D breast cancer cells whether androgens with different characteristics, such as testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA may regulate breast cancer cell motility and invasion through the control of actin remodelling. We demonstrate that androgens promote migration and invasion in T47D via Moesin activation. We show that T and DHEA exert their actions via the AR and estrogen receptor (ER, while the non aromatizable androgen – DHT only recruits AR. We further report that androgen induced significant changes in actin organization with pseudopodia along with membrane ruffles formation, and this process is mediated by Moesin. Our work identifies novel mechanisms of action of androgens on breast cancer cells. Through the modulation of Moesin, androgens alter the architecture of cytoskeleton in T47D breast cancer cell and promote cell migration and invasion. These results could help to understand the biological actions of androgens on breast cancer, and eventually to develop new strategies for treatment of breast cancer.

  13. TWISTED DWARF1 Mediates the Action of Auxin Transport Inhibitors on Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Aurelien; Zwiewka, Marta; Sovero, Valpuri; Ge, Pei; Aryal, Bibek; Hao, Pengchao; Linnert, Miriam; Burgardt, Noelia Inés; Lücke, Christian; Weiwad, Matthias; Michel, Max; Weiergräber, Oliver H.; Pollmann, Stephan; Azzarello, Elisa; Fukao, Yoichiro; Hoffmann, Céline; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth and architecture is regulated by the polar distribution of the hormone auxin. Polarity and flexibility of this process is provided by constant cycling of auxin transporter vesicles along actin filaments, coordinated by a positive auxin-actin feedback loop. Both polar auxin transport and vesicle cycling are inhibited by synthetic auxin transport inhibitors, such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), counteracting the effect of auxin; however, underlying targets and mechanisms are unclear. Using NMR, we map the NPA binding surface on the Arabidopsis thaliana ABCB chaperone TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). We identify ACTIN7 as a relevant, although likely indirect, TWD1 interactor, and show TWD1-dependent regulation of actin filament organization and dynamics and that TWD1 is required for NPA-mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The TWD1-ACTIN7 axis controls plasma membrane presence of efflux transporters, and as a consequence act7 and twd1 share developmental and physiological phenotypes indicative of defects in auxin transport. These can be phenocopied by NPA treatment or by chemical actin (de)stabilization. We provide evidence that TWD1 determines downstream locations of auxin efflux transporters by adjusting actin filament debundling and dynamizing processes and mediating NPA action on the latter. This function appears to be evolutionary conserved since TWD1 expression in budding yeast alters actin polarization and cell polarity and provides NPA sensitivity. PMID:27053424

  14. Orchestrating cytoskeleton and intracellular vesicle traffic to build functional immunological synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Helena; Lasserre, Rémi; Alcover, Andrés

    2013-11-01

    Immunological synapses are specialized cell-cell contacts formed between T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells. They are induced upon antigen recognition and are crucial for T-cell activation and effector functions. The generation and function of immunological synapses depend on an active T-cell polarization process, which results from a finely orchestrated crosstalk between the antigen receptor signal transduction machinery, the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, and controlled vesicle traffic. Although we understand how some of these particular events are regulated, we still lack knowledge on how these multiple cellular elements are harmonized to ensure appropriate T-cell responses. We discuss here our view on how T-cell receptor signal transduction initially commands cytoskeletal and vesicle traffic polarization, which in turn sets the immunological synapse molecular design that regulates T-cell activation. We also discuss how the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) hijacks some of these processes impairing immunological synapse generation and function. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hideaki; Sakai, Takao; Ishida, Tomio; Yokota, Norikatsu.

    1992-01-01

    The lower ends of a plurality of plate-like shape memory alloys are secured at the periphery of the upper inside of the handling head of a fuel assembly. As the shape memory alloy, a Cu-Zn alloy, a Ti-Pd alloy or a Fe-Ni alloy is used. When high temperature coolants flow out to the handling head, the shape memory alloy deforms by warping to the outer side more greatly toward the upper portion thereof with the temperature increase of the coolants. As the result, the shape of the flow channel of the coolants is changed so as to enlarge at the exit of the upper end of the fuel assembly. Then, the pressure loss of the coolants in the fuel assembly is decreased by the enlargement. Accordingly, the flow rate of the coolants in the fuel assembly is increased to lower the temperature of the coolants. Further, high temperature coolants and low temperature coolants are mixed sufficiently just above the fuel assembly. This can suppress the temperature fluctuation of the mixed coolants in the upper portion of the reactor core, thereby enabling to decrease a fatigue and failures of the structural components in the upper portion of the reactor core. (I.N.)

  16. The actin cytoskeleton modulates the activation of iNKT cells by segregating CD1d nanoclusters on antigen-presenting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreno-Pina, Juan A.; Manzo, Carlo; Salio, Mariolina; Aichinger, Michael C.; Oddone, Anna; Lakadamyali, Melike; Shepherd, Dawn; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells recognize endogenous and exogenous lipid antigens presented in the context of CD1d molecules. The ability of iNKT cells to recognize endogenous antigens represents a distinct immune recognition strategy, which underscores the constitutive memory phenotype of iNKT cells and their activation during inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanisms regulating such “tonic” activation of iNKT cells remain unclear. Here, we show that the spatiotemporal distribution of CD1d molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) modulates activation of iNKT cells. By using superresolution microscopy, we show that CD1d molecules form nanoclusters at the cell surface of APCs, and their size and density are constrained by the actin cytoskeleton. Dual-color single-particle tracking revealed that diffusing CD1d nanoclusters are actively arrested by the actin cytoskeleton, preventing their further coalescence. Formation of larger nanoclusters occurs in the absence of interactions between CD1d cytosolic tail and the actin cytoskeleton and correlates with enhanced iNKT cell activation. Importantly and consistently with iNKT cell activation during inflammatory conditions, exposure of APCs to the Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist R848 increases nanocluster density and iNKT cell activation. Overall, these results define a previously unidentified mechanism that modulates iNKT cell autoreactivity based on the tight control by the APC cytoskeleton of the sizes and densities of endogenous antigen-loaded CD1d nanoclusters. PMID:26798067

  17. Impact of Pore–Walls Ligand Assembly on the Biodegradation of Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles for Controlled Drug Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Omar, Haneen

    2018-05-14

    Porous materials with molecular-scale ordering have attracted major attention mainly because of the possibility to engineer their pores for selective applications. Periodic mesoporous organosilica is a class of hybrid materials where self-assembly of the organic linkers provides a crystal-like pore wall. However, unlike metal coordination, specific geometries cannot be predicted because of the competitive and dynamic nature of noncovalent interactions. Herein, we study the influence of competing noncovalent interactions in the pore walls on the biodegradation of organosilica frameworks for drug delivery application. These results support the importance of studying self-assembly patterns in hybrid frameworks to better engineer the next generation of dynamic or “soft” porous materials.

  18. Isolated self-assembled InAs/InP(001) quantum wires obtained by controlling the growth front evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, David; Alen, Benito; Gonzalez, Luisa; Gonzalez, Yolanda; Martinez-Pastor, Juan; Gonzalez, Maria Ujue; GarcIa, Jorge M

    2007-01-01

    In this work we explore the first stages of quantum wire (QWR) formation studying the evolution of the growth front for InAs coverages below the critical thickness, θ c , determined by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Our results obtained by in situ measurement of the accumulated stress evolution during InAs growth on InP(001) show that the relaxation process starts at a certain InAs coverage θ R c . At this θ R , the spontaneous formation of isolated quantum wires takes place. For θ>θ R this ensemble of isolated nanostructures progressively evolves towards QWRs that cover the whole surface for θ θ c . These results allow for a better understanding of the self-assembling process of QWRs and enable the study of the individual properties of InAs/InP self-assembled single quantum wires

  19. Adhesion structures and their cytoskeleton-membrane interactions at podosomes of osteoclasts in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akisaka, Toshitaka; Yoshida, Hisaho; Suzuki, Reiko; Takama, Keiko

    2008-03-01

    The organization of the cytoskeleton in the podosomes of osteoclasts was studied by use of cell shearing, rotary replication, and fluorescence cytochemical techniques. After shearing, clathrin plaques and particles associated with the cytoskeleton were left behind on the exposed cytoplasmic side of the membrane. The cytoskeleton of the podosomes was characterized by two types of actin filaments: relatively long filaments in the portion surrounding the podosome core, and highly branched short filaments in the core. Individual actin filaments radiating from the podosomes interacted with several membrane particles along the length of the filaments. Many lateral contacts with the membrane surface by the particles were made along the length of individual actin filaments. The polarity of actin filaments in podosomes became oriented such that their barbed ends were directed toward the core of podosomes. The actin cytoskeletons terminated or branched at the podosomes, where the membrane tightly adhered to the substratum. Microtubules were not usually present in the podosome structures; however, certain microtubules appeared to be morphologically in direct contact with the podosome core. Most of the larger clathrin plaques consisted of flat sheets of clathrin lattices that interconnected neighboring clathrin lattices to form an extensive clathrin area. However, the small deeply invaginated clathrin plaques and the podosomal cytoskeleton were located close together. Thus, the clathrin plaques on the ventral membrane of osteoclasts might be involved in both cell adhesion and the formation of receptor-ligand complexes, i.e., endocytosis.

  20. Super-Resolution Microscopy Reveals the Native Ultrastructure of the Erythrocyte Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiting Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The erythrocyte cytoskeleton is a textbook prototype for the submembrane cytoskeleton of metazoan cells. While early experiments suggest a triangular network of actin-based junctional complexes connected by ∼200-nm-long spectrin tetramers, later studies indicate much smaller junction-to-junction distances in the range of 25-60 nm. Through super-resolution microscopy, we resolve the native ultrastructure of the cytoskeleton of membrane-preserved erythrocytes for the N and C termini of β-spectrin, F-actin, protein 4.1, tropomodulin, and adducin. This allows us to determine an ∼80-nm junction-to-junction distance, a length consistent with relaxed spectrin tetramers and theories based on spectrin abundance. Through two-color data, we further show that the cytoskeleton meshwork often contains nanoscale voids where the cell membrane remains intact and that actin filaments and capping proteins localize to a subset of, but not all, junctional complexes. Together, our results call for a reassessment of the structure and function of the submembrane cytoskeleton.

  1. NHERF1 regulates actin cytoskeleton organization through modulation of α-actinin-4 stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Licui; Zheng, Junfang; Wang, Qiqi; Song, Ran; Liu, Hua; Meng, Ran; Tao, Tao; Si, Yang; Jiang, Wenguo; He, Junqi

    2016-02-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is composed of a highly dynamic network of filamentous proteins, yet the molecular mechanism that regulates its organization and remodeling remains elusive. In this study, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF)-1 loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments reveal that polymerized actin cytoskeleton (F-actin) in HeLa cells is disorganized by NHERF1, whereas actin protein expression levels exhibit no detectable change. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying actin cytoskeleton disorganization by NHERF1, a combined 2-dimensional electrophoresis-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry approach was used to screen for proteins regulated by NHERF1 in HeLa cells. α-Actinin-4, an actin cross-linking protein, was identified. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation studies showed the α-actinin-4 carboxyl-terminal region specifically interacted with the NHERF1 postsynaptic density 95/disc-large/zona occludens-1 domain. The NHERF1/α-actinin-4 interaction increased α-actinin-4 ubiquitination and decreased its expression levels, resulting in actin cytoskeleton disassembly. Our study identified α-actinin-4 as a novel NHERF1 interaction partner and provided new insights into the regulatory mechanism of the actin cytoskeleton by NHERF1. © FASEB.

  2. Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the cytoskeleton: an open-label intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simone; Willers, Janina; Riecker, Sabine; Möller, Katharina; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas

    2015-02-14

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) show beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and cognitive functions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Because of the fact that cytoskeleton dynamics affect almost every cellular process, the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics could be a new pathway by which n-3 PUFAs exert their effects on cellular level. A 12-week open-label intervention study with 12 healthy men was conducted to determine the effects of 2.7 g/d n-3 PUFA on changes in mRNA expression of cytoskeleton-associated genes by quantitative real-time PCR in whole blood. Furthermore, the actin content in red blood cells was analyzed by immunofluorescence imaging. N-3 PUFA supplementation resulted in a significant down-regulation of cytoskeleton-associated genes, in particular three GTPases (RAC1, RHOA, CDC42), three kinases (ROCK1, PAK2, LIMK), two Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteins (WASL, WASF2) as well as actin related protein 2/3 complex (ARPC2, ARPC3) and cofilin (CFL1). Variability in F-actin content between subjects was high; reduced actin content was only reduced within group evaluation. Reduced cytoskeleton-associated gene expression after n-3 PUFA supplementation suggests that regulation of cytoskeleton dynamics might be an additional way by which n-3 PUFAs exert their cellular effects. Concerning F-actin, this analysis did not reveal unmistakable results impeding a generalized conclusion.

  3. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively utilize nuclear fuels by increasing the reactivity of a fuel assembly and reduce the concentration at the central region thereof upon completion of the burning. Constitution: A fuel assembly is bisected into a central region and a peripheral region by disposing an inner channel box within a channel box. The flow rate of coolants passing through the central region is made greater than that in the peripheral region. The concentration of uranium 235 of the fuel rods in the central region is made higher. In such a structure, since the moderating effect in the central region is improved, the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased and the uranium concentration in the central region upon completion of the burning can be reduced, fuel economy and effective utilization of uranium can be attained. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Gas-Phase Functionalization of Macroscopic Carbon Nanotube Fiber Assemblies: Reaction Control, Electrochemical Properties, and Use for Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Daniel; Senokos, Evgeny; Alemán, Belén; Cabana, Laura; Navío, Cristina; Marcilla, Rebeca; Prato, Maurizio; Vilatela, Juan J; Marchesan, Silvia

    2018-02-14

    The assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into fibers (CNTFs) is a convenient approach to exploit and apply the unique physico-chemical properties of CNTs in many fields. CNT functionalization has been extensively used for its implementation into composites and devices. However, CNTF functionalization is still in its infancy because of the challenges associated with preservation of CNTF morphology. Here, we report a thorough study of the gas-phase functionalization of CNTF assemblies using ozone which was generated in situ from a UV source. In contrast with liquid-based oxidation methods, this gas-phase approach preserves CNTF morphology, while notably increasing its hydrophilicity. The functionalized material is thoroughly characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Its newly acquired hydrophilicity enables CNTF electrochemical characterization in aqueous media, which was not possible for the pristine material. Through comparison of electrochemical measurements in aqueous electrolytes and ionic liquids, we decouple the effects of functionalization on pseudocapacitive reactions and quantum capacitance. The functionalized CNTF assembly is successfully used as an active material and a current collector in all-solid supercapacitor flexible devices with an ionic liquid-based polymer electrolyte.

  6. Controlled assembly of silver nano-fluid in Heliotropium crispum extract: A potent anti-biofilm and bactericidal formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faria; Hashmi, Muhammad Uzair; Khalid, Nauman; Hayat, Muhammad Qasim; Ikram, Aamer; Janjua, Hussnain A.

    2016-11-01

    The study describes the optimized method for silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) synthesis using Heliotropium crispum (HC) plant extract. Optimization of physicochemical parameters resulted in stable and rapidly assembled AgNPs. FTIR results suggest presence of plant phytochemicals that helped in the reduction, stabilization and capping of AgNPs. The assembled Ag nano-composites displayed the peak surface plasmon resonance (SPR) around 428 nm. The presence of uniquely assembled Ag-biomolecule composites, cap and stabilize nanoparticles in aqueous plant suspension. Spherical, uniform-shaped AgNPs with low poly-dispersion and average particle size of 42 nm and was determined through dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning election microscopy (SEM) which present robust interaction with microbes. The study also evaluates the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of biologically synthesized AgNPs on clinical isolates of MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Minimum inhibitory concentration (0.5 mg mL-1) of nanoparticles that presented bactericidal effect was made through inhibition assays on bacterial strains. The concentration which presented potent bactericidal response was then evaluated through growth inhibition in liquid medium for anti-biofilm studies at 2.0 mg mL-1. HC-Ag nanoparticles mediated anti-biofilm effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa was revealed through SEM. Complete breakdown of biofilm's extracellular polymeric substances resulted after incubation with AgNPs. Peptidoglycan cell wall destruction was also revealed on planktonic bacterial images after 24 h of incubation.

  7. Experimental validation of radial reconstructed pin-power distributions in full-scale BWR fuel assemblies with and without control blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giust, Flavio, E-mail: flavio.giust@axpo.c [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Axpo Kernenergie AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Grimm, Peter [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, Rakesh [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    Total fission rate measurements have been performed on full-size BWR fuel assemblies of type SVEA-96+ in the zero power reactor PROTEUS at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This paper presents comparisons of reconstructed 2D pin fission rates from nodal diffusion calculations to the experimental results in two configurations: one 'regular' (I-1A) and the other 'controlled' (I-2A). Both configurations consist of an array of 3 x 3 SVEA-96+ fuel assemblies moderated with light water at 20 {sup o}C. In configuration I-2A, an L-shaped hafnium control blade (half of a real cruciform blade) is inserted adjacent to the north-west corner of the central fuel assembly. To minimise the impact of the surroundings, all measurements were done in fuel pins belonging to the central assembly. The 3 x 3 experimental configuration (test zone) was modelled using the core monitoring and design tools that are applied at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL). These are the 2D transport code HELIOS, used for the cross-section generation, and the 3D, 2-group nodal diffusion code PRESTO-2. The exterior is represented, in the axial and radial directions, by 2-group partial current ratios (PCRs) calculated at the test zone boundary using a 3D Monte Carlo (MCNPX) model of the whole PROTEUS reactor. Sensitivity cases are analysed to show the impact of changes in the 2D lattice modelling on the calculated fission rate distribution and reactivity. Further, the effects of variations in the test zone boundary PCRs and their behaviour in energy are investigated. For the test zone configuration without control blade, the pin-power reconstruction methodology delivers the same level of accuracy as the 2D transport calculations. On the other hand, larger deviations that are inherent to the use of reflected geometry in the lattice calculations are observed for the configuration with the control blade inserted. In the basic (reference) simulation cases, the calculated-to-experimental (C

  8. Sub-15 nm nano-pattern generation by spacer width control for high density precisely positioned self-assembled device nanomanufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    We present a conventional micro-fabrication based thin film vertical sidewall (spacer) width controlled nano-gap fabrication process to create arrays of nanopatterns for high density precisely positioned self-assembled nanoelectronics device integration. We have used conventional optical lithography to create base structures and then silicon nitride (Si 3N4) based spacer formation via reactive ion etching. Control of Si3N4 thickness provides accurate control of vertical sidewall (spacer) besides the base structures. Nano-gaps are fabricated between two adjacent spacers whereas the width of the gap depends on the gap between two adjacent base structures minus width of adjacent spacers. We demonstrate the process using a 32 nm node complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) platform to show its compatibility for very large scale heterogeneous integration of top-down and bottom-up fabrication as well as conventional and selfassembled nanodevices. This process opens up clear opportunity to overcome the decade long challenge of high density integration of self-assembled devices with precise position control. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Sub-15 nm nano-pattern generation by spacer width control for high density precisely positioned self-assembled device nanomanufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2012-08-01

    We present a conventional micro-fabrication based thin film vertical sidewall (spacer) width controlled nano-gap fabrication process to create arrays of nanopatterns for high density precisely positioned self-assembled nanoelectronics device integration. We have used conventional optical lithography to create base structures and then silicon nitride (Si 3N4) based spacer formation via reactive ion etching. Control of Si3N4 thickness provides accurate control of vertical sidewall (spacer) besides the base structures. Nano-gaps are fabricated between two adjacent spacers whereas the width of the gap depends on the gap between two adjacent base structures minus width of adjacent spacers. We demonstrate the process using a 32 nm node complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) platform to show its compatibility for very large scale heterogeneous integration of top-down and bottom-up fabrication as well as conventional and selfassembled nanodevices. This process opens up clear opportunity to overcome the decade long challenge of high density integration of self-assembled devices with precise position control. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. WHO: World Health Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, A

    1992-05-23

    1200 delegates from 175 member countries attended the 45th World Health Assembly in Geneva. Everyone at the Assembly ratified measures to prevent and control AIDS. 12 countries intended to do long term planning for community based care for AIDS patients. Further the Assembly denounced instances where countries and individuals denied the gravity of the AIDS pandemic. In fact, it expressed the importance for urgent and intensive action against HIV/AIDS. The assembly backed proposals to prevent and control sexually transmitted diseases that affect AIDS patients, especially hepatitis B. For example, in countries with hepatitis B prevalence 8% (many countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, Asia, the Pacific region, and South America), health officials should introduce hepatitis B vaccine into their existing immunization programs by 1995. By 1997, this vaccine should be part of all immunization programs. The Assembly was aware of the obstacles of establishing reliable cold chains for nationwide distribution, however. Delegates in Committee A objected to the fact that 50% of the populations of developing countries continued to have limited access to essential drugs. They also expressed disapproval in implementation of WHO's 1988 ethical criteria for promotion of drugs which WHO entrusted to the Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). CIOMS lacked WHO's status and thus could not effectively monitor drug advertising. In fact, the pharmaceutical industry as well as WHO provided the funds for a meeting of 25 experts to discuss principles included in the ethical criteria. At least 4 countries insisted that WHO have the ultimate authority in monitoring drug advertising. Delegates did adopt a compromise resolution on this topic which required that industry promotion methods be reported to the 1994 Assembly via the Executive Board. The Assembly requested WHO to establish an international advisory committee on nursing and midwifery and to improve the network of

  11. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates actin cytoskeleton via Tiam1-Rac1 cascade during spine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobunari; Kurisu, Junko; Kengaku, Mineko

    2010-12-01

    The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway has essential roles in several processes during development of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). Here, we report that Shh regulates dendritic spine formation in hippocampal pyramidal neurons via a novel pathway that directly regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Shh signaling molecules Patched (Ptc) and Smoothened (Smo) are expressed in several types of postmitotic neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Knockdown of Smo induces dendritic spine formation in cultured hippocampal neurons independently of Gli-mediated transcriptional activity. Smo interacts with Tiam1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, via its cytoplasmic C-terminal region. Inhibition of Tiam1 or Rac1 activity suppresses spine induction by Smo knockdown. Shh induces remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton independently of transcriptional activation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate a novel Shh pathway that regulates the actin cytoskeleton via Tiam1-Rac1 activation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. System-wide organization of actin cytoskeleton determines organelle transport in hypocotyl plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jacqueline; Ivakov, Alexander; Somssich, Marc; Persson, Staffan; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is an essential intracellular filamentous structure that underpins cellular transport and cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. However, the system-level properties of actin-based cellular trafficking remain tenuous, largely due to the inability to quantify key features of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we developed an automated image-based, network-driven framework to accurately segment and quantify actin cytoskeletal structures and Golgi transport. We show that the actin cytoskeleton in both growing and elongated hypocotyl cells has structural properties facilitating efficient transport. Our findings suggest that the erratic movement of Golgi is a stable cellular phenomenon that might optimize distribution efficiency of cell material. Moreover, we demonstrate that Golgi transport in hypocotyl cells can be accurately predicted from the actin network topology alone. Thus, our framework provides quantitative evidence for system-wide coordination of cellular transport in plant cells and can be readily applied to investigate cytoskeletal organization and transport in other organisms. PMID:28655850

  13. Combined effect of cortical cytoskeleton and transmembrane proteins on domain formation in biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikder, K. U.; Stone, K. A.; Kumar, P. B. S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find that mic......We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find...... that microphase separation can be achieved by the protein confinement by the cytoskeleton. Our results have relevance to the finite size of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC....

  14. Profilin as a regulator of the membrane-actin cytoskeleton interface in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian eSun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Membrane structures and cytoskeleton dynamics are intimately inter-connected in the eukaryotic cell. Recently, the molecular mechanisms operating at this interface have been progressively addressed. Many experiments have revealed that the actin cytoskeleton can interact with membranes through various discrete membrane domains. The actin-binding protein, profilin has been proven to inhibit actin polymerization and to promote F-actin elongation. This is dependent on many factors, such as the profilin/G-actin ratio and the ionic environment of the cell. Additionally, profilin has specific domains that interact with phosphoinositides and poly-L-proline rich proteins; theoretically, this gives profilin the opportunity to interact with membranes, and a large number of experiments have confirmed this possibility. In this article, we summarize recent findings in plant cells, and discuss the evidence of the connections among actin cytoskeleton, profilin and biomembranes through direct or indirect relationships.

  15. Morphed and moving: TNFα-driven motility promotes cell dissemination through MAP4K4-induced cytoskeleton remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell dissemination from an initial site of growth is a highly coordinated and controlled process that depends on cell motility. The mechanistic principles that orchestrate cell motility, namely cell shape control, traction and force generation, are highly conserved between cells of different origins. Correspondingly, the molecular mechanisms that regulate these critical aspects of migrating cells are likely functionally conserved too. Thus, cell motility deregulation of unrelated pathogenesis could be caused and maintained by similar mechanistic principles. One such motility deregulation disorder is the leukoproliferative cattle disease Tropical Theileriosis, which is caused by the intracellular, protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. T. annulata transforms its host cell and promotes the dissemination of parasite-infected cells throughout the body of the host. An analogous condition with a fundamentally different pathogenesis is metastatic cancer, where oncogenically transformed cells disseminate from the primary tumor to form distant metastases. Common to both diseases is the dissemination of motile cells from the original site. However, unlike metastatic cancer, host cell transformation by Theileria parasites can be reverted by drug treatment and cell signaling be analyzed under transformed and non-transformed conditions. We have used this reversible transformation model and investigated parasite control of host cell motile properties in the context of inflammatory signaling in Ma M. et al. [PLoS Pathog (2014 10: e1004003]. We found that parasite infection promotes the production of the inflammatory cytokine TNFα in the host macrophage. We demonstrated that increased TNFα triggers motile and invasive properties by enhancing actin cytoskeleton remodeling and cell motility through the ser/thr kinase MAP4K4. We concluded that inflammatory conditions resulting in increased TNFα could facilitate cell dissemination by activating the actin

  16. Cytoskeleton, L-type Ca2+ and stretch activated channels in injured skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The extra-sarcomeric cytoskeleton (actin microfilaments and anchoring proteins is involved in maintaining the sarco-membrane stiffness and integrity and in turn the mechanical stability and function of the intra- and sub-sarcoplasmic proteins. Accordingly, it regulates Ca2+ entry through the L-type Ca2+ channels and the mechano-sensitivity of the stretch activated channels (SACs. Moreover, being intra-sarcomeric cytoskeleton bound to costameric proteins and other proteins of the sarcoplasma by intermediate filaments, as desmin, it integrates the properties of the sarcolemma with the skeletal muscle fibres contraction. The aim of this research was to compare the cytoskeleton, SACs and the ECC alterations in two different types of injured skeletal muscle fibres: by muscle denervation and mechanical overload (eccentric contraction. Experiments on denervation were made in isolated Soleus muscle of male Wistar rats; forced eccentric-contraction (EC injury was achieved in Extensor Digitorum Longus muscles of Swiss mice. The method employed conventional intracellular recording with microelectrodes inserted in a single fibre of an isolated skeletal muscle bundle. The state of cytoskeleton was evaluated by recording SAC currents and by evaluating the resting membrane potential (RMP value determined in current-clamp mode. The results demonstrated that in both injured skeletal muscle conditions the functionality of L-type Ca2+ current, ICa, was affected. In parallel, muscle fibres showed an increase of the resting membrane permeability and of the SAC current. These issues, together with a more depolarized RMP are an index of altered cytoskeleton. In conclusion, we found a symilar alteration of ICa, SAC and cytoskeleton in both injured skeletal muscle conditions.

  17. Characterization of the epidermal growth factor receptor associated with cytoskeletons of A431 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, L.M.; Gittinger, C.K.; Landreth, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) have been shown to be associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton of A431 cells, where they retained both a functional ligand-binding domain and tyrosine kinase activity. In the present study we have characterized the tyrosine kinase and ligand binding activities of this cytoskeletally associated EGF-R. The tyrosine kinase activity of the cytoskeletally associated EGF-R was stimulated by EGF treatment of intact cells as evidenced by increased autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate angiotensin II (AII). The kinetic behavior of the EGF-R associated with cytoskeletons of EGF-treated cells was similar to that of purified receptors. The stimulation of the receptor kinase activity required EGF treatment of intact cells prior to Triton extraction. If cytoskeletons were prepared from untreated cells and then incubated with EGF, there was no stimulation of the detergent-insoluble receptor kinase activity, indicating that the immobilized receptor was unable to undergo EGF-stimulated activation. Comparison of peptide maps from soluble and cytoskeletally associated EGF-R revealed qualitatively similar patterns; however, they are distinguished by a prominent 46 kD band in digests of the cytoskeletal EGF-R. Saturable binding of 125I-EGF to A431 cytoskeletons prepared from adherent and suspended cells demonstrated the presence of specific receptors on the cytoskeleton. High-affinity EGF-R were preferentially retained upon detergent extraction of adherent cells, whereas both low- and high-affinity receptors were solubilized from the cytoskeletons of suspended cells. Suspension of cells resulted in the solubilization of an additional 15% of the EGF-R to that solubilized in adherent cells, indicating that EGF-R can reversibly associate with the structural elements of the cell

  18. Astrocyte-neuron interaction in diphenyl ditelluride toxicity directed to the cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimfarth, Luana; Silva Ferreira, Fernanda da; Pierozan, Paula; Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Batista Teixeira da Rocha, João; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Diphenyl ditelluride is toxic to the cytoskeleton of neural cells in vitro. • Hypophosphorylation disrupts cytoskeletal homeostasis and causes cell dysfunction. • Calcium signaling underlies hypophosphorylation of intermediate filaments. • Actin disorganization causes altered astrocyte morphology. • Astrocyte cytoskeleton is more susceptible than neuronal cytoskeleton. - Abstract: Diphenylditelluride (PhTe) 2 is a neurotoxin that disrupts cytoskeletal homeostasis. We are showing that different concentrations of (PhTe) 2 caused hypophosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin and neurofilament subunits (NFL, NFM and NFH) and altered actin organization in co-cultured astrocytes and neurons from cerebral cortex of rats. These mechanisms were mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors without participation of either L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (L-VDCC) or metabotropic glutamate receptors. Upregulated Ca 2+ influx downstream of NMDA receptors activated Ca 2+ -dependent protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) causing hypophosphorylation of astrocyte and neuron IFs. Immunocytochemistry showed that hypophosphorylated intermediate filaments (IF) failed to disrupt their organization into the cytoskeleton. However, phalloidin-actin-FITC stained cytoskeleton evidenced misregulation of actin distribution, cell spreading and increased stress fibers in astrocytes. βIII tubulin staining showed that neurite meshworks are not altered by (PhTe) 2 , suggesting greater susceptibility of astrocytes than neurons to (PheTe) 2 toxicity. These findings indicate that signals leading to IF hypophosphorylation fail to disrupt the cytoskeletal IF meshwork of interacting astrocytes and neurons in vitro however astrocyte actin network seems more susceptible. Our findings support that intracellular Ca 2+ is one of the crucial signals that modulate the action of (PhTe) 2 in co-cultured astrocytes and neurons and highlights the cytoskeleton

  19. Capillary electrophoretic analysis reveals subcellular binding between individual mitochondria and cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Vratislav; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between the cytoskeleton and mitochondria are essential for normal cellular function. An assessment of such interactions is commonly based on bulk analysis of mitochondrial and cytoskeletal markers present in a given sample, which assumes complete binding between these two organelle types. Such measurements are biased because they rarely account for non-bound ‘free’ subcellular species. Here we report on the use of capillary electrophoresis with dual laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) to identify, classify, count and quantify properties of individual binding events of mitochondria and cytoskeleton. Mitochondria were fluorescently labeled with DsRed2 while F-actin, a major cytoskeletal component, was fluorescently labeled with Alexa488-phalloidin. In a typical subcellular fraction of L6 myoblasts, 79% of mitochondrial events did not have detectable levels of F-actin, while the rest had on average ~2 zeptomole F-actin, which theoretically represents a ~ 2.5-μm long network of actin filaments per event. Trypsin treatment of L6 subcellular fractions prior to analysis decreased the fraction of mitochondrial events with detectable levels of F-actin, which is expected from digestion of cytoskeletal proteins on the surface of mitochondria. The electrophoretic mobility distributions of the individual events were also used to further distinguish between cytoskeleton-bound from cytoskeleton-free mitochondrial events. The CE-LIF approach described here could be further developed to explore cytoskeleton interactions with other subcellular structures, the effects of cytoskeleton destabilizing drugs, and the progression of viral infections. PMID:21309532

  20. Integrity of the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton Is Required for Efficient Herpesvirus Nuclear Egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupp, Barbara G; Hellberg, Teresa; Granzow, Harald; Franzke, Kati; Dominguez Gonzalez, Beatriz; Goodchild, Rose E; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2017-10-01

    Herpesvirus capsids assemble in the nucleus, while final virion maturation proceeds in the cytoplasm. This requires that newly formed nucleocapsids cross the nuclear envelope (NE), which occurs by budding at the inner nuclear membrane (INM), release of the primary enveloped virion into the perinuclear space (PNS), and subsequent rapid fusion with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). During this process, the NE remains intact, even at late stages of infection. In addition, the spacing between the INM and ONM is maintained, as is that between the primary virion envelope and nuclear membranes. The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex consists of INM proteins with a luminal SUN (Sad1/UNC-84 homology) domain connected to ONM proteins with a KASH (Klarsicht, ANC-1, SYNE homology) domain and is thought to be responsible for spacing the nuclear membranes. To investigate the role of the LINC complex during herpesvirus infection, we generated cell lines constitutively expressing dominant negative (dn) forms of SUN1 and SUN2. Ultrastructural analyses revealed a significant expansion of the PNS and the contiguous intracytoplasmic lumen, most likely representing endoplasmic reticulum (ER), especially in cells expressing dn-SUN2. After infection, primary virions accumulated in these expanded luminal regions, also very distant from the nucleus. The importance of the LINC complex was also confirmed by reduced progeny virus titers in cells expressing dn-SUN2. These data show that the intact LINC complex is required for efficient nuclear egress of herpesviruses, likely acting to promote fusion of primary enveloped virions with the ONM. IMPORTANCE While the viral factors for primary envelopment of nucleocapsids at the inner nuclear membrane are known to the point of high-resolution structures, the roles of cellular components and regulators remain enigmatic. Furthermore, the machinery responsible for fusion with the outer nuclear membrane is unsolved. We show here