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  1. Prospective Randomized Controlled Comparison of Caudal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including 50 consecutive patients in the age group of 1‑10 years, who underwent urogenital surgeries ... The duration of absolute analgesia was defined as the time from caudal injection until the pain score was >2. Motor block was assessed by modified Bromage scale. .... double-blind, phase III, controlled trial comparing.

  2. Prospective Randomized Controlled Comparison of Caudal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bupivacaine and ropivacaine are commonly used agents for caudal anesthesia in pediatric patients. Several studies have shown different motor and cardiovascular effects of two drugs. Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of both drugs and secondary objective was to compare ...

  3. Hindbrain GLP-1 receptor mediation of cisplatin-induced anorexia and nausea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonghe, Bart C; Holland, Ruby A; Olivos, Diana R; Rupprecht, Laura E; Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    While chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are clinically controlled in the acute (anorexia, nausea, fatigue, and other illness-type behaviors during the delayed phase (>24 h) of chemotherapy are largely uncontrolled. As the hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) system contributes to energy balance and mediates aversive and stressful stimuli, here we examine the hypothesis that hindbrain GLP-1 signaling mediates aspects of chemotherapy-induced nausea and reductions in feeding behavior in rats. Specifically, hindbrain GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) blockade, via 4th intracerebroventricular (ICV) exendin-(9-39) injections, attenuates the anorexia, body weight reduction, and pica (nausea-induced ingestion of kaolin clay) elicited by cisplatin chemotherapy during the delayed phase (48 h) of chemotherapy-induced nausea. Additionally, the present data provide evidence that the central GLP-1-producing preproglucagon neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the caudal brainstem are activated by cisplatin during the delayed phase of chemotherapy-induced nausea, as cisplatin led to a significant increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in NTS GLP-1-immunoreactive neurons. These data support a growing body of literature suggesting that the central GLP-1 system may be a potential pharmaceutical target for adjunct anti-emetics used to treat the delayed-phase of nausea and emesis, anorexia, and body weight loss that accompany chemotherapy treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential contributions of dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal prefrontal white matter tracts to cognitive control in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Strenziok

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortex mediates cognitive control by means of circuitry organized along dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal axes. Along the dorso-ventral axis, ventrolateral PFC controls semantic information, whereas dorsolateral PFC encodes task rules. Along the rostro-caudal axis, anterior prefrontal cortex encodes complex rules and relationships between stimuli, whereas posterior prefrontal cortex encodes simple relationships between stimuli and behavior. Evidence of these gradients of prefrontal cortex organization has been well documented in fMRI studies, but their functional correlates have not been examined with regard to integrity of underlying white matter tracts. We hypothesized that (a the integrity of specific white matter tracts is related to cognitive functioning in a manner consistent with the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal organization of the prefrontal cortex, and (b this would be particularly evident in healthy older adults. We assessed three cognitive processes that recruit the prefrontal cortex and can distinguish white matter tracts along the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal dimensions -episodic memory, working memory, and reasoning. Correlations between cognition and fractional anisotropy as well as fiber tractography revealed: (a Episodic memory was related to ventral prefrontal cortex-thalamo-hippocampal fiber integrity; (b Working memory was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (c Reasoning was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving rostral and caudal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings confirm the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's role in semantic control and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex's role in rule-based processing, in accordance with the dorso-ventral prefrontal cortex gradient. Reasoning-related rostral and caudal superior frontal white matter may facilitate different levels of task rule complexity. This study is the

  5. Differential contributions of dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal prefrontal white matter tracts to cognitive control in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenziok, Maren; Greenwood, Pamela M; Santa Cruz, Sophia A; Thompson, James C; Parasuraman, Raja

    2013-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex mediates cognitive control by means of circuitry organized along dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal axes. Along the dorso-ventral axis, ventrolateral PFC controls semantic information, whereas dorsolateral PFC encodes task rules. Along the rostro-caudal axis, anterior prefrontal cortex encodes complex rules and relationships between stimuli, whereas posterior prefrontal cortex encodes simple relationships between stimuli and behavior. Evidence of these gradients of prefrontal cortex organization has been well documented in fMRI studies, but their functional correlates have not been examined with regard to integrity of underlying white matter tracts. We hypothesized that (a) the integrity of specific white matter tracts is related to cognitive functioning in a manner consistent with the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal organization of the prefrontal cortex, and (b) this would be particularly evident in healthy older adults. We assessed three cognitive processes that recruit the prefrontal cortex and can distinguish white matter tracts along the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal dimensions -episodic memory, working memory, and reasoning. Correlations between cognition and fractional anisotropy as well as fiber tractography revealed: (a) Episodic memory was related to ventral prefrontal cortex-thalamo-hippocampal fiber integrity; (b) Working memory was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (c) Reasoning was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving rostral and caudal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings confirm the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's role in semantic control and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex's role in rule-based processing, in accordance with the dorso-ventral prefrontal cortex gradient. Reasoning-related rostral and caudal superior frontal white matter may facilitate different levels of task rule complexity. This study is the first to

  6. Effect of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy: multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Trond; Solberg, Tore K; Romner, Bertil

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy in the short (6 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long term (52 weeks).......To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy in the short (6 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long term (52 weeks)....

  7. Caudal fourth ventricular administration of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside regulates glucose and counterregulatory hormone profiles, dorsal vagal complex metabolosensory neuron function, and hypothalamic Fos expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Baher A; Tamrakar, Pratistha; Gujar, Amit D; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Briski, Karen P

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that estrogen controls hindbrain AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and regulation of blood glucose, counterregulatory hormone secretion, and hypothalamic nerve cell transcriptional status. Dorsal vagal complex A2 noradrenergic neurons were laser microdissected from estradiol benzoate (E)- or oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized female rats after caudal fourth ventricular (CV4) delivery of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside (AICAR), for Western blot analysis. E advanced AICAR-induced increases in A2 phospho-AMPK (pAMPK) expression and in blood glucose levels and was required for augmentation of Fos, estrogen receptor-α (ERα), monocarboxylate transporter-2, and glucose transporter-3 protein in A2 neurons and enhancement of corticosterone secretion by this treatment paradigm. CV4 AICAR also resulted in site-specific modifications in Fos immunolabeling of hypothalamic metabolic structures, including the paraventricular, ventromedial, and arcuate nuclei. The current studies demonstrate that estrogen regulates AMPK activation in caudal hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons during pharmacological replication of energy shortage in this area of the brain, and that this sensor is involved in neural regulation of glucostasis, in part, through control of corticosterone secretion. The data provide unique evidence that A2 neurons express both ERα and -β proteins and that AMPK upregulates cellular sensitivity to ERα-mediated signaling during simulated energy insufficiency. The results also imply that estrogen promotes glucose and lactate uptake by these cells under those conditions. Evidence for correlation between hindbrain AMPK and hypothalamic nerve cell genomic activation provides novel proof for functional connectivity between this hindbrain sensor and higher order metabolic brain loci while demonstrating a modulatory role for estrogen in this interaction. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of nalbuphine as an adjuvant on levobupivacaine induced caudal analgesia in children undergoing surgical procedures, controlled randomized double blinded

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    Riham Hussein Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Caudal epidural nalbuphine is safe in pediatric surgeries including the lower half of the body and effectively reduces postoperative pain. However it may cause early postoperative sedation, yet without respiratory depression.

  9. Evaluation of caudal dexamethasone with ropivacaine for post-operative analgesia in paediatric herniotomies: A randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal analgesia is one of the most popular regional blocks in paediatric patients undergoing infra-umbilical surgeries but with the drawback of short duration of action after single shot local anaesthetic injection. We evaluated whether caudal dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg as an adjuvant to the ropivacaine improved analgesic efficacy after paediatric herniotomies. Methods: Totally 128 patients of 1–5 years age group, American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I and II undergoing elective inguinal herniotomy were randomly allocated to two groups in double-blind manner. Group A received 1 ml/kg of 0.2% ropivacaine caudally and Group B received 1 ml/kg of 0.2% ropivacaine, in which 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone was added for caudal analgesia. Post operative pain by faces, legs, activity, cry and consolability tool score, rescue analgesic requirement and adverse effects were noted for 24 h. Results: Results were statistically analysed using Student's t-test. Pain scores measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h post-operative, were lower in Group B as compared to Group A. Mean duration of analgesia in Group A was 248.4 ± 54.1 min and in Group B was 478.046 ± 104.57 min with P = 0.001. Rescue analgesic requirement was more in Group A as compared to Group B. Adverse effects after surgery were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Caudal dexamethasone added to ropivacaine is a good alternative to prolong post-operative analgesia with less pain score compared to caudal ropivacaine alone.

  10. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  11. Neurogenin3 restricts serotonergic neuron differentiation to the hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcagno, Abel L; Di Bella, Daniela J; Goulding, Martyn; Guillemot, Francois; Lanuza, Guillermo M

    2014-11-12

    The development of the nervous system is critically dependent on the production of functionally diverse neuronal cell types at their correct locations. In the embryonic neural tube, dorsoventral signaling has emerged as a fundamental mechanism for generating neuronal diversity. In contrast, far less is known about how different neuronal cell types are organized along the rostrocaudal axis. In the developing mouse and chick neural tube, hindbrain serotonergic neurons and spinal glutamatergic V3 interneurons are produced from ventral p3 progenitors, which possess a common transcriptional identity but are confined to distinct anterior-posterior territories. In this study, we show that the expression of the transcription factor Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in the spinal cord controls the correct specification of p3-derived neurons. Gain- and loss-of-function manipulations in the chick and mouse embryo show that Neurog3 switches ventral progenitors from a serotonergic to V3 differentiation program by repressing Ascl1 in spinal p3 progenitors through a mechanism dependent on Hes proteins. In this way, Neurog3 establishes the posterior boundary of the serotonergic system by actively suppressing serotonergic specification in the spinal cord. These results explain how equivalent p3 progenitors within the hindbrain and the spinal cord produce functionally distinct neuron cell types. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415223-11$15.00/0.

  12. Homozygous ARHGEF2 mutation causes intellectual disability and midbrain-hindbrain malformation.

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    Ethiraj Ravindran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mid-hindbrain malformations can occur during embryogenesis through a disturbance of transient and localized gene expression patterns within these distinct brain structures. Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARHGEF family members are key for controlling the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPase, to modulate cytoskeleton dynamics, cell division, and cell migration. We identified, by means of whole exome sequencing, a homozygous frameshift mutation in the ARHGEF2 as a cause of intellectual disability, a midbrain-hindbrain malformation, and mild microcephaly in a consanguineous pedigree of Kurdish-Turkish descent. We show that loss of ARHGEF2 perturbs progenitor cell differentiation and that this is associated with a shift of mitotic spindle plane orientation, putatively favoring more symmetric divisions. The ARHGEF2 mutation leads to reduction in the activation of the RhoA/ROCK/MLC pathway crucial for cell migration. We demonstrate that the human brain malformation is recapitulated in Arhgef2 mutant mice and identify an aberrant migration of distinct components of the precerebellar system as a pathomechanism underlying the midbrain-hindbrain phenotype. Our results highlight the crucial function of ARHGEF2 in human brain development and identify a mutation in ARHGEF2 as novel cause of a neurodevelopmental disorder.

  13. Homozygous ARHGEF2 mutation causes intellectual disability and midbrain-hindbrain malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Ethiraj; Hu, Hao; Yuzwa, Scott A; Hernandez-Miranda, Luis R; Kraemer, Nadine; Ninnemann, Olaf; Musante, Luciana; Boltshauser, Eugen; Schindler, Detlev; Hübner, Angela; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Birchmeier, Carmen; Miller, Freda D; Wienker, Thomas F; Hübner, Christoph; Kaindl, Angela M

    2017-04-01

    Mid-hindbrain malformations can occur during embryogenesis through a disturbance of transient and localized gene expression patterns within these distinct brain structures. Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARHGEF) family members are key for controlling the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPase, to modulate cytoskeleton dynamics, cell division, and cell migration. We identified, by means of whole exome sequencing, a homozygous frameshift mutation in the ARHGEF2 as a cause of intellectual disability, a midbrain-hindbrain malformation, and mild microcephaly in a consanguineous pedigree of Kurdish-Turkish descent. We show that loss of ARHGEF2 perturbs progenitor cell differentiation and that this is associated with a shift of mitotic spindle plane orientation, putatively favoring more symmetric divisions. The ARHGEF2 mutation leads to reduction in the activation of the RhoA/ROCK/MLC pathway crucial for cell migration. We demonstrate that the human brain malformation is recapitulated in Arhgef2 mutant mice and identify an aberrant migration of distinct components of the precerebellar system as a pathomechanism underlying the midbrain-hindbrain phenotype. Our results highlight the crucial function of ARHGEF2 in human brain development and identify a mutation in ARHGEF2 as novel cause of a neurodevelopmental disorder.

  14. Homozygous ARHGEF2 mutation causes intellectual disability and midbrain-hindbrain malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzwa, Scott A.; Hernandez-Miranda, Luis R.; Musante, Luciana; Boltshauser, Eugen; Schindler, Detlev; Hübner, Angela; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Miller, Freda D.; Hübner, Christoph; Kaindl, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Mid-hindbrain malformations can occur during embryogenesis through a disturbance of transient and localized gene expression patterns within these distinct brain structures. Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARHGEF) family members are key for controlling the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPase, to modulate cytoskeleton dynamics, cell division, and cell migration. We identified, by means of whole exome sequencing, a homozygous frameshift mutation in the ARHGEF2 as a cause of intellectual disability, a midbrain-hindbrain malformation, and mild microcephaly in a consanguineous pedigree of Kurdish-Turkish descent. We show that loss of ARHGEF2 perturbs progenitor cell differentiation and that this is associated with a shift of mitotic spindle plane orientation, putatively favoring more symmetric divisions. The ARHGEF2 mutation leads to reduction in the activation of the RhoA/ROCK/MLC pathway crucial for cell migration. We demonstrate that the human brain malformation is recapitulated in Arhgef2 mutant mice and identify an aberrant migration of distinct components of the precerebellar system as a pathomechanism underlying the midbrain-hindbrain phenotype. Our results highlight the crucial function of ARHGEF2 in human brain development and identify a mutation in ARHGEF2 as novel cause of a neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:28453519

  15. Rostro-caudal and dorso-ventral gradients in medial and lateral prefrontal cortex during cognitive control of affective and cognitive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Christoffer; Liberg, Benny; Wiberg-Kristoffersen, Maria; Aspelin, Peter; Msghina, Mussie

    2013-04-01

    Characterizing the anatomical substrates of major brain functions such as cognition and emotion is of utmost importance to the ongoing efforts of understanding the nature of psychiatric ailments and their potential treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate how the brain handles affective and cognitive interferences on cognitive processes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation was performed on healthy individuals, comparing the brain oxygenation level dependent activation patterns during affective and cognitive counting Stroop tasks. The affective Stroop task activated rostral parts of medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and rostral and ventral parts of lateral PFC, while cognitive Stroop activated caudal parts of medial PFC and caudal and dorsal parts of lateral PFC. Our findings suggest that the brain may handle affective and cognitive interference on cognitive processes differentially, with affective interference preferentially activating rostral and ventral PFC networks and cognitive interference activating caudal and dorsal PFC networks. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  16. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  17. Hindbrain ghrelin receptor signaling is sufficient to maintain fasting glucose.

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    Michael M Scott

    Full Text Available The neuronal coordination of metabolic homeostasis requires the integration of hormonal signals with multiple interrelated central neuronal circuits to produce appropriate levels of food intake, energy expenditure and fuel availability. Ghrelin, a peripherally produced peptide hormone, circulates at high concentrations during nutrient scarcity. Ghrelin promotes food intake, an action lost in ghrelin receptor null mice and also helps maintain fasting blood glucose levels, ensuring an adequate supply of nutrients to the central nervous system. To better understand mechanisms of ghrelin action, we have examined the roles of ghrelin receptor (GHSR expression in the mouse hindbrain. Notably, selective hindbrain ghrelin receptor expression was not sufficient to restore ghrelin-stimulated food intake. In contrast, the lowered fasting blood glucose levels observed in ghrelin receptor-deficient mice were returned to wild-type levels by selective re-expression of the ghrelin receptor in the hindbrain. Our results demonstrate the distributed nature of the neurons mediating ghrelin action.

  18. The arcuate nucleus of the C57BL/6J mouse hindbrain is a displaced part of the inferior olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu Hong; Watson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus is a prominent cell group in the human hindbrain, characterized by its position on the pial surface of the pyramid. It is considered to be a precerebellar nucleus and has been implicated in the pathology of several disorders of respiration. An arcuate nucleus has not been convincingly demonstrated in other mammals, but we have found a similarly positioned nucleus in the C57BL/6J mouse. The mouse arcuate nucleus consists of a variable group of neurons lying on the pial surface of the pyramid. The nucleus is continuous with the ventrolateral part of the principal nucleus of the inferior olive and both groups are calbindin positive. At first we thought that this mouse nucleus was homologous with the human arcuate nucleus, but we have discovered that the neurons of the human nucleus are calbindin negative, and are therefore not olivary in nature. We have compared the mouse arcuate neurons with those of the inferior olive in terms of molecular markers and cerebellar projection. The neurons of the arcuate nucleus and of the inferior olive share three major characteristics: they both contain neurons utilizing glutamate, serotonin or acetylcholine as neurotransmitters; they both project to the contralateral cerebellum, and they both express a number of genes not present in the major mossy fiber issuing precerebellar nuclei. Most importantly, both cell groups express calbindin in an area of the ventral hindbrain almost completely devoid of calbindin-positive cells. We conclude that the neurons of the hindbrain mouse arcuate nucleus are a displaced part of the inferior olive, possibly separated by the caudal growth of the pyramidal tract during development. The arcuate nucleus reported in the C57BL/6J mouse can therefore be regarded as a subgroup of the rostral inferior olive, closely allied with the ventral tier of the principal nucleus. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Developmental abnormalities of mid and hindbrain: A study of 23 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: With the advent of neuroimaging modalities specifically, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), recognition of developmental defects of posterior fossa has greatly improved. The Aim: Is to delineate the clinical, cytogenetics and radiological features of patients with mid-hindbrain anomalies. Patient and Methods: ...

  20. Ultrasound versus fluoroscopy-guided caudal epidural steroid injection for the treatment of chronic low back pain with radiculopathy: A randomised, controlled clinical trial

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    Arindam Kumar Hazra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal epidural steroid administration is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain (LBP. Fluoroscopy guidance is the gold standard for pain procedures. Ultrasound guidance is recently being used in pain clinic procedures. We compared the fluoroscopy guidance and ultrasound guidance for caudal epidural steroid injection with respect to the time needed for correct placement of the needle and clinical effectiveness in patients with chronic LBP. Methods: Fifty patients with chronic LBP with radiculopathy, not responding to conventional medical management, were randomly allocated to receive injection depot methyl prednisolone (40 mg through caudal route either using ultrasound guidance (Group U, n = 25 or fluoroscopy guidance (Group F, n = 25. Pre-procedural visual analogue scale (VAS score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI were noted. During the procedure, the time needed for correct placement of needle was observed. Adverse events, if any, were also noted. All patients were followed up for next 2 months to evaluate Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score and ODI at the 2nd week and again at the end of 1st and 2nd month. Results: The needle-placement time was less using ultrasound guidance as compared to fluoroscopy guidance (119 ± 7.66 vs. 222.28 ± 29.65 s, respectively,P< 0.001. Significant reduction in VAS score and ODI (clinical improvement was noted in the follow-up time points and comparable between the groups at all time points. Conclusion: Ultrasound guidance can be a safe alternative tool for achieving faster needle placement in caudal epidural space. Clinical effectiveness (reduction of VAS and ODI scores remains comparable between both the techniques.

  1. Caudal epidural anesthesia during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoyama-Shirakawa, Yuko; Abe, Madoka; Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that pain control during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer is insufficient in most hospitals in Japan. Our hospital began using caudal epidural anesthesia during high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy in 2011. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of caudal epidural anesthesia during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer patients. Caudal epidural anesthesia for 34 cervical cancer patients was performed during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy between October 2011 and August 2013. We used the patients' self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score at the first session of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy as a subjective evaluation of pain. We compared NRS scores of the patients with anesthesia with those of 30 patients who underwent HDR intracavitary brachytherapy without sacral epidural anesthesia at our hospital between May 2010 and August 2011. Caudal epidural anesthesia succeeded in 33 patients (97%), and the NRS score was recorded in 30 patients. The mean NRS score of the anesthesia group was 5.17 ± 2.97, significantly lower than that of the control group's 6.80 ± 2.59 (P = 0.035). The caudal epidural block resulted in no side-effects. Caudal epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia option during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. (author)

  2. Sensory nerve conduction in the caudal nerves of rats with diabetes Condução nervosa sensorial no nervo caudal de ratos com diabetes experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Celina Cordeiro de Carvalho; Juliana Netto Maia; Otávio Gomes Lins; Sílvia Regina Arruda de Moraes

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate sensory nerve conduction of the caudal nerve in normal and diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in twenty 8-weeks old Wistar male rats. Twenty normal rats served as controls. Caudal nerve conduction studies were made before diabetes induction and the end of each week for six consecutive weeks. The caudal nerve was stimulated distally and nerve potentials were recorded proximally on the animal's tail using common "alligator" clips as surface electrodes. RESULTS:...

  3. Hindbrain Catecholamine Neurons Activate Orexin Neurons During Systemic Glucoprivation in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wang, Qing; Elsarelli, Megan M; Brown, R Lane; Ritter, Sue

    2015-08-01

    Hindbrain catecholamine neurons are required for elicitation of feeding responses to glucose deficit, but the forebrain circuitry required for these responses is incompletely understood. Here we examined interactions of catecholamine and orexin neurons in eliciting glucoprivic feeding. Orexin neurons, located in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH), are heavily innervated by hindbrain catecholamine neurons, stimulate food intake, and increase arousal and behavioral activation. Orexin neurons may therefore contribute importantly to appetitive responses, such as food seeking, during glucoprivation. Retrograde tracing results showed that nearly all innervation of the PeFLH from the hindbrain originated from catecholamine neurons and some raphe nuclei. Results also suggested that many catecholamine neurons project collaterally to the PeFLH and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Systemic administration of the antiglycolytic agent, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, increased food intake and c-Fos expression in orexin neurons. Both responses were eliminated by a lesion of catecholamine neurons innervating orexin neurons using the retrogradely transported immunotoxin, anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase saporin, which is specifically internalized by dopamine-β-hydroxylase-expressing catecholamine neurons. Using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs in transgenic rats expressing Cre recombinase under the control of tyrosine hydroxylase promoter, catecholamine neurons in cell groups A1 and C1 of the ventrolateral medulla were activated selectively by peripheral injection of clozapine-N-oxide. Clozapine-N-oxide injection increased food intake and c-Fos expression in PeFLH orexin neurons as well as in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus neurons. In summary, catecholamine neurons are required for the activation of orexin neurons during glucoprivation. Activation of orexin neurons may contribute to appetitive responses required for glucoprivic feeding.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: caudal regression syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... umbilical artery: Further support for a caudal regression-sirenomelia spectrum. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 Dec ... AK, Dickinson JE, Bower C. Caudal dysgenesis and sirenomelia-single centre experience suggests common pathogenic basis. Am ...

  5. Implementación de un Control Predictivo Basado en Modelo Aplicado a un Sistema de Control de Caudal de Agua Didáctico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin H. Lopera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The proportional-integral-derivative controller -PID- has become the most used tool of regulation of process variables, and so it has been applied indiscriminately on linear and nonlinear dynamic systems, resulting in control problems in the industry, occurring loss of efficiency in productivity and decreased quality of manufactured products. Among the modern control techniques that have emerged to respond to those applications in which the PID controller has not operated satisfactorily, there is the model based predictive control -MPC-. This control algorithm has been characterized by its great capacity to respond, however, its expansion in the industrial sector has been slow, as it has been commercialized for specific applications. This paper presents an application of MPC on the regulation of water flow in a laboratory system using commercial control equipment and instrumentation, describing the formulation process control algorithm, the technical assistance required for the execution of experimental tests necessary to obtain the mathematical model of the plant and finally implementing the proposed control technique. The results evidence the great possibilities of applying effectively this control technique in variable regulation of general dynamic systems.

  6. Combinatorial roles for zebrafish retinoic acid receptors in the hindbrain, limbs and pharyngeal arches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Angela; Radtke, Kelly; Waxman, Joshua S.; Yelon, Deborah; Schilling, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) signaling regulates multiple aspects of vertebrate embryonic development and tissue patterning, in part through the local availability of nuclear hormone receptors called retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid receptors (RXRs). RAR/RXR heterodimers transduce the RA signal, and loss-of-function studies in mice have demonstrated requirements for distinct receptor combinations at different stages of embryogenesis. However, the tissue-specific functions of each receptor and their individual contributions to RA signaling in vivo are only partially understood. Here we use morpholino oligonucleotides to deplete the four known zebra fish RARs (raraa, rarab, rarga, and rargb). We show that while all four are required for anterior–posterior patterning of rhombomeres in the hindbrain, there are unique requirements for rarga in the cranial mesoderm for hindbrain patterning, and rarab in lateral plate mesoderm for specification of the pectoral fins. In addition, the alpha subclass (raraa, rarab) is RA inducible, and of these only raraa expression is RA-dependent, suggesting that these receptors establish a region of particularly high RA signaling through positive-feedback. These studies reveal novel tissue-specific roles for RARs in controlling the competence and sensitivity of cells to respond to RA. PMID:18929555

  7. Hindbrain medulla catecholamine cell group involvement in lactate-sensitive hypoglycemia-associated patterns of hypothalamic norepinephrine and epinephrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, P K; Tamrakar, P; Ibrahim, B A; Briski, K P

    2014-10-10

    Cell-type compartmentation of glucose metabolism in the brain involves trafficking of the oxidizable glycolytic end product, l-lactate, by astrocytes to fuel neuronal mitochondrial aerobic respiration. Lactate availability within the hindbrain medulla is a monitored function that regulates systemic glucostasis as insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) is exacerbated by lactate repletion of that brain region. A2 noradrenergic neurons are a plausible source of lactoprivic input to the neural gluco-regulatory circuit as caudal fourth ventricular (CV4) lactate infusion normalizes IIH-associated activation, e.g. phosphorylation of the high-sensitivity energy sensor, adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in these cells. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that A2 neurons are unique among medullary catecholamine cells in directly screening lactate-derived energy. Adult male rats were injected with insulin or vehicle following initiation of continuous l-lactate infusion into the CV4. Two hours after injections, A1, C1, A2, and C2 neurons were collected by laser-microdissection for Western blot analysis of AMPKα1/2 and phosphoAMPKα1/2 proteins. Results show that AMPK is expressed in each cell group, but only a subset, e.g. A1, C1, and A2 neurons, exhibit increased sensor activity in response to IIH. Moreover, hindbrain lactate repletion reversed hypoglycemic augmentation of pAMPKα1/2 content in A2 and C1 but not A1 cells, and normalized hypothalamic norepinephrine and epinephrine content in a site-specific manner. The present evidence for discriminative reactivity of AMPK-expressing medullary catecholamine neurons to the screened energy substrate lactate implies that that lactoprivation is selectively signaled to the hypothalamus by A2 noradrenergic and C1 adrenergic cells. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Caudal regression syndrome : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Hi Hye; Kim, Hyung Sik; Park, So Young; Han, Hye Young; Lee, Kwang Hun

    1998-01-01

    Caudal regression syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, which results from a developmental failure of the caudal mesoderm during the fetal period. We present a case of caudal regression syndrome composed of a spectrum of anomalies including sirenomelia, dysplasia of the lower lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx and pelvic bones,genitourinary and anorectal anomalies, and dysplasia of the lung, as seen during infantography and MR imaging

  9. Caudal regression syndrome : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Hi Hye; Kim, Hyung Sik; Park, So Young; Han, Hye Young; Lee, Kwang Hun [Chungang Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    Caudal regression syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, which results from a developmental failure of the caudal mesoderm during the fetal period. We present a case of caudal regression syndrome composed of a spectrum of anomalies including sirenomelia, dysplasia of the lower lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx and pelvic bones,genitourinary and anorectal anomalies, and dysplasia of the lung, as seen during infantography and MR imaging.

  10. Aguas de un mismo caudal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Borges, creía que “el periodismo distorsiona la mentalidad del escritor”, el autor de este artículo, plantea en cambio que son “aguas de un mismo caudal, que muy a menudo viajan juntas”, varias han sido, y son, las concepciones que han expuesto célebres protagonistas de estos dos hechos escriturales a favor y en contra del ejercicio del periodismo para mejorar o perjudicar al escritor. El aparente divorcio entre literatura y periodismo radica cabalmente en el intento equivocado de separarlos. En verdad son lo mismo y bien podríamos clasificar al periodismo como un género dentro de la literatura.

  11. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Henneberg, Steen Winther; Walther-Larsen, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine on postoperat...... on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine after hypospadias repair....

  12. A Simple Predictive Enhancer Syntax for Hindbrain Patterning Is Conserved in Vertebrate Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Grice

    Full Text Available Determining the function of regulatory elements is fundamental for our understanding of development, disease and evolution. However, the sequence features that mediate these functions are often unclear and the prediction of tissue-specific expression patterns from sequence alone is non-trivial. Previous functional studies have demonstrated a link between PBX-HOX and MEIS/PREP binding interactions and hindbrain enhancer activity, but the defining grammar of these sites, if any exists, has remained elusive.Here, we identify a shared sequence signature (syntax within a heterogeneous set of conserved vertebrate hindbrain enhancers composed of spatially co-occurring PBX-HOX and MEIS/PREP transcription factor binding motifs. We use this syntax to accurately predict hindbrain enhancers in 89% of cases (67/75 predicted elements from a set of conserved non-coding elements (CNEs. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the sites abolishes activity or generates ectopic expression, demonstrating their requirement for segmentally restricted enhancer activity in the hindbrain. We refine and use our syntax to predict over 3,000 hindbrain enhancers across the human genome. These sequences tend to be located near developmental transcription factors and are enriched in known hindbrain activating elements, demonstrating the predictive power of this simple model.Our findings support the theory that hundreds of CNEs, and perhaps thousands of regions across the human genome, function to coordinate gene expression in the developing hindbrain. We speculate that deeply conserved sequences of this kind contributed to the co-option of new genes into the hindbrain gene regulatory network during early vertebrate evolution by linking patterns of hox expression to downstream genes involved in segmentation and patterning, and evolutionarily newer instances may have continued to contribute to lineage-specific elaboration of the hindbrain.

  13. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Zebrafish Knock-in as a Novel Strategy to Study Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Chekuru, Avinash; Machate, Anja; Brand, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) acts as an organizer and controls the fate of neighboring cells to develop into either mesencephalic (midbrain) or metencephalic (hindbrain) cells by secreting signaling molecules like Wnt1 and Fgf8. The zebrafish is an excellent vertebrate model for studying MHB development due to the ease of gene manipulation and the possibility of following cellular dynamics and morphogenetic processes using live imaging. Currently, only very few reporter and/or Cre-driver lines are available to study gene expression at the MHB, hampering the understanding of MHB development, and traditional transgenic technologies using promoter/enhancer fragments or bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenesis often do not faithfully recapitulate endogenous expression patterns. In contrast, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology now provides a great opportunity to efficiently knock-in or knock-out genes. We have generated four CRISPR/Cas9-based knock-in fluorescent reporter lines for two crucial genes involved in MHB development, namely otx2 and pax2a . The coding sequences of the reporters were knocked-in upstream of the corresponding ATG and are, thus, under the control of the endogenous promoter/enhancer elements. Interestingly, this strategy does not disturb endogenous gene expression. Using the fast maturing fluorescent protein reporter, Venus, enabled us to follow MHB development using cell tracking and live imaging. In addition, we show that these reporter lines label various neuronal and glial cell types in the adult zebrafish brain, making them highly suitable for investigating embryonic and adult midbrain, hindbrain, and MHB development.

  14. Parotid salivary duct stenosis following caudal maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestrinho, Lisa A; Faísca, Pedro B; Niza, Maria M R E

    2014-01-01

    Parotid salivary duct dilation was diagnosed in a 9-year-old male dog. The dog had undergone caudal maxillectomy on the ipsilateral side 2-years prior to presentation. Treatment consisted of parotid salivary duct excision and superficial parotidectomy that lead to the resolution of clinical signs. Transient facial neuropraxia was observed immediately after surgery and resolved spontaneously after 2-weeks. Parotid salivary duct dilation should be considered as a chronic postoperative complication following caudal maxillectomy.

  15. Assembly and patterning of the vascular network of the vertebrate hindbrain

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Misato; Cha, Young R.; Pham, Van N.; Sakurai, Atsuko; Roman, Beth L.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Weinstein, Brant M.

    2011-01-01

    The cranial vasculature is essential for the survival and development of the central nervous system and is important in stroke and other brain pathologies. Cranial vessels form in a reproducible and evolutionarily conserved manner, but the process by which these vessels assemble and acquire their stereotypic patterning remains unclear. Here, we examine the stepwise assembly and patterning of the vascular network of the zebrafish hindbrain. The major artery supplying the hindbrain, the basilar...

  16. The meninges is a source of retinoic acid for the late-developing hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinghua; Smith, Deborah; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Ma, Lanhua; McCaffery, Peter

    2003-08-20

    One general function for retinoic acid (RA) is pattern organization in the CNS. This regulatory factor has an essential role in spinal cord motor neuron and early posterior hindbrain development. In the anterior CNS, however, there is only a limited number of foci of RA synthesis, and less attention has been placed on regions such as the anterior hindbrain where RA synthesizing enzymes are absent. This study shows that a rich source of RA lies around the hindbrain from the RA synthetic enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (RALDH2) present in the surrounding meninges and mesenchyme by embryonic day 13. RALDH2 is not distributed uniformly throughout the meninges but is restricted to territories over the developing hindbrain, suggesting that RA signaling may be localized to those regions. Further regulation of RA signaling is provided by the presence of a RA sink in the form of the CYP26B1 RA catabolic enzyme expressed in deeper regions of the brain. As a guide to the neural anatomy of hindbrain RA signaling, we used a mouse transgenic for a lacZ reporter gene driven by a RA response element (RAREhsplacZ) to identify regions of RA signaling. This reporter mouse provides evidence that RA signaling in the hindbrain after embryonic day 13 occurs in the regions of the cerebellum and precerebellar system adjacent to sources of RA, including the inferior olive and the pontine nuclei.

  17. Rediseño e Implementación de un Prototipo para la Medición y Control de Nivel y Caudal de Agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Ramírez-Echavarría

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the redesign process of a plant for level and flow control that includes different technologies of measurement. The plant operates as a didactic dispositive. This project includes different control strategies so measurement results can be compared.A part ofthe existing instrumentation was relocated and new equipment was installed. The equipment that required fine tuning was calibrated. The electric board was redesigned and the wiring plans were updated so that the control system was articulated with the field instrumentation given to the system. Finally, relevant technical trials were carried out, and laboratory guides regarding the me asure and control of water level and volume were developed. Additionally, the possibility to expand the didactic prototype by means of new control strategies implementation was included in the final recommendations. Such strategies include SCADA and systems of data acquisition in order to develop applications to simulate the system.

  18. Update on neuroimaging phenotypes of mid-hindbrain malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); CHU Saint-Pierre, Radiology Department, Pediatric Neuroradiology Section, Brussels (Belgium); Severino, Mariasavina [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neuroradiology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Nguema-Edzang, Beatrice; Toure, Cisse; Soto Ares, Gustavo [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); Barkovich, Anthony James [University of California, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-23

    Neuroimaging techniques including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional positron emission tomography (PET) are useful in categorizing various midbrain-hindbrain (MHB) malformations, both in allowing diagnosis and in helping to understand the developmental processes that were disturbed. Brain imaging phenotypes of numerous malformations are characteristic features that help in guiding the genetic testing in case of direct neuroimaging-genotype correlation or, at least, to differentiate among MHB malformations entities. The present review aims to provide the reader with an update of the use of neuroimaging applications in the fine analysis of MHB malformations, using a comprehensive, recently proposed developmental and genetic classification. We have performed an extensive systematic review of the literature, from the embryology main steps of MHB development through the malformations entities, with regard to their molecular and genetic basis, conventional MRI features, and other neuroimaging characteristics. We discuss disorders in which imaging features are distinctive and how these features reflect the structural and functional impairment of the brain. Recognition of specific MRI phenotypes, including advanced imaging features, is useful to recognize the MHB malformation entities, to suggest genetic investigations, and, eventually, to monitor the disease outcome after supportive therapies. (orig.)

  19. Hes1 and Hes3 regulate maintenance of the isthmic organizer and development of the mid/hindbrain

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Hiromi; Tomita, Koichi; Bessho, Yasumasa; Kageyama, Ryoichiro

    2001-01-01

    The isthmic organizer, which is located at the midbrain–hindbrain boundary, plays an essential role in development of the midbrain and anterior hindbrain. It has been shown that homeobox genes regulate establishment of the isthmic organizer, but the mechanism by which the organizer is maintained is not well understood. Here, we found that, in mice doubly mutant for the basic helix–loop–helix genes Hes1 and Hes3, the midbrain and anterior hindbrain structures are missing without any significan...

  20. Caudal anesthesia in pediatric surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S; Siddiqui, M A; Haque, M; Majumder, S K; Ali, M S; Majid, M A; Hasan, M R

    2006-07-01

    Prospective study was carried out on 100 patients since May 2005 in my private practice and in the department of pediatric surgery of MMCH. Under caudal anesthesia along with or without ketaminie induction and gas inhalation all the patients underwent different surgical procedure namely anorectal surgery (eg. anoplasty, rectal polyp), urogenital surgery (Circumcision, hypospadias, meatotomy), groin surgery (hernia, hydrocele) and foot & leg surgery. Calculated dose schedule of drugs used in anesthesia and volume were maintained. Time of giving anesthesia and time of starting analgesia were recorded. Per-operative and postoperative analgesia were evaluated. Every parent was explained regarding the merit of caudal anesthesia calculated and compared with that of general anesthesia. Application of caudal anesthesia with or without ketamine & diazepam induction can be used safely and cost effectively and may be put into protocol in many of the pediatric surgical practice both in institute and also in private practice.

  1. Sindrome de regresión caudal

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, A.; Pastor, A.; Sorni, A.; Pastor Durán, Xavier; Palomeque,A.

    1995-01-01

    El síndrome de regresión caudal o de agenesia sacra se caracteriza por un déficit funcional de los esfínteres y de la muscultatura de los miembros inferiores. Se suele asociar con otras malformaciones, como son las esqueléticas, genitourinarias y del tracto intestinal. La diabetes mellitus materna es uno de los factores predisponentes más destacados. Aquí se presenta un caso de síndrome de regresión caudal con insufiencia renal secundaria a la uropatía malformativa asociada. Se comentan los d...

  2. Craniometric Analysis of the Hindbrain and Craniocervical Junction of Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Dogs With and Without Syringomyelia Secondary to Chiari-Like Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowler, Susan P; Kiviranta, Anna-Mariam; McFadyen, Angus K; Jokinen, Tarja S; La Ragione, Roberto M; Rusbridge, Clare

    2017-01-01

    To characterize and compare the phenotypic variables of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction associated with syringomyelia (SM) in the Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS). Analysis of 273 T1-weighted mid-sagittal DICOM sequences of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction from 99 Chihuahuas, 42 Affenpinschers and 132 CKCSs. The study compared 22 morphometric features (11 lines, eight angles and three ratios) of dogs with and without SM using refined techniques based on previous studies of the Griffon Bruxellois (GB) using Discriminant Function Analysis and ANOVA with post-hoc corrections. The analysis identified 14/22 significant traits for SM in the three dog breeds, five of which were identical to those reported for the GB and suggest inclusion of a common aetiology. One ratio, caudal fossa height to the length of the skull base extended to an imaginary point of alignment between the atlas and supraoccipital bones, was common to all three breeds (p values 0.029 to Chihuahua had a smaller angle between the dens, atlas and basioccipital bone (p value < 0.001); Affenpinschers had a smaller distance from atlas to dens (p value 0.009); CKCS had a shorter distance between the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and atlas (p value 0.007). The selected morphometries successfully characterised conformational changes in the brain and craniocervical junction that might form the basis of a diagnostic tool for all breeds. The severity of SM involved a spectrum of abnormalities, incurred by changes in both angulation and size that could alter neural parenchyma compliance and/or impede cerebrospinal fluid channels.

  3. Craniometric Analysis of the Hindbrain and Craniocervical Junction of Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Dogs With and Without Syringomyelia Secondary to Chiari-Like Malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P Knowler

    Full Text Available To characterize and compare the phenotypic variables of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction associated with syringomyelia (SM in the Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS.Analysis of 273 T1-weighted mid-sagittal DICOM sequences of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction from 99 Chihuahuas, 42 Affenpinschers and 132 CKCSs. The study compared 22 morphometric features (11 lines, eight angles and three ratios of dogs with and without SM using refined techniques based on previous studies of the Griffon Bruxellois (GB using Discriminant Function Analysis and ANOVA with post-hoc corrections.The analysis identified 14/22 significant traits for SM in the three dog breeds, five of which were identical to those reported for the GB and suggest inclusion of a common aetiology. One ratio, caudal fossa height to the length of the skull base extended to an imaginary point of alignment between the atlas and supraoccipital bones, was common to all three breeds (p values 0.029 to <0.001. Associated with SM were a reduced occipital crest and two acute changes in angulation i 'sphenoid flexure' at the spheno-occipital synchondrosis ii 'cervical flexure' at the foramen magnum allied with medulla oblongata elevation. Comparing dogs with and without SM, each breed had a unique trait: Chihuahua had a smaller angle between the dens, atlas and basioccipital bone (p value < 0.001; Affenpinschers had a smaller distance from atlas to dens (p value 0.009; CKCS had a shorter distance between the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and atlas (p value 0.007.The selected morphometries successfully characterised conformational changes in the brain and craniocervical junction that might form the basis of a diagnostic tool for all breeds. The severity of SM involved a spectrum of abnormalities, incurred by changes in both angulation and size that could alter neural parenchyma compliance and/or impede cerebrospinal fluid channels.

  4. Accessory caudal axial and pelvic ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohutova, J.; Kolar, J.; Vitovec, J.; Vyhnanek, L.

    1980-01-01

    Accessory caudal ribs are reported as an extremely curious anomaly in five patients. Once the fracture of this rib was a source of pains after injury. The different shapes of the ribs are documented in this clinical survey which is the most extensive in the present literature. Anomalous ribs arise due to inappropriate segmentation during the embryonal development of the axial skeleton. (orig.) [de

  5. Sirenomelia and severe caudal regression syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidahmed, Mohammed Z; Abdelbasit, Omer B; Alhussein, Khalid A; Miqdad, Abeer M; Khalil, Mohammed I; Salih, Mustafa A

    2014-12-01

    To describe cases of sirenomelia and severe caudal regression syndrome (CRS), to report the prevalence of sirenomelia, and compare our findings with the literature. Retrospective data was retrieved from the medical records of infants with the diagnosis of sirenomelia and CRS and their mothers from 1989 to 2010 (22 years) at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A perinatologist, neonatologist, pediatric neurologist, and radiologist ascertained the diagnoses. The cases were identified as part of a study of neural tube defects during that period. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE. During the 22-year study period, the total number of deliveries was 124,933 out of whom, 4 patients with sirenomelia, and 2 patients with severe forms of CRS were identified. All the patients with sirenomelia had single umbilical artery, and none were the infant of a diabetic mother. One patient was a twin, and another was one of triplets. The 2 patients with CRS were sisters, their mother suffered from type II diabetes mellitus and morbid obesity on insulin, and neither of them had a single umbilical artery. Other associated anomalies with sirenomelia included an absent radius, thumb, and index finger in one patient, Potter's syndrome, abnormal ribs, microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, hypoplastic lungs, and diaphragmatic hernia. The prevalence of sirenomelia (3.2 per 100,000) is high compared with the international prevalence of one per 100,000. Both cases of CRS were infants of type II diabetic mother with poor control, supporting the strong correlation of CRS and maternal diabetes.

  6. The vertebrate Hox gene regulatory network for hindbrain segmentation: Evolution and diversification: Coupling of a Hox gene regulatory network to hindbrain segmentation is an ancient trait originating at the base of vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Hugo J; Bronner, Marianne E; Krumlauf, Robb

    2016-06-01

    Hindbrain development is orchestrated by a vertebrate gene regulatory network that generates segmental patterning along the anterior-posterior axis via Hox genes. Here, we review analyses of vertebrate and invertebrate chordate models that inform upon the evolutionary origin and diversification of this network. Evidence from the sea lamprey reveals that the hindbrain regulatory network generates rhombomeric compartments with segmental Hox expression and an underlying Hox code. We infer that this basal feature was present in ancestral vertebrates and, as an evolutionarily constrained developmental state, is fundamentally important for patterning of the vertebrate hindbrain across diverse lineages. Despite the common ground plan, vertebrates exhibit neuroanatomical diversity in lineage-specific patterns, with different vertebrates revealing variations of Hox expression in the hindbrain that could underlie this diversification. Invertebrate chordates lack hindbrain segmentation but exhibit some conserved aspects of this network, with retinoic acid signaling playing a role in establishing nested domains of Hox expression. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Antagonism between the transcription factors NANOG and OTX2 specifies rostral or caudal cell fate during neural patterning transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenghui; Zhang, Yanqi; Liao, Baojian; Zhong, Xiaofen; Chen, Xin; Wang, Haitao; Guo, Yiping; Shan, Yongli; Wang, Lihui; Pan, Guangjin

    2018-03-23

    During neurogenesis, neural patterning is a critical step during which neural progenitor cells differentiate into neurons with distinct functions. However, the molecular determinants that regulate neural patterning remain poorly understood. Here we optimized the "dual SMAD inhibition" method to specifically promote differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into forebrain and hindbrain neural progenitor cells along the rostral-caudal axis. We report that neural patterning determination occurs at the very early stage in this differentiation. Undifferentiated hPSCs expressed basal levels of the transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) that dominantly drove hPSCs into the "default" rostral fate at the beginning of differentiation. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) through CHIR99021 application sustained transient expression of the transcription factor NANOG at early differentiation stages through Wnt signaling. Wnt signaling and NANOG antagonized OTX2 and, in the later stages of differentiation, switched the default rostral cell fate to the caudal one. Our findings have uncovered a mutual antagonism between NANOG and OTX2 underlying cell fate decisions during neural patterning, critical for the regulation of early neural development in humans. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Sirenomelia and caudal malformations in two families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Marion; Layet, Valérie; Costa, Teresa; Roumazeilles, Yves; Chenal, Pierre; Cailliez, Daniel; Gerard, Bénédicte

    2012-07-01

    We report on two families with co-occurrence of sirenomelia and caudal malformations. In the first family, the mother had undergone surgery for a short form of imperforate anus. Her first pregnancy was terminated because of bilateral renal agenesis with oligohydramnios. Her second pregnancy was interrupted because of sirenomelia. The second family was referred to us because of caudal malformation in their two children. The parents' spinal radiographs were normal. The first pregnancy resulted in a girl with imperforate anus, absence of S3-S5 and coccyx, abnormal pelvic floor, and an almost bifid anteriorly located bladder. The second pregnancy resulted in a baby girl with sirenomelia. No diabetes was present during the pregnancies in either of these two families. These families confirm the hypothesis that major genes are responsible for the embryogenesis of the caudal part of the embryo, with variable expression, as has been already described in sirenomelia mouse models (CYP26A1, BMP7/tsg). Molecular studies are underway in these families and in sporadic cases in our laboratory to explore the genetic basis of sirenomelia in humans. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair: a double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T G; Henneberg, S W; Walther-Larsen, S

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine on postoperat...... on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine after hypospadias repair....

  10. vox homeobox gene: a novel regulator of midbrain-hindbrain boundary development in medaka fish?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabian, Peter; Pantzartzi, Chrysoula; Kozmiková, Iryna; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 226, č. 2 (2016), s. 99-107 ISSN 0949-944X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1419 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Midbrain-hindbrain boundary * vox * medaka * Heat shock element * fgf8 * Gene regulatory network Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2016

  11. Stimulation of feeding by three different glucose-sensing mechanisms requires hindbrain catecholamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wang, Qing; Dinh, Thu T; Powers, Bethany R; Ritter, Sue

    2014-02-15

    Previous work has shown that hindbrain catecholamine neurons are required components of the brain's glucoregulatory circuitry. However, the mechanisms and circuitry underlying their glucoregulatory functions are poorly understood. Here we examined three drugs, glucosamine (GcA), phloridzin (Phl) and 5-thio-d-glucose (5TG), that stimulate food intake but interfere in different ways with cellular glucose utilization or transport. We examined feeding and blood glucose responses to each drug in male rats previously injected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus with anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase conjugated to saporin (DSAP), a retrogradely transported immunotoxin that selectively lesions noradrenergic and adrenergic neurons, or with unconjugated saporin (SAP) control. Our major findings were 1) that GcA, Phl, and 5TG all stimulated feeding in SAP controls whether injected into the lateral or fourth ventricle (LV or 4V), 2) that each drug's potency was similar for both LV and 4V injections, 3) that neither LV or 4V injection of these drugs evoked feeding in DSAP-lesioned rats, and 4) that only 5TG, which blocks glycolysis, stimulated a blood glucose response. The antagonist of the MEK/ERK signaling cascade, U0126, attenuated GcA-induced feeding, but not Phl- or 5TG-induced feeding. Thus GcA, Phl, and 5TG, although differing in mechanism and possibly activating different neural populations, stimulate feeding in a catecholamine-dependent manner. Although results do not exclude the possibility that catecholamine neurons possess glucose-sensing mechanisms responsive to all of these agents, currently available evidence favors the possibility that the feeding effects result from convergent neural circuits in which catecholamine neurons are a required component.

  12. Retinoic acid is a potential dorsalising signal in the late embryonic chick hindbrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maden Malcolm

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human retinoic acid teratogenesis results in malformations of dorsally derived hindbrain structures such as the cerebellum, noradrenergic hindbrain neurons and the precerebellar system. These structures originate from the rhombic lip and adjacent dorsal precursor pools that border the fourth ventricle roofplate. While retinoic acid synthesis is known to occur in the meninges that blanket the hindbrain, the particular sensitivity of only dorsal structures to disruptions in retinoid signalling is puzzling. We therefore looked for evidence within the neural tube for more spatiotemporally specific signalling pathways using an in situ hybridisation screen of known retinoic acid pathway transcripts. Results We find that there are highly restricted domains of retinoic acid synthesis and breakdown within specific hindbrain nuclei as well as the ventricular layer and roofplate. Intriguingly, transcripts of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 are always found at the interface between dividing and post-mitotic cells. By contrast to earlier stages of development, domains of synthesis and breakdown in post-mitotic neurons are co-localised. At the rhombic lip, expression of the mRNA for retinoic acid synthesising and catabolising enzymes is spatially highly organised with respect to the Cath1-positive precursors of migratory precerebellar neurons. Conclusion The late developing hindbrain shows patterns of retinoic acid synthesis and use that are distinct from the well characterised phase of rostrocaudal patterning. Selected post-mitotic populations, such as the locus coeruleus, appear to both make and break down retinoic acid suggesting that a requirement for an autocrine, or at least a highly localised paracrine signalling network, might explain its acute sensitivity to retinoic acid disruption. At the rhombic lip, retinoic acid is likely to act as a dorsalising factor in parallel with other roofplate signalling pathways. While its

  13. Rostro-Caudal Organization of Connectivity between Cingulate Motor Areas and Lateral Frontal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kep Kee Loh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to contemporary views, the lateral frontal cortex is organized along a rostro-caudal functional axis with increasingly complex cognitive/behavioral control implemented rostrally, and increasingly detailed motor control implemented caudally. Whether the medial frontal cortex follows the same organization remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, the functional connectivity of the 3 cingulate motor areas (CMAs in the human brain with the lateral frontal cortex was investigated. First, the CMAs and their representations of hand, tongue, and eye movements were mapped via task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Second, using resting-state fMRI, their functional connectivity with lateral prefrontal and lateral motor cortical regions of interest (ROIs were examined. Importantly, the above analyses were conducted at the single-subject level to account for variability in individual cingulate morphology. The results demonstrated a rostro-caudal functional organization of the CMAs in the human brain that parallels that in the lateral frontal cortex: the rostral CMA has stronger functional connectivity with prefrontal regions and weaker connectivity with motor regions; conversely, the more caudal CMAs have weaker prefrontal and stronger motor connectivity. Connectivity patterns of the hand, tongue and eye representations within the CMAs are consistent with that of their parent CMAs. The parallel rostral-to-caudal functional organization observed in the medial and lateral frontal cortex could likely contribute to different hierarchies of cognitive-motor control.

  14. Hes1 and Hes3 regulate maintenance of the isthmic organizer and development of the mid/hindbrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiromi; Tomita, Koichi; Bessho, Yasumasa; Kageyama, Ryoichiro

    2001-01-01

    The isthmic organizer, which is located at the midbrain–hindbrain boundary, plays an essential role in development of the midbrain and anterior hindbrain. It has been shown that homeobox genes regulate establishment of the isthmic organizer, but the mechanism by which the organizer is maintained is not well understood. Here, we found that, in mice doubly mutant for the basic helix–loop–helix genes Hes1 and Hes3, the midbrain and anterior hindbrain structures are missing without any significant cell death. In these mutants, the isthmic organizer cells prematurely differentiate into neurons and terminate expression of secreting molecules such as Fgf8 and Wnt1 and the paired box genes Pax2/5, all of which are essential for the isthmic organizer function. These results indicate that Hes1 and Hes3 prevent premature differentiation and maintain the organizer activity of the isthmic cells, thereby regulating the development of the midbrain and anterior hindbrain. PMID:11500373

  15. Comparison of caudal bupivacaine and bupivacaine-tramadol for postoperative analgesia in children with hypospadias repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Memon, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the effects after caudal bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine-tramadol in young children with hypospadias repair. Randomized controlled trial. Sixty children aged between 13-53 months coming for hypospadias repair were divided randomly into two groups A and B. A caudal block was performed immediately after induction of general anaesthesia. The patients in group A received 0.125% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg with tramadol 1 mg/kg body weight caudally. Group B patients received 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg body weight caudally. Anaesthesia was discontinued after completion of surgery. In the recovery area, ventilatory frequency and pain scores were recorded at 1 hourly interval for first 6 hours and then every 2 hours for next 6 hours postoperatively. A modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale) was used to assess the pain. Episodes of vomiting, facial flush and pruritus were noted, if present. The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in group A patients (p-value=0.001). A low frequency of postoperative vomiting was observed in both groups i.e. 10% in group A and 6.66% in group B (p-value=0.64). No respiratory depression, flushing and pruritus were observed. Low dose combination of bupivacaine and tramadol, when administered caudally, had an additive effect and provided prolonged and effective postoperative analgesia with minimal side effects. The risk of toxicity from bupivacaine decreased when combined with tramadol in low doses. (author)

  16. Activation of groups of excitatory neurons in the mammalian spinal cord or hindbrain evokes locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Martin; Borgius, Lotta; Dougherty, Kimberly J.

    2010-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) are spinal neuronal networks required for locomotion. Glutamatergic neurons have been implicated as being important for intrinsic rhythm generation in the CPG and for the command signal for initiating locomotion, although this has not been demonstrated directly. We...... neurons in the spinal cord are critical for initiating or maintaining the rhythm and that activation of hindbrain areas containing the locomotor command regions is sufficient to directly activate the spinal locomotor network....

  17. Stimulus encoding and feature extraction by multiple pyramidal cells in the hindbrain of weakly electric fish

    OpenAIRE

    Krahe, Rüdiger; Kreiman, Gabriel; Gabbiani, Fabrizio; Koch, Christof; Metzner, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Neighboring cells in topographical sensory maps may transmit similar information to the next higher level of processing. How information transmission by groups of nearby neurons compares with the performance of single cells is a very important question for understanding the functioning of the nervous system. To tackle this problem, we quantified stimulus-encoding and feature extraction performance by pairs of simultaneously recorded electrosensory pyramidal cells in the hindbrain of weakly el...

  18. Effectiveness of caudal septal extension graft application in endonasal septoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Karadavut

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Septal deviation is a common disease seen in daily otorhinolaryngology practice and septoplasty is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Caudal septum deviation is also a challenging pathology for ear, nose, and throat specialists. Many techniques are defined for caudal septal deviation. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of caudal septal extension graft (CSEG application in patients who underwent endonasal septoplasty for a short and deviated nasal septum. Methods Forty patients with nasal septal deviation, short nasal septum, and weak nasal tip support who underwent endonasal septoplasty with or without CSEG placement between August 2012 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. Twenty patients underwent endonasal septoplasty with CSEG placement. The rest of the group, who rejected auricular or costal cartilage harvest for CSEG placement, underwent only endonasal septoplasty without any additional intervention. Using the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE and Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation (ROE questionnaires, pre- and post-operative acoustic rhinometer measurements were evaluated to assess the effect of CESG placement on nasal obstruction. Results In the control group, preoperative and postoperative minimal cross-sectional areas (MCA1 were 0.44 ± 0.10 cm2 and 0.60 ± 0.11 cm2, respectively (p < 0.001. In the study group, pre- and postoperative MCA1 values were 0.45 ± 0.16 cm2 and 0.67 ± 0.16 cm2, respectively (p < 0.01. In the control group, the nasal cavity volume (VOL1 value was 1.71 ± 0.21 mL preoperatively and 1.94 ± 0.17 mL postoperatively (p < 0.001. In the study group, pre- and postoperative VOL1s were 1.72 ± 0.15 mL and 1.97 ± 0.12 mL, respectively (p < 0.001. Statistical analysis of postoperative MCA1 and VOL1 values in the study and the control groups could not detect any significant intergroup difference (p = 0.093 and 0.432, respectively. In the study group, mean nasolabial angles were

  19. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Prasad Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  20. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sakti Prasad; Ojha, Niranjan; Ganesh, G Shankar; Mohanty, Ram Narayan

    2013-07-01

    Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  1. Comparative study of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with tramadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Hegazy; Ayman A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Caudal epidural analgesia has become very common analgesic technique in paediatric surgery. Add-ing tramadol to bupivacaine for caudal injection prolongs duration of analgesia with minimal side effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the different effects of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with thamadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted over 40 paediatric cancer pa-tients who were recruited from Children Cancer Hospital of Egypt (57357 Hospital). Patients were randomized into 2 groups: bupivacaine group (group B, 20 patients) to receive single shot caudal block of 1 mL/kg 0.1875% bupivacaine; tramadol group (group T, 20 patients) prepared as group B with the addition of 1 mg/kg caudal tramadol. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer among group T than group B [(24 ± 13.7) hours versus (7 ± 3.7) hours respectively with P = 0.001]. Group T showed a significantly lower mean FLACC score than group B (2.2 ± 0.9 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 with P = 0.002). The difference in FLACC score was comparable on arrival, and after 2 and 4 hours. At 8 and 12 hours the group B recorded significantly higher scores (P = 0.002 and 0.0001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups as regards sedation score [the median in both groups was 1 (0–1) with P value = o.8]. No one developed facial flush or pruritis. Conclusion: Caudal injection of low dose tramadol 1 mg/kg with bupivacaine 0.1875% is proved to be effective, long standing technique for postoperative analgesia in major paediatric cancer surgery and almost devoid of side effect.

  2. Caudal analgesia for herniotomy: Comparative evaluation of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: There is currently a wide range of volume schemes for bupivacaine caudal anesthesia. This study evaluated the quality of caudal analgesia achieved with a dosing scheme of 0.75 ml/kg compared with 0.5 ml/kg of 0.25% plain bupivacaine for herniotomy. Methods: After the institutional approval, American Society ...

  3. Tlx-1 and Tlx-3 homeobox gene expression in cranial sensory ganglia and hindbrain of the chick embryo: markers of patterned connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, C; Wingate, R J; McKay, I J; Lumsden, A

    1998-07-15

    Recent evidence suggests that in vertebrates the formation of distinct neuronal cell types is controlled by specific families of homeodomain transcription factors. Furthermore, the expression domains of a number of these genes correlates with functionally integrated neuronal populations. We have isolated two members of the divergent T-cell leukemia translocation (HOX11/Tlx) homeobox gene family from chick, Tlx-1 and Tlx-3, and show that they are expressed in differentiating neurons of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. In the peripheral nervous system, Tlx-1 and Tlx-3 are expressed in overlapping domains within the placodally derived components of a number of cranial sensory ganglia. Tlx-3, unlike Tlx-1, is also expressed in neural crest-derived dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia. In the CNS, both genes are expressed in longitudinal columns of neurons at specific dorsoventral levels of the hindbrain. Each column has distinct anterior and/or posterior limits that respect inter-rhombomeric boundaries. Tlx-3 is also expressed in D2 and D3 neurons of the spinal cord. Tlx-1 and Tlx-3 expression patterns within the peripheral and central nervous systems suggest that Tlx proteins may be involved not only in the differentiation and/or survival of specific neuronal populations but also in the establishment of neuronal circuitry. Furthermore, by analogy with the LIM genes, Tlx family members potentially define sensory columns early within the developing hindbrain in a combinatorial manner.

  4. Five cases of caudal regression with an aberrant abdominal umbilical artery: Further support for a caudal regression-sirenomelia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesterhoeft, Sara M; Ernst, Linda M; Siebert, Joseph R; Kapur, Raj P

    2007-12-15

    Sirenomelia and caudal regression have sparked centuries of interest and recent debate regarding their classification and pathogenetic relationship. Specific anomalies are common to both conditions, but aside from fusion of the lower extremities, an aberrant abdominal umbilical artery ("persistent vitelline artery") has been invoked as the chief anatomic finding that distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression. This observation is important from a pathogenetic viewpoint, in that diversion of blood away from the caudal portion of the embryo through the abdominal umbilical artery ("vascular steal") has been proposed as the primary mechanism leading to sirenomelia. In contrast, caudal regression is hypothesized to arise from primary deficiency of caudal mesoderm. We present five cases of caudal regression that exhibit an aberrant abdominal umbilical artery similar to that typically associated with sirenomelia. Review of the literature identified four similar cases. Collectively, the series lends support for a caudal regression-sirenomelia spectrum with a common pathogenetic basis and suggests that abnormal umbilical arterial anatomy may be the consequence, rather than the cause, of deficient caudal mesoderm. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Caudal Regression Syndrome/neurogenic bladder presented as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burhan M. Edrees

    Impaired development in the caudal region will affect the general health status of ... mities within the spinal cord, brain, or nervous supply. A number .... The parenchyma of left ... The findings have shown non-functioning right kidney; however,.

  6. Traction suture modification to tongue-in-groove caudal septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indeyeva, Y A; Lee, T S; Gordin, E; Chan, D; Ducic, Y

    2018-02-01

    Caudal septal deviation leads to unfavorable esthetic as well as functional effects on the nasal airway. A modification to the tongue-in-groove (TIG) technique to correct these caudal septal deformities is described. With placement of a temporary suspension suture to the caudal septum, manual traction is applied, assuring that the caudal septum remains in the midline position while it is being secured with multiple through-and-through, trans-columellar and trans-septal sutures. From 2003 to 2016, 148 patients underwent endonasal septoplasty using this modified technique, with excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes and a revision rate of 1.4%. This modified TIG technique replaces the periosteal suture that secures the caudal septum to the midline nasal crest in the original TIG technique. This simplifies the procedure and minimizes the risk of securing the caudal septum off-midline when used in endonasal septoplasty. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential Involvement of Draxin in the Axonal Projection of Cranial Nerves, Especially Cranial Nerve X, in the Chick Hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sanbing; Cui, Huixian; Wang, Lei; Kang, Lin; Huang, Guannan; Du, Juan; Li, Sha; Tanaka, Hideaki; Su, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    The appropriate projection of axons within the nervous system is a crucial component of the establishment of neural circuitry. Draxin is a repulsive axon guidance protein. Draxin has important functions in the guidance of three commissures in the central nervous system and in the migration of neural crest cells and dI3 interneurons in the chick spinal cord. Here, we report that the distribution of the draxin protein and the location of 23C10-positive areas have a strong temporal and spatial correlation. The overexpression of draxin, especially transmembrane draxin, caused 23C10-positive axon bundles to misproject in the dorsal hindbrain. In addition, the overexpression of transmembrane draxin caused abnormal formation of the ganglion crest of the IX and X cranial nerves, misprojection of some anti-human natural killer-1 (HNK-1)-stained structures in the dorsal roof of the hindbrain, and a simultaneous reduction in the efferent nerves of some motoneuron axons inside the hindbrain. Our data reveal that draxin might be involved in the fascicular projection of cranial nerves in the hindbrain. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  8. Radiographic evaluation of caudal vena cava size in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmkuhl, L.B.; Bonagura, J.D.; Biller, D.S.; Hartman, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Dilation of the caudal vena cava (CVC) on lateral thoracic radiographs is often interpreted as suggestive of right-sided congestive heart failure, To quantitate the clinical utility of evaluating CVC size as an indicator of right-sided heart disease, we compared the ratio of the diameter of the CVC as measured on a left lateral thoracic radiograph to the descending aorta (Ao), length of the thoracic vertebra above the tracheal bifurcation (VL), and width of the right fourth rib (R4) in 35 dogs with right heart disease and 35 control dogs, Each CVC ratio(CVC/Ao, CVC/VL, CVC/R4) was statistically larger in dogs with right heart disease, Response operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios were used to determine ratios helpful in identifying dogs with right heart disease. A CVC/Ao > 1.50, CVC/VL > 1.30, or CVC/R4 > 3.50 are strongly suggestive of a right-sided heart abnormality in a patient

  9. Sensory nerve conduction in the caudal nerves of rats with diabetes Condução nervosa sensorial no nervo caudal de ratos com diabetes experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Cordeiro de Carvalho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate sensory nerve conduction of the caudal nerve in normal and diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in twenty 8-weeks old Wistar male rats. Twenty normal rats served as controls. Caudal nerve conduction studies were made before diabetes induction and the end of each week for six consecutive weeks. The caudal nerve was stimulated distally and nerve potentials were recorded proximally on the animal's tail using common "alligator" clips as surface electrodes. RESULTS: After induction, nerve conduction velocities (NCV increased slower in the diabetic than in the control group. Sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP conduction velocities increased slower in the diabetic than in the control group (slope of regression line: 0.5 vs 1.3m/s per week; NCV in the 15th week = 39±3m/s vs 44±4m/s. Tukey's tests showed differences between groups at the 11th, 13th and 15th weeks old. From the 10th week on, SNAP amplitudes increased faster in the diabetic than in the control group (slopes of the regression line: 10 vs 8µV per week; SNAP amplitudes in the 15th week: 107±23µV vs 85±13µV. Differences at the 12th, 13th and 15th weeks were significant. CONCLUSION: In diabetic rats nerve conduction velocities were slower whereas amplitudes were larger than in normal rats.OBJETIVO: Investigar a condução nervosa sensorial do nervo caudal em ratos normais e diabéticos. MÉTODOS: O diabetes foi induzido em vinte ratos Wistar com idade de oito semanas. Vinte ratos serviram como controle. Os estudos da condução do nervo caudal foram feitos antes da indução do diabetes e ao final de cada semana, durante seis semanas consecutivas. O nervo caudal foi estimulado distalmente e potenciais foram registrados proximalmente na cauda do animal, usando clipes comuns "jacaré" como eletrodos de superfície. RESULTADOS: Após a indução, a velocidade de condução nervosa (VCN aumentou mais lentamente no grupo diabético que no controle

  10. Variations in the formation of the human caudal spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga-Babić, M; Sapunar, D; Wartiovaara, J

    1995-01-01

    Collection of 15 human embryos between 4-8 developmental weeks was used to histologically investigate variations in the development of the caudal part of the spinal cord and the neighboring axial organs (notochord and vertebral column). In the 4-week embryo, two types of neurulation were parallelly observed along the anteroposterior body axis: primary in the areas cranial to the neuroporus caudalis and secondary in the more caudal tail regions. In the 5-week embryos, both parts of the neural tube fused, forming only one continuous lumen in the developing spinal cord. In the three examined embryos we found anomalous pattern of spinal cord formation. Caudal parts of these spinal cords displayed division of their central canal into two or three separate lumina, each surrounded by neuroepithelial layer. In the caudal area of the spinal cord, derived by secondary neurulation, formation of separate lumina was neither connected to any anomalous notochord or vertebral column formation, nor the appearance of any major axial disturbances. We suggest that development of the caudal part of the spinal cord differs from its cranial region not only in the type of neurulation, but also in the destiny of its derivatives and possible modes of abnormality formation.

  11. Alteration of Na-K pump activity in supersensitive rat caudal artery following 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.K.; Foley, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Contractile response and the Na-K pump activity, measured as ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb-uptake, were determined in caudal artery strips of rats pretreated with 6-OHDA. At 6-7 days after 6-OHDA treatment, the potencies of norepinephrine and serotonin in causing contraction of rat caudal artery were significantly increased by 2.3 - and 1.7 - fold respectively. There was, however, no change in maximum contractile response to either agent. Treatment with 6-OHDA also reduced endogenous catecholamine content of the caudal artery to 7% of the control. Analysis of ouabain-inhibitable 86 Rb-uptake of rat caudal artery by the double-reciprocal plots showed that both the rate of 86 Rb-uptake and the affinity for rubidium were depressed after 6-OHDA treatment. The results indicate that 6-OHDA induced supersensitivity in the rat caudal artery is associated with a decrease in the Na-K pump activity. These data provide additional support to the concept that inhibition of the Na-K pump may result in partial depolarization of the cell membrane which leads to supersensitivity of smooth muscle to excitatory drugs

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of Caudal Regression Syndrome : a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celikaslan Nurgul

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caudal regression is a rare syndrome which has a spectrum of congenital malformations ranging from simple anal atresia to absence of sacral, lumbar and possibly lower thoracic vertebrae, to the most severe form which is known as sirenomelia. Maternal diabetes, genetic predisposition and vascular hypoperfusion have been suggested as possible causative factors. Case presentation We report a case of caudal regression syndrome diagnosed in utero at 22 weeks' of gestation. Prenatal ultrasound examination revealed a sudden interruption of the spine and "frog-like" position of lower limbs. Termination of pregnancy and autopsy findings confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of caudal regression syndrome is possible at 22 weeks' of gestation by ultrasound examination.

  13. DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS ROLE IN CAUDAL REGRESSION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caudal regression syndrome also called as sacral agenesis or hypoplasia of the sacrum is a congenital disorder in which there is abnormal development of the lower part of the vertebral column 1 due to which there is a plethora of abnormalities such as gross motor deficiencies and other genitor-urinary malformations which in deed depends on the extent of malformations that is seen. Caudal regression syndrome is rare, with an estimated incidence of 1:7500-100,000. The aim of the study is to find the frequency of manifestations and the manifestations itself. METHODS Fifty patients who were pregnant and were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus were identified and were referred to the Department of Medicine. RESULTS In the present study the frequency of manifestations of caudal regression syndrome is 8 in 100 diagnosed patients. CONCLUSION The malformations in the babies born to diabetic mothers are high in the population of costal Karnataka and Kerala.

  14. MafB is required for development of the hindbrain choroid plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshida, Ryusuke; Oishi, Hisashi; Hamada, Michito; Takei, Yosuke; Takahashi, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    The choroid plexus (ChP) is a non-neural epithelial tissue that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The ChP differentiates from the roof plate, a dorsal midline structure of the neural tube. However, molecular mechanisms underlying ChP development are poorly understood compared to neural development. MafB is a bZip transcription factor that is known to be expressed in the roof plate. Here we investigated the role of MafB in embryonic development of the hindbrain ChP (hChP) using Mafb-deficient mice. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that MafB is expressed in the roof plate and early hChP epithelial cells but its expression disappears at a later embryonic stage. We also found that the Mafb-deficient hChP exhibits delayed differentiation and results in hypoplasia compared to the wild-type hChP. Furthermore, the Mafb-deficient hChP exhibits increased apoptotic cell death and decreased proliferating cells at E12.5, an early stage of hChP development. Collectively, our findings reveal that MafB play an important role in promoting hChP development during embryogenesis. - Highlights: • MafB is expressed in the roof plate and the early hindbrain choroid plexus (hChP). • Loss of MafB causes delayed differentiation and hypoplasia of the embryonic hChP. • The Mafb-deficient hChP exhibits increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation.

  15. Caudal Septal Stabilization Suturing Technique to Treat Crooked Noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Bahadir; Erdim, Ibrahim; Guvey, Ali; Oghan, Fatih; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin

    2016-10-01

    To rotate the nasal axis and septum to the midline using an L-strut graft and a novel caudal septal stabilization suturing technique to treat crooked noses. Thirty-six patients were included in the study. First, an L-strut graft was prepared by excising the deviated cartilage site in all patients. Second, multiple stabilization suturing, which we describe as a caudal septal stabilization suturing technique with a "fishing net"-like appearance, was applied between the anterior nasal spine and caudal septum in all patients. This new surgical technique, used to rotate the caudal septum, was applied to 22 I-type and 14 C-type crooked noses. Correction rates for the crooked noses were compared between the 2 inclination types with angular estimations. Deviation angles were measured using the AutoCAD 2012 software package and frontal (anterior) views, with the Frankfurt horizontal line parallel to the ground. Nasal axis angles showing angle improvement graded 4 categories as excellent, good, acceptable, and unsuccessful for evaluations at 6 months after surgery in the study. The success rate in the C-type nasal inclination was 86.7% (±21.9) and 88% (±16.7) in the I-type. The overall success rate of L-strut grafting and caudal septal stabilization suturing in crooked nose surgeries was 87.5% (±18.6). "Unsuccessful" results were not reported in any of the patients. L-strut grafting and caudal septal stabilization suturing techniques are efficacious in crooked noses according to objective measurement analysis results. However, a longer follow-up duration in a larger patient population is needed.

  16. Comparison of Caudal Analgesia and Intravenous Diclofenac for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Effective postoperative pain management is a vital determinant to when a child can be safely discharged from the hospital after day case surgery. This study compared the effect of caudal bupivacaine block with intravenous diclofenac for postoperative pain relief in children aged 1-7years undergoing ...

  17. Comparing caudal and penile nerve blockade using bupivacaine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Caudal anaesthesia is recommended for most surgical procedures of the lower part of the body, mainly below the umbilicus. It has been well established that a dorsal penile nerve block immediately after surgery decreases postoperative pain in children undergoing hypospadias repair. This study aimed to ...

  18. Caudal regression with sirenomelia and dysplasia renofacialis (Potter's syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noeldge, G.; Billmann, P.; Boehm, N.; Freiburg Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A case of caudal regression in combination with sirenomelia and dysplasia renofacialis (Potter's syndrome) is reported. The formal pathogenesis of these malformations and clinical facts are shown and discussed. Findings of plain films, postmortal angiography and pathologic-anatomical changes are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  19. Ontogenetic scaling of caudal fin shape in Squalus acanthias (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii): a geometric morphometric analysis with implications for caudal fin functional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Katie L; Bonnan, Matthew F

    2010-07-01

    The shark heterocercal caudal fin and its contribution to locomotion are of interest to biologists and paleontologists. Current hydrodynamic data show that the stiff dorsal lobe leads the ventral lobe, both lobes of the tail are synchronized during propulsion, and tail shape reflects its overall locomotor function. Given the difficulties surrounding the analysis of shark caudal fins in vivo, little is known about changes in tail shape related to ontogeny and sex in sharks. A quantifiable analysis of caudal fin shape may provide an acceptable proxy for inferring gross functional morphology where direct testing is difficult or impossible. We examined ontogenetic and sex-related shape changes in the caudal fins of 115 Squalus acanthias museum specimens, to test the hypothesis that significant shape changes in the caudal fin shape occur with increasing size and between the sexes. Using linear and geometric morphometrics, we examined caudal shape changes within the context of current hydrodynamic models. We found no statistically significant linear or shape difference between sexes, and near-isometric scaling trends for caudal dimensions. These results suggest that lift and thrust increase linearly with size and caudal span. Thin-plate splines results showed a significant allometric shape change associated with size and caudal span: the dorsal lobe elongates and narrows, whereas the ventral lobe broadens and expands ventrally. Our data suggest a combination of caudal fin morphology with other body morphology aspects, would refine, and better elucidate the hydrodynamic factors (if any) that underlie the significant shape changes we report here for S. acanthias.

  20. Note: Dynamic analysis of a robotic fish motion with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dongwon; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun; Kyung, Jinho; Lee, Sunghwi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a robotic fish with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences is studied, especially focusing on the energy consumption. Energies for thrusting a conventional robotic fish and one with caudal fin with vertical phase differences are obtained and compared each other. It is shown that a robotic fish with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences can save more energy, which implies the efficient thrusting via a vertically waving caudal fin.

  1. Cell Identity Switching Regulated by Retinoic Acid Signaling Maintains Homogeneous Segments in the Hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Megan; Xu, Qiling; Cayuso, Jordi; Wilkinson, David G

    2018-06-04

    The patterning of tissues to form subdivisions with distinct and homogeneous regional identity is potentially disrupted by cell intermingling. Transplantation studies suggest that homogeneous segmental identity in the hindbrain is maintained by identity switching of cells that intermingle into another segment. We show that switching occurs during normal development and is mediated by feedback between segment identity and the retinoic acid degrading enzymes, cyp26b1 and cyp26c1. egr2, which specifies the segmental identity of rhombomeres r3 and r5, underlies the lower expression level of cyp26b1 and cyp26c1 in r3 and r5 compared with r2, r4, and r6. Consequently, r3 or r5 cells that intermingle into adjacent segments encounter cells with higher cyp26b1/c1 expression, which we find is required for downregulation of egr2b expression. Furthermore, egr2b expression is regulated in r2, r4, and r6 by non-autonomous mechanisms that depend upon the number of neighbors that express egr2b. These findings reveal that a community regulation of retinoid signaling maintains homogeneous segmental identity. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Caudal Regression and Encephalocele: Rare Manifestations of Expanded Goldenhar Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella D’Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, or Goldenhar Syndrome, is a condition characterized by variable degrees of uni- or bilateral involvement of craniofacial structures, ocular anomalies, and vertebral defects. Its expressivity is variable; therefore, the term “expanded Goldenhar complex” has been coined. The Goldenhar Syndrome usually involves anomalies in craniofacial structures, but it is known that nervous system anomalies, including encephalocele or caudal regression, may, rarely, occur in this condition. We report two rare cases of infants affected by Goldenhar Syndrome, associated with neural tube defects, specifically caudal regression syndrome and nasal encephaloceles, to underline the extremely complex and heterogeneous clinical features of this oculoauriculovertebral spectrum. These additional particular cases could increase the number of new variable spectrums to be included in the “expanded Goldenhar complex.”

  3. Norepinephrine accumulation by the rat caudal artery in the presence of hypertensive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freas, W.; Thompson, D.A.; Hart, J.L.; Muldoon, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    We have partially isolated endogenous factors from canine plasma which inhibit 3 H-norepinephrine (NE) accumulation by the canine saphenous vein. The purpose of this study is to determine if these circulating factors may account for the observed differences in 3 H-NE uptake by hypertensive and normotensive blood vessels. Three models of hypertension were examined in this study. Blood vessels were compared from SHR and WKY rats, deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and control rats, and reduced renal mass (RRM) and control rats. There was no significant difference in 3 H-NE accumulation between blood vessels obtained from RRM and paired control rats. However, both the SHR and DOCA hypertensive caudal arteries and aorta accumulated significantly more 3 H-NE than their corresponding control tissues. There was not a significant change in 3 H-NE accumulation between hypertensive and control vena cava and mesenteric arteries. Normotensive and hypertensive plasma inhibited 3 H-NE accumulation by the rat caudal artery. However, there was not a correlation between blood pressure of plasma donor rats and accumulation of 3 H-NE. Therefore, although there are differences in 3 H-NE accumulation between hypertensive and normotensive blood vessels, plasma does not contain a factor responsible for this observed difference

  4. Ultrasound as a Screening Tool for Performing Caudal Epidural Injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikooseresht, Mahshid; Hashemi, Masoud; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Shahandeh, Farideh; Agah, Mahvash

    2014-01-01

    The caudal approach to the epidural space has been used for decades to treat low back pain caused by lumbosacral root compression. The use of fluoroscopy during epidural steroid injection is the preferred method for placing the needle more accurately in the sacral hiatus, but it carries the risk of radiation hazard. The aim of the study was to assess the anatomical structure of the sacral hiatus and the feasibility of caudal epidural injections under ultrasound guidance. Two hundred and forty patients (male = 100, female = 140) with low back pain and sciatica who were candidates for caudal epidural injection were enrolled into this study. Ultrasound images of the sacral hiatus and bilateral cornua were obtained by a real-time linear array ultrasound transducer. The distance between bilateral cornua and the anterior and posterior wall of the sacrum were measured at the base (sacral hiatus). Under the guide of ultrasonography, we defined the injection successful if turbulence of medication fluid was observed in the sacral canal, but correct placement of the needle and injectant was confirmed on fluoroscopic view as the gold standard technique. The epidurogram showed that the injection was successful in 230 of the 240 patients (95.8%). In eight patients, the injection was not in the correct place in the sacral canal. The sacral hiatus could not be identified by ultrasound images in only two patients who had a closed sacral hiatus identified by fluoroscopy. The mean distance of the sacral hiatus was 4.7 ± 1.7 mm and the mean distance between bilateral cornua was 18.0 ± 2.8 mm. The mean duration of the procedure was 10.8 ± 6.8 minutes. No major complication was observed in the next month. In conclusion, ultrasound could be used as a safe, fast and reliable modality to observe the anatomic variation of the sacral hiatus and to perform caudal epidural injections

  5. Conjoined twin piglets with duplicated cranial and caudal axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, C A; Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R

    1994-06-01

    Twins with doubling of the cranial and caudal poles, yet having a single thorax, are rare. One set of diprosopus, dipygus porcine conjoined twins was studied. In addition to the conjoining anomaly, these twins also exhibited ambiguous internal reproductive features. The twins had two snouts, three eyes, a single thorax, and were duplicated from the umbilicus caudally. Radiography indicated a single vertebral column in the cervical region. The vertebral columns were separate caudally from this point. There was a total of six limbs--one pair of forelimbs and two pairs of hindlimbs. Many medial structures failed to develop in these twins. Medial cranial nerves V-XII were absent or displaced although apparently normal laterally. The medial palates were present but shortened, whereas the medial mandibular rami had folded back on themselves rostrally to form a midline mass between the two chins. Each twin had only one lateral kidney and one lateral testis. Medial scrotal sacs were present but devoid of a testis. There was a midline, "uterine"-like structure which crossed between the twins. However, histological analysis of this structure revealed it to be dysplastic testicular tissue. The relationship between the abnormal reproductive features in these twins and the conjoining is unclear. The anatomy of these twins, in addition to the literature reviewed, illustrates the internal anatomical heterogeneity of grossly similar conjoined twins. A review of the literature also suggests that conjoined twinning may be more common in swine than was previously suspected.

  6. Effect of magnesium added to local anesthetics for caudal anesthesia on postoperative pain in pediatric surgical patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hiromasa; Mihara, Takahiro; Nakamura, Nobuhito; Ka, Koui; Goto, Takahisa

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium has been investigated as an adjuvant for neuraxial anesthesia, but the effect of caudal magnesium on postoperative pain is inconsistent. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the analgesic effect of caudal magnesium. We searched six databases, including trial registration sites. Randomized clinical trials reporting the effect of caudal magnesium on postoperative pain after general anesthesia were eligible. The risk ratio for use of rescue analgesics after surgery was combined using a random-effects model. We also assessed adverse events. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. We assessed risk of bias with Cochrane domains. We controlled type I and II errors due to sparse data and repetitive testing with Trial Sequential Analysis. We assessed the quality of evidence with GRADE. Four randomized controlled trials (247 patients) evaluated the need for rescue analgesics. In all four trials, 50 mg of magnesium was administered with caudal ropivacaine. The results suggested that the need for rescue analgesia was reduced significantly by caudal magnesium administration (risk ratio 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.86). There was considerable heterogeneity as indicated by an I2 value of 62.5%. The Trial Sequential Analysis-adjusted confidence interval was 0.04-5.55, indicating that further trials are required. The quality of evidence was very low. The rate of adverse events was comparable between treatment groups. Caudal magnesium may reduce the need for rescue analgesia after surgery, but further randomized clinical trials with a low risk of bias and a low risk of random errors are necessary to assess the effect of caudal magnesium on postoperative pain and adverse events. University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000025344.

  7. Comparison between the intravenous and caudal routes of sufentanil in children undergoing orchidopexy and further evaluation of the association of caudal adrenaline and neostigmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rocha Lauretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the intravenous (IV and caudal routes of administration of sufentanil for children undergoing orchidopexy and also to evaluate the effects on addition of caudal adrenaline and neostigmine. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for orchidopexy were divided into the following groups: 1 Group IVSu received IV 0.5 μg/kg sufentanil and caudal saline; 2 Group CSu received caudal 0.5 μg/kg sufentanil and IV saline; 3 Group CSuAdr received caudal sufentanil plus adrenaline 5 μg/ml (1:200,000 and IV saline; 4 Group CSuNeo received caudal sufentanil plus neostigmine, and IV saline; and 5 Group CSuNeoAdr received caudal sufentanil plus neostigmine plus adrenaline, and IV saline. Heart rate and mean blood pressure >15% was treated with increasing isoflurane concentration. Consumption of isoflurane, side effects, quality of sleep, time to first administration of analgesic, and number of doses of 24-h rescue analgesic were recorded. Results: Groups were demographically similar. Isoflurane consumption showed the following association: Group IVSu = Group CSuNeo = Group CSuNeoAdr Group CSuNeo = Group CSuNeoAdr (P < 0.005. Incidence of adverse effects was similar among groups. Conclusion: Caudal sufentanil alone was no better than when administered in the IV route, and would just be justified by the association of neostigmine, but not adrenaline. Neostigmine association resulted in better perioperative analgesia.

  8. Parametric study of the swimming performance of a fish robot propelled by a flexible caudal fin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, K H; Chong, C W, E-mail: mkhlow@ntu.edu.s, E-mail: ch0018ee@ntu.edu.s [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, we aim to study the swimming performance of fish robots by using a statistical approach. A fish robot employing a carangiform swimming mode had been used as an experimental platform for the performance study. The experiments conducted aim to investigate the effect of various design parameters on the thrust capability of the fish robot with a flexible caudal fin. The controllable parameters associated with the fin include frequency, amplitude of oscillation, aspect ratio and the rigidity of the caudal fin. The significance of these parameters was determined in the first set of experiments by using a statistical approach. A more detailed parametric experimental study was then conducted with only those significant parameters. As a result, the parametric study could be completed with a reduced number of experiments and time spent. With the obtained experimental result, we were able to understand the relationship between various parameters and a possible adjustment of parameters to obtain a higher thrust. The proposed statistical method for experimentation provides an objective and thorough analysis of the effects of individual or combinations of parameters on the swimming performance. Such an efficient experimental design helps to optimize the process and determine factors that influence variability.

  9. Parametric study of the swimming performance of a fish robot propelled by a flexible caudal fin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, K H; Chong, C W

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we aim to study the swimming performance of fish robots by using a statistical approach. A fish robot employing a carangiform swimming mode had been used as an experimental platform for the performance study. The experiments conducted aim to investigate the effect of various design parameters on the thrust capability of the fish robot with a flexible caudal fin. The controllable parameters associated with the fin include frequency, amplitude of oscillation, aspect ratio and the rigidity of the caudal fin. The significance of these parameters was determined in the first set of experiments by using a statistical approach. A more detailed parametric experimental study was then conducted with only those significant parameters. As a result, the parametric study could be completed with a reduced number of experiments and time spent. With the obtained experimental result, we were able to understand the relationship between various parameters and a possible adjustment of parameters to obtain a higher thrust. The proposed statistical method for experimentation provides an objective and thorough analysis of the effects of individual or combinations of parameters on the swimming performance. Such an efficient experimental design helps to optimize the process and determine factors that influence variability.

  10. Development of the caudal exoskeleton of the pliomerid trilobite Hintzeia plicamarginis new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, A.G.; Hughes, N.C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Ludvigsen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The later juvenile ontogeny of the caudal plate of the early Ordovician pliomerid trilobite Hintzeia plicamarginis new species likely comprised an initial phase during which the rate of appearance of new segments subterminally exceeded that of segment release into the thorax, a short phase of constant segment numbers, and a later phase during which release occurred but in which no new segments appeared. A distinct terminal region became manifest in the second phase. During the second and third phases growth coefficients for individual segments were about 1.1-1.2 per instar. Although the shapes of segments varied during growth, the pattern of ontogenetic shape change appears to have been broadly similar among segments. This suggests an homonomous trunk segment morphology regardless of thoracic or caudal identity in maturity. These results imply that control of trunk exoskeletal segment appearance and articulation were decoupled in this trilobite, and that the terminal region had a distinct mature morphology. H. plicamarginis is described as a new species. ?? Blackwell Publishing, Inc.

  11. Parametric study of the swimming performance of a fish robot propelled by a flexible caudal fin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K H; Chong, C W

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to study the swimming performance of fish robots by using a statistical approach. A fish robot employing a carangiform swimming mode had been used as an experimental platform for the performance study. The experiments conducted aim to investigate the effect of various design parameters on the thrust capability of the fish robot with a flexible caudal fin. The controllable parameters associated with the fin include frequency, amplitude of oscillation, aspect ratio and the rigidity of the caudal fin. The significance of these parameters was determined in the first set of experiments by using a statistical approach. A more detailed parametric experimental study was then conducted with only those significant parameters. As a result, the parametric study could be completed with a reduced number of experiments and time spent. With the obtained experimental result, we were able to understand the relationship between various parameters and a possible adjustment of parameters to obtain a higher thrust. The proposed statistical method for experimentation provides an objective and thorough analysis of the effects of individual or combinations of parameters on the swimming performance. Such an efficient experimental design helps to optimize the process and determine factors that influence variability.

  12. Vitrification of caudal fin explants from zebrafish adult specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Costa, J; Roig, J; Perez-Camps, M; García-Ximénez, F

    2006-01-01

    No data on vitrification of tissue samples are available in fishes. Three vitrification solutions were compared: V1: 20% ethylene glycol and 20% dimethyl sulphoxide; V2: 25% propylene glycol and 20% dimethyl sulphoxide, and; V3: 20% propylene glycol and 13% methanol, all three prepared in Hanks' buffered salt solution plus 20 percent FBS, following the same one step vitrification procedure developed in mammals. Caudal fin tissue pieces were vitrified into 0.25 ml plastic straws in 30s and stored in liquid nitrogen for 3 days minimum, warmed (10s in nitrogen vapour and 5s in a 25 degree C water bath) and cultured (L-15 plus 20% FBS at 28.5 degree C). At the third day of culture, both attachment and outgrowing rates were recorded. V3 led to the worst results (8% of attachment rate). V1 and V2 allow higher attachment rates (V1: 63% vs V2: 50%. P < 0.05) but not significantly different outgrowing rates (83% to 94%). Vitrification of caudal fin pieces is advantageous in fish biodiversity conservation, particularly in the wild, due to the simplicity of procedure and equipment.

  13. Cryptorchidism as a caudal developmental field defect. A new description of cryptorchidism associated with malformations and dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters and the spine from T10 to S5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L

    1998-01-01

    individuals with tritonmelia, the male variant of sirenomelia. Sirenomelia/tritonmelia is an extreme degree of abnormal differentiation of the caudal developmental field, also called caudal dysplasia, the caudal regression syndrome and the caudal regression malformation sequence. Caudal developmental field...

  14. Evidence for the Presence of Glucosensor Mechanisms Not Dependent on Glucokinase in Hypothalamus and Hindbrain of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Otero-Rodiño

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that glucosensor mechanisms other than that mediated by glucokinase (GK operate in hypothalamus and hindbrain of the carnivorous fish species rainbow trout and stress affected them. Therefore, we evaluated in these areas changes in parameters which could be related to putative glucosensor mechanisms based on liver X receptor (LXR, mitochondrial activity, sweet taste receptor, and sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1 6 h after intraperitoneal injection of 5 mL x Kg(-1 of saline solution alone (normoglycaemic treatment or containing insulin (hypoglycaemic treatment, 4 mg bovine insulin x Kg(-1 body mass, or D-glucose (hyperglycaemic treatment, 500 mg x Kg(-1 body mass. Half of tanks were kept at a 10 Kg fish mass x m(-3 and denoted as fish under normal stocking density (NSD whereas the remaining tanks were kept at a stressful high stocking density (70 kg fish mass x m(-3 denoted as HSD. The results obtained in non-stressed rainbow trout provide evidence, for the first time in fish, that manipulation of glucose levels induce changes in parameters which could be related to putative glucosensor systems based on LXR, mitochondrial activity and sweet taste receptor in hypothalamus, and a system based on SGLT-1 in hindbrain. Stress altered the response of parameters related to these systems to changes in glycaemia.

  15. Caudal anesthesia in a patient with peritonitis: Is it safe??

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kako

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuraxial anesthesia combined with general anesthesia has become a widely accepted method of providing effective postoperative analgesia and decreasing intraoperative anesthetic needs in the pediatric population. In clinical practice, there still appears to be hesitancy for the use of a neuraxial technique (spinal or epidural in patients at risk for bacteremia or with an on-going systemic infection. However, evidence-based medicine lacks any data to support an increase in the risk of infectious complications following neuraxial anesthesia. We present two pediatric patients with intra-abdominal infectious processes who received caudal epidural blockade for postoperative operative analgesia. The use of neuraxial techniques in patients at risk for bacteremia is reviewed, evidence-based medicine regarding the risks of infection discussed, and the potential favorable effects of neuraxial blockade on the neurohumoral response to sepsis and the systemic inflammatory responses presented.

  16. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  17. Actuation of a robotic fish caudal fin for low reaction torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dongwon; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun; Kyung, Jinho; Lee, Sunghee

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a novel caudal fin for actuating a robotic fish is presented. The proposed caudal fin waves in a vertical direction with a specific spatial shape, which is determined by a so-called shape factor. For a specific shape factor, a traveling wave with a vertical phase difference is formed on a caudal fin during fin motion. It will be shown by the analysis that the maximum reaction torque at the joint of a caudal fin varies depending on the shape factors. Compared with a conventional plate type caudal fin, the proposed fin with a shape factor of 2π can eliminate the reaction torque perfectly, while keeping the propulsion force unchanged. The benefits of the proposed fin will be demonstrated by experiments.

  18. Evaluation of Anesthesia Profile in Pediatric Patients after Inguinal Hernia Repair with Caudal Block or Local Wound Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Gavrilovska-Brzanov

    2016-02-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Between children undergoing inguinal hernia repair, local wound infiltration insures safety and satisfactory analgesia for surgery. Compared to caudal block it is not overwhelming. Caudal block provides longer analgesia, however complications are rather common.

  19. Response Function of the Crayfish Caudal Photoreceptor to Hydrodynamic Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breite, Sally; Bahar, Sonya; Neiman, Alexander; Moss, Frank

    2002-03-01

    In its abdominal 6th ganglion the crayfish houses 2 light-sensitive neurons (caudal photoreceptors, or CPRs). It is known that these neurons work in tandem with a mechanosensory system of tiny hairs spread across the tailfan, which make synaptic contact with the photoreceptors. A stochastic resonance effect has been shown in this system in which light enhances the transduction of a weak, periodic mechanosensory (hydrodynamic) stimulus. It is not known, however, whether an optimal response from the CPR is induced by a single sine wave cycle or some other waveform. We have experimentally investigated this favorable waveform by driving a tailfan preparation with mechanical 10 Hz correlated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise and calculating the response function from the spike-triggered average of the applied noise waveform. We will discuss differences in the shape of the optimal waveform under dark and light conditions, as well as what seems to be a noticeable difference in the magnitude of the animals' response to a noisy stimulus in comparison with a periodic stimulus.

  20. Caudal Duplication Syndrome: the Vital Role of a Multidisciplinary Approach and Staged Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuk, Inbal; Levitt, Marc; Dlugy, Elena; Kravarusic, Dragan; Ben-Meir, David; Rajz, Gustavo; Konen, Osnat; Freud, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Caudal duplication syndrome is a rare entity that describes the association between congenital anomalies involving caudal structures and may have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. A full-term male presented with combination of anomalies including anorectal malformation, duplication of the colon and lower urinary tract, split of the lower spine, and lipomyelomeningocele with tethering of the cord. We report this exceptional case of caudal duplication syndrome with special emphasis on surgical strategy and approach combining all disciplines involved. The purpose of this report is to present the pathology, assessment, and management strategy of this complex case. PMID:28018799

  1. Caudal Duplication Syndrome: the Vital Role of a Multidisciplinary Approach and Staged Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuk, Inbal; Levitt, Marc; Dlugy, Elena; Kravarusic, Dragan; Ben-Meir, David; Rajz, Gustavo; Konen, Osnat; Freud, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    Caudal duplication syndrome is a rare entity that describes the association between congenital anomalies involving caudal structures and may have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. A full-term male presented with combination of anomalies including anorectal malformation, duplication of the colon and lower urinary tract, split of the lower spine, and lipomyelomeningocele with tethering of the cord. We report this exceptional case of caudal duplication syndrome with special emphasis on surgical strategy and approach combining all disciplines involved. The purpose of this report is to present the pathology, assessment, and management strategy of this complex case.

  2. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  3. Caudal Regression Syndrome with Partial Agenesis of the Corpus callosum and Partial Lobar Holoprosencephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashami, Hilal Al; Bataclan, Maria F; Mathew, Mariam; Krishnan, Lalitha

    2010-01-01

    Caudal regression syndrome is a rare fetal condition of diabetic pregnancy. Although the exact mechanism is not known, hyperglycaemia during embryogenesis seems to act as a teratogen. Independently, caudal regression syndrome (CRS), agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) and partial lobar holoprosencephaly (HPE) have been reported in infants of diabetic mothers. To our knowledge, a combination of all these three conditions has not been reported so far. PMID:21509087

  4. Caudal Regression Syndrome with Partial Agenesis of the Corpus callosum and Partial Lobar Holoprosencephaly: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashami, Hilal Al; Bataclan, Maria F; Mathew, Mariam; Krishnan, Lalitha

    2010-04-01

    Caudal regression syndrome is a rare fetal condition of diabetic pregnancy. Although the exact mechanism is not known, hyperglycaemia during embryogenesis seems to act as a teratogen. Independently, caudal regression syndrome (CRS), agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) and partial lobar holoprosencephaly (HPE) have been reported in infants of diabetic mothers. To our knowledge, a combination of all these three conditions has not been reported so far.

  5. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine with and without adrenaline following caudal anaesthesia in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Morton, N S; Cullen, P M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants.......The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants....

  6. The untold story of the caudal skeleton in the electric eel (ostariophysi: gymnotiformes: electrophorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos David de Santana

    Full Text Available Alternative hypotheses had been advanced as to the components forming the elongate fin coursing along the ventral margin of much of the body and tail from behind the abdominal region to the posterior margin of the tail in the Electric Eel, Electrophorus electricus. Although the original species description indicated that this fin was a composite of the caudal fin plus the elongate anal fin characteristic of other genera of the Gymnotiformes, subsequent researchers proposed that the posterior region of the fin was formed by the extension of the anal fin posteriorly to the tip of the tail, thereby forming a "false caudal fin." Examination of ontogenetic series of the genus reveal that Electrophorus possesses a true caudal fin formed of a terminal centrum, hypural plate and a low number of caudal-fin rays. The confluence of the two fins is proposed as an additional autapomorphy for the genus. Under all alternative proposed hypotheses of relationships within the order Gymnotiformes, the presence of a caudal fin in Electrophorus optimized as being independent of the occurence of the morphologically equivalent structure in the Apteronotidae. Possible functional advantages to the presence of a caudal fin in the genus are discussed.

  7. Cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of the paca (Cuniculus paca, L. 1766

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    Isabela Cristina de Souza Marques

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 is a medium-sized rodent that occurs in Brazil; however, there is little information regarding its morphology. The goal of this study was to describe the origin and branching of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of this rodent in order to contribute to comparative anatomy studies. Ten animals (males and females were used. After death, their thoracic inlet was opened between the fourth and sixth ribs to expose the thoracic aorta, which was cannulated caudally. A stained, neoprene latex solution was then injected, in order to fill the arterial system, and the preparations were fixed in a 10% aqueous formalin solution for over 72h. The fixed specimens were dissected to identify the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries. The cranial mesenteric artery started at the abdominal aorta, caudally to the celiac artery, and originated in the following arterial branches: caudal pancreatic duodenal, pancreatic, jejunal, ileum colic and cecal. The origin of the caudal mesenteric artery occurred next to the end of abdominal aorta and this vessel issued the left colic artery and cranial rectal artery from which the sigmoid arteries initiated. It was found that there was little difference in the branching pattern of the arteries compared to other rodents and domestic mammals.

  8. Multidetector row computed tomography and ultrasound characteristics of caudal vena cava duplication in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Giovanna; Diana, Alessia; Cipone, Mario; Drigo, Michele; Caldin, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Caudal vena cava duplication has been rarely reported in small animals. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe characteristics of duplicated caudal vena cava in a large group of dogs. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound databases from two hospitals were searched for canine reports having the diagnosis "double caudal vena cava." One observer reviewed CT images for 71 dogs and two observers reviewed ultrasound images for 21 dogs. In all CT cases, the duplication comprised two vessels that were bilaterally symmetrical and approximately the same calibre (similar to Type I complete duplication in humans). In all ultrasound cases, the duplicated caudal vena cava appeared as a distinct vessel running on the left side of the abdominal segment of the descending aorta and extending from the left common iliac vein to the left renal vein. The prevalence of caudal vena cava duplication was 0.46% for canine ultrasound studies and 2.08% for canine CT studies performed at these hospitals. Median body weight for affected dogs was significantly lower than that of unaffected dogs (P dogs, caudal vena cava duplication should be differentiated from other vascular anomalies when planning surgeries and for avoiding misdiagnoses. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  9. Computed tomographic characteristics of collateral venous pathways in dogs with caudal vena cava obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specchi, Swan; d'Anjou, Marc-André; Carmel, Eric Norman; Bertolini, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Collateral venous pathways develop in dogs with obstruction or increased blood flow resistance at any level of the caudal vena cava in order to maintain venous drainage to the right atrium. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the sites, causes of obstruction, and configurations of venous collateral pathways for a group of dogs with caudal vena cava obstruction. Computed tomography databases from two veterinary hospitals were searched for dogs with a diagnosis of caudal vena cava obstruction and multidetector row computed tomographic angiographic (CTA) scans that included the entire caudal vena cava. Images for each included dog were retrieved and collateral venous pathways were characterized using image postprocessing and a classification system previously reported for humans. A total of nine dogs met inclusion criteria and four major collateral venous pathways were identified: deep (n = 2), portal (n = 2), intermediate (n = 7), and superficial (n = 5). More than one collateral venous pathway was present in 5 dogs. An alternative pathway consisting of renal subcapsular collateral veins, arising mainly from the caudal pole of both kidneys, was found in three dogs. In conclusion, findings indicated that collateral venous pathway patterns similar to those described in humans are also present in dogs with caudal vena cava obstruction. These collateral pathways need to be distinguished from other vascular anomalies in dogs. Postprocessing of multidetector-row CTA images allowed delineation of the course of these complicated venous pathways and may be a helpful adjunct for treatment planning in future cases. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  10. Effects of simulated microgravity on circadian rhythm of caudal arterial pressure and heart rate in rats and their underlying mechanism

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    Li CHEN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the effects of simulated microgravity on the circadian rhythm of rats' caudal arterial pressure and heart rate, and their underlying mechanism. Methods  Eighteen male SD rats (aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to control (CON and tail suspension (SUS group (9 each. Rats with tail suspension for 28 days were adopted as the animal model to simulate microgravity. Caudal arterial pressure and heart rate of rats were measured every 3 hours. The circadian difference of abdominal aorta contraction was measured by aortic ring test. Western blotting was performed to determine and compare the protein expression level of clock genes such as Per2 (Period2, Bmal1 (Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocatorlike and dbp (D element binding protein in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and abdominal aorta of rats in CON and SUS group at different time points. Results  Compared with CON group, the caudal arterial pressure, both systolic and diastolic pressure, decreased significantly and the diurnal variability disappeared, meanwhile the heart rate increased obviously and also the diurnal variability disappeared in rats of SUS group. Compared with CON group, the contraction reactivity of abdominal aorta decreased with disappearence of the diurnal variability, and also the clock genes expression in SCN and abdominal aorta showed no diurnal variability in rats of SUS group. Conclusion  Simulated microgravity may lead to circadian rhythm disorders in rats' cardiovascular system, which may be associated with the changes of the clock genes expression. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.06

  11. Rat disc torsional mechanics: effect of lumbar and caudal levels and axial compression load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A; Malhotra, Neil R; Elliott, Dawn M

    2009-03-01

    Rat models with altered loading are used to study disc degeneration and mechano-transduction. Given the prominent role of mechanics in disc function and degeneration, it is critical to measure mechanical behavior to evaluate changes after model interventions. Axial compression mechanics of the rat disc are representative of the human disc when normalized by geometry, and differences between the lumbar and caudal disc have been quantified in axial compression. No study has quantified rat disc torsional mechanics. Compare the torsional mechanical behavior of rat lumbar and caudal discs, determine the contribution of combined axial load on torsional mechanics, and compare the torsional properties of rat discs to human lumbar discs. Cadaveric biomechanical study. Cyclic torsion without compressive load followed by cyclic torsion with a fixed compressive load was applied to rat lumbar and caudal disc levels. The apparent torsional modulus was higher in the lumbar region than in the caudal region: 0.081+/-0.026 (MPa/degrees, mean+/-SD) for lumbar axially loaded; 0.066+/-0.028 for caudal axially loaded; 0.091+/-0.033 for lumbar in pure torsion; and 0.056+/-0.035 for caudal in pure torsion. These values were similar to human disc properties reported in the literature ranging from 0.024 to 0.21 MPa/degrees. Use of the caudal disc as a model may be appropriate if the mechanical focus is within the linear region of the loading regime. These results provide support for use of this animal model in basic science studies with respect to torsional mechanics.

  12. Eletrophysiological study of the caudal nerve on developing rats Estudo eletrofisiológico do nervo caudal em ratos em desenvolvimento

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    Juliana Netto Maia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To non-invasively study the sensory nerve conduction of the caudal nerve of normal developing rats. METHODS: Twenty normal Wistar male rats served as subjects. Caudal nerve conduction studies were performed at 60 days from birth and weekly at end of six consecutive weeks. The caudal nerve was stimulated distally and nerve potentials were recorded proximally on the animal's tail using common "alligator" clips as surface electrodes. RESULTS: The amplitude and the conduction velocity of the caudal nerve sensory action potential increased linearly from 29±6 µV to 85±13 µV and from 34±3 m/s to 44±4 m/s, respectively, between the 8th and the 15th week of life. The equations of linear regressions were as followed: Amplitude (µV = 8.1 × weeks - 34 (R² = 0.99 and NCV (m/s = 1.2 × weeks + 25 (R² = 0.86. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to study non-invasively the sensitive conduction of the caudal nerve of normal developing rats and describe reference values. The technique and data may be used as animal model in physiological and pathological studies.OBJETIVO: Estudar de forma não invasiva a condução nervosa sensitiva do nervo caudal em ratos normais em desenvolvimento. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos machos Wistar foram utilizados. A conducão nervosa foi realizada a partir dos 60 dias, semanal durante seis semanas consecutivas. O nervo caudal foi estimulado distalmente, os potenciais foram registrados proximalmente na cauda do animal usando garras comum do tipo "jacaré" como eletrodos de superficie. RESULTADOS: A amplitude do potencial de ação de nervo sensitivo a velocidade de condução nervosa do nervo caudal cresceu linearmente de 29 ± 6 µV para 85 ± 13 µV e de 34 ± 3 m/s para 44 ± 4 m/s, respectivamente, entre a 8º e a 15º semana da vida do animal. As equações de regressão linear foram as seguintes: Amplitude (µV = 8,1 × semanas - 34 (R² = 0,99 e velocidade de conducao nervosa (m/s = 1,2 × semanas + 25 (R² = 0

  13. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

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    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  14. Analysis of the uniform augmentation of the flow through the nucleus in the searching process of the patterns of objective control bars in a BWR; Analisis del aumento uniforme del caudal a traves del nucleo en el proceso de busqueda de los patrones de barras de control objetivo en un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J.; Perusquia, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jlmt@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The search of the patterns of control bars (PBCs) in a power reactor of boiling water, requires to investigate a very wide space of solutions, in principle they are had of the order of 3 x 10{sup 152} possible configurations to establish the PBC in a point given before reaching the end of the cycle. This situation suggests to define those restrictions and conditions initial appropriately so that the search converges toward the desirable results. Presently work the results of the search of patterns of bars based on different flow scenarios through the nucleus are presented. The Cycle 10 is analysed (C10) of the Unit One of the Nuclear Power station Laguna Verde (CNLV), which presents an interesting mixture of diverse designs of control bars used in operation to power. The search of the patterns of bars of objective control is carried out applying the GACRP program which is based on the calculation technique known as genetic algorithms. (Author)

  15. Caudal dysgenesis, sirenomelia, and situs inversus totalis: a primitive defect in blastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougemont, Anne-Laure; Bouron-Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Désilets, Valérie; Jovanovic, Mubina; Perreault, Gilles; Laurier Oligny, Luc; Fournet, Jean-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Caudal dysgenesis (CD) constitutes a heterogeneous spectrum of congenital caudal anomalies, including varying degrees of agenesis of the vertebral column, as well as anorectal and genitourinary anomalies. Sirenomelia, characterized by a fusion of the lower limbs, could represent the most severe end of this spectrum. The two main debated pathogenic hypotheses are an aberrant vascular supply versus a primary axial mesoderm defect. We present the autopsy findings of two fetuses of non-diabetic mothers, with normal karyotype. Both fetuses presented situs inversus associated with a CD, in one case consisting of sirenomelia, establishing a very rare association profile that might be random. This association also suggests the occurrence of a common pathogenic mechanism, in accordance to recent genetic data, such as displayed in the Kif3A murine mutation phenotype. Some cases of sirenomelia and CD could represent developmental field defects of blastogenesis involving the caudal mesoderm, rather than being related to vascular insufficiency.

  16. Flow-structure Interaction Modeling of a Fish Caudal Fin during Steady Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Geng, Biao; Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian; Dong, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    It's widely thought that the flexibilities of fish fins play critical roles in propulsive performance enhancement (such as thrust augment and efficiency improvement) in nature. In order to explore the formation mechanisms of the fish fin's flexible morphing and its hydrodynamic benefits as well, a high-fidelity flow-structure/membrane interaction modeling of the fish caudal fin is conducted in this work. Following the realistic configuration of the fish caudal fin, a thin membrane supported by a series of beams is constructed. The material properties of the membrane and the beams are reversely determined by the realistic fin morphing obtained from the high-speed videos and the high fidelity flow-structure interaction simulations. With the accurate material property, we investigate the interplay between structure, kinematics and fluid flow in caudal fin propulsion. Detailed analyses on the relationship between the flexural stiffness, fin morphing patterns, hydrodynamic forces and vortex dynamics are then conducted.

  17. Unusual caudal vena cava thrombosis in a cow, secondary to Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes infection

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    Rodrigo Garcia Motta

    Full Text Available Abstract: The caudal vena cava thrombosis, or pulmonary thromboembolism, in cattle is correlated with lactic acidosis, caused by diets rich in grains and highly fermentable, associated or not to septic situations, used in feedlots of beef or high-producing dairy cattle. This paper reports an unusual caudal vena cava thrombosis in a cow, secondary to Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes infection, resulting in reduced milk production, anorexia, pale mucous membranes, ruminal atony, sternal decubitus and autoauscultation position. The heart was enlarged at necropsy, presence of clots distributed along the thoracic cavity, adherence between lung and pleura, abscesses, emphysema, petechiae, suffusions and ecchymosis in lungs, thickening of the caudal vena cava wall, hepatomegaly with chronic passive congestion ("nutmeg" aspect, and rumenitis. In lab, the actinomycete Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from liver and lung samples, probably resulting through dissemination of the bacteria of the rumen content, what reaffirms the opportunistic behavior of this actinomycete.

  18. Computed tomography in the evaluation of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy of the Doberman Pinscher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, N.J.H.; Cofone, M.; Robertson, I.D.; DeCarlo, A.; Smith, G.K.; Thrall, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy is a common neurologic disorder of Doberman pinschers which has a number of striking similarities to cervical spondylotic myelopathy in humans. Diagnosis of this human disease is facilitated considerably by the use of computed tomographic (CT) myelography. Sixteen Doberman pinscher dogs with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy were studied by conventional myelography followed by CT myelography. A close correlation was noted between the CT myelographic appearance of the cervical spinal cord in these dogs, and that reported for human cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Five dogs had atrophy of the spinal cord, and in another there was an accumulation of contrast medium within the spinal cord. These features are often associated with a poor response to surgical decompression in humans with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The CT examination provided information that could not be obtained by conventional myelography alone and should be considered as an additional diagnostic procedure in dogs with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy

  19. Cardiocirculatory intraoperative assessment during single-shot caudal anaesthesia in children: comparison between levobupivacaine and ropivacaine

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    A. Gentili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caudal block with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine is the most commonly used regional anaesthesia in children. Methods: The aim of study was to compare the cardiocirculatory profile induced in two matched groups of young patients, submitted to caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine for an elective subumbilical surgery. Sixty children were enrolled: thirty received levopubivacaine 0.25% and thirty ropivacaine 0.2%. Intraoperative heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP were monitored at following times: Ta0 (after anaesthesia induction, Ta1 (after caudal anaesthesia, Ta2 (five minutes later, Ta3 (ten minutes later, Ts1 (at surgical incision, Ts2, Ts3, Ts4, Ts5 (every 10 minutes during surgery, Taw (at the awakening. Results: In both groups the cardiocirculatory trend remained within normal ranges at all times considered, demonstrating the safety of the method with both drugs. Both groups showed a similar trend at the different monitoring times: low decrease in HR, SBP and DBP after caudal block, slight increase in parameters after skin incision, slight decrease during surgery, increase at awakening. Regarding SBP and DBP, the levobupivacaine group children generally showed higher levels compared to the ropivacaine group, especially for DBP. Conclusions: Paediatric caudal anaesthesia is an effective method with an very infrequent complication rate. Possible hypotheses for differing haemodynamic behaviour could include a stronger vasoconstriction reflex of innervated areas during caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine and a lower levobupivacaine induced block of the sympathetic fibers, related to different pharmacokinetic profile of low concentrations of the local anaesthetics used in paediatric epidural space.

  20. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine or fentanyl with ropivacaine given caudally

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    Usha Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of clonidine and fentanyl as an additive to ropivacaine given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. Materials and Methods: In the present double blind study, 90 children of ASA-I-II aged 3-8 years scheduled for infraumblical surgical procedures were randomly allocated to two groups to receive either ropivacaine 0.25% 1 ml/kg+clonidine 2 μg/kg (group I or ropivacaine 0.25% 1 μl/kg+fentanyl 1 μg/kg (group II. Caudal block was performed after the induction of general anesthesia. Postoperatively patients were observed for analgesia, sedation, hemodynamics, and side effects/complications. Results: Both the groups were similar with respect to patient and various block characteristics. The analgesic properties and hemodynamics were also comparable in both groups (P > 0.05. Side effects such as respiratory depression, vomiting bradycardia were significantly less in group I than group II (P < 0.05 ensuing more patient comfort. Conclusions: The analgesic properties of clonidine and fentanyl as additives to ropivacaine in single shot caudal epidural in children are comparable but clonidine offers a more favorable side effect profile. The use of clonidine as additive to ropivacaine in caudal epidural is superior choice to fentanyl because of lack of unwanted side effects and increased patient comfort.

  1. Caudal regulates the spatiotemporal dynamics of pair-rule waves in Tribolium.

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    Ezzat El-Sherif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum, waves of pair-rule gene expression propagate from the posterior end of the embryo towards the anterior and eventually freeze into stable stripes, partitioning the anterior-posterior axis into segments. Similar waves in vertebrates are assumed to arise due to the modulation of a molecular clock by a posterior-to-anterior frequency gradient. However, neither a molecular candidate nor a functional role has been identified to date for such a frequency gradient, either in vertebrates or elsewhere. Here we provide evidence that the posterior gradient of Tc-caudal expression regulates the oscillation frequency of pair-rule gene expression in Tribolium. We show this by analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in strong and mild knockdown of Tc-caudal, and by correlating the extension, level and slope of the Tc-caudal expression gradient to the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in wild type as well as in different RNAi knockdowns of Tc-caudal regulators. Further, we show that besides its absolute importance for stripe generation in the static phase of the Tribolium blastoderm, a frequency gradient might serve as a buffer against noise during axis elongation phase in Tribolium as well as vertebrates. Our results highlight the role of frequency gradients in pattern formation.

  2. Evaluation of gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, John T; Fossum, Theresa W; Bahr, Anne M; Miller, Matthew W; Edwards, John F

    2003-11-01

    To devise a technique for gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava in dogs and determine effects of complete occlusion of the caudal vena cava. 8 mixed-breed hounds that weighed between 25 and 30 kg. Baseline evaluation of dogs included serum biochemical analyses and determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with dynamic renal scintigraphy and plasma clearance analysis. An occluder was placed around the vena cava in the region cranial to the renal veins. The occluder was attached to a vascular access port. The vena cava was gradually occluded over 2 weeks. The GFR was measured every 2 weeks after surgery, and venograms were performed every 3 weeks after surgery. Blood samples were collected every 48 hours for the first week and then weekly thereafter to measure BUN and creatinine concentrations and activities of alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine kinase. Dogs were euthanatized 6 weeks after surgery, and tissues were submitted for histologic examination. The GFR and biochemical data were compared with baseline values. Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava was easily and consistently performed with this method, and adverse clinical signs were not detected. Formation of collateral vessels allowed overall GFR to remain constant despite a decrease in function of the left kidney. Measured biochemical values did not deviate from reference ranges. Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava may allow removal of adrenal gland tumors with vascular invasion that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to resect.

  3. Comparison of dysphagia outcomes between rostral and caudal lateral medullary infarct patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Min Ho; Kim, Daeha; Chang, Min Cheol

    2017-11-01

    A detailed knowledge of dysphagia outcomes in lateral medullary infarct (LMI) patients would enable proper establishment of swallowing therapy goals and strategies. However, little is known about the impact of infarct location on dysphagia outcomes in patients with LMI. Twenty patients with rostral LMI (rostral group) and 20 patients with caudal LMI (caudal group) participated in the study. All patients underwent swallowing therapy, which included compensatory treatments and strengthening exercises, for >3 months. Dysphagia evaluation was performed twice (during the subacute stage and six months after stroke onset) using videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. Dysphagia degree was assessed using the functional dysphagia scale (FDS), the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) and the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Outcome Measurement System (NOMS) swallowing scale. In the subacute stage, the rostral group had significantly higher FDS and PAS scores and a significantly lower ASHA NOMS score than the caudal group. Patients from both groups showed significant improvement from the initial evaluation to the six-month evaluation. There were no significant differences in these scale scores between the two groups at the six-month evaluation. In the subacute stage, patients in the rostral group had more severe dysphagia than those in the caudal group. Dysphagia improved in both groups after 3-6 months of swallowing therapy. At six months after onset, there were no significant differences in dysphagia severity between the two groups. Recovery from dysphagia after LMI was observed regardless of the infarct location.

  4. Caudal regression with sirenomelia and dysplasia renofacialis (Potter's syndrome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noeldge, G.; Billmann, P.; Boehm, N.

    1982-05-01

    A case of caudal regression in combination with sirenomelia and dysplasia renofacialis (Potter's syndrome) is reported. The formal pathogenesis of these malformations and clinical facts are shown and discussed. Findings of plain films, postmortal angiography and pathologic-anatomical changes are demonstrated.

  5. Caudal venous return through a left azygos vein in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammarco, C.D.; Regan, J.; Ward, C.R.; Buchanan, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Clinical, radiologic and echocardiographic findings in a one-year old dog with mild subvalvular aortic stenosis and aberrant caudal vena circulation are described. Aberrant systemic venous return to the right side of the heart usually has little clinical significance, but the unusual features in survey radiographs, contrast angiograms and contrast echocardiograms constitute the reasons for this report

  6. Quantitative analysis of neurological effects induced by cranio-caudal gamma-irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, B.I.; Ushakov, I.B.; Karpov, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the frequency and duration of neurological disorders after cranio-caudal irradiation of rats with doses of 7.5-500 Gy delivered to the head. As the mean effective dose increased the neurological disorders occurred in the following order: tremor, rotatory movements hyperkinesia, opisthotonos, and convulsions. The europhysiological disorders observed were subjected to a pathophysiological analysis

  7. A Late Cretaceous theropod caudal vertebra from the Sultanate of Oman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Hanna, Samir S.; Hartman, Axel Frans; Jagt, John W M

    2000-01-01

    A caudal vertebra collected from conglomerates of the Al-Khod Formation (Late Cretaceous) in the Al-Khod area, Sultanate of Oman, is assigned to a medium-sized theropod dinosaur. The Al-Khod discovery represents one of the very few dinosaur records from the Middle East.

  8. GATA-3 is involved in the development of serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Wees (Jacqueline); A. Karis (Alar); E. Goedknegt; M. Rutteman; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J.H. van Doorninck (Hikke); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The GATA-3 transcription factor shows a specific and restricted expression pattern in the developing and adult mouse brain. In the present study we investigated the role of GATA-3 in the caudal raphe system, which is known to operate as a modulator of motor activity. We

  9. Isthmin is a novel secreted protein expressed as part of the Fgf-8 synexpression group in the Xenopus midbrain-hindbrain organizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Edgar M; Kim, James I; Martinez, Sarah L; Brechner, Mariel; Li, Su Yu; Wessely, Oliver; De Robertis, E M

    2002-08-01

    Patterning of the central nervous system is regulated by a signaling center located at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB), or isthmus organizer. Fibroblast growth factors secreted from the MHB are required and sufficient to direct the ordered growth and regionalization of the midbrain and anterior hindbrain. In an unbiased secretion cloning screen of Xenopus gastrula embryos we identified a novel gene, which we designated as Isthmin (xIsm) due to its prominent expression at the MHB. xIsm encodes a secreted protein of 449 amino acids containing one copy of the thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR). We also found orthologous Isthmin genes in human (hIsm) and mouse (mIsm), as well as a gene encoding an Isthmin-like human unknown protein (hIsm-l). The conservation of a unique carboxy-terminal region between hIsm and hIsm-l suggests that Isthmin is the founding member of a new family of secreted proteins. xIsm was strongly expressed maternally in the Xenopus egg and showed zygotic expression in the ventral blastopore lip, notochord, and MHB. Additional expression domains were detected in neural crest, ear vesicle, and developing blood islands. Interestingly, xIsm was co-expressed with Fibroblast growth factor-8 (xFgf-8) at multiple sites including the MHB, indicating that these two genes are part of a synexpression group which also includes sprouty and sef homologs.

  10. Comparison of caudal ropivacaine-morphine and paravertebral catheter for major upper abdominal surgery in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Makoto; Iida, Takafumi; Kikuchi, Chika; Sasakawa, Tomoki; Kunisawa, Takayuki

    2017-05-01

    The caudal epidural block is one of the most commonly used regional anesthetic techniques in children. Administration of morphine via caudal injection enables analgesia, even for upper abdominal surgery. The thoracic paravertebral block has also been successfully used to treat perioperative pain during upper abdominal procedures in pediatric patients. In the current study, we compared the two regional techniques for upper abdominal surgery in infants to determine whether one of them was preferable to the other. Consecutive patients under 12 months of age who underwent upper abdominal surgery were retrospectively divided according to the chosen postoperative analgesia: Group C, caudal ropivacaine-morphine; Group P, paravertebral catheter. We analyzed the following outcomes: requirement for additional analgesics, pain scores, need for mechanical ventilation and oxygen dosage, postoperative blood pressure and heart rate, time to pass first stool, time until first full meal, and complications. Twenty-one consecutive patients were included: 10 in Group C and 11 in Group P. Median age at surgery was 80 (47.5-270.0) and 84.5 (34.3-287.5) days, respectively. No difference was found between the two groups in requirement for additional analgesics at 24 h after surgery (median 1 in Group C vs 1 in Group P, P = 0.288, 95% CI: -2 to 1). BOPS pain scores were only lower in Group P when compared to Group C at 24 h after surgery (median 1 vs 2, P = 0.041, 95% CI: -2 to 0). None of the patients had perioperative complications. In this small series, there was no significant difference between caudal ropivacaine-morphine and paravertebral catheter for postoperative care in infants undergoing upper abdominal surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to compare the efficacy and incidence of complications of caudal block and paravertebral catheter for postoperative analgesia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Caudal articular process dysplasia of thoracic vertebrae in neurologically normal French bulldogs, English bulldogs, and Pugs: Prevalence and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Simon; Ter Haar, Gert; De Decker, Steven

    2018-02-20

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical characteristics of thoracic caudal articular process dysplasia in French bulldogs, English bulldogs and Pugs presenting for problems unrelated to spinal disease. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, computed tomography scans of the thoracic vertebral column of these three breeds were reviewed for the presence and location of caudal articular process hypoplasia and aplasia, and compared between breeds. A total of 271 dogs met the inclusion criteria: 108 French bulldogs, 63 English bulldogs, and 100 Pugs. A total of 70.4% of French bulldogs, 84.1% of English bulldogs, and 97.0% of Pugs showed evidence of caudal articular process dysplasia. Compared to French and English bulldogs, Pugs showed a significantly higher prevalence of caudal articular process aplasia, but also a lower prevalence of caudal articular process hypoplasia, a higher number of affected vertebrae per dog and demonstrated a generalized and bilateral spatial pattern more frequently. Furthermore, Pugs showed a significantly different anatomical distribution of caudal articular process dysplasia along the vertebral column, with a high prevalence of caudal articular process aplasia between T10 and T13. This area was almost completely spared in French and English bulldogs. As previously suggested, caudal articular process dysplasia is a common finding in neurologically normal Pugs but this also seems to apply to French and English bulldogs. The predisposition of clinically relevant caudal articular process dysplasia in Pugs is possibly not only caused by the higher prevalence of caudal articular process dysplasia, but also by breed specific anatomical characteristics. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  12. Catecholamine innervation of the caudal spinal cord in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Skagerberg, G

    1985-01-01

    matter were found to contain catecholamines. In the dorsal horn the most intense fluorescence was seen in the superficial layers. The motoneuron neuropil exhibited the most prominent catecholamine-fluorescence of the ventral horn layers. In the sixth lumbar segment, which contains the motor nuclei....... In the intermediate gray the intermediolateral nucleus in thoracic and upper lumbar segments was the most heavily innervated area, followed by the medial lumbar sympathetic group, which contains the majority of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the pelvic organs. The parasympathetic intermediolateral...... nucleus in the upper sacral segments received a catecholamine innervation of moderate density. The catecholamine innervation pattern is discussed in relation to the patterns of other putative transmitters. The distribution of catecholamine fluorescence in relation to nuclei that control the pelvic organs...

  13. Ecomorphological inferences in early vertebrates: reconstructing Dunkleosteus terrelli (Arthrodira, Placodermi) caudal fin from palaeoecological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrón, Humberto G; Martínez-Pérez, Carlos; Botella, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    Our knowledge about the body morphology of many extinct early vertebrates is very limited, especially in regard to their post-thoracic region. The prompt disarticulation of the dermo-skeletal elements due to taphonomic processes and the lack of a well-ossified endoskeleton in a large number of groups hinder the preservation of complete specimens. Previous reconstructions of most early vertebrates known from partial remains have been wholly based on phylogenetically closely related taxa. However, body design of fishes is determined, to a large extent, by their swimming mode and feeding niche, making it possible to recognise different morphological traits that have evolved several times in non-closely related groups with similar lifestyles. Based on this well-known ecomorphological correlation, here we propose a useful comparative framework established on extant taxa for predicting some anatomical aspects in extinct aquatic vertebrates from palaeoecological data and vice versa. For this, we have assessed the relationship between the locomotory patterns and the morphological variability of the caudal region in extant sharks by means of geometric morphometrics and allometric regression analysis. Multivariate analyses reveal a strong morphological convergence in non-closely related shark species that share similar modes of life, enabling the characterization of the caudal fin morphology of different ecological subgroups. In addition, interspecific positive allometry, affecting mainly the caudal fin span, has been detected. This phenomenon seems to be stronger in sharks with more pelagic habits, supporting its role as a compensation mechanism for the loss of hydrodynamic lift associated with the increase in body size, as previously suggested for many other living and extinct aquatic vertebrates. The quantification of shape change per unit size in each ecological subgroup has allowed us to establish a basis for inferring not only qualitative aspects of the caudal fin

  14. Ecomorphological inferences in early vertebrates: reconstructing Dunkleosteus terrelli (Arthrodira, Placodermi caudal fin from palaeoecological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto G. Ferrón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge about the body morphology of many extinct early vertebrates is very limited, especially in regard to their post-thoracic region. The prompt disarticulation of the dermo-skeletal elements due to taphonomic processes and the lack of a well-ossified endoskeleton in a large number of groups hinder the preservation of complete specimens. Previous reconstructions of most early vertebrates known from partial remains have been wholly based on phylogenetically closely related taxa. However, body design of fishes is determined, to a large extent, by their swimming mode and feeding niche, making it possible to recognise different morphological traits that have evolved several times in non-closely related groups with similar lifestyles. Based on this well-known ecomorphological correlation, here we propose a useful comparative framework established on extant taxa for predicting some anatomical aspects in extinct aquatic vertebrates from palaeoecological data and vice versa. For this, we have assessed the relationship between the locomotory patterns and the morphological variability of the caudal region in extant sharks by means of geometric morphometrics and allometric regression analysis. Multivariate analyses reveal a strong morphological convergence in non-closely related shark species that share similar modes of life, enabling the characterization of the caudal fin morphology of different ecological subgroups. In addition, interspecific positive allometry, affecting mainly the caudal fin span, has been detected. This phenomenon seems to be stronger in sharks with more pelagic habits, supporting its role as a compensation mechanism for the loss of hydrodynamic lift associated with the increase in body size, as previously suggested for many other living and extinct aquatic vertebrates. The quantification of shape change per unit size in each ecological subgroup has allowed us to establish a basis for inferring not only qualitative aspects of

  15. Evaluation of Anesthesia Profile in Pediatric Patients after Inguinal Hernia Repair with Caudal Block or Local Wound Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilovska-Brzanov, Aleksandra; Kuzmanovska, Biljana; Kartalov, Andrijan; Donev, Ljupco; Lleshi, Albert; Jovanovski-Srceva, Marija; Spirovska, Tatjana; Brzanov, Nikola; Simeonov, Risto

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate anesthesia and recovery profile in pediatric patients after inguinal hernia repair with caudal block or local wound infiltration. In this prospective interventional clinical study, the anesthesia and recovery profile was assessed in sixty pediatric patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Enrolled children were randomly assigned to either Group Caudal or Group Local infiltration. For caudal blocks, Caudal Group received 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine; Local Infiltration Group received 0.2 ml/kg 0.25% bupivacaine. Investigator who was blinded to group allocation provided postoperative care and assessments. Postoperative pain was assessed. Motor functions and sedation were assessed as well. The two groups did not differ in terms of patient characteristic data and surgical profiles and there weren't any hemodynamic changes between groups. Regarding the difference between groups for analgesic requirement there were two major points - on one hand it was statistically significant p < 0.05 whereas on the other hand time to first analgesic administration was not statistically significant p = 0.40. There were significant differences in the incidence of adverse effects in caudal and local group including: vomiting, delirium and urinary retention. Between children undergoing inguinal hernia repair, local wound infiltration insures safety and satisfactory analgesia for surgery. Compared to caudal block it is not overwhelming. Caudal block provides longer analgesia, however complications are rather common.

  16. Caudal ecológico del río Chambas en la provincia Ciego de Ávila

    OpenAIRE

    Brown Manrique, Oscar; Gallardo Ballat, Yurisbel; Williams Harriote, Patricio W.; Torres Martínez, Yuneisi

    2016-01-01

    La investigación se desarrolló en el río Chambas de la provincia Ciego de Ávila con el objetivo de determinar el caudal ecológico mediante cinco metodologías: Curva de Permanencia de Caudales, Rafael Heras, Tennant, Franquet y Perímetro Mojado. Se analizó una serie de 21 años de gastos medios mensuales en el periodo comprendido de 1976 al 1986, obtenidos de la estación hidrométrica Puente Circuito Norte. Los principales resultados demostraron que los caudales promedios del río Chambas present...

  17. Regionalizacion de caudales mensuales en la región hidrográfica del Titicaca Puno Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Lujano Laura, Apolinario; Autoridad Nacional del Agua – Perú; Quispe Aragón, José Pitágoras; Autoridad Nacional del Agua – Perú; Lujano Laura, Efraín; Universidad Peruana Unión – Perú

    2017-01-01

    RESUMENLa presente investigación se realizó en la Región Hidrográfica del Titicaca, Perú. El objetivo principal fue desarrollar modelos regionales de caudales medios mensuales y de persistencia de los principales ríos, aplicado a la problemática de la estimación de caudales en cuencas sin registro hidrométrico. Se tomaron como variables independientes las características climáticas y fisiográficas de las cuencas en estudio y como variable dependiente los caudales medios mensuales y de persist...

  18. [Magnetic resonance imaging features of a caudal cruciate ligament rupture associated with a suspected bone bruise lesion in a dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmohl, M; Konar, M; Tassani-Prell, M; Rupp, S

    2014-04-16

    In this case study we describe a surgically confirmed caudal cruciate ligament rupture in a 10-year-old Border Collie. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a complete rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament, a suspected bone bruise lesion on the proximolateral tibia and a muscle strain injury of the M. flexor digitorum lateralis. In human medicine, bone bruise lesions in MRI have been described as "footprint injuries" and can thereby explain the mechanism of trauma in ligament injuries. The combination of the MRI findings in this case can help to understand how the rarely diagnosed isolated rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament occurred in this dog.

  19. Caudal block and emergence delirium in pediatric patients: Is it analgesia or sedation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence delirium (ED although a short-lived and self-limiting phenomenon, makes a child prone to injury in the immediate postoperative period and hence is a cause of concern not only to the pediatric anesthesiologist, surgeons, and post anesthesia care unit staff but also amongst parents. Additional medication to quieten the child offsets the potential benefits of rapid emergence and delays recovery in day care settings. There is conflicting evidence of influence of analgesia and sedation following anesthesia on emergence agitation. We hypothesized that an anesthetic technique which improves analgesia and prolongs emergence time will reduce the incidence of ED. We selected ketamine as adjuvant to caudal block for this purpose. Methods: This randomized, double blind prospective study was performed in 150 premedicated children ASA I, II, aged 2 to 8 years who were randomly assigned to either group B (caudal with bupivacaine, BK (bupivacaine and ketamine, or NC (no caudal, soon after LMA placement. Recovery characteristics and complications were recorded. Results: Emergence time, duration of pain relief, and Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED scores were significantly higher in the NC group (P<0.05. Duration of analgesia and emergence time were significantly more in group BK than groups B and NC. However, the discharge readiness was comparable between all groups. No patient in BK group required to be given any medication to treat ED. Conclusion: Emergence time as well as duration of analgesia have significant influence on incidence of emergence delirium. Ketamine, as caudal adjuvant is a promising agent to protect against ED in children, following sevoflurane anesthesia.

  20. Unique caudal plumage of Jeholornis and complex tail evolution in early birds

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Jingmai; Wang, Xiaoli; Sullivan, Corwin; Zheng, Xiaoting; Tubaro, Pablo; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2013-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous bird Jeholornis was previously only known to have a distally restricted ornamental frond of tail feathers. We describe a previously unrecognized fan-shaped tract of feathers situated dorsal to the proximal caudal vertebrae. The position and morphology of these feathers is reminiscent of the specialized upper tail coverts observed in males of some sexually dimorphic neornithines. As in the neornithine tail, the unique “two-tail” plumage in Jeholornis probably evolved as th...

  1. Indirect caudal lymphography using a new water-soluble contrast agent - animal experimental studies in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apitzsch, D.E.; Kroll, H.U.; Zuehlke, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    Animal experiments on caudal lymphography in pigs are presented, using a new water-soluble contrast medium which is renally excreted. Indirect cutaneous administration renders possible the radiological visualization of the entire lymphatic drainage system of the lower limb, the retro-peritoneal space and the thoracic duct. Visualization of the lymphatic system is rapid, homogeneous and can be repeated as often as desired. The quality of the lymphogram is as good as that obtained by the current methods in common use. (orig.)

  2. Organ and Effective Dose Coefficients for Cranial and Caudal Irradiation Geometries: Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, K. G.; Eckerman, K. F.; Hertel, N. E.; Hiller, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    With the introduction of new recommendations by ICRP Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors, and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms (ICRP Publication 110). Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for neutron irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to neutrons ranging in energy from 10-9 MeV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6 radiation transport code and the adult reference voxel phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above about 30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater.

  3. Organ and effective dose coefficients for cranial and caudal irradiation geometries: photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veinot, K.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Hertel, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction of new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms. Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for photon irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue kerma and absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to photons ranging in energy from 10 keV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6.1 radiation transport code and the adult reference phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. As with calculations reported in ICRP 116, the effects of charged-particle transport are evident when compared with values obtained by using the kerma approximation. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above ∼30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater. (authors)

  4. Caudal fin allometry in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias: implications for locomotory performance and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2005-05-01

    Allometric scaling analysis was employed to investigate the consequences of size evolution on hydrodynamic performance and ecology in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias. Discriminant analysis using the power equation y=axb was negative for caudal fin span (S) versus fork length (FL) in C. carcharias. In contrast in two delphinid species, Delphinus capensis and Tursiops aduncus, the span of the flukes versus fork length rises in positive allometric fashion, and strong positive allometry of S versus √A (area) was also recorded. The latter reflects a high lift/drag ratio. S versus √A in C. carcharias displays negative allometry and consequently a lower lift/drag ratio. A lower aspect ratio (AR) caudal fin in C. carcharias compared to that of the delphinids (mean 3.33 and 4.1, respectively) and other thunniform swimmers provides the potential for better maneuverability and acceleration. The liver in sharks is frequently associated with a buoyancy function and was found to be positively allometric in C. carcharias. The overall findings suggest that the negatively allometric caudal fin morphometrics in C. carcharias are unlikely to have deleterious evolutionary fitness consequences for predation. On the contrary, when considered in the context of positive liver allometry in C. carcharias it is hereby suggested that buoyancy may play a dominant role in larger white sharks in permitting slow swimming while minimizing energy demands needed to prevent sinking. In contrast hydrodynamic lift is considered more important in smaller white sharks. Larger caudal fin spans and higher lift/drag ratio in smaller C. carcharias indicate greater potential for prolonged, intermediate swimming speeds and for feeding predominantly on fast-moving fish, in contrast to slow-swimming search patterns of larger individuals for predominantly large mammalian prey. Such data may provide some answers to the lifestyle and widespread habitat capabilities of this still largely mysterious animal.

  5. Caudal pneumaticity and pneumatic hiatuses in the sauropod dinosaurs Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J Wedel

    Full Text Available Skeletal pneumaticity is found in the presacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs, but pneumaticity is much less common in the vertebrae of the tail. We describe previously unrecognized pneumatic fossae in the mid-caudal vertebrae of specimens of Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus. In both taxa, the most distal pneumatic vertebrae are separated from other pneumatic vertebrae by sequences of three to seven apneumatic vertebrae. Caudal pneumaticity is not prominent in most individuals of either of these taxa, and its unpredictable development means that it may be more widespread than previously recognised within Sauropoda and elsewhere in Saurischia. The erratic patterns of caudal pneumatization in Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus, including the pneumatic hiatuses, show that pneumatic diverticula were more broadly distributed in the bodies of the living animals than are their traces in the skeleton. Together with recently published evidence of cryptic diverticula--those that leave few or no skeletal traces--in basal sauropodomorphs and in pterosaurs, this is further evidence that pneumatic diverticula were widespread in ornithodirans, both across phylogeny and throughout anatomy.

  6. MODELO AUTORREGRESIVO BILINEAL APLICADO A LA PREDICCIÓN MENSUAL DE CAUDALES EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Cadavid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplica un modelo estocástico bilineal, el cual inicialmente es propuesto para análisis de retornos financieros y otros sistemas complejos combinando la alta no linealidad y multiplicidad del ruido. Este modelo, por su carácter aleatorio, no tiene componente determinística que permita considerar la persistencia de los caudales en una aplicación a la Hidrología. Por lo tanto, se propone el acoplamiento entre la parte determinística de un modelo autorregresivo de orden 2 y el modelo estocástico bilineal como componente aleatorio, y se obtiene un modelo autorregresivo bilineal (MAB. El MAB se empleó para la predicción de caudales en ventanas de 3, 6 y 12 meses en 12 ríos de Colombia de diferentes regiones del país. El MAB tiene una estructura simple y muestra una mejora sustancial en la disminución de los errores para los caudales máximos y mínimos en el período de validación respecto de los modelos estocásticos tradicionales.

  7. Orexin inputs to caudal raphé neurons involved in thermal, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Patterson, Laurel M; Sutton, Gregory M; Morrison, Christopher; Zheng, Huiyuan

    2005-02-01

    Orexin-expressing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus with their wide projections throughout the brain are important for the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, ingestive behavior, and the coordination of these behaviors in the environmental context. To further identify downstream effector targets of the orexin system, we examined in detail orexin-A innervation of the caudal raphe nuclei in the medulla, known to harbor sympathetic preganglionic motor neurons involved in thermal, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal regulation. All three components of the caudal raphe nuclei, raphe pallidus, raphe obscurus, and parapyramidal nucleus, are innervated by orexin-A-immunoreactive fibers. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrate close anatomical appositions between varicose orexin-A immunoreactive axon profiles and sympathetic premotor neurons identified with either a transneuronal retrograde pseudorabies virus tracer injected into the interscapular brown fat pads, or with in situ hybridization of pro-TRH mRNA. Furthermore, orexin-A injected into the fourth ventricle induced c-Fos expression in the raphe pallidus and parapyramidal nucleus. These findings suggest that orexin neurons in the hypothalamus can modulate brown fat thermogenesis, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal functions by acting directly on neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei, and support the idea that orexin's simultaneous stimulation of food intake and sympathetic activity might have evolved as a mechanism to stay alert while foraging.

  8. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine in addition to fentanyl with bupivacaine given caudally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarraya, Anouar; Elleuch, Sahar; Zouari, Jawhar; Smaoui, Mohamed; Laabidi, Sofiene; Kolsi, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine in association with fentanyl as an additive to bupivacaine 0.25% given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. In the present prospective randomized double blind study, 40 children of ASA-I-II aged 1-5 years scheduled for infraumblical surgical procedures were randomly allocated to two groups to receive either bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg and clonidine 1μg/kg (group I) or bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg (group II). Caudal block was performed after the induction of general anesthesia. Postoperatively patients were observed for analgesia, sedation, hemodynamic parameters, and side effects or complications. Both the groups were similar with respect to patient and various block characteristics. Heart rate and blood pressure were not different in 2 groups. Significantly prolonged duration of post-operative analgesia was observed in group I (Pbupivacaine in single shot caudal epidural in children may provide better and longer analgesia after infraumblical surgical procedures.

  9. Diagnosis and management of cranial and caudal nuchal bursitis in four horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, José M; Jenei, Thomas; Chope, Kate; Bubeck, Kirstin A

    2010-10-01

    4 horses with a history of neck pain, abnormal head carriage, and related inability to perform were examined. Cranial nuchal bursitis was diagnosed in 2 horses, and caudal nuchal bursitis was diagnosed in the other 2. All 4 horses had prominent swelling in the region between the frontal bone and temporal fossa (ie, the poll) and abnormal head carriage. Ultrasonographic examination revealed fluid distention and synovial thickening of the cranial or caudal nuchal bursa in all 4 horses. Ultrasonography-guided aspiration of the affected region was performed successfully in 3 horses. Radiography revealed bony remodeling and mineralization over the dorsal aspect of the atlas in 1 horse and a radiolucency at the axis in another. Nuclear scintigraphy revealed an increase in radioisotope uptake at the level of C2 in 1 horse. Although a septic process was considered among the differential diagnoses in all horses, a septic process could only be confirmed in 1 horse. All horses were refractory to conservative management consisting of intrabursal injection of anti-inflammatory medications. Bursoscopic debridement and lavage of the affected bursae resulted in resolution of the clinical signs in all horses, and they all returned to their intended use. Cranial and caudal nuchal bursitis, of nonseptic or septic origin, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with head and neck pain. Horses undergoing surgical intervention consisting of nuchal bursoscopy have the opportunity to return to their original degree of exercise.

  10. Caudal dysgenesis and sirenomelia-single centre experience suggests common pathogenic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thottungal, Anjana D; Charles, Adrian K; Dickinson, Jan E; Bower, Carol

    2010-10-01

    Abnormally formed lower limbs with varying degrees of fusion are the major feature of sirenomelia whereas maldeveloped lower limbs without fusion are found in association with caudal dysgenesis (CD). The relationship between these two entities has been a topic of debate for many years. The presence of a single umbilical artery originating from the abdominal aorta was considered a major feature distinguishing sirenomelia from CD. Based on this finding, the vascular steal theory was put forward as the causative mechanism of sirenomelia. CD and sirenomelia were considered to be two entirely different entities with distinct pathogenic mechanisms. However, it is now clear that a single umbilical artery can be found in some patients of CD and normal umbilical arteries in some patients of sirenomelia. The hypothesis of primary deficiency of caudal mesoderm caused by early developmental disruption suggests that sirenomelia and CD are two ends of a spectrum of maldevelopment of caudal mesoderm. In this paper we report on the clinical and pathological features of 16 patients of CD and 9 patients of sirenomelia from our institution and review the literature. This series of cases is notable for the significant association with neural tube defects, refining the renal and urogenital pathology associated with these conditions, and supporting the concept of a continuum of the disease spectrum. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Postoperative Analgesia in Children- Comparative Study between Caudal Bupivacaine and Bupivacaine plus Tramadol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Doda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty children, ASAI-II, aged between 2yrs-5yrs, undergoing sub umbilical operation (inguinal and penile surgery were selected for this double blind study. They were randomly divided in two groups, group Aand group B. Group A(n15 received 0.25%bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and Group B (n=15 received 0.25% bupivaeaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and tramadol 2mg.kg -1 as single shot caudal block. Postoperative pain was assessed by a modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale and analgesic given only when the score was more than 3. In the first 24 hrs it was observed that the mean duration of time interval between the caudal block and first dose of analgesic was significantly long(9. lhrs in Group B as compared to Group A (6.3hrs which was much shorter(p< 0.01.There was no significant haemodynamie changes, motor weakness or respiratory depression in both groups. This study con-cluded that addition of tramadol 2mg.kg -1 to caudal 0.25% bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 significantly prolong the duration of postoperative analgesia in children withoutprodueing much adverse effects.

  12. Electrophysical properties, synaptic transmission and neuromodulation in serotonergic caudal raphe neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y W; Bayliss, D A

    1998-06-01

    1. We studied electrophysiological properties, synaptic transmission and modulation by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) of caudal raphe neurons using whole-cell recording in a neonatal rat brain slice preparation; recorded neurons were identified as serotonergic by post-hoc immunohistochemical detection of tryptophan hydroxylase, the 5-HT-synthesizing enzyme. 2. Serotonergic neurons fired spontaneously (approximately 1 Hz), with maximal steady state firing rates of < 4 Hz. 5-Hydroxytryptamine caused hyperpolarization and cessation of spike activity in these neurons by activating inwardly rectifying K+ conductance via somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors. 3. Unitary glutamatergic excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSP) and currents (EPSC) were evoked in serotonergic neurons by local electrical stimulation. Evoked EPSC were potently inhibited by 5-HT, an effect mediated by presynaptic 5-HT1B receptors. 4. In conclusion, serotonergic caudal raphe neurons are spontaneously active in vitro; they receive prominent glutamatergic synaptic inputs. 5-Hydroxytryptamine regulates serotonergic neuronal activity of the caudal raphe by decreasing spontaneous activity via somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors and by inhibiting excitatory synaptic transmission onto these neurons via presynaptic 5-HT1B receptors. These local modulatory mechanisms provide multiple levels of feedback autoregulation of serotonergic raphe neurons by 5-HT.

  13. Manic fringe is not required for embryonic development, and fringe family members do not exhibit redundant functions in the axial skeleton, limb, or hindbrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jennifer L.; Shifley, Emily T.; Levorse, John M.; Mani, Shyamala; Ostmann, Kristin; Perez-Balaguer, Ariadna; Walker, Dawn M.; Vogt, Thomas F.; Cole, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Tight regulation of Notch pathway signaling is important in many aspects of embryonic development. Notch signaling can be modulated by expression of fringe genes, encoding glycosyltransferases that modify EGF repeats in the Notch receptor. Although Lunatic fringe (Lfng) has been shown to play important roles in vertebrate segmentation, comparatively little is known regarding the developmental functions of the other vertebrate fringe genes, Radical fringe (Rfng) and Manic fringe (Mfng). Here we report that Mfng expression is not required for embryonic development. Further, we find that despite significant overlap in expression patterns, we detect no obvious synergistic defects in mice in the absence of two, or all three, fringe genes during development of the axial skeleton, limbs, hindbrain and cranial nerves. PMID:19479951

  14. Destruction of the medial forebrain bundle caudal to the site of stimulation reduces rewarding efficacy but destruction rostrally does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Leon, M; Lim, B T; Sim, J C; Waraczynski, M

    1996-08-01

    Rats with an electrode in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in or near the ventral tegmental area and another at the level of the rostral hypothalamus sustained large electrolytic lesions at either the rostral or the caudal electrode. The rewarding efficacy of stimulation through the other electrode was determined before and after the lesion. Massive damage to the MFB in the rostral lateral hypothalamus (LH) generally had little effect on the rewarding efficacy of more caudal stimulation, whereas large lesions in the caudal MFB generally reduced the rewarding efficacy of LH stimulation by 35-60%. Similar reductions were produced by knife cuts in the caudal MFB. These results appear to be inconsistent with the hypothesis that the reward fibers consist either of descending or ascending fibers coursing in or near the MFB. It is suggested that the reward fibers are collaterals from neurons with both their somata and their behaviorally significant terminals located primarily in the midbrain.

  15. Ultrasound guided TAP block versus ultrasound guided caudal block for pain relief in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries

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    Wafaa Mohamed Alsadek

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: TAP block and caudal block under ultrasound guidance proved to be safe with no recorded complications either intra or postoperatively. Patient and parent satisfaction was markedly observed in case of TAP block.

  16. Bloqueio peridural caudal: técnica anestésica de uso exclusivo em crianças? É possível sua realização em adultos? Qual o papel do ultrassom nesse contexto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Esquenazi Najman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio peridural caudal é a mais popular entre todas as técnicas de anestesia regional em crianças. Com o avanço da idade, apenas a relativa dificuldade em localizar o hiato sacral limita seu uso. Entretanto, em adultos a técnica vem sendo largamente utilizada para controle de dor crônica com o auxílio da fluoroscopia. Assim, a habilidade em localizar o hiato e definir as variações anatômicas é o principal fator determinante do sucesso e segurança na execução do bloqueio peridural pela via caudal. Nesse contexto, o ultrassom vem ganhando espaço como guia para a realização do bloqueio caudal. O objetivo desta revisão foi elucidar o papel do ultrassom na anestesia caudal, além de demonstrar que o bloqueio caudal, muito utilizado em crianças, também é útil e pode ser usado em adultos. CONTEÚDO: Uma revisão literária sobre a anatomia da região sacral e da técnica anestésica necessária para a realização adequada do bloqueio caudal foi promovida. Além disso, artigos recentes sobre estudos realizados com bloqueios peridurais caudais guiados por ultrassom tanto em crianças quanto em adultos também foram incluídos. CONCLUSÕES: O ultrassom, apesar de suas limitações, pode ser útil como ferramenta adjuvante no posicionamento da agulha no espaço caudal. Permite a fácil identificação da anatomia sacral, além de visualização da injeção, em tempo real. Sua natureza portátil, não invasiva e livre de exposição à radiação faz dele uma tecnologia atrativa na sala operatória, principalmente na emergência de casos difíceis. Entretanto, como seu uso em bloqueios centrais do neuroeixo ainda é muito primitivo, é necessário que mais pesquisas sejam feitas para se consagre como técnica de rotina na prática anestésica.

  17. Incertidumbres en Mediciones de Caudal con Perfiladores de Corriente Acústicos Doppler desde Plataformas Móviles

    OpenAIRE

    Tarrab, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    Tesis (DCI)--FCEFN-UNC, 2013 Determina la incertidumbre en las mediciones de caudal con Perfiladores de Corriente Acústicos Doppler (ADCP) desde plataformas móviles a los fines de optimizar las técnicas de medición y elaborar recomendaciones para minimizar los errores (sesgo e incertidumbre aleatoria) en el uso de las técnicas de medición de caudales.

  18. The association between caudal anesthesia and increased risk of postoperative surgical complications in boys undergoing hypospadias repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taicher, Brad M; Routh, Jonathan C; Eck, John B; Ross, Sherry S; Wiener, John S; Ross, Allison K

    2017-07-01

    Recent reports have suggested that caudal anesthesia may be associated with an increased risk of postoperative surgical complications. We examined our experience with caudal anesthesia in hypospadias repair to evaluate for increased risk of urethrocutaneous fistula or glanular dehiscence. All hypospadias repairs performed by a single surgeon in 2001-2014 were reviewed. Staged or revision surgeries were excluded. Patient age, weight, hypospadias severity, surgery duration, month and year of surgery, caudal anesthesia use, and postoperative complications were recorded. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. We identified 395 single-stage primary hypospadias repairs. Mean age was 15.6 months; 326 patients had distal (83%) and 69 had proximal (17%) hypospadias. Caudal anesthetics were used in 230 (58%) cases; 165 patients (42%) underwent local penile block at the discretion of the surgeon and/or anesthesiologist. Complications of urethrocutaneous fistula or glanular deshiscence occurred in 22 patients (5.6%) and were associated with caudal anesthetic use (OR 16.5, 95% CI 2.2-123.8, P = 0.007), proximal hypospadias (OR 8.2, 95% CI 3.3-20.0, P anesthesia was associated with an over 13-fold increase in the odds of developing postoperative surgical complications in boys undergoing hypospadias repair even after adjusting for urethral meatus location. Until further investigation occurs, clinicians should carefully consider the use of caudal anesthesia for children undergoing hypospadias repair. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Radiographic evaluation of caudal vena cava size as a useful parameter for the diagnosis of heart disease in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilintai; Hashiyama, S.; Gonda, Y.; Ishikawa, H.; Sato, M.; Miyahara, K.

    2006-01-01

    To quantify the radiographic parameters of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in healthy cattle and demonstrate their clinical usefulness, the present study compared the ratios of the diameter of the thoracic CVC to the diameter of the aorta (Ao) and length of the thoracic vertebrae (VL), which are all positioned in the same intercostal space, in 81 healthy control cattle (43 growing, 38 adult) and 10 cattle with heart disease. The average diameter of the CVC (CVCave) was correlated with the size of the Ao and VL in the control cows. Although the diameter and pulsation index of the CVC differed significantly between the growing and adult cows, the ratios of CVC/Ao and CVC/VL were fixed values for both the growing and mature cattle. However, in the cattle with heart disease, the pulsation index of the CVC was significantly lower or there was absence of pulsation due to a dilated CVC, and the ratio of CVCave/Ao and CVCave/VL were significantly higher than those in the healthy cattle

  20. Single dose caudal tramadol with bupivacaine and bupivacaine alone in pediatric inguinoscrotal surgeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A.; Siddiqui, S.Z.; Aftab, S.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the postoperative analgesic effect of Tramadol when given with caudally administered Bupivacaine in children undergoing inguinoscrotal surgeries. A total of 60 children, undergoing inguinoscrotal surgeries, aged from 1 to 12 years, ASA 1 and 2, were included. The patients were divided into two equal groups. The group given Bupivacaine with Tramadol was called group BT and the group which was given only Bupivacaine was labeled as group B. Group BT was given 0.25%, 0.8 ml/kg Bupivacaine and Tramadol 2 mg/kg while the other group B was given 0.25%, 0.8 ml/kg Bupivacaine through caudal route after induction of general anesthesia. No other analgesic was given intraoperatively. The postoperative pain was evaluated by using visual analogue scale/Ocher face scale/CHEOPS and sedation was assessed by 5 points sedation score at immediate postoperative period 1,2,3,4,6,12 and 24 hours. Supplemental analgesia in the form of paracetamol suppositories and syrup ibuprofen was given accordingly. SaO 2, pulse, blood pressure, and motor block were monitored in all the patients. Addition of Tramadol with Bupivacaine resulted in meaningfully increased postoperative analgesic period (16.06 +- 4.04 hours). No other side effects like respiratory depression, pruritus, urinary retention were found in both the groups except for nausea and vomiting. The demand for supplemental analgesia was more in the patients belonging to B group than BT group. The sedation scores were similar in both the groups. The use of Tramadol as an additive with local anesthetics can prolong the postoperative analgesic period when administered caudally. Its use is safe in children. (author)

  1. Sirenomelia: a review of embryogenic theories and discussion of the differences from caudal regression syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik Kaygusuz, Ecmel; Kurek Eken, Meryem; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin; Cetiner, Handan

    2016-03-01

    To discuss the pathological features of sirenomelia in the light of our 10 cases and review the current theories. We identified 10 patients with sirenomelia from our hospital database. All clinical details and the autopsy features of 10 cases were noted. Of the 10 children with sirenomelia seven had bilateral renal agenesis, three had bladder agenesis and one had a renal hypoplasia. Single umbilical artery was found in 60% of children with sirenomelia. External genitalia was ambiguous in seven of 10 patients. Even though the etiology of caudal regression syndrome (CRS) and sirenomelia remains unknown we tend to believe that sirenomelia and CRS might be different entities.

  2. Caudal léxico en alumnos universitarios : Implicancias para la interacción textual

    OpenAIRE

    Piatti, Vanesa; Fernicola, Alfredo; Melillo, Oscar Roberto; Peralta, Diego

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se comunican los resultados preliminares de una investigación en curso. Específicamente se refiere a los resultados encontrados en pruebas de que examinan el caudal léxico, por el interés de sus relaciones con la interacción textual. En razón de ello en la elaboración de esta comunicación se ha tenido particularmente en cuenta el modelo de comprensión lectora proporcionado por Kintsch y Rawson (2005) sobre los diferentes niveles de procesamiento cuando se lee. Los autores d...

  3. The use of tubular retractors for translaminar discectomy for cranially and caudally extruded discs

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    Arvind G Kulkarni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The conventional interlaminar approach is adequate for access to most disc herniations in lumbar spine surgery. The access to cranially and caudally migrated disc fragments, by conventional interlaminar fenestration, requires an extension of the fenestration with the potential destruction of the facet joint complex and consequent postsurgical instability. To describe the technique and results of the translaminar technique of targeted discectomy using tubular retractors for the surgical treatment of cranially and caudally extruded discs. Materials and Methods: The study period extended from January 2008 to December 2014. All patients with lumbar herniated discs who failed conservative management were selected for surgery and underwent routine erect radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the lumbar spine. The patients with cranially or caudally migrated discs were included in this study. The technique involves approaching migrated disc through an oval window (sculpted through an 18 mm tubular retractor using a burr in the lamina precisely over the location of the migrated disc as predicted by the preoperative MRI (inferior lamina for inferior migration and superior lamina for superior migration. The perioperative parameters studied were operative time, blood loss, complications, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, and visual analog scale (VAS for leg pain before surgery and at last followup. In the study, 4 patients underwent a postoperative computed tomography-scan with a three-dimensional reconstruction to visualize the oval window and to rule out any pars fracture. All technical difficulties and complications were analyzed. Results: 17 patients in the age group of 41–58 years underwent the translaminar technique of targeted discectomy. The migration of disc was cranial in 12 patients and caudal in 5 patients. Fourteen of the affected discs were at the L4–L5 level and three were at the L5-S1 level. The mean VAS (leg pain

  4. Systematization, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the brain's surface of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

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    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Meleagris gallopavo heads with their neck segments were used. Animals were contained and euthanized with the association of mebezonium iodide, embutramide and tetracaine hydrochloride (T 61, Intervet by intravenous injection. The arterial system was rinsed with cold saline solution (15°C, with 5000IU heparin and filled with red-colored latex. The samples were fixed in 20% formaldehyde for seven days. The brains were removed with a segment of cervical spinal cord and after, the dura-mater was removed and the arteries dissected. The cerebral carotid arteries, after the intercarotid anastomosis, were projected around the hypophysis, until they reached the tuber cinereum and divided into their terminal branches, the caudal branch and the rostral branch. The rostral branch was projected rostrolateralwards and gave off, in sequence, two collateral branches, the caudal cerebral and the middle cerebral arteries and the terminal branch was as cerebroethmoidal artery. The caudal cerebral artery of one antimere formed the interhemispheric artery, which gave off dorsal hemispheric branches to the convex surface of both antimeres. Its dorsal tectal mesencephalic branch, of only one antimere, originated the dorsal cerebellar artery. In the interior of the cerebral transverse fissure, after the origin of the dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery, the caudal cerebral artery emitted occipital hemispheric branches, pineal branches and medial hemispheric branches, on both antimeres. The caudal cerebral artery's territory comprehended the entire surface of the dorsal hemioptic lobe, the rostral surface of the cerebellum, the diencephalic structures, the caudal pole and the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and in the convex surface, the sagittal eminence except for its most rostral third. Due to the asymmetry found in the caudal cerebral arteries' ramifications, the models were classified into three types and their respective subtypes.

  5. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine acts as a modulator of chondrocyte hypertrophy and maturation in chick caudal region chondrocytes in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Samina Hyder

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to explore the effect of DNA hypomethylation on chondrocytes phenotype, in particular the effect on chondrocyte hypertrophy, maturation, and apoptosis. Chondrocytes derived from caudal region of day 17 embryonic chick sterna were pretreated with hypomethylating drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine for 48 hours and then maintained in the normal culture medium for up to 14 days. Histological studies showed distinct morphological changes occurred in the pretreated cultures when compared to the control cultures. The pretreated chondrocytes after 7 days in culture became bigger in size and acquired more flattened fibroblastic phenotype as well as a loss of cartilage specific extracellular matrix. Scanning electron microscopy at day 7 showed chondrocytes to have increased in cell volume and at day 14 in culture the extracellular matrix of the pretreated cultures showed regular fibrillar structure heavily embedded with matrix vesicles, which is the characteristic feature of chondrocyte hypertrophy. Transmission electron microscopic studies indicated the terminal fate of the hypertrophic cells in culture. The pretreated chondrocytes grown for 14 days in culture showed two types of cells: dark cells which had condense chromatin in dark patches and dark cytoplasm. The other light chondrocytes appeared to be heavily loaded with endoplasmic reticulum indicative of very active protein and secretory activity; their cytoplasm had large vacuoles and disintegrating cytoplasm. The biosynthetic profile showed that the pretreated cultures were actively synthesizing and secreting type X collagen and alkaline phosphatase as a major biosynthetic product.

  6. Metals in the caudal scutes of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillanes, C E; Pérez-Jiménez, J C; Rosíles-Martínez, R; González-Jáuregui, M

    2014-10-01

    Caudal scutes were collected from 92 Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) between May and August 2012, in three Wildlife Management and Use Units (UMAs, from its name in Spanish) and three wild sites in Campeche, Mexico. The UMAs are intensive, with an ex situ approach to manage crocodiles in captivity. The concentrations of arsenic, mercury, lead, nickel, cadmium and chromium were analyzed in each sample. As and Pb were detected in all samples, Hg in 86 and Ni in 74. The metal concentrations estimated were higher than most of the concentrations reported for skin, tail tip and caudal scutes in other crocodilians around the world. The concentration of As, Pb and Ni was significantly greater in the free-ranging groups than in the captive groups in UMAs (p < 0.05). Negative linear relationship was estimated between the snout-vent length and the concentration of Pb (in five groups) and Ni (in three groups). In this region C. moreletii is exposed to metals contamination and more studies are necessary to establish if represents a risk to their populations.

  7. Caudal duplication syndrome: imaging evaluation of a rare entity in an adult patient

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    Tianshen Hu, BS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several theories have been put forth to explain the complex yet symmetrical malformations and the myriad of clinical presentations of caudal duplication syndrome. Hereby, reported case is a 28-year-old female, gravida 2 para 2, with congenital caudal malformation who has undergone partial reconstructive surgeries in infancy to connect her 2 colons. She presented with recurrent left lower abdominal pain associated with nausea, vomiting, and subsequent feculent anal discharge. Imaging reveals duplication of the urinary bladder, urethra, and colon with with cloacal malformations and fistulae from the left-sided cloaca, uterus didelphys with separate cervices and vaginal canals, right-sided aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta, and dysraphic midline sacrococcygeal defect. Hydronephrosis of the left kidney with left hydroureter and inflammation of one of the colons were suspected to be the cause of the patient’s acute complaints. She improved symptomatically over the course of her hospitalization stay with conservative treatments. The management for this syndrome is individualized and may include surgical intervention to fuse or excise the duplicated organs.

  8. The anatomy and histology of caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emily A B; Payne, Samantha L; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Caudal autotomy-the ability to self-detach the tail-is a dramatic adaptation common to many structural-grade lizards. For most species, tail loss is followed by the equally dramatic phenomenon of tail regeneration. Here we review the anatomy and histology of caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards, drawing heavily from research published over the past 2 decades. The autotomous tail is characterized by various structural adaptations, which act to minimize blood loss and trauma to adjacent tissues. The early phase of wound healing involves a leukocytic response but limited inflammation. Reepithelialization via a specialized wound epithelium is not only critical for scar-free healing but also necessary for subsequent tissue patterning and regenerative outgrowth. Regeneration begins with the formation of the blastema, a mass of proliferating mesenchymal-like cells. As the blastema expands, it is invaded by blood vessels and the spinal cord. Whereas the replacement tail outwardly resembles the original appendage, it differs in several notable respects, including the tissue composition and organization of the skeleton, muscular system, and spinal cord. Increasingly, the lizard tail is being recognized among biomedical scientists as an important model for the study of wound healing and multitissue restoration.

  9. Automated Spatial Brain Normalization and Hindbrain White Matter Reference Tissue Give Improved [(18)F]-Florbetaben PET Quantitation in Alzheimer's Model Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhoff, Felix; Brendel, Matthias; Jaworska, Anna; Korzhova, Viktoria; Delker, Andreas; Probst, Federico; Focke, Carola; Gildehaus, Franz-Josef; Carlsen, Janette; Baumann, Karlheinz; Haass, Christian; Bartenstein, Peter; Herms, Jochen; Rominger, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical PET studies of β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation are of growing importance, but comparisons between research sites require standardized and optimized methods for quantitation. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate systematically the (1) impact of an automated algorithm for spatial brain normalization, and (2) intensity scaling methods of different reference regions for Aβ-PET in a large dataset of transgenic mice. PS2APP mice in a 6 week longitudinal setting (N = 37) and another set of PS2APP mice at a histologically assessed narrow range of Aβ burden (N = 40) were investigated by [(18)F]-florbetaben PET. Manual spatial normalization by three readers at different training levels was performed prior to application of an automated brain spatial normalization and inter-reader agreement was assessed by Fleiss Kappa (κ). For this method the impact of templates at different pathology stages was investigated. Four different reference regions on brain uptake normalization were used to calculate frontal cortical standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRCTX∕REF), relative to raw SUVCTX. Results were compared on the basis of longitudinal stability (Cohen's d), and in reference to gold standard histopathological quantitation (Pearson's R). Application of an automated brain spatial normalization resulted in nearly perfect agreement (all κ≥0.99) between different readers, with constant or improved correlation with histology. Templates based on inappropriate pathology stage resulted in up to 2.9% systematic bias for SUVRCTX∕REF. All SUVRCTX∕REF methods performed better than SUVCTX both with regard to longitudinal stability (d≥1.21 vs. d = 0.23) and histological gold standard agreement (R≥0.66 vs. R≥0.31). Voxel-wise analysis suggested a physiologically implausible longitudinal decrease by global mean scaling. The hindbrain white matter reference (R mean = 0.75) was slightly superior to the brainstem (R mean = 0.74) and the cerebellum (R mean = 0.73). Automated

  10. Efficacy of clonidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery

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    Aruna Parameswari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caudal epidural analgesia with bupivacaine is very popular in paediatric anaesthesia for providing intra- and postoperative analgesia. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the action of bupivacaine. We evaluated the efficacy of clonidine added to bupivacaine in prolonging the analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery. One hundred children, age one to three years, undergoing sub-umbilical surgery, were prospectively randomized to one of two groups: caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine in normal saline (Group A or caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 μg/kg of clonidine in normal saline (Group B. Post-operative pain was assessed for 24 hours using the FLACC scale. The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group B (593.4 ± 423.3 min than in Group A (288.7 ± 259.1 min; P < 0.05. The pain score assessed using FLACC scale was compared between the two groups, and children in Group B had lower pain scores, which was statistically significant. The requirement of rescue medicine was lesser in Group B. Clonidine in a dose of 1 μg/kg added to 0.25% bupivacaine for caudal analgesia, during sub-umbilical surgeries, prolongs the duration of analgesia of bupivacaine, without any side effects.

  11. Sirenomelia phenotype in bmp7;shh compound mutants: a novel experimental model for studies of caudal body malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Allepuz, Carlos; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Ros, Maria A

    2012-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a severe congenital malformation of the lower body characterized by the fusion of the legs into a single lower limb. This striking external phenotype consistently associates severe visceral abnormalities, most commonly of the kidneys, intestine, and genitalia that generally make the condition lethal. Although the causes of sirenomelia remain unknown, clinical studies have yielded two major hypotheses: i) a primary defect in the generation of caudal mesoderm, ii) a primary vascular defect that leaves the caudal part of the embryo hypoperfused. Interestingly, Sirenomelia has been shown to have a genetic basis in mice, and although it has been considered a sporadic condition in humans, recently some possible familial cases have been reported. Here, we report that the removal of one or both functional alleles of Shh from the Bmp7-null background leads to a sirenomelia phenotype that faithfully replicates the constellation of external and internal malformations, typical of the human condition. These mutants represent an invaluable model in which we have analyzed the pathogenesis of sirenomelia. We show that the signaling defect predominantly impacts the morphogenesis of the hindgut and the development of the caudal end of the dorsal aortas. The deficient formation of ventral midline structures, including the interlimb mesoderm caudal to the umbilicus, leads to the approximation and merging of the hindlimb fields. Our study provides new insights for the understanding of the mechanisms resulting in caudal body malformations, including sirenomelia.

  12. Sirenomelia phenotype in bmp7;shh compound mutants: a novel experimental model for studies of caudal body malformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garrido-Allepuz

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia is a severe congenital malformation of the lower body characterized by the fusion of the legs into a single lower limb. This striking external phenotype consistently associates severe visceral abnormalities, most commonly of the kidneys, intestine, and genitalia that generally make the condition lethal. Although the causes of sirenomelia remain unknown, clinical studies have yielded two major hypotheses: i a primary defect in the generation of caudal mesoderm, ii a primary vascular defect that leaves the caudal part of the embryo hypoperfused. Interestingly, Sirenomelia has been shown to have a genetic basis in mice, and although it has been considered a sporadic condition in humans, recently some possible familial cases have been reported. Here, we report that the removal of one or both functional alleles of Shh from the Bmp7-null background leads to a sirenomelia phenotype that faithfully replicates the constellation of external and internal malformations, typical of the human condition. These mutants represent an invaluable model in which we have analyzed the pathogenesis of sirenomelia. We show that the signaling defect predominantly impacts the morphogenesis of the hindgut and the development of the caudal end of the dorsal aortas. The deficient formation of ventral midline structures, including the interlimb mesoderm caudal to the umbilicus, leads to the approximation and merging of the hindlimb fields. Our study provides new insights for the understanding of the mechanisms resulting in caudal body malformations, including sirenomelia.

  13. Dinosaur speed demon: the caudal musculature of Carnotaurus sastrei and implications for the evolution of South American abelisaurids.

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    W Scott Persons

    Full Text Available In the South American abelisaurids Carnotaurus sastrei, Aucasaurus garridoi, and, to a lesser extent Skorpiovenator bustingorryi, the anterior caudal ribs project at a high dorsolateral inclination and have interlocking lateral tips. This unique morphology facilitated the expansion of the caudal hypaxial musculature at the expense of the epaxial musculature. Distinct ridges on the ventrolateral surfaces of the caudal ribs of Aucasaurus garridoi are interpreted as attachment scars from the intra caudofemoralis/ilio-ischiocaudalis septa, and confirm that the M. caudofemoralis of advanced South American abelisaurids originated from a portion of the caudal ribs. Digital muscle models indicate that, relative to its overall body size, Carnotaurus sastrei had a substantially larger M. caudofemoralis than any other theropod yet studied. In most non-avian theropods, as in many extant sauropsids, the M. caudofemoralis served as the primary femoral retractor muscle during the locomotive power stroke. This large investment in the M. caudofemoralis suggests that Carnotaurus sastrei had the potential for great cursorial abilities, particularly short-burst sprinting. However, the tightly interlocking morphology of the anterior caudal vertebrae implies a reduced ability to make tight turns. Examination of these vertebral traits in evolutionary context reveals a progressive sequence of increasing caudofemoral mass and tail rigidity among the Abelisauridae of South America.

  14. Metameric pattern of intervertebral disc/vertebral body is generated independently of Mesp2/Ripply-mediated rostro-caudal patterning of somites in the mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yu; Yasuhiko, Yukuto; Takahashi, Jun; Takada, Shinji; Johnson, Randy L; Saga, Yumiko; Kanno, Jun

    2013-08-15

    The vertebrae are derived from the sclerotome of somites. Formation of the vertebral body involves a process called resegmentation, by which the caudal half of a sclerotome is combined with the rostral half of the next sclerotome. To elucidate the relationship between resegmentation and rostro-caudal patterning of somite, we used the Uncx4.1-LacZ transgene to characterize the resegmentation process. Our observations suggested that in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, the Uncx4.1-expressing caudal sclerotome gave rise to the intervertebral disc (IVD) and rostral portion of the vertebral body (VB). In the cervical vertebrae, the Uncx4.1-expressing caudal sclerotome appeared to contribute to the IVD and both caudal and rostral ends of the VB. This finding suggests that the rostro-caudal gene expression boundary does not necessarily coincide with the resegmentation boundary. This conclusion was supported by analyses of Mesp2 KO and Ripply1/2 double KO embryos lacking rostral and caudal properties, respectively. Resegmentation was not observed in Mesp2 KO embryos, but both the IVD and whole VB were formed from the caudalized sclerotome. Expression analysis of IVD marker genes including Pax1 in the wild-type, Mesp2 KO, and Ripply1/2 DKO embryos also supported the idea that a metameric pattern of IVD/VB is generated independently of Mesp2/Ripply-mediated rostro-caudal patterning of somite. However, in the lumbar region, IVD differentiation appeared to be stimulated by the caudal property and suppressed by the rostral property. Therefore, we propose that rostro-caudal patterning of somites is not a prerequisite for metameric patterning of the IVD and VB, but instead required to stimulate IVD differentiation in the caudal half of the sclerotome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diurnal change in gonadotropic activity in cephalic and caudal lobes of anterior pituitary in capons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyoshi, Michiharu; Yoshihara, Masato; Tanaka, Katuhide

    1977-01-01

    Two groups of male white leghorn chickens were raised under two light regimens after hatch, 14 hr (0500 - 1900 hours) and 8 hr (0500 - 1300 hours) lighting per day, respectively. Both groups were caponized at 4 weeks of the age. At 10 weeks of the age, the anterior pituitaries were excised at different times during 24 hr period, and the gonadotropic activities of the cephalic and caudal lobes of anterior pituitary were measured by the bioassay of 32 D-uptake in chick test. In the 14 hr lighting per day group, peak gonadotropic activity was observed at 1100 hour (6 hr of lighting) in both lobes, but in the 8 hr lighting per day group, no peak was observed. The diurnal change of pituitary gonadotropic activity may be related to the photoperiod. (Mori, K.)

  16. EVALUACIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO HIDRÁULICO DE DOCE MODELOS DE GOTEROS DE BAJO CAUDAL

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor J., Rocío; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú.; Narro D., Ángel; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    La investigación se realizó en el laboratorio de Riego y Drenaje de la Facultad de Ingeniería Agrícola, de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. El objetivo fue determinar el coeficiente de variación y las curvas caudal-presión de 12 modelos de goteros. Las mangueras fueron evaluadas en un banco de pruebas que consta de una estructura de soporte que sostiene a la bandeja de captación. Las dimensiones son 2,0 m de largo por 1,0 m de ancho y la estructura de conducción de 0,45 m de largo p...

  17. Caudal regression syndrome and sirenomelia in only one twin in two diabetic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimakopoulos, E; Athanasiadis, A; Zafrakas, M; Dragoumis, K; Bontis, J

    2004-01-01

    Many authors consider sirenomelia to be an extreme form of caudal regression syndrome (CRS), while others argue that they are two distinct entities. Maternal diabetes mellitus is considered to be an important predisposing factor for both CRS and sirenomelia. Two rare cases of diabetic, dizygotic twin pregnancies, each with one normal and one affected fetus are presented. In case 1 the affected fetus had CRS. In case 2 the affected fetus had sirenomelia. The present cases suggest that the pathogenesis of CRS and sirenomelia is more complex than previously thought, that maternal diabetes is not the only underlying pathogenetic mechanism and that genetic or epigenetic factors probably contribute to the formation of these conditions.

  18. Acute traumatic brain-stem hemorrhage produced by sudden caudal displacement of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirvis, S.E.; Wolf, A.L.; Thompson, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines in an experimental canine study and a clinical review, whether acute caudal displacement of the brain following blunt trauma produces hemorrhage in the rostral anterior midline of the brain stem by tethering the basilar to the fixed carotid arteries. In four dogs, a balloon catheter was suddenly inflated over the frontal lobe; in two, the carotid-basilar vascular connections were severed prior to balloon inflation. ICP was monitored during and after balloon inflation. Hemorrhage was verified by MR imaging and direct inspection of the fixed brain specimens. Admission CT scans demonstrating acute traumatic brain stem hemorrhage (TBH) in human patients were reviewed to determine the site of TBH, predominant site of impact, and neurologic outcome

  19. Fluoroscopically guided tunneled trans-caudal epidural catheter technique for opioid-free neonatal epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Andrew D; Hughes, Elisabeth M

    2016-06-01

    Epidural analgesia confers significant perioperative advantages to neonates undergoing surgical procedures but may be very technically challenging to place using a standard interlaminar loss-of-resistance to saline technique given the shallow depth of the epidural space. Thoracic epidural catheters placed via the caudal route may reduce the risk of direct neural injury from needle placement, but often pose higher risks of infection and/or improper positioning if placed without radiographic guidance. We present a detailed method of placing a fluoroscopically guided, tunneled transcaudal epidural catheter, which may reduce both of these risks. The accuracy and precision of this technique often provides adequate analgesia to allow for opioid-free epidural infusions as well as significant reductions in systemic opioids through the perioperative period. Opioid-free analgesia using a regional anesthetic technique allows for earlier extubation and reduced perioperative sedation, which may have a less deleterious neurocognitive effect on the developing brain of the neonate.

  20. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  1. C8 cross transfer for the treatment of caudal brachial plexus avulsion in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissonnier, Pierre; Carozzo, Claude; Thibaut, Jean-Laurent; Escriou, Catherine; Hidalgo, Antoine; Blot, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the cervical nerve 8 cross-transfer technique (C8CT) as a part of surgical treatment of caudal brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) in the dog. Case series. Client-owned dogs suspected to have caudal BPA based on neurological examination and electrophysiological testing (n = 3). The distal stump of the surgically transected contralateral C8 ventral branch (donor) was bridged to the proximal stump of the avulsed C8 ventral branch (recipient) and secured with 9-0 polypropylene suture under an operating microscope. A carpal panarthrodesis was performed on the injured limb after C8CT. Surgical exploration confirmed avulsion of nerve roots C7, C8, and T1 in all cases. There was no evidence of an iatrogenic effect on the donor forelimb. Gradual improvement in function of the affected forelimb occurred in all dogs, with eventual recovery of voluntary elbow extension. Reinnervation was evident in EMG recordings 6 months postoperatively in all three dogs. Stimulation of the donor C8 ventral branch led to motor evoked potentials in the avulsed side triceps brachialis and radial carpus extensor muscles. Variable functional outcome was observed in the 3 dogs during clinical evaluation 3-4 years after surgery. Digital abrasion wounds, distal interphalangeal infectious arthritis, and self-mutilation necessitated distal phalanx amputation of digits 3 and 4 in 2 dogs. C8CT provided partial reconnection of the donor C8 ventral branch to the avulsed brachial plexus in the 3 dogs of this series. Reinnervation resulted in active elbow extension and promoted functional recovery in the affected limb. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainwater, Thomas R.; Wu, Ted H.; Finger, Adam G.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Yu Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D.; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G.; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.; McMurry, Scott T.

    2007-01-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  3. Conserved size and periodicity of pyramidal patches in layer 2 of medial/caudal entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert K; Ray, Saikat; Prokop, Stefan; Las, Liora; Heppner, Frank L; Brecht, Michael

    2016-03-01

    To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis. In rodents, which show sustained theta oscillations in entorhinal cortex, cholinergic innervation targeted calbindin patches. In bats and humans, which only show intermittent entorhinal theta activity, cholinergic innervation avoided calbindin patches. The organization of calbindin-negative and calbindin-positive cells showed marked differences in entorhinal subregions of the human brain. Layer 2 of the rodent medial and the human caudal entorhinal cortex were structurally similar in that in both species patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells were superimposed on scattered stellate cells. The number of calbindin-positive neurons in a patch increased from ∼80 in Etruscan shrews to ∼800 in humans, only an ∼10-fold over a 20,000-fold difference in brain size. The relatively constant size of calbindin patches differs from cortical modules such as barrels, which scale with brain size. Thus, selective pressure appears to conserve the distribution of stellate and pyramidal cells, periodic arrangement of calbindin patches, and relatively constant neuron number in calbindin patches in medial/caudal entorhinal cortex. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Conserved size and periodicity of pyramidal patches in layer 2 of medial/caudal entorhinal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert K.; Ray, Saikat; Prokop, Stefan; Las, Liora; Heppner, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin‐positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis. In rodents, which show sustained theta oscillations in entorhinal cortex, cholinergic innervation targeted calbindin patches. In bats and humans, which only show intermittent entorhinal theta activity, cholinergic innervation avoided calbindin patches. The organization of calbindin‐negative and calbindin‐positive cells showed marked differences in entorhinal subregions of the human brain. Layer 2 of the rodent medial and the human caudal entorhinal cortex were structurally similar in that in both species patches of calbindin‐positive pyramidal cells were superimposed on scattered stellate cells. The number of calbindin‐positive neurons in a patch increased from ∼80 in Etruscan shrews to ∼800 in humans, only an ∼10‐fold over a 20,000‐fold difference in brain size. The relatively constant size of calbindin patches differs from cortical modules such as barrels, which scale with brain size. Thus, selective pressure appears to conserve the distribution of stellate and pyramidal cells, periodic arrangement of calbindin patches, and relatively constant neuron number in calbindin patches in medial/caudal entorhinal cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:783–806, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26223342

  5. Caudal dysplasia syndrome and sirenomelia: are they part of a spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jocelyn H; Romaguera, Rita L; Rodriguez, Maria M; González-Quintero, Víctor H; Azouz, E Michel

    2009-01-01

    Caudal dysplasia syndrome (CDS) is associated with hypoplastic lower extremities, caudal vertebrae, sacrum, neural tube, and urogenital organs. Sirenomelia is characterized by a single lower extremity, absent sacrum, urogenital anomalies, and imperforate anus. There is controversy in the medical literature about whether sirenomelia and CDS are part of the spectrum of the same malformation. Patients with CDS and sirenomelia were identified from our pathology files from 1991 to 2006. Maternal history, pathologic examination, and radiographs were collected and tabulated. We found 9 cases with CDS and 6 with sirenomelia. Fully 7 of 9 patients with CDS (77.7%) versus none of sirenomelic babies were infants of diabetic mothers. Congenital heart disease was present in 5 patients with CDS (55.5%) and none of the infants with sirenomelia. Of 9 children with CDS 2 (22.2%) had bilateral renal agenesis versus 66% of sirenomelics. Single umbilical artery was found in 33% of cases with CDS and 100% of children with sirenomelia. External genitalia were ambiguous in 2 of 9 patients (22.2%) with CDS and in all patients with sirenomelia. Imperforate anus was found in 10 cases (66.6%) divided as 4 of 9 babies with CDS (44.4%) and all patients with sirenomelia. Three patients with CDS had concomitant maternal diabetes mellitus and chronic hypertension. These babies also had cleft lip and palate. Congenital heart disease was found in 55.5% of cases with CDS and none of the children with sirenomelia. We conclude that although CDS and sirenomelia share many similar features, they are two different entities.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE ANALGESIC EFFICACY OF CAUDAL MIDAZOLAM AND CLONIDINE POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalinga Raju A.V.S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caudal epidural analgesia is one of the most popular regional techniques used in paediatric patients undergoing lower limb, anoperineal and abdominal surgical procedures for postoperative pain relief. The aim of postoperative pain relief is to provide subjective comfort and inhibit trauma-induced nociceptive impulses to blunt autonomic and reflex responses to pain and subsequently to enhance the restoration of function. Caudal epidural analgesia though practiced widely is of short duration even when used with long-acting local anaesthetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Children of either sex undergoing elective hernia or hydrocele surgery within in the age group of 2-8 years belonging to ASA I and II were included in the study. Informed consent was obtained from the parents before procedure. RESULTS The duration of analgesia in the study group was 10.14 ± 4.69 hrs. and 6.83 ± 0.79 hrs. in the clonidine group and midazolam group. Duration of analgesia in clonidine group was significantly longer when compared to with midazolam group with a p value of <0.05. Sedation Score- There was decrease in heart rate and mean arterial pressure from baseline, but these were under allowable limits of 20%. The patient had pain scores of less than 8 for first 6-8 hrs. The patients were well sedated and were easily arousable. CONCLUSION We conclude that in our study we found that clonidine 8 μg/kg provided good analgesia for a longer duration when compared with midazolam. Clonidine also provided good sedation with minimal haemodynamic variations. This is in agreement with studies conducted to know haemodynamic stability with higher doses of clonidine.

  7. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  8. Lateral prefrontal cortex is organized into parallel dorsal and ventral streams along the rostro-caudal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Robert S; Nomura, Emi M; Gratton, Caterina; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Anatomical connectivity differences between the dorsal and ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the non-human primate strongly suggests that these regions support different functions. However, after years of study, it remains unclear whether these regions are functionally distinct. In contrast, there has been a groundswell of recent studies providing evidence for a rostro-caudal functional organization, along the lateral as well as dorsomedial frontal cortex. Thus, it is not known whether dorsal and ventral regions of lateral PFC form distinct functional networks and how to reconcile any dorso-ventral organization with the medio-lateral and rostro-caudal axes. Here, we used resting-state connectivity data to identify parallel dorsolateral and ventrolateral streams of intrinsic connectivity with the dorsomedial frontal cortex. Moreover, we show that this connectivity follows a rostro-caudal gradient. Our results provide evidence for a novel framework for the intrinsic organization of the frontal cortex that incorporates connections between medio-lateral, dorso-ventral, and rostro-caudal axes.

  9. Modulation of the cough reflex by GABAA receptors in the caudal ventral respiratory group of the rabbit

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    Elenia eCinelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG is a possible site of action of some antitussive drugs and plays a crucial role in determining both the expiratory and inspiratory components of the cough motor pattern. In addition, it has been reported that medullary expiratory neurons of the cVRG are subject to potent GABAergic gain modulation. This study was devoted to investigate the role of cVRG GABAA receptors in the control of baseline respiratory activity and cough responses to mechanical and chemical (citric acid stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree. To this purpose, bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl of bicuculline or muscimol were performed into the cVRG of pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Bicuculline (1 mM increased peak abdominal activity and respiratory frequency due to decreases in TE. Cough responses were potentiated mainly owing to increases in the cough number. The recovery was observed within ~ 2 h. On the contrary, muscimol (0.3 mM abolished abdominal activity and decreased respiratory frequency due to increases in TE. In addition, cough responses were progressively reduced and completely suppressed within ~ 20 min. Partial recovery of cough responses was achieved after ~ 3 h or within ~ 5 min following bicuculline microinjections at the same locations. The sneeze reflex induced by mechanical stimulation of the nasal mucosa persisted following bicuculline and muscimol microinjections. However, the number and intensity of expiratory thrusts were enhanced by bicuculline and suppressed by muscimol. The results provide evidence that a potent GABAA-mediated inhibitory modulation is exerted at the level of the cVRG not only on respiratory activity, but also on cough and sneeze reflex responses.

  10. Regional (spinal, epidural, caudal) versus general anaesthesia in preterm infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa J; Craven, Paul D; Lakkundi, Anil; Foster, Jann P; Badawi, Nadia

    2015-06-09

    With improvements in neonatal intensive care, more preterm infants are surviving the neonatal period and presenting for surgery in early infancy. Inguinal hernia is the most common condition requiring early surgery, appearing in 38% of infants whose birth weight is between 751 grams and 1000 grams. Approximately 20% to 30% of otherwise healthy preterm infants having general anaesthesia for inguinal hernia surgery at a postmature age have at least one apnoeic episode within the postoperative period. Research studies have failed to adequately distinguish the effects of apnoeic episodes from other complications of extreme preterm gestation on the risk of brain injury, or to investigate the potential impact of postoperative apnoea upon longer term neurodevelopment. In addition to episodes of apnoea, there are concerns that anaesthetic and sedative agents may have a direct toxic effect on the developing brain of preterm infants even after reaching postmature age. It is proposed that regional anaesthesia may reduce the risk of postoperative apnoea, avoid the risk of anaesthetic-related neurotoxicity and improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants requiring surgery for inguinal hernia at a postmature age. To determine if regional anaesthesia reduces postoperative apnoea, bradycardia, the use of assisted ventilation, and neurological impairment, in comparison to general anaesthesia, in preterm infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy at a postmature age. The following databases and resources were searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 2), MEDLINE (December 2002 to 25 February 2015), EMBASE (December 2002 to 25 February 2015), controlled-trials.com and clinicaltrials.gov, reference lists of published trials and abstracts published in Pediatric Research and Pediatric Anesthesia. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of regional (spinal, epidural, caudal) versus general anaesthesia, or

  11. Laparoscopic Radical Extended Right Hemicolectomy Using a Caudal-to-Cranial Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liaonan; Xiong, Wenjun; Mo, Delong; He, Yaobin; Li, Hongming; Tan, Ping; Wang, Wei; Wan, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Due to the emphasis of oncologic principle, a medial-to-lateral approach for laparoscopic right hemicolectomy was recommended.1 (,) 2 This approach, however, is technically challenging and involves several limitations with overweight patients, whose mesocolon may be too thick for identification of the vessel landmarks. Moreover, it is difficult for inexperienced surgeons to enter the retroperitoneum space accurately. This report describes a caudal-to-cranial approach for laparoscopic radical extended right hemicolectomy. First, a "yellow-white borderline" between the right mesostenium and retroperitoneum in the right iliac fossa is dissected as the entry for separation of the fusion fascial space between the visceral and parietal peritoneum.3 The right Toldt's fascia is dissected and expanded medial to the periphery of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV), cranial to the pancreas head, and lateral to the ascending colon. The posterior paries of ileocolic vessels (ICVs), right colic vessels (RCVs), and Henle's trunk are exposed. Second, the mesocolon between the ICV and SMV is dissected safely, and the ICV, RCV, and right gastroepiploic vessels as well as the right branch of the middle colic vessel are divided and ligated easily because of the separated retroperitoneal space. The lymph nodes along the SMV are dissected using a caudal-to-cranial approach. Third, the greater omental is dissected for full mobilization of the mesocolon containing 10 cm of normal colon distal to the lesion followed by complete mobilization of the lateral attachments of the ascending colon. In this study, 10 men and 8 women with hepatic flexure cancer underwent laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy using a caudal-to-cranial approach. No conversion was recorded. The overall complication rate was 11.2 %, including one case of pulmonary infection and one case of urinary tract infection, both of which were cured with conservative measures. The mean age of the patients was 61.3 ± 12.7

  12. Recovering missing data: estimating position and size of caudal vertebrae in Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970

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    Orlando N. Grillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Missing data is a common problem in paleontology. It makes it difficult to reconstruct extinct taxa accurately and restrains the inclusion of some taxa on comparative and biomechanical studies. Particularly, estimating the position of vertebrae on incomplete series is often non-empirical and does not allow precise estimation of missing parts. In this work we present a method for calculating the position of preserved middle sequences of caudal vertebrae in the saurischian dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei, based on the length and height of preserved anterior and posterior caudal vertebral centra. Regression equations were used to estimate these dimensions for middle vertebrae and, consequently, to assess the position of the preserved middle sequences. It also allowed estimating these dimensions for non-preserved vertebrae. Results indicate that the preserved caudal vertebrae of Staurikosaurus may correspond to positions 1-3, 5, 7, 14-19/15-20, 24-25/25-26, and 29-47, and that at least 25 vertebrae had transverse processes. Total length of the tail was estimated in 134 cm and total body length was 220-225 cm.Dados lacunares são um problema comum na paleontologia. Eles dificultam a reconstrução acurada de táxons extintos e limitam a inclusão de alguns táxons em estudos comparativose biomecânicos. Particularmente, estimar a posição de vértebras em séries incompletas tem sido feito com base em métodos não empíricos que não permitem estimar corretamente as partes ausentes. Neste trabalho apresentamos uma metodologia que permite estimar a posição de sequências médias preservadas de vértebras caudais no dinossauro saurísquio Staurikosaurus pricei, com base no comprimento e altura dos centros das vértebras anteriores e posteriores preservadas. Equações de regressão foram usadas para estimar essas dimensões para as vértebras médias e, consequentemente, para posicionar as sequências médias preservadas e para estimar o tamanho das

  13. Functional anatomy of the caudal thoracolumbar and lumbosacral spine in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, N C; Hodges, P W; Jeffcott, L B; Cowin, G; Hodgson, D R; McGowan, C M

    2006-08-01

    Research in spinal biomechanics and functional anatomy has advanced back pain research in man. Yet, despite the performance limiting nature of back pain in horses, there are few data for the equine spine. To describe aspects of functional anatomy of the equine thoracolumbar and lumbosacral (LS) spine and potential effects on performance. The first study investigated variations in LS vertebral formula by post mortem examination of 120 horses. Midline vertebral transection was carried out on 65 Thoroughbred (TB), 24 Standardbred (SB) and 31 other breeds. The second study investigated morphology and biomechanics of the deep stabilising epaxial muscles of 13 horses using MRI (n = 3), anatomical dissection (n = 11) and biomechanical analysis (n = 6). The spinous process angular orientation relative to the vertebral body, was analysed at vertebrae T13, T18, L3, L5, L6 and S1. LS variations were found in 33.3% of the total group, 40.0% TB and 45.2% others, but 0% SB. Sacralisation of lumbar vertebra (L) 6 with LS motion between L5 and L6 occurred in 32.3% TB and 29.0% others. Five segmental multifidus fascicles were identified originating from spinous processes and vertebral laminae running craniocaudally onto the mammillary processes and lateral border of the sacrum, crossing between 1-5 intervertebral discs. Sacrocaudalis dorsalis (SCD) lateralis muscle was an extension of multifidus from L4, L5 and L6 depending on the vertebral formula whereas SCD medialis mm originated from S3. Both inserted on caudal vertebrae. Based on the location and direction of fibres, the principal action of the deep epaxial muscles was dorsoventral sagittal rotation. This action was dependent on vertebral spinous process/body orientation. We hypothesise that equine multifidus and SCD lateralis muscles act as caudal sagittal rotators of their vertebra of origin, as is the case in man, allowing dynamic stabilisation during dorsoventral motion. Equine multifidus anatomy and function are

  14. Effect of ketoprofen, lidocaine local anesthesia, and combined xylazine and lidocaine caudal epidural anesthesia during castration of beef cattle on stress responses, immunity, growth, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S T L; Earley, B; Hughes, J M L; Crowe, M A

    2003-05-01

    To determine the effects of burdizzo castration alone or in combination with ketoprofen (K), local anesthesia (LA), or caudal epidural anesthesia (EPI) on plasma cortisol, acute-phase proteins, interferon-gamma production, growth, and behavior of beef cattle, 50 Holstein x Friesian bulls (13 mo old, 307 +/- 5.3 kg) were assigned to (n = 10/treatment): 1) control (handled; C); 2) burdizzo castration (B); 3) B following K (3 mg/ kg of BW i.v.; BK); 4) B following LA (8 mL into each testis and 3 mL s.c. along the line where the jaws of the burdizzo were applied with 2% lidocaine HCl; BLA); and 5) B following EPI (0.05 mg/kg of BW of xylazine HCl and 0.4 mg/kg of BW of lidocaine HCl as caudal epidural; BEPI). The area under the cortisol curve against time was lower (P castration groups than in C. On d 7, haptoglobin and fibrinogen concentrations remained higher (P castration increased plasma cortisol and acute-phase proteins, and suppressed immune function and growth rates. Local anesthesia prolonged the increase in acute-phase proteins. Ketoprofen was more effective than LA or EPI in decreasing cortisol and partially reversed the reduction in ADG following castration. The use of K or EPI was more effective than LA in decreasing pain-associated behavioral responses observed during the first 6 h after treatment. Systemic analgesia with ketoprofen, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, was more effective in reducing inflammatory responses associated with castration than LA or EPI.

  15. Persistent cauda equina syndrome after caudal epidural injection under severe spinal stenosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo YT

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Young Tak Seo,1 Hyun Ho Kong,1 Goo Joo Lee,1 Heui Je Bang1,2 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea Abstract: Caudal epidural injection (CEI is one of the most common treatments for low-back pain with sciatica. CEI rarely leads to neurologic complications. We report a case of persistent cauda equina syndrome after CEI. A 44-year-old male patient with severe L4 and L5 spinal stenosis underwent CEI for low-back pain and sciatica. The CEI solution consisted of bupivacaine, hyaluronidase, triamcinolone acetonide, and normal saline. He experienced motor weakness and sensory loss in both lower extremities and neurogenic bladder for more than 1 year after the procedure. His ankle dorsiflexors, big-toe extensors, and ankle plantar flexors on both sides were checked and categorized as motor-power Medical Research Council grade 0. His bilateral ankle-jerk reflection was absent. An electrophysiological study showed lumbosacral polyradiculopathy affecting both sides of the L5 and S1 nerve roots. A urodynamic study revealed hypoactive neurogenic bladder affecting both sacral roots. Keywords: epidural injection, cauda equina syndrome, complications

  16. Conflict-related activity in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex in the absence of awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Stefan; Clark, Kristi A.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Stenger, V. Andrew; Carter, Cameron S.

    2009-01-01

    The caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) is thought to be involved in performance monitoring, as conflict and error-related activity frequently co-localize in this area. Recent results suggest that these effects may be differentially modulated by awareness. To clarify the role of awareness in performance monitoring by the cACC, we used rapid event-related fMRI to examine the cACC activity while subjects performed a dual task: a delayed recognition task and a serial response task (SRT) with an implicit probabilistic learning rule (i.e. the stimulus location followed a probabilistic sequence of which the subjects were unaware). Task performance confirmed that the location sequence was learned implicitly. Even though we found no evidence of awareness for the presence of the sequence, imaging data revealed increased cACC activity during correct trials which violated the sequence (high conflict), relative to trials when stimuli followed the sequence (low conflict). Errors made with awareness also activated the same brain region. These results suggest that the performance monitoring function of the cACC extends beyond detection of errors made with or without awareness, and involves detection of multiple responses even when they are outside of awareness. PMID:19026710

  17. Anatomic atlas for computed tomography in the mesaticephalic dog: caudal abdomen and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.E.; George, T. II.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a comprehensive anatomic atlas of CT anatomy of the dog for use by veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and surgeons. Whole-body CT images of two mature beagle dogs were made with the dogs supported in sternal recumbency and using a slice thickness of 13 mm. At the end of the CT session, each dog was euthanized, and while carefully maintaining the same position, the body was frozen. The body was then sectioned at 13-mm intervals, with the cuts matched as closely as possible to the CT slices. The frozen sections were cleaned, photographed, and radiographed using xeroradiography. Each CT image was studied and compared with its corresponding xeroradiograph and anatomic section to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled in the three corresponding photographs (CT image, xeroradiograph, and anatomic section). In previous papers, the head and neck, and the thorax and cranial abdomen of the mesaticephalic (beagle) dog were presented. In this paper, the caudal part of the abdomen and pelvis of the bitch and male dog are presented

  18. Role of annexin gene and its regulation during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sandeep; Purushothaman, Sruthi; Meghah, Vuppalapaty; Bhatti, Bhawna; Poruri, Akhila; Meena Lakshmi, Mula G; Sarath Babu, Nukala; Narasimha Murthy, Ch Lakshmi; Mandal, Komal K; Kumar, Arvind; Idris, Mohammed M

    2016-05-01

    The molecular mechanism of epimorphic regeneration is elusive due to its complexity and limitation in mammals. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms play a crucial role in development and regeneration. This investigation attempted to reveal the role of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, such as histone H3 and H4 lysine acetylation and methylation during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration. It was intriguing to observe that H3K9,14 acetylation, H4K20 trimethylation, H3K4 trimethylation and H3K9 dimethylation along with their respective regulatory genes, such as GCN5, SETd8b, SETD7/9, and SUV39h1, were differentially regulated in the regenerating fin at various time points of post-amputation. Annexin genes have been associated with regeneration; this study reveals the significant up-regulation of ANXA2a and ANXA2b transcripts and their protein products during the regeneration process. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and PCR analysis of the regulatory regions of the ANXA2a and ANXA2b genes demonstrated the ability to repress two histone methylations, H3K27me3 and H4K20me3, in transcriptional regulation during regeneration. It is hypothesized that this novel insight into the diverse epigenetic mechanisms that play a critical role during the regeneration process may help to strategize the translational efforts, in addition to identifying the molecules involved in vertebrate regeneration. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  19. Distracted cervical spinal fusion for management of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy in large-breed dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, G. W.; Seim, III, H. B.; Clemmons, R. M.

    1988-08-15

    Using an autogenous bone graft (obtained from the iliac crest), 4-mm cancellous bone screws, and polymethylmethacrylate, a distracted cervical spinal fusion technique was performed on 10 dogs with myelographic evidence of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy. All dogs had evidence of dynamic soft tissue spinal cord compression, as indicated by flexion, extension, and traction myelographic views. Of the 10 dogs, 4 previously had undergone surgery by use of ventral slot or cervical disk fenestration techniques, and their neurologic status had deteriorated after the original surgery. Preoperative neurologic status of the 10 dogs included nonambulatory tetraparesis (n = 5), severe ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 2), and mild ambulatory ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 3). Five dogs had signs of various degrees of cervical pain. Clinical improvement was observed in 8 of 10 dogs--either improved neurologic status or elimination of cervical pain. Implant loosening developed in 3 dogs; 2 of them were euthanatized because of lack of neurologic improvement. Radiographic evidence of bony cervical fusion was observed during a 9- to 24-week period in 6 of the 8 surviving dogs. The distracted cervical fusion technique appears to be a valid surgical procedure to manage cervical spondylomyelopathy in those dogs in which the lesions are limited to one cervical intervertebral disk space.

  20. Distracted cervical spinal fusion for management of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy in large-breed dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, G.W.; Seim, H.B. III; Clemmons, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Using an autogenous bone graft (obtained from the iliac crest), 4-mm cancellous bone screws, and polymethylmethacrylate, a distracted cervical spinal fusion technique was performed on 10 dogs with myelographic evidence of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy. All dogs had evidence of dynamic soft tissue spinal cord compression, as indicated by flexion, extension, and traction myelographic views. Of the 10 dogs, 4 previously had undergone surgery by use of ventral slot or cervical disk fenestration techniques, and their neurologic status had deteriorated after the original surgery. Preoperative neurologic status of the 10 dogs included nonambulatory tetraparesis (n = 5), severe ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 2), and mild ambulatory ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 3). Five dogs had signs of various degrees of cervical pain. Clinical improvement was observed in 8 of 10 dogs--either improved neurologic status or elimination of cervical pain. Implant loosening developed in 3 dogs; 2 of them were euthanatized because of lack of neurologic improvement. Radiographic evidence of bony cervical fusion was observed during a 9- to 24-week period in 6 of the 8 surviving dogs. The distracted cervical fusion technique appears to be a valid surgical procedure to manage cervical spondylomyelopathy in those dogs in which the lesions are limited to one cervical intervertebral disk space

  1. Glutamate Receptors in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Mediate Cisplatin-Induced Malaise and Energy Balance Dysregulation through Direct Hindbrain Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Holland, Ruby A; Nelson, Alexandra; Grill, Harvey J; De Jonghe, Bart C

    2015-08-05

    thousands of patients undergo chemotherapies each year, the neural mechanisms mediating their side effects are unknown. The current data outline a neural circuit activated by cisplatin chemotherapy and demonstrate that glutamate signaling in the amygdala, arising from hindbrain projections, is required for the full expression of cisplatin-induced malaise, anorexia, and body weight loss. Together, these data help to characterize the neural circuits and neurotransmitters mediating chemotherapy-induced energy balance dysregulation, which will ultimately provide an opportunity for the development of well tolerated cancer and anti-emetic treatments. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3511094-11$15.00/0.

  2. Glutamate Receptors in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Mediate Cisplatin-Induced Malaise and Energy Balance Dysregulation through Direct Hindbrain Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, Amber L.; Holland, Ruby A.; Nelson, Alexandra; Grill, Harvey J.

    2015-01-01

    ). Although hundreds of thousands of patients undergo chemotherapies each year, the neural mechanisms mediating their side effects are unknown. The current data outline a neural circuit activated by cisplatin chemotherapy and demonstrate that glutamate signaling in the amygdala, arising from hindbrain projections, is required for the full expression of cisplatin-induced malaise, anorexia, and body weight loss. Together, these data help to characterize the neural circuits and neurotransmitters mediating chemotherapy-induced energy balance dysregulation, which will ultimately provide an opportunity for the development of well tolerated cancer and anti-emetic treatments. PMID:26245970

  3. Systematization, description and territory of the caudal cerebral artery of the brain in broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty heads with the neck segment of Caiman latirostris were used. The animals were provided from a creation center called Mister Caiman, under the authorization of the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama. Animals were sacrificed according to the slaughtering routine of the abattoir, and the heads were sectioned at the level of the third cervical vertebra. The arterial system was washed with cold saline solution, with drainage through jugular veins. Subsequently, the system was filled with red colored latex injection. Pieces were than fixed in 20% formaldehyde, for seven days. The brains were removed, with a spinal cord segment, the duramater removed and the arteries dissected. At the level of the hypophysis, the internal carotid artery gave off a rostral branch, and a short caudal branch, continuing, naturally, as the caudal cerebral artery. This artery projected laterodorsalwards and, as it overpassed the optic tract, gave off its I (the first central branch. Penetrated in the cerebral transverse fissure, emitting the diencephalic artery and next its II (second central branch. Still inside the fissure, originated occipital hemispheric branches and a pineal branch. Emerged from the cerebral transverse fissure, over the occipital pole of the cerebral hemisphere. Projected rostralwards, sagital to the cerebral longitudinal fissure, as interhemispheric artery. This artery gave off medial and convex hemispheric branches to the respective surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres, anastomosed with its contralateral homologous, forming the common ethmoidal artery. This artery entered the fissure between the olfactory peduncles, emerging ventrally and dividing into ethmoidal arteries, right and left, which progressed towards the nasal cavities, vascularizing them. The territory of the caudal cerebral artery included the most caudal area of the base of the cerebral hemisphere, its convex surface, the olfactory

  4. Hydrodynamics of a robotic fish tail: effects of the caudal peduncle, fin ray motions and the flow speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ziyu; Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Wen, Li

    2016-02-08

    Recent advances in understanding fish locomotion with robotic devices have included the use of biomimetic flapping based and fin undulatory locomotion based robots, treating two locomotions separately from each other. However, in most fish species, patterns of active movements of fins occur in concert with the body undulatory deformation during swimming. In this paper, we describe a biomimetic robotic caudal fin programmed with individually actuated fin rays to mimic the fin motion of the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and coupled with heave and pitch oscillatory motions adding to the robot to mimic the peduncle motion which is derived from the undulatory fish body. Multiple-axis force and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments from both the vertical and horizontal planes behind the robotic model were conducted under different motion programs and flow speeds. We found that both mean thrust and lift could be altered by changing the phase difference (φ) from 0° to 360° between the robotic caudal peduncle and the fin ray motion (spanning from 3 mN to 124 mN). Notably, DPIV results demonstrated that the caudal fin generated multiple wake flow patterns in both the vertical and horizontal planes by varying φ. Vortex jet angle and thrust impulse also varied significantly both in these two planes. In addition, the vortex shedding position along the spanwise tail direction could be shifted around the mid-sagittal position between the upper and lower lobes by changing the phase difference. We hypothesize that the fish caudal fin may serve as a flexible vectoring propeller during swimming and may be critical for the high maneuverability of fish.

  5. Modified Labial Button Technique for Maintaining Occlusion After Caudal Mandibular Fracture/Temporomandibular Joint Luxation in the Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alice E; Carmichael, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Maxillofacial trauma in cats often results in mandibular symphyseal separation in addition to injuries of the caudal mandible and/or temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Caudal mandibular and TMJ injuries are difficult to access and stabilize using direct fixation techniques, thus indirect fixation is commonly employed. The immediate goals of fixation include stabilization for return to normal occlusion and function with the long-term objective of bony union. Indirect fixation techniques commonly used for stabilization of caudal mandibular and temporomandibular joint fracture/luxation include maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) with acrylic composite, interarcade wiring, tape muzzles, and the bignathic encircling and retaining device (BEARD) technique. This article introduces a modification of the previously described "labial reverse suture through buttons" technique used by Koestlin et al and the "labial locking with buttons" technique by Rocha et al. In cases with minimally displaced subcondylar and pericondylar fractures without joint involvement, the labial button technique can provide sufficient stabilization for healing. Advantages of the modified labial button technique include ease of application, noninvasive nature, and use of readily available materials. The construct can remain in place for a variable of amount of time, depending on its intended purpose. It serves as an alternative to the tape muzzle, which is rarely tolerated by cats. This technique can be easily used in conjunction with other maxillomandibular repairs, such as cerclage wire fixation of mandibular symphyseal separation. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate a modified labial button technique for maintaining occlusion of feline caudal mandibular fractures/TMJ luxations in a step-by-step fashion.

  6. Comparison of preemptive intravenous paracetamol and caudal block in terms of analgesic and hemodynamic parameters in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbülent Gökhan Beyaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Paracetamol has a widespread use for feverand symptomatic relief of pain in children. The aim ofthis study was to compare analgesic effects of preemptiveintravenous (i.v. paracetamol, and caudal block withlevobupivacaine.Materials and methods: A total of 60 children with ASAI-II physical status, aged 5-15 years and undergoing inguinalhernia repair, were randomly allocated to threegroups so that each group contained 20 patients. Group Pchildren received i.v. 15mg/kg paracetamol. Group C receivedonly caudal block with levobupivacaine, and GroupPC received both i.v. paracetamol, and caudal block withlevobupivacaine. Pain level assessed by modified EasternOntario Children’s Hospital pain scale (mCHEOPs,sedation status by Ramsey sedation scale at postoperative5, 15, 30 min and 1,3, and 6th hours.Results: No significant differences were found in age,gender distribution, body weight, ASA status, type andduration of surgery between three groups (p>0.05. Althoughsignificant difference were found in mCHEOPsscores within groups by repeated measures, no differenceof pain scores was observed between three groups(p>0.05. There were no significant differences in the hemodynamicparameters (heart rate, blood pressure bothwithin groups and between groups (p>0.05.Conclusions: Preemptive intravenous paracetamol hadsimilar analgesic effects compared with caudal block withlevobupivacaine with regard to postoperative pain scoresin children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. No hemodynamicor other adverse effects were observed withintravenous paracetamol. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(2:202-208

  7. Three-dimensional motion pattern of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Monika I; Seiler, Gabriela S; Robinson, Leanne E; Ferguson, Stephen J; Bonél, Harald M; Busato, André R; Lang, Johann

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the 3-dimensional motion pattern including main and coupled motions of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs. Vertebral columns of 9 German Shepherd Dogs (GSDs) and 16 dogs of other breeds with similar body weights and body conditions. Main and coupled motions of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column (L4 to S1) were determined by use of a testing apparatus that permitted precise application of known pure moments to the vertebral column. Motion was compared between GSDs and dogs of other breeds. All specimens had a similar motion pattern consisting of main motion and a certain amount of coupled motion including translation. Vertebral columns of GSDs had significantly less main motion in all directions than that of dogs of other breeds. Translation was similar in GSDs and dogs of other breeds and was smallest at the lumbosacral motion segment. Results indicated that motion in the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs is complex and provided a basis for further studies evaluating abnormal vertebral columns.

  8. Artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal da paca (Cuniculus paca, L. 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Cristina de Souza Marques

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n1p165 A paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 é um roedor de porte médio, que embora pertença à fauna brasileira, poucas são as informações sobre sua morfologia na literatura especializada. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se descrever a origem e as ramificações de suas artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal no intuito de contribuir com estudos de anatomia comparativa. Foram utilizados dez animais, entre machos e fêmeas, que após o óbito, tiveram sua parede torácica rebatida entre a quarta e a sexta costelas, para a exposição da aorta torácica, a qual foi canulada no sentido caudal e procedeu-se a injeção de solução de neoprene do tipo látex, corado convenientemente, para o preenchimento de todo o sistema arterial. Estas preparações foram fixadas em solução aquosa de formol a 10% por período superior à 72h; em seguida, as peças foram dissecadas e as artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal identificadas. A artéria mesentérica cranial se originava da aorta abdominal, caudalmente à artéria celíaca, emitindo os seguintes ramos arteriais: pancreaticoduodenal caudal, pancreáticos, jejunais, íleocólicos e cecais. A origem da artéria mesentérica caudal ocorria próximo ao final da aorta abdominal, e este vaso emitia a artéria cólica esquerda e a artéria retal cranial, da qual partiam as artérias sigmóideas. Constatou-se que houve pouca variação no padrão de ramificação das artérias em relação aos referidos roedores e mamíferos domésticos.

  9. Brief pup exposure induces Fos expression in the lateral habenula and serotonergic caudal dorsal raphe nucleus of paternally experienced male California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, T R; Measor, K R; Chauke, M; Harris, B N; Saltzman, W

    2010-09-01

    Fathers play a substantial role in infant care in a small but significant number of mammalian species, including humans. However, the neural circuitry controlling paternal behavior is much less understood than its female counterpart. In order to characterize brain areas activated by paternal care, male California mice were separated from their female mate and litter for 3 h and then exposed to a pup or a control object (a glass pebble with the approximate size and oblong shape of a newborn pup) for 10 min. All males receiving a pup showed a strong paternal response towards it, whereas males receiving a pebble interacted with it only occasionally. Despite the clear behavioral differences, exposure to a pup did not increase Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LIR) compared to a pebble in brain areas previously found to be associated with parental care, including the medial preoptic nucleus and medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Pup exposure did, however, significantly increase Fos-LIR in the lateral habenula (LHb) and in predominantly serotonergic neurons in the caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), as compared to pebble exposure. Both the LHb and DRC are known to be involved in the behavioral responses to strong emotional stimuli; therefore, these areas might play a role in controlling parental behavior in male California mice. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Segmental distribution of high-volume caudal anesthesia in neonates, infants, and toddlers as assessed by ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Märit; Lönnqvist, Per-Arne; Eksborg, Staffan; Marhofer, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this prospective, age-stratified, observational study was to determine the cranial extent of spread of a large volume (1.5 ml·kg(-1) , ropivacaine 0.2%), single-shot caudal epidural injection using real-time ultrasonography. Fifty ASA I-III children were included in the study, stratified in three age groups; neonates, infants (1-12 months), and toddlers (1-4 years). The caudal blocks were performed during ultrasonographic observation of the spread of local anesthetic (LA) in the epidural space. A significant inverse relationship was found between age, weight, and height, and the maximal cranial level reached by 1.5 ml·kg(-1) of LA. In neonates, 93% of the blocks reached a cranial level of ≥Th12 vs 73% and 25% in infants and toddlers, respectively. Based on our data, a predictive equation of segmental spread was generated: Dose (ml/spinal segment) = 0.1539·(BW in kg)-0.0937. This study found an inverse relationship between age, weight, and height and the number of segments covered by a caudal injection of 1.5 ml·kg(-1) of ropivacaine 0.2% in children 0-4 years of age. However, the cranial spread of local anesthetics within the spinal canal as assessed by immediate ultrasound visualization was found to be in poor agreement with previously published predictive equations that are based on actual cutaneous dermatomal testing. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Ontogeny of head and caudal fin shape of an apex marine predator: The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Amy L; Hammerschlag, Neil; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D; Kuo, Chi-Yun; Irschick, Duncan J

    2016-05-01

    How morphology changes with size can have profound effects on the life history and ecology of an animal. For apex predators that can impact higher level ecosystem processes, such changes may have consequences for other species. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are an apex predator in tropical seas, and, as adults, are highly migratory. However, little is known about ontogenetic changes in their body form, especially in relation to two aspects of shape that influence locomotion (caudal fin) and feeding (head shape). We captured digital images of the heads and caudal fins of live tiger sharks from Southern Florida and the Bahamas ranging in body size (hence age), and quantified shape of each using elliptical Fourier analysis. This revealed changes in the shape of the head and caudal fin of tiger sharks across ontogeny. Smaller juvenile tiger sharks show an asymmetrical tail with the dorsal (upper) lobe being substantially larger than the ventral (lower) lobe, and transition to more symmetrical tail in larger adults, although the upper lobe remains relatively larger in adults. The heads of juvenile tiger sharks are more conical, which transition to relatively broader heads over ontogeny. We interpret these changes as a result of two ecological transitions. First, adult tiger sharks can undertake extensive migrations and a more symmetrical tail could be more efficient for swimming longer distances, although we did not test this possibility. Second, adult tiger sharks expand their diet to consume larger and more diverse prey with age (turtles, mammals, and elasmobranchs), which requires substantially greater bite area and force to process. In contrast, juvenile tiger sharks consume smaller prey, such as fishes, crustaceans, and invertebrates. Our data reveal significant morphological shifts in an apex predator, which could have effects for other species that tiger sharks consume and interact with. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ligation of the caudal mesenteric artery during resection and anastomosis of the colorectal junction for annular adenocarcinoma in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathchandra, S K; Lunn, J A; Hunt, G B

    2009-09-01

    An 8-year-old terrier cross and a 10-year-old German Shorthaired Pointer presented to the University Veterinary Centre, Sydney, for investigation of long-standing tenesmus and dyschezia. Both patients had an annular adenocarcinoma at the colorectal junction. Exploratory laparotomy was performed and the affected large intestinal segment was removed by resection and anastomosis. In both dogs, the caudal mesenteric artery was intimately associated with the mass, necessitating its ligation and transection. Postoperatively, there was no evidence of anastomosis breakdown in either case and both animals recovered well from surgery. The dogs were euthanased 8 and 10 months, respectively, after surgery because of clinical signs relating to metastatic disease.

  13. Comparison of the effect of sevoflurane and halothane anesthesia on the fall in hear rate as a predictor of successful single shot caudal epidural in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercan, A.; Ture, H.; Sayin, Murat M.; Koner, O.; Aykac, B.; Sozubir, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on heart rate (HR) fall with the injection of the initial drug in caudal space to confirm the correct needle placement. After the ethical approval was obtained from the hospital's ethics committee, a prospective randomized, clinical study was designed in Yeditepe University Hospital, in 2007. Children aged 1-12 years, scheduled for infraumblical surgery under general anesthesia and caudal block were included in the study. Anesthesia was induced and maintained by sevoflurane in group S (n=8) and by halothane in group H (n=82). Baseline HR was recorded before the caudal block was performed. The HR changes during the initial dose and total drug injection was recorded followed by 2 more HR recordings taken 5 and 10 minutes after caudal injection. The success of the block was recorded by a blind observer. There were 167 children included in the study. Caudal block success was 96.5% in group S and 97.6% in group H. Basal HR was 110.9+-10.9 in group S and 105.9+-10.1 in group H. Following the initial drug injection, mean HR was 109.8+-10.9 in group S and 102.9+-9.9 in group H. It was significantly lower than the baseline in group. The only significant decrease in the HR of the patients in group S was at the tenth minute following caudal injection. The decrease in HR with drug injection has no value to predict the success of caudal block under sevoflurane anesthesia. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Artificial Caudal Fin for Fish Robot with Two Joints by Using Three-Dimensional Fluid-Structure Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogo Takada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fish robot with image sensors is useful to research for underwater creatures such as fish. However, the propulsion velocity of a fish robot is very slow compared with live fish. It is necessary to swim at a speed several times faster than the speed of the current robots for various usages. Therefore, we are searching for the method of making the robot swim fast. The simulation before making the robot is important. We have made the computational simulation program of three-dimensional fluid-structure analysis. The flow around the caudal fin can be examined by analyzing the fin as an elastic body. We compared the results of numerical analysis with the results of PIV measurement. Both were agreed well. Because the performance of a fish robot with two joints is better than that of a fish robot with one joint, we searched for an excellent fin for the fish robot with two joints by using CFD. We confirmed that the swimming performance of a fish robot becomes very good when the caudal fin is rigid except for the root of the fin which is comparatively flexible.

  15. Auxillary system for optimizing simulation and percutaneous irradiation in cranio-caudally contiguous head-neck-mediastinum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistermanns, J.

    1994-01-01

    Percutaneous irradiation in the head and neck region via opponing lateral fields with caudally contiguous ventral and/or dorsal fields makes very high demands on simulation, instrument adjustment and documentation. At the outer boundaries of the irradiation volumes, there is always the danger of overdosage or underdosage with the familiar consequences. Four targeting systems in one plane were inserted in a perspex frame each consisting of two concentric rings and two orthogonal crossbars. Under simulation conditions, the lateral radiation fields take up one half of the targeting systems and the ventro-dorsal fields occupy the remaining half. The corresponding targeting systems project exactly on or into each other with compensation of the beam divergence. A definitively exact irradiation via cranio-caudally contiguous fields with different incident beam direction is possible by using the four targeting systems in one plane. Compensation of divergence is aimed for by rotation of the table and gantry angle modification, errors of compensation can already be checked optically from 0,5 . Deviations of 5 mm in the simulated longitudinal arrangement of the contiguous fields can be imaged on the documentation film made with therapy activity. On the one hand, the auxillary system presented allows both recognition of undesired field overlap and gaps in contiguous fields with different incident beam direction. On the other hand, it can be unequivocally documented whether the therapy is correct. Treatment errors can thus be minimized. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Acetylcarnitine metabolism and the partial purification and characterization of an acetylcarnitine hydrolase from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Epididymal spermatozoa are capable of utilizing extracellular substrates for energy, but carbohydrates and free or esterified fatty acids are present in only very low concentrations in epididymal fluid. Acetyl-L-carnitine has been identified in epididymal fluid in low mM concentrations in several mammalian species and could possibly be an energy substrate for epididymal spermatozoa. Evidence that extracellular acetyl-L-carnitine can be used by intact caudal epididymal spermatozoa for energy, and a model for the metabolism of acetyl-L-carnitine by epididymal spermatozoa are presented here. Intact bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa oxidized [1- 14 C] acetyl-L-carnitine to 14 CO 2 in a time-, cell number-, and substrate concentration-dependent manner. No concomitant uptake of acetyl-D,L-[N-methyl- 3 H] carnitine was observed by cells from the same preparations. Half-maximal rates of oxidation were observed at 8 mM and 4.5 mM acetyl-L-carnitine for the two species, respectively; the rates of oxidation at these concentrations were 15.3 nmol/10 8 cells·h and 2.9 nmol/10 7 cells·h. Intact spermatozoa in incubation with [ 3 H] acetyl-L-carnitine were observed to produce [ 3 H] acetate in the medium, and addition of sodium acetate competed for the uptake of radioactive acetate by these cells

  17. A novel approach to brachycephalic syndrome. 3. Isolated laser-assisted turbinectomy of caudal aberrant turbinates (CAT LATE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemann, Riccarda; Pohl, Sabine; Oechtering, Gerhard U

    2017-01-01

    To describe isolated laser-assisted turbinectomy of caudal aberrant turbinates (CAT LATE) as a new minimally invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of brachycephalic dogs with obstructing caudal aberrant turbinates (CAT). Prospective clinical study. Brachycephalic dogs (24 Pugs, 1 English Bulldog) with CAT but adequate air spaces between the lamellae of the nonobstructing ventral nasal concha. A rhinoscopically guided diode laser fiber introduced from anterior was used to dissect CAT within the nasopharyngeal meatus, while leaving the intranasal turbinates intact. Small grasping forceps were used to extract the dissected CAT from anterior or to push it through the nasopharyngeal meatus for extraction from posterior. Isolated CAT LATE was successfully performed on 32 CAT in 25 dogs. Intranasally applied xylometazoline helped shrink the ventral concha, making the approach and extraction easier. Minor bleeding was the only complication observed. It is possible to remove CAT with endoscopically applied diode-laser energy while leaving the nonobstructing ventral nasal concha intact. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection for management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: short-term and long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Myung, Jae Sung; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Park, Kun Woo; Yeom, Jin S. [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jib [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) and to analyze outcome predictors. All patients who underwent caudal ESI in 2006 for DLSS were included in the study. Response was based on chart documentation (aggravated, no change, slightly improved, much improved, no pain). In June 2009 telephone interviews were conducted, using formatted questions including the North American Spine Society (NASS) patient satisfaction scale. For short-term and long-term effects, age difference was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test, and gender, duration of symptoms, level of DLSS, spondylolisthesis, and previous operations were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Two hundred and sixteen patients (male: female = 75:141; mean age 69.2 years; range 48{proportional_to}91 years) were included in the study. Improvements (slightly improved, much improved, no pain) were seen in 185 patients (85.6%) after an initial caudal ESI and in 189 patients (87.5%) after a series of caudal ESIs. Half of the patients (89/179, 49.8%) replied positively to the NASS patient satisfaction scale (1 or 2). There were no significant outcome predictors for either the short-term or the long-term responses. Fluoroscopically guided caudal ESI was effective for the management of DLSS (especially central canal stenosis) with excellent short-term and good long-term results, without significant outcome predictors. (orig.)

  19. Histological variations in myoepithelial cells and arrectores pilorum muscles among caudal, metatarsal and preorbital glands in Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis Heude, 1884).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Nobuo; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

    2004-03-01

    The morphological characteristics of myoepithelial cells and arrectores pilorum muscles were investigated in caudal, metatarsal and preorbital glands of Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis Heude, 1884) using immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin. In the metatarsal, preorbital and general skin glands, myoepithelial cell layers continuously embraced the secretory epithelium, while in the caudal gland, discontinuous myoepithelial cell rows surrounded the apocrine tubules. There was a trend that the widths of the myoepithelial cells of the caudal and preorbital glands appeared to be thinner than those of the metatarsal and general skin glands. In the metatarsal gland, the arrectores pilorum muscles were highly developed and considerably larger than those in other skin glands.

  20. Comparison of the therapeutic effect between a transforminal along with a caudal epidural injection, as well as two-level transforaminal epidural injections ina radiculopathy patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jung Han; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Keun Won; Kim, Young Joong; Seo, Jae Young; Lim, Seong Joo; Kang, Byeong Seong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) along with a caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI), compared to two-level TFESIs in a multi-level radiculopathy patient. A total of 895 lumbar ESIs were performed in 492 patients with multi-level radiculopathy from January 2012 to January 2015. Before injections were performed, the initial Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score was assessed in all patients, categorized into no pain (excellent), mild (good, NRS: 1-3), moderate (fair, NRS: 4-6), and severe pain (poor, NRS: 7-10). Therapeutic effects were examined for two groups: one-level TFESI along with caudal and ESI two-level TFESIs. Patient outcomes were assessed by NRS in a serial follow-up at one, three, and six months. One TFESI along with caudal ESI was performed in 274 patients and two TFESIs for 218. For the former group with one TFESI along with caudal ESI, excellent results were shown: 219 (79.9%) patients after one month, 200 (72.9%) after three, and 193 (70.4%) after six months. In the patient group with two TFESIs (n = 218) the outcomes were also very good: 152 (69.7%) after one month, 131 (60.0%) after three months, and 123 (56.4%) patients after six months. The therapeutic effect of one TFESI along with caudal ESI was better than two TFESIs in for one, threes, and six months (p < 0.01). Transforaminal epidural steroid with caudal epidural injection is a more effective tool for lumbosacral radiculopathy than two level transforaminal injections in multi-level radiculopathy patients

  1. Comparison of the therapeutic effect between a transforminal along with a caudal epidural injection, as well as two-level transforaminal epidural injections ina radiculopathy patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jung Han; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Keun Won; Kim, Young Joong; Seo, Jae Young; Lim, Seong Joo [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byeong Seong [Dept. of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) along with a caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI), compared to two-level TFESIs in a multi-level radiculopathy patient. A total of 895 lumbar ESIs were performed in 492 patients with multi-level radiculopathy from January 2012 to January 2015. Before injections were performed, the initial Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score was assessed in all patients, categorized into no pain (excellent), mild (good, NRS: 1-3), moderate (fair, NRS: 4-6), and severe pain (poor, NRS: 7-10). Therapeutic effects were examined for two groups: one-level TFESI along with caudal and ESI two-level TFESIs. Patient outcomes were assessed by NRS in a serial follow-up at one, three, and six months. One TFESI along with caudal ESI was performed in 274 patients and two TFESIs for 218. For the former group with one TFESI along with caudal ESI, excellent results were shown: 219 (79.9%) patients after one month, 200 (72.9%) after three, and 193 (70.4%) after six months. In the patient group with two TFESIs (n = 218) the outcomes were also very good: 152 (69.7%) after one month, 131 (60.0%) after three months, and 123 (56.4%) patients after six months. The therapeutic effect of one TFESI along with caudal ESI was better than two TFESIs in for one, threes, and six months (p < 0.01). Transforaminal epidural steroid with caudal epidural injection is a more effective tool for lumbosacral radiculopathy than two level transforaminal injections in multi-level radiculopathy patients.

  2. Origens e distribuições das artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal em fetos de javalis (Sus scrofa scrofa, Linnaeus – 1758

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    Andrea Regina Abrantes Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n1p159 Estudou-se o comportamento anatômico das artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal em 21 fetos de javalis, fêmeas e machos, nos quais foi injetada, através da aorta torácica, solução de Neoprene Látex “450”, corada com pigmento específico e, em seguida, eles foram fixados em solução de formol a 10%. A análise dos resultados permitiu afirmar que a artéria mesentérica cranial originou-se da aorta abdominal, caudalmente à artéria celíaca, emitiu ramos adrenais direito e esquerdo, pancreáticos, e as artérias pancreático-duodenal caudal, jejunais, cólicas média e direita, e ileocecocólica. A artéria mesentérica caudal surgiu da aorta abdominal, de seu terço caudal, e emitiu as artérias cólica esquerda e retal cranial. Foram verificadas anastomoses entre artérias jejunais, cólica esquerda e retal cranial, e cólicas esquerda e média. Nas três espécies, as artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal, pancreático-duodenal caudal, jejunais, cólicas direita e média, e ileocecocólica apresentaram padrões vasculares semelhantes, visto que as diferenças quanto a emissão de ramos ou surgimento isolado ou em tronco comum não alteraram o suprimento sanguíneo.

  3. Relationship between Feline calicivirus Load, Oral Lesions, and Outcome in Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis (Caudal Stomatitis: Retrospective Study in 104 Cats

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    Isabelle Druet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThis study was performed to assess the relationship between oral Feline calicivirus (FCV load and severity of lesions at the time of presentation of cats suffering from feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS (part 1 and treatment outcome after dental extractions (part 2. We hypothesized that a higher FCV viral load would be positively correlated with the severity of lesions at presentation and negatively correlated with treatment outcome. In addition, the effect of dental extractions on outcome and the influence of preoperative severity of lesions on the outcome were investigated.Materials and methodsCats with FCGS were included in the study if they had been diagnosed with caudal stomatitis, had been tested positive for FCV using a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR test on oropharyngeal swab, and had dental extractions performed within the authors’ department. General practitioners provided all previous medical treatments. Cats with recheck examinations were included in part 2 of the study. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the different parameters.ResultsOne hundred four cats met the requirements for part 1 and 56 cats for part 2 of the study. Data collected from patients’ record included patient history, viral testing results, extent and severity of oral lesions, extent of teeth extraction. Signalment, history, preoperative treatment, and severity of caudal and alveolar stomatitis score were not associated with FCV load (P > 0.05. Presence of lingual ulcers was significantly correlated with FCV load (P = 0.0325. Clinical cure (32.1% or very significant improvement (19.6% was achieved in 51.8% of cats within 38 days. Concomitantly, 60.7% of the owners considered their cat cured (41.1% or significantly improved (19.6%. Extent of teeth extraction was not found to influence the clinical outcome (P > 0.05.ConclusionThe results of this study did not support the hypothesis

  4. Sistematização da veia cava caudal em búfalos (Bubalus bubalis bubalis Simpson, 1945

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    Adelmar Afonso de Amorim Júnior

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para o presente trabalho utilizou-se 25 animais, fetos de búfalos da Raça Murrah, com idades variando entre 5 e 9 meses, sendo 15 fêmeas e 10 machos, com vistas à dissecação e sistematização dos vasos em estudo. Os animais foram coletados em abatedouro e fixados em solução aquosa de formol 10%. Obtiveramse para a Veia Cava Caudal os seguintes afluentes de origem: as veias ilíacas comuns direita e esquerda, e seus afluentes colaterais; veia sacral mediana; veias frênicas; veias lombares (1-5; veias circunflexas profunda do ílio direita e esquerda; 3-4 veias hepáticas; veia genital direita (testicular ou ovárica; veias adrenais e veias renais direita e esquerda.

  5. Caudal Ganglionic Eminence Precursor Transplants Disperse and Integrate as Lineage-Specific Interneurons but Do Not Induce Cortical Plasticity

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    Phillip Larimer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The maturation of inhibitory GABAergic cortical circuits regulates experience-dependent plasticity. We recently showed that the heterochronic transplantation of parvalbumin (PV or somatostatin (SST interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE reactivates ocular dominance plasticity (ODP in the postnatal mouse visual cortex. Might other types of interneurons similarly induce cortical plasticity? Here, we establish that caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE-derived interneurons, when transplanted into the visual cortex of neonatal mice, migrate extensively in the host brain and acquire laminar distribution, marker expression, electrophysiological properties, and visual response properties like those of host CGE interneurons. Although transplants from the anatomical CGE do induce ODP, we found that this plasticity reactivation is mediated by a small fraction of MGE-derived cells contained in the transplant. These findings demonstrate that transplanted CGE cells can successfully engraft into the postnatal mouse brain and confirm the unique role of MGE lineage neurons in the induction of ODP.

  6. Birth Defects Associated with Perturbations in Pre-implantation, Gastrulation & Axis Extension: from Conjoined Twinning to Caudal Dysgenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Vaquer, Anna; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2012-01-01

    Congenital malformations represent approximately 3 in 100 live births within the human population. Understanding their pathogenesis and ultimately formulating effective treatments is underpinned by knowledge of the events and factors that regulate normal embryonic development. Studies in model organisms, primarily in the mouse, the most prominent genetically tractable mammalian model, have equipped us with a rudimentary understanding of mammalian development from early lineage commitment to morphogenetic processes. In this way information provided by studies in the mouse can, in some cases, be used to draw parallels with other mammals, including human. Here we provide an overview of our current understanding of the general sequence of developmental events from early cell cleavages to gastrulation and axis extension occurring in human embryos. We will also review some of the rare birth defects occurring at these stages, in particular those resulting in conjoined twinning or caudal dysgenesis. PMID:24014416

  7. Caudal epidural injections for lumbar prolapsed inter vertebral disc: assessment with urdu version of oswestry disability index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, I.F.; Qureshi, M.A.; Farooq, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims: Oswestry Disability index is an established tool for assessment of Spinal Disability. It has been translated into many languages and but not to Urdu. The aim of this prospective observational study was translation, application and validation of Urdu version of the Oswestry Disability Index (Urdu ODI) for our specific cultural background. Methods: Urdu version of ODI was developed and applied for outcome assessment in 50 patients, suffering from lumbar prolapsed inter vertebral discs and treated with caudal epidural steroid injection. All patients having mechanical low backache with radiculopathy and single level disc prolapse at L-4-5 or L5- S 1 on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were included in the study. Single Steroid Injection with local anesthetic was injected into sacral caudal epidural space through sacral hiatus. A Performa was made for each patient and records were kept in a custom built Microsoft access database. Outcome was assessed using Urdu ODI and validation by comparing with Numeric rating Scale 0-10 at each visit. Results: Fifty patients received caudal epidural injections, 23 (46%) were male and 27 (54%) were female. The mean age was 34 years, with the range being 21-55. Low mechanical backache with right sided radiculopathy was in 29 (58%) and left sided in 21 (42%) patients. The commonest involved disc was L4-S in 28 (56%) and L5-S1 in 22 (44%) patients Pain was assessed with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) of ten points. This was mean 7.35, range 9-6 at presentation and mean improvement was 4.15 with range 5-3 at fist week, 3.80 with range 5-2 at first month and 3.05 with range 4-1 after six months. Functional disability assessment was done using Urdu ODI. The mean Urdu ODI at the time of presentation was 66.23% with range 81%-48%. The mean functional status was found to be 38.64% with range 26%-45% at the end of the first week, 43.65% with range 31%-48% after one month and 44.85% with range 28%-48% after six months. So there was

  8. The Influence of Tetrodotoxin (TTX on the Distribution and Chemical Coding of Caudal Mesenteric Ganglion (CaMG Neurons Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder

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    Ewa Lepiarczyk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of micturition disorders creates a serious problem for urologists. Recently, new therapeutic agents, such as neurotoxins, are being considered for the therapy of urological patients. The present study investigated the chemical coding of caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder after intravesical instillation of tetrodotoxin (TTX. The CaMG neurons were visualized with retrograde tracer Fast blue (FB and their chemical profile was disclosed with double-labeling immunohistochemistry using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, neuropeptide Y (NPY, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, somatostatin (SOM, calbindin (CB, galanin (GAL and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. It was found that in both the control (n = 6 and TTX-treated pigs (n = 6, the vast majority (92.6% ± 3.4% and 88.8% ± 2%, respectively of FB-positive (FB+ nerve cells were TH+. TTX instillation caused a decrease in the number of FB+/TH+ neurons immunopositive to NPY (88.9% ± 5.3% in the control animals vs. 10.6% ± 5.3% in TTX-treated pigs or VIP (1.7% ± 0.6% vs. 0%, and an increase in the number of FB+/TH+ neurons immunoreactive to SOM (8.8% ± 1.6% vs. 39% ± 12.8%, CB (1.8% ± 0.7% vs. 12.6% ± 2.7%, GAL (1.7% ± 0.8% vs. 10.9% ± 2.6% or nNOS (0% vs. 1.1% ± 0.3%. The present study is the first to suggest that TTX modifies the chemical coding of CaMG neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder.

  9. Feedforward and feedback projections of caudal belt and parabelt areas of auditory cortex: refining the hierarchical model

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    Troy A Hackett

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our working model of the primate auditory cortex recognizes three major regions (core, belt, parabelt, subdivided into thirteen areas. The connections between areas are topographically ordered in a manner consistent with information flow along two major anatomical axes: core-belt-parabelt and caudal-rostral. Remarkably, most of the connections supporting this model were revealed using retrograde tracing techniques. Little is known about laminar circuitry, as anterograde tracing of axon terminations has rarely been used. The purpose of the present study was to examine the laminar projections of three areas of auditory cortex, pursuant to analysis of all areas. The selected areas were: middle lateral belt (ML; caudomedial belt (CM; and caudal parabelt (CPB. Injections of anterograde tracers yielded data consistent with major features of our model, and also new findings that compel modifications. Results supporting the model were: 1 feedforward projection from ML and CM terminated in CPB; 2 feedforward projections from ML and CPB terminated in rostral areas of the belt and parabelt; and 3 feedback projections typified inputs to the core region from belt and parabelt. At odds with the model was the convergence of feedforward inputs into rostral medial belt from ML and CPB. This was unexpected since CPB is at a higher stage of the processing hierarchy, with mainly feedback projections to all other belt areas. Lastly, extending the model, feedforward projections from CM, ML, and CPB overlapped in the temporal parietal occipital area (TPO in the superior temporal sulcus, indicating significant auditory influence on sensory processing in this region. The combined results refine our working model and highlight the need to complete studies of the laminar inputs to all areas of auditory cortex. Their documentation is essential for developing informed hypotheses about the neurophysiological influences of inputs to each layer and area.

  10. Early endoscopic realignment of traumatic anterior and posterior urethral disruptions under caudal anaesthesia - a 5-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olapade-Olaopa, E O; Atalabi, O M; Adekanye, A O; Adebayo, S A; Onawola, K A

    2010-01-01

    We recently described early rigid retrograde endoscopic realignment of the disrupted urethra under caudal anaesthesia in the outpatient setting. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate our medium-term results. A retrospective review of patients who had early rigid retrograde endoscopic realignment of traumatic urethral disruptions in our institution over a 5-year period was done and the relevant data extracted and analyzed. Fourteen acutely ruptured urethras (10 posterior and four anterior) were endoscopically realigned early in the study period. Nine (90%) of the posterior disruptions occurred at bulbo-membranous urethra (distal to the external sphincter mechanism). Thirteen of the ruptured urethras (93%) were successfully realigned (nine posterior and four anterior) and postoperative clean intermittent self-calibration (CIC) was instituted in 10 patients. The mean follow-up period was 36.6 months (range 18-54 months). The mean operating time and the median hospital stay were 22 min (range 8-68 min) and 3 days (range 1-10 days), respectively, and were shorter in patients with injuries of the anterior urethra than those with posterior urethral tears (p < or = 0.0001). Post-realignment, all 13 patients were potent and continent. Two patients required additional procedures (direct vision internal urethrotomy or urethral dilation) and one patient has remained on CIC i.e. a stricture rate of 21%. Early retrograde endoscopic realignment under caudal analgesia is suitable and cost-effective for patients with acute traumatic urethral disruptions and has good medium-term results. In addition, an early postoperative regimen of CIC significantly reduced stricture-formation in our series.

  11. Comparison of caudal and pre-scrotal castration for management of perineal hernia in dogs between 2004 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, W L; Orsher, R J; Larenza-Menzies, M P; Popovitch, C A

    2015-09-01

    To compare peri- and post-operative complications associated with caudal scrotal castration (CSC) and perineal hernia repair with pre-scrotal castration (PSC) in conjunction with another surgical procedure. Medical records were reviewed for 51 intact male dogs that were admitted to the Veterinary Emergency and Surgical Center, Levittown, PA, and underwent a CSC and perineal hernia repair using an internal obturator muscle flap (IOMF) between 2004 and 2014. Perioperative, and major and minor post-operative complications noted within the 2 week follow up period were reported and compared to 91 intact male dogs that underwent a PSC in conjunction with a second surgical procedure. There were no recorded perioperative or major post-operative complications in either group. There were 3/51 (6%) minor post-operative complications in the CSC group compared to 6/91 (7%) in the PSC group. There were 2/51 (4%) and 4/91 (4%) cases that developed heat, erythema and swelling associated with the incision site and 1/51 (2%) and 2/91 (2%) cases that developed scrotal swelling in the CSC and PSC groups, respectively. Overall, there was no difference in the prevalence of minor complications between the two groups (p=0.86). Caudal scrotal castration was not associated with more perioperative or postoperative complications relative to PSC. Utilising the CSC approach eliminates the need to aseptically prepare and drape a second site when carrying out perineal hernia repair, as well as the need for patient repositioning. Thus, we recommend that CSC be the preferred surgical technique when performing orchiectomy in dogs concurrent with perineal hernia repair.

  12. CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LA CIRCULACIÓN TROPOSFÉRICA ASOCIADA A LAS VARIACIONES INTERANUALES DEL CAUDAL DEL RÍO TECKA – GUALJAINA, ARGENTINA

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    Mariana P. Torrero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La cuenca del río Tecka – Gualjaina se localiza al Noroeste de la provincia de Chubut, Argentina y desarrolla una superficie de 5.318 km2. El trabajo explora los forzantes del sistema atmósfera-océano asociados a la variabilidad interanual del caudal para la temporada de máximo caudal (de junio a noviembre, que representa el 80% del total anual, y de mínimo caudal (de diciembre a mayo. El balance hídrico de la cuenca arrojó condiciones de aridez, por lo que el comportamiento temporal del caudal depende del de la precipitación. En el registro disponible 1956-2013 la serie de máximo caudal presentó tendencia negativa, con un cambio de régimen en las anomalías de caudal a comienzos de los 80, pasando de un predominio positivo antes a otro negativo después. La serie de mínimo caudal mostró ser más estacionaria, sin tendencia significativa. Los ciclos dominantes en ambas series temporales sólo se observaron en la alta frecuencia interanual ( 2 años y 4-5 años. Las teleconexiones y forzantes asociados a las series de caudal se analizaron para el período 1979-2013 mediante el reanálisis del ERA-Interim. Las variaciones interanuales del caudal máximo estuvieron asociadas a teleconexión troposférica de baja frecuencia (interanual simétrica respecto del Ecuador, posiblemente asociada a variaciones en la convección tropical entre aproximadamente 10oN-10oS y 150oE-180oE, inducidas por variaciones de temperatura superficial del mar en el Pacífico occidental ecuatorial (entre 180oO-150oO. La teleconexión afectó la posición e intensidad de las corrientes en chorro subtropical y polar, alterando la trayectoria de sistemas baroclínicos invernales que precipitan en la región. Las variaciones interanuales del mínimo caudal estuvieron asociadas a una variabilidad de altas latitudes simétricamente anular, modulada por un tren de onda 3 en latitudes medias sobre el Pacífico Sur y el Atlántico Sur. Estas características pudieron

  13. Hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neuron adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation, upstream kinase/phosphorylase protein expression, and receptivity to hormone and fuel reporters of short-term food deprivation are regulated by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briski, Karen P; Alenazi, Fahaad S H; Shakya, Manita; Sylvester, Paul W

    2017-07-01

    Estradiol (E) mitigates acute and postacute adverse effects of 12 hr-food deprivation (FD) on energy balance. Hindbrain 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates hyperphagic and hypothalamic metabolic neuropeptide and norepinephrine responses to FD in an E-dependent manner. Energy-state information from AMPK-expressing hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons shapes neural responses to metabolic imbalance. Here we investigate the hypothesis that FD causes divergent changes in A2 AMPK activity in E- vs. oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized female rats, alongside dissimilar adjustments in circulating metabolic fuel (glucose, free fatty acids [FFA]) and energy deficit-sensitive hormone (corticosterone, glucagon, leptin) levels. FD decreased blood glucose in oil (O)- but not E-implanted ovariectomized female rats and elevated and reduced glucagon levels in O and E, respectively. FD decreased circulating leptin in O and E, but increased corticosterone and FFA concentrations in E only. Western blot analysis of laser-microdissected A2 neurons showed that glucocorticoid receptor type II and very-long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 protein profiles were amplified in FD/E vs. FD/O. A2 total AMPK protein was elevated without change in activity in FD/O, whereas FD/E exhibited increased AMPK activation along with decreased upstream phosphatase expression. The catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) was increased in FD/O but not FD/E A2 cells. The data show discordance between A2 AMPK activation and glycemic responses to FD; sensor activity was refractory to glucose decrements in FD/O but augmented in FD/E despite stabilized glucose and elevated FFA levels. E-dependent amplification of AMPK activity may reflect adaptive conversion to fatty acid oxidation and/or glucocorticoid stimulation. FD augmentation of A2 DβH protein profiles in FD/O but not FD/E animals suggests that FD may correspondingly regulate NE synthesis vs. metabolism/release in the

  14. Articulatory Closure Proficiency in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Caudal Zona Incerta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik; van Doorn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed at comparing the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) on the proficiency in achieving oral closure and release during plosive production of people with Parkinson's disease. Method: Nineteen patients participated preoperatively and…

  15. CGRP infusion in unanesthetized rats increases expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarius and caudal ventrolateral medulla, but not in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatt, Deepak K; Ramachandran, Roshni; Christensen, Sarah Louise Tangsgaard

    2015-01-01

    caudalis (TNC) was isolated at different time points after CGRP infusion. The level of c-Fos mRNA and protein expression in TNC were analyzed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. c-Fos-stained nuclei were also counted in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), integrative...

  16. The Effects of Single-Dose Rectal Midazolam Application on Postoperative Recovery, Sedation, and Analgesia in Children Given Caudal Anesthesia Plus Bupivacaine

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    Sedat Saylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to compare the effects of rectal midazolam addition after applying bupivacaine and caudal anesthesia on postoperative analgesia time, the need for additional analgesics, postoperative recovery, and sedation and to find out its adverse effects in children having lower abdominal surgery. Methods. 40 children between 2 and 10 years of ASA I-II were randomized, and they received caudal anesthesia under general anesthesia. Patients underwent the application of caudal block in addition to saline and 1 mL/kg bupivacaine 0.25%. In the postoperative period, Group C (n = 20 was given 5 mL saline, and Group M (n = 20 was given 0.30 mg/kg rectal midazolam diluted with 5 mL saline. Sedation scale and postoperative pain scale (CHIPPS of the patients were evaluated. The patients were observed for their analgesic need, first analgesic time, and adverse effects for 24 hours. Results. Demographic and hemodynamic data of the two groups did not differ. Postoperative sedation scores in both groups were significantly lower compared with the preoperative period. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of sedation and sufficient analgesia. Conclusions. We conclude that caudal anesthesia provided sufficient analgesia in peroperative and postoperative periods, and rectal midazolam addition did not create any differences. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02127489.

  17. Characterization of a novel caudal vertebral interbody fusion in a rat tail model: An implication for future material and mechanical testing

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    Yu-Cheng Yeh

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: The rat caudal disc interbody fusion model proved to be an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible model. Future research into adjuvant treatments like growth factor injection and alternative fusion materials under conditions of osteoporosis using this model would be worthwhile.

  18. Comparison of collagen fibre architecture between slow-twitch cranial and fast-twitch caudal parts of broiler M. latissimus dorsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y N; Iwamoto, H; Tabata, S; Ono, Y

    2003-07-01

    1. Collagen fibre architectures of perimysium and endomysium in the slow-twitch cranial and fast-twitch caudal parts of broiler M. latissimus dorsi were compared. 2. Type I and III collagens were distributed in both perimysium and endomysium as indicated by their positive immunohistochemical reactions to polyclonal antibodies. 3. Cells invested by endomysium with no myofibres were larger in the cranial part because of the presence of larger slow-twitch myofibres. The honeycomb structure of endomysium was divided into several parts by thick perimysium. 4. The thick perimysial collagen fibres with parallel fibrils, which were interconnected by the loose reticular fibrils and thin fibres, were more numerous and thicker in the cranial part than the caudal. 5. Thick endomysial sidewall of cells in the cranial part was composed of a rougher reticulum of slightly thicker collagen fibrils compared with the thin sidewall in the caudal part. 6. These results indicated that both perimysial constitutions of collagen fibres and endomysial collagen fibrils had attained much larger growth in the slow-twitch cranial part than the fast-twitch caudal in broiler latissimus dorsi muscle.

  19. Connections between EM2-containing terminals and GABA/μ-opioid receptor co-expressing neurons in the rat spinal trigeminal caudal nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Ying; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Lu, Ya-Cheng; Yin, Jun-Bin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Ting; Dong, Yu-Lin; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Endomorphin-2 (EM2) demonstrates a potent antinociceptive effect via the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). To provide morphological evidence for the pain control effect of EM2, the synaptic connections between EM2-immunoreactive (IR) axonal terminals and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)/MOR co-expressing neurons in lamina II of the spinal trigeminal caudal nucleus (Vc) were investigated in the rat. Dense EM2-, MOR- and GABA-IR fibers and terminals were mainly observed in lamina II of the Vc. Within lamina II, GABA- and MOR-neuronal cell bodies were also encountered. The results of immunofluorescent histochemical triple-staining showed that approximately 14.2 or 18.9% of GABA-IR or MOR-IR neurons also showed MOR- or GABA-immunopositive staining in lamina II; approximately 45.2 and 36.1% of the GABA-IR and MOR-IR neurons, respectively, expressed FOS protein in their nuclei induced by injecting formalin into the left lower lip of the mouth. Most of the GABA/MOR, GABA/FOS, and MOR/FOS double-labeled neurons made close contacts with EM2-IR fibers and terminals. Immuno-electron microscopy confirmed that the EM2-IR terminals formed synapses with GABA-IR or MOR-IR dendritic processes and neuronal cell bodies in lamina II of the Vc. These results suggest that EM2 might participate in pain transmission and modulation by binding to MOR-IR and GABAergic inhibitory interneuron in lamina II of the Vc to exert inhibitory effect on the excitatory interneuron in lamina II and projection neurons in laminae I and III. PMID:25386121

  20. Régimen natural de caudales del río Ayuquila-Armería en el occidente de México

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    Demetrio Meza Rodríguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El caudal superficial a nivel cuenca, constituye hoy en día un proceso clave para los estudios hidrológicos de cualquier índole. El presente trabajo explora la reconstrucción del régimen natural de caudales de la cuenca del Río Ayuquila-Armería para el periodo 1963‑1991, su importancia radica en que el método usado, puede ser extrapolado a otras cuencas en México y Latinoamérica, donde se carece de datos hidrométricos puntuales. El campo de interés está centrado en la técnica de reconstrucción del caudal natural basándose en las precipitaciones y las temperaturas, en situaciones donde se carece de información hidrológica puntual, utilizando el modelo determinístico “precipitación-escurrimiento”. Es un modelo que requiere de pocos parámetros para su implementación, usando los procesos climáticos y físicos en el ámbito espacial y temporal, con la utilización del Sistemas de Información Geográfica (l. A partir de caudales calibrados en la misma área geográfica, es posible extrapolar el modelo de predicción a toda la cuenca. El resultado fue una base de datos de 29 años de régimen natural de caudales, con un caudal aproximado de 71.5 (m3 s-1, y con un volumen anual de 2254 (hm3 año-1, donde se observaron las pautas estacionales y su fluctuación a lo largo del año. El uso de esta metodología servirá de apoyo para la nueva norma NMX-AA-159-SCFI-2012, donde el principio científico para la determinación de caudal ecológico es el paradigma del régimen hidrológico natural.

  1. Differential Gene Expression Profile in the Rat Caudal Vestibular Nucleus is Associated with Individual Differences in Motion Sickness Susceptibility.

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    Jun-Qin Wang

    Full Text Available To identify differentially expressed genes associated with motion sickness (MS susceptibility in the rat caudal vestibular nucleus.We identified MS susceptible (MSS and insusceptible (inMSS rats by quantifying rotation-induced MS symptoms: defecation and spontaneous locomotion activity. Microarray analysis was used to screen differentially expressed genes in the caudal vestibular nucleus (CVN after rotation. Plasma stress hormones were identified by radioimmunoassay. Candidate genes were selected by bioinformatics analysis and the microarray results were verified by real-time quantitative-PCR (RT-qPCR methods. By using Elvax implantation, receptor antagonists or recombinant adenovirus targeting the candidate genes were applied to the CVN to evaluate their contribution to MS susceptibility variability. Validity of gene expression manipulation was verified by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis.A total of 304 transcripts were differentially expressed in the MSS group compared with the inMSS group. RT-qPCR analysis verified the expression pattern of candidate genes, including nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAchR α3 subunit, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT4R, tachykinin neurokinin-1 (NK1R, γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR α6 subunit, olfactory receptor 81 (Olr81 and homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein 1 (Shc1. In MSS animals, the nAchR antagonist mecamylamine significantly alleviated rotation-induced MS symptoms and the plasma β-endorphin response. The NK1R antagonist CP99994 and Olr81 knock-down were effective for the defecation response, while the 5-HT4R antagonist RS39604 and Shc1 over-expression showed no therapeutic effect. In inMSS animals, rotation-induced changes in spontaneous locomotion activity and the plasma β-endorphin level occurred in the presence of the GABAAR antagonist gabazine.Our findings suggested that the variability of the CVN gene expression profile after motion stimulation might be a putative

  2. Radiologic evaluation after posterior instrumented surgery for thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: union between rostral and caudal ossifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kei; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Ukai, Junichi; Muramoto, Akio; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2014-05-01

    Retrospective clinical study. To investigate, using multislice CT images, how thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) changes with time after thoracic posterior fusion surgery. Few studies have evaluated thoracic OPLL preoperatively and post using computed tomography (CT). The subjects included 19 patients (7 men and 12 women) with an average age at surgery of 52 years (38-66 y) who underwent indirect posterior decompression with corrective fusion and instrumentation at our institute. Minimum follow-up period was 1 year, and averaged 3 years 10 months (12-120 mo). Using CT images, we investigated fusion range, preoperative and postoperative Cobb angles of thoracic fusion levels, intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, operative time, hyperintense areas on preoperative MRI of thoracic spine and thickness of the OPLL on the reconstructed sagittal, multislice CT images taken before the operation and at 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. The basic fusion area was 3 vertebrae above and below the OPLL lesion. The mean operative time was 7 hours and 48 min (4 h 39 min-10 h 28 min), and blood loss was 1631 mL (160-11,731 mL). Intramedullary signal intensity change on magnetic resonance images was observed at the most severe ossification area in 18 patients. Interestingly, the rostral and caudal ossification regions of the OPLLs, as seen on sagittal CT images, were discontinuous across the disk space in all patients. Postoperatively, the discontinuous segments connected in all patients without progression of OPLL thickness by 5.1 months on average. All patients needing surgery had discontinuity across the disk space between the rostral and caudal ossified lesions as seen on CT. This discontinuity was considered to be the main reason for the myelopathy because a high-intensity area on magnetic resonance imaging was seen in 18 of 19 patients at the same level. Rigid fixation with instrumentation may allow the discontinuous segments

  3. Sistematização da origem, da distribuição e dos territórios da artéria cerebral caudal na superfície do encéfalo em gatos Systematization of the origin, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the surface of the encephalon in cats

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    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 26 encéfalos de gatos, adultos, sem diferenciação de sexo, sem raça definida, corados com látex e fixados por solução aquosa de formaldeído. As artérias cerebrais caudais, direita e esquerda, apresentaram-se únicas em 96,1 e 88,4% dos casos, respectivamente. Em 69,2% dos casos no antímero direito e 80,8% no esquerdo, a artéria cerebral caudal originou-se pela anastomose entre o ramo caudal da artéria carótida interna, com maior contribuição, e o ramo terminal da artéria basilar. Em 88,4% dos casos no antímero direito e em 84,6% no esquerdo, a artéria cerebral caudal originou a artéria tectal rostral e um ramo caudal. O ramo caudal bifurcou-se e vascularizou os colículos rostrais e caudais dos corpos quadrigêmeos e em alguns casos contribuiu na formação do plexo coroide do terceiro ventrículo. A artéria tectal rostral seguiu ventralmente ao lobo piriforme e durante seu trajeto liberou ramos para o hipocampo e, no antímero esquerdo, supriu a superfície dorsal do tálamo, contribuindo para a formação do plexo coroide do terceiro ventrículo.In this study were used 26 brains of adult cats, without sex differentiation and definable race, colored with latex and fixed in formaldehyde aqueous solution. The right and left caudal cerebral arteries were single in 96.1% and 88.4% of the sample, respectively. In 69.2% of the samples on the right side and 80.8% on the left, the caudal cerebral artery fin from the anastomosis behind the caudal branch of the internal carotid artery, with a large contribution, and the basal artery terminal branch. In 88.4% of the samples on the right side and 84.6% on the left, the caudal cerebral artery showed the tectal rostral artery and one caudal branche. The caudal branch forked in two branches that supplied the rostral and caudal colliculis of the quadruplet bodies and formed the choroid plexus of the third ventricle. The tectal rostral artery followed ventrally to the

  4. Caudal lumbar vertebral fractures in California Quarter Horse and Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, E M; Zavodovskaya, R; Spriet, M; Hitchens, P L; Wisner, T; Uzal, F A; Stover, S M

    2015-09-01

    To gain insight into the pathophysiology of equine lumbar vertebral fractures in racehorses. To characterise equine lumbar vertebral fractures in California racehorses. Retrospective case series and prospective case-control study. Racehorse post mortem reports and jockey injury reports were retrospectively reviewed. Vertebral specimens from 6 racehorses affected with lumbar vertebral fractures and 4 control racehorses subjected to euthanasia for nonspinal fracture were assessed using visual, radiographic, computed tomography and histological examinations. Lumbar vertebral fractures occurred in 38 Quarter Horse and 29 Thoroughbred racehorses over a 22 year period, primarily involving the 5th and/or 6th lumbar vertebrae (L5-L6; 87% of Quarter Horses and 48% of Thoroughbreds). Lumbar vertebral fractures were the third most common musculoskeletal cause of death in Quarter Horses and frequently involved a jockey injury. Lumbar vertebral specimens contained anatomical variations in the number of vertebrae, dorsal spinous processes and intertransverse articulations. Lumbar vertebral fractures examined in 6 racehorse specimens (5 Quarter Horses and one Thoroughbred) coursed obliquely in a cranioventral to caudodorsal direction across the adjacent L5-L6 vertebral endplates and intervertebral disc, although one case involved only one endplate. All cases had evidence of abnormalities on the ventral aspect of the vertebral bodies consistent with pre-existing, maladaptive pathology. Lumbar vertebral fractures occur in racehorses with pre-existing pathology at the L5-L6 vertebral junction that is likely predisposes horses to catastrophic fracture. Knowledge of these findings should encourage assessment of the lumbar vertebrae, therefore increasing detection of mild vertebral injuries and preventing catastrophic racehorse and associated jockey injuries. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Sensory processing and corollary discharge effects in posterior caudal lobe Purkinje cells in a weakly electric mormyrid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alviña, Karina; Sawtell, Nathaniel B

    2014-07-15

    Although it has been suggested that the cerebellum functions to predict the sensory consequences of motor commands, how such predictions are implemented in cerebellar circuitry remains largely unknown. A detailed and relatively complete account of predictive mechanisms has emerged from studies of cerebellum-like sensory structures in fish, suggesting that comparisons of the cerebellum and cerebellum-like structures may be useful. Here we characterize electrophysiological response properties of Purkinje cells in a region of the cerebellum proper of weakly electric mormyrid fish, the posterior caudal lobe (LCp), which receives the same mossy fiber inputs and projects to the same target structures as the electrosensory lobe (ELL), a well-studied cerebellum-like structure. We describe patterns of simple spike and climbing fiber activation in LCp Purkinje cells in response to motor corollary discharge, electrosensory, and proprioceptive inputs and provide evidence for two functionally distinct Purkinje cell subtypes within LCp. Protocols that induce rapid associative plasticity in ELL fail to induce plasticity in LCp, suggesting differences in the adaptive functions of the two structures. Similarities and differences between LCp and ELL are discussed in light of these results. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects on Diadochokinetic Rate

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    Fredrik Karlsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypokinetic dysarthria observed in Parkinson's disease (PD affects the range, speed, and accuracy of articulatory gestures in patients, reducing the perceived quality of speech acoustic output in continuous speech. Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS and of the caudal zona incerta (cZi-DBS are current surgical treatment options for PD. This study aimed at investigating the outcome of STN-DBS (7 patients and cZi-DBS (7 patients in two articulatory diadochokinesis tasks (AMR and SMR using measurements of articulation rate and quality of the plosive consonants (using the percent measurable VOT metric. The results indicate that patients receiving STN-DBS increased in articulation rate in the Stim-ON condition in the AMR task only, with no effect on production quality. Patients receiving cZi-DBS decreased in articulation rate in the Stim-ON condition and further showed a reduction in production quality. The data therefore suggest that cZi-DBS is more detrimental for extended articulatory movements than STN-DBS.

  7. Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects on Voice Intensity

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    Sofie Lundgren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD affects speech inconsistently. Recently, stimulation of the caudal zona incerta (cZi-DBS has shown superior motor outcomes for PD patients, but effects on speech have not been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cZi-DBS and STN-DBS on voice intensity in PD patients. Mean intensity during reading and intensity decay during rapid syllable repetition were measured for STN-DBS and cZi-DBS patients (eight patients per group, before- and 12 months after-surgery on- and off-stimulation. For mean intensity, there were small significant differences on- versus off-stimulation in each group: 74.2 (2.0 dB contra 72.1 (2.2 dB (=.002 for STN-DBS, and 71.6 (4.1 dB contra 72.8 (3.4 dB (=.03 for cZi-DBS, with significant interaction (<.001. Intensity decay showed no significant changes. The subtle differences found for mean intensity suggest that STN-DBS and cZi-DBS may influence voice intensity differently.

  8. An Evolutionarily Conserved Network Mediates Development of the zona limitans intrathalamica, a Sonic Hedgehog-Secreting Caudal Forebrain Signaling Center

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    Elena Sena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed new insights into the development of a unique caudal forebrain-signaling center: the zona limitans intrathalamica (zli. The zli is the last brain signaling center to form and the first forebrain compartment to be established. It is the only part of the dorsal neural tube expressing the morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh whose activity participates in the survival, growth and patterning of neuronal progenitor subpopulations within the thalamic complex. Here, we review the gene regulatory network of transcription factors and cis-regulatory elements that underlies formation of a shh-expressing delimitated domain in the anterior brain. We discuss evidence that this network predates the origin of chordates. We highlight the contribution of Shh, Wnt and Notch signaling to zli development and discuss implications for the fact that the morphogen Shh relies on primary cilia for signal transduction. The network that underlies zli development also contributes to thalamus induction, and to its patterning once the zli has been set up. We present an overview of the brain malformations possibly associated with developmental defects in this gene regulatory network (GRN.

  9. The cough reflex is upregulated by lisinopril microinjected into the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Elenia; Bongianni, Fulvia; Pantaleo, Tito; Mutolo, Donatella

    2015-12-01

    We have previously shown that cough potentiation induced by intravenous administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan is lower than that induced by the ACE inhibitor lisinopril in anesthetized and awake rabbits. Since losartan and lisinopril cross the blood-brain barrier, their central action on the cough reflex can be hypothesized. Mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree and citric acid inhalation were used to induce cough reflex responses in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl) of losartan (5mM), lisinopril (1mM), bradykinin (0.05 mM), HOE-140 (0.2mM, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist) and CP-99,994 (1mM, an NK1 receptor antagonist) were performed into the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii, the predominant site of termination of cough-related afferents. Lisinopril, but not losartan increased the cough number. This effect was reverted by HOE-140 or CP-99,994. Cough potentiation was also induced by bradykinin. The results support for the first time a central protussive action of lisinopril mediated by an accumulation of bradykinin and substance P. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Termination Level of the Dural Sac Relevant to Caudal Epidural Block in Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae: A Comparison between Sacralization and Lumbarization Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ji Young; Jeong, Yu Mi; Lee, Sheen-Woo; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Hye-Young; Ahn, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are a relatively common variant and have been considered as one of the reasons for back pain. It is not unusual for clinicians to encounter patients with LSTV who require caudal epidural block (CEB) for pain management. We investigated the termination level of the dural sac (DS) and anatomical features of the lumbosacral region relevant to CEB in patients with LSTV and compared these findings between sacralization and lumbarization groups. A retrospective evaluation. A university hospital with inpatient and outpatient LSTV cases presenting low back pain. Four hundred ninety-four LSTV patients were included and categorized into sacralization (n = 201) or lumbarization groups (n = 293). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of all of the LSTV patients were reviewed to determine the level of DS termination, the shortest distance between the apex of the sacral hiatus and DS, and the presence and the caudal level of sacral perineural cysts. Each lumbosacral vertebra column was divided into 3 equal portions (upper, middle, and lower thirds). The MRI findings in both of the groups were compared and analyzed. The distribution frequency of the levels of DS termination demonstrated a significant difference between the 2 groups. The mean caudal DS level in the lumbarization group was significantly lower than the sacralization group (lower third of the S2 [131 {44.7%} of 293 patients] vs. lower third of the S1 [78 {38.8%} of 201 patients]). The DS terminated at the S3 in more than 19% of the lumbarization group, whereas in only one case of the sacralization group. Although the incidence of perineural cysts was not significantly different between the 2 groups, the mean level of caudal margin of perineural cysts in the lumbarization group was significantly lower than the sacralization group (middle third of the S3 [10 {35.7%} of 28 cases] vs. middle third of the S2 [11 {44%} of 25 cases]). This study reveals several limitations including the

  11. Comparison of biochemical and cytotoxic activities of extracts obtained from dorsal spines and caudal fin of adult and juvenile non-native Caribbean lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz, Aránzazu; Ortiz, Natalia; Lomonte, Bruno; Rucavado, Alexandra; Díaz, Cecilia

    2017-10-01

    Pterois volitans/miles lionfish (adult and juvenile) dorsal spines and caudal fin extracts were compared in their general composition, enzymatic activities and hemolytic and cytotoxic effects on bovine aortic endothelial cells and murine myoblasts, to distinguish between the activities present in the venom and epidermal mucus. Intradermal and intramuscular injections were also administered in mice to determine in vivo effects. This work shows that crude venom of Caribbean species of lionfish, present in dorsal spines, induces several in vitro effects including hemolysis, weak cytotoxicity, proteolytic and hyaluronidase activities, whereas in vivo, it is not hemorrhagic nor myotoxic, but causes edema, plasma extravasation and a thrombotic-associated lesion on the skin. Some small differences were observed between adult and juvenile venomous secretions. Gelatinolytic activity of the epidermal mucus, the only activity found in caudal fin extracts, could contribute to the in vivo toxicity of the venom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A randomized double-blinded comparison between dexmedetomidine and clonidine as an adjuvant to caudal ropivacaine in children for below umbilical surgery

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    Ganapathi Mavuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alpha-2 adenoreceptors as an adjuvant to local anesthetic during caudal analgesia in children prolongs the duration of analgesia. This study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of dexmedetomidine and clonidine when added to ropivacaine for caudal analgesia in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries. Methods: In a prospective study, Seventy-eight children received block with either 0.2% ropivacaine 1.5 mg/kg (Group R; n = 26 or 0.2% ropivacaine 1.5 mg/kg + 1 mcg/kg clonidine (Group RC; n = 26 or 0.2% ropivacaine 1.5 mg/kg + dexmedetomidine 1 mcg/kg (Group RD; n = 26. Results: Duration of analgesia was 7.15 ± 1.00 h in Group R, 11.57 ± 1.27 h in Group R + C, and 14.73 ± 1.53 h in Group R + D (P 0.05. Conclusion: Addition of clonidine and dexmedetomidine to caudal ropivacaine significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia without adverse effects.

  13. Evaluación de requerimientos ecológicos para el diseño de regímenes ambientales de caudales fluviales

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    Juan Manuel Diez-Hernández

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Las sociedades avanzadas medioambientalmente están reclamando progresivamente una gestión fluvial auténticamente integral, que implemente Planes de Manejo de Cuencas Hidrográficas fundamentados en el paradigma del Régimen Ambiental de Caudales (RAC. Este trabajo sugiere una metodología genérica para establecer RAC confiables, que posibiliten el aprovechamiento hídrico a un coste ecológico admisible. Adicionalmente, plantea los criterios y técnicas preferentes para la evaluación de los requerimientos ecosistémicos de caudal, los cuales componen el RAC mediante el Régimen de Caudales Ecológicos (RCE. La adaptación de estos procedimientos para los ríos de Colombia favorecerá la conservación de su valiosa biodiversidad. / The environmentally advanced societies are claiming progressively an authentically integral fluvial management, that implements Watershed Management Programs based on the paradigm of the Environmental Flows Regime (EFR. This work suggests a generic methodology for the reliable EFR setting, that facilitate the water use with an environmental acceptable cost. Additionally, it outlines the approaches and outstanding techniques for the evaluation of instream flow requirements, which constitute the EFR by means of the Instream Flow Regime (IFR. The adaptation of these approaches to the Colombian rivers will contribute to the conservation of their valuable biodiversity.

  14. Wernekink Commissure Syndrome Secondary to Bilateral Caudal Paramedian Midbrain Infarction Presenting with a Unique “Heart or V” Appearance Sign: Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Chenguang Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wernekink commissure syndrome secondary to caudal paramedian midbrain infarction (CPMI is a rare midbrain syndrome involving the decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncle in the caudal paramedian midbrain tegmentum. The central characteristics are constant bilateral cerebellar dysfunction, variable eye movement disorders, and rare delayed palatal myoclonus. Following is a description of the case of a 60-year-old man who presented with dizziness, slurred speech, and difficulty walking. Neurological examination revealed bilateral cerebellar dysfunction and bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (bilateral INO. Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a lesion in the caudal paramedian midbrain with a “heart-shaped” sign on fluid-attenuation inversion recovery images and a “V-shaped” appearance on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI. An acute CPMI with a “heart or V” appearance sign was diagnosed. Upon follow-up evaluation 3 months later, a palatal tremor accompanied by involuntary head tremor was discovered. Hypertrophy and increased signal of the bilateral inferior olivary nucleus, compatible with hypertropic olivary degeneration (HOD were revealed during a subsequent MRI study.

  15. Density and distribution of cutaneous sensilla on tails of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) in relation to caudal autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Anthony P; Lai, Erica K; Lawrence Powell, G; Higham, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    The lizard tail is well known for its ability to autotomize and regenerate. Physical contact of the tail by a predator may induce autotomy at the location at which the tail is grasped, and upon detachment the tail may undergo violent, rapid, and unpredictable movements that appear to be, to some degree, regulated by contact with the physical environment. Neither the mechanism by which tail breakage at a particular location is determined, nor that by which environmental feedback to the tail is received, are known. It has been suggested that mechanoreceptors (sensilla) are the means of mediation of such activities, and reports indicate that the density of sensilla on the tail is high. To determine the feasibility that mechanoreceptors are involved in such phenomena, we mapped scale form and the size, density, distribution, and spacing of sensilla on the head, body, limbs, and tail of the leopard gecko. This species has a full complement of autotomy planes along the length of the tail, and the postautotomic behavior of its tail has been documented. We found that the density of sensilla is highest on the tail relative to all other body regions examined; a dorsoventral gradient of caudal sensilla density is evident on the tail; sensilla are more closely spaced on the dorsal and lateral regions of the tail than elsewhere and are carried on relatively small scales; and that the whorls of scales on the tail bear a one to one relationship with the autotomy planes. Our results are consistent with the hypotheses of sensilla being involved in determining the site at which autotomy will occur, and with them being involved in the mediation of tail behavior following autotomy. These findings open the way for experimental neurological investigations of how autotomy is induced and how the detached tail responds to external environmental input. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Benjamin J; Noor, Natassya M; Whish, Sophie C; Truettner, Jessie S; Dietrich, W Dalton; Zhang, Moses; Crack, Peter J; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Saunders, Norman R

    2013-01-01

    Complete spinal transection in the mature nervous system is typically followed by minimal axonal repair, extensive motor paralysis and loss of sensory functions caudal to the injury. In contrast, the immature nervous system has greater capacity for repair, a phenomenon sometimes called the infant lesion effect. This study investigates spinal injuries early in development using the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica whose young are born very immature, allowing access to developmental stages only accessible in utero in eutherian mammals. Spinal cords of Monodelphis pups were completely transected in the lower thoracic region, T10, on postnatal-day (P)7 or P28 and the animals grew to adulthood. In P7-injured animals regrown supraspinal and propriospinal axons through the injury site were demonstrated using retrograde axonal labelling. These animals recovered near-normal coordinated overground locomotion, but with altered gait characteristics including foot placement phase lags. In P28-injured animals no axonal regrowth through the injury site could be demonstrated yet they were able to perform weight-supporting hindlimb stepping overground and on the treadmill. When placed in an environment of reduced sensory feedback (swimming) P7-injured animals swam using their hindlimbs, suggesting that the axons that grew across the lesion made functional connections; P28-injured animals swam using their forelimbs only, suggesting that their overground hindlimb movements were reflex-dependent and thus likely to be generated locally in the lumbar spinal cord. Modifications to propriospinal circuitry in P7- and P28-injured opossums were demonstrated by changes in the number of fluorescently labelled neurons detected in the lumbar cord following tracer studies and changes in the balance of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory neurotransmitter receptors' gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. These results are discussed in the context of studies indicating that although

  17. L-Cysteine and L-AP4 microinjections in the rat caudal ventrolateral medulla decrease arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2014-12-01

    The thiol amino acid L-cysteine increases arterial blood pressure (ABP) when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid space in conscious rats, indicating a pressor response to centrally acting L-cysteine. A prior synaptic membrane binding assay suggests that L-cysteine has a strong affinity for the L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) binding site. The central action of L-cysteine may be vial-AP4 sensitive receptors. The present study investigated cardiovascular responses to L-cysteine and L-ap4 microinjected into the autonomic area of the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) where inhibitory neurons regulate ABP via pre-sympathetic vasomotor neurons. Both the injection of L-cysteine and L-AP4 in the CVLM sites identified with L-glutamate produced the same depressor and bradycardic responses in urethane-anesthetized rats. Neither a prior antagonist microinjection of MK801 for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor nor CNQX for the non-NMDA receptor attenuated the responses to L-cysteine, but the combination of the two receptor blocking with an additional prior injection abolished the response. In contrast, either receptor blockade alone abolished the response to L-AP4, indicating distinct mechanisms between responses to L-cysteine and L-AP4 in the CVLM. The results indicate that the CVLM is a central active site for L-cysteine's cardiovascular response. Central L-cysteine's action could be independent of the L-AP4 sensitive receptors. Cardiovascular regulation may involve endogenous L-cysteine in the CVLM. Further multidisciplinary examinations are required to elaborate on L-cysteine's functional roles in the CVLM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Wheaton

    Full Text Available Complete spinal transection in the mature nervous system is typically followed by minimal axonal repair, extensive motor paralysis and loss of sensory functions caudal to the injury. In contrast, the immature nervous system has greater capacity for repair, a phenomenon sometimes called the infant lesion effect. This study investigates spinal injuries early in development using the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica whose young are born very immature, allowing access to developmental stages only accessible in utero in eutherian mammals. Spinal cords of Monodelphis pups were completely transected in the lower thoracic region, T10, on postnatal-day (P7 or P28 and the animals grew to adulthood. In P7-injured animals regrown supraspinal and propriospinal axons through the injury site were demonstrated using retrograde axonal labelling. These animals recovered near-normal coordinated overground locomotion, but with altered gait characteristics including foot placement phase lags. In P28-injured animals no axonal regrowth through the injury site could be demonstrated yet they were able to perform weight-supporting hindlimb stepping overground and on the treadmill. When placed in an environment of reduced sensory feedback (swimming P7-injured animals swam using their hindlimbs, suggesting that the axons that grew across the lesion made functional connections; P28-injured animals swam using their forelimbs only, suggesting that their overground hindlimb movements were reflex-dependent and thus likely to be generated locally in the lumbar spinal cord. Modifications to propriospinal circuitry in P7- and P28-injured opossums were demonstrated by changes in the number of fluorescently labelled neurons detected in the lumbar cord following tracer studies and changes in the balance of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory neurotransmitter receptors' gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. These results are discussed in the context of studies indicating

  19. Influence of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia on flow velocities in the portal vein and caudal vena cava measured by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel Policelli; Koenigshof, Amy M; Smith, Daniel J; Strom, Phillip R; Nelson, Nathan C

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare blood flow velocities of the portal vein (PV) and caudal vena cava (CVC) measured by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in clinically normal dogs and dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). ANIMALS 11 client-owned dogs admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital for management of primary IMHA and 21 staff- or student-owned clinically normal dogs. PROCEDURES Flow velocities in the PV and CVC at the porta hepatis were evaluated in conscious unsedated dogs with concurrent ECG monitoring; evaluations were performed before dogs with IMHA received heparin or blood transfusions. Three measurements of peak velocity at end expiration were obtained for each vessel, and the mean was calculated. Results were compared between IMHA and control groups. RESULTS Mean ± SD blood flow velocity in the CVC differed between control (63.0 ± 18.6 cm/s) and IMHA (104 ± 36.9 cm/s) groups. Variance in dogs with IMHA was significantly greater than that for the clinically normal dogs. No significant difference in blood flow velocity in the PV was detected between IMHA and control dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Higher blood flow velocities were detected by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in the CVC of dogs with naturally occurring IMHA and may be used to predict anemia in patients suspected of having IMHA.

  20. Activation of hindbrain neurons in response to gastrointestinal lipid is attenuated by high fat, high energy diets in mice prone to diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2009-01-12

    Food intake is controlled by peripheral signals from the gastrointestinal tract and adipocytes, which are integrated within the central nervous system. There is evidence that signals from the GI tract are modulated by long term changes in diet, possibly leading to hyperphagia and increased body weight. We tested the hypothesis that diet-induced obese-prone (DIO-P) and obese-resistant (DIO-R) mice strains differ in the long term adaptive response of the gut-brain pathway to a high fat diet. Immunochemical detection of Fos protein was used as a measure of neuronal activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in response to intragastric administration of lipid in DIO-P (C57Bl6) and DIO-R (129sv) mouse strains maintained on chow or high fat, high energy diets (45% or 60% kcal from fat). Intragastric lipid administration activated neurons in the NTS in both DIO-P and DIO-R mice; the number of activated neurons was significantly greater in DIO-P than in DIO-R mice (Pdiet, for 4 or 8 weeks, compared to chow fed controls (Pdiet (45% or 60%) had no effect on lipid-induced activation of NTS neurons. These results demonstrate that DIO-P and DIO-R mice strains differ in the adaptation of the pathway to long term ingestion of high fat diets, which may contribute to decrease satiation and increased food intake.

  1. A Comparison of Three Different Volumes of Levobupivacaine for Caudal Block in Children Undergoing Orchidopexy and Inguinal Hernia Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Vesna; Budic, Ivana; Stevic, Marija; Simic, Dusica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 3 different volumes of 0.25% levobupivacaine caudally administered on the effect of intra- and postoperative analgesia in children undergoing orchidopexy and inguinal hernia repair. Forty children, aged 1-7 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II, were randomized into 3 different groups according to the applied volumes of 0.25% levobupivacaine: group 1 (n = 13): 0.6 mL∙kg-1; group 2 (n = 10): 0.8 mL∙kg-1; and group 3 (n = 17): 1.0 mL∙kg-1. The age, weight, duration of anesthesia, onset time of intraoperative analgesic, dosage, and addition of intraoperative fentanyl were compared among the groups. The time to first use of the analgesic and the number of patients who required analgesic 24 h after surgery in the time intervals within 6 h, between 6 and 12 h, and between 12 and 24 h postoperatively were evaluated among the groups. Statistical analyses were performed with a Dunnett t test, ANOVA, or Kruskal-Wallis test and χ2 test. Logistic regression analysis was used in order to examine predictive factors on duration of postoperative analgesia. Age, weight, duration of anesthesia, onset time of intraoperative analgesic, dosage, and addition of intraoperative fentanyl were similar among the groups. The time to first analgesic use did not differ among the groups, and logistic regression modelling showed that using the 3 different volumes of levobupivacaine had no predictive influence on duration of postoperative analgesia. The numbers of patients who required analgesics within 6 h (3/2/3), between 6 and 12 h (3/1/3), and between 12 and 24 h (1/0/2) after surgery were similar among the groups. The 3 different volumes of 0.25% levobupivacaine provided the same quality of intra- and postoperative pain relief in pediatric patients undergoing orchidopexy and inguinal hernia repair. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. An exploration of the control of micturition using a novel in situ arterially perfused rat preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajni eSadananda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to develop and refine a decerebrate arterially perfused rat preparation (DAPR that allows the complete bladder filling and voiding cycle to be investigated without some of the restrictions inherent with in vivo experimentation (e.g. ease and speed of set up (30mins, control over the extracellular milieu and free of anaesthetic agents. Both spontaneous (naturalistic bladder filling from ureters and evoked (in response to intravesical infusion voids were routinely and reproducibly observed which had similar pressure characteristics. The DAPR allows the simultaneous measurement of bladder intra-luminal pressure, external urinary sphincter electromyogram (EUS–EMG, pelvic afferent nerve activity, pudendal motor activity and permits excellent visualisation of the entire lower urinary tract, during typical rat filling and voiding responses. The voiding responses were modulated or eliminated by interventions at a number of levels including at the afferent terminal fields (intravesical capsaicin sensitisation-desensitisation, autonomic (ganglion blockade with hexamethonium and somatic motor (vecuronium block of the EUS outflow and required intact brainstem/hindbrain-spinal coordination (as demonstrated by sequential hindbrain transections. Both innocuous (eg perineal stimulation and noxious (tail/paw pinch somatic stimuli elicited an increase in EUS-EMG indicating intact sensory feedback loops. Spontaneous non-micturition contractions were observed between fluid infusions at a frequency and amplitude of 1.4±0.9 per minute and 1.4±0.3mmHg, respectively, and their amplitude increased when autonomic control was compromised. In conclusion, the DAPR is a tractable and useful model for the study of neural bladder control showing intact afferent signaling, spinal and hindbrain co-ordination and efferent control over the lower urinary tract end organs and can be extended to study bladder pathologies and trial novel treatments.

  3. A BMP-mediated transcriptional cascade involving Cash1 and Tlx-3 specifies first-order relay sensory neurons in the developing hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbruch, Amata; Ma, Grace; Ballermann, Mark A; Tumova, Katerina; Liu, Dan; Cairine Logan, C

    2005-07-01

    The divergent homeobox-containing transcription factor, Tlx-3 (also known as Hox11L2/Rnx), is required for proper formation of first-order relay sensory neurons in the developing vertebrate brainstem. To date, however, the inductive signals and transcriptional regulatory cascade underlying their development are poorly understood. We previously isolated the chick Tlx-3 homologue and showed it is expressed early (i.e. beginning at HH15) in distinct subcomponents of both the trigeminal/solitary and vestibular nuclei. Here we show via in vivo rhombomere inversions that expression of Tlx-3 is under control of local environmental signals. Our RNA in situ analysis shows expression of the BMP-specific receptor, Bmpr-1b, correlates well with Tlx-3. Furthermore, manipulation of the BMP signaling pathway in vivo via electroporation of expression vectors encoding either BMP or NOGGIN coupled with MASH1 gain-of-function experiments demonstrate that a BMP-mediated transcriptional cascade involving Cash1 and Tlx-3 specifies first-order relay sensory neurons in the developing brainstem. Notably, high-level Noggin misexpression results in an increase in newly differentiated Tlx-3+ neurons that correlates with a corresponding increase in the number of Calretinin+ neurons in vestibular nuclei at later developmental stages strongly suggesting that Tlx-3, in addition to being required for proper formation of somatic as well as visceral sensory neurons in the trigeminal and solitary nuclei, respectively, is sufficient for proper formation of special somatic sensory neurons in vestibular nuclei.

  4. Desarrollo osteológico de la columna vertebral y del complejo caudal de larvas de Lutjanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae en condiciones de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Estela Rodríguez-Ibarra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El pargo flamenco (Lutjanus guttatus es una especie de importancia comercial en México con un gran potencial para su cultivo. El estudio osteológico en estadios tempranos de esta especie bajo condiciones controladas, es una herramienta importante para el conocimiento de su estructura ósea normal y poder detectar las malformaciones que se puedan presentar. El objetivo del presente trabajo se realizó para conocer y describir el desarrollo osteológico normal de la columna vertebral y el complejo caudal de 540 larvas de 2.1 a 17.5mm de longitud total (LT bajo condiciones de cultivo a 28°C, 5.74mg/L de oxígeno y 32.2UPS de salinidad. Diariamente se tomó una muestra de 15 organismos desde el día uno hasta el 36 después de la eclosión (DDE y se procesaron con las técnicas de clareado y tinción de cartílago (azul aciano y hueso (rojo alizarina para llevar a cabo la descripción de las estructuras. La columna vertebral se divide en región abdominal con diez vértebras y región caudal compuesta por 14 vértebras incluido el urostilo. El desarrollo del esqueleto axial inicia con la formación de los arcos neurales y hemales a los 3.8mm de LT. A los 4.1mm de LT empieza la formación de los hipurales y parahipural que son elementos caudales. Entre los 5.3 y 5.8mm de LT se observó en pre-flexión y flexión del notocordio y la formación de todos los hipurales. La osificación de las vértebras en la región abdominal y en algunos arcos neurales inició a los 9.5mm de LT. A los 10.2mm de LT se osificó la región caudal y todos los arcos neurales y hemales. A los 11.2mm LT se osificaron todas las vértebras abdominales con sus respectivos arcos neurales y los parapófisis, mientras que los elementos del esqueleto caudal que se osificaron fueron los hipurales, parahipurales y las espinas hemales modificadas. A los 15.5mm de LT se osificaron los radios de la aleta caudal y 12 espinas neurales y 3 hemales. El proceso de osificación de las

  5. Central vestibular syndrome in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with presumptive right caudal cerebral artery ischemic infarct and prevalent midbrain involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Mario; Gernone, Floriana; Simone, Antonio De; Giannuzzi, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    A wild young male red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy) with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left side. Neurological abnormalities were suggestive of central vestibular syndrome. Two consecutive MRIs performed with 30 days interval were compatible with lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches. The lesion epicentre was in the right periaqueductal portion of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological correlation between lesion localization and clinical presentation are discussed.

  6. Central vestibular syndrome in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes with presumptive right caudal cerebral artery ischemic infarct and prevalent midbrain involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ricciardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A wild young male red fox (Vulpes vulpes was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left side. Neurological abnormalities were suggestive of central vestibular syndrome. Two consecutive MRIs performed with 30 days interval were compatible with lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches. The lesion epicentre was in the right periaqueductal portion of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological correlation between lesion localization and clinical presentation are discussed.

  7. Análisis de regresión lineal multivariable para la obtención del caudal pico de descarga en rotura de presas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Muñoz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se hace un estudio del comportamiento dinámico e hidráulico del terreno en caso de avenida por rotura de presa, así como una presentación de una metodología de regresión lineal multivariable a partir del análisis de los datos históricos de rotura de presas para la obtención del caudal pico de descarga.

  8. Prediction of water flows in Colorado River, Argentina Predicción de caudales en río Colorado, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O Pierini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of suitable models for predicting daily water flow is important for planning and management of water storage in reservoirs of Argentina. Long-term prediction of water flow is crucial for regulating reservoirs and hydroelectric plants, for assessing environmental protection and sustainable development, for guaranteeing correct operation of public water supply in cities like Catriel, 25 de Mayo, Colorado River and potentially also Bahía Blanca. In this paper, we analyze in Buta Ranquil flow time series upstream reservoir and hydroelectric plant in order to model and predict daily fluctuations. We compare results obtained by using a three-layer artificial neural network (ANN, and an autoregressive (AR model, using 18 years of data, of which the last 3 years are used for model validation by means of the root mean square error (RMSE, and measure of certainty (Skill. Our results point out to the better performance to predict daily water flow or refill them of the ANN model performance respect to the AR model.La identificación de modelos adecuados para predecir caudales diarios es importante para la planificación y la gestión de almacenamiento de agua en los embalses de la Argentina. La predicción a largo plazo del caudal es crucial para la regulación de los embalses y centrales hidroeléctricas, evaluar la protección del medio ambiente y el desarrollo sostenible, garantizar el correcto funcionamiento del abastecimiento público de agua en ciudades como Catriel, 25 de Mayo, río Colorado y también, eventualmente, en Bahía Blanca. En este trabajo, se analizan series de tiempo de caudales de agua, arriba del embalse y de la planta hidroeléctrica en Buta Ranquil, para modelar y predecir las fluctuaciones diarias. Se comparan los resultados obtenidos mediante el uso de una red neuronal artificial (ANN de tres capas y un modelo autoregresivo (AR, con 18 anos de datos, cuyos últimos 3 anos se utilizan para la validación del

  9. Estudio del impacto del cambio climático en los caudales de entrada al embalse del Río Frío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Tatiana Gómez Vargas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó cual podría ser la tendencia y la afectación en los caudales de entrada hasta el año 2100 del embalse que se tiene proyectado sobre el Río Frío para el abastecimiento de los municipios de Chía, Tenjo, Tabio, Cota y Cajicá considerando el RCP 4.5 y 8.5, los cuales describen dos caminos del forzamiento radiativo hasta el año 2100. Estos tuvieron en cuenta las series asociadas a las simulaciones realizadas en los modelos climáticos globales CCSM4, IPSL CM5A –LR y MIROC ESM y los RCP. Se realizaron análisis comparativos para saber si las demandas proyectadas hasta el año 2070 podrán cumplirse al considerar el cambio climático. Se puso en evidencia que las demandas estimadas son elevadas y tienen un crecimiento exponencial, mientras que la oferta que se estimó tiene valores pequeños que no son suficientes para satisfacer los requerimientos de abastecimiento. Los caudales de entrada se esperan que tengan disminuciones de aproximadamente un 20%.

  10. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R; Skirrow, Rachel C; Rieberger, Kevin J; van Aggelen, Graham; Meays, Cynthia L; Helbing, Caren C

    2013-10-15

    An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in principle, to field-captured Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental abnormalities of mid and hindbrain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was 86.9 % and positive family history was recorded in 7 families. ... and related cerebellar disorders (34.8%), pontocerebellar hypoplasia ..... 4 ( spectrum green) and 18 (spectrum rcd) documenting the translocation (4;18). ... Autistic behavior.

  12. Spinal cord injury below-level neuropathic pain relief with dorsal root entry zone microcoagulation performed caudal to level of complete spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falci, Scott; Indeck, Charlotte; Barnkow, Dave

    2018-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgically created lesions of the spinal cord dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) to relieve central pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) have historically been performed at and cephalad to, but not below, the level of SCI. This study was initiated to investigate the validity of 3 proposed concepts regarding the DREZ in SCI central pain: 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through sympathetic nervous system (SNS) pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique somatotopic map of DREZ pain-generators. METHODS Three unique patients with both intractable SCI below-level central pain and complete spinal cord transection at the level of SCI were identified. All 3 patients had previously undergone surgical intervention to their spinal cords-only cephalad to the level of spinal cord transection-with either DREZ microcoagulation or cyst shunting, in failed attempts to relieve their SCI below-level central pain. Subsequent to these surgeries, DREZ lesioning of the spinal cord solely caudal to the level of complete spinal cord transection was performed using electrical intramedullary guidance. The follow-up period ranged from 1 1/2 to 11 years. RESULTS All 3 patients in this study had complete or near-complete relief of all below-level neuropathic pain. The analyzed electrical data confirmed and enhanced a previously proposed somatotopic map of SCI below-level DREZ pain generators. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study support the following hypotheses. 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through SNS pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique

  13. Modelación de caudales en función de los macroporos del suelo en una microcuenca forestal de Durango, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Návar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La predicción de caudales en suelos forestales y el efecto potencial de la silvicultura son importantes en el manejo forestal. En este reporte de investigación se probó el efecto de la presencia y ausencia de macroporos en el suelo en la producción de caudales utilizando un balance hidrológico de masas. Con mediciones de la precipitación diaria (P y la evaporación en evaporímetros (Et, desde 1945 hasta 2007 y utilizando submodelos para estimar la interceptación (I y la evapotranspiración potencial (Etp, se calcularon las descargas superficiales (Qs, subsuperficiales (Qp, y los cambios en el contenido de humedad del suelo (θ para la microcuenca La Rosilla II del Salto, Pueblo Nuevo en el Estado de Durango, México. Los resultados del análisis matemático mostraron que la falta de macroporos aumentó Qs en 149 mm pero disminuyó Qp a 0; así mismo la evapotranspiración actual (Eta aumentó de 506 mm hasta 541 mm y el valor promedio de θ cambió de 0.43 a 0.38 cm cm‑1. Como consecuencia, la ausencia de macroporos trae consigo la falta de caudales de infiltración profunda por la eliminación de la recarga y el aumento de la escorrentía superficial durante la época de lluvias y un aumento en el agua disponible para Eta. Es por estas razones que las prácticas de manejo forestal deben de estar encaminadas al mantenimiento de los bosques que cumplan al mismo tiempo con los objetivos del manejo forestal, destinado a la producción de bienes, y con su efecto regulador en la hidrología de los suelos forestales para cumplir con uno de los objetivos de los servicios que prestan los ecosistemas forestales.

  14. Caracterización de la circulación atmosférica y la temperatura superficial del mar asociadas a extremos de caudal de ríos andinos y su variabilidad en baja frecuencia

    OpenAIRE

    Araneo, Diego C.

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo principal del presente trabajo se centra en determinar los mecanismos asociados a la variabilidad de los caudales de los ríos andinos en relación con la circulación atmosférica y la Temperatura Superficial del Mar (TSM) como forzante del sistema climático. Para la circulación atmosférica el estudio se extiende desde la escala sinóptica a la climática. A lo largo de la Cordillera de los Andes se identifican dos zonas en las cuales el comportamiento de los caudales de los ríos muest...

  15. In vitro and in vivo responses of saccular and caudal nucleus neurons in the grassfrog (Rana temporaria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Walkowiak, W

    1999-01-01

    We present results from in vitro and in vivo studies of response properties of neurons in the saccular and caudal nuclei in the frog. In the in vitro studies the saccular nerve of the isolated brain was stimulated with electrical pulses. In the in vivo experiments, the neurons were stimulated...... by dorso-ventral vibrations of the intact animal. We identified six response types: (1) primary-like cells with short latencies and follow repetition rates up to 100 Hz; (2) phasic cells responding only to the first pulse in a train; (3) bursting cells firing several spikes in response to any stimulation......; (4) late responders with very long latencies; (5) integrator cells showing facilitated responses, and (6) inhibitory cells inhibited by saccular nerve stimulation.The cells have comparable sensitivity and frequency characteristics to the primary fibres (BF 10-80 Hz, thresholds from 0.01 cm/s2...

  16. An optimized method for measuring hypocretin-1 peptide in the mouse brain reveals differential circadian regulation of hypocretin-1 levels rostral and caudal to the hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justinussen, J L; Holm, A; Kornum, B R

    2015-01-01

    an optimized peptide quantification method for hypocretin-1 extracted from different mouse brain areas and use this method for investigating circadian fluctuations of hypocretin-1 levels in these areas. The results show that hypocretin-1 peptide can be extracted from small pieces of intact tissue...... as does prepro-hypocretin mRNA in the hypothalamus. However, in midbrain and brainstem tissue caudal to the hypothalamus, there was less circadian fluctuation and a tendency for higher levels during the light phase. These data suggest that regulation of the hypocretin system differs between brain areas.......The hypocretin/orexin system regulates, among other things, sleep and energy homeostasis. The system is likely regulated by both homeostatic and circadian mechanisms. Little is known about local differences in the regulation of hypocretin activity. The aim of this study was to establish...

  17. Caudal Edge of the Liver in the Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ View Is the Most Sensitive Area for Free Fluid on the FAST Exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveta Lobo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST exam is a critical diagnostic test for intraperitoneal free fluid (FF. Current teaching is that fluid accumulates first in Morison’s pouch. The goal of this study was to evaluate the “sub-quadrants” of traditional FAST views to determine the most sensitive areas for FF accumulation. Methods: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of all adult trauma patients who had a recorded FAST exam by emergency physicians at a Level I trauma center from January 2012 – June 2013. Ultrasound fellowship-trained faculty with three emergency medicine residents reviewed all FAST exams. We excluded studies if they were incomplete, of poor image quality, or with incorrect medical record information. Positive studies were assessed for FF localization, comparing the traditional abdominal views and on a sub-quadrant basis: right upper quadrant (RUQ1 - hepatodiaphragmatic; RUQ2 - Morison’s pouch; RUQ3 - caudal liver edge and superior paracolic gutter; left upper quadrant (LUQ1 - splenic-diaphragmatic; LUQ2 - spleno-renal; LUQ3 – around inferior pole of kidney; suprapubic area (SP1 - bilateral to bladder; SP2 - posterior to bladder; SP3 – posterior to uterus (females. FAST results were confirmed by chart review of computed tomography results or operative findings. Results: Of the included 1,008 scans, 48 (4.8% were positive. The RUQ was the most positive view with 32/48 (66.7% positive. In the RUQ sub-quadrant analysis, the most positive view was the RUQ3 with 30/32 (93.8% positive. Conclusion: The RUQ is most sensitive for FF assessment, with the superior paracolic gutter area around the caudal liver edge (RUQ3 being the most positive sub-quadrant within the RUQ. [West J Emerg Med. 2017;18(2270-280.

  18. Excitatory amino acid receptor blockade within the caudal pressor area and rostral ventrolateral medulla alters cardiovascular responses to nucleus raphe obscurus stimulation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva N.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressor responses elicited by stimulation of the nucleus raphe obscurus (NRO depend on the integrity of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM. Therefore, to test the participation of excitatory amino acid (EAA receptors in the cardiovascular responses evoked by NRO stimulation (1 ms, 100 Hz, 40-70 µA, for 10 s, the EAA antagonist kynurenic acid (Kyn was microinjected at different sites in the ventrolateral medullar surface (2.7 nmol/200 nl of male Wistar rats (270-320 g, N = 39 and NRO stimulation was repeated. The effects of NRO stimulation were: hypertension (deltaMAP = +43 ± 1 mmHg, P<0.01, bradycardia (deltaHR = -30 ± 7 bpm, P<0.01 and apnea. Bilateral microinjection of Kyn into the RVLM, which did not change baseline parameters, almost abolished the bradycardia induced by NRO stimulation (deltaHR = -61 ± 3 before vs -2 ± 3 bpm after Kyn, P<0.01, N = 7. Unilateral microinjection of Kyn into the CVLM did not change baseline parameters or reduce the pressor response to NRO stimulation (deltaMAP = +46 ± 5 before vs +48 ± 5 mmHg after Kyn, N = 6. Kyn bilaterally microinjected into the caudal pressor area reduced blood pressure and heart rate and almost abolished the pressor response to NRO stimulation (deltaMAP = +46 ± 4 mmHg before vs +4 ± 2 mmHg after Kyn, P<0.01, N = 7. These results indicate that EAA receptors on the medullary ventrolateral surface play a role in the modulation of the cardiovascular responses induced by NRO stimulation, and also suggest that the RVLM participates in the modulation of heart rate responses and that the caudal pressor area modulates the pressor response following NRO stimulation.

  19. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Rieberger, Kevin J. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Meays, Cynthia L. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  20. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R.; Skirrow, Rachel C.; Rieberger, Kevin J.; Aggelen, Graham van; Meays, Cynthia L.; Helbing, Caren C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  1. Serotonin receptor 3A controls interneuron migration into the neocortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murthy, S.; Niquille, M.; Hurni, N.; Limoni, G.; Frazer, S.; Chameau, P.; van Hooft, J.A.; Vitalis, T.; Dayer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal excitability has been shown to control the migration and cortical integration of reelin-expressing cortical interneurons (INs) arising from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE), supporting the possibility that neurotransmitters could regulate this process. Here we show that the ionotropic

  2. Influencia del caudal de aire, temperatura y velocidad de agitación en el proceso discontinuo de acetificación para la obtención de vinagre de naranja (Citrus sinensis var.W. Navel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ferreyra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la influencia de variables de proceso para la producción de vinagre de naranja. El jugo de naranja, se fermentó con Saccharomyces cer evisiae hasta 14 % v/v de alcohol. La bioxidación se realizó con Acetobacter sp., en cultivo sumergido, en biorreactor de laboratorio. Para evitar el efecto inhibidor del etanol sobre las bacterias acéticas, el vino de naranja fue diluido a 6 % v/v de alco hol con solución de minerales. La influencia de las variables se evaluó con diseño factorial 2 k . Se estudió caudal de aire/velocidad de agitación, ensayando los niveles 0.3 – 0.6 vvm y 200 - 400 rpm y luego, caudal de aire/temperatura, siendo los niveles para cada variable 0.4 – 0.6 vvm y 25 - 30 ºC, respectivamente. Cada tratamiento se realizó por duplicado, usando como respuestas productividad y rendimiento. El análisis del diseño (α<0.05 se efectuó mediante programa Statgraphics Centurion XV Corporate. En los tratamientos con 200 rpm y distintos caudales de aire, no hubo diferencias significativas respecto a la productividad. A mayor velocidad de agitación y caudal de aire, la productividad fue mayor. Los mayores rendimientos se obtuvieron con menores caudales de aire y mayores velocidades de agitación. Con respecto a la temperatura, los valores ensayados no presentaron diferenc ias significativas en las respuestas estudiadas. El mejor rendimiento se obtuvo con 400 rpm y 0.3 vvm a 25 ºC. Se concluye que la velocidad de agitación juega un rol muy importante para lograr una mejor productividad mientras que elevados flujos de aire d isminuyen el rendimiento.

  3. Model identification and controller design of a fish-like robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyanto, Irfan; Kang, Taesam; Chan, Wai Leung; Lee, Youngjae

    2007-04-01

    Robotic fish is an interesting and prospective subject to develop. The simplest fish swimming mode to be mimicked for fish robots is the ostraciiform mode which only requires caudal fin flapping. An almost submerged ostraciiform fish robot was constructed to study its swimming characteristics. The swimming direction can be controlled by changing the mean angle of caudal fin oscillation. Experiments were conducted to study the behavior of the fish robot and in particular, the transfer function between swimming path angular rate and mean angle of the caudal fin oscillation were identified. Error to signal ratio quantity was used to determine how well the model fits with the experimental data. This identification model was used to design a 2-degree-of-freedom PID controller that meets some specific requirements to improve the steering performance.

  4. Conexiones entre caudales de algunos ríos de la Costa norte y central del Perú y El Niño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available CONNEXIONS ENTRE LES DÉBITS DE CERTAINS COURS D’EAU DE LA CÔTE NORD ET CENTRALE DU PÉROU ET EL NIÑO-COURANT DU SUD. Plusieurs études ont montré qu’il y avait une relation significative entre El Niño-Oscillation du Sud (ENSO et les débits des bassins qui se trouvent ou non dans le Bassin du Pacifique. Cette relation est essentielle car on peut l’utiliser pour prédire des débits, qui serviront à la mise en place de politiques de gestion de barrages et pour éviter des pertes dues à des inondations, etc. Dans une étude préliminaire, les débits de six cours d’eau péruviens (Chancay, Moche, de la Leche, Chillón, Zaña et Jequetepeque ont été analysés et corrélés avec les divers indices utilisés pour décrire El Niño-Oscillation du Sud : l’Indice d’Oscillation du Sud (SOI, et les températures de surface de l’océan Niño 1, 2, 3 et 4. Le débit total annuel et le débit moyen des trois quadrimestres ont été corrélés avec les moyennes trimestrielles des indices ENSO. Les trois quadrimestres utilisés pour les débits sont janvier-février-mars-avril (JFMA, mai-juin-juillet-août (MJJA et septembre-octobre-novembre-décembre (SOND. Les périodes de calcul des indicateurs de l’ENSO sont octobre-novembre-décembre (OND, septembre-octobre-novembre (SON, août-septembre-octobre (ASO et juillet-août-septembre (JAS de l’année précédente. Les meilleures corrélations correspondent au débit moyen du second quadrimestre (MJJA avec les valeurs des températures de surface de l’océan Niño 1, 2 et 3 pour les rios Moche et Jequetepeque. Ces relations montrent qu’il serait possible de pronostiquer le débit moyen du quadrimestre MJJA à partir des valeurs des Niño 1, 2 et 3 dès le trimestre JAS de l’année antérieure, c’est à dire des prévisions sept mois à l’avance. Diferentes estudios han demostrado que existe una relación significativa entre El Niño - Corriente del Sur (ENSO y los caudales de los ríos de

  5. Evaluation of the drawer test and the tibial compression test for differentiating between cranial and caudal stifle subluxation associated with cruciate ligament instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Might, Kelly R; Bachelez, Andréas; Martinez, Steven A; Gay, John M

    2013-05-01

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the drawer test (DT) alone and in combination with the tibial compression test (TCT) to detect stifle subluxation after transection of the cranial cruciate (CrCL), caudal cruciate (CdCL) or both cruciate ligaments (total cruciate ligament or TCL). Experimental study. Cadaveric, skeletally mature canine pelvic limb pairs (n = 8). Pelvic limbs disarticulated at the coxofemoral joint were randomly assigned to the following 1 of 4 groups: (1) limbs had complete transection of the CrCL; (2) limbs had complete transection of the CdCL; (3) limbs had complete transection of both ligaments; and (4) both ligaments were left intact. Participants performed the DT and the TCT and a diagnosis was given based on the DT and on the combination of these tests. DT had a poor sensitivity for correctly identifying CrCL (69%), CdCL (45%), and TCL (26%) rupture, but had a high sensitivity when identifying intact limbs (97%). Specificity for DT was greatest when identifying limbs with CdCL (97%) and TCL (92%) rupture, and the lowest when palpating limbs with CrCL rupture (75%). Combining DT and TCT did not increase sensitivity or specificity values, nor did an increased level of evaluator training. Independent of evaluator training, the DT alone or combined with the TCT poorly differentiates the cause of stifle instability associated with CrCL, CdCL, and TCL rupture. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Effects of anatomic conformation on three-dimensional motion of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Monika I; Seiler, Gabriela S; Robinson, Leanne E; Ferguson, Stephen J; Bonél, Harald M; Busato, André R; Lang, Johann

    2006-01-01

    To determine the association between the 3-dimensional (3-D) motion pattern of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the canine vertebral column and the morphology of vertebrae, facet joints, and intervertebral disks. Vertebral columns of 9 German Shepherd Dogs and 16 dogs of other breeds with similar body weights and body conditions. Different morphometric parameters of the vertebral column were assessed by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging. Anatomic conformation and the 3-D motion pattern were compared, and correlation coefficients were calculated. Total range of motion for flexion and extension was mainly associated with the facet joint angle, the facet joint angle difference between levels of the vertebral column in the transverse plane on CT images, disk height, and lever arm length. Motion is a complex process that is influenced by the entire 3-D conformation of the lumbar portion of the vertebral column. In vivo dynamic measurements of the 3-D motion pattern of the lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column will be necessary to further assess biomechanics that could lead to disk degeneration in dogs.

  7. An optimized method for measuring hypocretin-1 peptide in the mouse brain reveals differential circadian regulation of hypocretin-1 levels rostral and caudal to the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinussen, J L; Holm, A; Kornum, B R

    2015-12-03

    The hypocretin/orexin system regulates, among other things, sleep and energy homeostasis. The system is likely regulated by both homeostatic and circadian mechanisms. Little is known about local differences in the regulation of hypocretin activity. The aim of this study was to establish an optimized peptide quantification method for hypocretin-1 extracted from different mouse brain areas and use this method for investigating circadian fluctuations of hypocretin-1 levels in these areas. The results show that hypocretin-1 peptide can be extracted from small pieces of intact tissue, with sufficient yield for measurements in a standard radioimmunoassay. Utilizing the optimized method, it was found that prepro-hypocretin mRNA and peptide show circadian fluctuations in the mouse brain. This study further demonstrates that the hypocretin-1 peptide level in the frontal brain peaks during dark as does prepro-hypocretin mRNA in the hypothalamus. However, in midbrain and brainstem tissue caudal to the hypothalamus, there was less circadian fluctuation and a tendency for higher levels during the light phase. These data suggest that regulation of the hypocretin system differs between brain areas. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Caudal Zona Incerta/VOP Radiofrequency Lesioning Guided by Combined Stereotactic MRI and Microelectrode Recording for Posttraumatic Midbrain Resting-Kinetic Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Lopez, William Omar; Azevedo, Angelo R; Cury, Rubens G; Alencar, Francisco; Neville, Iuri S; Reis, Paul R; Navarro, Jessie; Monaco, Bernardo; da Silva, Fabio E Fernandes; Teixeira, Manoel J; Fonoff, Erich T

    2016-02-01

    Reporting the outcome of two patients who underwent unilateral ablative stereotactic surgery to treat pharmacologic resistant posttraumatic tremor (PTT). We present two patients (31 and 47 years old) with refractory PTT severely affecting their quality of life. Under stereotactic guidance, refined by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and double-channel multiunit microelectrode recording (MER), three sequential radiofrequency lesions were performed in the caudal zona incerta (cZi) up to the base of thalamus (VOP). Effects of cZi/VOP lesion were prospectively rated with a tremor rating scale. Both patients demonstrated intraoperative tremor suppression with sustained results up to 18 months follow-up, with improvement of 92% and 84%, respectively, on the tremor rating scale. Tremor improvement was associated with enhancement functionality and quality of life for the patients. The patients returned to their work after the procedure. No adverse effects were observed up to the last follow-up. Radiofrequency lesion of the cZi/VOP target was effective for posttraumatic tremor in both cases. The use of T2-weighted images and MER was found helpful in increasing the precision and safety of the procedure, because it leads the RF probe by relying on neighbor structures based on thalamus and subthalamic nucleus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Elliptical Fourier descriptors of outline and morphological analysis in caudal view of foramen magnum of the tropical raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus) (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, O M; Casanova, P M; Olopade, J O

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate sexual-size dimorphism and attempt at categorization of inter-individual shapes of foramen magnum outlines using Fourier descriptors which allow for shape outline evaluations with a resultant specimen character definition. Individual characterization and quantification of foramen magnum shapes in direct caudal view based on elliptical Fourier technique was applied to 46 tropical raccoon skulls (26 females, 20 males). Incremental number of harmonics demonstrates morphological contributions of such descriptors with their relations to specific anatomical constructions established. The initial harmonics (1st to 3rd) described the general foramen shapes while the second (4th to 12th) demonstrated fine morphological details. Sexual-size dimorphism was observed in females (87.1%) and 91.7% in males, normalization of size produces 75% in females and 83% in males. With respect to foramen magnum dimorphism analysis, the result obtained through elliptic Fourier analysis was comparatively better in detail information of outline contours than earlier classical methods. The first four effective principal components defined 70.63% of its shape properties while the rest (22.51%) constituted fine details of morphology. Both size and shape seems important in sexual dimorphisms in this species, this investigation suggest clinical implications, taxonomic and anthropologic perspectives in foramen characterization magnum characterization and further postulates an increased possibility of volume reduction cerebellar protrusion, ontogenic magnum shape irregularities in the sample population with neurologic consequences especially among females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuronal responses to tactile stimuli and tactile sensations evoked by microstimulation in the human thalamic principal somatic sensory nucleus (ventral caudal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Anne-Christine; Chien, Jui-Hong; Greenspan, Joel D; Garonzik, Ira; Weiss, Nirit; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick Arthur

    2016-06-01

    The normal organization and plasticity of the cutaneous core of the thalamic principal somatosensory nucleus (ventral caudal, Vc) have been studied by single-neuron recordings and microstimulation in patients undergoing awake stereotactic operations for essential tremor (ET) without apparent somatic sensory abnormality and in patients with dystonia or chronic pain secondary to major nervous system injury. In patients with ET, most Vc neurons responded to one of the four stimuli, each of which optimally activates one mechanoreceptor type. Sensations evoked by microstimulation were similar to those evoked by the optimal stimulus only among rapidly adapting neurons. In patients with ET, Vc was highly segmented somatotopically, and vibration, movement, pressure, and sharp sensations were usually evoked by microstimulation at separate sites in Vc. In patients with conditions including spinal cord transection, amputation, or dystonia, RFs were mismatched with projected fields more commonly than in patients with ET. The representation of the border of the anesthetic area (e.g., stump) or of the dystonic limb was much larger than that of the same part of the body in patients with ET. This review describes the organization and reorganization of human Vc neuronal activity in nervous system injury and dystonia and then proposes basic mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Defines Organizing Centers that Orchestrate Growth and Differentiation of the Regenerating Zebrafish Caudal Fin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wehner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish regenerate their fins via the formation of a population of progenitor cells, the blastema. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for blastemal cell proliferation and patterning of the overlying epidermis. Yet, we find that β-catenin signaling is neither active in the epidermis nor the majority of the proliferative blastemal cells. Rather, tissue-specific pathway interference indicates that Wnt signaling in the nonproliferative distal blastema is required for cell proliferation in the proximal blastema, and signaling in cells lining the osteoblasts directs osteoblast differentiation. Thus, Wnt signaling regulates epidermal patterning, blastemal cell proliferation, and osteoblast maturation indirectly via secondary signals. Gene expression profiling, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and functional rescue experiments suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling acts through Fgf and Bmp signaling to control epidermal patterning, whereas retinoic acid and Hedgehog signals mediate its effects on blastemal cell proliferation. We propose that Wnt signaling orchestrates fin regeneration by defining organizing centers that instruct cellular behaviors of adjacent tissues.

  12. Continuous chloroprocaine infusion for thoracic and caudal epidurals as a postoperative analgesia modality in neonates, infants, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Giorgio; Iliev, Peter; Tripi, Jennifer; Martin, David; Aldrink, Jennifer; Bhalla, Tarun; Tobias, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Neonates and infants have decreased metabolic capacity for amide local anesthetics and increased risk of local anesthetic toxicity compared to the general population. Chloroprocaine is an ester local anesthetic that has an extremely short plasma half-life in infants as well as adults. Existing reports support the safety and efficacy of continuous chloroprocaine epidural infusions in neonates and young infants during the intraoperative period. Despite this, continuous chloroprocaine epidural infusion may be an under-utilized method of postoperative analgesia for this patient population. In particular, it may improve pain control in neonates and infants with incisions stretching many dermatomes or those with hepatic impairment. We retrospectively reviewed our experience over 4 years with continuous chloroprocaine epidural infusions in neonates, infants, and children with a focus on the postoperative management of pain. Twenty-one pediatric patients received continuous 2-chloroprocaine epidural infusions for postoperative pain management from January 2010 to April 2014 for thoracic, abdominal, and limb procedures. The epidural infusion consisted of 1.5% chloroprocaine or 1.5% chloroprocaine with fentanyl. Tabulating the morphine and hydromorphone used for rescue analgesia, the median (interquartile range) opioid consumption (mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) of intravenous morphine equivalents) for the first, second, and third 24-h postoperative periods were 0.02 (0-0.48), 0.30 (0-0.44), and 0.14 (0-0.29), respectively. Examining the total fentanyl usage, the median (interquartile range) fentanyl consumption (μg·kg(-1) ·day(-1)) for first, second, and third 24-h postoperative periods were 3.89 (0.41-7.24), 0 (0.00-4.06), and 0 (0.00-0.51), respectively. The median N-PASS score assessed every 6 h from 0 to 72 h postoperatively was 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, and 0, respectively. The median FLACC score assessed every 6 h from 0 to 72 h postoperatively was 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0

  13. Innervation of periesophageal region of cat's diaphragm - Implication for studies of control of vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L. K.; Miller, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    The extent of the region of the diaphragm around the esophagus that displays greatly reduced activity during the expulsive phase of vomiting was determined from electromyographic studies in cats to be about 0.75-1.0 cm from the esophagus. Horseradish peroxidase injected into this region retrogradely labeled motoneurons throughout most of the rostral-caudal extent of the phrenic nucleus, with the exception of caudal C6 and rostral C7. This widespread intermingling of motoneurons that innervate the region of reduced activity with other phrenic motoneurons creates a difficulty for needed follow-up studies of diaphragmatic control during vomiting.

  14. Modernization of the feedwater heaters control level of the Almaraz I Nuclear Power Plant by OVATION system; Modernizacion del control de nivel de los calentadores de agua de alimentacion de C.N. Almaraz I mediante el sistema OVATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madronal Rodriguez, E.; Cabrero Munoz, J. E.

    2010-07-01

    As a result of the process of technological renovation of the heaters system and the power increase project, Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has made several design changes in the feedwater heaters system. Within these changes, the old heaters control loops are replaced because the new power will increase the heaters drainage caudal. This modernization is carried out using the OVATION control system.

  15. Comparison of intraoperative behavioral and hormonal responses to noxious stimuli between mares sedated with caudal epidural detomidine hydrochloride or a continuous intravenous infusion of detomidine hydrochloride for standing laparoscopic ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgin, Joanna; Hendrickson, Dean; Wallis, Ty; Rao, Sangeeta

    2010-08-01

    To compare the presence or absence of pain, pain-related behavioral responses, and hormonal responses to noxious stimuli during standing laparoscopic ovariectomy in mares sedated with continuous intravenous (IV) detomidine infusion and caudal epidural detomidine. A double blind prospective study. Mares (n=12) Mares were divided into 2 treatment groups; 6 were sedated using continuous IV detomidine infusion and 6 were sedated with caudal epidural detomidine. All mares received IV xylazine (0.33 mg/kg) and butorphanol tartrate (5 mg) premedication before detomidine administration. Venous blood samples were taken to assess serum cortisol levels in each mare at 4 time points: a baseline cortisol measurement after the mares' arrival to the clinic, 10 minutes before surgery, at the removal of the 2nd ovary, and 10 minutes postsurgery. Two surgeons performed bilateral ovariectomy and at 8 time points involving surgical manipulations, noted the presence or absence of pain (yes/no) and scored the patient's response on a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain assessment with 0 indicating no pain responses and 10 cm indicating pain so severe that the mare required additional sedation or analgesia to complete the procedure. Each mare was also assigned a VAS score by each surgeon for the overall satisfaction of analgesia during the entire procedure. Serum cortisol levels between the 2 detomidine administration groups differed significantly at the baseline (precortisol) measurement but not at the 3 remaining time points. Seven of the procedures within the surgeries did not differ significantly in VAS scores between the 2 groups. The initial grasp of the left ovary (the 1st ovary) in the continuous infusion group had a significantly higher (P=.05) median VAS score compared with the caudal epidural group. Mares sedated with a continuous IV infusion of detomidine have similar hormonal and behavioral responses to painful stimuli during standing laparoscopic ovariectomy as mares

  16. Modernization of the feedwater heaters control level of the Almaraz I Nuclear Power Plant by OVATION system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madronal Rodriguez, E.; Cabrero Munoz, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of the process of technological renovation of the heaters system and the power increase project, Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has made several design changes in the feedwater heaters system. Within these changes, the old heaters control loops are replaced because the new power will increase the heaters drainage caudal. This modernization is carried out using the OVATION control system.

  17. Go/No Go task performance predicts cortical thickness in the caudal inferior frontal gyrus in young adults with and without ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erik; Jernigan, Terry L; Lisdahl, Krista M; Tamm, Leanne; Tapert, Susan F; Potkin, Steven G; Mathalon, Daniel; Molina, Brooke; Bjork, James; Castellanos, F Xavier; Swanson, James; Kuperman, Joshua M; Bartsch, Hauke; Chen, Chi-Hua; Dale, Anders M; Epstein, Jeffery N; Group, Mta Neuroimaging

    2016-09-01

    Response inhibition deficits are widely believed to be at the core of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Several studies have examined neural architectural correlates of ADHD, but research directly examining structural correlates of response inhibition is lacking. Here we examine the relationship between response inhibition as measured by a Go/No Go task, and cortical surface area and thickness of the caudal inferior frontal gyrus (cIFG), a region implicated in functional imaging studies of response inhibition, in a sample of 114 young adults with and without ADHD diagnosed initially during childhood. We used multiple linear regression models to test the hypothesis that Go/No Go performance would be associated with cIFG surface area or thickness. Results showed that poorer Go/No Go performance was associated with thicker cIFG cortex, and this effect was not mediated by ADHD status or history of substance use. However, independent of Go/No Go performance, persistence of ADHD symptoms and more frequent cannabis use were associated with thinner cIFG. Go/No Go performance was not associated with cortical surface area. The association between poor inhibitory functioning and thicker cIFG suggests that maturation of this region may differ in low performing participants. An independent association of persistent ADHD symptoms and frequent cannabis use with thinner cIFG cortex suggests that distinct neural mechanisms within this region may play a role in inhibitory function, broader ADHD symptomatology, and cannabis use. These results contribute to Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) by revealing novel associations between neural architectural phenotypes and basic neurobehavioral processes measured dimensionally.

  18. Origin and neurochemical properties of bulbospinal neurons projecting to the rat lumbar spinal cord via the medal longitudinal fasciculus and caudal ventrolateral medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilli eHuma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulbospinal systems (BS originate from various regions of the brainstem and influence spinal neurons by classical synaptic and modulatory mechanisms. Our aim was to determine the brainstem locations of cells of origin of BS pathways passing through the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF and the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM. We also examined the transmitter content of spinal terminations of the CVLM pathway. Six adult rats received Fluorogold (FG injections to the right intermediate grey matter of the lumbar cord (L1-L2 and the b-subunit of cholera toxin (CTb was injected either into the MLF or the right CVLM (3 animals each. Double-labelled cells were identified within brainstem structures with confocal microscopy and mapped onto brainstem diagrams. An additional 3 rats were injected with CTb in the CVLM to label axon terminals in the lumbar spinal cord. Double-labelled cells projecting via the MLF or CVLM were found principally in reticular regions of the medulla and pons but small numbers of cells were also located within the midbrain. CVLM projections to the lumbar cord were almost exclusively ipsilateral and concentrated within the intermediate grey matter. Most (62% of terminals were immunoreactive for the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 while 23% contained the vesicular GABA transporter. The inhibitory subpopulation was glycinergic, GABAergic or contained both transmitters. The proportions of excitatory and inhibitory axons projecting via the CVLM to the lumbar cord are similar to those projecting via the MLF. Unlike the MLF pathway, CVLM projections are predominantly ipsilateral and concentrated within intermediate grey but do not extend into motor nuclei or laminia VIII. Terminations of the CVLM pathway are located in a region of the grey matter that is rich in premotor interneurons; thus its primary function may be to coordinate activity of premotor networks.

  19. Corticotrigeminal Projections from the Insular Cortex to the Trigeminal Caudal Subnucleus Regulate Orofacial Pain after Nerve Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation in Insular Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Han; Li, Hui; Chen, Tao; Cui, Jing; Zang, Wei-Dong; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI) induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc), especially the superficial laminae (I/II), received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These findings may help

  20. Suppression of the cough reflex by inhibition of ERK1/2 activation in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutolo, Donatella; Bongianni, Fulvia; Cinelli, Elenia; Giovannini, Maria Grazia; Pantaleo, Tito

    2012-04-15

    The caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS), the predominant site of termination of cough-related afferents, has been shown to be a site of action of some centrally acting antitussive agents. A role of ERK1/2 has been suggested in acute central processing of nociceptive inputs. Because pain and cough share similar features, we investigated whether ERK1/2 activation could also be involved in the central transduction of tussive inputs. For this purpose, we undertook the present research on pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits by using microinjections (30-50 nl) of an inhibitor of ERK1/2 activation (U0126) into the cNTS. Bilateral microinjections of 25 mM U0126 caused rapid and reversible reductions in the cough responses induced by both mechanical and chemical (citric acid) stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree. In particular, the cough number and peak abdominal activity decreased. Bilateral microinjections of 50 mM U0126 completely suppressed the cough reflex without affecting the Breuer-Hering inflation reflex, the pulmonary chemoreflex, and the sneeze reflex. These U0126-induced effects were, to a large extent, reversible. Bilateral microinjections of 50 mM U0124, the inactive analog of U0126, at the same cNTS sites had no effect. This is the first study that provides evidence that ERK1/2 activation within the cNTS is required for the mediation of cough reflex responses in the anesthetized rabbit. These results suggest a role for ERK1/2 in the observed effects via nontranscriptional mechanisms, given the short time involved. They also may provide hints for the development of novel antitussive strategies.

  1. Membrane depolarization-induced RhoA/Rho-associated kinase activation and sustained contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle involves genistein-sensitive tyrosine phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Yanagihara, Hayato; Nakagawa, Jun-ichi; Hishinuma, Shigeru; Sutherland, Cindy; Walsh, Michael P.; Shoji, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Rho-associated kinase (ROK) activation plays an important role in K+-induced contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle (Mita et al., Biochem J. 2002; 364: 431–40). The present study investigated a potential role for tyrosine kinase activity in K+-induced RhoA activation and contraction. The non-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, but not the src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2, inhibited K+-induced sustained contraction (IC50 = 11.3 ± 2.4 µM). Genistein (10 µM) inhibited the K+-induced increase in myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation without affecting the Ca2+ transient. The tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate induced contraction that was reversed by genistein (IC50 = 6.5 ± 2.3 µM) and the ROK inhibitor Y-27632 (IC50 = 0.27 ± 0.04 µM). Vanadate also increased LC20 phosphorylation in a genistein- and Y-27632-dependent manner. K+ stimulation induced translocation of RhoA to the membrane, which was inhibited by genistein. Phosphorylation of MYPT1 (myosin-targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase) was significantly increased at Thr855 and Thr697 by K+ stimulation in a genistein- and Y-27632-sensitive manner. Finally, K+ stimulation induced genistein-sensitive tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins of ∼55, 70 and 113 kDa. We conclude that a genistein-sensitive tyrosine kinase, activated by the membrane depolarization-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, is involved in the RhoA/ROK activation and sustained contraction induced by K+. Ca2+ sensitization, myosin light chain phosphatase, RhoA, Rho-associated kinase, tyrosine kinase PMID:24133693

  2. MRI determination of the vertebral termination of the dural sac tip in a South African population: clinical significance during spinal irradiation and caudal anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Cilliers

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Knowing where the dural sac (DS ends is important, especially when placing the portal fields during craniospinal irradiation (CSI and performing caudal anesthesia. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the level of termination of the DS in relation to the spine in a group of South African patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the lumbosacral MR Imaging of 309 patients in each case identifying the tip of the DS. This level was recorded in relation to the adjacent vertebral body i.e. upper-, middle- and lower third and adjacent intervertebral disc. The overall mean of the DS position was at the middle third of S2. A notable percentage (13.9% of patients had a DS level lower than the lower third of S2 and (15.2% patients had a DS level higher than the S1-S2 intervertebral disc. This study failed to demonstrate a difference in the DS termination level, compared to the levels reported in various international studies; nor is there a statistical difference between gender, race and age. Our study shows that routine placement of the portal field at the lower border of S2 adequately treats the majority of CSI patients. However some patients (13.9% will be undertreated and some patients (15.2% will be overradiated. Using spinal MRI to establish the lower border of the CSI portal field will however benefit patients by ensuring adequate coverage of the entire neuroaxis as well as minimizing late gonadal toxicity due to overradiation.

  3. Analgesia pós-operatória em correção cirúrgica de pé torto congênito: comparação entre bloqueio nervoso periférico e bloqueio peridural caudal Analgesia postoperatoria en corrección quirúrgica de pie jorobado congénito: comparación entre bloqueo nervioso periférico y bloqueo epidural caudal Postoperative analgesia for the surgical correction of congenital clubfoot: comparison between peripheral nerve block and caudal epidural block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rossi Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O procedimento de correção de pé torto congênito (PTC cursa com dor pós-operatória intensa. A técnica mais utilizada em crianças é a peridural caudal associada à anestesia geral. Tem como limitação a curta duração da analgesia pós-operatória. Os bloqueios de nervos periféricos têm sido apontados como procedimentos com baixa incidência de complicações e tempo prolongado de analgesia. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o tempo de analgesia dos bloqueios nervosos periféricos e bloqueio caudal e o consumo de morfina nas primeiras 24 horas após a correção de PTC em crianças. MÉTODO: Estudo randômico, encoberto, em crianças submetidas à intervenção cirúrgica para liberação póstero-medial de PTC, alocadas em 4 grupos conforme a técnica anestésica: Caudal (ACa; Bloqueios isquiático e femoral (IF; Bloqueios isquiático e safeno (IS; Bloqueio isquiático e anestesia local (IL, associados à anestesia geral. Nas primeiras 24 horas os pacientes receberam dipirona e paracetamol via oral e foram avaliados por anestesiologista que desconhecia a técnica empregada. Conforme escores da escala CHIPPS (Children's and infants postoperative pain scale era administrada morfina via oral (0,19 mg.kg-1 por dia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudadas 118 crianças distribuídas nos grupos ACa (30, IF (32, IS (28 IL (28. O tempo médio entre o bloqueio e a primeira dose de morfina foi 6,16 horas no grupo ACa, 7,05 horas no IF, 7,58 horas no IS e 8,18 horas no IL. O consumo de morfina foi 0,3 mg.kg-1 por dia nos quatro grupos. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: Os bloqueios nervosos periféricos não promoveram maior tempo de analgesia, tampouco redução no consumo de morfina nas primeiras 24 horas em crianças submetidas à correção de PTC quando comparados ao bloqueio peridural caudal.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El procedimiento de corrección de pie jorobado congénito (PJC, debuta

  4. Modelo de balance hídrico para la estimación de los caudales de lixiviados generados en la operación del relleno sanitario del Centro Industrial del Sur - El Guacal, Heliconia-Antíoquia.

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Guerrero, Marinella

    2009-01-01

    Se revisó y analizó los modelos desarrollados para estimar los caudales de lixiviados que se generan en un relleno sanitario identificando sus limitaciones y desventajas. Se selecciono los modelos de mayor aplicación y aceptación para modelar las condiciones operativas del relleno sanitario El Guacal (Heliconia-Antioquia, Colombia). Se analizó la influencia del método de operación del relleno sanitario y de las variables climáticas del sitio de localización sobre la producción de lixiviado...

  5. Auxillary system for optimizing simulation and percutaneous irradiation in cranio-caudally contiguous head-neck-mediastinum fields. Hilfssystem zur Optimierung von Simulation und perkutaner Radiatio bei kranial-kaudal aneinandergrenzenden Kopf-Hals-Mediastinum-Feldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistermanns, J. (Radiologische Klinik, Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Krankenhaus ' Maria Hilf GmbH' , Moenchengladbach (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Percutaneous irradiation in the head and neck region via opponing lateral fields with caudally contiguous ventral and/or dorsal fields makes very high demands on simulation, instrument adjustment and documentation. At the outer boundaries of the irradiation volumes, there is always the danger of overdosage or underdosage with the familiar consequences. Four targeting systems in one plane were inserted in a perspex frame each consisting of two concentric rings and two orthogonal crossbars. Under simulation conditions, the lateral radiation fields take up one half of the targeting systems and the ventro-dorsal fields occupy the remaining half. The corresponding targeting systems project exactly on or into each other with compensation of the beam divergence. A definitively exact irradiation via cranio-caudally contiguous fields with different incident beam direction is possible by using the four targeting systems in one plane. Compensation of divergence is aimed for by rotation of the table and gantry angle modification, errors of compensation can already be checked optically from 0,5 . Deviations of 5 mm in the simulated longitudinal arrangement of the contiguous fields can be imaged on the documentation film made with therapy activity. On the one hand, the auxillary system presented allows both recognition of undesired field overlap and gaps in contiguous fields with different incident beam direction. On the other hand, it can be unequivocally documented whether the therapy is correct. Treatment errors can thus be minimized. (orig./MG)

  6. Complicações determinadas por placas de cloreto de polivinila (PVC na estabilização da porção cervical caudal da coluna vertebral de cães Complications determined by polyvinylchloride (PVC plates in the stabilization of caudal cervical vertebral column of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 10 cães com peso médio de 14,6kg, as vértebras cervicais 5 e 6 foram cirurgicamente desestabilizadas através da secção do disco intervertebral e, em seguida, estabilizadas com placas ortopédicas confeccionadas com PVC de 2mm de espessura, para após 180 dias, proceder-se ao estudo histológico do tecido ósseo e conjuntivo circunvizinho. Constatou-se que o PVC causou alterações ósseas que podem ter favorecido o afrouxamento dos parafusos e a falha do implante. O material induziu ainda à formação de granuloma de corpo estranho e a reações inflamatórias locais que podem ter causado degradação do material implantado. Assim, placas de PVC, apesar de proporcionarem estabilidade e alinhamento da coluna vertebral, não satisfazem a maioria das propriedades necessárias a um biomaterial, não sendo recomendadaa a sua utilização em ortopedia veterinária.In ten dogs with an average mean weight of 14,6 kg, the cervical vertebra 5 and 6 were destabilized and fixed with plates of 2mm of thickness. The purpose of this work was to verify the effect of orthopedic PVC plates on the internal stabilization of the caudal cervical spine of dogs by studying the occurrence of alterations in the bone tissue and fibrous tissue adjacent to the plate after 180 days of permanence of the material in the dogs' organism. PVC causes progressive bone alterations, which, in the long term, could promote the loosening of the screws and failure of the implant. It also induces the formation of foreign body granuloma and inflammatory reactions which could cause degradation of the implant. Thus, PVC plates do not satisfy the majority of properties required of a biomaterial, its use not being recommended in veterinary orthopedics.

  7. Bang-bang control of feeding: role of hypothalamic and satiety signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Silvano Zanutto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Rats, people, and many other omnivores eat in meals rather than continuously. We show by experimental test that eating in meals is regulated by a simple bang-bang control system, an idea foreshadowed by Le Magnen and many others, shown by us to account for a wide range of behavioral data, but never explicitly tested or tied to neurophysiological facts. The hypothesis is simply that the tendency to eat rises with time at a rate determined by satiety signals. When these signals fall below a set point, eating begins, in on-off fashion. The delayed sequelae of eating increment the satiety signals, which eventually turn eating off. Thus, under free conditions, the organism eats in bouts separated by noneating activities. We report an experiment with rats to test novel predictions about meal patterns that are not explained by existing homeostatic approaches. Access to food was systematically but unpredictably interrupted just as the animal tried to start a new meal. A simple bang-bang model fits the resulting meal-pattern data well, and its elements can be identified with neurophysiological processes. Hypothalamic inputs can provide the set point for longer-term regulation carried out by a comparator in the hindbrain. Delayed gustatory and gastrointestinal aftereffects of eating act via the nucleus of the solitary tract and other hindbrain regions as neural feedback governing short-term regulation. In this way, the model forges real links between a functioning feedback mechanism, neuro-hormonal data, and both short-term (meals and long-term (eating-rate regulation behavioral data.

  8. Separated centers of ossification caudal to the wing of the pedal bone in horses - a help [to] rule out fractures of the wings and ossification in the accessory cartilages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertsch, B.; Neuberth, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radiographic evaluation of a lat-med. x-ray of the digits of 278 normal three year old standard bred stallions (group I) and of 300 mares and geldings over the age of six years (group II) was made in view of frequency and clinical relevance of a separated center of ossification caudal to each wing of the pedal bone. The material served both age associated judgement and localisation dependant morphological description of these separated ossified bone piece. Through comparative measurements of the angle of the dorsal hoof wall in the two groups of horses, a possible etiological aspect especially concerning the hoof form is discussed, to true nature of this small separated ossified bone piece

  9. Correlación de variables macroclimáticas del Océano Pacífico con los caudales en los ríos interandinos del Valle del Cauca (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesid Carvajal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los fenómenos climáticos sobre los océanos ejercen gran influencia sobre la hidroclimatología del valle del río Cauca (Colombia, en especial el evento "El Niño Oscilación Sur" (ENOS, que es responsable de la variabilidad climática en escalas de tiempo que van desde meses hasta décadas. Debido a esta dependencia, se estudió la correlación entre 8 variables indicadoras del clima en los Océanos Pacífico y Atlántico con los caudales medios mensuales de 8 ríos del valle del río Cauca. Las series cubren un período promedio de 40 años 1957-1997. Los resultados muestran las variaciones regionales de la situación hidrológica del valle del río Cauca respecto a las variables macroclimáticas. Los coeficientes de correlación indican que las variables que presentan mayor asociación con los caudales analizados son en su orden: Las temperaturas de la superficie del mar en las regiones Niño 3, Niño 3-4, Niño 4 Y SOl, mientras en el Atlántico, las mejores correlaciones las presentan: la Temperatura en el Trópico, en el Atlántico Norte (NATL y Atlántico Sur (SATL respectivamente.

  10. NEURAL NETWORK INTERACTIONS AND INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR CONTROL DURING ANOREXIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Alan G.; Salter, Dawna S.; Neuner, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    Many models have been proposed over the years to explain how motivated feeding behavior is controlled. One of the most compelling is based on the original concepts of Eliot Stellar whereby sets of interosensory and exterosensory inputs converge on a hypothalamic control network that can either stimulate or inhibit feeding. These inputs arise from information originating in the blood, the viscera, and the telencephalon. In this manner the relative strengths of the hypothalamic stimulatory and inhibitory networks at a particular time dictates how an animal feeds. Anorexia occurs when the balance within the networks consistently favors the restraint of feeding. This article discusses experimental evidence supporting a model whereby the increases in plasma osmolality that result from drinking hypertonic saline activate pathways projecting to neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). These neurons constitute the hypothalamic controller for ingestive behavior, and receive a set of afferent inputs from regions of the brain that process sensory information that is critical for different aspects of feeding. Important sets of inputs arise in the arcuate nucleus, the hindbrain, and in the telencephalon. Anorexia is generated in dehydrated animals by way of osmosensitive projections to the behavior control neurons in the PVH and LHA, rather than by actions on their afferent inputs. PMID:17531275

  11. Mechanisms responsible of sensory afferent projections into the hindbrain

    OpenAIRE

    Zecca, Andrea, 1985-

    2014-01-01

    Los animales perciben el mundo externo a través de los sistemas sensoriales. Estos consisten en: i) los receptores sensoriales que detectan estímulos externos; ii) las vías neuronales que transmiten la información sensorial al cerebro; y iii) las neuronas centrales organizadas en núcleos que procesan la información. Con el objetivo de estudiar la inervación selectiva de las regiones del rombencéfalo por las aferentes sensoriales, hemos mapado la representación topográfica de las proyecciones ...

  12. Estrous cycle-dependent neural plasticity in the caudal brainstem in the female golden hamster : Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies of axo-dendritic relationships and dynamic remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P. O.; Kortekaas, R.; Veening, J. G.; de Weerd, H.; Algra, A.; Mouton, L. J.; van der Want, J. J. L.

    2008-01-01

    During the short four-day estrous cycle of the female hamster various behavioral (lordosis, vocalization and aggression) and autonomic adaptations occur. Presumably, these changes are under ovarian control. Recently, we described a distinct estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive (ER-alpha-IR) cell

  13. Estrous cycle-dependent neural plasticity in the caudal brainstem in the female golden hamster: ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies of axo-dendritic relationships and dynamic remodeling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; Veening, J.G.; Weerd, H. de; Algra, A.; Mouton, L.J.; Want, J.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    During the short four-day estrous cycle of the female hamster various behavioral (lordosis, vocalization and aggression) and autonomic adaptations occur. Presumably, these changes are under ovarian control. Recently, we described a distinct estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive (ER-alpha-IR) cell

  14. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the substantia nigra of healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeger, Adriane; Godau, Jana; Berg, Daniela; Chadzynski, Grzegorz; Klose, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with high spatial resolution at 3 Tesla was performed. Regional variations of spectroscopic data between the rostral and caudal regions of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were evaluated in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Data were acquired by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging measurements. The ratios between rostral and caudal voxels of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were calculated for the main-metabolites N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol. Additionally, the metabolite/creatine ratios were calculated. In all subjects spectra of acceptable quality could be obtained with a nominal voxel size of 0.252 ml. The calculated rostral-to-caudal ratios of the metabolites as well as of the metabolite/creatine ratios showed with exception of choline/creatine ratio significant differences between healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. The findings from this study indicate that regional variations in N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios in the regions of the substantia nigra may differentiate patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. (orig.)

  15. Neural input is critical for arcuate hypothalamic neurons to mount intracellular signaling responses to systemic insulin and deoxyglucose challenges in male rats: implications for communication within feeding and metabolic control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arshad M; Walker, Ellen M; Dominguez, Nicole; Watts, Alan G

    2014-02-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) controls rat feeding behavior in part through peptidergic neurons projecting to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH). Hindbrain catecholaminergic (CA) neurons innervate both the PVH and ARH, and ablation of CA afferents to PVH neuroendocrine neurons prevents them from mounting cellular responses to systemic metabolic challenges such as insulin or 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG). Here, we asked whether ablating CA afferents also limits their ARH responses to the same challenges or alters ARH connectivity with the PVH. We examined ARH neurons for three features: (1) CA afferents, visualized by dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH)- immunoreactivity; (2) activation by systemic metabolic challenge, as measured by increased numbers of neurons immunoreactive (ir) for phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2); and (3) density of PVH-targeted axons immunoreactive for the feeding control peptides Agouti-related peptide and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH). Loss of PVH DBH immunoreactivity resulted in concomitant ARH reductions of DBH-ir and pERK1/2-ir neurons in the medial ARH, where AgRP neurons are enriched. In contrast, pERK1/2 immunoreactivity after systemic metabolic challenge was absent in αMSH-ir ARH neurons. Yet surprisingly, axonal αMSH immunoreactivity in the PVH was markedly increased in CA-ablated animals. These results indicate that (1) intrinsic ARH activity is insufficient to recruit pERK1/2-ir ARH neurons during systemic metabolic challenges (rather, hindbrain-originating CA neurons are required); and (2) rats may compensate for a loss of CA innervation to the ARH and PVH by increased expression of αMSH. These findings highlight the existence of a hierarchical dependence for ARH responses to neural and humoral signals that influence feeding behavior and metabolism.

  16. 布比卡因与左布比卡因在婴幼儿骶管麻醉中的临床效果比较%The effect of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine for caudal anesthesia in infant and children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆利; 夏林智; 陶军

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较布比卡因和左布比卡因在婴幼儿骶管麻醉中的临床效果.方法 选择40例3~6岁、ASA Ⅰ级、择期行腹股沟疝修补术的婴幼儿,按照随机数字表法分为布比卡因组和左布比卡因组,每组20例,分别使用相同剂量和浓度的布比卡因和左布比卡因行骶管麻醉.术中监测血压、心率和脉搏血氧饱和度,术后评估两组患者的疼痛和运动阻滞程度.结果 布比卡因和左布比卡因在婴幼儿骶管麻醉中均可提供良好的镇痛效果.两组术后疼痛评分比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).在术后60、90、120 min,布比卡因组运动阻滞评分高于左布比卡因组[(1.5±0.6)分比(0.9±0.3)分、(1.0±0.8)分比(0.1±0.5)分、(0.6±0.5)分比(0.0±0.7)分],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 布比卡因与左布比卡因在骶管麻醉中镇痛效应相似;在运动阻滞方面,左布比卡因优于布比卡因.%Objective To compare the effect of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine for caudal anesthesia in infant and children.Methods Forty patients with age 3-6 years old in the state of ASA Ⅰ grade were randomly divided into bupivacaine group and levobupivacaine group,each 20 patients.Both groups received respectively bupivacaine or levobupivacine with the same concentration and volume.The blood pressure,heart rate and pulse oxygen saturation were monitored during the operation.The degree of pain and motor was assessed after the operation.Results Bupivacaine and levobupivacaine for caudal anesthesia in infant and children could provide good analgesic effects.The scores of pain was similar between the two groups and had no statistic significance (P > 0.05).The scores of motor block in bupivacaine group was significantly higher than that in levobupivacaine group after anesthesia 60,90,120 min [(1.5 ±0.6) scores vs.(0.9 ±0.3) scores,(1.0 ±0.8) scores vs.(0.1 ±0.5) scores,(0.6 ±0.5) scores vs.(0.0 ±0.7)scores],there was significant

  17. Do the cerebellar tonsils move during flexion and extension of the neck in patients with Chiari I malformation? A radiological study with clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Kirkpatrick, Christina M; Rizk, Elias; Chern, Joshua J; Oskouian, Rod J; Oakes, W Jerry

    2016-03-01

    In the past, diagnosis of the Chiari I malformation has primarily been made on midsagittal MRI. We hypothesized that based on the frequent presentation of opisthotonos in patients with hindbrain hernia (primarily Chiari II malformation but sometimes Chiari I malformation) that the hyperextension might be a compensatory technique used by such patients to bring the cerebellar tonsils up out of the cervical spine. This prospective study reviewed imaging of patients with Chiari I malformation who underwent flexion/extension MRI for evaluation of their hindbrain herniation. Age-matched controls were used for comparison. In general, there was elevation of the cerebellar tonsils with extension and increased descent with flexion of the cervical spine. In 72 % of patients, flexion of the neck resulted in descent of the cerebellar tonsils. In 64 % of patients, extension of the neck resulted in ascent of the cerebellar tonsils. In the 14 patients with an associated syrinx, 71 % were found to have caudal movement of the cerebellar tonsils with neck flexion, and only 43 % were observed to have any movement of the cerebellar tonsils in neck extension compared to patients without a syrinx where ascent of the tonsils was seen in only nine during neck extension. Two patients were observed to have the reverse finding of ascent of the cerebellar tonsils with neck flexion and descent of the cerebellar tonsils with neck extension. Five patients had no movement of the cerebellar tonsils in either flexion or extension of the neck, and one of these had a small syrinx. Although minimal and not in all patients, we observed elevation of the herniated cerebellar tonsils with extension of the cervical spine in patients with Chiari I malformation. This finding provides evidence as to why some patients with hindbrain herniation present with opisthotonos and supports earlier findings that CSF flow is reduced at the craniocervical junction in flexion in patients with Chiari I malformation.

  18. Somatostatin in the caudal spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1984-01-01

    . In all of these regions somatostatin-positive cell bodies were also observed. In the intermediate gray matter stained terminals were present around the central canal in a varying number. The most prominent stainability was found in the lumbosacral transition zone. Many terminals were also observed...... was particularly low in the motoneuron neuropil. However, a dense somatostatin network was found in the sixth lumbar segment in relation to the neurons in Onuf's nucleus X complex, the nucleus that innervates the small pelvic muscles including the striated sphincters. It is concluded that somatostatin, besides...

  19. A Comparison of Radioisotope Methods for River Flow Measurement; Comparaison de methodes radioisotopiques de mesure du debit des cours d'eau; Sravnenie radioizotopnykh metodov izmereniya rechnykh stokov; Comparacion de los metodos radioisotopicos para medir el caudal de los rios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C. G.; Smith, D. B. [Wantage Research Laboratory Atomic Energy Research Establishment Wantage, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1963-08-15

    consequent d'aucune utilite comme indicateur dans la mesure du debit d'un cours d'eau s'il n'est pas employe avec un entraineur; mais avec un entraineur, on observe une amelioration marquee de l'exactitude des resultats. {sup 24}Na et {sup 82}Br n'ont accuse aucune adsorption a des distances bien superieures a celles qui sont necessaires pour assurer une brassage lateral; dans la riviere la plus lente, toutefois, on a note, a plus de 660 m du point d'injection, une certaine diminution de {sup 24}Na. Le memoire contient quelques observations sur la dispersion laterale et longitudinale qui, a une certain degre, influe sur l'application generale des methodes radioisotopiques a la mesure du debit des cours d'eau. Les auteurs parviennent a la conclusion que les trois methodes donnent des resultats satisfaisants. Ils preferent, en fin'de compte, la methode d'echantillonnage continue, car elle donne les resultats les plus exacts pour, la quantite minimum d'indicateur. (author) [Spanish] Los autores han empleado los procedimientos de dilucion, muestreo continuo y recuento total en un estudio comparativo de los metodos radioisotopicos de medicion de caudales fluviales en el arroyo Aylburton, en Gloucestershire, y en los rios Usway Burn y Alwin, en Northumberland. Se trata de tres tios de caracteristicas geologicas diferentes, cuyos caudales oscilan entre 2,5 1/s y 3 m{sup 3}/s. En todos los metodos de medicion de caudales que emplean indicadores, la distancia entre el punto en que se efectua la medicion y el punto en que se anade el indicador tiene que ser suficientemente grande para que se produzca una mezcla lateral completa. Por otra parte, no debe ser excesiva para evitar que la dipersion longitudinal supere cierto valor o que se pierda parte del indicador por adsorcion en el lecho fluvial. La dispersion depende de las caracteristicas hidraulicad de la corriente y es inherente al metodo. Por su parte, la adsorcion depende del indicador elegido y de las caracteristicas geologicas

  20. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the substantia nigra of healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeger, Adriane; Godau, Jana; Berg, Daniela [University of Tuebingen, Department of Neurodegeneration, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research and German Center for Neurodegenerative Disease (DZNE), Tuebingen (Germany); Chadzynski, Grzegorz; Klose, Uwe [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    To investigate the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with high spatial resolution at 3 Tesla was performed. Regional variations of spectroscopic data between the rostral and caudal regions of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were evaluated in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Data were acquired by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging measurements. The ratios between rostral and caudal voxels of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were calculated for the main-metabolites N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol. Additionally, the metabolite/creatine ratios were calculated. In all subjects spectra of acceptable quality could be obtained with a nominal voxel size of 0.252 ml. The calculated rostral-to-caudal ratios of the metabolites as well as of the metabolite/creatine ratios showed with exception of choline/creatine ratio significant differences between healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. The findings from this study indicate that regional variations in N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios in the regions of the substantia nigra may differentiate patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. (orig.)

  1. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Controls Vascular Integrity by Regulating VE-Cadherin Trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Daniel

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, a serine protease inhibitor, is expressed and secreted by endothelial cells. Patients with PAI-1 deficiency show a mild to moderate bleeding diathesis, which has been exclusively ascribed to the function of PAI-1 in down-regulating fibrinolysis. We tested the hypothesis that PAI-1 function plays a direct role in controlling vascular integrity and permeability by keeping endothelial cell-cell junctions intact.We utilized PAI-039, a specific small molecule inhibitor of PAI-1, to investigate the role of PAI-1 in protecting endothelial integrity. In vivo inhibition of PAI-1 resulted in vascular leakage from intersegmental vessels and in the hindbrain of zebrafish embryos. In addition PAI-1 inhibition in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers leads to a marked decrease of transendothelial resistance and disrupted endothelial junctions. The total level of the endothelial junction regulator VE-cadherin was reduced, whereas surface VE-cadherin expression was unaltered. Moreover, PAI-1 inhibition reduced the shedding of VE-cadherin. Finally, we detected an accumulation of VE-cadherin at the Golgi apparatus.Our findings indicate that PAI-1 function is important for the maintenance of endothelial monolayer and vascular integrity by controlling VE-cadherin trafficking to and from the plasma membrane. Our data further suggest that therapies using PAI-1 antagonists like PAI-039 ought to be used with caution to avoid disruption of the vessel wall.

  2. Endogenous Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Signaling in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius is Required for Food Intake Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Mergler, Blake D; Zimmer, Derek J; Turner, Christopher A; Reiner, David J; Schmidt, Heath D; Grill, Harvey J; Hayes, Matthew R

    2017-06-01

    Alhough the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) system is critical to energy balance control and is a target for obesity pharmacotherapies, the receptor-population-mediating effects of endogenous GLP-1 signaling are not fully understood. To address this, we developed a novel adeno-associated virus (AAV-GLP-1R) that utilizes short hairpin RNA to chronically knock down GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) in rats. As pharmacological studies highlight the hindbrain nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) as a brain region important for GLP-1R-mediated effects on energy balance, AAV-GLP-1R was injected into the NTS to examine the role of endogenous NTS GLP-1R signaling in energy balance control. Chow intake and meal size were significantly increased following chronic NTS GLP-1R knockdown. In addition, NTS GLP-1R knockdown significantly increased self-administration of palatable food under both fixed and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. Collectively, these data demonstrate that endogenous NTS GLP-1R signaling is required for the control of food intake and motivation to feed, and provide a new strategy to investigate the importance of distinct GLP-1R populations in the control of a variety of functions.

  3. MASTR: A Technique for Mosaic Mutant Analysis with Spatial and Temporal Control of Recombination Using Conditional Floxed Alleles in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Lao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic mutant analysis, the study of cellular defects in scattered mutant cells in a wild-type environment, is a powerful approach for identifying critical functions of genes and has been applied extensively to invertebrate model organisms. A highly versatile technique has been developed in mouse: MASTR (mosaic mutant analysis with spatial and temporal control of recombination, which utilizes the increasing number of floxed alleles and simultaneously combines conditional gene mutagenesis and cell marking for fate analysis. A targeted allele (R26MASTR was engineered; the allele expresses a GFPcre fusion protein following FLP-mediated recombination, which serves the dual function of deleting floxed alleles and marking mutant cells with GFP. Within 24 hr of tamoxifen administration to R26MASTR mice carrying an inducible FlpoER transgene and a floxed allele, nearly all GFP-expressing cells have a mutant allele. The fate of single cells lacking FGF8 or SHH signaling in the developing hindbrain was analyzed using MASTR, and it was revealed that there is only a short time window when neural progenitors require FGFR1 for viability and that granule cell precursors differentiate rapidly when SMO is lost. MASTR is a powerful tool that provides cell-type-specific (spatial and temporal marking of mosaic mutant cells and is broadly applicable to developmental, cancer, and adult stem cell studies.

  4. Use of Morphometric Mapping to Characterise Symptomatic Chiari-Like Malformation, Secondary Syringomyelia and Associated Brachycephaly in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P Knowler

    Full Text Available To characterise the symptomatic phenotype of Chiari-like malformation (CM, secondary syringomyelia (SM and brachycephaly in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel using morphometric measurements on mid-sagittal Magnetic Resonance images (MRI of the brain and craniocervical junction.This retrospective study, based on a previous quantitative analysis in the Griffon Bruxellois (GB, used 24 measurements taken on 130 T1-weighted MRI of hindbrain and cervical region. Associated brachycephaly was estimated using 26 measurements, including rostral forebrain flattening and olfactory lobe rotation, on 72 T2-weighted MRI of the whole brain. Both study cohorts were divided into three groups; Control, CM pain and SM and their morphometries compared with each other.Fourteen significant traits were identified in the hindbrain study and nine traits in the whole brain study, six of which were similar to the GB and suggest a common aetiology. The Control cohort had the most elliptical brain (p = 0.010, least olfactory bulb rotation (p = 0.003 and a protective angle (p = 0.004 compared to the other groups. The CM pain cohort had the greatest rostral forebrain flattening (p = 0.007, shortest basioccipital (p = 0.019, but a greater distance between the atlas and basioccipital (p = 0.002 which was protective for SM. The SM cohort had two conformation anomalies depending on the severity of craniocervical junction incongruities; i the proximity of the dens (p <0.001 ii increased airorhynchy with a smaller, more ventrally rotated olfactory bulb (p <0.001. Both generated 'concertina' flexures of the brain and craniocervical junction.Morphometric mapping provides a diagnostic tool for quantifying symptomatic CM, secondary SM and their relationship with brachycephaly. It is hypothesized that CM pain is associated with increased brachycephaly and SM can result from different combinations of abnormalities of the forebrain, caudal fossa and craniocervical junction which compromise

  5. CALIBRACIÓN E IMPLEMENTACIÓN DEL MODELO MG PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DE CAUDALES MÁXIMOS EN COLOMBIA CALIBRAÇÃO E IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DO MODELO MG PARA A ESTIMATIVA DE CAUDAIS MÁXIMOS NA COLÔMBIA CALIBRATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MG MODEL FOR ESTIMATING PEAK FLOWS IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Duque

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es calibrar un modelo para la estimación de caudales máximos que se adapte a las características hidrológicas, geomorfológicas y de cobertura vegetal de las cuencas colombianas. Por esta razón, se calibraron los parámetros del modelo probabilístico MG para todo el territorio colombiano, sus principales regiones geográficas y subregiones hidrológicamente homogéneas. Para la obtención de las ecuaciones analíticas del modelo MG se utilizaron los registros históricos de caudales máximos de 277 estaciones limnigráficas distribuidas a lo largo del territorio colombiano. Los resultados obtenidos aplicando el modelo MG calibrado y otros métodos comúnmente utilizados con el mismo propósito fueron comparados entre sí y se encontraron valores muy semejantes. El modelo MG calibrado en este trabajo se muestra como una opción viable para la estimación de caudales máximos en cuencas con información escasa en Colombia.O propósito deste trabalho é calibrar um modelo para a estimativa de caudais máximos que se adapte às características hidrológicas, geomorfológicas e de cobertura vegetal das bacias colombianas. Por esta razão, se calibraram os parâmetros do modelo probabilístico MG para todo o território colombiano, suas principais regiões geográficas e sub-regiões hidrologicamente homogêneas. Para a obtenção das equações analíticas do modelo MG se utilizaram os registros históricos de caudais máximos de 277 estações limnigráficas distribuídas ao longo do território colombiano. Os resultados obtidos aplicando o MG calibrado e outros métodos comumente utilizados com o mesmo propósito foram comparados entre si e se encontraram valores muito semelhantes. O modelo MG calibrado neste trabalho se amostra como uma opção viável para a estimativa de caudais máximos em bacias com informação escassa na Colômbia.The purpose of this paper is calibrate a model for estimating peak flows

  6. TARGETED STELLATE DECENTRALIZATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR SYMPATHETIC CONTROL OF VENTRICULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Una; Yamakawa, Kentaro; Takamiya, Tatsuo; Armour, J. Andrew; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Selective, bilateral cervicothoracic sympathectomy has proven to be effective for managing ventricular arrhythmias in the setting of structural heart disease. The procedure currently employed removes the caudal portions of both stellate ganglia, along with thoracic chain ganglia down to T4 ganglia. Objective To define the relative contributions of T1-T2 and the T3-T4 paravertebral ganglia in modulating ventricular electrical function. Methods In anesthetized vagotomised porcine subjects (n=8), the heart was exposed via sternotomy along with right and left paravertebral sympathetic ganglia to the T4 level. A 56-electrode epicardial sock was placed over both ventricles to assess epicardial activation recovery intervals (ARI) in response to individually stimulating right and left stellate vs T3 paravertebral ganglia. Responses to T3 stimuli were repeated following surgical removal of the caudal portions of stellate ganglia and T2 bilaterally. Results In intact preparations, stellate ganglion vs T3 stimuli (4Hz, 4ms duration) were titrated to produce equivalent decreases in global ventricular ARIs (right-side 85±6 vs 55±10 ms; left-side 24±3 vs 17±7 ms). Threshold of stimulus intensity applied to T3 ganglia to achieve threshold was 3 times that of T1 threshold. ARIs in unstimulated states were unaffected by bilateral stellate-T2 ganglion removal. Following acute decentralization, T3 stimulation failed to change ARIs. Conclusion Preganglionic sympathetic efferents arising from the T1-T4 spinal cord that project to the heart transit through stellate ganglia via the paravertebral chain. T1-T2 surgical excision is thus sufficient to functionally interrupt central control of peripheral sympathetic efferent activity. PMID:26282244

  7. A model of peripheral microvascular injury: irreversible caudal necrosis induced in carrageenan-inflamed rats treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and mild chilling: a pluricausal thrombo-haemorrhagic phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, M W; Rainsford, K D

    1985-01-01

    A florid tail injury was observed in carrageenan-inflamed rats previously treated with acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs to suppress paw inflammation and then exposed to mild chilling (7-10 degrees C for 10-16 h). All three treatments, i.e. NSAI drug + carrageenan paw oedema + mild chilling treatment, were required for the development of this condition. Histological observations suggest that the tissue necrosis was initiated by a primary disturbance of the peripheral vasculature. The possible involvement of suppressed prostaglandin (PG) production in the aetiology of this condition is indicated by the fact that it was totally reversed by prior treatment with PGE2. This appears to be a classical pluricausal thrombohaemorrhagic phenomenon (of Selye), with cold-stress being the sensitizer and carrageenan and NSAI drugs being the challenger. The possibilities are considered of employing this tail injury model as a convenient method of developing drugs to control microvascular disturbances in man.

  8. Hox paralog group 2 genes control the migration of mouse pontine neurons through slit-robo signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J Geisen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The pontine neurons (PN represent a major source of mossy fiber projections to the cerebellum. During mouse hindbrain development, PN migrate tangentially and sequentially along both the anteroposterior (AP and dorsoventral (DV axes. Unlike DV migration, which is controlled by the Netrin-1/Dcc attractive pathway, little is known about the molecular mechanisms guiding PN migration along the AP axis. Here, we show that Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 are required both intrinsically and extrinsically to maintain normal AP migration of subsets of PN, by preventing their premature ventral attraction towards the midline. Moreover, the migration defects observed in Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 mutant mice were phenocopied in compound Robo1;Robo2, Slit1;Slit2, and Robo2;Slit2 knockout animals, indicating that these guidance molecules act downstream of Hox genes to control PN migration. Indeed, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we further demonstrated that Robo2 is a direct target of Hoxa2 in vivo and that maintenance of high Robo and Slit expression levels was impaired in Hoxa2 mutant mice. Lastly, the analysis of Phox2b-deficient mice indicated that the facial motor nucleus is a major Slit signaling source required to prevent premature ventral migration of PN. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular control of neuronal migration from transcription factor to regulation of guidance receptor and ligand expression. Specifically, they address the question of how exposure to multiple guidance cues along the AP and DV axes is regulated at the transcriptional level and in turn translated into stereotyped migratory responses during tangential migration of neurons in the developing mammalian brain.

  9. Influência da Oscilação do Atlântico Norte no clima do continente europeu e no caudal dos rios ibéricos atlânticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Trigo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available THE IMPACT OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION ON THE EUROPEAN CLIMATE AND RIVER FLOW OF THREE MAJOR IBERIAN RIVERS – The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO is the most dominant mode of atmospheric circulation variability over the entire Northern Hemisphere (NH and has recently been shown to be related to climate over large regions of the NH, in particular, over the European and North American continents. Here, a multivariable analysis of the influence ofthe NAO on the climate of the North Atlantic and European sectors is presented using the 40 year (1958-97 reanalysis data set from National Centres for Environmental Prediction. Using high and low NAO index composites, anomaly fields of climate variables are then interpreted based on physical mechanisms associated with the anomalous mean flow (characterised by the surface wind field and theanomalous eddy activity (characterised by the surface vorticity and the 500hPa storm track fields. It is shown that NAO-related temperature patterns are mainly controlled by the advection of heat by the anomalous mean flow. However, asymmetries between minimum and maximum temperatures, and more significantly, between positive and negative phases of NAO imply the importance of a different mechanism, namely the modulation of short wave and long wave radiation by cloud cover variations associated with the NAO. Furthermore, NAO influence over two different precipitation-related variables, namely, precipitation rate and precipitable water display different patterns. Precipitable water is shown to be strongly related to the corresponding anomaly fields of temperature while precipitation rate appears to be controlled by the surface vorticity field and associated strength of the tropospheric synoptic activity. Finally, we have assessed the impact of the NAO on winter river flow regimes for several different Portuguese rivers, including the three main international Iberian rivers, the Douro (north, the Tagus (centre and

  10. The hindbrain neural crest and the development of the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.H. van der Sanden (Marjo)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe wonder of things is the beginning of knowledge, as was already stated by Aristotle, the fIrst embryologist known to history. Embryology has remained a source of wonder ever since. It all starts with the fusion of the female egg and the male sperm. Sperm cells were first described by

  11. The role of sympathetic reflex control of cerebral blood flow and microcirculation during normoxia and hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissen, I.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that there is sympathetic reflex regulation of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the utilization of microvessels during normoxia and hypoxia. Regional CBF was determined in conscious Long Evans rats with 4-iodo[N-methyl- 14 C]antipyrine. The percentage of the microvessels perfused as determined by comparing perfused microvessels (FITC-dextran), with the total microvasculature (alkaline phosphatase stain). To test this hypothesis, arcs of the proposed reflex were eliminated. The first experiment examined the effect of bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy on CBF and microcirulation during normoxia and hypoxia. CBF increased during hypoxia from 67 ± 2 to 115 ± 3 ml/min/100 g in control, and from 77 ± 2 to 155 ± 6 ml/min/100 g in ganglionectomized animals. In control, hypoxic flow to caudal areas was higher than to rostral areas and that difference was prevented by ganglionectomy. Utilization of arterioles during hypoxia increased from 51 ± 2% to 63 ± 2% in control, and from 52 ± 1% to 77 ± 2% in ganglionectomized group. The percent perfused capillaries during normoxia was 49 ± 2% in control, and 52 ± 1% in ganglionectomized group, and during hypoxia it was 73 ± 2% in both groups. In the second study, cerebral vascular responses to hypoxia were determined after administration of alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists N-methyl chlorpromazine (does not cross the blood-brain barrier), and phenoxybenzamine (crosses the blood-brain barrier). Neither phenoxybenzamine nor N-methyl chlorpromazine affected CBF and microcirculation during normoxia. During hypoxia, they similarly reversed the rostral to caudal gradient of flow, increased utilization of arterioles in rostral brain areas, and did not affect capillaries

  12. Distribution of spinal neuronal networks controlling forward and backward locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulyeva, Natalia; Veshchitskii, Aleksandr; Gorsky, Oleg; Pavlova, Natalia; Zelenin, Pavel V; Gerasimenko, Yury; Deliagina, Tatiana G; Musienko, Pavel

    2018-04-20

    Higher vertebrates, including humans, are capable not only of forward (FW) locomotion but also of walking in other directions relative to the body axis [backward (BW), sideways, etc.]. While the neural mechanisms responsible for controlling FW locomotion have been studied in considerable detail, the mechanisms controlling steps in other directions are mostly unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of spinal neuronal networks controlling FW and BW locomotion. First, we applied electrical epidural stimulation (ES) to different segments of the spinal cord from L2 to S2 to reveal zones triggering FW and BW locomotion in decerebrate cats of either sex. Second, to determine the location of spinal neurons activated during FW and BW locomotion, we used c-fos immunostaining. We found that the neuronal networks responsible for FW locomotion were distributed broadly in the lumbosacral spinal cord and could be activated by ES of any segment from L3 to S2. By contrast, networks generating BW locomotion were activated by ES of a limited zone from the caudal part of L5 to the caudal part of L7. In the intermediate part of the gray matter within this zone, a significantly higher number of c- fos -positive interneurons was revealed in BW-stepping cats compared with FW-stepping cats. We suggest that this region of the spinal cord contains the network that determines the BW direction of locomotion. Significance Statement Sequential and single steps in various directions relative to the body axis [forward (FW), backward (BW), sideways, etc.] are used during locomotion and to correct for perturbations, respectively. The mechanisms controlling step direction are unknown. In the present study, for the first time we compared the distributions of spinal neuronal networks controlling FW and BW locomotion. Using a marker to visualize active neurons, we demonstrated that in the intermediate part of the gray matter within L6 and L7 spinal segments

  13. ESTIMACIÓN DE CAUDALES DE AVENIDA Y DELIMITACIÓN DE ÁREAS INUNDABLES MEDIANTE MÉTODOS HIDROMETEOROLÓGICOS E HIDRÁULICOS Y TÉCNICAS S.I.G., ESTUDIO APLICADO AL LITORAL SUR DE LA REGIÓN DE MURCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael García Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se centra en el empleo combinado de datos de precipitación, modelos hidrológicos e hidráulicos, y técnicas S.I.G. (Sistema de Información Geográfica para la estimación de caudales de avenidas y la delimitación de áreas inundables en el Sur de la Región de Murcia. Con el fin de obtener datos espacialmente distribuidos en las áreas potenciales de inundación, se han integrado en un S.I.G. diferentes modelos de conversión lluvia-escorrentía superficial (Hidrograma Unitario Adimensional SCS, Hidrograma Unitario Gamma de Témez y el Método Racional Modificado y métodos de geometría hidráulica. Para la conversión de datos de lluvia (tormentas de diseño por periodos de retorno a escorrentía se ha empleado el programa HEC-HMS 3.0.0 en combinación con la extensión HEC-GeoHMS 1.1 de ArcView 3.x. La modelización hidrológica se realiza con ayuda de ArcGIS 9.x y GRASS (v.5.4, mientras que la hidráulica ha requerido el uso de HEC-RAS y HEC-GeoRAS.

  14. Caudal anesthesia in a patient with peritonitis: Is it safe??

    OpenAIRE

    Kako, H; Hakim, M; Kundu, A; Tobias, TD

    2016-01-01

    Neuraxial anesthesia combined with general anesthesia has become a widely accepted method of providing effective postoperative analgesia and decreasing intraoperative anesthetic needs in the pediatric population. In clinical practice, there still appears to be hesitancy for the use of a neuraxial technique (spinal or epidural) in patients at risk for bacteremia or with an on-going systemic infection. However, evidence-based medicine lacks any data to support an increase in the risk of infecti...

  15. Caudal analgesia for herniotomy: Comparative evaluation of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... evaluation of two dose schemes of bupivacaine ... decision did not affect the quality of care received. ... After transfer to the ward, the ward nurses, also educated ... There is no information ... The aim was for a transition to simple ..... Shanthanna H, Singh B, Guyatt G. A systematic review and meta‑analysis.

  16. Post-irradiation lesions of the caudal roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feistner, H.; Weissenborn, K.; Muente, T.F.; Heinze, H.-J.; Malin, J.P. (Clinic for Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Medical College Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-01-01

    The article reports on 3 patients suffering from muscular atrophy after radiotherapy of the para-aortal lymph nodes for malignant testicular tumor without any sensory, bladder, or bowel disburbances. By neurophysiological examination, a lesion of the lumbal plexus and the peripheral nerves of the lower extremities were excluded. On EMG-examination there were no giant motor unit potentials, as they can be found in anterior horn cell lesions. Though there were no sensory deficits, a distinct prolongation of latencies and reduction of amplitudes could be found for lumbar dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and those after stimulation of some peripheral nerves of the lower extremities. (author).

  17. Post-irradiation lesions of the caudal roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistner, H.; Weissenborn, K.; Muente, T.F.; Heinze, H.-J.; Malin, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The article reports on 3 patients suffering from muscular atrophy after radiotherapy of the para-aortal lymph nodes for malignant testicular tumor without any sensory, bladder, or bowel disburbances. By neurophysiological examination, a lesion of the lumbal plexus and the peripheral nerves of the lower extremities were excluded. On EMG-examination there were no giant motor unit potentials, as they can be found in anterior horn cell lesions. Though there were no sensory deficits, a distinct prolongation of latencies and reduction of amplitudes could be found for lumbar dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and those after stimulation of some peripheral nerves of the lower extremities. (author)

  18. “Prototipo de control de riego tecnificado aplicando la tecnología del arduino”

    OpenAIRE

    CAYO CABRERA, GUIDO HUMBERTO; UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DEL ALTIPLANO

    2015-01-01

    El riego por aspersión se aplica el agua en suelo asperjado, o fraccionando el caudal en gotas las mismas que humedecen el terreno al tiempo que alcanzan la superficie del mismo. Se trata de un método de riego mecanizado, que asegura un preciso control de la lámina de agua aplicada en función de las condiciones edafo-climáticas y de cultivo y además permite una adecuada tecnificación de la práctica del riego. La metodología propuesta es mediante el riego automatizado y controlado vía web, que...

  19. Understanding the neural control of ingestive behaviors: helping to separate cause from effect with dehydration-associated anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A G

    2000-06-01

    Eating and drinking are motivated behaviors that are made up of coordinated sets of neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral motor events. Although the spinal cord, hindbrain, and hypothalamus contain the motor neurons and circuitry sufficient to maintain the reflex parts of these motor events, inputs from the telencephalon are required to furnish the behavioral components with a motivated (goal-directed) character. Each of these motor events derives from the complex interaction of a variety of sensory inputs with groups of neural networks whose components are distributed throughout the brain and collectively support motor expression and coordination. At a first approximation based on a variety of data, these networks can be divided into three groups: networks that stimulate, those that inhibit, and those that disinhibit motor functions. A fourth contributor is the circadian timing signal that originates in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and provides the temporal anchor for the expression of all behaviors. This article discusses the nature of these networks using neuroanatomical (tract-tracing and neuropeptide in situ hybridization), endocrine, and behavioral evidence from a variety of experimental models. A persistent problem when studying the control of food intake from a neural systems perspective has been the difficulty in separating those neuronal changes that result in hunger from those that are as a consequence of eating. To address this problem, dehydration-associated anorexia is presented as a particularly useful experimental model because it can be used to distinguish between neural mechanisms underlying anorexia and those changes that occur as a consequence of anorexia. The article concludes by highlighting the potential role of neuropeptidergic action in the operation of these networks, using forebrain neuropeptidergic innervation of the parabrachial nucleus as an example. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. Prefrontal control of cerebellum-dependent associative motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Yang, Li; Xu, Yan; Wu, Guang-yan; Yao, Juan; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Zhi-ru; Hu, Zhi-an; Sui, Jian-feng; Hu, Bo

    2014-02-01

    Behavioral studies have demonstrated that both medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and cerebellum play critical roles in trace eyeblink conditioning. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which the two brain regions interact. By use of electrical stimulation of the caudal mPFC as a conditioned stimulus, we show evidence that persistent outputs from the mPFC to cerebellum are necessary and sufficient for the acquisition and expression of a trace conditioned response (CR)-like response. Specifically, the persistent outputs of caudal mPFC are relayed to the cerebellum via the rostral part of lateral pontine nuclei. Moreover, interfering with persistent activity by blockade of the muscarinic Ach receptor in the caudal mPFC impairs the expression of learned trace CRs. These results suggest an important way for the caudal mPFC to interact with the cerebellum during associative motor learning.

  1. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  2. Oxidant and enzymatic antioxidant status (gene expression and activity) in the brain of chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Nasiri, Leila; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser; Bahadoran, Shahab

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) in chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension, the measurements of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, antioxidant capacity, enzymatic activity, and gene expression (for catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutases) were done. There were high lipid peroxidation/protein oxidation and low antioxidant capacity in the hindbrain of cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens compared to control ( P pulmonary hypertension.

  3. A Study on the Propulsive Mechanism of a Double Jointed Fish Robot Utilizing Self-Excitation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Motomu; Ohgishi, Norifumi; Ono, Kyosuke

    This paper describes a numerical and experimental study of a double jointed fish robot utilizing self-excitation control. The fish robot is composed of a streamlined body and a rectangular caudal fin. The body length is 280mm and it has a DC motor to actuate its first joint and a potentiometer to detect the angle of its second joint. The signal from the potentiometer is fed back into the DC motor, so that the system can be self-excited. In order to obtain a stable oscillation and a resultant stable propulsion, a torque limiter circuit is employed. From the experiment, it has been found that the robot can stably propel using this control and the maximum propulsive speed is 0.42m/s.

  4. Control rod control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiji, Takehiko; Obara, Kohei; Yanagihashi, Kazumi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable for switching of electric motors for driving each of control rods in a nuclear reactor. Namely, in a control rod controlling device, a plurality of previously allotted electric motors connected in parallel as groups, and electric motors of any selected group are driven. In this case, a voltage of not driving predetermined selected electric motors is at first applied. In this state an electric current supplied to the circuit of predetermined electric motors is detected. Whether integration or failure of a power source and the circuit of the predetermined electric motors are normal or not is judged by the detected electric current supplied. After they are judged normal, the electric motors are driven by a regular voltage. With such procedures, whether the selected circuit is normal or not can be accurately confirmed previously. Since the electric motors are not driven just at the selected time, the control rods are not operated erroneously. (I.S.)

  5. Loss of Axon Bifurcation in Mesencephalic Trigeminal Neurons Impairs the Maximal Biting Force in Npr2-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohar Ter-Avetisyan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Bifurcation of axons from dorsal root ganglion (DRG and cranial sensory ganglion (CSG neurons is mediated by a cGMP-dependent signaling pathway composed of the ligand C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP, the receptor guanylyl cyclase Npr2 and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI. Here, we demonstrate that mesencephalic trigeminal neurons (MTN which are the only somatosensory neurons whose cell bodies are located within the CNS co-express Npr2 and cGKI. Afferents of MTNs form Y-shaped branches in rhombomere 2 where the ligand CNP is expressed. Analyzing mouse mutants deficient for CNP or Npr2 we found that in the absence of CNP-induced cGMP signaling MTN afferents no longer bifurcate and instead extend either into the trigeminal root or caudally in the hindbrain. Since MTNs provide sensory information from jaw closing muscles and periodontal ligaments we measured the bite force of conditional mouse mutants of Npr2 (Npr2flox/flox;Engr1Cre that lack bifurcation of MTN whereas the bifurcation of trigeminal afferents is normal. Our study revealed that the maximal biting force of both sexes is reduced in Npr2flox/flox;Engr1Cre mice as compared to their Npr2flox/flox littermate controls. In conclusion sensory feedback mechanisms from jaw closing muscles or periodontal ligaments might be impaired in the absence of MTN axon bifurcation.

  6. Distinct populations of GABAergic neurons in mouse rhombomere 1 express but do not require the homeodomain transcription factor PITX2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Mindy R; Skaggs, Kaia; Kaviany, Parisa; Skidmore, Jennifer M; Causeret, Frédéric; Martin, James F; Martin, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Hindbrain rhombomere 1 (r1) is located caudal to the isthmus, a critical organizer region, and rostral to rhombomere 2 in the developing mouse brain. Dorsal r1 gives rise to the cerebellum, locus coeruleus, and several brainstem nuclei, whereas cells from ventral r1 contribute to the trochlear and trigeminal nuclei as well as serotonergic and GABAergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Recent studies have identified several molecular events controlling dorsal r1 development. In contrast, very little is known about ventral r1 gene expression and the genetic mechanisms regulating its formation. Neurons with distinct neurotransmitter phenotypes have been identified in ventral r1 including GABAergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic neurons. Here we show that PITX2 marks a distinct population of GABAergic neurons in mouse embryonic ventral r1. This population appears to retain its GABAergic identity even in the absence of PITX2. We provide a comprehensive map of markers that places these PITX2-positive GABAergic neurons in a region of r1 that intersects and is potentially in communication with the dorsal raphe. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards a general neural controller for quadrupedal locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maufroy, Christophe; Kimura, Hiroshi; Takase, Kunikatsu

    2008-05-01

    Our study aims at the design and implementation of a general controller for quadruped locomotion, allowing the robot to use the whole range of quadrupedal gaits (i.e. from low speed walking to fast running). A general legged locomotion controller must integrate both posture control and rhythmic motion control and have the ability to shift continuously from one control method to the other according to locomotion speed. We are developing such a general quadrupedal locomotion controller by using a neural model involving a CPG (Central Pattern Generator) utilizing ground reaction force sensory feedback. We used a biologically faithful musculoskeletal model with a spine and hind legs, and computationally simulated stable stepping motion at various speeds using the neuro-mechanical system combining the neural controller and the musculoskeletal model. We compared the changes of the most important locomotion characteristics (stepping period, duty ratio and support length) according to speed in our simulations with the data on real cat walking. We found similar tendencies for all of them. In particular, the swing period was approximately constant while the stance period decreased with speed, resulting in a decreasing stepping period and duty ratio. Moreover, the support length increased with speed due to the posterior extreme position that shifted progressively caudally, while the anterior extreme position was approximately constant. This indicates that we succeeded in reproducing to some extent the motion of a cat from the kinematical point of view, even though we used a 2D bipedal model. We expect that such computational models will become essential tools for legged locomotion neuroscience in the future.

  8. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  9. Control of control charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sri Nurdiati, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    Although the Shewhart chart is widely used in practice because of its simplicity, applying this control chart to monitor the mean of a process may lead to two types of problems. The first concerns the typically unknown parameters involved in the distribution, while the second concerns the validity

  10. Identificación de áreas de homogeneidad estadística para los caudales de ríos andinos argentinos y su relación con la circulación atmosférica y la temperatura superficial del mar Identification of statistical homogeneous areas for argentinean andean river flows and their relationship with the atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa H. Compagnucci

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se centra en localizar las distintas regiones a lo largo de la Cordillera de los Andes sobre las cuales el comportamiento de los caudales de los ríos involucrados muestran homogeneidades estadísticas, estudiando además su vinculación con las condiciones de Temperatura de la Superficie del Mar y Circulación Atmosférica. Se define un índice lineal de correlación corregido, utilizado como medida de distancia en un Análisis de Componentes Principales. Las primeras dos Componentes permiten identificar dos regiones independientes que explican la mayor variabilidad. Estas regiones abarcan: I desde el río Neuquén hasta el río Senguer y II desde el río Jachal hasta el río Colorado. La región I presenta un régimen de doble máximo de caudal en invierno-primavera, mientras que la región II se caracteriza por un máximo en verano. Esta última estaría íntimamente ligada a los patrones del ciclo El Niño / Oscilación Sur. Las diferencias más relevantes de la circulación asociada a los extremos de caudal en la región I con respecto a la II serían: 1 el corrimiento de los sistemas de circulación hacia mayores latitudes, 2 la mayor relevancia de los sistemas de latitudes medias, 3 la menor importancia de los ubicados sobre el Pasaje de Drake y 4 la presencia en altura de un tren de ondas estacionarias de menor longitud que atraviesa el continente por latitudes subtropicales provenientes del Pacífico central en dirección NO-SE.The purpose of this paper is to locate the different regions in Los Andes mountain range on which the behavior of the flows of the involved rivers shows statistical homogeneities, studying also their entailment with sea surface temperature and atmospheric circulation. A corrected correlation linear index is defined and used as a distance measurement in a Principal Component Analysis. The first two Components identify two independent regions that explain the greater variability. These regions

  11. Dream controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  12. Controllable dose; Dosis controlable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J T; Anaya M, R A [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  13. Influence of motivation on control hierarchy in the human frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Aarts, Esther; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-02-18

    The frontal cortex mediates cognitive control and motivation to shape human behavior. It is generally observed that medial frontal areas are involved in motivational aspects of behavior, whereas lateral frontal regions are involved in cognitive control. Recent models of cognitive control suggest a rostro-caudal gradient in lateral frontal regions, such that progressively more rostral (anterior) regions process more complex aspects of cognitive control. How motivation influences such a control hierarchy is still under debate. Although some researchers argue that both systems work in parallel, others argue in favor of an interaction between motivation and cognitive control. In the latter case it is yet unclear how motivation would affect the different levels of the control hierarchy. This was investigated in the present functional MRI study applying different levels of cognitive control under different motivational states (low vs high reward anticipation). Three levels of cognitive control were tested by varying rule complexity: stimulus-response mapping (low-level), flexible task updating (mid-level), and sustained cue-task associations (high-level). We found an interaction between levels of cognitive control and motivation in medial and lateral frontal subregions. Specifically, flexible updating (mid-level of control) showed the strongest beneficial effect of reward and only this level exhibited functional coupling between dopamine-rich midbrain regions and the lateral frontal cortex. These findings suggest that motivation differentially affects the levels of a control hierarchy, influencing recruitment of frontal cortical control regions depending on specific task demands. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353207-11$15.00/0.

  14. Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Contact Us Share Mosquito Control About Mosquitoes General Information Life Cycle Information from ... Repellent that is Right for You DEET Mosquito Control Methods Success in mosquito control: an integrated approach ...

  15. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  16. Software para la enseñanza de la dinámica y control de intercambiadores de calor de tubos y coraza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiderman Machuca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta la estructura de un software desarrollado para la enseñanza y aprendizaje de la dinámica y control de intercambiadores de calor de tubos y coraza. El programa presenta, de manera numérica y gráfica, el comportamiento dinámico en lazo abierto y cerrado del proceso para diferentes parámetros de diseño y condiciones de operación variables. El software permite modificar condiciones tanto de operación como de diseño, por ejemplo, temperatura y caudales de entrada a los tubos y coraza, número y longitud de tubos, número de pasos, diámetro externo e interno de los tubos, diámetro interno de coraza y factor de ensuciamiento.

  17. Neurofuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    These notes are for a course in fuzzy control and neural networks. By neural networks we more precisely mean neurofuzzy systems rather than pure neural network theory. The notes are an extension to the existing notes on fuzzy control (Jantzen, Fuzzy Control, 1994).......These notes are for a course in fuzzy control and neural networks. By neural networks we more precisely mean neurofuzzy systems rather than pure neural network theory. The notes are an extension to the existing notes on fuzzy control (Jantzen, Fuzzy Control, 1994)....

  18. Control rod position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubukata, Shinji.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a control rod position control device which stores data such as of position signals and driving control rod instruction before and after occurrence of abnormality in control for the control rod position for controlling reactor power and utilized the data effectively for investigating the cause of abnormality. Namely, a plurality of individual control devices have an operation mismatching detection circuit for outputting signals when difference is caused between a driving instruction given to the control rod position control device and the control rod driving means and signals from a detection means for detecting an actual moving amount. A general control device collectively controls the individual control devices. In addition, there is also disposed a position storing circuit for storing position signals at least before and after the occurrence of the control rod operation mismatching. With such procedures, the cause of the abnormality can be determined based on the position signals before and after the occurrence of control rod mismatching operation stored in the position storing circuit. Accordingly, the abnormality cause can be determined to conduct restoration in an early stage. (I.S.)

  19. Control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Hiromi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To realize effective utilization, cost reduction and weight reduction in neutron absorbing materials. Constitution: Residual amount of neutron absorbing material is averaged between the top end region and other regions of a control rod upon reaching to the control rod working life, by using a single kind of neutron absorbing material and increasing the amount of the neutron absorber material at the top end region of the control rod as compared with that in the other regions. Further, in a case of a control rod having control rod blades such as in a cross-like control rod, the amount of the neutron absorbing material is decreased in the middle portion than in the both end portions of the control rod blade along the transversal direction of the rod, so that the residual amount of the neutron absorbing material is balanced between the central region and both end regions upon reaching the working life of the control rod. (Yoshihara, H.)

  20. Control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which flexible control rods are used to enable insertion of the control rods into guide holes in the core which are distributed over an area larger than the cross section of the control rod penetration in the reactor pressure vessel. Guide tubes extend from the penetration and fan out to the guide holes for guiding the control rods from the penetration to the guide holes

  1. Gaining control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enden, van der E.; Laan, van der R.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the efforts of companies to find a solution for tax risk management, tax accounting and being in control. In trying to find a solution, companies work towards an integrated tax control framework (TCF), a tax risk management and control environment embedded in the internal

  2. Associational control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Grosen, Sidsel Lond

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the concept of control has had a central position in research into the psychological working environment. Control has been understood as individual autonomy and individual opportunities for development. This article examines whether the concept of control has the same key...

  3. Optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Aschepkov, Leonid T; Kim, Taekyun; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures from a one-year course at the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok, Russia) as well as on workshops on optimal control offered to students at various mathematical departments at the university level. The main themes of the theory of linear and nonlinear systems are considered, including the basic problem of establishing the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimal processes. In the first part of the course, the theory of linear control systems is constructed on the basis of the separation theorem and the concept of a reachability set. The authors prove the closure of a reachability set in the class of piecewise continuous controls, and the problems of controllability, observability, identification, performance and terminal control are also considered. The second part of the course is devoted to nonlinear control systems. Using the method of variations and the Lagrange multipliers rule of nonlinear problems, the authors prove the Pontryagin maximum principle for prob...

  4. Biomimetic propulsion under random heaving conditions, using active pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Gerasimos; Politis, Konstantinos

    2014-05-01

    Marine mammals travel long distances by utilizing and transforming wave energy to thrust through proper control of their caudal fin. On the other hand, manmade ships traveling in a wavy sea store large amounts of wave energy in the form of kinetic energy for heaving, pitching, rolling and other ship motions. A natural way to extract this energy and transform it to useful propulsive thrust is by using a biomimetic wing. The aim of this paper is to show how an actively pitched biomimetic wing could achieve this goal when it performs a random heaving motion. More specifically, we consider a biomimetic wing traveling with a given translational velocity in an infinitely extended fluid and performing a random heaving motion with a given energy spectrum which corresponds to a given sea state. A formula is invented by which the instantaneous pitch angle of the wing is determined using the heaving data of the current and past time steps. Simulations are then performed for a biomimetic wing at different heave energy spectra, using an indirect Source-Doublet 3-D-BEM, together with a time stepping algorithm capable to track the random motion of the wing. A nonlinear pressure type Kutta condition is applied at the trailing edge of the wing. With a mollifier-based filtering technique, the 3-D unsteady rollup pattern created by the random motion of the wing is calculated without any simplifying assumptions regarding its geometry. Calculated unsteady forces, moments and useful power, show that the proposed active pitch control always results in thrust producing motions, with significant propulsive power production and considerable beneficial stabilizing action to ship motions. Calculation of the power required to set the pitch angle prove it to be a very small percentage of the useful power and thus making the practical application of the device very tractable.

  5. Multiple cognitive control mechanisms associated with the nature of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chobok; Chung, Chongwook; Kim, Jeounghoon

    2010-06-07

    Cognitive control is required to regulate conflict. The conflict monitoring theory suggests that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is involved in detecting response conflict and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays a critical role in regulating conflict. Recent studies, however, have suggested that rostral dACC (rdACC) responds to response conflict whereas caudal dACC (cdACC) is associated with perceptual conflict. Moreover, DLPFC has been engaged only in regulation of response conflict. A neural network involved in perceptual conflict, however, remains unclear. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in an attempt to reveal monitor-controller networks corresponding to either perceptual conflict or response conflict. A version of the Stroop color matching task was used to manipulate perceptual conflict, response conflict was manipulated by an arrow. The results demonstrated that rdACC and DLPFC were engaged in response conflict whereas cdACC and the dorsal portion of premotor cortex (pre-PMd) were involved in perceptual conflict. Interestingly, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) was activated by both types of conflict. Correlation analyses between behavioral conflict effects and neural responses demonstrated that rdACC and DLPFC were associated with response conflict whereas cdACC and pre-PMd were associated with perceptual conflict. PPC was not correlated with either perceptual conflict or response conflict. We suggest that cdACC and pre-PMd play critical roles in perceptual conflict processing, and this network is independent from the rdACC/DLPFC network for response conflict processing. We also discussed the function of PPC in conflict processing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Taking Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    This podcast gives action steps and reasons to control diabetes.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/2/2007.

  7. Control Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    Inspired by William Glasser's Reality Therapy ideas, Control Theory (CT) is a disciplinary approach that stresses people's ability to control only their own behavior, based on internal motivations to satisfy five basic needs. At one North Dakota high school, CT-trained teachers are the program's best recruiters. (MLH)

  8. CONTROL ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.E.; Matras, S.

    1963-04-30

    This patent shows a method of making a fuel or control rod for a nuclear reactor. Fuel or control material is placed within a tube and plugs of porous metal wool are inserted at both ends. The metal wool is then compacted and the tube compressed around it as by swaging, thereby making the plugs liquid- impervious but gas-pervious. (AEC)

  9. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even if you aren’t going for birth control. What doesn’t work to prevent pregnancy? top It’s ... and taking care of a baby’s many needs. What if I need birth control in an emergency? top Emergency contraception (EC) is ...

  10. Integrated controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollaway, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    During 1984, all portions of the Nova control system that were necessary for the support of laser activation and completion of the Nova project were finished and placed in service on time. The Nova control system has been unique in providing, on schedule, the capabilities required in the central control room and in various local control areas throughout the facility. The ambitious goal of deploying this system early enough to use it as an aid in the activation of the laser was accomplished; thus the control system made a major contribution to the completion of Nova activation on schedule. Support and enhancement activities continued during the year on the VAX computer systems, central control room, operator consoles and displays, Novanet data communications network, system-level software for both the VAX and LSI-11 computers, Praxis control system computer language, software management tools, and the development system, which includes office terminals. Computational support was also supplied for a wide variety of test fixtures required by the optical and mechanical subsystems. Significant new advancements were made in four areas in integrated controls this year: the integration software (which includes the shot scheduler), the Praxis language, software quality assurance audit, and software development and data handling. A description of the accomplishments in each of these areas follows

  11. Controlling Hypertension

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    A recent study found an increase in self-reported high blood pressure among U.S. adults, and an increase in the use of medications to control high blood pressure. This podcast discusses the importance of controlling high blood pressure.

  12. Experiencing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Bingley, P.; Rajagopalan, R.; Triki, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the activities carried out in the first part of the Experiencing Control project (2008-324). The guiding idea of the project is to make control part of the experience, exploring new interaction solutions for complex, engaging interactions with Philips devices in the living

  13. Effect of Rebamipide on the Premalignant Progression of Chronic Gastritis: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Jiang, Kui; Wang, Bangmao; Zhou, Lu; Chen, Xin; Li, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Chronic gastritis frequently progresses into precancerous intestinal metaplasia and intraepithelial neoplasia lesions. Rebamipide is a free radical scavenger and we assessed its efficacy on clinical symptoms, gastric mucosal lesions, pathologic grade, and immunohistochemistry in chronic gastritis patients. 178 eligible patients were randomized into treatment and control groups. Both groups followed an optimized lifestyle for 26 weeks, but the treatment group was additionally medicated with rebamipide 0.1 g three times per day. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in all patients to evaluate the severity of gastritis by the Modified Lanza Scoring (MLS) and histological changes were evaluated by the Updated Sydney System Score (USSS). Gastric mucosa immunohistochemistry in the treatment group was performed using the intestinal metaplasia markers caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) detection. There were significant outcome differences between the treatment and control groups regarding the clinical symptom scores (2.62 ± 1.86 vs. 1.55 ± 1.61, P = 0.0001), gastric mucosal lesion scores (0.57 ± 1.05 vs. 0.16 ± 0.90, P = 0.002), and inflammation (P gastritis patients and decreased the expression rates of CDX2 and TFF3 in gastric cells.

  14. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Kazuo; Shimoshige, Takanori; Nishimura, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: A control rod has been developed, which provided a plurality of through-holes in the vicinity of the sheath fitting position, in order to flatten burn-up, of fuel rods in positions confronting a control rod. Thereby to facilitate the manufacture of the control rods and prevent fuel rod failures. Constitution: A plurality of through-holes are formed in the vicinity of the sheath fitting position of a central support rod to which a sheath for the control rod is fitted. These through-holes are arranged in the axial direction of the central support rod. Accordingly, burn-up of fuel rods confronting the control rods can be reduced by through-holes and fuel rod failures can be prevented. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. [Statistical Process Control (SPC) can help prevent treatment errors without increasing costs in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, R; Llueguera, E; Melero, A; Molero, J; Soler, N; Rueda, C; Paradinas, C

    2010-01-01

    Statistical Process Control (SPC) was applied to monitor patient set-up in radiotherapy and, when the measured set-up error values indicated a loss of process stability, its root cause was identified and eliminated to prevent set-up errors. Set up errors were measured for medial-lateral (ml), cranial-caudal (cc) and anterior-posterior (ap) dimensions and then the upper control limits were calculated. Once the control limits were known and the range variability was acceptable, treatment set-up errors were monitored using sub-groups of 3 patients, three times each shift. These values were plotted on a control chart in real time. Control limit values showed that the existing variation was acceptable. Set-up errors, measured and plotted on a X chart, helped monitor the set-up process stability and, if and when the stability was lost, treatment was interrupted, the particular cause responsible for the non-random pattern was identified and corrective action was taken before proceeding with the treatment. SPC protocol focuses on controlling the variability due to assignable cause instead of focusing on patient-to-patient variability which normally does not exist. Compared to weekly sampling of set-up error in each and every patient, which may only ensure that just those sampled sessions were set-up correctly, the SPC method enables set-up error prevention in all treatment sessions for all patients and, at the same time, reduces the control costs. Copyright © 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Substance P Differentially Modulates Firing Rate of Solitary Complex (SC) Neurons from Control and Chronic Hypoxia-Adapted Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Powell, Frank L.; Dean, Jay B.; Putnam, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    NK1 receptors, which bind substance P, are present in the majority of brainstem regions that contain CO2/H+-sensitive neurons that play a role in central chemosensitivity. However, the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive response of neurons from these regions has not been studied. Hypoxia increases substance P release from peripheral afferents that terminate in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Here we studied the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive responses of solitary complex (SC: NTS and dorsal motor nucleus) neurons from control and chronic hypoxia-adapted (CHx) adult rats. We simultaneously measured intracellular pH and electrical responses to hypercapnic acidosis in SC neurons from control and CHx adult rats using the blind whole cell patch clamp technique and fluorescence imaging microscopy. Substance P significantly increased the basal firing rate in SC neurons from control and CHx rats, although the increase was smaller in CHx rats. However, substance P did not affect the chemosensitive response of SC neurons from either group of rats. In conclusion, we found that substance P plays a role in modulating the basal firing rate of SC neurons but the magnitude of the effect is smaller for SC neurons from CHx adult rats, implying that NK1 receptors may be down regulated in CHx adult rats. Substance P does not appear to play a role in modulating the firing rate response to hypercapnic acidosis of SC neurons from either control or CHx adult rats. PMID:24516602

  17. Substance P differentially modulates firing rate of solitary complex (SC neurons from control and chronic hypoxia-adapted adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Nichols

    Full Text Available NK1 receptors, which bind substance P, are present in the majority of brainstem regions that contain CO2/H(+-sensitive neurons that play a role in central chemosensitivity. However, the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive response of neurons from these regions has not been studied. Hypoxia increases substance P release from peripheral afferents that terminate in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. Here we studied the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive responses of solitary complex (SC: NTS and dorsal motor nucleus neurons from control and chronic hypoxia-adapted (CHx adult rats. We simultaneously measured intracellular pH and electrical responses to hypercapnic acidosis in SC neurons from control and CHx adult rats using the blind whole cell patch clamp technique and fluorescence imaging microscopy. Substance P significantly increased the basal firing rate in SC neurons from control and CHx rats, although the increase was smaller in CHx rats. However, substance P did not affect the chemosensitive response of SC neurons from either group of rats. In conclusion, we found that substance P plays a role in modulating the basal firing rate of SC neurons but the magnitude of the effect is smaller for SC neurons from CHx adult rats, implying that NK1 receptors may be down regulated in CHx adult rats. Substance P does not appear to play a role in modulating the firing rate response to hypercapnic acidosis of SC neurons from either control or CHx adult rats.

  18. Describing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouet, J.M.; Starynkevitch, B.

    1987-01-01

    Incremental development and maintenance of large systems imply that control be clearly separated from knowledge. Finding efficient control for a given class of knowledge is itself a matter of expertise, to which knowledge-based methods may and should be applied. We present here two attempts at building root systems that may later be tuned by knowledge engineers, using the semantics of each particular application. These systems are given heuristics in a declarative manner, which they use to control the application of heuristics. Eventually, some heuristics may be used to compile others (or themselves) into efficient pieces of programmed code

  19. Drug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Harvey S.

    1975-01-01

    This article attempts to assemble pertinent information about the drug problem, particularily marihuana. It also focuses on the need for an educational program for drug control with the public schools as the main arena. (Author/HMV)

  20. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  1. Control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, W.

    1990-01-01

    The current state of knowledge about screen systems for application in traffic (e.g., flight control), process control, and production is presented. The 29 lectures, 5 of which relate to aviation, deal with the optimization of the man-machine interface with respect to unusual operating situations and adequate presentation and action methods on the basis of taks and event analyses integrating the users. (DG) [de

  2. Controlling Hypertension

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hypertension, or high blood pressure, affects one third of U.S. adults and is a leading cause of heart disease and stroke. A recent study found an increase in self-reported high blood pressure among U.S. adults, and an increase in the use of medications to control high blood pressure. In this podcast, Dr. Fleetwood Loustalot discusses the importance of controlling high blood pressure.

  3. Control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Isao; Masuoka, Ryuzo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent fuel element failures during power conditioning by removing liquid absorbents in poison tubes of control rods in a fast power up step and extracting control rods to slightly increase power in a medium power up step. Constitution: A plurality of poison tubes are disposed in a coaxial or plate-like arrangement and divided into a region capable of compensating the reactivity from the initial state at low temperature to 40% power operation and a region capable of compensating the reactivity in the power up above 40% power operation. Soluble poisons are used as absorbers in the poison tubes corresponding to above 40% power operation and they are adapted to be removed independently from the driving of control rods. The poison tubes filled with the soluble absorbers are responsible for the changes in the reactivity from the initial state at low temperature to the medium power region and the reactivity control is conducted by the elimination of liquid absorbers from the poison tubes. In the succeeding slight power up region above the medium power, power up is proceeding by extracting the control rods having remaining poison tubes filled with solid or liquid absorbers. (Seki, T.)

  4. Losing control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppink, Eric; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Lust, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    picking disorder). CONCLUSIONS: Assaultive behavior appears fairly common among college students and is associated with symptoms of depression and impulse control disorders. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that assaultive behaviors may often be associated with significant......OBJECTIVE: Assaultive behaviors are common among young people and have been associated with a range of other unhealthy, impulsive behaviors such as substance use and problem gambling. This study sought to determine the predictive ability of single assaultive incidents for impulse control disorders......, an association that has yet to be examined, especially in young adults. METHODS: The authors conducted a university-wide email survey in the spring of 2011 on 6000 university students. The survey examined assaultive behavior and associated mental health variables (using a clinically validated screening...

  5. Coordinating controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-07-15

    While physics Laboratories are having to absorb cuts in resources, the machines they rely on are becoming more and more complex, requiring increasingly sophisticated systems. Rather than being a resourceful engineer or physicist able to timber together solutions in his 'backyard', the modern controls specialist has become a professional in his own right. Because of possible conflicts between increasing sophistication on one hand and scarcer resources on the other, there was felt a need for more contacts among controls specialists to exchange experiences, coordinate development and discuss 'family problems', away from meetings where the main interest is on experimental physics.

  6. Helicopter Controllability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    106 3. Program CC Systems Technology, Inc. (STI) of Hawthorne, CA., develops and markets PC control system analysis and design software including...is marketed in Palo Alto, Ca., by Applied i and can be used for both linear and non- linear control system analysis. Using TUTSIM involves developing...gravity centroid ( ucg ) can be calculated as 112 n m pi - 2 zi acg n i (7-5) where pi = poles zi = zeroes n = number of poles m = number of zeroes If K

  7. Coordinating controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    While physics Laboratories are having to absorb cuts in resources, the machines they rely on are becoming more and more complex, requiring increasingly sophisticated systems. Rather than being a resourceful engineer or physicist able to timber together solutions in his 'backyard', the modern controls specialist has become a professional in his own right. Because of possible conflicts between increasing sophistication on one hand and scarcer resources on the other, there was felt a need for more contacts among controls specialists to exchange experiences, coordinate development and discuss 'family problems', away from meetings where the main interest is on experimental physics

  8. White matter correlates of impaired attention control in major depressive disorder and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Mina M; Rubin-Falcone, Harry; Keilp, John; Miller, Jeffrey M; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Burke, Ainsley; Oquendo, Maria A; Kamal, Ahmed M; Abdelhameed, Mohamed A; Mann, J John

    2017-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with impaired attention control and alterations in frontal-subcortical connectivity. We hypothesized that attention control as assessed by Stroop task interference depends on white matter integrity in fronto-cingulate regions and assessed this relationship using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in MDD and healthy volunteers (HV). DTI images and Stroop task were acquired in 29 unmedicated MDD patients and 16 HVs, aged 18-65 years. The relationship between Stroop interference and fractional anisotropy (FA) was examined using region-of-interest (ROI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analyses. ROI analysis revealed that Stroop interference correlated positively with FA in left caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) in HVs (r = 0.62, p = 0.01), but not in MDD (r = -0.05, p= 0.79) even after controlling for depression severity. The left cACC was among 4 ROIs in fronto-cingulate network where FA was lower in MDD relative to HVs (F (1,41) = 8.87, p = 0.005). Additionally, TBSS showed the same group interaction of differences and correlations, although only at a statistical trend level. The modest sample size limits the generalizability of the findings. Structural connectivity of white matter network of cACC correlated with magnitude of Stroop interference in HVs, but not MDD. The cACC-frontal network, sub-serving attention control, may be disrupted in MDD. Less cognitive control may include enhanced effects of salience in HVs, or less effective response inhibition in MDD. Further studies of salience and inhibition components of executive function may better elucidate the relationship between brain white matter changes and executive dysfunction in MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Topology control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.; Wagner, D.; Wattenhofer, R.

    2007-01-01

    Information between two nodes in a network is sent based on the network topology, the structure of links connecting pairs of nodes of a network. The task of topology control is to choose a connecting subset from all possible links such that the overall network performance is good. For instance, a

  10. Control mental

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno i Torrens, David, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    La revista especialitzada NeuroReport ha publicat un article que m'ha aportat nous elements de reflexió sobre els mecanismes neurals de control mental que, de forma innata, realitzem les persones com a part de la nostra vida social.

  11. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Takao; Yoshimoto, Yuichiro; Sugawara, Satoshi; Fukumoto, Takashi; Endo, Zen-ichiro; Saito, Shozo; Shinpo, Katsutoshi; Nishimura, Akira; Ozawa, Michihiro

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a sufficient shutdown margin upon reactor shutdown, prevent sheath deformation without decreasing neutron absorbents and prevent impact shocks exerted to structural materials. Constitution: The control rod of the present invention comprises a neutron absorption region, a sheath deformation means attached to the side wall and means for restricting and supporting axial movement of the neutron absorbent rod. Then, the amount of absorptive nuclei chained absorbents in the lower region is reduced than that in the upper region. In this way, effective neutron absorbing performance can be obtained relative to the neutron importance distribution during reactor shutdown. In addition, since the operationability is improved by reducing the weight of the control rod and the absorptive nuclei chained neutron abosrbers are used, mechanical nuclear life of the control rod can be increased. Thus, it is possible to prevent the outward deformation of the sheath, as well as prevent collision between the neutron absorber rod and the structural material on the side of inserting the control rod generated upon reactor scram by a simple structure. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - control drugs; ...

  13. Environmental controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1996-01-01

    Members of the public are exposed to environmental radiations from a variety of sources. In terms of average dose received the major component is from natural sources of radiation for which there is little or no scope to reduce exposure. Where such opportunities do exist, in those homes with high radon concentrations, the householders tend to ignore the risks despite the availability of comparatively straightforward and inexpensive remediation measures. By comparison there is significant public concern about radioactive waste management and the disposal and discharge of radioactivity to the environment despite strict environmental controls. This paper describes the controls and the wider policy context for radioactive waste management following a major review of policy last year. (author)

  14. Controllable dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Anaya M, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  15. quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skujina, A.; Purina, S.; Riekstina, D.

    1999-01-01

    The optimal objects: soils, spruce needles and bracken ferns were found for the environmental monitoring in the regions of possible radioactive contamination - near SalaspiIs nuclear reactor and Ignalina nuclear power plant. The determination of Sr-90 was based on the radiochemical separation of Sr-90 (=Y-90) by HDEHP extraction and counting the Cerenkov radiation. The quality control of the results was carried out. (authors)

  16. Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  17. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Toshikazu; Inoue, Kotaro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To flatten the power distribution in the reactor core without impairing neutron economy by disposing pins containing elements of lower atomic number in the central region of a shroud and loading pins containing depleted uranium in the periphery region thereof. Constitution: The shroud has a layer of pins containing depleted uranium in the peripheral region and a layer of pins containing elements of lower atomic number such as beryllium in the central region. Heat removal from those pins containing depleted uranium and elements of lower atomic number (neutron moderator) is effected by sodium flow outside of the cladding material. The control rod operation is conducted by inserting or extracting the central portion (pins containing elements of lower atomic number such as beryllium) inside of the stainless pipe. Upon extraction of the control rod, the moderator in the central region is removed whereby high speed neutrons are no more deccelerated and the absorption rate to the depleted uranium is decreased. This can flatten the power distribution in the reactore core with the disposition of a plurality of control rods at a better neutron economy as compared with the use of neutron absorber such as boron. (Seki, T.)

  18. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Kawashima, Norio; Goto, Yasuyuki.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron absorbers are contained in a tubular member comprising, integrally a tubular portion and four corners disposed at the outer circumference of the tubular portion at every 90deg, to provide a neutron absorbing tube. A plurality of neutron absorbing tubes are arranged in parallel in the lateral direction, and adjacent corners are joined, into a blade to constitute a control rod. Such a control rod has a great structural strength, simple in the structure and relatively light in weight and can contain a great amount of neutron absorbers. Upon formation of the control rod by arranging the blades in a cross-like shape, at least a portion thereof is constituted with short neutron absorbing tubes shorter than the entire length of the blade, and gaps are formed at positions in adjacent in the axial direction. With such a constitution, there is no worry that a wing end of the blade collides against or be abraded with a fuel channel box or a fuel support. Even if fuel channels are vibrated upon scram of the reactor, such as occurrence of earthquakes, it can be inserted to the reactor easily. (N.H.)

  19. Controlled fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to natural fragmentation, controlled fragmentation offers the possibility to adapt fragment parameters like size and mass to the performance requirements in a very flexible way. Known mechanisms like grooves inside the casing, weaken the structure. This is, however, excluded for applications with high accelerations during launch or piercing requirements for example on a semi armor piercing penetrator. Another method to achieve controlled fragmentation with an additional grid layer is presented with which the required grooves are produced 'just in time' inside the casing during detonation of the high explosive. The process of generating the grooves aided by the grid layer was studied using the hydrocode HULL with respect to varying grid designs and material combinations. Subsequent to this, a large range of these theoretically investigated combinations was contemplated in substantial experimental tests. With an optimised grid design and a suitable material selection, the controlled fragment admits a very flexible adaptation to the set requirements. Additional advantages like the increase of perforation performance or incendiary amplification can be realized with the grid layer

  20. Caudal brain infarctions in a kitten – case reportInfartos em região encefálica caudal em gata filhote – relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Alécio Gomes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is uncommon in animals compared with humans because of the lower incidence of atherosclerosis and primary hypertension. However with advanced imaging, vascular disease is being recognized with increasing frequency in veterinary medicine. Cerebrovascular disease can be subdivided into infarction and hemorrhage, although the two categories overlap in the case of hemorrhagic infarcts. The aim of thisarticle is to report the neurological manifestations associated with stroke (infarctions in at two-month old, domestic shorthair cat. Neurological evaluation revealed head tilt, tetraparesis, proprioceptive deficits in all four limbs, and decreased pupillary light reflex. Further, manifestations of neurological dysfunctions were acute and progressive. At the necropsy, grossly there were hemorrhage and necrosis at mid-brain and cerebellum. Histopathology confirmed liquefactive necrosis at the mid-brain and cerebellum. The neurological manifestations associated with the pathological findings are suggestive of an anoxic infarction probably due to vascular occlusion. Em animais é baixa a incidência de arterosclerose e hipertensão primária. Devido a tal característica, infarto cerebral é incomum nos mesmos. Entretanto, com o avanço das modalidades de imagem, doença vascular está sendo reconhecida com maio frequência na medicina veterinária. Doença cerebrovascular pode ser subdividida em infarto e hemorragia, embora as duas categorias se interponham no caso de infartos hemorrágicos. Assim sendo, o objetivo deste artigo é descrever as manifestações neurológicas associadas a acidente vascular (infartos em uma gata de dois meses de idade, sem raça definida e domiciliada. Na avaliação neurológica observou-se inclinação de cabeça, tetraparesia, déficits proprioceptivos nos quatro membros e diminuição do reflexo pupilar a luz. Além disso, os problemas neurológicos foram agudos e progressivos. Na necropsia macroscopicamente detectou-se hemorragia e necrose no mesencéfalo e cerebelo. No exame histopatológico confirmou-se a presença de necrose liquefativa nas no mesencéfalo e cerebelo. Os sinais neurológicos associados com os achados patológicos são sugestivos de infarto levando a anóxia provavelmente devido à oclusão vascular.

  1. Functional synergies underlying control of upright posture during changes in head orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunse Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of human upright posture typically have stressed the need to control ankle and hip joints to achieve postural stability. Recent studies, however, suggest that postural stability involves multi degree-of-freedom (DOF coordination, especially when performing supra-postural tasks. This study investigated kinematic synergies related to control of the body's position in space (two, four and six DOF models and changes in the head's orientation (six DOF model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects either tracked a vertically moving target with a head-mounted laser pointer or fixated a stationary point during 4-min trials. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM analysis was performed across tracking cycles at each point in time to determine the structure of joint configuration variance related to postural stability or tracking consistency. The effect of simulated removal of covariance among joints on that structure was investigated to further determine the role of multijoint coordination. Results indicated that cervical joint motion was poorly coordinated with other joints to stabilize the position of the body center of mass (CM. However, cervical joints were coordinated in a flexible manner with more caudal joints to achieve consistent changes in head orientation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: An understanding of multijoint coordination requires reference to the stability/control of important performance variables. The nature of that coordination differs depending on the reference variable. Stability of upright posture primarily involved multijoint coordination of lower extremity and lower trunk joints. Consistent changes in the orientation of the head, however, required flexible coordination of those joints with motion of the cervical spine. A two-segment model of postural control was unable to account for the observed stability of the CM position during the tracking task, further supporting the need to consider multijoint coordination to

  2. Signalling from the periphery to the brain that regulates energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Suk; Seeley, Randy J; Sandoval, Darleen A

    2018-04-01

    The CNS regulates body weight; however, we still lack a clear understanding of what drives decisions about when, how much and what to eat. A vast array of peripheral signals provides information to the CNS regarding fluctuations in energy status. The CNS then integrates this information to influence acute feeding behaviour and long-term energy homeostasis. Previous paradigms have delegated the control of long-term energy homeostasis to the hypothalamus and short-term changes in feeding behaviour to the hindbrain. However, recent studies have identified target hindbrain neurocircuitry that integrates the orchestration of individual bouts of ingestion with the long-term regulation of energy balance.

  3. Evidence for an excitatory amino acid pathway in the brainstem and for its involvement in cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, P; Minson, J B; Morilak, D; Llewellyn-Smith, I; McIlhinney, J R; Chalmers, J

    1989-09-04

    The source and possible role of excitatory amino acid projections to areas of the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) involved in cardiovascular control were studied. Following the injection of [3H]D-aspartate ([3H]D-Asp), a selective tracer for excitatory amino acid pathways, into vasopressor or vasodepressor areas of the VLM in rats, more than 90% of retrogradely labelled neurones were found in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Very few of the [3H]D-Asp-labelled cells were immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, none for phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase or gamma-aminobutyric acid. The density of labelled cells in the NTS was similar to that obtained with the non-selective tracers wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) and WGA-colloidal gold, but these tracers also labelled other cell groups in the medulla. Furthermore, the decrease in blood pressure, caused by pharmacological activation of neurones in the NTS of rats, or by electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve in rabbits could be blocked by the selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate injected into the caudal vasodepressor area of the VLM. This area corresponds to the termination of [3H]D-Asp transporting NTS neurones. These results provide evidence that a population of NTS neurones projecting to the VLM use excitatory amino acids as transmitters. Among other possible functions, this pathway may mediate tonic and reflex control of blood pressure via NMDA receptors in the VLM.

  4. Evidence for cholinergic participation in the control of bird song; acetylcholinesterase distribution and muscarinic receptor autoradiography in the zebra finch brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, S.M.; Arnold, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    Brain regions thought to be involved in the control of song in the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), were examined histochemically using the Karnovsky and Roots direct-coloring method for the detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the autoradiographic method for the localization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors following injection of tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate (3H QNB). All presently identified vocal control nuclei in both males and females contain AChE. These nuclei include Area X, magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (MAN), nucleus interface (NIF), caudal nucleus of the hyperstriatum ventrale (HVc), intercollicular nucleus (ICo), nucleus uva, robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA), and tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve nucleus (nXIIts). All nuclei except Area X contain mostly AChE-synthesizing cell bodies. All of these nuclei contain some AChE in the neuropil, with particularly intense staining in Area X, the surrounding LPO, and the dorsomedial portion of ICo. In agreement with this description are very high concentrations of 3H QNB in both Area X and the dorsomedial ICo. HVc also appears specifically labeled. Evidence from these two histological technique suggests that efferent projections of most vocal control area may utilize acetylcholine, and that several of the vocal control nuclei may themselves receive muscarinic cholinergic projection. In Area X, there are sex differences of AChE neuropil staining. This evidence suggesting that sexually dimorphic projections to or within Area X are cholinergic or cholinoceptive

  5. Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    can be written as â fj (t) =WO tanh( WIx (t)+bI)+bO, (38) where WI , WO are the input and output matrices, respectively, and bI and bO are the input...applications, present on envisioned airborne optical platforms . One of the problems is that all adaptive optical systems rely on mechanically moving some...of successfully controlling the optical aberration due to the flow over the aperture of airborne optical platforms . As outlined above, systems

  6. Implications of Lateral Cerebellum in Proactive Control of Saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimatsu, Jun; Suzuki, Tomoki W; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-06-29

    Although several lines of evidence establish the involvement of the medial and vestibular parts of the cerebellum in the adaptive control of eye movements, the role of the lateral hemisphere of the cerebellum in eye movements remains unclear. Ascending projections from the lateral cerebellum to the frontal and parietal association cortices via the thalamus are consistent with a role of these pathways in higher-order oculomotor control. In support of this, previous functional imaging studies and recent analyses in subjects with cerebellar lesions have indicated a role for the lateral cerebellum in volitional eye movements such as anti-saccades. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we recorded from single neurons in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum in monkeys performing anti-saccade/pro-saccade tasks. We found that neurons in the posterior part of the dentate nucleus showed higher firing rates during the preparation of anti-saccades compared with pro-saccades. When the animals made erroneous saccades to the visual stimuli in the anti-saccade trials, the firing rate during the preparatory period decreased. Furthermore, local inactivation of the recording sites with muscimol moderately increased the proportion of error trials, while successful anti-saccades were more variable and often had shorter latency during inactivation. Thus, our results show that neuronal activity in the cerebellar dentate nucleus causally regulates anti-saccade performance. Neuronal signals from the lateral cerebellum to the frontal cortex might modulate the proactive control signals in the corticobasal ganglia circuitry that inhibit early reactive responses and possibly optimize the speed and accuracy of anti-saccades. Although the lateral cerebellum is interconnected with the cortical eye fields via the thalamus and the pons, its role in eye movements remains unclear. We found that neurons in the caudal part of the lateral (dentate) nucleus of the cerebellum showed the increased

  7. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Takao; Sugawara, Satoshi; Yoshimoto, Yuichiro; Saito, Shozo; Fukumoto, Takashi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and thereby obtain satisfactory operationability of control rods by combining absorbing nuclear chain type neutron absorbers and conventional type neutron absorbers in the axial direction of blades. Constitution: Neutron absorber rods and long life type neutron absorber rods are disposed in a tie rod and a sheath. The neutron absorber rod comprises a poison tube made of stainless steels and packed with B 4 C powder. The long life type neutron absorber rod is prepared by packing B-10 enriched boron carbide powder into a hafnium metal rod, hafnium pipe, europium and stainless made poison tube. Since the long life type absorber rod uses HF as the absorbing nuclear chain type neutron absorber, it absorbs neutrons to form new neutron absorbers to increase the nuclear life. (Yoshino, Y.)

  8. Control Valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Wayne R.

    2018-03-20

    A control valve includes a first conduit having a first inlet and a first outlet and defining a first passage; a second conduit having a second inlet and a second outlet and defining a second passage, the second conduit extending into the first passage such that the second inlet is located within the first passage; and a valve plate disposed pivotably within the first passage, the valve plate defining a valve plate surface. Pivoting of the valve plate within the first passage varies flow from the first inlet to the first outlet and the valve plate is pivotal between a first position and a second position such that in the first position the valve plate substantially prevents fluid communication between the first passage and the second passage and such that in the second position the valve plate permits fluid communication between the first passage and the second passage.

  9. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  10. Motor control and cardiovascular responses during isoelectric contractions of the upper trapezius muscle: evidence for individual adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiassen, S E; Aminoff, T

    1997-01-01

    Ten females (25-50 years of age) performed isometric shoulder flexions, holding the right arm straight and in a horizontal position. The subjects were able to see the rectified surface electromyogram (EMG) from either one of two electrode pairs above the upper trapezius muscle and were instructed to keep its amplitude constant for 15 min while gradually unloading the arm against a support. The EMG electrodes were placed at positions representing a "cranial" and a "caudal" region of the muscle suggested previously to possess different functional properties. During the two contractions, recordings were made of: (1) EMG root mean square-amplitude and zero crossing (ZC) frequency from both electrode pairs on the trapezius as well as from the anterior part of the deltoideus, (2) supportive force, (3) heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and (4) perceived fatigue. The median responses during the cranial isoelectric contraction were small as compared to those reported previously in the literature: changes in exerted glenohumeral torque and ZC rate of the isoelectric EMG signal of -2.81% x min(-1) (P = 0.003) and 0.03% x min(-1) (P = 0.54), respectively, and increases in HR and MAP of 0.14 beats x min(-2) (P = 0.10) and 0.06 mmHg x min(-1) (P = 0.33), respectively. During the contraction with constant caudal EMG amplitude, the corresponding median responses were -2.51% x min(-1) (torque), 0.01% x min(-1) (ZC rate), 0.31 beats x min(-2) (HR), and 0.93 mmHg x min(-1) (MAP); P = 0.001, 0.69, 0.005, and 0.003, respectively. Considerable deviations from the "isoelectric" target amplitude were common for both contractions. Individuals differed markedly in response, and three distinct subgroups of subjects were identified using cluster analysis. These groups are suggested to represent different motor control scenarios, including differential engagement of subdivisions of the upper trapezius, alternating motor unit recruitment and, in one group, a gradual

  11. Custom controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butell, Bart

    1996-02-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic (VB) and Borland's Delphi provide an extremely robust programming environment for delivering multimedia solutions for interactive kiosks, games and titles. Their object oriented use of standard and custom controls enable a user to build extremely powerful applications. A multipurpose, database enabled programming environment that can provide an event driven interface functions as a multimedia kernel. This kernel can provide a variety of authoring solutions (e.g. a timeline based model similar to Macromedia Director or a node authoring model similar to Icon Author). At the heart of the kernel is a set of low level multimedia components providing object oriented interfaces for graphics, audio, video and imaging. Data preparation tools (e.g., layout, palette and Sprite Editors) could be built to manage the media database. The flexible interface for VB allows the construction of an infinite number of user models. The proliferation of these models within a popular, easy to use environment will allow the vast developer segment of 'producer' types to bring their ideas to the market. This is the key to building exciting, content rich multimedia solutions. Microsoft's VB and Borland's Delphi environments combined with multimedia components enable these possibilities.

  12. Control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirukawa, Koji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the fuel safety by constituting a control rod with a plurality of poison bodies suspended in a cross-like section and shorter length poison bodies made movable and engageable in the gap between each of the above poison bodies thereby maintaining the function of the shorter length poison constant. Constitution: Cross-like supports are secured to the upper and lower parts of a driving shaft journaled in a sheath and poison bodies composed of neutron absorber poisons of a large thermal neutron absorption cross section and neutron absorber poison tubes for containing them are suspended from the supports. A movable cross-like support is mounted slidably at its base to the lower part of the driving shaft and poison bodies shorter than the above poison bodies and composed of neutron absorber poisons having a greater absorption cross section at the neutron energy region higher than thermal neutron region and neutron poison tubes for containing them are suspended to the movable support at the position capable of engaging in the gap between each of the poison bodies. (Kawakami, Y.)

  13. Radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Akira

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes on how the condition of radiation level in the ring (storage ring) experimentation room changes corresponding to the operating stage of SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring), and does not describe on the present radiation control in the SOR facility. The operating stage of SOR is divided into the following five: (1) 307 MeV electron injection, (2) 307 MeV electron storage (used for SOR experiments), (3) energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV, (4) 380 MeV electron storage, (5) re-injection and completion of operation. Gamma and X ray levels are shown when electron beam is injected from the electron synchrotron to the SOR-ring. Two main causes of the high level are reported. Spatial dose rate in storing 307 MeV electrons in also illustrated. This is sufficiently lower than that at electron incidence. The measurement of radiation level at the time of energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV has just started. Since the radiation level in 380 MeV storage, measured at the points about 20 cm apart from the electron orbit, showed several mR/h, the level seems to be negligible at the points where experiments are carried out, 1 m away from the measurement points. The radiation level in electron reinjection and completion of operation may be large during a short period (a few Roentgen) like the time of energy increase. Therefore, the beam shall be re-injected or decreased after confirming that all experimenters have retreated into the predetermined place. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. Hydrodynamic investigation of a self-propelled robotic fish based on a force-feedback control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, L; Wang, T M; Liang, J H; Wu, G H

    2012-01-01

    We implement a mackerel (Scomber scombrus) body-shaped robot, programmed to display the three most typical body/caudal fin undulatory kinematics (i.e. anguilliform, carangiform and thunniform), in order to biomimetically investigate hydrodynamic issues not easily tackled experimentally with live fish. The robotic mackerel, mounted on a servo towing system and initially at rest, can determine its self-propelled speed by measuring the external force acting upon it and allowing for the simultaneous measurement of power, flow field and self-propelled speed. Experimental results showed that the robotic swimmer with thunniform kinematics achieved a faster final swimming speed (St = 0.424) relative to those with carangiform (St = 0.43) and anguilliform kinematics (St = 0.55). The thrust efficiency, estimated from a digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) flow field, showed that the robotic swimmer with thunniform kinematics is more efficient (47.3%) than those with carangiform (31.4%) and anguilliform kinematics (26.6%). Furthermore, the DPIV measurements illustrate that the large-scale characteristics of the flow pattern generated by the robotic swimmer with both anguilliform and carangiform kinematics were wedge-like, double-row wake structures. Additionally, a typical single-row reverse Karman vortex was produced by the robotic swimmer using thunniform kinematics. Finally, we discuss this novel force-feedback-controlled experimental method, and review the relative self-propelled hydrodynamic results of the robot when utilizing the three types of undulatory kinematics. (paper)

  15. Active vibration control by robust control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohar, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies active vibration control of multi-degree-of-freedom system. The control techniques considered are LTR, H/sup 2/ and H/sup infinite/. The results show that LTR controls the vibration but its respective settling time is higher than that of the other techniques. The control performance of H/sup infinite/ control is similar to that of H/sup 2/ control in the case of it weighting functions. However, H/sup infinite/ control is superior to H/sup 2/ control with respect to robustness, steady state error and settling time. (author)

  16. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  17. Neuropeptides controlling energy balance: orexins and neuromedins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Joshua P.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Novak, Colleen M.; Billington, Charles J.; Teske, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we review the feeding and energy expenditure effects of orexin (also known as hypocretin) and neuromedin. Orexins are multifunctional neuropeptides that affect energy balance by participating in regulation of appetite, arousal, and spontaneous physical activity. Central orexin signaling for all functions originates in the lateral hypothalamus–perifornical area, and is likely functionally differentiated based on site of action and on interacting neural influences. The effect of orexin on feeding is likely related to arousal in some ways, but is nonetheless a separate neural process that depends on interactions with other feeding related neuropeptides. In a pattern distinct from other neuropeptides, orexin stimulates both feeding and energy expenditure. Orexin increases in energy expenditure are mainly by increasing spontaneous physical activity, and this energy expenditure effect is more potent than the effect on feeding. Global orexin manipulations, such as in transgenic models, produce energy balance changes consistent with a dominant energy expenditure effect of orexin. Neuromedins are gut-brain peptides that reduce appetite. There are gut sources of neuromedin, but likely the key appetite related neuromedin producing neurons are in hypothalamus and parallel other key anorectic neuropeptide expression in the arcuate to paraventricular hypothalamic projection. As with other hypothalamic feeding related peptides, hindbrain sites are likely also important sources and targets of neuromedin anorectic action. Neuromedin increases physical activity in addition to reducing appetite, thus producing a consistent negative energy balance effect. Together with the various other neuro-peptides, -transmitters, -modulators and –hormones, neuromedin and orexin act in the appetite network to produce changes in food intake and energy expenditure, which ultimately influences the regulation of body weight. PMID:22249811

  18. Control panel for CMC 8080 crate controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masayuki Inokuchi

    1978-01-01

    The main features of Control Panel for CAMAC Crate Controller CMC 8080 are described. The control panel can be directly connected with CRATE CONTROLLER's front panel connector with a 50 lines cable without any changes in CMC 8080 system circuits. (author)

  19. Uniting Control Lyapunov and Control Barrier Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romdlony, Zakiyullah; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear control design for solving the problem of stabilization with guaranteed safety. The design is based on the merging of a Control Lyapunov Function and a Control Barrier Function. The proposed control method allows us to combine the design of a stabilizer based on

  20. Interaction between production control and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bij, van der J.D.; Ekert, van J.H.W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a qualitative study on interaction between systems for production control and quality control within industrial organisations. Production control and quality control interact in a sense. Good performance for one aspect often influences or frustrates the performance of the other. As far as

  1. Topical versus caudal ketamine/bupivacaine combination for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing inguinal herniotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Saad Abdel-Ghaffar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Wound instillation of bupivacaine/ketamine is a simple, noninvasive, and effective technique that could be a safe alternative to CK for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair.

  2. Modeling of robotic fish propelled by an ionic polymer-metal composite caudal fin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Shatara, Stephan; Tan, Xiaobo

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, a model is proposed for a biomimetic robotic fish propelled by an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuator with a rigid passive fin at the end. The model incorporates both IPMC actuation dynamics and the hydrodynamics, and predicts the steady-state speed of the robot under a periodic actuation voltage. Experimental results have shown that the proposed model can predict the fish motion for different tail dimensions. Since its parameters are expressed in terms of physical properties and geometric dimensions, the model is expected to be instrumental in optimal design of the robotic fish.

  3. Optimum Concentration of Caudal Ropivacaine & Clonidine - A Satisfactory Analgesic Solution for Paediatric Infraumbilical Surgery Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhamurthy, Girish Chikkanayakanahalli; Patel, Muralidhara Danappa; Menezes, Yvonne; Gurushanth, Kavyashree Nagenahalli

    2016-04-01

    Ropivacaine is amide local anaesthetic pure S(-)enantiomer of bupivacaine. Its duration of analgesia is similar to that of Bupivacaine (in equivalent doses) but the motor block is slower in onset, less intense, shorter in duration for a given level of sensory block with lesser cardiac side effects but addition of an adjuvant like clonidine which is an imidazoline derivative has been studied for its sedative, anxiolytic and analgesic properties. This study was aimed to show the optimum concentrations of Ropivacaine and Clonidine to maximize analgesia without side effects by evaluating its safety and efficacy. Sixty children aged 2-10 years of ASA grade 1, scheduled to undergo infraumbilical surgeries were randomly allocated to Group A & Group B of 30 each. Group A received 0.2% Ropivacaine with normal saline and Group B received 0.2% Ropivacaine and preservative free Clonidine 1μg/kg, the total volume of solution being 1ml/kg haemodynamic changes were monitored intraoperatively and haemodynamic parameters along with motor blockade, pain score and sedation score were assessed postoperatively. Done with unpaired student t and Mann-Whitney test. The groups were comparable regarding demographic characterstics. The mean duration of analgesia was prolonged in group B (12+2.22 hours) than in group A (6.53+1.16 hours) with p-value <0.001 leading to less rescue analgesia in former group. None of the children in the groups had a pain score of ≥ 4 at the end of 2 hours. A 6.6% and 60% of group A children had score of ≥ 4 at the end of 4(th) & 6(th) hour respectively. None in Group B had a score of ≥ 4. At the end of 8(th) hour, only 6.6% of the children in Group B had a pain score of ≥ 4 whereas it was 33.33% in Group A which is statistically significant. No bradycardia or hypotension and no significant sedation. Combination of Ropivacaine and Clonidine in the concentration used (0.2% ropivacaine and 1μg/kg of clonidine) can be optimal for postoperative analgesia in paediatric population.

  4. Estudo da estabilidade do caudal do processo de pintura - Iber- Oleff

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Andreia Filipa Santos

    2012-01-01

    O estágio curricular no âmbito do trabalho final do Mestrado em Tecnologia Química teve início no dia 4 de fevereiro de 2013 na Iber-Oleff, empresa portuguesa sediada em Pombal, que tem como atividade a conceção, desenvolvimento, industrialização e produção de sistemas cinemáticos e de distribuição de ar, em plástico, para interiores de automóveis. O relatório descreve de forma sucinta o processo produtivo da empresa, com especial relevância para a área de decoração e pintura. O processo p...

  5. Imperforated cor triatriatum dexter in a dog with concurrent caudal vena cava wall mineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobak, Tetyda Paulina; Starrak, Gregory; Linn, Kathleen; Snead, Elisabeth Christine Roberston

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cor triatriatum dexter (CTD) is a rare congenital cardiac malformation with various manifestations and has been sporadically described in dogs. Clinically the dogs present with nonspecific signs of right heart failure or Budd-Chiari-like syndrome. Other associated concurrent

  6. A caudal proliferating growth center contributes to both poles of the forming heart tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.; Abu-Issa, R.; de Boer, B.A.; Hutson, M.R.; de Boer, P.A.J.; Soufan, A.T.; Ruijter, J.M.; Kirby, M.L.; van den Hoff, M.J.B.; Moorman, A.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the primary heart tube continues to grow by addition of cells from the coelomic wall. This growth occurs concomitantly with embryonic folding and formation of the coelomic cavity, making early heart formation morphologically complex. A scarcity of data on localized

  7. Macroscopic Study of Celiac, Cranial Mesenteric and Caudal Mesenteric Arteries in the European Hare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flešárová S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to describe the branching schema of the ventral branches of the abdominal aorta: the a. celiaca, the a. mesenterica cranialis and the a. mesenterica caudalis. The study was carried out on nine adult European hares using the corrosion cast technique. After the euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17 was used as a casting medium. After polymerisation of the medium, the maceration was carried out in KOH solution. In all specimens, the first branch originating from the a. celiaca was the a. lienalis. The a. hepatica was present as the second branch in four cases and as the third branch also in four cases. The first branch of the a. mesenterica cranialis was the a. colica media in seven cases. The second branch was represented by the a. pancreaticoduodenalis caudalis also in seven cases. Two aa. jejunales originated as the third branch. In seven cases, the fourth branch formed the truncus jejunalis and the fifth branch the a. ileocecalis. The a. mesenterica caudalis had a uniform arrangement in all of the specimens. The results enabled us to conclude that there was higher variability of the branching pattern of the a. celiaca in comparison with the a. mesenterica cranialis and the a. mesenterica caudalis in the European hare.

  8. Morphometric characteristics of caudal cranial nerves at petroclival region in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogmus, Omer; Saban, Enis; Ozkan, Mazhar; Yildiz, Sercan Dogukan; Verimli, Ural; Cakmak, Ozgur; Arifoglu, Yasin; Sehirli, Umit

    2016-06-01

    Morphometric measurements of cranial nerves in posterior cranial fossa of fetus cadavers were carried out in an attempt to identify any asymmetry in their openings into the cranium. Twenty-two fetus cadavers (8 females, 14 males) with gestational age ranging between 22 and 38 weeks (mean 30 weeks) were included in this study. The calvaria were removed, the brains were lifted, and the cranial nerves were identified. The distance of each cranial nerve opening to midline and the distances between different cranial nerve openings were measured on the left and right side and compared. The mean clivus length and width were 21.2 ± 4.4 and 13.2 ± 1.5 mm, respectively. The distance of the twelfth cranial nerve opening from midline was shorter on the right side when compared with the left side (6.6 ± 1.1 versus 7.1 ± 0.8 mm, p = 0.038). Openings of other cranial nerves did not show such asymmetry with regard to their distance from midline, and the distances between different cranial nerves were similar on the left and right side. Cranial nerves at petroclival region seem to show minimal asymmetry in fetuses.

  9. Control heeft vele gezichten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, H.B.A.

    The editorial summarizes several perspectives of control, including the control conducted by supervisors, control based on classical budgeting, control by analytics, et cetera, and relates these angles to the papers in this issue of the journal.

  10. Hierarchical Control of Thermostatically Controller Loads for Primary Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    reserve references. At the middle level, distribution substations estimate the available power of TCLs based on the aggregated bin model, and dispatch control signals to individual TCLs. At the local level, a supplementary frequency control loop is implemented at the local controller, which makes TCLs...... respond to the frequency event autonomously. Case studies show that the proposed controller can efficiently respond to frequency events and fulfill the requirement specified by the system operator. The users’ comforts are not compromised and the short cycling of TCLs is largely reduced. Due...... to the autonomous control, the communication requirement is minimized....

  11. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Daoyi; Zhang Chenbin; Rabitz, Herschel; Pechen, Alexander; Tarn, T.-J.

    2008-01-01

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  12. Patient-specific guides do not improve accuracy in total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Jan; Dujardin, Jan; Vandenneucker, Hilde; Arnout, Nele; Bellemans, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Recently, patient-specific guides (PSGs) have been introduced, claiming a significant improvement in accuracy and reproducibility of component positioning in TKA. Despite intensive marketing by the manufacturers, this claim has not yet been confirmed in a controlled prospective trial. We (1) compared three-planar component alignment and overall coronal mechanical alignment between PSG and conventional instrumentation and (2) logged the need for applying changes in the suggested position of the PSG. In this randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 128 patients. In the PSG cohort, surgical navigation was used as an intraoperative control. When the suggested cut deviated more than 3° from target, the use of PSG was abandoned and marked as an outlier. When cranial-caudal position or size was adapted, the PSG was marked as modified. All patients underwent long-leg standing radiography and CT scan. Deviation of more than 3° from the target in any plane was defined as an outlier. The PSG and conventional cohorts showed similar numbers of outliers in overall coronal alignment (25% versus 28%; p = 0.69), femoral coronal alignment (7% versus 14%) (p = 0.24), and femoral axial alignment (23% versus 17%; p = 0.50). There were more outliers in tibial coronal (15% versus 3%; p = 0.03) and sagittal 21% versus 3%; p = 0.002) alignment in the PSG group than in the conventional group. PSGs were abandoned in 14 patients (22%) and modified in 18 (28%). PSGs do not improve accuracy in TKA and, in our experience, were somewhat impractical in that the procedure needed to be either modified or abandoned with some frequency.

  13. Dynamic Maternal Gradients Control Timing and Shift-Rates for Drosophila Gap Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verd, Berta; Crombach, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Pattern formation during development is a highly dynamic process. In spite of this, few experimental and modelling approaches take into account the explicit time-dependence of the rules governing regulatory systems. We address this problem by studying dynamic morphogen interpretation by the gap gene network in Drosophila melanogaster. Gap genes are involved in segment determination during early embryogenesis. They are activated by maternal morphogen gradients encoded by bicoid (bcd) and caudal (cad). These gradients decay at the same time-scale as the establishment of the antero-posterior gap gene pattern. We use a reverse-engineering approach, based on data-driven regulatory models called gene circuits, to isolate and characterise the explicitly time-dependent effects of changing morphogen concentrations on gap gene regulation. To achieve this, we simulate the system in the presence and absence of dynamic gradient decay. Comparison between these simulations reveals that maternal morphogen decay controls the timing and limits the rate of gap gene expression. In the anterior of the embyro, it affects peak expression and leads to the establishment of smooth spatial boundaries between gap domains. In the posterior of the embryo, it causes a progressive slow-down in the rate of gap domain shifts, which is necessary to correctly position domain boundaries and to stabilise the spatial gap gene expression pattern. We use a newly developed method for the analysis of transient dynamics in non-autonomous (time-variable) systems to understand the regulatory causes of these effects. By providing a rigorous mechanistic explanation for the role of maternal gradient decay in gap gene regulation, our study demonstrates that such analyses are feasible and reveal important aspects of dynamic gene regulation which would have been missed by a traditional steady-state approach. More generally, it highlights the importance of transient dynamics for understanding complex regulatory

  14. Covariance upperbound controllers for networked control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with designing covariance upperbound controllers for a linear system that can be used in a networked control environment in which control laws are calculated in a remote controller and transmitted through a shared communication link to the plant. In order to compensate for possible packet losses during the transmission, two different techniques are often employed: the zero-input and the hold-input strategy. These use zero input and the latest control input, respectively, when a packet is lost. For each strategy, we synthesize a class of output covariance upperbound controllers for a given covariance upperbound and a packet loss probability. Existence conditions of the covariance upperbound controller are also provided for each strategy. Through numerical examples, performance of the two strategies is compared in terms of feasibility of implementing the controllers

  15. Output Control Using Feedforward And Cascade Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1990-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of open-loop control elements in single-input, single-output linear system. Focus on output-control (servomechanism) problem, in which objective is to find control scheme that causes output to track certain command inputs and to reject certain disturbance inputs in steady state. Report closes with brief discussion of characteristics and relative merits of feedforward, cascade, and feedback controllers and combinations thereof.

  16. We have got you 'covered': how the meninges control brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Julie A; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2011-06-01

    The meninges have traditionally been viewed as specialized membranes surrounding and protecting the adult brain from injury. However, there is increasing evidence that the fetal meninges play important roles during brain development. Through the release of diffusible factors, the meninges influence the proliferative and migratory behaviors of neural progenitors and neurons in the forebrain and hindbrain. Meningeal cells also secrete and organize the pial basement membrane (BM), a critical anchor point for the radially oriented fibers of neuroepithelial stem cells. With its emerging role in brain development, the potential that defects in meningeal development may underlie certain congenital brain abnormalities in humans should be considered. In this review, we will discuss what is known about assembly of the fetal meninges and review the role of meningeal-derived proteins in mouse and human brain development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Controlling chaotic systems via nonlinear feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a new method to control chaotic systems is proposed. Using Lyapunov method, we design a nonlinear feedback controller to make the controlled system be stabilized. A numerical example is given to illuminate the design procedure and advantage of the result derived

  18. Personal exposure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Ken-ichi; Akashi, Michio

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power stations are under strict radiation control. Exposure control for nuclear workers is the most important operation, and so carefully thought out measures are taken. This paper introduces Fuji Electric's personal exposure control system that meets strict exposure control and rationalizes control operations. The system has a merit that it can provide required information in an optimum form using the interconnection of a super minicomputer and exposure control facilities and realizes sophisticated exposure control operations. (author)

  19. Introduction of digital control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin

    1988-01-01

    This book is one of mechatronics series. It deals with digital control, which includes what is digital control?, display way of control system, output of primary system, secondary system like example of system and display way of the system, stabilizing of control system such as method to decide stability and system out of control, displaying equation of state into vector, good control such as the right characteristic, transient behavior and design of position control system using DC servo motor.

  20. Solid state controller three axes controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The reported flight controller features a handle grip which is mounted on a longitudinally extending control element. The handle grip is pivotally mounted on the control element about a pitch axis which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis through the control element. The pivotal mounting includes a resilient force mounting mechanism which centers the grip relative to the control element. Rotation of the handle grip produces a direct rotation of a transducer element in a transducer which provides an electrical indication of the rotative movement about three mutually perpendicular axes.

  1. PID control with robust disturbance feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawai, Fukiko; Vinther, Kasper; Andersen, Palle

    2015-01-01

    Disturbance Feedback Control (DFC) is a technique, originally proposed by Fuji Electric, for augmenting existing control systems with an extra feedback for attenuation of disturbances and model errors. In this work, we analyze the robustness and performance of a PID-based control system with DFC...... and performance (if such gains exist). Finally, two different simulation case studies are evaluated and compared. Our numerical studies indicate that better performance can be achieved with the proposed method compared with a conservatively tuned PID controller and comparable performance can be achieved when...... compared with an H-infinity controller....

  2. Organizational Control: Two Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, William G.; Maguire, Mary Ann

    1975-01-01

    Distinguishes between two modes of organizational control, personal surveillance (behavior control) and the measurement of outputs (output control). Output control occurs in response to a manager's need to provide legitimate evidence of performance, while behavior control is exerted when means-ends relations are known and appropriate instruction…

  3. Structural Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, M. S.; Hoffman, W. M.

    This manual is designed for those who seek certification as pesticide applicators for industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control. It is divided into six sections covering general pest control, wood-destroying organisms, bird control, fumigation, rodent control, and industrial weed control. The manual gives information…

  4. BSF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Y.; Ishii, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Sasaki, H.; Sakai, I.

    1982-08-01

    The booster synchrotron utilization facility (BSF) is a facility which utilizes the four fifths of available beam pulses from the KEK booster synchrotron. The BSF control system includes the beam line control, interactions with the PS central control room and the experimental facilities, and the access control system. A brief description of the various components in the control system is given. (author)

  5. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  6. Integrated Control Using the SOFFT Control Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, Nesim

    1996-01-01

    The need for integrated/constrained control systems has become clearer as advanced aircraft introduced new coupled subsystems such as new propulsion subsystems with thrust vectoring and new aerodynamic designs. In this study, we develop an integrated control design methodology which accomodates constraints among subsystem variables while using the Stochastic Optimal Feedforward/Feedback Control Technique (SOFFT) thus maintaining all the advantages of the SOFFT approach. The Integrated SOFFT Control methodology uses a centralized feedforward control and a constrained feedback control law. The control thus takes advantage of the known coupling among the subsystems while maintaining the identity of subsystems for validation purposes and the simplicity of the feedback law to understand the system response in complicated nonlinear scenarios. The Variable-Gain Output Feedback Control methodology (including constant gain output feedback) is extended to accommodate equality constraints. A gain computation algorithm is developed. The designer can set the cross-gains between two variables or subsystems to zero or another value and optimize the remaining gains subject to the constraint. An integrated control law is designed for a modified F-15 SMTD aircraft model with coupled airframe and propulsion subsystems using the Integrated SOFFT Control methodology to produce a set of desired flying qualities.

  7. ISABELLE control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, J.W.; Frankel, R.S.; Niederer, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Design principles for the Brookhaven ISABELLE control intersecting storage ring accelerator are described. Principal features include a locally networked console and control computer complex, a system wide process data highway, and intelligent local device controllers. Progress to date is summarized

  8. Control Measure Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Measure Dataset is a collection of documents describing air pollution control available to regulated facilities for the control and abatement of air...

  9. Olivo-Cerebellar Controller

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R

    2008-01-01

    ...) used in a maneuvering controller or control system of an underwater vehicle. In order to attain the objects described, the present invention provides closed-loop control of multiple inferior olives (IOs...

  10. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  11. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  12. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  13. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  14. Combinatorial Motor Training Results in Functional Reorganization of Remaining Motor Cortex after Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Hannah L; Jones, Theresa A; Kozlowski, Dorothy A; Adkins, DeAnna L

    2016-04-15

    Cortical reorganization subsequent to post-stroke motor rehabilitative training (RT) has been extensively examined in animal models and humans. However, similar studies focused on the effects of motor training after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are lacking. We previously reported that after a moderate/severe TBI in adult male rats, functional improvements in forelimb use were accomplished only with a combination of skilled forelimb reach training and aerobic exercise, with or without nonimpaired forelimb constraint. Thus, the current study was designed to examine the relationship between functional motor cortical map reorganization after experimental TBI and the behavioral improvements resulting from this combinatorial rehabilitative regime. Adult male rats were trained to proficiency on a skilled reaching task, received a unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) over the forelimb area of the caudal motor cortex (CMC). Three days post-CCI, animals began RT (n = 13) or no rehabilitative training (NoRT) control procedures (n = 13). The RT group participated in daily skilled reach training, voluntary aerobic exercise, and nonimpaired forelimb constraint. This RT regimen significantly improved impaired forelimb reaching success and normalized reaching strategies, consistent with previous findings. RT also enlarged the area of motor cortical wrist representation, derived by intracortical microstimulation, compared to NoRT. These findings indicate that sufficient RT can greatly improve motor function and improve the functional integrity of remaining motor cortex after a moderate/severe CCI. When compared with findings from stroke models, these findings also suggest that more intense RT may be needed to improve motor function and remodel the injured cortex after TBI.

  15. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  16. A new controllable damper with neuro controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, N.; Kobayashi, H.; Saito, O.; Yokoi, R.; Morishita, S.

    1993-01-01

    A new controllable damper is proposed for suppressing the vibration of the piping system for wide frequency range. Electro-Rheological fluid (ER fluid) is enclosed in the damper casing in place of oil, and the apparent viscosity of ER fluid can be varied by applying electric field strength (E.F.S.), which is controlled by an adaptive neural network controller. The shaking test is conducted about a simplified L-shaped piping model with a prototype controllable damper. The test results show the effectiveness of the presented controllable damper for suppressing very small amplitude vibration of the piping system. Furthermore an application of neural network is discussed to control E.F.S. of the electrode. (author)

  17. Digital control programmer for temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajore, S.B.; Kumar, S.V.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a PC based digital control programmer for controlling and programming temperature of a high vacuum resistance heating furnace and the software developed to control power using PID algorithm. It also describes the amplifier specially developed to suit the input requirement of the non-standard W5 thermocouple and the software and hardware protections introduced in the system. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  18. Control and optimal control theories with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Burghes, D N

    2004-01-01

    This sound introduction to classical and modern control theory concentrates on fundamental concepts. Employing the minimum of mathematical elaboration, it investigates the many applications of control theory to varied and important present-day problems, e.g. economic growth, resource depletion, disease epidemics, exploited population, and rocket trajectories. An original feature is the amount of space devoted to the important and fascinating subject of optimal control. The work is divided into two parts. Part one deals with the control of linear time-continuous systems, using both transfer fun

  19. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukami, Haruo; Morimoto, Yoshinori.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To operate a reactor always with safety operation while eliminating the danger of tripping. Constitution: In a reactor control device adapted to detect the process variants of a reactor, control a control rod drive controlling system based on the detected signal to thereby control the driving the control rods, control the reactor power and control the electric power generated from an electric generator by the output from the reactor, detection means is provided for the detection of the electric power from said electric generator, and a compensation device is provided for outputting control rod driving compensation signals to the control rod driving controlling system in accordance with the amount of variation in the detected value. (Seki, T.)

  20. Power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukawa, Naohiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To alleviate the load of an operator by automatically operating the main controller, the speed controller, etc. of a recirculation control system and safely operating them without erroneous operation for long period of time, thereby improving the efficiency of a plant. Constitution: An electric type hydraulic control device controls loads of a turbine and a generator and outputs a control signal also to the main controller of a recirculation flow rate control system. At this time, the main controller is set at an automatic position, and the speed controller receives a recirculation pump speed signal from the main controller at the automatic position. The speed controller outputs a pump speed control signal to the recirculation pump system, and a reactor generates a power corresponding thereto. When the power control is automatically performed by the recirculation flow rate control, an operator sets a rate of change of the recirculation pump speed and the rate of change of the mean power range monitor at a change rate setting unit. Therefore, the control of the recirculation flow rate under the power control can be substantially entirely automated. (Yoshigara, H.)

  1. (3H)-dihydrotestosterone in catecholamine neurons of rat brain stem: combined localization by autoradiography and formaldehyde-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heritage, A.S.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M.; Grant, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    A combined formaldehyde-induced fluorescence (FIF)-autoradiography procedure was used to determine how and where the androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), is associated with catecholamine systems in the rat brain. With this dual localization method, ( 3 H)-DHT target sites can be visualized in relation to catecholamine perikarya and terminals. In the hindbrain, catecholamine neurons adjacent to the fourth ventricle (group A4), the nucleus (n.) olivaris superior (group A5), the n. parabranchialis medialis (group A7), and in the locus coeruleus (group A6) and subcoeruleal regions, as well as in the substantia grisea centralis, concentrate ( 3 H)-DHT in their nuclei. ( 3 H)-DHT target neurons appear to be innervated by numerous catecholamine terminals in the following hindbrain regions: n. motorius dorsalis nervi vagi, n. tractus solitarii, n. commissuralis, n. raphe pallidus, n. olivaris inferior, the ventrolateral portion of the substantia grisea centralis, n. cuneiformis, and the ventrolateral reticular formation in the caudal mesencephalon. In the forebrain, ( 3 H)-DHT concentrates in nuclei of catecholamine neurons located in the n. arcuatus and n. periventricularis (group A12). In addition, ( 3 H)-DHT target neurons appear to be innervated by numerous catecholamine terminals in the following forebrain regions: n. periventricularis rotundocellularis, n. paraventricularis, n. dorsomedialis, n. periventricularis, area retrochiasmatica, n. interstititalis striae terminalis (ventral portion), and n. amygdaloideus centralis. The disclosure of a morphologic association between ( 3 H)-DHT target sites and certain brain catecholamine systems suggests a close functional interdependence between androgens and catecholamines

  2. Hox gene colinear expression in the avian medulla oblongata is correlated with pseudorhombomeric domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Faustino; Aroca, Pilar; Puelles, Luis

    2008-11-15

    The medulla oblongata (or caudal hindbrain) is not overtly segmented, since it lacks observable interrhombomeric boundaries. However, quail-chick fate maps showed that it is formed by 5 pseudorhombomeres (r7-r11) which were empirically found to be delimited consistently at planes crossing through adjacent somites (Cambronero and Puelles, 2000). We aimed to reexamine the possible segmentation or rostrocaudal regionalisation of this brain region attending to molecular criteria. To this end, we studied the expression of Hox genes from groups 3 to 7 correlative to the differentiating nuclei of the medulla oblongata. Our results show that these genes are differentially expressed in the mature medulla oblongata, displaying instances of typical antero-posterior (3' to 5') Hox colinearity. The different sensory and motor columns, as well as the reticular formation, appear rostrocaudally regionalised according to spaced steps in their Hox expression pattern. The anterior limits of the respective expression domains largely fit boundaries defined between the experimental pseudorhombomeres. Therefore the medulla oblongata shows a Hox-related rostrocaudal molecular regionalisation comparable to that found among rhombomeres, and numerically consistent with the pseudorhombomere list. This suggests that medullary pseudorhombomeres share some AP patterning mechanisms with the rhombomeres present in the rostral, overtly-segmented hindbrain, irrespective of variant boundary properties.

  3. Sexual dimorphism in the volume of song control nuclei in European starlings: assessment by a Nissl stain and autoradiography for muscarinic cholinergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, D J; Casto, J M; Ball, G F

    1993-08-22

    Previous studies have found that the volume of several song control nuclei is larger in male songbirds than in female songbirds. The degree of this volumetric sex difference within a given species appears to be systematically related to the degree of the behavioral sex difference. The largest volumetric differences have been reported in species in which the male sings and the female sings little, if at all, and the smallest sex differences in volume have been reported in species in which males and females both sing in nearly equal amounts. We compared the volume of three song control nuclei in male and female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), a species in which females are known to sing, though at a much lower rate than males. We investigated the volume of hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudale, nucleus robustus archistriatalis, and area X of the lobus parolfactorius as defined with the use of a Nissl stain. In addition, we measured the volume of area X as defined by the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors visualized by in vitro receptor autoradiographic methods. The volumes of all three of the song nuclei, as defined by Nissl staining, are significantly larger in males than in females. For area X, Nissl staining and receptor autoradiography indicate the same significant volumetric sex difference. The three nuclei are approximately one and one half to two times larger in males than in females, a degree of dimorphism that is intermediate to those reported for other species. Previous investigations of sex differences in the avian vocal control system have used only Nissl stains to define nuclear volumes. We demonstrate in this paper that receptor autoradiography can be used to assess dimorphisms in nuclear volume. Broad application of this approach to a number of neurotransmitter receptor systems will better characterize the dimorphisms in the song system, and therefore will provide greater insight into the neuroanatomical and neurochemical control of

  4. Application of Sodium-24 to Flow-Rate Measurements and Leak Detection; Applications du Sodium-24 a des Mesures de Debits et de Recherches de Fuites; ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ НАТРИЯ-24 ПРИ ИЗМЕРЕНИЯХ ПОТОКОВ И ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯХ УТЕЧКИ; Aplicaciones del Sodio-24 a la Medicion de Caudales y Deteccion de Escapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizerix, J.; Cornuet, R. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Grenoble (France)

    1963-03-15

    colimados, trazando en diferentes fechas curvas precisas de isoactividad. La evolucion en el tiempo de la zona de actividad, en la que se cree que se han producido escapes, ha permitido distinguirla de las zonas sospechosas debido a las tuberias o a los lugares de fuerte adsorcion del indicador. Un deposito de plomo estanco, situado entre dos pisos, debajo de las baldosas de un cuarto de aseo, estaba destinado a recoger las aguas procedentes de los posibles escapes en las instalaciones hidraulicas del piso superior. A fin de determinar los escapes, se aplico sobre el deposito agua marcada con {sup 24}Na. La dificultad de las investigaciones se debe a la superposicion de las manchas de actividad a la entrada y salida del escape, asi como al bajo caudal de dicho escape, que era de 1 cm{sup 3}/min. Por analisis exacto de la evolucion de la mancha de actividad mediante curvas de isoactividad, se ha podido determinar en 15 h el lugar en que se habia producido el escape. Con el proposito de determinar los posibles escapes del orden de 1 1/h entre un circuito de agua de refrigeracion y un circuito de acetato de celulosa, cuyos caudales conocidos son del orden de 5 m{sup 3}/h, un estudio preliminar ha permitido fijar el tiempo de transito maximo de las ondas de actividad en cada uno de esas circuitos. Se ha comprobado que un escape de esa. indole puede detectarse inyectando en un circuito de agua 15 me de MNa, y extrayendo 3 1 de acetato durante 20 min. El caudal del escape puede determinarse mediante el indice de recuento de esta actividad y el de una parte alicuota de la actividad total inyectada, determinada en las mismas condiciones geometricas. Se ha utilizado el 'metodo de los dos maximos' para medir el caudal de agua en un circuito cerrado; la circulacion se obtiene mediante un termosifon, que funciona a 350 Degree-Sign C a una presion de 180 kg/cm{sup 2}. Se efectuo una inyeccion cuasi-puntiforme de 0,5 me de carbonato de sodio marcado con {sup 24}Na; la medicion del tiempo

  5. Process and apparatus for controlling control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebelin, B.; Couture, R.

    1987-01-01

    This process and apparatus is characterized by 2 methods, for examination of cluster of nuclear control rods. Foucault current analyzer which examines fraction by fraction all the control rods. This examination is made by rotation of the cluster. Doubtful rods are then analysed by ultrasonic probe [fr

  6. Robust control charts in statistical process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazir, H.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of outliers and contaminations in the output of the process highly affects the performance of the design structures of commonly used control charts and hence makes them of less practical use. One of the solutions to deal with this problem is to use control charts which are robust

  7. Try to Control Yourself!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, Timm J.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional management controls employees, but successful management encourages and enables employees to control themselves. Where control resides in an organization can be determined by examining its performance tracking systems. Most are management information systems. The best are owned and used by the employees to control and adjust their own…

  8. Evaluation of Internal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Suciu; Pipu-Nicolae Barsan

    2013-01-01

    Performance is indissolubly tied to control. Performance cannot be obtained without a strong, adequate control, regardless if it is in the public or private sector. Control is one of management’s attributes and it must be organized, implemented and evaluated in every company, regardless of its size. Each person from a company participates to a greater or lesser extent in the control activities.

  9. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  10. Exotic biological control agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajek, Ann E.; Hurley, Brett P.; Kenis, Marc; Garnas, Jeffrey R.; Bush, Samantha J.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Lenteren, van Joop C.; Cock, Matthew J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Biological control is a valuable and effective strategy for controlling arthropod pests and has been used extensively against invasive arthropods. As one approach for control of invasives, exotic natural enemies from the native range of a pest are introduced to areas where control is needed.

  11. Optimal decoupling controllers revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-16 ISSN 0324-8569 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020197 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : linear systems * fractional representations * decoupling control lers * stabilizing control lers * optimal control lers Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  12. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  13. Catastrophes control problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichenko, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of catastrophe control is discussed. Catastrophe control aims to withdraw responsible engineering constructions out of the catastrophe. The mathematical framework of catastrophes control systems is constructed. It determines the principles of systems filling by the concrete physical contents and, simultaneously, permits to employ modern control methods for the synthesis of optimal withdrawal strategy for protected objects

  14. Adaptive Extremum Control and Wind Turbine Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xin

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, i.e., adaptive extremum control and modelling and control of a wind turbine. The rst part of the thesis deals with the design of adaptive extremum controllers for some processes which have the behaviour that process should have as high e ciency as possible...... in parameters, and thus directly lends itself to parameter estimation and adaptive control. The extremum control law is derived based on static optimization of a performance function. For a process with nonlinearity at output the intermediate signal between the linear part and nonlinear part plays an important....... Firstly, it is assumed that the nonlinear processes can be divided into a dynamic linear part and static nonlinear part. Consequently the processes with input nonlinearity and output nonlinearity are treated separately. With the nonlinearity at the input it is easy to set up a model which is linear...

  15. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  16. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  17. CONTROLLING AND BUSINESS EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Vuko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Managing business successfully in dynamic environment requires effective controlling system. Controlling is the process of defining objectives, planning and management control so that every decision maker can act in accordance with agreed objectives. Controlling function as a separate department contributes business efficiency trough ensuring transparency of business result and business processes. Controlling takes place when manager and controller cooperate. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of controlling function (i.e. controlling department in Croatian companies and to address the specific features of the function that contribute significantly to overall business performance. The research is conducted on the sample of companies listed on the Regulated market of the Zagreb Stock Exchange. Survey is used as a method to collect the data regarding the controlling function, while financial data necessary for the research are extracted from the published financial statements. Results of the research indicate that controlling department has positive effects on the business performance.

  18. Undergraduate reactor control experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Power, M.A.; Bryan, M.

    1992-01-01

    A sequence of reactor and related experiments has been a central element of a senior-level laboratory course at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) for more than 20 yr. A new experiment has been developed where the students program and operate a computer controller that manipulates the speed of a secondary control rod to regulate TRIGA reactor power. Elementary feedback control theory is introduced to explain the experiment, which emphasizes the nonlinear aspect of reactor control where power level changes are equivalent to a change in control loop gain. Digital control of nuclear reactors has become more visible at Penn State with the replacement of the original analog-based TRIGA reactor control console with a modern computer-based digital control console. Several TRIGA reactor dynamics experiments, which comprise half of the three-credit laboratory course, lead to the control experiment finale: (a) digital simulation, (b) control rod calibration, (c) reactor pulsing, (d) reactivity oscillator, and (e) reactor noise

  19. Control of Bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of bioprocess control is to ensure that the plant operates as designed. This chapter presents the fundamental principles for control of biochemical processes. Through examples, the selection of manipulated and controlled variables in the classical reactor configurations is discussed, so...... are control objectives and the challenges in obtaining good control of the bioreactor. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the bioreactor control problems and to highlight some general traits that distinguish operation of bioprocesses from operation of processes in the conventional chemical process...... industries. It also provides a number of typical control loops for different objectives. A brief introduction to the general principles of process control, the PID control algorithm is discussed, and the design and effect of tuning are shown in an example. Finally, a discussion of novel, model-free control...

  20. Foundations Of Fuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    The objective of this textbook is to acquire an understanding of the behaviour of fuzzy logic controllers. Under certain conditions a fuzzy controller is equivalent to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Using that equivalence as a link, the book applies analysis methods from...... linear and nonlinear control theory. In the linear domain, PID tuning methods and stability analyses are transferred to linear fuzzy controllers. The Nyquist plot shows the robustness of different settings of the fuzzy gain parameters. As a result, a fuzzy controller is guaranteed to perform as well...... as any PID controller. In the nonlinear domain, the stability of four standard control surfaces is analysed by means of describing functions and Nyquist plots. The self-organizing controller (SOC) is shown to be a model reference adaptive controller. There is a possibility that a nonlinear fuzzy PID...

  1. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, Akiyuki.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable three types of controls, that is, level control, scram control and excess reactivity control required for a reactor by a same mechanism by feeding neutron absorber liquid and pressure control gas to several blind pipes provided in the reactor core. Constitution: A plurality of blind pipes are disposed spaced apart in a reactor core and connected by way of injection pipes to a neutron absorber liquid tank. A pressure regulator is connected to the blind pipes, to which pressure control gas is supplied. The neutron absorber liquid used herein consists of sodium, potassium or their alloy, or mercury as a basic substance incorporated with one or more selected from boron, tantalum, rhenium, europium or their compounds. The level control, scram control and excess reactivity control can be attained by moderating the pressure changes in the pressure control gas or by regulating the fluctuation in the liquid level. (Horiughi, T.)

  2. Applied predictive control

    CERN Document Server

    Sunan, Huang; Heng, Lee Tong

    2002-01-01

    The presence of considerable time delays in the dynamics of many industrial processes, leading to difficult problems in the associated closed-loop control systems, is a well-recognized phenomenon. The performance achievable in conventional feedback control systems can be significantly degraded if an industrial process has a relatively large time delay compared with the dominant time constant. Under these circumstances, advanced predictive control is necessary to improve the performance of the control system significantly. The book is a focused treatment of the subject matter, including the fundamentals and some state-of-the-art developments in the field of predictive control. Three main schemes for advanced predictive control are addressed in this book: • Smith Predictive Control; • Generalised Predictive Control; • a form of predictive control based on Finite Spectrum Assignment. A substantial part of the book addresses application issues in predictive control, providing several interesting case studie...

  3. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  4. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller

  5. Trust and controlling

    OpenAIRE

    Bieńkowska Agnieszka; Zabłocka-Kluczka Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the trust within and towards an organisation in the context of implementation of controlling therein. In this context the essence of trust and its importance in organisation management was presented, as well as trust in the contemporary management methods and concepts. Controlling as a trust-building factor inside an organisation was pointed out. Especially controlling and control were described. Moreover management by considering deviations in controll...

  6. Arduino based laser control

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Muñoz, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    ARDUINO is a vey usefull platform for prototypes. In this project ARDUINO will be used for controling a Semiconductor Tuneable Laser. [ANGLÈS] Diode laser for communications control based on an Arduino board. Temperature control implementation. Software and hardware protection for the laser implementation. [CASTELLÀ] Control de un láser de comunicaciones ópticas desde el ordenador utilizando una placa Arduino. Implementación de un control de temperatura y protección software y hardware ...

  7. Pneumatic control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Seong Gil; Kim, Won Hoe; Nam, Dae Hyun

    1993-03-01

    This book contains property of pneumatic pressure drive, pneumatic pressure device like air cleaning, pressure control, lubricators, air pressure pipe, kinds and function of pneumatic pressure equipment like pneumatic cylinders, pneumatic motor, flow control valve, direction control valve, design of pneumatic control circuit, pneumatic system design, cause and measurement of pneumatic circuit failure, PLC and pneumatic control like introduction and system application and method of PLC programing.

  8. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  9. SODR Memory Control Buffer Control ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Optical Disk Recorder (SODR) is a state of the art mass storage system for future NASA missions requiring high transmission rates and a large capacity storage system. This report covers the design and development of an SODR memory buffer control applications specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The memory buffer control ASIC has two primary functions: (1) buffering data to prevent loss of data during disk access times, (2) converting data formats from a high performance parallel interface format to a small computer systems interface format. Ten 144 p in, 50 MHz CMOS ASIC's were designed, fabricated and tested to implement the memory buffer control function.

  10. Controlling chaos in Internet congestion control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Wang Xiaofan; Han Zhengzhi

    2004-01-01

    The TCP end-to-end congestion control plus RED router queue management can be modeled as a discrete-time dynamical system, which may create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior. Based on the basic features of the TCP-RED model, we propose a time-dependent delayed feedback control algorithm to control chaos in the system by perturbing the accessible RED parameter p max . This method is able to stabilized a router queue occupancy at a level without knowing the exact knowledge of the network. Further, we study the situation of the presence of the UDP traffic

  11. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described

  12. Controlling chaos in Internet congestion control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liang E-mail: chenmoon110@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xiaofan; Han Zhengzhi

    2004-07-01

    The TCP end-to-end congestion control plus RED router queue management can be modeled as a discrete-time dynamical system, which may create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior. Based on the basic features of the TCP-RED model, we propose a time-dependent delayed feedback control algorithm to control chaos in the system by perturbing the accessible RED parameter p{sub max}. This method is able to stabilized a router queue occupancy at a level without knowing the exact knowledge of the network. Further, we study the situation of the presence of the UDP traffic.

  13. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  14. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust...... and control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves...... an ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control...

  15. CAMAC multipurpose microprocessor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakova, M.P.; Nemesh, T.; Buj Zoan Chong.

    1978-01-01

    The use of CAMAC controllers in an autonomous system of data acquisition and measurement is considered. The system consists of a control intelligence controller, memory modules, and user modules in the CAMAC standard. The controller and all the modules have an output into the highway and this permits to exchange data among them without using special external cables. To increase the servicing rate, an auxiliary controller which has direct access to memory and controls the user modules, is additionally connected to the data acquisition and measurement system. In this case, the intelligence controller is passive. The system of data acquisition can be realized in the form of a multiple system with branch usage. The controller module width is three units, and the controller incorporates the Intel-8080-type microprocessor and the following interfaces: of CAMAC highways, of interruption, of memory bootstrap, and of data sequence channel

  16. Control rod shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Higashigawa, Yuichi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a control rod terminating system in a BWR type nuclear power plant, which stops an induction electric motor as rapidly as possible to terminate the control rods. Namely, the control rod stopping system controls reactor power by inserting/withdrawing control rods into a reactor by driving them by the induction electric motor. The system is provided with a control device for controlling the control rods and a control device for controlling the braking device. The control device outputs a braking operation signal for actuating the braking device during operation of the control rods to stop the operation of the control rods. Further, the braking device has at least two kinds of breaks, namely, a first and a second brakes. The two kinds of brakes are actuated by receiving the brake operation signals at different timings. The brake device is used also for keeping the control rods after the stopping. Even if a stopping torque of each of the breaks is small, different two kinds of brakes are operated at different timings thereby capable of obtaining a large stopping torque as a total. (I.S.)

  17. Plasma position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct position control stably to various plasmas and reduce the burden on the control coil power source. Constitution: Among the proportional, integration and differentiation controls, a proportional-differentiation control section and an integration control section are connected in parallel. Then, a signal switching circuit is disposed to the control signal input section for the proportional-differentiation control section such that either a present position of plasmas or deviation between the present plasma position and an aimed value can be selected as a control signal depending on the control procedures or the state of the plasmas. For instance, if a rapid response is required for the control, the deviation between the present plasma position and the aimed value is selected as the input signal to conduct proportional, integration and differentiation controls. While on the other hand, if it is intended to reduce the burden on the control coil power source, it is adapted such that the control signal inputted to the proportional-differentiation control section itself can select the present plasma position. (Yoshihara, H.)

  18. Control rod assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akio.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable reliable insertion and drops of control rods, as well as insure a sufficient flow rate of coolants flowing through the control rods for attaining satisfactory cooling thereof to enable relexation of thermal stress resulted to rectifying mechanisms or the likes. Constitution: To the outer circumference of a control rod contained vertically movably within a control rod guide tube, resistive members are retractably provided in such a way as to project to close the gap between outer circumference of the control rod and the inner surface of the control rod guide tube upon engagement of a gripper of control rod drives, and retract upon release of the engagement of the gripper. Thus, since the resistive members project to provide a greater resistance to the coolants flowing between them and the control rod guide tube in the normal operation where the gripper is engaged to drive the control rod by the control rod drives, a major part of the coolant flowing into the control rod guide tube flows into the control rod. This enables to cool the control rod effectively and make the temperature distribution uniform for the coolant flowing from the upper end of the control rod guide tube to thereby attain the relaxation of the thermal stress resulted in the rectifying mechanisms or the likes. (Moriyama, K.)

  19. Control rod displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, S.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor including a core, cylindrical control rods, a single support means supporting the control rods from their upper ends in spaced apart positions and movable for displacing the control rods in their longitudinal direction between a first end position in which the control rods are fully inserted into the core and a second end position in which the control rods are retracted from the core, and guide means contacting discrete regions of the outer surface of each control rod at least when the control rods are in the vicinity of the second end position. The control rods are supported by the support means for longitudinal movement without rotation into and out of the core relative to the guide means to thereby cause the outer surface of the control rods to experience wear as a result of sliding contact with the guide means. The support means are so arranged with respect to the core and the guide means that it is incapable of rotation relative to the guide means. The improvement comprises displacement means being operatively coupled to a respective one of the control rods for periodically rotating the control rod in a single angular direction through an angle selected to change the locations on the outer surfaces of the control rods at which the control rods are contacted by the guide means during subsequent longitudinal movement of the control rods

  20. Intelligent control-III: fuzzy control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrial, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade or so, fuzzy logic control (FLC) has emerged as one of the most active and fruitful areas of research and development. The applications include industrial process control to medical diagnostic and financial markets. Many consumer products using this technology are available in the market place. FLC is best suited to complex ill-defined processes that can be controlled by a skilled human operator without much knowledge of their underlying dynamics. This lecture will cover the basic architecture and the design methodology of fuzzy logic controllers. FLC will be strongly based on the concepts of fuzzy set theory, introduced in first lecture. Some practical applications will also be discussed and presented. (author)